Science.gov

Sample records for permanent lunar settlement

  1. A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities. [Lunar settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    High transport costs will dominate the pattern of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of food, fuel, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earning through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally-produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents would support themselves but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufactures, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, severance taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

  2. Toward a permanent lunar settlement in the coming decade: the Columbus Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Ishikawa, M.Y.; Wood, L.L.

    1985-11-19

    The motivation for creating a permanent lunar settlement is sketched, and reasons for doing so in the coming decade are put forward. A basic plan to accomplish this is outlined, along technical and programmatic axes. It is concluded that founding a lunar settlement on the five hundredth anniversary of the Columbus landing - a Columbus Project - could be executed as a volunteer-intensive American enterprise requiring roughly six thousand man-years of skilled endeavor and a total Governmental contribution of the order of a half-billion dollars. 8 figs.

  3. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  4. A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Eric M.

    1992-01-01

    High transport costs will dominate the course of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of fuel, food, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earnings through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents could support themselves, but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufacturers, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, export taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

  5. Lunar settlements - A socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Factors in the design and development of a lunar settlement (LS) which affect the performance of the crew members are discussed. Topics examined include LS-program time constraints imposed by decisions made in developing and operating the Space Station; changes to make allowance for the long-term requirements of LSs; the design of the physical, technical, and organic LS environment; and the vital role of group dynamics in assuring LS success. It is suggested that many short-term cost-minimization strategies employed in spacecraft development may be inappropriate for LS programs.

  6. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  7. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook.

    PubMed

    Bluth, B J

    1988-07-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal. PMID:11542834

  8. Permanent Darkness at the Lunar North Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, B.; Robinson, M. S.; Spudis, P. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2001-12-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first dynamic temporal look at the illumination conditions of both lunar poles. Data of the lunar north pole were collected during summer in the northern hemisphere and are therefore ideal for placing a constraint on the maximum amount of permanent shadowed regions that exist. An early estimate of permanent shadow using Clementine data by Nozette and coworkers, based on a conservative measurement of permanently shadowed small craters close to the pole, was 530 km2. A later estimate, produced using Earth based radar topography data (by Margot et al), extended the area analyzed to lower latitudes (85oN), and indicated an increased permanently shadowed area of 2650 km2. By producing movies using Clementine UVVIS data it is possible to study dynamically how the illumination conditions vary during the length of a lunar day (708 hours). These movies show that small areas of permanent shadow possibly exist at lower latitudes than included in the Margot study, including regions of the farside that are inaccessible to Earth based study. An initial analysis shows that portions of north facing crater walls, as far out as 80oN, appear to be permanently shadowed. A preliminary examination of such features has raised the value of the permanently shadowed terrain area to greater than 10,000km2. A recent control network for the north pole will permit a more precise determination of the amount of permanently shadowed terrain. Comparison of this value, together with the data returned by Lunar Prospectors neutron spectrometer will place constraints on the amount of ice present at the lunar north pole as presented by Feldman and coworkers.

  9. Lunar Limb Observatory: An Incremental Plan for the Utilization, Exploration, and Settlement of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul. D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive incremental program, Lunar Limb Observatory (LLO), for a return to the Moon, beginning with robotic missions and ending with a permanent lunar settlement. Several recent technological developments make such a program both affordable and scientifically valuable: robotic telescopes, the Internet, light-weight telescopes, shared- autonomy/predictive graphics telerobotic devices, and optical interferometry systems. Reasons for focussing new NASA programs on the Moon include public interest, Moon-based astronomy, renewed lunar exploration, lunar resources (especially helium-3), technological stimulus, accessibility of the Moon (compared to any planet), and dispersal of the human species to counter predictable natural catastrophes, asteroidal or cometary impacts in particular. The proposed Lunar Limb Observatory would be located in the crater Riccioli, with auxiliary robotic telescopes in M. Smythii and at the North and South Poles. The first phase of the program, after site certification, would be a series of 5 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to Riccioli (or Grimaldi if Riccioli proves unsuitable), emplacing robotic telescopes and carrying out surface exploration. The next phase would be 7 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to M. Smythii (2 missions), the South Pole (3 missions), and the North Pole (2 missions), emplacing robotic telescopes to provide continuous all-sky coverage. Lunar base establishment would begin with two unmanned Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur missions to Riccioli, for shelter emplacement, followed by the first manned return, also using the Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur mode. The main LLO at Riccioli would then be permanently or periodically inhabited, for surface exploration, telerobotic rover and telescope operation and maintenance, and support of Earth-based student projects. The LLO would evolve into a permanent human settlement, serving, among other functions, as a test area and staging base for the exploration

  10. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory

  11. Lunar magnetic field - Permanent and induced dipole moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    Apollo 15 subsatellite magnetic field observations have been used to measure both the permanent and the induced lunar dipole moments. Although only an upper limit of 1.3 x 10 to the 18th gauss-cubic centimeters has been determined for the permanent dipole moment in the orbital plane, there is a significant induced dipole moment which opposes the applied field, indicating the existence of a weak lunar ionosphere.

  12. Armstrong City: A Permanent Settlement for Exo-Planetary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspon, J.

    Development of a permanent placement lunar base is the next fundamental step in an international program to explore and settle other planets within our solar system. While technical, operational, managerial and long-term issues must be considered, the establishment of a lunar facility can serve the preliminary needs of manned civilization in space. Numerous issues become apparent in the consideration of the activation of a lunar base. Specific and realistic determinations must be made about various types of interests in addition to the general conjectures given above. These activities include: - Spacecraft landings and vehicle systems - Crew selection, supplies and habitability - Power production and distribution - Risk management - Science and lunar activities - Base planning and configurations - Integrated operations and maintenance - Management. The development and activation of a lunar colony will require careful consideration to the future of space activities and operations in near Earth space. A lunar city, which we call Armstrong city, is defined by its own unique natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense. Armstrong City, a preliminary first lunar base, will most probably be serving as an extended "division" of Earth's space exploration offices. The reasons are very simple and practical. -First, the costs of maintaining a permanent space facility will be lower in the long run than the costs of a series of short duration, rotating manned bases, -Second, studies in long-term space habitation can effectively be carried out in relative safety, -Third, the initial tasks which need to be done will define and establish methodologies and issues for development of future extraterrestrial base concepts, and -Fourth, the complexities of the initial facilities necessary to sustain the citizens can be tempered through developing local resources and reproducible research. In order to bring about development of Armstrong City, four

  13. Strategies for a permanent lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    One or more of three possible objectives, encompassing scientific research, lunar resource exploitation for space infrastructure construction, and lunar environment self-sufficiency refinement with a view to future planetary habitation, may be the purpose of manned lunar base activities. Attention is presently given to the possibility that the early phases of all three lunar base orientations may be developed in such a way as to share the greatest number of common elements. An evaluation is made of the cost and complexity of the lunar base, and the Space Transportation System used in conjunction with it, as functions of long term base use strategy.

  14. Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litton, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models.

  15. Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements.

    PubMed

    Litton, C E

    1997-01-01

    In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models. PMID:11542289

  16. Three Alternatives for the Acquisition of an Initial Lunar Installation: Lunar Laboratory, Temporary Lunar Base, Permanent Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.

    The exploration of the Moon began with the APOLLO Program in 1969. The first phase ended in 1972 with the 6th landing of a two man crew. An attempt of President George H. Bush in 1989 to revive this program failed due to drastic changes in the geopolitical environment prevaling in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. However, the exploration and utilization of lunar resources is likely to continue. This will be possible as soon as the state of the planet permits an adequate priority for this enterprise, provided that viable plans are available to enter the next phase of lunar exploration. This paper presents three such program options: A Permanent Lunar Base, a Temporary Lunar Base, and a Temporary Lunar Laboratory , the latter solely for research purposes. These programs have an optional life cycle of 30 or 10 years and a crew of 50 to 100 people, respectively. Life cycle program costs of the se Lunar installation options range between 25 and 50 B, and can double if they are including the cost of the logistic system. However, average annual program cost do not exceed 3 B, a level that indicates that programs of this type and size are affordable.

  17. Possible Applications of Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies at Lunar Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Allen, Carl; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Brown, I.; Sarkisova, S.; Garrison, D.

    2007-01-01

    The most ambitious goal of the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar system. Today, however, missions would have to bring all of the propellant, air, food, water, habitable volumes and shielding needed to sustain settlers beyond Earth. That is why resources for propellants, life support and construction of support systems and habitats must be found in space and utilized if humans hope to ever explore and colonize the solar system. The life support, fuel production and material processing systems currently proposed for spaceflight are essentially disconnected. Only traditional crop production has been proposed as a segment for bioregenerative life support systems, although the efficiency of higher plants for air regeneration is generally low. Thus, the investigation of air bioregeneration techniques based on the activity of photosynthetic organisms with higher rates of CO2 scrubbing and O2 release is very timely and important. Future systems for organic waste utilization in space may also benefit from the use of specific microorganisms. This janitorial job is efficiently carried out by microbes on Earth, which drive and connect different elemental cycles. It is likely that environmental control and life support systems based on bioregeneration will be capable of converting both organic and inorganic components of the waste at lunar settlements into edible biomass. The most challenging technologies for future lunar settlements are the extraction of elements (e.g. Fe, O, Si, etc) from local rocks for industrial feedstocks and the production of propellants. While such extraction can be accomplished by purely inorganic processes, the high energy requirements of such processes motivates the search for alternative technologies with lower energy requirements and appropriate efficiency. Well-developed terrestrial industrial biotechnologies for metals extraction and conversion could therefore be the prototypes for extraterrestrial

  18. Strategies for a permanent lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Mendell, Wendell W.; Roberts, Barney B.

    1989-01-01

    Three objectives are stated for activities at a proposed manned lunar base. One objective is scientific investigation of the moon and its environment and the application of special properties of the moon to research problems. Another objective would be to produce the capability of using the materials of the moon for beneficial purposes throughout the earth-moon system. The third objective is to conduct research and development leading to a self-sufficient and self-supporting lunar base, the first extraterrestrial human colony. The potential benefits to earth deriving from these moon-based activities, such as technology development and realization, as well as growing industrialization of near-earth space, are addressed.

  19. Extreme Access & Lunar Ice Mining in Permanently Shadowed Craters Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Results from the recent LCROSS mission in 2010, indicate that H2O ice and other useful volatiles such as CO, He, and N are present in the permanently shadowed craters at the poles of the moon. However, the extreme topography and steep slopes of the crater walls make access a significant challenge. In addition temperatures have been measured at 40K (-233 C) so quick access and exit is desirable before the mining robot cold soaks. The Global Exploration Roadmap lists extreme access as a necessary technology for Lunar Exploration.

  20. Albedo of Permanently Shadowed Regions of the Lunar Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riner, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Bussey, B.; Cahill, J. T.; McGovern, A.

    2012-12-01

    Due to the slight tilt in the Moon's spin axis, some topographic depressions near the lunar poles experience permanent shadow and may serve as cold traps, harboring water ice and/or other volatile compounds [1]. Permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) provide an opportunity toward understanding the amount, nature and transport of volatiles on the Moon and may also be a potential resource for human exploration. While many different data sets have suggested the presence of water ice in PSRs near the lunar poles many questions remain. For example, ice does not appear to be uniformly distributed across identified PSRs. More work is needed to understand the distribution of ice in PSRs and how delivery and retention mechanisms influence the distribution. The active illumination of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) provides a unique contribution toward exploration PSR exploration. While LOLA is principally a laser altimeter used for quantitative topography and related cartographic and geodetic applications [2], LOLA also measures the intensity and width of the return laser pulse (1064 nm) from the surface. Here we use a global mosaic (4 pixels per degree) of LOLA albedo data corrected for instrumental drift, irregular variations, and calibrated to normal albedo using local equatorial measurements of normal albedo obtained by the Kaguya Multiband Imager [3]. Recent work using LOLA albedo shows the floor of Shackleton crater, near the lunar south pole, is brighter than the surrounding terrain (and the interior of nearby craters) at 1064 nm [4]. This albedo difference may be due to decreased space weathering due to shadowing from the Sun or to a 1 μm thick layer with 20% water ice a the surface of the crater floor [4]. Here we use LOLA dayside reflectance measurements to examine the albedo of PSRs catalogued by [5] derived from illumination modeling of a hybrid 100 m/pixel LOLA-LROC digital terrain model (DTM) up to 83° north and south latitudes. The upper latitude

  1. Simulated Water Delivery to Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John

    2015-11-01

    A set of Monte Carlo simulations was run to examine water diffusion across the lunar surface and specifically to the Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). This work extends the results of Schorghofer (2014) to latitudes above 5º from the pole and to specific PSRs and is accomplished using a separately derived model to independently test Schorghofer’s (2014) results. The model was validated using the results of Schorghofer (2014) at the 5º latitude line, replicating all of the behaviors of that model, but with slightly different values for the total number of tracer particles arriving and their fractionation.25 times fewer particles were able to survive to arrive within 1º of the pole, as compared to those that were able to arrive within 5º of the pole. For the PSRs themselves, 1.87% of particles were eventually sequestered within the PSRs by the end of our simulations. Examining the amount of water which could be transported over geological time reveals that sufficient water moves via migration to (1) supply the hydrogen signals observed by LEND, (Mitrofanov et al., 2012), (2) the frost at Haworth Crater (Gladstone et al., 2012) as well as to explain (3) the high level of water seen in the soils of Cabeus Crater in the LCROSS experiment (Colaprete et al., 2010) without the need to invoke another water supply mechanism.In all cases, the average time required for migration was small with average arrival times of less than a lunar day following an impact. Substantial differences were observed in the amount of water accreted by the different PSRs with Cabeus Crater accreting by far the most water per square meter. Faustini and the Haworth Lowlands have the next highest delivery, receiving ~60% each as much water as Cabeus per square meter. Shackleton has the lowest water delivery, receiving only ~5% as much water per square meter as Cabeus. The simulated results show a clear latitudinal trend with more water emplaced at lower latitudes. Yet, the data show very

  2. Contour Crafting Simulation Plan for Lunar Settlement Infrastructure Build-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khoshnevis, B.; Carlson, A.; Leach N.; Thangavelu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Economically viable and reliable building systems and tool sets are being sought, examined and tested for extraterrestrial infrastructure buildup. This project focused on a unique architecture weaving the robotic building construction technology with designs for assisting rapid buildup of initial operational capability Lunar and Martian bases. The project aimed to study new methodologies to construct certain crucial infrastructure elements in order to evaluate the merits, limitations and feasibility of adapting and using such technologies for extraterrestrial application. Current extraterrestrial settlement buildup philosophy holds that in order to minimize the materials needed to be flown in, at great transportation costs, strategies that maximize the use of locally available resources must be adopted. Tools and equipment flown as cargo from Earth are proposed to build required infrastructure to support future missions and settlements on the Moon and Mars.

  3. Minimum ΔV for the transfer to permanent lunar orbits with hyperbolic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the minimum ΔV of the two-impulse transfer from the low Earth orbit to the permanent lunar capture orbit is investigated in the frameworks of the planar circular restricted three-body problem and the two-body model, respectively. For the restricted three-body problem, the near-optimal lunar capture is adopted to find the capture point and the corresponding permanent lunar orbit. Then, we derive the theoretical minimum ΔV on two-impulse Earth-Moon transfer in the restricted three-body problem. For the two-body model, we apply the optimization to designing the patched-conic transfer. Then, using the numerical integration, we obtain the corresponding permanent lunar capture orbit and the minimum ΔV of the transfer. At last, some examples of both methods are discussed and compared. The results we obtained provide a reference for the low energy transfer from the low Earth orbit to the permanent lunar orbit.

  4. Thermal Analyses of Apollo Lunar Soils Provide Evidence for Water in Permanently Shadowed Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Smith, M. C.; Gibson, E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally-evolved-gas analyses were performed on the Apollo lunar soils shortly after their return to Earth [1-8]. The analyses revealed the presence of water evolving at temperatures above 200 C. Of particular interest are samples that were collected from permanently-shadowed locations (e.g., under a boulder) with a second sample collected in nearby sunlight, and pairs in which one was taken from the top of a trench, and the second was taken at the base of the trench, where the temperature would have been -10 to -20 C prior to the disturbance [9]. These samples include 63340/63500, 69941/69961, and 76240/76280. At the time that this research was first reported, the idea of hydrated minerals on the lunar surface was somewhat novel. Nevertheless, goethite was observed in lunar breccias from Apollo 14 [10], and it was shown that goethite, hematite and magnetite could originate in an equilibrium assemblage of lunar rocks

  5. Direct Solar Wind Proton Access into Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent analyses of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) data have suggested that high abundances of hydrogen exist within cold traps at the lunar poles, and it has often been assumed that hydrogen-bearing volatiles sequestered in permanent shadow are topographically shielded from sputtering by solar wind protons. However, recent simulation results are presented showing that solar wind protons clearly access the floor of an idealized, shadowed lunar crater through a combination of thermal and ambipolar processes, in effect creating a plasma "miniwake". These simulations are the first to model the mini-wake environment in two spatial dimensions with a self-consistent lunar surface-plasma interaction. Progress is reported on constraining the nonzero particle fluxes and energies incident on kilometer-scale shadowed topography, such as a small crater embedded within a larger one. The importance of direct solar wind proton bombardment is discussed within the context of understanding the stability and inventory of hydrogen-bearing volatiles in shadow at the lunar poles. The support of the National Lunar Science institute, the DREAM institute, LPROPS, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center administered by ORAU are gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Anticipated Electrical Environment Within Permanently Shadowed Lunar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Collier, M. R.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Shadowed locations ncar the lunar poles arc almost certainly electrically complex regions. At these locations near the terminator, the local solar wind flows nearly tangential to the surface and interacts with large-scale topographic features such as mountains and deep large craters, In this work, we study the solar wind orographic effects from topographic obstructions along a rough lunar surface, On the leeward side of large obstructions, plasma voids are formed in the solar wind because of the absorption of plasma on the upstream surface of these obstacles, Solar wind plasma expands into such voids) producing an ambipolar potential that diverts ion flow into the void region. A surface potential is established on these leeward surfaces in order to balance the currents from the expansion-limited electron and ion populations, Wc find that there arc regions ncar the leeward wall of the craters and leeward mountain faces where solar wind ions cannot access the surface, leaving an electron-rich plasma previously identified as an "electron cloud." In this case, some new current is required to complete the closure for current balance at the surface, and we propose herein that lofted negatively charged dust is one possible (nonunique) compensating current source. Given models for both ambipolar and surface plasma processes, we consider the electrical environment around the large topographic features of the south pole (including Shoemaker crater and the highly varied terrain near Nobile crater), as derived from Goldstone radar data, We also apply our model to moving and stationary objects of differing compositions located on the surface and consider the impact of the deflected ion flow on possible hydrogen resources within the craters

  7. Depth and Horizontal Distribution of Volatiles in Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D. M.; Bussey, B.; Lawrence, D. J.; Gladstone, R.; Elphic, R. C.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Neutron spectroscopy from Lunar Prospector returned data consistent with the presence of water ice in the near-subsurface of the Moon in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) at low spatial resolution. Clementine and ground-based radar returned tantalizing, but inconclusive evidence of ice in lunar PSRs. Later, Mini-RF on Chandrayaan-1 and LRO detected a signature consistent with water ice in some polar craters on the Moon, but not all PSRs. Similarly, LEND on LRO detected a heterogeneous distribution of hydrogen among lunar PSRs. In addition, LAMP on LRO detected FUV spectra consistent with a heterogeneous distribution of frost on the surface of permanently shadowed regions. Yet the weakest spectral feature from LAMP was associated with the crater with the strongest hydrogen feature from LEND. The impact of LCROSS into Cabeus released water and other volatiles, but abundances were higher than the background amounts detected by neutron spectroscopy implying heterogeneity within that PSR. Data from any one instrument taken alone would lead one to a different conclusion about the distribution of volatiles than data taken from any other single instrument. Although the data from different instrumentation can seem to be disparate, the apparent discrepancy results from the different fields of view and sensitivities of the detection techniques. The complementary nature of these data can be exploited to provide a multi-dimensional view of volatiles in lunar PSRs. We apply a Monte Carlo model to describe the retention and redistribution of volatiles within lunar cold traps. The model runs constrain the coherence of volatile deposits with depth, area, and time, which allows us to examine how a given volatile distribution would appear to remote sensing experiments. This provides a big picture framework for integrating the observations of volatiles on the surface and at depth at the poles of the Moon with the goal of finding a distribution of volatiles in lunar PSRs consistent

  8. LRO-LAMP detection of geologically young craters within lunar permanently shaded regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, Kathleen E.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Randall Gladstone, G.; Jordan, Andrew P.; Lemelin, Myriam; Koeber, Steven D.; Bowman-Cisneros, Ernest; Wesley Patterson, G.; Robinson, Mark; Lucey, Paul G.; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Hurley, Dana; Stickle, Angela M.; Pryor, Wayne

    2016-07-01

    The upper 25-100 nm of the lunar regolith within the permanently shaded regions (PSRs) of the Moon has been demonstrated to have significantly higher surface porosity than the average lunar regolith by observations that the Lyman-α albedo measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is lower in the PSRs than the surrounding region. We find that two areas within the lunar south polar PSRs have significantly brighter Lyman-α albedos and correlate with the ejecta blankets of two small craters (<2 km diameter). This higher albedo is likely due to the ejecta blankets having significantly lower surface porosity than the surrounding PSRs. Furthermore, the ejecta blankets have much higher Circular Polarization Ratios (CPR), as measured by LRO Mini-RF, indicating increased surface roughness compared to the surrounding terrain. These combined observations suggest the detection of two craters that are very young on geologic timescales. From these observations we derive age limits for the two craters of 7-420 million years (Myr) based on dust transport processes and the radar brightness of the disconnected halos of the ejecta blankets.

  9. W.W.W. Moon The Why, What and When of a Permanent Manned Lunar Colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, M.

    Several reasons for going back to the Moon are listed: scientific study of our natural satellite, Earth and in general the Solar System; exploitation of the resources of Outer Space; geopolitical considerations that made Apollo possible and are still valid in the long term; advancement of manned spaceflight, as robot- based exploration is time-wise inefficient and politically negligible. Technological, organisational and legal challenges are then outlined. After a discussion of human physiology, building materials and transporta- tion of people and goods, an underground polar location is proposed as settlement site, either within kilometre-size lava tubes or man-made caves. An analysis of spaceflight history is conducted to determine a target date for returning to the Moon to stay. In the absence of political or commercial competition, experience indicates the last decades of the XXI century. To shorten this timescale, it is recommended to focus on accomplishing the task of establishing a reliable lunar travel and settlement system, rather than developing new technologies: simplifying the goals of each single step forward (as was the case of the Clementine mission) and concentrating on production-ready (or almost-ready) equipment (compare the ill- fated X-33 to the dependable Soyuz capsules)

  10. Testing Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results from LRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R. D.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    We use measurements from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) collimated sensors during more than one year of the mapping phase of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to make estimates of the epithermal neutron flux within known large Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). These are compared with the local neutron background measured outside PSRs in sunlit regions. Individual and collective analyses of PSR properties have been performed. Only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the south and Rozhdestvensky U in the north, have been found to manifest significant neutron suppression. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, only a few percent, if at all. Some even display an excess of neutron emission in comparison to the sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only the group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 square kilometers, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, approx. 2%, with low statistical confidence. An approx. 2% suppression corresponds to approx. 125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous H distribution in depth in the regolith. This means that all PSRs, except those in Shoemaker, Cabeus and Rozhdestvensky U craters, do not contain any significant amount of hydrogen in comparison with sunlit areas around them at the same latitude.

  11. Deep dielectric charging of the lunar regolith within permanently shadowed regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N.; Smith, S. S.; Spence, H.; Wilson, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) can penetrate within the lunar regolith, causing deep dielectric charging. The discharging timescale depends on the regolith's electrical conductivity and permittivity. In permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the lunar poles, this timescale is on the order of a lunation (~20 days). To estimate the resulting electric fields within the regolith, we develop a data-driven, one-dimensional, time-dependent model. For model inputs, we use GCR data from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and SEP data from the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). We find that, during the recent solar minimum, GCRs create persistent electric fields up to 700 V/m. We also find that large SEP events create sporadic but strong fields (>10^6 V/m) that may induce dielectric breakdown. Meteoritic gardening limits the amount of time the regolith can spend close enough to the surface to be charged by SEPs, and we find that the gardened regolith within PSRs has likely experienced >10^6 breakdown-inducing events. Since dielectric breakdown typically creates cracks along the boundaries of changes in dielectric constant, we predict repeated breakdown to have fragmented a fraction of the regolith within PSRs into its mineralogical components.

  12. The Distribution of Ice in Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions: Science Enabling Exploration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Elphic, R. C.; Bussey, B.; Hibbitts, C.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent prospecting indicates that water ice occurs in enhanced abundances in some lunar PSRs. That water constitutes a resource that enables lunar exploration if it can be harvested for fuel and life support. Future lunar exploration missions will need detailed information about the distribution of volatiles in lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). In addition, the volatiles also offer key insights into the recent and distant past, as they have trapped volatiles delivered to the moon over ~2 Gyr. This comprises an unparalleled reservoir of past inner solar system volatiles, and future scientific missions are needed to make the measurements that will reveal the composition of those volatiles. These scientific missions will necessarily have to acquire and analyze samples of volatiles from the PSRs. For both exploration and scientific purposes, the precise location of volatiles will need to be known. However, data indicate that ice is distributed heterogeneously on the Moon. It is unlikely that the distribution will be known a priori with enough spatial resolution to guarantee access to volatiles using a single point sample. Some mechanism for laterally or vertically distributed access will increase the likelihood of acquiring a rich sample of volatiles. Trade studies will need to be conducted to anticipate the necessary range and duration of missions to lunar PSRs that will be needed to accomplish the mission objectives. We examine the spatial distribution of volatiles in lunar PSRs reported from data analyses and couple those with models of smaller scale processes. FUV and laser data from PSRs that indicate the average surface distribution is consistent with low abundances on the extreme surface in most PSRs. Neutron and radar data that probe the distribution at depth show heterogeneity at broad spatial resolution. We consider those data in conjunction with the model to understand the full, 3-D nature of the heterogeneity. A Monte Carlo technique simulates the

  13. a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster for Orbit Control of Lunar Polar Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Silva Moraes, Bruno; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Cardozo Mour, Decio; Winter, Othon

    Future moon missions devoted to lunar surface remote sensing and to many others scientific exploration topics will require more fine and higher precision orbit control. It is well known that, lunar satellites in polar orbits will suffer a high increase on the eccentricity due to the gravitational perturbation of the Earth. Without proper orbit correction the satellite life time will decrease and end up in a collision with the moon surface. It is pointed out by many authors that this effect is a natural consequence of the Lidov-Kozai resonance. In the present work, we propose a precise method of orbit eccentricity control based on the use of a low thrust Hall plasma thruster. The proposed method is based on an approach intended to keep the orbital eccentricity of the satellite at low values. A previous work on this subject was made using numerical integration considering two systems: the 3-body problem, Moon-Earth-satellite and the 4-body problem, Moon-Earth-Sun-satellite (??). In such simulation it is possible to follow the evolution of the satellite's eccentricity and find empirical expressions for the length of time needed to occur the collision with the moon. In this work, a satellite orbit eccentricity control maneuvering is proposed. It is based on working parameters of a low thrust propulsion permanent magnet Hall plasma thruster (PMHT), which is been developed at University of Brasilia, Brazil. We studied different arcs of active lunar satellite propulsion in order to be able to introduce a correction of the eccentricity at each cycle. The calculations were made considering a set of different thrust values, from 0.1N up to 0.4N which can be obtained by using the PMHT. In each calculation procedure we measured the length of eccentricity correction provided by active propulsion. From these results we obtained empirical expressions of the time needed for the corrections as a function of the initial altitude and as a function of the thrust value. 1. Winter, O. C

  14. Human safety in the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Any attempt to establish a continuously staffed base or permanent settlement on the Moon must safely meet the challenges posed by the Moon's surface environment. This environment is drastically different from the Earth's, and radiation and meteoroids are significant hazards to human safety. These dangers may be mitigated through the use of underground habitats, the piling up of lunar materials as shielding, and the use of teleoperated devices for surface operations. The lunar environment is detailed along with concepts for survival.

  15. Science objectives in the lunar base advocacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1988-01-01

    The author considers the potential function of astronomy in planning for a lunar base during the 21st century. He is one of the leading advocates for a permanent settlement on the Moon and has given considerable thought to the possible impact of such a station on science. He considers the rationale for a lunar base, research on the Moon, and the definition of science objectives.

  16. Magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface and the interpretation of permanent remanence in lunar surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    A magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface is presented. It was found that there is a distinct correlation between natural remanence (NRM), saturation magnetization, and the hysteresis ratios for the rock samples. The hysteresis classification is able to explain some aspects of time dependent magnetization in the lunar samples and relates the initial susceptibility to NRM, viscous remanence, and to other aspects of magnetization in lunar samples. It is also considered that since up to 60% of the iron in the lunar soil may be super paramagnetic at 400 K, and only 10% at 100 K, the 50% which becomes ferromagnetic over the cycle has the characteristics of thermoremanence and may provide for an enhancement in measurable field on the dark side during a subsatellite magnetometer circuit.

  17. Design of an unmanned lunar cargo lander that reconfigures into a shelter for a habitation module or disassembles into parts useful to a permanent manned lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davanay, Lisa; Garner, Brian; Rigol, Jason

    1989-01-01

    NASA plans to establish a permanent manned lunar base by the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is extremely expensive to transport material from earth to the moon. Therefore, expense would be reduced if the vehicle that lands cargo on the moon could itself meet some of the material needs of establishing the lunar base. The design of a multi-functional lander that is entirely useful to the base after landing is described. Alternate designs of the overall lander configuration and possible uses of the lander and its components after landing are contained. The design solution is a lander employing the Saddlebagged Fuel Tank Configuration. After landing, its structure will be converted into a habitation module shelter that supports a protective layer of regolith. The fuel tanks will be cleaned and used as storage tanks for the lunar base. The engines and instrumentation will be saved as stock parts. Recommendations for further research and technology development to enhance future lander designs are given.

  18. Beagle to the Moon: An Experiment Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Near the beginning of the next decade we will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface and have the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration

  19. Topography of the Lunar South Polar Region: Implications for the Size and Location of Permanently Shaded Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze Clementine altimetry to constrain the size and location of proposed permanently shadowed regions in the vicinity of the lunar south pole. Long and short wavelength topography in the vicinity of the pole, in combination with measurements of depths of well-preserved craters and basins and the lunar topographic power spectrum, have direct bearing on the nature of elevations in the south polar region. A criterion based on geometric considerations and altimetry demonstrates that the existence of permanent shadowing is not very sensitive to the elevation of the south pole. In addition, permanent shadowing cannot be a consequence of large structures such as the South Pole-Aitken Basin and/or a 300-km degraded polar basin. Perennially dark regions, if they exist, are most likely associated with craters or other axisymmetric features with diameters of at most 80 km centered at the pole. For structures displaced 2 deg from the pole the maximum allowable diameter decreases to approximately 30 km.

  20. Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits - An ideal lunar resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Clark, B.; Coombs, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    With a view of investigating possible economic benefits that a permanent lunar settlement might provide to the near-earth space infrastructures, consideration was given to the ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits as sources of oxygen (for use as a propellant) and He-3 (for nuclear fusion fuel). This paper demonstrates that ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits would be excellent sources of a wide variety of valuable elements besides O and He-3, including Fe, Ti, H2, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb. It is shown that several ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent exist on the lunar surface. The suitability of regional pyroclastic deposits for lunar mining operations, construction activities, and the establishment of permanent lunar settlements is examined.

  1. Beagle 2 the Moon: An Experimental Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2008-01-01

    NASA has announced the selection of several Lunar Science Sortie Concept Studies for potential scientific payloads with future Lunar Missions. The Beagle 2 scientific package was one of those chosen for study. Near the beginning of the next decade will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface with the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package developed to seek the signatures of life on Mars is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration.

  2. Modeling Lunar Borehole Temperature in order to Reconstruct Historical Total Solar Irradiance and Estimate Surface Temperature in Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, G.; Cahalan, R. F.; Miyahara, H.; Ohmura, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Moon is an ideal place to reconstruct historical total solar irradiance (TSI). With undisturbed lunar surface albedo and the very low thermal diffusivity of lunar regolith, changes in solar input lead to changes in lunar surface temperature that diffuse downward to be recorded in the temperature profile in the near-surface layer. Using regolith thermal properties from Apollo, we model the heat transfer in the regolith layer, and compare modeled surface temperature to Apollo observations to check model performance. Using as alternative input scenarios two reconstructed TSI time series from 1610 to 2000 (Lean, 2000; Wang, Lean, and Sheeley 2005), we conclude that the two scenarios can be distinguished by detectable differences in regolith temperature, with the peak difference of about 10 mK occuring at a depth of about 10 m (Miyahara et al., 2007). The possibility that water ice exists in permanently shadowed areas near the lunar poles (Nozette et al., 1997; Spudis et al, 1998), makes it of interest to estimate surface temperature in such dark regions. "Turning off" the Sun in our time dependent model, we found it would take several hundred years for the surface temperature to drop from ~~100K immediately after sunset down to a nearly constant equilibrium temperature of about 24~~38 K, with the range determined by the range of possible input from Earth, from 0 W/m2 without Earth visible, up to about 0.1 W/m2 at maximum Earth phase. A simple equilibrium model (e.g., Huang 2007) is inappropriate to relate the Apollo-observed nighttime temperature to Earth's radiation budget, given the long multi- centennial time scale needed for equilibration of the lunar surface layer after sunset. Although our results provide the key mechanisms for reconstructing historical TSI, further research is required to account for topography of lunar surfaces, and new measurements of regolith thermal properties will also be needed once a new base of operations is

  3. Lunar Polar Coring Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

  4. Evolving concepts of lunar architecture: The potential of subselene development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daga, Andrew W.; Daga, Meryl A.; Wendel, Wendel R.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the superior environmental and operational conditions that are thought to exist in lava tubes, popular visions of permanent settlements built upon the lunar surface may prove to be entirely romantic. The factors that will ultimately come together to determine the design of a lunar base are complex and interrelated, and they call for a radical architectural solution. Whether lunar surface-deployed superstructures can answer these issues is called into question. One particularly troublesome concern in any lunar base design is the need for vast amounts of space, and the ability of man-made structures to provide such volumes in a reliable pressurized habitat is doubtful. An examination of several key environmental design issues suggests that the alternative mode of subselene development may offer the best opportunity for an enduring and humane settlement.

  5. Lunar water migration in the interval between large impacts: Heterogeneous delivery to Permanently Shadowed Regions, fractionation, and diffusive barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.

    2016-01-01

    The migration of water molecules across the lunar surface from sources sufficiently small, so as to not generate a transient collisional atmosphere, was examined using a Monte Carlo simulation. Previous work using similar models is extended by examining a realistic distribution of large south polar Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs) to examine the heterogeneities observed in their water content—frost in Haworth and the nearby lowlands, but not in neighboring Shoemaker, and anomalously high hydrogen abundances from neutron data—and to determine how the pattern of water delivery can be distinguished from that predicted for transient collisional atmospheres. While the Haworth lowlands were seen to accumulate 3.9 times as much water as Shoemaker, the additional water delivered to Haworth crater was only 47% greater than Shoemaker, possibly due to shielding by Faustini and the lowlands. This relatively small difference is likely inadequate to explain the difference in frosting. More broadly, latitudinal trends in delivery dominate over meridional trends. Despite the heterogeneity in water delivery, fractionation effects from ballistic migration were small for the PSRs with equal D/H ratios seen in all PSRs within confidence limits. Finally, a diffusive barrier was observed starting at approximately 15° from each pole that hampers the poleward progress of equatorial particles. This barrier is the result of a reduction in the migration diffusivity from 1.0 × 107 m2 s-1 near the equator to 5.5 × 105 m2 s-1 within 10° of the pole and finally to 6.8 × 103 m2 s-1 within 4° of the pole.

  6. How Cold are the Floors of Lunar Polar Shadowed Craters?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    2010-01-01

    Almost five decades ago Watson, et al, [1] speculated that molecules of volatile species might accumulate within the cryogenic environments of permanently shadowed polar craters. The subject was largely a scientific curiosity until recently. In the mid-1980's, people began to seriously discuss the feasibility of long-term or permanent human settlement of the Moon. Given that the Moon was known be missing the compounds need to support life and that importing volatiles from Earth is prohibitively expensive, lunar colonists were pictured as processing the putative polar volatiles. A bistatic radar experiment performed with the Clementine spacecraft was interpreted to suggest the presence of large quantities of ice at some polar locations. [2] The neutron spectrometer aboard the Lunar Prospector spacecraft reported high concentrations of hydrogen in the polar regolith, [3] and some interpretations of the data set pointed to very high concentrations in permanently shadowed craters. The reformulation of civilian space policy in 2004, known as the Vision for Space Exploration, emphasized lunar exploration with eye toward development of economic returns from cislunar space and long-tern human presence on the Moon. The theme of finding lunar resources was an impetus for the inclusion of the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Preliminary results from Diviner report an unexpectedly low temperature down to 35K in the depths of some craters. [4

  7. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  8. ILEWG roadmap Robotic and Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We shall discuss the rationale and roadmap of ongoing Moon missions, and how they can prepare for future human exploration. Various fundamental scientific investigations can be performed with robots and humans: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The roadmap includes also enabling technologies that prepare for the best syenrgies between robots and humans: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package;Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector, Support equipment for astronaut sorties; life science precursors for life support systems. We shall adddress requirements for robotic precursor programmes, global robotic village, technology development, resource utilisation, human aspects, science and exploration from lunar sorties, transition towards permanent settlements and lunar bases.

  9. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  10. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  11. Project LEAP (lunar ecosystem and architectural prototype)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    University of Houston's The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture is pursuing research and design studies for permanent lunar settlements. One such study, Project LEAP, has produced staged growth concepts for a habitat to support lunar mining operations. The principal purpose assumed for the development is to produce liquid oxygen and hydrogen propellant for Advanced Space Transportation System and future orbital infrastructure consumption use. The base has been designed to grow over a ten year period from an initial six-person crew occupancy to an advanced facility capable of accommodating as many as one hundred and fifty people. Evolutionary growth stages would rely increasingly upon acquisition, processing and utilization of lunar materials to optimize self-sufficiency. Project LEAP's study objectives have sought to identify incremental site development and facility requirements; to identify candidate site development and construction options; to propose site layout and habitat design/growth concepts; and to survey requirements to achieve a high level of self-sufficiency. As an ongoing research and development program, the project has evolved from research and data collection for concept and design through three dimensional solids computer modeling. The University of Houston project is funded through the advanced Missions Office of the Johnson Space Center. Project representatives are guests of the Johnson Space Center at this conference.

  12. Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon

  13. Lunar and Planetary Bases, Habitats, and Colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes the design and construction of lunar and Mars bases, habitats, and settlements; construction materials and equipment; life support systems; base operations and logistics; thermal management and power systems; and robotic systems.

  14. Preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility (Complex 39L)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, H. Dennis; Jenson, Eric B.; Linsley, Jerald N.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility has been formulated. A permanently manned lunar base and a baseline lunar module are assumed. The major features of the facility are specified and major design areas are described.

  15. Selenia: A habitability study for the development of a third generation lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Apollo astronauts landed on the Moon, the first generation of lunar bases was established. They consisted essentially of a lunar module and related hardware capable of housing two astronauts for not more than several days. Second generation lunar bases are being developed, and further infrastructure, such as space station, orbital transfer, and reusable lander vehicles will be necessary, as prolonged stay on the Moon is required for exploration, research, and construction for the establishment of a permanent human settlement there. Human life in these habitats could be sustained for months, dependent on a continual flow of life-support supplies from Earth. Third-generation lunar bases will come into being as self sufficiency of human settlements becomes feasible. Regeneration of water, oxygen production, and development of indigenous construction materials from lunar resources will be necessary. Greenhouses will grow food supplies in engineered biospheres. Assured protection from solar flares and cosmic radiation must be provided, as well as provision for survival under meteor showers, or the threat of meteorite impact. All these seem to be possible within the second decade of the next century. Thus, the builders of Selenia, the first of the third-generation lunar bases are born today. During the last two years students from the School of Architecture of the University of Puerto Rico have studied the problems that relate to habitability for prolonged stay in extraterrestrial space. An orbital personnel transport to Mars developed originally by the Aerospace Engineering Department of the University of Michigan was investigated and habitability criteria for evaluation of human space habitats were proposed. An important finding from that study was that the necessary rotational diameter of the vessel has to be on the order of two kilometers to ensure comfort for humans under the artificial gravity conditions necessary to maintain physiological well being of

  16. Lunar base agriculture: Soils for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Editor); Henninger, Donald L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This work provides information on research and experimentation concerning various aspects of food production in space and particularly on the moon. Options for human settlement of the moon and Mars and strategies for a lunar base are discussed. The lunar environment, including the mineralogical and chemical properties of lunar regolith are investigated and chemical and physical considerations for a lunar-derived soil are considered. It is noted that biological considerations for such a soil include controlled-environment crop production, both hydroponic and lunar regolith-based; microorganisms and the growth of higher plants in lunar-derived soils; and the role of microbes to condition lunar regolith for plant cultivation. Current research in the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) project is presented in detail and future research areas, such as the growth of higher research plants in CELSS are considered. Optimum plant and microbiological considerations for lunar derived soils are examined.

  17. Construction of manned lunar surface sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzawa, Yoshinori; Horie, Michihiko; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Amagata, Raita; Honda, Tetsuya

    1991-07-01

    A review is conducted on manned lunar surface sites to be constructed in around 2010 to conduct various experiments and observations on the lunar surface in a short time prior to developing permanent lunar bases. Methods of construction and operation of manned lunar surface sites are established, taking requirements from the mission parts and shipping mean constraints. Review results of mission requirements and operation profiles are presented. Experiment subjects, structures and outlines of subsystems, weight balance, electric power balance and functional block diagram of the manned lunar surface sites are presented. Conceptual drawings of air-lock and roving vehicle, operation profiles and conceptual drawing of lunar surface sites are shown.

  18. Remote Sensing Assessment of Lunar Resources: We Know Where to Go to Find What We Need

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Lucey, P. G.

    2004-01-01

    The utilization of space resources is necessary to not only foster the growth of human activities in space, but is essential to the President s vision of a "sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond." The distribution of resources will shape planning permanent settlements by affecting decisions about where to locate a settlement. Mapping the location of such resources, however, is not the limiting factor in selecting a site for a lunar base. It is indecision about which resources to use that leaves the location uncertain. A wealth of remotely sensed data exists that can be used to identify targets for future detailed exploration. Thus, the future of space resource utilization pre-dominantly rests upon developing a strategy for resource exploration and efficient methods of extraction.

  19. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen,, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Cohen, B. A.; Sellar, G.; Reiter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanentlyshadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system.

  20. What the moon offers mankind - A review of the lunar initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozette, S.; Duke, M.; Mendell, W.

    1984-10-01

    It is thought likely that extension of civilization beyond earth may include a permanent settlement on the moon. An analysis of the American civilian space program shows that the required technology for establishing a base on the moon will exist before the end of this century. A manned lunar base is discussed in terms of three distinct functions. The first is related to the scientific investigation of the moon and the application of special properties of the moon to research problems. In connection with the second, attention is given to the development of the capability to utilize the materials of the moon for beneficial purposes throughout the earth-moon system. The last involves research and development leading to a self-sufficient and self-supporting lunar base.

  1. What the moon offers mankind - A review of the lunar initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Duke, M.; Mendell, W.

    1984-01-01

    It is thought likely that extension of civilization beyond earth may include a permanent settlement on the moon. An analysis of the American civilian space program shows that the required technology for establishing a base on the moon will exist before the end of this century. A manned lunar base is discussed in terms of three distinct functions. The first is related to the scientific investigation of the moon and the application of special properties of the moon to research problems. In connection with the second, attention is given to the development of the capability to utilize the materials of the moon for beneficial purposes throughout the earth-moon system. The last involves research and development leading to a self-sufficient and self-supporting lunar base.

  2. Plume Mitigation: Soil Erosion and Lunar Prospecting Sensor Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrate feasibility of the simplest, lowest-mass method of measuring density of a cloud of lunar soil ejected by rocket exhaust, using new math techniques with a small baseline laser/camera system. Focus is on exploring the erosion process that occurs when the exhaust plume of a lunar rocket impacts the regolith. Also, predicting the behavior of the lunar soil that would be blasted from a lunar landing/launch site shall assist in better design and protection of any future lunar settlement from scouring of structures and equipment. NASA is gathering experimental data to improve soil erosion models and understand how lunar particles enter the plume flow.

  3. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  4. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  5. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS) is examined. The basic design time line is around 2010 to 2030 and is referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases and equipment would have been present. Present plans for lunar colonization call for a phased return of personnel and materials to the moons's surface. During settlement of lunar bases, the lunar lander is stationary in a very hostile environment and would have to be in a state of readiness for use in case of an emergency. Cargo and personnel would have to be removed from the lander and transported to a safe environment at the lunar base. An integrated system is required to perform these functions. These needs are addressed which center around the design of a lunar lander servicing system. The servicing system could perform several servicing functions to the lander in addition to cargo servicing. The following were considered: (1) reliquify hydrogen boiloff; (2) supply power; and (3) remove or add heat as necessary. The final design incorporates both original designs and existing vehicles and equipment on the surface of the moon at the time considered. The importance of commonality is foremost in the design of any lunar machinery.

  6. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  7. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  8. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  9. A lunar laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, P. W.; Duke, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration.

  10. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  11. Self-unloading, reusable, lunar lander project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arseculeratne, Ruwan; Cavazos, Melissa; Euker, John; Ghavidel, Fred; Hinkel, Todd J.; Hitzfelder, John; Leitner, Jesse; Nevik, James; Paynter, Scott; Zolondek, Allen

    1990-01-01

    In the early 21st century, NASA will return to the Moon and establish a permanent base. To achieve this goal safely and economically, B&T Engineering has designed an unmanned, reusable, self-unloading lunar lander. The lander is designed to deliver 15,000 kg payloads from an orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) in a low lunar polar orbit and an altitude of 200 km to any location on the lunar surface.

  12. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  13. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  14. Lunar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified.

  15. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  16. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  17. Lunar Flashlight: Exploration and Science at the Moon with a 6U CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Lunar Flashlight mission, manifested on the SLS EM-1 flight scheduled for 2018, will illuminate permanently shadowed regions at the lunar south pole to measure the abundance and distribution of surface water ice for human resource utilization.

  18. Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon

  19. Regolith Volatile Recovery at Simulated Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Schmidt, Sherry; Boucher, Dale

    2016-01-01

    Lunar Polar Volatiles: Permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles contain water, 5 wt according to LCROSS. Interest in water for ISRU applications. Desire to ground truth water using surface prospecting e.g. Resource Prospector and RESOLVE. How to access subsurface water resources and accurately measure quantity. Excavation operations and exposure to lunar environment may affect the results. Volatile capture tests: A series a ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations. Sample removal and transfer. Volatiles loss during sampling operations. Concept of operations, Instrumentation. This presentation is a progress report on volatiles capture results from these tests with lunar polar drill prototype hardware.

  20. System concepts for a series of lunar optical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, Max E.; Davis, Billy G.; Hilchey, John D.

    1992-01-01

    The Lunar Telescope Working Group of the Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, has conducted conceptual studies of an evolutionary family of UV/ optical/IR telescopes to be based on the lunar surface. Included are: (1) the 16-m aperture Large Lunar Telescope; (2) the 4-m aperture precursor Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment; and (3) the 2-m Lunar Transit Telescope proposed by John McGraw of the Steward Observatory. Development and emplacement of these advanced astronomical facilities would parallel the buildup of an initial lunar exploration site, an early lunar outpost, and a permanent lunar base. The Working Group has examined the feasibility of constructing such telescopes and assessed technology, subsystem, system, transportation, and operations requirements for their development and emplacement. Influences of the lunar environment and site selection on telescope design and operation were also evaluated.

  1. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  2. ILEWG report and discussion on Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" will include oral papers and posters, and a series of discussions. Members of ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group will debate: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open - Celebrating the lunar legacy of pioneers Gerhard Neukum, Colin Pillinger and Manfred Fuchs planetary science and exploration - Latest results from LADEE and Chang'e 3/4 - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang-E1 and Chang-E2, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS impactor, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs, Chang'E 5, Future landers, Lunar sample return - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar sorties - Preparation: databases, instruments, terrestrial field campaigns - The future international lunar exploration programme towards ILEWG roadmap of a global robotic village and permanent international lunar base - The proposals for an International Lunar Decade and International Lunar Research Parks - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Human Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with the perspective of robotic and human exploration. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

  3. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  4. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The

  5. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  6. Lunar Riometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  7. Lunar base siting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Dowling, Richard

    1991-01-01

    As with any planetary body, the lunar surface is quite heterogeneous. There are widely dispersed sites of particular interest for known and potential resource availability, selenology, and lunar observatories. Discriminating characteristics include solar illumination, view of earth, local topography, engineering properties of the regolith and certain geological features, and local mineralogy and petrology. Space vehicle arrival and departure trajectories constitute a minor consideration. Over time, a variety of base sites will be developed serving different purposes. Resource-driven sites may see the fastest growth during the first decades of lunar development, but selection of the most favorable sites is likely to be driven by suitability for a combination of activities. As on earth, later development may be driven by geographical advantages of surface transportation routes. With the availability of near-constant sunlight for power generation, as well as permanently shadowed areas at cryogenic temperatures, polar sites are attractive because they require substantially less earth-launched mass and lower equipment complexity for an initial permanent base. Discovery of accessible volatiles reservoirs, either in the form of polar permafrost or gas reservoirs at other locations, would dramatically increase the attractiveness of any site from a logistical support and selenological point of view. Amid such speculation, no reliable evidence of such volatiles exist. More reliable evidence exists for areas of certain mineral concentrations, such as ilmenite, which could form a feedstock for some proposed resource extraction schemes. While tentative selections of advantageous base sites are made, new data from lunar polar orbiters and the Galileo polar flybys would be very helpful.

  8. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  9. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  10. Challenges of Rover Navigation at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara; Deans, Matt; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Larry; Dille, Michael; Fong, Terry; Colaprete, Tony; Miller, Scott; Vaughan, Ryan; Andrews, Dan; Allan, Mark; Furlong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Observations from Lunar Prospector, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and other missions have contributed evidence that water and other volatiles exist at the lunar poles in permanently shadowed regions. Combining a surface rover and a volatile prospecting and analysis payload would enable the detection and characterization of volatiles in terms of nature, abundance, and distribution. This knowledge could have impact on planetary science, in-situ resource utilization, and human exploration of space. While Lunar equatorial regions of the Moon have been explored by manned (Apollo) and robotic missions (Lunokhod, Cheng'e), no surface mission has reached the lunar poles.

  11. Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae

  12. The Risdon Settlement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    One of the key episodes in the history of the region of Australia called Tasmania is an incident known as the Risdon Massacre. In 1804 near the Risdon Settlement, a large number of aborigines were killed by settlement officials. This document invites students to investigate what really happened on the day of the Risdon massacre and in so doing,…

  13. Microwave Extraction of Water from Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the DOD Clementine lunar orbital mission obtained data indicating that the permanently shaded regions at the lunar poles may have permanently frozen water in the lunar soil. Currently NASA's Robotic Lunar Exploration Program, RLEP-2, is planned to land at the lunar pole to determine if water is present. The detection and extraction of water from the permanently frozen permafrost is an important goal for NASA. Extraction of water from lunar permafrost has a high priority in the In-Situ Resource Utilization, ISRU, community for human life support and as a fuel. The use of microwave processing would permit the extraction of water without the need to dig, drill, or excavate the lunar surface. Microwave heating of regolith is potentially faster and more efficient than any other heating methods due to the very low thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith. Also, microwaves can penetrate into the soil permitting water removal from deep below the lunar surface. A cryogenic vacuum test facility was developed for evaluating the use of microwave heating and water extraction from a lunar regolith permafrost simulant. Water is obtained in a cryogenic cold trap even with soil conditions below 0 C. The results of microwave extraction of water experiments will be presented.

  14. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  15. Lunar exospheric argon modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grava, Cesare; Chaufray, J.-Y.; Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hurley, D. M.; Hodges, R. R.; Bayless, A. J.; Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    Argon is one of the few known constituents of the lunar exosphere. The surface-based mass spectrometer Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) deployed during the Apollo 17 mission first detected argon, and its study is among the subjects of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission investigations. We performed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutral atomic argon that we use to better understand its transport and storage across the lunar surface. We took into account several loss processes: ionization by solar photons, charge-exchange with solar protons, and cold trapping as computed by recent LRO/Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) mapping of Permanently Shaded Regions (PSRs). Recycling of photo-ions and solar radiation acceleration are also considered. We report that (i) contrary to previous assumptions, charge exchange is a loss process as efficient as photo-ionization, (ii) the PSR cold-trapping flux is comparable to the ionization flux (photo-ionization and charge-exchange), and (iii) solar radiation pressure has negligible effect on the argon density, as expected. We determine that the release of 2.6 × 1028 atoms on top of a pre-existing argon exosphere is required to explain the maximum amount of argon measured by LACE. The total number of atoms (1.0 × 1029) corresponds to ∼6700 kg of argon, 30% of which (∼1900 kg) may be stored in the cold traps after 120 days in the absence of space weathering processes. The required population is consistent with the amount of argon that can be released during a High Frequency Teleseismic (HFT) Event, i.e. a big, rare and localized moonquake, although we show that LACE could not distinguish between a localized and a global event. The density of argon measured at the time of LACE appears to have originated from no less than four such episodic events. Finally, we show that the extent of the PSRs that trap

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture" contained the following reports:Approaches for Approximating Topography in High Resolution, Multispectral Data; Verification of Quality and Compatibility for the Newly Calibrated Clementine NIR Data Set; Near Infrared Spectral Properties of Selected Nearside and Farside Sites ; Global Comparisons of Mare Volcanism from Clementine Near-Infrared Data; Testing the Relation Between UVVIS Color and TiO2 Composition in the Lunar Maria; Color Reflectance Trends in the Mare: Implications for Mapping Iron with Multispectral Images ; The Composition of the Lunar Megaregolith: Some Initial Results from Global Mapping; Global Images of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data; The Origin of Lunar Crater Rays; Properties of Lunar Crater Ejecta from New 70-cm Radar Observations ; Permanent Sunlight at the Lunar North Pole; and ESA s SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals, Status and First Results.

  17. A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.

    1994-08-01

    each piloted round trip mission. As the initial lunar outposts grow to centralized bases and settlements with a substantial permanent human presence, a LANTR-powered shuttle capable of 36 to 24 hour 'one-way' trip times to the moon and back becomes possible with initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) requirements of approximately 160 to 240 metric tons, respectively.

  18. A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

    1994-01-01

    each piloted round trip mission. As the initial lunar outposts grow to centralized bases and settlements with a substantial permanent human presence, a LANTR-powered shuttle capable of 36 to 24 hour 'one-way' trip times to the moon and back becomes possible with initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) requirements of approximately 160 to 240 metric tons, respectively.

  19. Electrical power integration for lunar operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

  20. Conceptual second-generation lunar equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. The basic assumption made in designing second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment was that a network of permanent lunar bases already existed. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground-based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. Two teams of two or three members competed on each topic and results were exhibited at a formal presentation. A clean-propellant powered lunar flying transport vehicle, an extra-vehicular activity life support system, a pressurized lunar rover for greater distances, and a robotic arm design project are discussed.

  1. Implications of Dielectric Breakdown Weathering for the Lunar Polar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A. P.; Wilson, J. K.; Stubbs, T. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.; Izenberg, N. R.

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric breakdown weathering may significantly affect lunar regolith in permanently shadowed regions. We estimate how it may evolve the distribution of grain sizes and properties, which could have operational implications for rovers.

  2. Prospecting Rovers for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Jerry B.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Farmer, Jeffery T.

    2007-01-01

    A study of lunar rover options for exploring the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar environment is presented. The potential for nearly continuous solar illumination coupled with the potential for water ice, focus exploration planner's attention on the polar regions of the moon. These regions feature craters that scientists have reason to believe may contain water ice. Water ice can be easily converted to fuel cell reactants, breathing oxygen, potable water, and rocket propellant. For these reasons, the NASA Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP) sponsored a study of potential prospecting rover concepts as one part of the RLEP-2 Pre-Phase A. Numerous vehicle configurations and power, thermal, and communication options are investigated. Rover options in the 400kg to 530kg class are developed which are capable of either confirming the presence of water ice at the poles, or conclusively demonstrating its absence.

  3. A strategy for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1993-01-01

    A strategy for the establishment of a human-tended base on the moon that involves an evolutionary development spanning from an exploratory encampment to a self-sufficient lunar base is proposed. Four strategic architectural stages in the evolutionary human exploration and settlement of the moon, based on specified engineering requirements and feasible enabling technologies, are proposed. The four stages are: (1) exploratory; (2) pioneering; (3) outpost; and (4) base. Overall goals and specific objectives, functional requirements, structural characteristics, construction conditions, life support systems requirements, and supporting systems needed for lunar exploration and utilization in each stage are identified and discussed.

  4. ISA accelerometer and Lunar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Carmisciano, C.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Magnafico, C.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Nozzoli, S.; Ungaro, D.; Argada, S.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one--dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in--orbit and on--ground, with the same configuration. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of the missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the respective experiments.

  5. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  6. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Moon's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, P. O.; Cohen, B. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Sellar, R. G.; Reiter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanently shadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system.

  7. Shuttle-Z - A new heavy lift launch vehicle for manned lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1989-01-01

    Ongoing analyses at NASA in the Office of Exploration are shedding light on the real leverage of heavy lift launch vehicles. The missions being analyzed include the establishment of a permanent lunar outpost, a series of Apollo-like Mars expeditions; and a permanent Mars evolutionary outpost, whether or not preceded by a lunar outpost.

  8. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an exciting new mission concept in preformulation studies for NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) by a team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, UCLA, and Marshall Space Flight Center. This innovative, low-cost concept will map the lunar south pole for volatiles and demonstrate several technological firsts, including being the first CubeSat to reach the Moon, the first mission to use an 80 m2 solar sail, and the first mission to use a solar sail as a reflector for science observations. The Lunar Flashlight mission spacecraft maneuvers to its lunar polar orbit and uses its solar sail as a mirror to reflect 50 kW of sunlight down into shaded polar regions, while the on-board spectrometer measures surface reflection and composition. The Lunar Flashlight 6U spacecraft has heritage elements from multiple cubesat systems. The deployable solar sail/reflector is based on previous solar sail experiments, scaled up for this mission. The mission will demonstrate a path where 6U CubeSats could, at dramatically lower cost than previously thought possible, explore, locate and estimate size and composition of ice deposits on the Moon. Locating ice deposits in the Moon's permanently shadowed craters addresses one of NASA's Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) to detect composition, quantity, distribution, form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps. Polar volatile data collected by Lunar Flashlight could then ensure that targets for more expensive lander- and rover-borne measurements would include volatiles in sufficient quantity and near enough to the surface to be operationally useful.

  9. Microwave Extraction of Water from Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethridge, Edwin; Kaukler, William

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the DOD Clementine lunar orbital mission obtained data indicating that the permanently shaded regions at the lunar poles may have permanently frozen water in the lunar soil or `permafrost'. Currently a Lunar Lander Exploration Program is expected to land at the lunar pole to determine if water is present. The detection of water from the permafrost is an important goal for NASA. Extraction of water from lunar permafrost would be a valuable In-Situ Resource for Utilization (ISRU) in human life support and as a fuel. The use of microwave processing could permit the extraction of water without the need to dig, drill, or excavate the lunar surface. Microwave heating of regolith is potentially faster and more efficient than any other heating methods due to the very low thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith. Also, microwaves can penetrate into the soil permitting water removal from deep below the lunar surface. A cryogenic vacuum test facility was developed for evaluating the use of microwave heating and water extraction from a lunar regolith simulant. Water was collected in a cryogenic cold trap even with soil temperature well below 0 °C. The results of microwave extraction of water experiments will be presented.

  10. Models of an early lunar dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.; Mendenhall, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis that a dynamo once existed in the moon, and hence was the source of lunar paleomagnetism, is tested using a model for the global thermoremanent magnetization of spherical lithospheres. Various models of an ancient lunar dipole field are used which incorporate intensity variations and reversals, and which are consistent with lunar sample paleointensities. It is found that non-reversing lunar dynamos which have simple exponential decay histories beginning at 4.6 b.y. ago are inconsistent with this limit, unless the moon has been thoroughly demagnetized to a depth of tens of kilometers by impacts or other processes. An early lunar dynamo cannot be excluded by global scalar measurements unless the permanent lunar dipole moment is shown to be significantly less than 10 to the 13th power G/cu cm by future spacecraft measurements, which may be technologically impossible; vector measurements of lunar magnetic anomalies over the whole moon offer a possibility of determining the source of the field which magnetized the lunar crust.

  11. Lunar anorthosites.

    PubMed

    Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

    1970-01-30

    Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context. PMID:17781512

  12. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  13. ISA accelerometer and Lunar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David; Santoli, Francesco; Lefevre, Carlo; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Nozzoli, Sergio; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Milyukov, Vadim

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of the Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments: in fact a wide variety of them has been proposed to be conducted on the lunar surface. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its design it works on-ground with the same configuration developed for in-orbit applications. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been the subject of preliminary studies and has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. ISA-S (ISA-Seismometer) has a very high sensitivity, which has already been demonstrated with long time periods of usage on Earth. It features also a wide bandwidth, extended towards the low frequencies. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of landing missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the systems.

  14. Lunar oasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Niehoff, John

    1989-01-01

    The 'lunar oasis' emphasizes development toward self-sufficiency in order to reduce dependence on the earth for resupply, and to enable expansion utilizing indigeneous resources. The oasis phase includes: (1) habitation and work facilities for 10 people, (2) capability for extraction of volatile consumables (H2O, O2, N2, etc.) from indigenous resources for resupply of losses and filling of reservoirs, and (3) a highly closed life support system, including food production. In the consolidation phase, the base grows from 10 to 30 crewmembers. Lunar resources are used for expanding the lunar foothold, including construction of habitats, extraction of metals for the fabrication of products for maintenance and repair, and expansion of the power system. The strategy does not produce propellants for space transportation. A 10-year scenario is laid out, which contains all elements needed to allow the base to enter a self-expanding utilization phase. Three lunar missions yer year, two cargo missions and one crew flight, are required. At the end of a decade, the base is producing more than it requires for its continued support, although it is unlikely to be completely self-sufficient.

  15. Lunar philosophers.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2007-03-01

    A close associate of the Lunar Society, Joseph Wright of Derby painted several industrial and scientific scenes. This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) shows how two of his works - featuring an orrery and an alchemist - reveal the ideas and aspirations of the provincial philosophers who made up the Society. PMID:17336378

  16. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  17. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Banazadeh, P.; Baker, J. D.; Staehle, R. L.; Paine, C..; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Water ice and other volatiles may be located in the Moon's polar regions, with sufficient quantities for in situ extraction and utilization by future human and robotic missions. Evidence from orbiting spacecraft and the LCROSS impactor suggests the presence of surface and/or nearsurface volatiles, including water ice. These deposits are of interest to human exploration to understand their potential for use by astronauts. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits could also reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system, so are of scientific interest. The scientific exploration of the lunar polar regions was one of the key recommendations of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program selected three lowcost 6-U CubeSat missions for launch as secondary payloads on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS) scheduled for 2017. The Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as one of these missions, specifically to address the SKG associated with lunar volatiles. Development of the Lunar Flashlight CubeSat concept leverages JPL's Interplanetary Nano- Spacecraft Pathfinder In Relevant Environment (INSPIRE) mission, MSFC's intimate knowledge of the Space Launch System and EM-1 mission, small business development of solar sail and electric propulsion hardware, and JPL experience with specialized miniature sensors. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and its physical state, and map its concentration at the kilometer scale within the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight deploys its solar panels and solar sail and maneuvers

  18. Lunar base initiative 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.

    activities for a lunar base on Earth where it is done the cheapest way. Extraterrestrial activities by men should be kept as small as possible to keep costs down. The organizational alternatives have an equally wide span and many options have been considered already. The most prominent ones are described and the results of a ranking exercise are presented. Finally, a phased project plan as seen from today's viewpoint is proposed beginning in 1992 with the activation of a "Lunar Base Planning Office" to be followed by an "International Lunar Development Agency" with the goal of establishing the first element of a permanent lunar base in the second half of the first decade of the 21st century.

  19. Model for mapping settlements

    DOEpatents

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  20. Study Towards Human Aided Construction of Large Lunar Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vanSusante, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    On the Moon, unique situations exist for observing the universe. The Polar areas contain permanently shadowed areas, which are among the coldest places in our solar system, within which the infrared background radiation that can disturb measurements is very low. Also disturbances generated on Earth are mostly out of view and thus the measurements can be much more sensitive in all wavelengths. The South Pole offers a good location for building such an observatory. Clementine mission data indicate that permanently shadowed areas are located within a few kilometers of a areas that are almost permanently lit by the sun. By placing a communication relay on one of the lunar mountains it is also possible to have a communications link for periods in which these shadowed areas can not be seen directly from Earth. The South Polar region of the Moon is also interesting geologically because it is located inside the largest basin on the moon (South Pole - Aitken Basin) as well as the possibility that ice may exist there. Shackleton Crater is suggested as a site for the placement and construction of the Lunar South Pole Infrared Telescope together with a communication relay lander at Malapert Mountain and another communication relay and energy supply lander at the Peak of Eternal Light, located near the rim of Shackleton. A near infrared telescope has been designed for emplacement in Shackleton that appears to have the same capabilities as the Next Generation Space Telescope except for sky coverage, which will be limited by the location and orientation. The telescope has a diameter of 8 meters and is an altitude-azimuth design. The bearings will be made of superconducting magnets that use fluxpinning to stabilize themselves while at the same time they are very energy-efficient. The foundation will be dug and constructed in-situ using robots and telepresence together with virtual reality and local laser rangefinders. If all goes well the telescope would have settlement no greater

  1. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  2. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-12-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  3. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  4. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  5. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  6. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  7. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  8. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  9. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  10. The permanent and induced magnetic dipole moment of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Lichtenstein, B. R.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    Magnetic field observations with the Apollo 15 subsatellite have been used to deduce the components of both the permanent and induced lunar dipole moments in the orbital plane. The present permanent lunar magnetic dipole moment in the orbital plane is less than 1.3 times ten to the eighteenth power gauss-cu cm. Any uniformly magnetized near surface layer is therefore constrained to have a thickness-magnetization product less than 2.5 emu-cm per g. The induced moment opposes the external field, implying the existence of a substantial lunar ionosphere with a permeability between 0.63 and 0.85. Combining this with recent measures of the ratio of the relative field strength at the ALSEP and Explorer 35 magnetometers indicates that the global lunar permeability relative to the plasma in the geomagnetic tail lobes is between 1.008 and 1.03.

  11. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  12. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Definition Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laifr, J.; Auster, U.; Bale, S. D.; Delory, G. T.; Devoto, P.; Farrell, W. M.; Glassmeier, K.; Guicking, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Hellinger, P.; Hercik, D.; Horanyi, M.; Kataria, D.; Kozacek, Z.; Mazelle, C. X.; Omura, Y.; Owen, C. J.; Pavelka, R.; Plaschke, F.; Rucker, H. O.; Saito, Y.; Sternovsky, Z.; Stverak, S.; Travnicek, P. M.; Turin, P.; Vana, P.

    2012-12-01

    Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic and human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in-situ measurements. Here we present results from the concept and design phase A - a study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic Lunar Dust Analyser, LPM - Langmuir Probe and Magnetometer, LRU - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae and LEIA - Lunar Electron and Ion Analyser. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package CAD Model

  13. Concepts for manned lunar habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Butterfield, A. J.; King, C. B.; Qualls, G. D.; Davis, W. T.; Gould, M. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Simonsen, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    The design philosophy that will guide the design of early lunar habitats will be based on a compromise between the desired capabilities of the base and the economics of its development and implantation. Preferred design will be simple, make use of existing technologies, require the least amount of lunar surface preparation, and minimize crew activity. Three concepts for an initial habitat supporting a crew of four for 28 to 30 days are proposed. Two of these are based on using Space Station Freedom structural elements modified for use in a lunar-gravity environment. A third concept is proposed that is based on an earlier technology based on expandable modules. The expandable modules offer significant advantages in launch mass and packaged volume reductions. It appears feasible to design a transport spacecraft lander that, once landed, can serve as a habitat and a stand-off for supporting a regolith environmental shield. A permanent lunar base habitat supporting a crew of twelve for an indefinite period can be evolved by using multiple initial habitats. There appears to be no compelling need for an entirely different structure of larger volume and increased complexity of implantation.

  14. 75 FR 8701 - Notice of Settlement Agreement Pertaining to Construction of a Waste Repository on the Settlors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY Notice of Settlement Agreement Pertaining to Construction of a Waste Repository on the Settlors... Repository on Settlor's Property located on the Tar Creek Superfund Site in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The settlement requires a permanent waste repository on the property by resolving, liability the settling...

  15. Evaluation of Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Megalopal Settlement and Condition during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Erin K.; Chiasson, Susan C.; Williams, Hannah G.; Troeger, Victoria J.; Taylor, Caz M.

    2015-01-01

    The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, is a commercially, culturally, and ecologically significant species in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), whose offshore stages were likely impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). To test for DWH effects and to better understand the planktonic ecology of this species, we monitored Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement and condition at sites within and outside of the spill extent during and one year after the DWH. We tested for DWH effects by comparing 2010 settlement against baseline data available for two sites, and by testing for differences in settlement and condition inside and outside of the spill extent. We also developed time series models to better understand natural drivers of daily settlement variation (seasonal and lunar trends, hydrodynamics, wind) during 2010 and 2011. Overall, we found that neither megalopal settlement nor body weight were significantly reduced at oiled sites, but that high unexplained variation and low statistical power made detection of even large effects unlikely. Time series models revealed remarkably consistent and relatively strong seasonal and lunar trends within sites (explaining on average 28% and 9% of variation, respectively), while wind and hydrodynamic effects were weak (1–5% variation explained) and variable among sites. This study provides insights into DWH impacts as well as the natural drivers of Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement across the northern GOM. PMID:26270970

  16. Evaluation of Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Megalopal Settlement and Condition during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Grey, Erin K; Chiasson, Susan C; Williams, Hannah G; Troeger, Victoria J; Taylor, Caz M

    2015-01-01

    The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, is a commercially, culturally, and ecologically significant species in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), whose offshore stages were likely impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). To test for DWH effects and to better understand the planktonic ecology of this species, we monitored Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement and condition at sites within and outside of the spill extent during and one year after the DWH. We tested for DWH effects by comparing 2010 settlement against baseline data available for two sites, and by testing for differences in settlement and condition inside and outside of the spill extent. We also developed time series models to better understand natural drivers of daily settlement variation (seasonal and lunar trends, hydrodynamics, wind) during 2010 and 2011. Overall, we found that neither megalopal settlement nor body weight were significantly reduced at oiled sites, but that high unexplained variation and low statistical power made detection of even large effects unlikely. Time series models revealed remarkably consistent and relatively strong seasonal and lunar trends within sites (explaining on average 28% and 9% of variation, respectively), while wind and hydrodynamic effects were weak (1-5% variation explained) and variable among sites. This study provides insights into DWH impacts as well as the natural drivers of Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement across the northern GOM. PMID:26270970

  17. Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

  18. Design of a lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  19. The lunar community church: Contributions to lunar living and to evolution of ethical and spiritual thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Should religious institutions get interested in lunar settlement? Would their participation make positive contributions or would it discourage creative diversity and interfere with science and good technical judgement? Among the spacefaring nations of today, religion is distinctly separated from the governments that plan and pay for space exploration. However, as we move off the Earth, our art and philosophy will follow our science and technology. Spiritual thinking will follow as part of our culture. It is time to consider in what ways this can occur constructively. Transport of religious values to a lunar base may have positive effects in two ways. First, the social structure of a 'community church' as found in today's United States, supports its members psychologically. Mutual psychological and social support will be needed in a lunar community. Second, our space pioneers will experience a unique view of the universe which may, in their philosophical discussions, forge new ideas in the spiritual realm.

  20. Potential of derived lunar volatiles for life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The lunar regolith contains small quantities of solar wind implanted volatile compounds that have vital, basic uses for maintaining life support systems of lunar or space settlements. Recent proposals to utilize the helium-3 isotope (He-3) derived from the lunar regolith as a fuel for fusion reactors would result in the availability of large quantities of other lunar volatile compounds. The quantities obtained would provide the annual life support replacement requirements of 1150 to 23,000 inhabitants per ton of He-3 recovered, depending on the volatile compound. Utilization of the lunar volatile compounds for life support depends on the costs, in terms of materials and energy, associated with their extraction from the lunar regolith as compared to the delivery costs of these compounds from Earth resources. Considering today's conservative estimated transportation costs ($10,000 dollars per kilogram) and regolith mining costs ($5 dollars per ton), the life support replacement requirements could be more economically supplied by recovering the lunar volatile compounds than transporting these materials from Earth resources, even before He-3 will be utilized as a fusion fuel. In addition, availability of lunar volatile compounds could have a significant cost impact on maintaining the life support systems of the space station and a Mars base.

  1. Lunar magnetic fields: Implications for resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-09-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  2. Lunar Magnetic Fields: Implications for Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  3. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  4. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  5. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  6. Lunar Seimology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Lognonné, P.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Chenet, H.; Mosegaard, K.

    2003-04-01

    Seismology has the highest resolving power of all geophysical methods used to study the Earth's structure, and, for this reason, it carries the responsibility of determining many parameters critically important to our understanding of the dynamic behaviour of the Earth. This was probably the main scientific motivation for NASA to deploy seismometers on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. In the period from 1969 to 1972 the US Apollo missions landed seismographs on the lunar surface. These, of which four of the landed stations constituted a seismic array, were positioned in an approximate equilateral triangle with distances between stations being about 1100 km. The array recorded more than 12000 events in the period 1969-1977 which were continuously signaled to Earth. Subsequent examination of the seismograms revealed a highly complex wave train unlike anything observed on the Earth, hampering at times even the detection of the first-arriving P and S-waves, due to intense scattering in a highly porous regolith. The seismic events constitute man-made impacts, meteoroid impacts, shallow moonquakes and deep moonquakes, of which the latter are by far the most numerous. The deep moonquakes are found to occur half-way toward the center of the moon and are believed to be correlated with the tides raised on the moon by the Earth and the Sun. The shallow moonquakes occur in the depth range from 50-220 km and are thought to be akin to intraplate earthquakes. Generally, the Apollo-era studies were successful in determining the gross features of the lunar interior which resulted in the recognition of the Moon as being a differentiated body with a crust and a mantle whose lower parts were thought to be partially molten. However, details remained perfunctory with questions concerning seismic velocity variations and possible discontinuities in the mantle left unanswered. In the present study we show how we have obtained somewhat more detailed information on the lunar

  7. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  8. Lunar surface vehicle model competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During Fall and Winter quarters, Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering students designed machines and devices related to Lunar Base construction tasks. These include joint projects with Textile Engineering students. Topics studied included lunar environment simulator via drop tower technology, lunar rated fasteners, lunar habitat shelter, design of a lunar surface trenching machine, lunar support system, lunar worksite illumination (daytime), lunar regolith bagging system, sunlight diffusing tent for lunar worksite, service apparatus for lunar launch vehicles, lunar communication/power cables and teleoperated deployment machine, lunar regolith bag collection and emplacement device, soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site, lunar rated fastening systems for robotic implementation, lunar surface cable/conduit and automated deployment system, lunar regolith bagging system, and lunar rated fasteners and fastening systems. A special topics team of five Spring quarter students designed and constructed a remotely controlled crane implement for the SKITTER model.

  9. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  10. Rover Traverse Planning to Support a Lunar Polar Volatiles Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J.L.; Colaprete, A.C.; Elphic, R. C.; Bussey, B.; McGovern, A.; Beyer, R.; Lees, D.; Deans, M. C.; Otten, N.; Jones, H.; Wettergreen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of lunar polar volatile depositsare of interest for scientific purposes to understandthe nature and evolution of the volatiles, and alsofor exploration reasons as a possible in situ resource toenable long term exploration and settlement of theMoon. Both theoretical and observational studies havesuggested that significant quantities of volatiles exist inthe polar regions, although the lateral and horizontaldistribution remains unknown at the km scale and finerresolution. A lunar polar rover mission is required tofurther characterize the distribution, quantity, andcharacter of lunar polar volatile deposits at thesehigher spatial resolutions. Here we present two casestudies for NASA’s Resource Prospector (RP) missionconcept for a lunar polar rover and utilize this missionarchitecture and associated constraints to evaluatewhether a suitable landing site exists to support an RPflight mission.

  11. A lunar construction shack vehicle: Final design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A lunar construction shack vehicle is a critical component in most of the plans proposed for the construction of a permanent base on the moon. The Selene Engineering Company (SEC) has developed a concept for this vehicle which is both innovative and practical. The design makes use of the most advanced technology available to meet the goals for a safe, versatile and durable habitat that will serve as a starting point for the initial phase of the construction of a permanent lunar base. This document outlines SEC's proposed design for a lander vehicle which will be fully self-sufficient and will provide for all necessary life support, including consumables and radiation protection, needed by the construction crew until they can complete the assembly of a more permanent habitat. Since it is highly likely that it will take more than one crew to complete the construction of a permanent lunar base, the design emphasis is on systems which can be easily maintained and resupplied and which will take a minimum of start up preparation by succeeding crews.

  12. A lunar construction shack vehicle: Final design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A lunar construction shack vehicle is a critical component in most of the plans proposed for the construction of a permanent base on the moon. The Selene Engineering Company (SEC) has developed a concept for this vehicle which is both innovative and practical. The design makes use of the most advanced technology available to meet the goals for a safe, versatile and durable habitat that will serve as a starting point for the initial phase of the construction of a permanent lunar base. This document outlines SEC's proposed design for a lander vehicle which will be fully self-sufficient and will provide for all necessary life support, including consumables and radiation protection, needed by the construction crew until they can complete the assembly of a more permanent habitat. Since it is highly likely that it will take more than one crew to complete the construction of a permanent lunar base, the design emphasis is on systems which can be easily maintained and resupplied and which will take a minimum of start up preparation by succeeding crews.

  13. Design of a lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The establishment of lunar bases is the next logical step in the exploration of space. Permanent lunar bases will support scientific investigation, the industrialization of space, and the development of self-sufficiency on the Moon. Scientific investigation and research and development would lead to applications utilizing lunar material resources. By utilizing these resources, the industrialization of space can become a reality. The above two factors coupled with the development of key and enabling technologies would lead to achievement of self-sufficiency of the lunar base. Attention was focused on specific design(s) to be pursued during subsequent stages in advanced courses. Some of the objectives in the project included: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from earth, or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetically levitated, or superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e. high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, zero wind forces, and lower gravity, etc.

  14. Extraction of Water from Lunar Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 5 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. Dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured. Microwave absorption and attenuation in lunar soil simulant has been correlated with measured dielectric properties. Future work will be discussed.

  15. LCROSS: Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmie, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the success of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) project. The LCROSS mission science goals was to: (1) Confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region on the Moon (2) Identify the form/state of hydrogen observed by at the lunar poles (3) Quantify, if present, the amount of water in the lunar regolith, with respect to hydrogen concentrations (4) Characterize the lunar regolith within a permanently shadowed crater on the Moon. The mission confirmed the presence of water ice on the moon by impacting a part of the spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater.. The presentation includes pictures of the development of the spacecraft, testing, launch, impact site, impact and a section of what the author called "Lunacy" which showed joking cartoons.

  16. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Definition Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelka, R.; Hellinger, P.; Auster, H.; Bale, S.; Delory, G. T.; Devoto, P.; Farrell, W. M.; Glassmeier, K.; Guicking, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Hercik, D.; Horanyi, M.; Kataria, D.; Kozacek, Z.; Mazelle, C. X.; Owen, C. J.; Plaschke, F.; Rucker, H. O.; Sternovsky, Z.; Stverak, S.; Travnicek, P. M.; Vana, P.

    2011-12-01

    Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. Here we present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver & electric field antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Flux-gate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

  17. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Denition Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travnicek, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external in uences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. We present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientic objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver and electric eld antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Flux-gate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

  18. Lunar Lava Tubes as Potential Human Settlements and Refuge Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, K. A.; Mardon, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Lava tubes have been detected on the surface of Earth's moon via satellite images. Upon further exploration of these caves through robotic technology and other means, a refuge place for astronauts may be installed.

  19. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  20. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  1. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  2. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  3. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  4. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  5. Magnetostatic potential theory and the lunar magnetic dipole field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar magnetic dipole moment is discussed. It is proposed that if a primordial core magnetic field existed, it would give rise to a present day nonzero external dipole magnetic field. This conclusion is based on the assumption that the lunar mantle is at least slightly ferromagnetic, and thus would maintain a permanent magnetization after the disappearance of the core magnetic field. Using a simple mathematical model of the moon, calculations are performed which support this hypothesis.

  6. Lunar Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Weiss, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    We have completed a reanalysis of the old Apollo paleomagnetic data using modern techniques of analysis and presentation. The principal result from the mare basalts is that several samples, such as 10020, 10017, 10049, and 70215 appear to be carrying primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) acquired on the Moon as they cooled initially on the lunar surface, but in almost every case alternating field (AF) demagnetization was not carried out to strong enough fields to isolate this primary magnetization properly. When modern measurements are available, the agreement between old Apollo era data and new data is strikingly good. It also appears that the fields recorded by the basalts of Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 are stronger than those recorded by Apollo 12 and Apollo 15 basalts. Indeed it is not clear that any reliable records have come from these younger samples. The histories of breccias are more complicated than those of mare basalts and their NRM is harder to interpret. For regolith breccias, interpretations are complicated because of their strong superparamagnetic components and their complex, polymict lithologies. It would be unwise to use these samples for paleointensity estimates unless one can be sure that the NRM was entirely acquired as TRM during cooling after the shock event, as may be the case for 15498. In contrast, the melt rock and melt breccias, which include samples formed at high temperatures far above the Curie point of any magnetic carriers, have an excellent chance of recording lunar fields faithfully as they cool. This cooling may have taken place in a melt pool in a simple crater, or in a melt layer in a complex crater. Such samples would then have been excavated and deposited in the regolith and some appear to have recorded strong fields, but more work needs to be done to test this suggestion. Other melt rocks and melt breccias have had more complicated histories and appear to have been deposited in ejecta blankets, where final cooling took

  7. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Implants and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... evaluation of the Essure System Essure is a permanent birth control method for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  8. Lunar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Shahin

    The climatic conditions of Earth and human trends for discover the space, make these questions that how we can design a camp on the moon as a base for traveling in space or how we can live on that condition and what kind of camp we can have on the moon?!The first step in this way was creating the International Space Station on earth's orbit. (International Space Station, 2001) Settlement on moon was proposed since knowledge about it growth. Regarding to new technologies, architects parallel to engineers are trying to design and invent new ways for human settlement on moon because of its suitable conditions. Proposed habitats range from the actual spacecraft lander or their used fuel tanks, to inflatable modules of various shapes. Due to the researches until now, the first requirement for the living on other planets is water existence for human breath and fuel and after that we need to solve air pressure and gravity difference. (Colonization of the Moon, 2004) The Goal of this research is to answer to the question which is designing a camp on the Moon. But for this goal, there is need to think and study more about the subject and its factors. With qualitative and comparative methodology, the conditions of the Earth and the Moon will be comparing in different categories such as nature, human and design. I think that after water discovery, with using local materials and appropriate building design which can be on surface or underground, along with new sciences, we can plan for long period living on Moon. The important point is to consider Function, Form and Structure together in designing on the Moon. References: Colonization of the Moon. (2004). Retrieved December 14, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonizationo ft heM oonStructure, InternationalSpaceStation.(2001).Retrie http : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InternationalS paceS tation

  9. Lunar resources: Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) lunar resources and surface conditions; (2) guidelines for early lunar technologies; (3) the lunar farm; (4) the lunar filling station; (5) lunar construction materials; (6) the lunar power company; (7) the electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the Moon and in near-Earth space.

  10. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  11. A bootstrap lunar base: Preliminary design review 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A bootstrap lunar base is the gateway to manned solar system exploration and requires new ideas and new designs on the cutting edge of technology. A preliminary design for a Bootstrap Lunar Base, the second provided by this contractor, is presented. An overview of the work completed is discussed as well as the technical, management, and cost strategies to complete the program requirements. The lunar base design stresses the transforming capabilities of its lander vehicles to aid in base construction. The design also emphasizes modularity and expandability in the base configuration to support the long-term goals of scientific research and profitable lunar resource exploitation. To successfully construct, develop, and inhabit a permanent lunar base, however, several technological advancements must first be realized. Some of these technological advancements are also discussed.

  12. Pyroclastic deposits as sites for lunar bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. Ray; Clark, Beth; Coombs, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits may prove to be excellent sites for the establishment of a permanent lunar base for mining purposes. A wide variety of potentially useful by-products could be produced (e.g., Fe, Ti, H, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb). A number of ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent has been studied. The physical properties of the regional pyroclastic units have important implications for lunar construction. These extensive, deep deposits of ilmenite-rich pyroclastic material are block-free and uncontaminated; they could be easily excavated and would be ideal for lunar mining operations. These deep, loose pyroclastic deposits would also be ideal for rapidly covering base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding.

  13. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  14. Vertical regolith shield wall construction for lunar base applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplicky, Jan; Nixon, David; Wernick, Jane

    1992-01-01

    Lunar bases located on the lunar surface will require permanent protection from radiation and launch ejecta. This paper outlines a method of providing physical protection using lunar regolith that is constructed in situ as a modular vertical wall using specially devised methods of containment and construction. Deployable compartments, reinforced with corner struts, are elevated and filled by a moving gantry. The compartments interlock to form a stable wall. Different wall heights, thicknesses, and plan configurations are achieved by varying the geometry of the individual compartments, which are made from woven carbon fibers. Conventional terrestrial structural engineering techniques can be modified and used to establish the structural integrity and performance of the wall assembly.

  15. Genesis lunar outpost: An evolutionary lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Gary T. (Compiler); Baschiera, Dino; Fieber, Joe; Moths, Janis

    1990-01-01

    Students at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Department of Agriculture undertook a series of studies of lunar habitats during the 1989 to 1990 academic year. Undergraduate students from architecture and mechanical and structural engineering with backgrounds in interior design, biology and construction technology were involved in a seminar in the fall semester followed by a design studio in the spring. The studies resulted in three design alternatives for lunar habitation and an integrated design for an early stage lunar outpost.

  16. Material Damage from Impacts of Lunar Soil Particles Ejected by the Rocket Exhaust of Landing Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittbrodt, Audelia C.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper details the experimentation of lunar stimulant sandblasting. This was done to understand the damage that landing spacecraft on the moon will have to a permanent lunar outpost. The sandblasting was done with JSC-1A onto glass coupons. Correlations between the velocity and the damage done to the glass were not found. Reasons for this and future analyses are discussed.

  17. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  18. Microcracks in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1979-01-01

    Lunar samples contain abundant open microcracks that have closure characteristics completely unlike any shocked terrestrial rock; however, the microcracks present in the lunar rocks before the rocks reached the surface of the moon were likely similar to the microcracks in the shocked terrestrial rocks. Because the microcracks present in the lunar rocks in situ inside the moon were different, radically different, from the microcracks present today in returned lunar samples, any property that is sensitive to microcracks measured on the returned lunar samples is inappropriate for predicting that property as a function of depth in the moon. Therefore, many data that have been measured already on lunar samples simply do not apply to rocks in situ inside the moon. A plausible mechanism with which to account for the difference in microcrack characteristics of lunar samples on the surface of the moon and the microcrack characteristics of lunar rock in situ inside the moon is thermal cycling during residence on the moon's surface.

  19. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  20. Electrified Lunar Polar Craters?

    NASA Video Gallery

    New research from NASA's Lunar Science Institute indicates that the solar wind may be charging certain regions at the lunar poles to hundreds of volts. In this short video Dr. Bill Farrell discusse...

  1. LOLA: Defining Lunar Terrain

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on board NASA's LRO spacecraft builds the highest detail topography currently available of the lunar terrain. In this video David Smith, LOLA's P...

  2. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  3. First Lunar Outpost support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartz, Christopher; Cook, John; Rusingizandekwe, Jean-Luc

    1993-01-01

    The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) is the first manned step in the accomplishment of the Space Exploration Initiative, the Vice President's directive to NASA on the 20th anniversary of the Apollo moon landing. FLO's broad objectives are the establishment of a permanent human presence on the moon, supporting the utilization of extraterrestrial resources in a long-term, sustained program. The primary objective is to emplace and validate the first elements of a man tended outpost on the lunar surface to provide the basis for: (1) establishing, maintaining and expanding human activities and influence across the surface; (2) establishing, maintaining and enhancing human safety and productivity; (3) accommodating space transportation operations to and from the surface; (4) accommodating production of scientific information; (5) exploiting in-situ resources. Secondary objectives are: (1) to conduct local, small scale science (including life science); (2) In-situ resource utilization (ISRU) demonstrations; (3) engineering and operations tests; (4) to characterize the local environment; and (5) to explore locally. The current work is part of ongoing research at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture supporting NASA's First Lunar Outpost initiative. Research at SICSA supporting the First Lunar Outpost initiative has been funded through the Space Exploration Initiatives office at Johnson Space Center. The objectives of the current study are to further develop a module concept from an evaluation of volumetric and programmatic requirements, and pursue a high fidelity design of this concept, with the intention of providing a high fidelity design mockup to research planetary design issues and evaluate future design concepts.

  4. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  5. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  6. Russian Lunar Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  7. Moonport: Transportation node in lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    An orbital transporation system between the Earth and Moon was designed. The design work focused on the requirements and configuration of an orbiting lunar base. The design utilized current Space Station technologies, but also focused on the specific requirements involved with a permanently manned, orbiting lunar station. A model of the recommended configuration was constructed. In order to analyze Moonport activity and requirements, a traffic model was designed, defining traffic between the lunar port, or Moonport and low Earth orbit. Also, a lunar base model was used to estimate requirements of the surface base on Moonport traffic and operations. A study was conducted to compare Moonport traffic and operations based in low lunar orbit and the L (sub 2) equilibrium point, behind the Moon. The study compared delta-V requirements to each location and possible payload deliveries to low Earth orbit from each location. Products of the Moonport location study included number of flights annually to Moonport, net payload delivery to low Earth orbit, and Moonport storage requirement.

  8. Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

  9. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  10. Evolution of lunar polar ice stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegler, Matt; Paige, David; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Bills, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The polar regions of the Moon and Mercury both have permanently shadowed environments, potentially capable of harboring ice (cold traps). While cold traps are likely to have been stable for nearly 4 Gyr on Mercury, this has not been the case for the Moon. Roughly 3 ± 1 Gya, when the Moon is believed to have resided at approximately half of its current semimajor axis, lunar obliquities have been calculated to have reached as high as 77°. At this time, lunar polar temperatures were much warmer and cold traps did not exist. Since that era, lunar obliquity has secularly decreased, creating environments over approximately the last 1-2 Gyr where ice could be stable (assuming near current recession rates). We argue that the paucity of ice in the present lunar cold traps is evidence that no cometary impact has occurred in the past billion years that is similar to the one(s) which are thought to have delivered volatiles to Mercury's poles. However, the present ice distribution may be compatible with a cometary impact if it occurred not in today's lunar thermal environment, but in a past one. If ice were delivered during a past epoch, the distribution of ground ice would be dictated not by present day temperatures, but rather by these ancient, warmer, temperatures. In this paper, we attempt to recreate the thermal environments for past lunar orbital configurations to characterize the history of lunar environments capable of harboring ice. We will develop models of ice stability and mobility to examine likely fossil remains of past ice delivery (e.g. a comet impact) that could be observed on the present Moon. We attempt to quantify when in the Moon's outward evolution areas first became stable for ice deposition and when ice mobility would have ceased.

  11. Lunar Dust-Tolerant Electrical Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jason; Sadick, Shazad; Roberts, Dustyn

    2010-01-01

    An electrical connector was developed that is tolerant of the presence of lunar dust. Novel features of the connector include the use of a permeable membrane to act both as a dust barrier and as a wiper to limit the amount of dust that makes its way into the internal chamber of the connector. The development focused on the Constellation lunar extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit s portable life support system (PLSS) battery recharge connector; however, continued research is applying this technology to other lunar surface systems such as lunar rover subsystems and cryogenic fluid transfer connections for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) applications. Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. In addition to posing contamination and health risks for human explorers, the interlocking, angular nature of lunar dust and its broad grain size distribution make it particularly harmful to mechanisms with which it may come into contact. All Apollo lunar missions experienced some degree of equipment failure because of dust, and it appears that dust accumulation on exposed material is unavoidable and difficult to reverse. Both human EVA and ISRU activities are on the mission horizon and are paramount to the establishment of a permanent human base on the Moon. Reusable and dust-tolerant connection mechanisms are a critical component for mission success. The need for dust-tolerant solutions is also seen in utility work and repair, mass transit applications, construction, mining, arctic and marine environments, diving (search and rescue), and various operations in deserts, where dust or sand clogging and coating different mechanisms and connections may render them difficult to operate or entirely inoperable.

  12. Design of a lunar surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghi, Sohrob

    The next step for manned exploration and settlement is a return to the Moon. In such a return, the most challenging task is the construction of structures for habitation, considering the Moon's hostile environment. Therefore the question is: What is the best way to erect habitable structures on the lunar surface? Given the cost associated with bringing material to the Moon, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is viewed by most as the basis for a successful manned exploration and settlement of the Solar system. Along these lines, we propose an advanced concept where the use of freeform fabrication technologies by autonomous mini-robots can form the basis for habitable lunar structures. Also, locally-available magnesium is proposed as the structural material. While it is one of the most pervasive metals in the regolith, magnesium has been only suggested only briefly as a viable option in the past. Therefore, a study has been conducted on magnesium and its alloys, taking into account the availability of the alloying elements on the Moon. An igloo-shaped magnesium structure, covered by sandbags of regolith shielding and supported on a sintered regolith foundation, is considered as a potential design of a lunar base, as well as the test bed for the proposed vision. Three studies are carried out: First a static analysis is conducted which proves the feasibility of the proposed material and method. Second, a thermal analysis is carried out to study the effect of the regolith shielding as well as the sensitivity of such designs to measurement uncertainties of regolith and sintered thermal properties. The lunar thermal environment is modeled for a potential site at 88º latitude in the lunar South Pole Region. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties are in an acceptable range where a three-meter thick shield is considered. Also, the required capacity of a thermal rejection system is estimated, choosing the thermal loads to be those of the Space Station modules. In the

  13. In-Situ Propellant Supplied Lunar Lander Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Benjamin; Maulsby, Curtis

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA and commercial Lunar missions will require innovative spacecraft configurations incorporating reliable, sustainable propulsion, propellant storage, power and crew life support technologies that can evolve into long duration, partially autonomous systems that can be used to emplace and sustain the massive supplies required for a permanently occupied lunar base. Ambitious surface science missions will require efficient Lunar transfer systems to provide the consumables, science equipment, energy generation systems, habitation systems and crew provisions necessary for lengthy tours on the surface. Lunar lander descent and ascent stages become significantly more efficient when they can be refueled on the Lunar surface and operated numerous times. Landers enabled by Lunar In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) facilities will greatly ease constraints on spacecraft mass and payload delivery capability, and may operate much more affordably (in the long term) then landers that are dependant on Earth supplied propellants. In this paper, a Lander concept that leverages ISPP is described and its performance is quantified. Landers, operating as sortie vehicles from Low Lunar Orbit, with efficiencies facilitated by ISPP will enable economical utilization and enhancements that will provide increasingly valuable science yields from Lunar Bases.

  14. Design of a lunar transportation system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. A brief summary of four of the final projects, is presented. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. A lunar flying vehicle that uses clean propellants for propulsion is examined. A design that will not contribute to the considerable amount of caustic pollution already present in the sparse lunar atmosphere is addressed by way of ballistic flight techniques. A second generation redesign of the current Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suit to increase operating time, safety, and efficiency is also addressed. A separate life support system is also designed to be permanently attached to the lunar rover. The two systems would interact through the use of an umbilical cord connection. A ground based vehicle which will travel for greater distances than a 37.5 kilometer radius from a base on the lunar surface was designed. The vehicle is pressurized due to the fact that existing lunar rovers are limited by the EVA suits currently in use. A robotic arm for use at lunar bases or on roving vehicles on the lunar surface was designed. The arm was originally designed as a specimen gathering device, but it can be used for a wide range of tasks through the use of various attachments.

  15. RESOLVE Projects: Lunar Water Resource Demonstration and Regolith Volatile Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To sustain affordable human and robotic space exploration, the ability to live off the land at the exploration site will be essential. NASA calls this ability in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and is focusing on finding ways to sustain missions first on the Moon and then on Mars. The ISRU project aims to develop capabilities to technology readiness level 6 for the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program and early human missions returning to the Moon. NASA is concentrating on three primary areas of ISRU: (1) excavating, handling, and moving lunar regolith, (2) extracting oxygen from lunar regolith, and (3) finding, characterizing, extracting, separating, and storing volatile lunar resources, especially in the permanently shadowed polar craters. To meet the challenges related to technology development for these three primary focus areas, the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project was initiated in February 2005, through funding by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. RESOLVE's objectives are to develop requirements and conceptual designs and to perform breadboard concept verification testing of each experiment module. The final goal is to deliver a flight prototype unit that has been tested in a relevant lunar polar environment. Here we report progress toward the third primary area creating ways to find, characterize, extract, separate, and store volatile lunar resources. The tasks include studying thermal, chemical, and electrical ways to collect such volatile resources as hydrogen, water, nitrogen, methane, and ammonia. We approached this effort through two subtasks: lunar water resource demonstration (LWRD) and regolith volatile characterization (RVC).

  16. A quasi-economic role for lunar science

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    In broad economic terms, the development of lunar products will begin with a sequence of technology, production, and delivery demonstrations which will have to precede the emergence of markets. Economically viable products will tend to be those for which the sum of production and transport costs are lower for lunar suppliers than for terrestrial suppliers. As long as lunar production costs exceed terrestrial production costs -- as will be the case for most lunar products until such time as lunar development has reached a mature stage -- the most viable industries will be those producing low-tech products for lunar markets. The scale of initial lunar markets will depend on the size of a lunar base and/or its rate of growth. For a given level of public support, maximum base size can be achieved through the conduct, at the base, of a vigorous program of scientific and engineering research making use of as much local production and as many permanently-resident support staff as feasible. 5 refs.

  17. Lunar sample 14425 - Not a lunar tektite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of a polished section of lunar sample 14425 shows, in contradiction to a previous report, that it has a composition similar to Apollo 14 breccias, but not to high-magnesium microtektites. Lunar sample 14425 is a large (8.006±0.006 mm dia.) glass bead. Sample 14425 is one of the largest glass beads returned from the moon. Semiquantitative analysis of the bead indicated that it has a composition unlike other lunar samples, but similar to high-magnesium microtektites (O'Keefe and Glass, 1985). A polished section was prepared at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Quantitative analysis of this section shows that the spherule is extremely homogenous in composition and that the composition is similar to Apollo 14 impact breccias and not to any known terrestrial tektite. It appears that the glass bead was formed by impact melting and that it is not a lunar tektite.

  18. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the...

  19. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement negotiations. 81.14 Section 81.14 Education... Provisions § 81.14 Settlement negotiations. (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the...

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith" included the following:Compositional and Structural Study of the Aristarchus Plateau from Integrated UV-VIS-NIR Spectral Data; Clementine 2.7-?m Data: Mapping the Mare and Searching for Water; On the Search for Water at the Lunar Poles: Results of Forward Modeling of Permanently Shaded Areas and Lunar Prospector Measurements; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints I: Finding the Regions of Interest; Semi-automated Extraction of Contours from Lunar Topographic Maps; Basalts in Mare Humorum and S.E. Procellarum; The Hansteen and Helmet Volcanic Dome Regions on the Moon: Stratigraphy and Ages; Derivation of Elemental Abundance Maps at 15-km Spatial Resolution from the Merging of Clementine Optical and Lunar Prospector Geochemical Data; Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of the Balmer Region of the Moon; Lava Flows in Mare Nubium and Mare Cognitum: A Geological History Based on Analysis of Multispectral Data; Development of Ground-based Lunar VIS/NEAR IR Spectral Imager; A BRDF Measurement Apparatus for Lab-based Samples; A New Source of High Resolution Lunar Images: Amateur Astronomers! ; Leakage of Gamma Rays and Neutrons from Thick Targets Bombarded by Energetic Protons; Progress on Reviving Lunar Orbiter: Scanning, Archiving, and Cartographic Processing at USGS; Modeling Lateral and Vertical Mixing by Impact Cratering with Applications for the Moon; Optical Maturity Study of Stuart#s Crater Candidate Impact; Evidence for Three Basins Beneath Oceanus Procellarum; and Ellipses of the South Pole-Aitken Basin: Implications for Basin Formation.

  1. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... settlement judge. 180.445 Section 180.445 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... negotiations. (c) Termination of settlement negotiations. Settlement negotiations shall terminate upon...

  2. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... settlement judge. 180.445 Section 180.445 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... negotiations. (c) Termination of settlement negotiations. Settlement negotiations shall terminate upon...

  3. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  4. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  5. The ISA accelerometer and Lunar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Massimo Lucchesi, David; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Milyukov, Vadim; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Santoli, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments: in fact a wide variety of them has been proposed to be conducted on the lunar surface. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one-dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in-orbit and on-ground, with the same configuration. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been the subject of preliminary studies and has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. ISA-S (ISA-Seismometer) has a very high sensitivity, which has already been demonstrated with long time periods of usage on Earth. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of landing missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the systems.

  6. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  7. Lunar in-core thermionic nuclear reactor power system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Gallup, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a lunar in-core thermionic reactor power system. The concept consists of a thermionic reactor located in a lunar excavation with surface mounted waste heat radiators. The system was integrated with a proposed lunar base concept representative of recent NASA Space Exploration Initiative studies. The reference mission is a permanently-inhabited lunar base requiring a 550 kWe, 7 year life central power station. Performance parameters and assumptions were based on the Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) Verification Program. Five design cases were analyzed ranging from conservative to advanced. The cases were selected to provide sensitivity effects on the achievement of TFE program goals.

  8. Applicability of the beamed power concept to lunar rovers, construction, mining, explorers and other mobile equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jose L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the technical issues dealing with the feasibility of high power (10 Kw to 100 Kw) mobile manned equipment for settlement, exploration and exploitation of Lunar resources are addressed. Short range mining/construction equipment, a moderate range (50 Km) exploration vehicle, and an unlimited range explorer are discussed.

  9. Lunar base surface mission operations. Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to perform an analysis of the surface operations associated with a human-tended lunar base. Specifically, the study defined surface elements and developed mission manifests for a selected base scenario, determined the nature of surface operations associated with this scenario, generated a preliminary crew extravehicular and intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) time resource schedule for conducting the missions, and proposed concepts for utilizing remotely operated equipment to perform repetitious or hazardous surface tasks. The operations analysis was performed on a 6 year period of human-tended lunar base operation prior to permanent occupancy. The baseline scenario was derived from a modified version of the civil needs database (CNDB) scenario. This scenario emphasizes achievement of a limited set of science and exploration objectives while emplacing the minimum habitability elements required for a permanent base.

  10. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  11. Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment: Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Table-top views of one of the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiments. This view is of the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Lunar Mass Spectrometer), Experiment S-205, one of the experiments of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. The LACE will measrue components in the ambient lunar atmosphere in the range of one to 110 atomic mass units (AMU).

  12. Lunar Crater Mini-Wakes: Structure, Variability, and Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Michael I.; Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Within a permanently shadowed lunar crater the horizontal flow of solar wind is obstructed by upstream topography, forming a regional plasma mini-wake. In the present work kinetic simulations are utilized to investigate how the most prominent structural aspects of a crater mini-wake are modulated during passage of a solar storm. In addition, the simulated particle fluxes are coupled into an equivalent-circuit model of a roving astronaut,. including triboelectric charging due to frictional contact with the lunar regolith, to characterize charging of the astronaut suit during the various stages of the storm. In some cases, triboelectric charging of the astronaut suit becomes effectively perpetual, representing a critical engineering concern for roving within shadowed lunar regions. Finally, the present results suggest that wake structure plays a critical role in modulating the spatial distribution of volatiles at the lunar poles.

  13. A short course in lunar geology for earth science instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Shultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A four-day short course in lunar geology was developed, leading to the publication of a primer in lunar geology. The course was offered to 22 sponsored participants (community college teachers) and to representatives from the Lunar Science Institute, Houston, Texas, and from the Educational Program Office of NASA-Ames, on April 25-28, 1974. A follow-up survey of the course participants was made in two steps: on the last day of the course, and one year later. In general, the participants felt that the course was well organized and that the speakers were effective. Most of the participants introduced some aspects of what they learned into their own teaching material. Finally, a well-panel display about 7 1/2 feet high and 16 feet long designed to acquaint the viewer with elementary facts of lunar geology was constructed and permanently installed at the Space Science Center of Foothill College.

  14. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  15. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Schultz, P. H. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  16. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning, and

  17. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  18. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  19. Lunar Exploration Manned and Unmanned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Duxbury, N.; Friesen, L. J.; Gillis, J. J.; Hawke, B. R.; Heiken, G.; Lawrence, D.; Manifold, J.; Slade, M. A.; Smith, A.; Taylor, G. J.; Yingst, R. A.

    2002-08-01

    The past decade has seen two global reconnaissance missions to the Moon, Clementine and Lunar Prospector, which have mapped the surface in multiple wavelengths, determined the Moon's topography and gravity fields, and discovered the presence of water ice in the permanently dark regions near the poles. Although we have learned much about the Moon, many key aspects of its history and evolution remain obscure. The three highest priority questions in lunar science are: 1) the Moon's global composition, particularly the abundance of aluminum and magnesium; 2) the extent, composition, and physical state of polar deposits, including the extent, purity, and thickness of ice, the elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of polar volatiles, the environment of the polar regions; and 3) the cratering chronology of the Moon and the implications of a possibly unique history, such as a cataclysm, for our understanding of other Solar System objects. Answering and addressing these questions require a series of new missions, including an orbiter (carrying XRF, imaging radar, and other instruments), the deployment of surface network stations equipped with seismometers and heat flow probes, selected robotic sample return missions from geologically simple areas (e.g., youngest lava flow or crater melt sheet), and complex geological field work, conducted by human explorers. Because the Moon is a touchstone for the history and evolution of other rocky bodies in the solar system, we believe that these questions are of very high scientific priority and that lunar missions should receive much more serious attention and detailed study than they have in the past by the NASA Office of Space Science.

  20. Rare earth permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Major-Sosias, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    Permanent magnets were discovered centuries ago from what was known as {open_quotes}lodestone{close_quotes}, a rock containing large quantities of the iron-bearing mineral magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The compass was the first technological use for permanent magnetic materials; it was used extensively for navigational purposes by the fifteenth century. During the twentieth century, as new applications for permanent magnets were developed, interest and research in permanent magnetic materials soared. Four major types of permanent magnets have been developed since the turn of the century.

  1. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, T. H.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1991-02-01

    Apollo UV spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of less than 500/cu cm, and the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply a value less than 50/cu cm above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occurred during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stabilized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, a possible emission brightness of 50 R in the OH(A - X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb is predicted.

  2. Development of an anorthositic lunar regolith simulant: OB-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battler, Melissa Marie

    With the expected return of astronauts to the Moon before 2020 and construction of a permanent lunar base, there is a renewed need to understand the lunar surface environment. It is necessary to determine optimal methods for operations in the lunar regolith at selected landing sites. Regolith is the unconsolidated, abrasive material blanketing the lunar surface (up to ˜15 m thick), and will be the point of contact for humans and infrastructure. It is unlike any material naturally occurring on Earth. This thesis describes the development of the anorthositic physical/mechanical lunar regolith simulant "OB-I", designed for testing robotic lunar drilling and excavation equipment. The simulant comprises terrestrial anorthosite and slag, which have been comminuted and sized with jaw, roll, and ring crushers. OB-1 has been characterized using optical and electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and various particle sizing methods. The resultant grain shapes, size distributions, and mineralogies are comparable to Apollo 16 regolith samples, making the OB-1 simulant appropriate for validating robotic lunar equipment on Earth.

  3. Lunar Dust, Plasma, Waves and Fields Exploration Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travnicek, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight shadow transitions. A detail under-standing of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. Here we present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Fluxgate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

  4. First Lunar Flashes Observed from Morocco (ILIAD Network): Implications for Lunar Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Moulay Larbi, Mamoun; Daassou, Ahmed; Baratoux, David; Bouley, Sylvain; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Garcia, Raphael; Colas, Francois

    2015-07-01

    We report the detection of two transient luminous events recorded on the lunar surface on February 6, 2013, at 06:29:56.7 UT and April 14, 2013, 20:00:45.4 from the Atlas Golf Marrakech observatory in Morocco. Estimated visual magnitudes are 9.4 ± 0.2 and 7.7 ± 0.2. We show that these events have the typical characteristics of impact flashes generated by meteoroids impacting the lunar surface, despite proof using two different telescopes is not available. Assuming these events were lunar impact flashes, meteoroid masses are 0.3 ± 0.05 and 1.8 ± 0.3 kg, corresponding to diameters of 7-8 and 14-15 cm for a density of 1500 kg m-3. The meteoroids would have produced craters of about 2.6 ± 0.3 and 4.4 ± 0.3 m in diameter. We then present a method based on the identification of lunar features illuminated by the Earthshine to determine the position of the flash. The method does not require any information about the observation geometry or lunar configuration. The coordinates are respectively 08.15° ± 0.15°S 59.1° ± 0.15°E and 26.81° ± 0.15°N 09.10° ± 0.15°W. Further improvement on the determination of the flash position is necessary for seismological applications. This studies demonstrates that permanent lunar impact flashes observation programs may be run in different parts of the globe using mid-sized telescopes. We call for the development of an international lunar impact astronomical detection networks that would represent an opportunity for scientific and cultural developments in countries where astronomy is under-represented.

  5. Lunar Prospecting Using Thermal Wadis and Compact Rovers. Part A; Infrastructure for Surviving the Lunar Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Suzuki, Nantel H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent missions have confirmed the existence of water and other volatiles on the Moon, both in permanently-shadowed craters and elsewhere. Non-volatile lunar resources may represent significant additional value as infrastructure or manufacturing feedstock. Characterization of lunar resources in terms of abundance concentrations, distribution, and recoverability is limited to in-situ Apollo samples and the expanding remote-sensing database. This paper introduces an approach to lunar resource prospecting supported by a simple lunar surface infrastructure based on the Thermal Wadi concept of thermal energy storage and using compact rovers equipped with appropriate prospecting sensors and demonstration resource extraction capabilities. Thermal Wadis are engineered sources of heat and power based on the storage and retrieval of solar-thermal energy in modified lunar regolith. Because Thermal Wadis keep compact prospecting rovers warm during periods of lunar darkness, the rovers are able to survive months to years on the lunar surface rather than just weeks without being required to carry the burdensome capability to do so. The resulting lower-cost, long-lived rovers represent a potential paradigm breakthrough in extra-terrestrial prospecting productivity and will enable the production of detailed resource maps. Integrating resource processing and other technology demonstrations that are based on the content of the resource maps will inform engineering economic studies that can define the true resource potential of the Moon. Once this resource potential is understood quantitatively, humans might return to the Moon with an economically sound objective including where to go, what to do upon arrival, and what to bring along.

  6. Lunar Dust 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Largely due to rock and soil samples returned during the Apollo program, much has been learned about the composition and properties of lunar regolith. Although, for the most part, the mineral composition resembles terrestrial minerals, the characteristics of the lunar environment have led to very different weathering processes. These result in substantial differences in the particle shapes, particle size distributions, and surface chemistry. These differences lead to non-intuitive adhesion, abrasion, and possible health properties that will pose challenges to future lunar missions. An overview of lunar dust composition and properties will be given with a particular emphasis on possible health effects.

  7. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  8. Mysteries of the Lunar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar atmosphere has been probed by various instruments since the Apollo program, and continues to be measured today by the instruments onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LRO. But like Sisyphus' trek, the progress has not been linear. LAMP, The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project, onboard LRO, measured He in the lunar exosphere, confirming the Apollo 17 result from the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Hoffman et al., 1973), but LAMP did not observe Ar although the expected 0.1 R should have been detectable by their instrument (Gladstone et al., Science, 2010). A surfeit of O+ was reported in the lunar wake (Mall et al. 1998; Hilchenbach et al. 1992;1993), but the origin of those ions is unknown, since oxygen has not been seen. Water and OH were measured on the surface of the moon, but theory tells us that efficiencies of production of water by solar wind proton bombardment may be low (Burke et al., Icarus, 2011). Starukhina and Shukaratov (LPSC, abstract 1385, 2010) suggest that the observed diurnal variation in the 3 micron band at the moon is due to thermal emission and not to variation in OH. LAMP observed Hg vapor following the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater, but Hg atoms at 800 K (Wooden et al., LPSC abstract 2025, 2010) are too heavy to reach the altitudes where they would be exposed to sunlight, and thereby resonantly scatter photons, unless they are entrained in a gas with bulk velocity 3.5 km/s (Hurley et al., JGR, 2012). This bulk velocity is high for a 2 km/s impact. Another mystery from LCROSS is the H2 energy budget. Given the large amount of H2 observed after the LCROSS impact, and the high velocity required (a few km/s) to get in the field of view when it did, the kinetic energy associated with the H2 is too large of a fraction of the impactor energy. One possibility is that the H2 is produced by an exothermic reaction, which has implications for how it is stored in the regolith in permanently shadowed regions. The Na density is

  9. Overview of lunar-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities along with the advantages and disadvantages of the Moon for astronomical observatories are carefully and methodically considered. Taking a relatively unbiased approach, it was concluded that lunar observatories will clearly be a major factor in the future of astronomy in the next century. He concludes that ground based work will continue because of its accessibility and that Earth orbital work will remain useful, primarily for convenience of access in constructing and operating very large space systems. Deep space studies will feature not only probes but extensive systems for extremely long baseline studies at wavelengths from gamma rays through visible and IR out to radio is also a conclusion drawn, along with the consideration that lunar astronomy will have found important permanent applications along lines such as are discussed at the present symposium and others quite unsuspected today.

  10. 48 CFR 49.303-5 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....303-5 Final settlement. (a) The TCO shall proceed with the settlement and execution of a settlement... vouchered costs. (b) The TCO shall adjust the fee as provided in 49.305. (c) The final settlement...

  11. 48 CFR 49.303-5 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....303-5 Final settlement. (a) The TCO shall proceed with the settlement and execution of a settlement... vouchered costs. (b) The TCO shall adjust the fee as provided in 49.305. (c) The final settlement...

  12. Detecting Volatiles Deep in the Lunar Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, A.; Heggy, E.; Ciarletti, V.; Colaprete, A.; Moghaddam, M.; Siegler, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing theoretical and empirical evidence, from the Apollo era and after, of volatiles deep in the lunar interior, in the crust and deeper, both hydrogen-rich and otherwise. This comes in the form of fire fountain samples from Apollo 15 and Apollo 17, of hydrated minerals excavated by impacts which reach the base of the lunar crust e.g., crater Bullialdus, of hydration of apatite and other minerals, as well as predictions of a water-concentrated layer along with the KREEP material at the base of the lunar crust. We discuss how the presence of these volatiles might be directly explored. In particular water vapor molecules percolating to the surface through lunar regolith might be expected to stick and freeze into the regolith, at depths of several meters depending on the regolith temperature profile, porosity and particle size distribution, quantities that are not well known beyond two meters depth. To explore these depths in the regolith we use and propose several modes of penetrating radar. We will present results using the SELENE/Kaguya's Lunar Sounding RADAR (LSR) to probe the bulk volatile dielectric and loss structure properties of the regolith in various locations, both within permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and without, and within neutron suppression regions (NSRs) as traced by epithermal neutrons and without. We also propose installation of ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) on a roving lunar platform that should be able to probe between 0.2 and 1.6 GHz, which will provide a probe of the entire depth of the lunar regolith as well as a high-resolution (about 4 cm FWHM) probe of the upper meter or two of the lunar soil, where other probes of volatiles such as epithermal neutron absorption or drilling might be employed. We discuss predictions for what kinds of volatile density profiles might be distinguished in this way, and whether these will be detected from orbit as NSRs, whether these must be restricted to PSRs, and how these might appear in

  13. Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout (LRM/LGS) program status. Topics covered include the LEXWG Lunar Observer science measurement priorities, space exploration initiative priorities, the question of why a lunar orbiting mission is attractive to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), instrument selection, major milestones, and the organization of the LRM/LGS Program Office.

  14. Apollo 9 Lunar Module in lunar landing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module, in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed form the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on the Lunar Module 'Spider' has been deployed. Note Lunar Module's upper hatch and docking tunnel.

  15. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  16. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... CCC and CCC shall have no obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey...

  17. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  18. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  19. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  20. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-12-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust properties will be required to provide ground truth for ground-based studies quantifying the toxicity of dust exposure and the associated health risks during future manned lunar missions.

  1. Permanent contraception for women.

    PubMed

    Micks, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2015-11-01

    Permanent methods of contraception are used by an estimated 220 million couples worldwide, and are often selected due to convenience, ease of use and lack of side effects. A variety of tubal occlusion techniques are available for female permanent contraception, and procedures can be performed using a transcervical or transabdominal approach. This article reviews currently available techniques for female permanent contraception and discusses considerations when helping patients choose a contraceptive method and tubal occlusion technique. PMID:26626698

  2. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603). 385.603 Section 385.603 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Conferences, Settlements, and Stipulations § 385.603 Settlement of negotiations before a... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations...

  3. 18 CFR 385.603 - Settlement of negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... negotiations before a settlement judge (Rule 603). 385.603 Section 385.603 Conservation of Power and Water... PROCEDURE Conferences, Settlements, and Stipulations § 385.603 Settlement of negotiations before a... administrative law judge appointed by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct settlement negotiations...

  4. 24 CFR 180.445 - Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Settlement negotiations before a... Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 180.445 Settlement negotiations before a settlement judge. (a) Appointment of... of the Office of Hearings and Appeals to appoint another ALJ to conduct settlement negotiations....

  5. 48 CFR 49.109-6 - Joint settlement of two or more settlement proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint settlement of two or... settlement of two or more settlement proposals. (a) With the consent of the contractor, the TCO or TCO's concerned may negotiate jointly two or more termination settlement proposals of the same contractor...

  6. 48 CFR 1449.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. 1449.107 Section 1449.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. Requests for...

  7. 48 CFR 1449.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. 1449.107 Section 1449.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. Requests for...

  8. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure. 18.9 Section 18.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.9 Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure. (a)...

  9. Development of a Korean Lunar Simulant(KLS-1) and its Possible Further Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, I.; Ryn, B. H.; Cho, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid development on space exploration finally found that water exists on the moon according to NASA's recent studies. This becomes a turning point in lunar science and surface development because the existence of water raises the possibility of human survival on the moon. In this case, advanced space construction technology against the distinctive lunar environment (i.e., atmosphereless, subgravity, different geology) becomes a key issue for consistent and reliable settlement of human beings. Thus, understandings on the lunar surface and its composition must be secured as an important role in lunar development. During project Apollo (1961~1972), only 320 kg of real lunar soils were collected and sent to the Earth. Due to the lack of samples, many space agencies are attempting to simulate the lunar soil using Earth materials to be used in large and massive practical studies and simulations. In the same vein, we developed a Korean lunar simulant from a specific basalt type Cenozoic Erathem in Korea. The simulated regolith sample shows a high similarity to the Apollo average samples in mineral composition, density, and particle shape aspects. Therefore, the developed regolith simulant is expected to be used in various lunar exploration purposes.

  10. Oscillating Permanent Magnets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelis, M. M.; Haines, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes several ways to partially levitate permanent magnets. Computes field line geometries and oscillation frequencies. Provides several diagrams illustrating the mechanism of the oscillation. (YP)

  11. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  12. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are the following: to investigate the feasibility of the use of local lunar resources for construction of a lunar base structure; to develop a material processing method and integrate the method with design and construction of a pressurized habitation structure; to estimate specifications of the support equipment necessary for material processing and construction; and to provide parameters for systems models of lunar base constructions, supply, and operations. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: comparison of various lunar structures; guidelines for material processing methods; cast lunar regolith; examples of cast basalt components; cast regolith process; processing equipment; mechanical properties of cast basalt; material properties and structural design; and future work.

  13. Lunar Surface Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Lane, A. L.; Miller, D.

    1992-01-01

    Many questions of lunar science remain unanswered because of a lack of specific data. With the potential for returning humans to the Moon and establishing a long-term presence there, a new realm of exploration is possible. Numerous plans have been outlined for orbital and surface missions. The capabilities and objectives of a small class of rovers to be deployed on the lunar surface are described. The objective of these small rovers is to collect detailed in situ information about the composition and distribution of materials on the lunar surface. Those data, in turn, would be applied to a variety of lunar geoscience questions and form a basis for planning human activities on the lunar surface.

  14. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  15. Thermoluminescence of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Doell, Richard R.

    1970-01-01

    Appreciable natural thermoluminescence with glow curve peaks at about 350 degrees centigrade for lunar fines and breccias and above 400 degrees centigrade for crystalline rocks has been recognized in lunar samples. Plagioclase has been identified as the principal carrier of thermoluminescence, and the difference in peak temperatures indicates compositional or structural differences between the feldspars of the different rock types. The present thermoluminescence in the lunar samples is probably the result of a dynamic equilibrium between acquisition from radiation and loss in the lunar thermal environment. A progressive change in the glow curves of core samples with depth below the surface suggests the use of thermoluminescence disequilibrium to detect surfaces buried by recent surface activity, and it also indicates that the lunar diurnal temperature variation penetrates to at least 10.5 centimeters.

  16. Estimating Background and Lunar Contribution to Neutrons Detected by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Chin, G.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Su, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The fraction of hydrogen-bearing species embedded in planetary regolith can be determined from the ratio between measured epithermal neutron leakage flux and the flux measured from similar dry regolith. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft is equipped with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument to measure embedded hydrogen in the Moon's polar regions and elsewhere. We have investigated the relative contribution of lunar and non-lunar (spacecraft-sourced) neutrons by modeling maps of the measured count rate from three of the LEND detector systems using linear combinations of maps compiled from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) and the LEND detectors, demonstrating that the two systems are compatible and enabling reference signal to be inferred to enable detecting hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing volatiles. The pole-to-equator contrast ratio in epithermal neutrons indicates that the average concentration of hydrogen in the Moon's polar regolith above 80° north or south latitude is ~110 ppmw, or 0.10±0.01 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Above 88° north or south, the concentration increases to ~140 ppmw, or 0.13±0.02 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Nearly identical suppression of neutron flux at both the north and south poles, despite differences in topography and distribution of permanently-shadowed regions, supports the contention that hydrogen is broadly distributed in the polar regions and increasingly concentrated approaching the poles. Similarity in the degree of neutron suppression in low-energy and high-energy epithermal neutrons suggests that the hydrogen fraction is relatively uniform with depth down to ~1 m; the neutron leakage flux is insensitive to greater depth.

  17. Guidance on premium payments in CERCLA settlements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The directive provides guidance on the use of premium payments in CERCLA settlements. It describes the key features of a premium payment settlement, considerations regarding timing of the settlement, and the factors to be considered in deciding if a premium should be accepted.

  18. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality and quantity of the cotton delivered to CCC by the producer or acquired by CCC subject to the producer... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality and quantity of the cotton delivered to CCC by the producer or acquired by CCC subject to the producer... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements...

  20. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Settlements. 20.502 Section 20.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Conferences and Settlements § 20.502 Settlements. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlements. 20.502 Section 20.502 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE, PROCEDURE, AND EVIDENCE FOR FORMAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF THE COAST GUARD Conferences and Settlements § 20.502 Settlements. (a)...

  2. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  3. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  4. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  5. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  6. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which the publisher has sought, or intends to seek, indemnification under this part, unless— (1) The publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the...

  7. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of...

  8. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of...

  9. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of...

  10. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of...

  11. 39 CFR 3001.29 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability § 3001.29 Settlement conferences. Any participant in a proceeding may submit offers of settlement or proposals of adjustment at any time and may request a conference between the participants to... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement conferences. 3001.29 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 511.67 - Settlement order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement order. 511.67 Section 511.67... of Average Fuel Economy Standards § 511.67 Settlement order. If, in accordance with this subpart, the Administrator allows a settlement of a case of violation of an average fuel economy standard, an order...

  13. 49 CFR 511.67 - Settlement order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Settlement order. 511.67 Section 511.67... of Average Fuel Economy Standards § 511.67 Settlement order. If, in accordance with this subpart, the Administrator allows a settlement of a case of violation of an average fuel economy standard, an order...

  14. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement offers. 8.16... offers. (a) The rules of an exchange may permit a respondent to submit a written offer of settlement to... committee may accept the offer of settlement, but may not alter its terms unless the respondent agrees....

  15. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  16. 78 FR 23786 - Settlement Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... noticing a recent order convening a settlement conference between GameFly, Inc. and the Postal Service.... Introduction II. Background III. GameFly Motion, Postal Service Reply, and GameFly Response IV. Analysis V... Court's mandate, on March 7, 2013, GameFly, Inc. (GameFly) filed a motion requesting the Commission...

  17. Integration of Lunar Polar Remote-Sensing Data Sets: Evidence for Ice at the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, Stewart; Spudis, Paul D.; Robinson, Mark S.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Lichtenberg, Chris; Bonner, Robert

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of ice deposits at the lunar south pole, we have integrated all relevant lunar polar data sets. These include illumination data, Arecibo ground-based monostatic radar data, newly processed Clementine bistatic radar data, and Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer measurements. The possibility that the lunar poles harbor ice deposits has important implications not only as a natural resource for future human lunar activity but also as a record of inner solar system volatiles (e.g., comets and asteroids) over the past billion years or more. We find that the epithermal neutron flux anomalies, measured by Lunar Prospector, are coincident with permanently shadowed regions at the lunar south pole, particularly those associated with Shackleton crater. Furthermore, these areas also correlate with the beta=0 circular polarization ratio (CPR) enhancements revealed by new processing of Clementine bistatic radar echoes, which in turn are colocated with areas of anomalous high CPR observed by Arecibo Observatory on the lower, Sun-shadowed wall of Shackleton crater. Estimates of the extent of high CPR from Arecibo Observatory and Clementine bistatic radar data independently suggest that approximately 10 square kilometers of ice may be present on the inner Earth-facing wall of Shackleton crater. None of the experiments that obtained the data presented here were ideally suited for definitively identifying ice in lunar polar regions. By assessing the relative merits of all available data, we find that it is plausible that ice does occur in cold traps at the lunar south pole and that future missions with instruments specifically designed to investigate these anomalies are worthy.

  18. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, P. V.; Hartshorn, A. S.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Sherrod, D. R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L.; Sharp, W. D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples. PMID:15210963

  19. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirch, P.V.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Chadwick, O.A.; Vitousek, P.M.; Sherrod, D.R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L.; Sharp, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples.

  20. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-20

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of

  1. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  2. Processes and energy costs for mining lunar Helium-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I. N.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations show that obtaining He-3 from the moon is technically feasible and economically viable. With the exception of beneficiation, the proposed procedures are state of the art. Mass of equipment needed from earth is of some concern, but resupply will eventually be ameliorated by the use of titanium from indigenous ilmenite. A complete energy payback from a D/He-3 fusion reactor utilizing lunar He-3 is approx. 80, providing ample incentive for commercial investment is forthcoming. Byproducts will be of great value to the resupply of a permanent lunar base and enhancement of space exploration.

  3. Extending terrestrial mobile robotics to a proposed lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently been conducting studies regarding missions to establish permanent manned facilities either on Earth's moon or on Mars sometime in the next few decades. This paper addresses issues associated with the operation of manned, teleoperated and autonomous land vehicles to be used in the lunar environment. Current capabilities in teleoperation and autonomous navigation for land vehicles in the terrestrial environment are discussed, as are the technology issues and new capabilities required to extend the current capabilities to a lunar operating environment. 16 refs.

  4. Lunar base launch and landing facilities conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Paul G.; Simonds, Charles H.; Stump, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a first look at the requirements for launch and landing facilities for early lunar bases and to prepared conceptual designs for some of these facilities. The emphasis of the study is on the facilities needed from the first manned landing until permanent occupancy, the Phase 2 lunar base. Factors including surface characteristics, navigation system, engine blast effects, and expected surface operations are used to develop landing pad designs, and definitions fo various other elements of the launch and landing facilities. Finally, the dependence of the use of these elements and the evolution of the facilities are established.

  5. A Common Lunar Lander (CLL) for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Artemis project, a plan to establish a permanent base on the Moon. Information includes a summary of past and future events, the program rationale, a summary of potential payloads, the physical characteristics of experiments, sketches of equipment, design study objectives, and details of such payloads as the Geophysical Station Network, teleoperated rovers, astronomical telescopes, a Moon-Earth radio interferometer, very low frequency radio antennas, the Lunar Polar Crater Telescope, Lunar Resource Utilization Experiments, and biological experiments.

  6. Merits of a lunar polar base location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    There are no seasons on the moon, and its surface may include regions where the sun never fully sets. Permanent shadow regions may be very cold, and with continuous sunlight nearby, appear ideal sites for thermodynamic power systems. If located near a pole, a lunar base could have solar electric power and piped-in solar illumination continuously available. Habitat and agricultural conditions in underground facilities are easily kept constant. Such polar sites would furnish excellent opportunities for astronomical observation, since fully half of the sky is visible from each pole and cryogenic instruments are easily operated there.

  7. Understanding the role of local management in vegetation recovery around pastoral settlements in northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Roba, Hassan G; Oba, Gufu

    2013-04-01

    The recent greening of the Sahel region and increase in vegetation cover around pastoral settlements previously described as "man-made deserts", have raised important questions on the permanency of land degradation associated with the over-exploitation of woody plants. Evidence presented is mostly on increased wetness, while management by local communities has received limited attention. This study evaluated changes in woody vegetation cover around the settlements of Kargi and Korr in northern Kenya, using satellite imagery (1986/2000), ecological ground surveys and interviews with local elders, in order to understand long-term changes in vegetation cover and the role of local community in vegetation dynamics. At both settlements, there were increments in vegetation cover and reduction in the extent of bare ground between 1986 and 2000. At Kargi settlement, there were more tree seedlings in the centre of settlement than further away. Mature tree class was more abundant in the centre of Korr than outside the settlement. The success of the regeneration and recovery of tree cover was attributed to the actions of vegetation management initiative including stringent measures by the local Environmental Management Committees. This study provides good evidence that local partnership is important for sustainable management of resources especially in rural areas where the effectiveness of government initiative is lacking. PMID:23511910

  8. Understanding the Role of Local Management in Vegetation Recovery Around Pastoral Settlements in Northern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roba, Hassan G.; Oba, Gufu

    2013-04-01

    The recent greening of the Sahel region and increase in vegetation cover around pastoral settlements previously described as "man-made deserts", have raised important questions on the permanency of land degradation associated with the over-exploitation of woody plants. Evidence presented is mostly on increased wetness, while management by local communities has received limited attention. This study evaluated changes in woody vegetation cover around the settlements of Kargi and Korr in northern Kenya, using satellite imagery (1986/2000), ecological ground surveys and interviews with local elders, in order to understand long-term changes in vegetation cover and the role of local community in vegetation dynamics. At both settlements, there were increments in vegetation cover and reduction in the extent of bare ground between 1986 and 2000. At Kargi settlement, there were more tree seedlings in the centre of settlement than further away. Mature tree class was more abundant in the centre of Korr than outside the settlement. The success of the regeneration and recovery of tree cover was attributed to the actions of vegetation management initiative including stringent measures by the local Environmental Management Committees. This study provides good evidence that local partnership is important for sustainable management of resources especially in rural areas where the effectiveness of government initiative is lacking.

  9. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  10. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  11. Mobile Lunar Base Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marc M.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes three innovative concepts for a mobile lunar base. These concept combine design research for habitat architecture, mobility systems, habitability, radiation protection, human factors, and living and working environments on the lunar surface. The mobile lunar base presents several key advantages over conventional static base notions. These advantages concern landing zone safety, the requirement to move modules over the lunar surface, and the ability to stage mobile reconnaissance with effective systemic redundancy. All of these concerns lead to the consideration of a mobile walking habitat module and base design. The key issues involve landing zone safety, the ability to transport habitat modules across the surface, and providing reliability and redundancy to exploration traverses in pressurized vehicles. With self-ambulating lunar base modules, it will be feasible to have each module separate itself from its retro-rocket thruster unit, and walk five to ten km away from the LZ to a pre-selected site. These mobile modules can operate in an autonomous or teleoperated mode to navigate the lunar surface. At the site of the base, the mobile modules can combine together; make pressure port connections among themselves, to create a multi-module pressurized lunar base.

  12. Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  13. Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement behaviour in a common coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Dingeldein, Andrea L; White, J Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Most reef fishes begin life as planktonic larvae before settling to the reef, metamorphosing and entering the benthic adult population. Different selective forces determine survival in the planktonic and benthic life stages, but traits established in the larval stage may carry over to affect post-settlement performance. We tested the hypothesis that larval traits affect two key post-settlement fish behaviours: social group-joining and foraging. Certain larval traits of reef fishes are permanently recorded in the rings in their otoliths. In the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), prior work has shown that key larval traits recorded in otoliths (growth rate, energetic condition at settlement) carry over to affect post-settlement survival on the reef, with higher-larval-condition fish experiencing less post-settlement mortality. We hypothesized that this selective mortality is mediated by carry-over effects on post-settlement antipredator behaviours. We predicted that better-condition fish would forage less and be more likely to join groups, both behaviours that would reduce predation risk. We collected 550 recently settled bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) from three reef sites off St. Croix (USVI) and performed two analyses. First, we compared each settler's larval traits to the size of its social group to determine whether larval traits influenced group-joining behaviour. Secondly, we observed foraging behaviour in a subset of grouped and solitary fish (n = 14) for 1-4 days post-settlement. We then collected the fish and tested whether larval traits influenced the proportion of time spent foraging. Body length at settlement, but not condition, affected group-joining behaviour; smaller fish were more likely to remain solitary or in smaller groups. However, both greater length and better condition were associated with greater proportions of time spent foraging over four consecutive days post-settlement. Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement

  14. The lunar environment as a fractional-gravity biological laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garshnek, V.

    A quarter of a century ago men stepped upon the lunar surface and established the possibility of human expansion beyond Earth. When humans return to the moon to occupy it with greater permanency, an applied lunar biological laboratory would provide a means of conducting experiments on the long-term effects of fractional gravity in animals and plants and provide necessary data to enhance the health, safety and well-being of lunar workers and inhabitants. In-depth studies can go beyond zero-g observations, on-orbit centrifuge studies, and ground-based research providing important insight into continuous 1/6- g effects on biological systems. Studies concentrating on development, gravity sensing, and adaptation/readaptation would provide preliminary data on whether long-term fractional gravity is detrimental or compromising to fundamental biological function. Food production research in 1/6- g would provide important information for on site application to improve the yield and quality of food (animal and plant) produced in the unique lunar environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some examples of the major gravitational biology areas that could be studied on the moon and applied to lunar population needs utilizing lunar biological facilities and continuous fractional gravity.

  15. In-situ resource utilization in the design of advanced lunar facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Resource utilization will play an important role in the establishment and support of a permanently manned lunar base. At the University of Houston - College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, a study team recently investigated the potential use of lunar in-situ materials in the design of lunar facilities. The team identified seven potential lunar construction materials; concrete, sulfur concrete, cast basalt, sintered basalt, glass, fiberglass, and metals. Analysis and evaluation of these materials with respect to their physical properties, processes, energy requirements, resource efficiency, and overall advantages and disadvantages lead to the selection of basalt materials as the more likely construction material for initial use on a lunar base. Basalt materials can be formed out of in-situ lunar regolith, with minor material beneficiation, by a simple process of heating and controlled cooling. The team then conceptualized a construction system that combines lunar regolith sintering and casting to make pressurized structures out of lunar resources. The design uses a machine that simultaneously excavates and sinters the lunar regolith to create a cylindrical hole, which is then enclosed with cast basalt slabs, allowing the volume to be pressurized for use as a living or work environment. Cylinder depths of up to 4 to 6 m in the lunar mare or 10 to 12 m in the lunar highlands are possible. Advantages of this construction system include maximum resource utilization, relatively large habitable volumes, interior flexibility, and minimal construction equipment needs. Conclusions of this study indicate that there is significant potential for the use of basalt, a lunar resource derived construction material, as a low cost alternative to Earth-based materials. It remains to be determined when in lunar base phasing this construction method should be implemented.

  16. In-situ resource utilization in the design of advanced lunar facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    Resource utilization will play an important role in the establishment and support of a permanently manned lunar base. At the University of Houston - College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, a study team recently investigated the potential use of lunar in-situ materials in the design of lunar facilities. The team identified seven potential lunar construction materials; concrete, sulfur concrete, cast basalt, sintered basalt, glass, fiberglass, and metals. Analysis and evaluation of these materials with respect to their physical properties, processes, energy requirements, resource efficiency, and overall advantages and disadvantages lead to the selection of basalt materials as the more likely construction material for initial use on a lunar base. Basalt materials can be formed out of in-situ lunar regolith, with minor material beneficiation, by a simple process of heating and controlled cooling. The team then conceptualized a construction system that combines lunar regolith sintering and casting to make pressurized structures out of lunar resources. The design uses a machine that simultaneously excavates and sinters the lunar regolith to create a cylindrical hole, which is then enclosed with cast basalt slabs, allowing the volume to be pressurized for use as a living or work environment. Cylinder depths of up to 4 to 6 m in the lunar mare or 10 to 12 m in the lunar highlands are possible. Advantages of this construction system include maximum resource utilization, relatively large habitable volumes, interior flexibility, and minimal construction equipment needs. Conclusions of this study indicate that there is significant potential for the use of basalt, a lunar resource derived construction material, as a low cost alternative to Earth-based materials. It remains to be determined when in lunar base phasing this construction method should be implemented.

  17. Humanoids for lunar and planetary surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Csaszar, Ambrus; Gan, Quan; Hidalgo, Timothy; Moore, Jeff; Newton, Jason; Sandoval, Steven; Xu, Jiajing

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a vision of humanoid robots as human's key partners in future space exploration, in particular for construction, maintenance/repair and operation of lunar/planetary habitats, bases and settlements. It integrates this vision with the recent plans, for human and robotic exploration, aligning a set of milestones for operational capability of humanoids with the schedule for the next decades and development spirals in the Project Constellation. These milestones relate to a set of incremental challenges, for the solving of which new humanoid technologies are needed. A system of systems integrative approach that would lead to readiness of cooperating humanoid crews is sketched. Robot fostering, training/education techniques, and improved cognitive/sensory/motor development techniques are considered essential elements for achieving intelligent humanoids. A pilot project in this direction is outlined.

  18. Lunar Resource Assessment: Strategies for Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    Use of the indigenous resources of space to support long-term human presence is an essential element of the settlement of other planetary bodies. We are in a very early stage of understanding exactly how and under what circumstances space resources will become important. The materials and processes to recover them that we now think are critical may not ultimately be the raison d'etre for a resource utilization program. However, the need for strategic thinking proceeds in parallel with efforts to implement such plans and it is not too soon to begin thinking how we could and should use the abundant resources of materials and energy available from the Moon. The following commodities from the Moon are discussed: (1) bulk regolith, for shielding and construction on the lunar surface (ultimately for export to human-tended stations in Earth-Moon space), and (2) oxygen and hydrogen, for propellant and life support.

  19. The International Lunar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    A new lunar science flight projects line has been introduced within NASA s Science Mission Directorate's (SMDs) proposed 2009 budget, including two new robotic missions designed to accomplish key scientific objectives and, when possible, provide results useful to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD) as those organizations grapple with the challenges of returning humans to the Moon. The first mission in this line will be the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, an ESMD mission that will acquire key information for human return to the moon activities, which will transition after one year of operations to the SMD Lunar Science Program for a 2-year nominal science mission. The second mission, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) will be launch in 2011 along with the GRAIL Discovery mission to the moon. The third is delivery of two landed payloads as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN). This flight projects line provides a robust robotic lunar science program for the next 8 years and beyond, complements SMD s initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines, and increases international participation in NASA s robotic exploration plans. The International Lunar Network is envisioned as a global lunar geophysical network, which fulfills many of the stated recommendations of the recent National Research Council report on The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon [2], but is difficult for any single space agency to accomplish on its own. The ILN would provide the necessary global coverage by involving US and international landed missions as individual nodes working together. Ultimately, this network could comprise 8-10 or more nodes operating simultaneously, while minimizing the required contribution from each space agency. Indian, Russian, Japanese, and British landed missions are currently being formulated and SMD is actively seeking partnership with

  20. The Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    A thick layer of regolith, fragmental and unconsolidated rock material, covers the entire lunar surface. This layer is the result of the continuous impact of meteoroids large and small and the steady bombardment of charged particles from the sun and stars. The regolith is generally about 4-5 m thick in mare regions and 10-15 m in highland areas (McKay et al., 1991) and contains all sizes of material from large boulders to sub-micron dust particles. Below the regolith is a region of large blocks of material, large-scale ejecta and brecciated bedrock, often referred to as the "megaregolith". Lunar soil is a term often used interchangeably with regolith, however, soil is defined as the subcentimeter fraction of the regolith (in practice though, soil generally refers to the submillimeter fraction of the regolith). Lunar dust has been defined in many ways by different researchers, but generally refers to only the very finest fractions of the soil, less than approx.10 or 20 microns. Lunar soil can be a misleading term, as lunar "soil" bears little in common with terrestrial soils. Lunar soil contains no organic matter and is not formed through biologic or chemical means as terrestrial soils are, but strictly through mechanical comminution from meteoroids and interaction with the solar wind and other energetic particles. Lunar soils are also not exposed to the wind and water that shapes the Earth. As a consequence, in contrast to terrestrial soils, lunar soils are not sorted in any way, by size, shape, or chemistry. Finally, without wind and water to wear down the edges, lunar soil grains tend to be sharp with fresh fractured surfaces.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Rocks from Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205; LAP02205 Lunar Meteorite: Lunar Mare Basalt with Similarities to the Apollo 12 Ilmenite Basalt; Mineral Chemistry of LaPaz Ice Field 02205 - A New Lunar Basalt; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032; KREEP-rich Basaltic Magmatism: Diversity of Composition and Consistency of Age; Mineralogy of Yamato 983885 Lunar Polymict Breccia with Alkali-rich and Mg-rich Rocks; Ar-Ar Studies of Dhofar Clast-rich Feldspathic Highland Meteorites: 025, 026, 280, 303; Can Granulite Metamorphic Conditions Reset 40Ar-39Ar Ages in Lunar Rocks? [#1009] A Ferroan Gabbronorite Clast in Lunar Meteorite ALHA81005: Major and Trace Element Composition, and Origin; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite PCA02007, a New Feldspathic Regolith Breccia; and Troilite Formed by Sulfurization: A Crystal Structure of Synthetic Analogue

  2. Lunar microcosmos. [human factors of lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, N.

    1974-01-01

    A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.

  3. The lunar hopping transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degner, R.; Kaplan, M. H.; Manning, J.; Meetin, R.; Pasternack, S.; Peterson, S.; Seifert, H.

    1971-01-01

    Research on several aspects of lunar transport using the hopping mode is reported. Hopping exploits the weak lunar gravity, permits fuel economy because of partial recompression of propellant gas on landing, and does not require a continuous smooth surface for operation. Three questions critical to the design of a lunar hopping vehicle are addressed directly in this report: (1) the tolerance of a human pilot for repeated accelerations; (2) means for controlling vehicle attitude during ballistic flight; and (3) means of propulsion. In addition, a small scale terrestrial demonstrator built to confirm feasibility of the proposed operational mode is described, along with results of preliminary study of unmanned hoppers for moon exploration.

  4. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  5. Common lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, S.; Stecklein, J.; Chen, H.; Culpepper, W.; Hyatt, C. D.; Kluksdahl, E.; Pelischek, T.; Pruett, D.; Rickman, S.; Wagner, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report focuses on the reference lander design developed at the Johnson Space Center, describing a small lunar soft lander with the capability to soft land about 64 kilograms of payload at any lunar latitude and longitude. The Artemis lander is a sun-pointing, three-axis vehicle that contributes to the translunar injection burn and performs the lunar orbit insertion, deorbit, descent and landing maneuvers with a single liquid bipropellant lander stage. Attention is given to mission profile and performance, the guidance, navigation and control subsystem, the propulsion subsystem, and the flight data subsystem.

  6. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  7. Oxygen extraction from lunar soil by fluorination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seboldt, W.; Lingner, S.; Hoernes, S.; Grimmeisen, W.

    1991-01-01

    Mining and processing of lunar material could possibly lead to more cost-efficient scenarios for permanent presence of man in space and on the Moon. Production of oxygen for use as propellant seems especially important. Different candidate processes for oxygen-extraction from lunar soil were proposed, of which the reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen was studied most. This process, however, needs the concentration of ilmenite from lunar regolith to a large extent and releases oxygen only with low efficiency. Another possibility - the fluorination method - which works with lunar bulk material as feedstock is discussed. Liberation of oxygen from silicate or oxide materials by fluorination methods has been applied in geoscience since the early sixties. The fact that even at moderate temperatures 98 to 100 percent yields can be attained, suggests that fluorination of lunar regolith could be an effective way of propellant production. Lunar soil contains about 50 percent oxygen by weight which is gained nearly completely through this process as O2 gas. The second-most element Si is liberated as gaseous SiF4. It could be used for production of Si-metal and fluorine-recycling. All other main elements of lunar soil will be converted into solid fluorides which also can be used for metal-production and fluorine-recycling. Preliminary results of small scale experiments with different materials are discussed, giving information on specific oxygen-yields and amounts of by-products as functions of temperature. These experiments were performed with an already existing fluorine extraction and collection device at the University of Bonn, normally used for determination of oxygen-isotopic abundances. Optimum conditions, especially concerning energy consumption, are investigated. Extrapolation of the experimental results to large industrial-type plants on the Moon is tried and seems to be promising at first sight. The recycling of the fluorine is, however, crucial for the process. It

  8. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  9. Evidence for the Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation in Barnacle Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

  10. A socio-economic evaluation of the lunar environment and resources. I. Principles and overall system strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehricke, Krafft A.

    This first of several study papers, based on a fundamental paper presented in 1972, provides an independent conceptual analysis and evaluation of the lunar environment as industrial base and habitat. A selenosphere system strategy is outlined. The underlying concept is that of one or several lunar industrial zones for resource extraction and on-surface processing, integrated with a circumlunar zero-g processing capability, serving markets in geolunar space. A classification of lunar elements by utilization category is presented. Lunar oxygen is a prime candidate for being an initial economic "drawing card", because of its value for fast transportation in geolunar space, requiring significantly fewer ships for equal transfer capability per unit time than electric transports which, however, have value, especially between geosynchronous and lunar orbit. The reduced development difficulties of controlled fusion outside the atmosphere and its advantages for extracting oxygen and other elements in quantity are summarized. Examples of lunar cycle management as fundamental exoindustrial requirement for economic resource enhancement are presented. The principal initial socio-economic value of lunar industry lies in the use of lunar resources for exoindustrial products and operations designed to accelerate, intensify and diversify Earth-related benefits. In the longer run, lunar settlements are a highly suitable proving ground for studying and testing the complex matrix of technological, biological, cultural, social and psychological aspects that must be understood and manageable before large settlements beyond Earth can have a realistic basis for viability. The lunar environment is more suitable for experimentation and comparatively more "forgiving" in case of failures than is orbital space.

  11. Exploration of Lunar Craters using a Tracked Microrover Concept for the ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunskill, C.; Smith, B.; Humphrey, S.; Makhlouta, M.; Baig, S.; Lappas, V.

    Robotic exploration of the lunar terrain is a crucial step towards future manned missions. There is evidence to suggest water ice ores may be found in the base of deep, polar craters as a result of the meteorite impacts which created them. These regions are in a permanent state of darkened deep-freeze due to their extreme latitudes, allowing the ice to remain intact. Lunar terrain is extremely inhospitable to all but the most robust of exploration vehicles. Surface conditions around the rim of large craters are rarely favourable for the descent and, more importantly, ascent of a ground-based vehicle. The ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge tasked eight teams from Universities across Europe to build microrovers capable of climbing into a terrestrial analogue of such a lunar crater, search the base for small samples of ore simulants and return them to a lander site outside of the crater. The University of Surrey Space Centre team designed a tracked vehicle based on a modified Mobile Robots Pioneer 3-AT microrover. The Pioneer on-board computer and microcontroller allowed the microrover to be equipped with off-the-shelf components, including a stereo camera for navigation, wireless Ethernet communications system for teleoperation and 5 degree of freedom robotic manipulator.

  12. Radiation shielding for lunar bases using lunar concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, S. L.; Oishi, K.; Saito, T.

    1992-08-01

    The radiation shielding requirements for an advanced lunar base concept which uses concrete made from lunar resources are evaluated. Some of the features of this lunar base concept are discussed. The results of radiation transport calculations are presented to determine the radiation dose as a function of shielding depth. The shielding effectiveness of concrete is compared with that of aluminum, lunar regolith, and water. It is shown that lunar concrete is a fairly effective radiation shield, and that the concrete lunar base concept can provide a significant amount of intrinsic shielding without requiring additional parasitic shielding.

  13. Conceptual design of lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Eto, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    Lunar exploration/development will be one of the most significant future space activities. In the initial phase of lunar exploration, various unmanned missions will be undertaken and effective transportation means will be required. This paper discusses the results of the conceptual design of a Japanese lunar lander to be used in such explorations. The lunar lander would be launched on a Japanese H-II launch vehicle and would transport a payload, such as a lunar mobile explorer or a lunar sample return vehicle, on to the Moon. Requirements definition, mission analysis, system and subsystem definition of a lunar lander were performed. Our analysis shows that it should be able to carry an 750 kg payload onto the lunar surface. This lunar lander features are summarized.

  14. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.H. ); Shemansky, D.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The presence of sodium and potassium on the Moon implies that other more abundant species should be present. Volatile molecules like H{sub 2}O are significantly more abundant than sodium in any of the proposed external atmospheric sources. Source mechanisms which derive atoms from the surface should favor abundant elements in the regolith. It is therefore puzzling that the Apollo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of N{sub O} < 5 {times} 10{sup 2} cm{sup {minus}3}, and that the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply N{sub O} < 50 cm{sup {minus}3} above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occur ed during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the Moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stablized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, the authors predict a possible emission brightness of {approximately} 50 R in the OH(A {minus} X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb. A very uncertain small comet source of H{sub 2}O could raise this value by more than two orders of magnitude.

  15. Spatial variation in the environmental control of crab larval settlement in a micro-tidal austral estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Luis Miguel; Cardyn, Carlos Simón; Garcés-Vargas, José

    2012-09-01

    Settlement of benthic marine invertebrates is determined by the interaction between physical factors and biological processes, in which the tide, wind, and predation can play key roles, especially for species that recruit within estuaries. This complexity promotes high variability in recruitment and limited predictability of the size of annual cohorts. This study describes the settlement patterns of megalopae of the commercially important crab Cancer edwardsii at three locations (one in the center and two at the mouth of the estuary) within the Valdivia River estuary (~39.9°S), over three consecutive years (2006-2008). At each location, 12 passive benthic collectors with a natural substratum were deployed for 48 h at 7-day intervals, over a lunar cycle. Half of the collectors were covered with mesh to exclude predators. The main findings were as follows: (1) circulation changes due to upwelling relaxation or onshore winds controlled crab settlement at sites within the mouth of the estuary, (2) at the internal estuarine site, settlement was dominated by tidal effects, and (3) the effect of predation on settlement was negligible at all scales. The results show that the predominant physical factor controlling the return of competent crab larvae to estuarine environments varies spatially within the estuary. The lack of tidal influence on settlement at the mouth of the estuary can be explained by the overwhelming influence of the intense upwelling fronts and the micro-tidal regime in the study area.

  16. Our World: Lunar Rock

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about NASA'€™s Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. See how NASA protects these precious moon rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts. Explore t...

  17. Lunar South Pole Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions over the lunar South Pole region, from ~80°S to the pole. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, 2009. The illumination ca...

  18. Lunar Prospector: overview.

    PubMed

    Binder, A B

    1998-09-01

    Lunar Prospector is providing a global map of the composition of the moon and analyzing the moon's gravity and magnetic fields. It has been in a polar orbit around the moon since 16 January 1998. Neutron flux data show that there is abundant H, and hence probably abundant water ice, in the lunar polar regions. Gamma-ray and neutron data reveal the distribution of Fe, Ti, and other major and trace elements on the moon. The data delineate the global distributions of a key trace element-rich component of lunar materials called KREEP and of the major rock types. Magnetic mapping shows that the lunar magnetic fields are strong antipodal to Mare Imbrium and Mare Serenitatis and has discovered the smallest known magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock complex in the solar system. Gravity mapping has delineated seven new gravity anomalies and shown that the moon has a small Fe-rich core of about 300 km radius. PMID:9727967

  19. Lunar Influence On Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Wolfgang

    Concerning lunar periodicity in biology, we summarized all what has been observationally and experimentally found and published in scientific literature till 1996. We summoned up as many as about 600 living species (mostly animals) with identified lunar periodicities, functioning in a more or less endogenous manner. Here we give a short review about the occurrence in the plant kingdom. In Thallophytes 45 species have been described as well as 40 species of Angiosperms. In Prokaryonts no lunar rhythms could be found. Their individual life cycles do not reach the time span of at least comparable parts of a lunar day. Thus as in all Eukaryonts the occurrence of the cell nucleus constitutes specifically ndogenous rhythms in plants as well as in the animal kingdom.

  20. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  1. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  2. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  3. Lunar sample contracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.

  4. Lunar robotic maintenance module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    A design for a robotic maintenance module that will assist a mobile 100-meter lunar drill is introduced. The design considers the following areas of interest: the atmospheric conditions, actuator systems, power supply, material selection, weight, cooling system and operation.

  5. An Unusual Lunar Halo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a photograph of an unusual combination of lunar halos: the 22-degree refraction halo, the circumscribed halo, and a reflection halo. Deduces the form and orientations of the ice crystals responsible for the observed halo features. (MLH)

  6. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  7. Lunar Sulfur Capture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor

  8. Lunar cinder cones.

    PubMed

    McGetchin, T R; Head, J W

    1973-04-01

    Data on terrestrial eruptions of pyroclastic material and ballistic considerations suggest that in the lunar environment (vacuum and reduced gravity) low-rimmed pyroclastic rings are formed rather than the high-rimmed cinder cones so abundant on the earth. Dark blanketing deposits in the Taurus-Littrow region (Apollo 17 landing area) are interpreted as being at least partly composed of lunar counterparts of terrestrial cinder cones. PMID:17757977

  9. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of the lunar regolith under solar wind and micrometeorite bombardment is discussed as well as the size distribution of ultrafine iron in lunar soil. The most important characteristics of complex graphite, sulfide, arsenide, palladium, and platinum mineralization in a pegmatoid pyroxenite of the Stillwater Complex in Montana are examined. Oblique reflected light micrographs and backscattered electron SEM images of the graphite associations are included.

  10. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  11. Insolation Effects on Lunar Hydrogen: Observation from the LRO LEND and LOLA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Livak, M. M.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Namkung, M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Neumann, G.; Smith, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. G.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H) Largely, this was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, recent discoveries indicate that the H picture may be more complex than thc PSR hypothesis suggests. Observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detect (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) indicate some H concentrations lie outside PSR. Similarly, observations from Chandraayan-l's M3 and Deep Impact's EPOXI near infra-red observations indicate diurnal cycling of volatile H in lower latitudes. These results suggest other geophysical phenomena may also play a role in the Lunar Hydrogen budget. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies

  12. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  13. The Lunar Orbital Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; Mccurdy, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  14. Processing of lunar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisl, W. Howard; Fabes, B. D.

    1994-07-01

    A variety of products made from lunar resources will be required for a lunar outpost. These products might be made by adapting existing processing techniques to the lunar environment, or by developing new techniques unique to the moon. In either case, processing techniques used on the moon will have to have a firm basis in basic principles of materials science and engineering, which can be used to understand the relationships between composition, processing, and properties of lunar-derived materials. These principles can also be used to optimize the properties of a product, once a more detailed knowledge of the lunar regolith is obtained. Using three types of ceramics (monolithic glasses, glass fibers, and glass-ceramics) produced from lunar simulants, we show that the application of materials science and engineering priciples is useful in understanding and optimizing the mechanical properties of ceramics on the moon. We also demonstrate that changes in composition and/or processing can have a significant effect on the strength of these materials.

  15. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  16. Lunar core: occam's razor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Whether or not the earth's moon has a core is a much bandied question. Like many notions about the properties of the moon, ideas of a lunar core changed drastically after the Apollo studies. A review of the development of these ideas was given a scholarly treatment by S.K. Runcorn recently (Nature, 304, 589-596, 1983). In contrast, L.L. Hood, C.P. Sonett, and L.J. Srnka have questioned the concept in serious detail (Nature, 307, 661-662, 1984).Whether or not the moon actually has or has had a fluid metallic core is of great consequence for a number of geophysical theories about the solar system. Most investigators concede that the possible existence of a lunar core remains one of the major unanswered, and yet most critical, questions about the moon. A lot rides on the answer: Can a lunar-sized body have a core? Is the core metallic? How is the core related to lunar magnetism and its paleomagnetism? Is or was a lunar core related to lunar volcanism? If the moon can have a core, is planetary core formation in the solar system a simple matter of gravitationally segregating metallic fragments that were formed elsewhere? Implications of the questions are without limit. There is, perhaps, no more valid issue about the moon to explore scientifically.

  17. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  18. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  19. Lunar Resources: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which are found to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industrial capability within the Earth-Moon system. In this way, gradually increasing access to lunar resources may help 'bootstrap' a space-based economy from which the world economy, and possibly also the world's environment, will ultimately benefit.

  20. Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echols, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes current Lunar Exploration plans and objectives. It begins with specific statements from the President s vision for U.S. Space Exploration which pertain to robotic lunar missions. An outline of missions objectives is provided, along with a high-level schedule of events through the year 2025. Focus is then given to the Lunar Robotic and Precursor Program (LPRP) to describe objectives and goals. Recent developments in the Program are explained - specifically, the renaming of the RLEP program to "LPRP" and the movement of the program office to MSFC. A brief summary of the synergy expected between the robotic and crewed missions, with the LSAM descent stage Project is given. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, with its co-manifested Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), is then described with an overview of the payloads and mission objectives. Finally, information is given about the expected future of the LPRP program and Exploration and the development of a compressive Lunar Exploration Architecture.

  1. Lunar atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moosn were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

  2. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

  3. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  4. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Automation Recognition oF Crater-Like Structures in Terrestrial and Plantary Images; Condensation from Cluster-IDP Enriched Vapor Inside the Snow Line: Implications for Mercury, Asteroids, and Enstatite Chondrites; Tomographic Location of Potential Melt-Bearing Phenocrysts in Lunar Glass Spherules; Source and Evolution of Vapor Due to Impacts into Layered Carbonates and Silicates; Noble Gases and I-Xe Ages of the Zag Meteorite; The MArs Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) for the 209 Mars Science Laboratory; The Sedimentary Rocks of Meridiani Planum, in Context; Three-System Isotopic of Lunar Norite 78238: Rb-Sr Results; Constraints on the Role of Curium-247 as a Source of Fission Xenon in the Early Solar System; New Features in the ADS Abstract Service; Cassini RADAR's First Look at Titan; Volcanism and Volatile Recycling on Venus from Lithospheric Delamination; The Fate of Water in the Martian Magma Ocean and the Formation of an Early Atmosphere; Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer Water-Equivalent Hydrogen: Comparison with Glacial; Landforms on Tharsis; Using Models of Permanent Shadow to Constrain Lunar Polar Water Ice Abundances; Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method; Petrological and Geochemical Consideration on the Tuserkanite Meteorite; and Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  5. Ice in the lunar polar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The idea that ice and other trapped volatiles exist in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles was proposed by Watson, Murray, and Brown (1961). It is reexamined in the present paper, in the light of the vast increase of lunar knowledge. The stability of the traps and the trapping mechanism are verified. Four potential sources of lunar H2O, namely (1) solar wind reduction of Fe in the regolith, (2) H2O-containing meteoroids, (3) cometary impact, and (4) (the least certain) degassing of the interior, can supply amounts of trapped H2O estimated in the range of 10 to the 16th to 10 to the 17th g. Two important destructive mechanisms have been identified: photodissociation of H2O molecules adsorbed on the sunlit surface and sputtering or decomposition of trapped H2O by solar wind particles. The effect of impact gardening is mainly protective. The question of the presence of H2O in the traps remains open; it can be settled by experiment.

  6. Technology needs for lunar and Mars space transfer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Cothran, Bradley C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Mcghee, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    The determination of appropriate space transportation technologies and operating modes is discussed with respect to both lunar and Mars missions. Three levels of activity are set forth to examine the sensitivity of transportation preferences including 'minimum,' 'full science,' and 'industrialization and settlement' categories. High-thrust-profile missions for lunar and Mars transportation are considered in terms of their relative advantages, and transportation options are defined in terms of propulsion and braking technologies. Costs and life-cycle cost estimates are prepared for the transportation preferences by using a parametric cost model, and a return-on-investment summary is given. Major technological needs for the programs are listed and include storable propulsion systems; cryogenic engines and fluids management; aerobraking; and nuclear thermal, nuclear electric, electric, and solar electric propulsion technologies.

  7. Construction of the 16 meter Large Lunar Telescope (LLT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam Anwar

    1990-01-01

    The different materials that could be used to design the pedestal for a Moon based 16 meter telescope are discussed. The material that should be used has a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high modulus of elasticity, and high compressive and tensile strengths. For the model developed in this study, an aluminum-manganese alloy was used because of its low coefficient of thermal expansion. Due to variations in lunar soil conditions, both vertically and horizontally, three foundation systems are presented. The spudcan footing can be used in the case where dense soil is more than three meters. The spread footing is recommended where the dense soil is between one and three meters. Finally, in the third system, the Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) is used as a base support for the telescope's pedestal. The LEV support requires a prepared site. The soil should be compacted and stabilized, if necessary, to reduce settlement.

  8. Lunar subsurface architecture enhanced by artificial biosphere concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassi, Jason D.; Rocha, Carlos J.; Carr, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of artificial biosphere technology with subselene architecture can create a life-enhancing, productive habitat that is safe from solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations while maximizing resources brought from Earth and derived from lunar regolith. In the short term, the resulting biotectural (biosphere and architectural) designs will not only make the structures more habitable, productive, and manageable, but will ultimately provide the self-sufficiency factors necessary for the mature lunar settlement. From a long-term perspective, this biotecture approach to astronautics and extraterrestrial development (1) helps reduce mass lift requirements, (2) contributes to habitat self-sufficiency, and (3) actualizes at least one philosophy of solar system exploration, which is to exploit nonterrestrial resources in an effort to conserve our natural resources on this planet.

  9. Lunar mission architecture evaluation using a decision analysis approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleave, Janet

    1990-01-01

    President Bush's call for a return to the Moon, followed by the human exploration of Mars, has spawned numerous ideas for implementing what has been called the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Because a return to the Moon has been designated as the first step of SEI, the time is rapidly approaching to select one of the many mission architectures proposed for the exploration, settlement, and exploitation of the Moon. The evaluation of alternative archictures, and the subsequent selection of the 'best' alternative will be critical to the success of this, and other, space programs. The following presentation discusses the application of systems analysis to the evaluation and selection of a Lunar outpost mission architecture. The role of a decision model in the evaluation/selection process is discussed, and different types of decision models are presented. These models are analyzed and discussed in terms of their applicability to the selection of a Lunar outpost mission architecture.

  10. Restoration and PDS Archive of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, P. A.; Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Runco, S. K.; LaBasse, D.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory (under the auspices of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate or ARES) began work on a 4-year project to digitize the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs. These rock samples together with lunar regolith and core samples were collected as part of the lander missions for Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17. The original film negatives are stored at JSC under cryogenic conditions. This effort is data restoration in the truest sense. The images represent the only record available to scientists which allows them to view the rock samples when making a sample request. As the negatives are being scanned, they are also being formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) archive. The ARES group is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving.

  11. Space Solar Power Technology for Lunar Polar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark W.; Howell, Joe T.

    2004-01-01

    The technology for Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transistor (Laser-PV WPT) is being developed for lunar polar applications by Boeing and NASA Marshall Space Center. A lunar polar mission could demonstrate and validate Laser-PV WPT and other SSP technologies, while enabling access to cold, permanently shadowed craters that are believed to contain ice. Crater may hold frozen water and other volatiles deposited over billion of years, recording prior impact event on the moon (and Earth). A photo-voltaic-powered rover could use sunlight, when available, and laser light, when required, to explore a wide range of lunar terrain. The National Research Council recently found that a mission to the moon's south pole-Aitkir basin has priority for space science

  12. Lunar base launch and landing facility conceptual design, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the Lunar Base Launch and Landing Facility Conceptual Design study. The purpose of this study was to examine the requirements for launch and landing facilities for early lunar bases and to prepare conceptual designs for some of these facilities. The emphasis of this study is on the facilities needed from the first manned landing until permanent occupancy. Surface characteristics and flight vehicle interactions are described, and various facility operations are related. Specific recommendations for equipment, facilities, and evolutionary planning are made, and effects of different aspects of lunar development scenarios on facilities and operations are detailed. Finally, for a given scenario, a specific conceptual design is developed and presented.

  13. Observations of Lunar Swirls by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.; Hayne, P. O.; Bandfield, J. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Shirley, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    Diviner observations of lunar swirls show a CF anomaly consistent with abnormal space weathering. Night time cooling and surface roughness models indicate that the finely structured lunar regolith has not been disturbed at swirls.

  14. The science of the lunar poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct

  15. Apollo 9 Lunar Module in lunar landing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module, in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed form the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module 'Spider' is flying upside down in relation to the earth below. The landing gear on the 'Spider' had been deployed. Lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads.

  16. Apollo 9 Lunar Module in lunar landing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module, in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed form the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on the 'Spider' has been deployed. Lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the 'Spider' were Astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot.

  17. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, human gene pools, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. We propose cryopreservation of germplasms by constructing a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions. Rationale: Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreservation can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced gravity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn't allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40- 60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeorite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of endangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved

  18. Modeling the Stability of Volatile Deposits in Lunar Cold Traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crider, D. H.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    There are several mechanisms acting at the cold traps that can alter the inventory of volatiles there. Primarily, the lunar surface is bombarded by meteoroids which impact, melt, process, and redistribute the regolith. Further, solar wind and magnetospheric ion fluxes are allowed limited access onto the regions in permanent shadow. Also, although cold traps are in the permanent shadow of the Sun, there is a small flux of radiation incident on the regions from interstellar sources. We investigate the effects of these space weathering processes on a deposit of volatiles in a lunar cold trap through simulations. We simulate the development of a column of material near the surface of the Moon resulting from space weathering. This simulation treats a column of material at a lunar cold trap and focuses on the hydrogen content of the column. We model space weathering processes on several time and spatial scales to simulate the constant rain of micrometeoroids as well as sporadic larger impactors occurring near the cold traps to determine the retention efficiency of the cold traps. We perform the Monte Carlo simulation over many columns of material to determine the expectation value for hydrogen content of the top few meters of soil for comparison with Lunar Prospector neutron data.

  19. A taxonomy for the evolution of human settlements on the moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Mandell, Humboldt C.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed structure is described for partnerships with shared interests and investments to develop the technology and approach for evolutionary surface systems for the moon and Mars. Five models are presented for cooperation with specific references to the technical evolutionary path of the surface systems. The models encompass the standard customer/provider relationship, a concept for exclusive government use, a joint venture with a government-sponsored non-SEI market, a technology joint-development approach, and a redundancy model to insure competitive pricing. The models emphasize the nonaerospace components of the settlement technologies and the decentralized nature of surface systems that make the project suitable for private industrial development by several companies. It is concluded that the taxonomy be considered when examining collaborative opportunities for lunar and Martian settlement.

  20. Fluxes of fast and epithermal neutrons from Lunar Prospector: evidence for water ice at the lunar poles.

    PubMed

    Feldman, W C; Maurice, S; Binder, A B; Barraclough, B L; Elphic, R C; Lawrence, D J

    1998-09-01

    Maps of epithermal- and fast-neutron fluxes measured by Lunar Prospector were used to search for deposits enriched in hydrogen at both lunar poles. Depressions in epithermal fluxes were observed close to permanently shaded areas at both poles. The peak depression at the North Pole is 4.6 percent below the average epithermal flux intensity at lower latitudes, and that at the South Pole is 3.0 percent below the low-latitude average. No measurable depression in fast neutrons is seen at either pole. These data are consistent with deposits of hydrogen in the form of water ice that are covered by as much as 40 centimeters of desiccated regolith within permanently shaded craters near both poles. PMID:9727973

  1. Towards the Next International Lunar Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    The idea of an International Lunar Decade (ILD) germinated in work underway in the International Lunar Working Group (ILEWG) coordinated by ESA starting before 2000. Envisioned was an International Geophysical Year (IGY) inspired global collaborative undertaking to better understand the Moon, its origins and resources as a step towards lunar development and possible human settlement. By 2006 the ILD idea had evolved sufficiently that the ILEWG endorsed it and endorsement was also received from COSPAR [1] The Planetary Society under the leadership of Louis Friedman championed the ILD idea, received a grant from the Secure World Foundation to promote it at various conferences as well as to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). Friedman made a presentation about ILD to COPUOS in February, 2007 [2]. Despite positive interest in the idea no member state of COPUOS chose to promote it. The ILD agenda was adopted by ILEWG and largely fulfilled by the member space agencies in the decade from 2007-2014, but without UN endorsement as a global initiative. In 2013 an idea for an International Lunar Decade took hold among a group of space activists that included ideas for an International Lunar Research Park [3], an International Lunar Geophysical Year and other elements including an article published by V. Beldavs in the Space Review on January 14, 2014 [4]. These various thought streams were brought to focus at the conference "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space", November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii that resulted in the International Lunar Decade Declaration [3] and the formation of the working group (ILDWG) to promote implementation of ILD. In 2015 numerous organizations and influential persons were approached and informed about the idea of a framework for international collaboration sustained over a decade to gain an understanding of the Moon and its resources and to develop the technologies and

  2. Foundations for the post 2030 space economy: Cislunar and lunar infrastructure, Moon Village, Mars and planetary missions as markets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, Vid; Dunlop, David; Crisafulli, Jim; Bernard, Foing

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The International Lunar Decade (ILD)[1] is a framework for international collaboration from 2020 to 2030 to achieve the ultimate goal in space -- to open the space frontier. Key to opening a frontier is the capacity to "live off the land" through in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Activities in space will remain limited to exploration until ISRU becomes possible on an industrial scale. ISRU, the mining and use of resources on the Moon, asteroids, comets and other cosmic bodies will enable the opening of the space frontier for permanent occupancy and settlement. The capacity for ISRU creates the basis for a space economy where products and services are traded for resources, and increasingly sophisticated products can be produced from mined resources to help sustain life indefinitely. Enabling ISRU will require infrastructure - energy, transportation, and communications systems, as well as navigation, storage and other support services. However, regolith or other lunar/asteroid material will remain regolith until converted to a form useful to customers that will enable the development of markets. NASA's Mars journey, various planetary missions, and emerging operations on the lunar surface and at EML1 and EML2 will provide initial markets for ISRU. This paper will explore a scenario explaining how a self-sustaining space economy can be achieved by 2030, what kind of infrastructure will need to be developed, the role of NASA's Mars Journey in the creation of markets for ISRU, and the role of private-public partnership for financing the various building blocks of a self-sustaining space economy. Also dis-cussed will be the potential for a Moon Village to serve as a formative structure for the nucleation of elements of an emerging space economy, including its potential role as a forum for actors to play a role in the development of governance mechanisms that eventually would enable commercial and industrial development of the Moon. References: [1] Beldavs

  3. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  4. Lunar regolith and structure mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Frank; Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein; Carter, Tyrone R.; Evenson, Kraig A.; Nathan, Mark P.; Perkins, Steve W.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: modeling of regolith-structure interaction in extraterrestrial constructed facilities; densification of lunar soil simulant; and vibration assisted penetration of lunar soil simulant.

  5. Catalog of lunar mission data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantel, E. J. (Editor); Miller, E. R. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Several series of spacecraft were developed, designed, built and launched to determine different characteristics of the lunar surface and environment for a manned landing. Both unmanned and manned spacecrafts, spacecraft equipment and lunar missions are documented.

  6. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Captain, Janine E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Weis, Kyle H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted within the CMU rover "Scarab" and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in November 2008. This technology could be used on Mars as well. As described at the 2008 Mars Society Convention, the Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) supports the objectives of the RESOLVE project by capturing and quantifying water and hydrogen released by regolith upon heating. Field test results for the quantification of water using LWRD showed that the volcanic ash (tephra) samples contained 0.15-0.41% water, in agreement with GC water measurements. Reduction of the RH in the surge tank to near zero during recirculation show that the water is captured by the water beds as desired. The water can be recovered by heating the Water Beds to 230 C or higher. Test results for the capture and quantification of pure hydrogen have shown that over 90% of the hydrogen can be captured and 98% of the absorbed hydrogen can be recovered upon heating the hydride to 400 C and desorbing the hydrogen several times into the evacuated surge tank. Thus, the essential requirement of capturing hydrogen and recovering it has been demonstrated. ,

  7. Lunar roving vehicle deployment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, A. B.; Spacey, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    The space support equipment that supports the lunar roving vehicle during the flight to the moon and permits the vehicle to be deployed from the lunar module onto the lunar surface with a minimum amount of astronaut participation is discussed. The design and evolution of the equipment are reviewed. The success of the overall lunar roving vehicle design, including the space support equipment, was demonstrated on the Apollo 15 and 16 missions.

  8. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  9. 48 CFR 49.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. (a) The TCO shall refer... review and recommendations. The TCO may submit settlement proposals of less than $100,000 to the audit agency. Referrals shall indicate any specific information or data that the TCO desires and shall...

  10. 48 CFR 49.107 - Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....107 Audit of prime contract settlement proposals and subcontract settlements. (a) The TCO shall refer... review and recommendations. The TCO may submit settlement proposals of less than $100,000 to the audit agency. Referrals shall indicate any specific information or data that the TCO desires and shall...

  11. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris; Dorrity, J. Lewis

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5k W, the proposed machine will run continuously, unmanned in fourteen day cycles, matching the length of moon days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  12. A lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  13. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris; Dorrity, J. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5k W, the proposed machine will run continuously, unmanned in fourteen day cycles, matching the length of moon days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  14. Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; French, Raymond; Nall,Mark; Muery, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL and USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single, common, intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. LMMP will provide such products as DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data.

  15. Lunar in situ resource utilization by activated thermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen

    2011-10-01

    NASA's anticipated returns to the Moon by 2020, subsequent establishment of lunar in situ resource utilization technologies are essential. The surface of Moon is covered with small eroded particles of regolith called lunar dust that adheres electro-statically to everything coming in contact with it, and is of much concern for future lunar base because of its continual mitigation. The next major concern is the protection of equipment and personnel in long term expeditions from harmful UV radiation, which can be made by constructing protective buildings. For construction of permanent structures it is highly desired to have regular shaped sintered regolith with utilization of local materials and with minimum energy consumption. In this study the concept of sintering of lunar regolith with activated thermite reactions is discussed. The thermodynamic calculations as well as the experimental procedure is provided to prove the effectiveness of activated thermites for regolith sintering using local lunar resources with a low (15 wt. %) concentration of aluminum or magnesium. The thermite method is much more energy efficient than the other sintering methods suggested in literature.

  16. Fast Ray Tracing of Lunar Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Mitrofanov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Ray-tracing (RT) of Lunar Digital Elevation Models (DEM)'s is performed to virtually derive the degree of radiation incident to terrain as a function of time, orbital and ephemeris constraints [I- 4]. This process is an integral modeling process in lunar polar research and exploration due to the present paucity of terrain information at the poles and mission planning activities for the anticipated spring 2009 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). As part of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) preparations RI methods are used to estimate the critical conditions presented by the combined effects of high latitude, terrain and the moons low obliquity [5-7]. These factors yield low incident solar illumination and subsequently extreme thermal, and radiation conditions. The presented research uses RT methods both for radiation transport modeling in space and regolith related research as well as to derive permanently shadowed regions (PSR)'s in high latitude topographic minima, e.g craters. These regions are of scientific and human exploration interest due to the near constant low temperatures in PSRs, inferred to be < 100 K. Hydrogen is thought to have accumulated in PSR's through the combined effects of periodic cometary bombardment and/or solar wind processes, and the extreme cold which minimizes hydrogen sublimation [8-9]. RT methods are also of use in surface position optimization for future illumination dependent on surface resources e.g. power and communications equipment.

  17. Feasibility and Definition of a Lunar Polar Volatiles Prospecting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Elphic, Richard; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry; Pedersen, Liam; Beyer, Ross; Cockrell, James

    2012-01-01

    The recent Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission has provided evidence for significant amounts of cold trapped volatiles in Cabeus crater near the Moon's south pole. Moreover, LRO/Diviner measurements of extremely cold lunar polar surface temperatures imply that volatiles can be stable outside or areas of strict permanent shadows. These discoveries suggest that orbital neutron spectrometer data point to extensive deposits at both lunar poles. The physical state, composition and distribution of these volatiles are key scientific issues that relate to source and emplacement mechanisms. These issues are also important for enabling lunar in situ resource utilization (ISRU). An assessment of the feasibility of cold-trapped volatile ISRU requires a priori information regarding the location, form, quantity, and potential for extraction of available resources. A robotic mission to a mostly shadowed but briefly .unlit location with suitable environmental conditions (e.g. short periods of oblique sunlight and subsurface cryogenic temperatures which permit volatile trapping) can help answer these scientific and exploration questions. Key parameters must be defined in order to identify suitable landing sites, plan surface operations, and achieve mission success. To address this need, we have conducted an initial study for a lunar polar volatile prospecting mission, assuming the use of a solar-powered robotic lander and rover. Here we present the mission concept, goals and objectives, and landing site selection analysis for a short-duration, landed, solar-powered mission to a potential hydrogen volatile-rich site.

  18. The Lunar Thermal Ice Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonson, O.; Schorghofer, N.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical considerations and recent observations indicate the lunar polar regions harbor deposits of water ice in extremely cold regions. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial match to permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that ice is not simply trapped by low temperature but another mechanism plays a role in concentrating H2O. Under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H2O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated to be mean surface temperatures below 105 K and peak surface temperatures higher than 130 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps, roughly defined by peak temperatures <120 K. Temperatures were obtained by analyzing the LRO Diviner measurements and geographic regions of positive pumping differential are identified. These extend the ice distribution beyond traditional cold traps. At latitudes poleward of 85 degrees equator-facing slopes have a positive pumping differential because at this latitude their aspect allows larger temperature oscillations while remaining on average cold. At lower polar latitudes, down to about 70 degrees, pole-facing slopes have positive pumping differential, because here the slope aspect allows the surface to remain cooler than average.

  19. The lunar thermal ice pump

    SciTech Connect

    Schorghofer, Norbert; Aharonson, Oded

    2014-06-20

    It has long been suggested that water ice can exist in extremely cold regions near the lunar poles, where sublimation loss is negligible. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial or ambiguous correlation with permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that another mechanism may contribute to locally enhancing water concentrations. We show that under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H{sub 2}O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated and found to occur where the mean surface temperature is below 105 K and the peak surface temperature is above 120 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps that are roughly defined by peak temperatures lower than 120 K. On the present-day Moon, an estimated 0.8% of the global surface area experiences such temperature variations. Typically, pumping occurs on pole-facing slopes in small areas, but within a few degrees of each pole the equator-facing slopes are preferred. Although pumping of water molecules is expected over cumulatively large areas, the absolute yield of this pump is low; at best, a few percent of the H{sub 2}O delivered to the surface could have accumulated in the near-surface layer in this way. The amount of ice increases with vapor diffusivity and is thus higher in the regolith with large pore spaces.

  20. Lunar Simulation in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar has been assembled at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide a high fidelity lunar simulation facility to test the interactions of lunar dust and lunar dust simulant with candidate aerospace materials and coatings. It has a sophisticated design which enables it to treat dust in a way that will remove adsorbed gases and create a chemically reactive surface. It can simulate the vacuum, thermal, and radiation environments of the Moon, including proximate areas of illuminated heat and extremely cold shadow. It is expected to be a valuable tool in the development of dust repellant and cleaning technologies for lunar surface systems.

  1. Permanent versus disconnectable FPSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yong; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2009-06-01

    Floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) vessels offer a cost-effective field development solution, especially in deepwater areas lacking an adequate pipeline network. Most FPSOs are permanently moored, i.e. the complete system is designed to withstand any kind of extreme environment at the field location. FPSOs that can be quickly disconnected from their moorings and risers have also been designed and deployed. The key feature of this type of disconnectable FPSO is that it can be disconnect and so avoid dangerous environmental conditions such as icebergs, hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and typhoons in the South China Sea. In this paper, the concept of disconnectable FPSOs for deepwater field development is presented. Key technologies and their engineering analyses are highlighted. The merits and demerits of disconnectable vs permanent FPSOs are then evaluated. The paper concludes that both permanent and disconnectable FPSOs are versatile floating systems and their selection depends on safety, technological, cost and operational considerations.

  2. Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

    Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

  3. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  4. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum....

  5. The lunar apatite paradox.

    PubMed

    Boyce, J W; Tomlinson, S M; McCubbin, F M; Greenwood, J P; Treiman, A H

    2014-04-25

    Recent discoveries of water-rich lunar apatite are more consistent with the hydrous magmas of Earth than the otherwise volatile-depleted rocks of the Moon. Paradoxically, this requires H-rich minerals to form in rocks that are otherwise nearly anhydrous. We modeled existing data from the literature, finding that nominally anhydrous minerals do not sufficiently fractionate H from F and Cl to generate H-rich apatite. Hydrous apatites are explained as the products of apatite-induced low magmatic fluorine, which increases the H/F ratio in melt and apatite. Mare basalts may contain hydrogen-rich apatite, but lunar magmas were most likely poor in hydrogen, in agreement with the volatile depletion that is both observed in lunar rocks and required for canonical giant-impact models of the formation of the Moon. PMID:24652938

  6. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  7. A lunar polar expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  8. Lunar crane hook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    The base and ball hook system is an attachment that is designed to be used on the lunar surface as an improved alternative to the common crane hook and eye system. The design proposed uses an omni-directional ball hook and base to overcome the design problems associated with a conventional crane hook. The base and ball hook is not sensitive to cable twist which would render a robotic lunar crane useless since there is little atmospheric resistance to dampen the motion of an oscillating member. The symmetric characteristics of the ball hook and base eliminates manual placement of the ball hook into the base; commonly associated with the typical hook and eye stem. The major advantage of the base and ball hook system is it's ease of couple and uncouple modes that are advantages during unmanned robotic lunar missions.

  9. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  10. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, J. M.; Petro, A. J.; Stump, W. R.; Adorjan, A. S.; Chambers, T. V.; Donofrio, M.; Hirasaki, J. K.; Morris, O. G.; Nudd, G.; Rawlings, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a first look at the problems of building a lunar lander to support a small lunar surface base. A series of trade studies was performed to define the lander. The initial trades concerned choosing number of stages, payload mass, parking orbit altitude, and propellant type. Other important trades and issues included plane change capability, propellant loading and maintenance location, and reusability considerations. Given a rough baseline, the systems were then reviewed. A conceptual design was then produced. The process was carried through only one iteration. Many more iterations are needed. A transportation system using reusable, aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) is assumed. These OTV's are assumed to be based and maintained at a low Earth orbit (LEO) space station, optimized for transportation functions. Single- and two-stage OTV stacks are considered. The OTV's make the translunar injection (TLI), lunar orbit insertion (LOI), and trans-Earth injection (TEI) burns, as well as midcourse and perigee raise maneuvers.

  11. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseney, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry Dean; Lindbergh, Charles

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar based subjected to one atmosphere internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design: (1) during construction; (2) under pressurization; and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the air-tightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the moon.

  12. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseny, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry D.; Lindbergh, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar base subjected to 1-atm internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design (1) during construction, (2) under pressurization, and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the airtightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the Moon.

  13. Lunar materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper surveys current information, describes some important unknowns about lunar materials, and discusses ways to gain more scientific and engineering knowledge concerning the industrial processes that could be used on the moon for the production of products useful in future enterprises in space. Lunar rocks and soils are rich in oxygen, but it is mostly chemically bound in silicates, so that chemical or thermal energy must be supplied to recover it. Iron and titanium are abundant and, in some of their known forms, readily recoverable; aluminum is plentiful but harder to extract. Methods for recovering lunar oxygen and metals fall into three classes: chemical, electrolytic, and dissociative, broadly characterized by their respective process temperatures. Examples of these methods are briefly discussed.

  14. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  15. Simulation of lunar carbon chemistry. II - Lunar winds contribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Burlingame, A. L.; Wszolek, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    Simulation experiments, computations, and analysis of glassy agglutinates show that a directly condensed lunar wind vapor phase is strongly depleted in carbon and sulfur compounds and may recrystallize rapidly in the lunar thermal cycle and separate from host crystals. Factors preventing identification of low-energy species implanted from the lunar atmosphere are discussed. Computational results indicate that the implanted lunar winds carbon originates both from the vapor phases injected into the lunar atmosphere during thermal metamorphism of mature lunar soil grains and from direct volatization of impacting micrometeorites. It is suggested that microglass splashes and tiny crystalline grains possibly attached to the surface of coarser grains do not affect the characteristics of solar wind carbon chemistry in the lunar soil.

  16. The Lunar Polesitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Here-to-fore, sailcraft mission and system studies have focused on sailcraft applications in support of NASA's science missions and, in a few studies, on the needs of other federal agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Department of Defense (DoD). These studies have identified numerous promising applications for solar sails, leading NASA to support proposal efforts for three NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) flight demonstration opportunities (the Space Technology-5, -7, and -9 opportunities) as well as an extensive three-year ground development program in FY 2003-2005 sponsored by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program. What has not been done to date, however, is to investigate how the technology might also benefit the nation's (and NASA's) emerging interest in the Human Exploration Initiative (HEI). This paper reports on the first effort to address this shortfall in mission applications studies in support of HEI: the use of solar-sail-propelled Lunar Polesitter spacecraft which make use of the natural properties of the Earth-Moon L2 point and solar sail propulsion to enable their positioning near the Lunar poles to serve as communications relay stations. Suitably positioned, such spacecraft enable continuous communications to and from the Earth from any point on the lunar far side. The paper shows that a viable sailcraft system design exists permitting station-keeping of a Lunar Polesitter relay station at 40 Lunar radii from the Moon in the anti-Earth direction, displaced 6-8 Lunar radii below the Earth- Moon plane.

  17. Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney; Brannon, David P.; Underwood, Lauren; Russell, Kristen J.

    2007-01-01

    In polar regions of the Moon, some areas within craters are permanently shadowed from solar illumination and can reach temperatures of 100 K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding 50 K in many cases. Observed temperatures suggest that these regions could enable equivalent liquid nitrogen cryogenic functions. These permanently shaded polar craters also offer unprecedented high-vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their current state could support cryogenic applications. Besides ice stores, the unique conditions at the lunar poles harbor an environment that provides an opportunity to reduce the power, weight, and total mass that needs to be carried from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research. Reducing the heat flux of geothermal, black body radiation can have significant impacts on the achievable temperature. With a few manmade augmentations, permanently shaded craters located near the lunar poles achieve temperatures even lower than those that naturally exist. Our analysis reveals that lightweight thermal shielding within shaded craters could create an environment several Kelvin above absolute zero. The temperature ranges of both naturally shaded and thermally augmented craters could enable the long-term storage of most gases, low-temperature superconductors for large magnetic fields, devices and advanced high-speed computing instruments. Augmenting thermal conditions in these craters could then be used as a basis for the development of an advanced thermal management architecture that would support a wide variety of cryogenically based applications. Lunar exploration and habitation capabilities would significantly benefit if permanently shaded craters, augmented with thermal shielding, were used to facilitate the operation of near

  18. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1-40amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE,LRO, etc.).

  19. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy/charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1 - 40 amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE, LRO, etc.).

  20. Radiation Environments for Lunar Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Blackwell, Willliam C.; Harine, Katherine J.

    2007-01-01

    Developing reliable space systems for lunar exploration and infrastructure for extended duration operations on the lunar surface requires analysis and mitigation of potential system vulnerabilities to radiation effects on materials and systems. This paper reviews the characteristics of space radiation environments relevant to lunar programs including the trans-Earth and trans-lunar injection trajectories through the Earth's radiation belts, solar wind surface dose environments, energetic solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays and discusses the radiation design environments being developed for lunar program requirements to assure that systems operate successfully in the space environment.

  1. The lunar laser ranging experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Currie, D. G.; Poultney, S. K.; Dicke, R. H.; Eckhardt, D. H.; Kaula, W. M.; Mulholland, J. D.; Plotkin, H. H.; Silverberg, E. C.; Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives achievable through high-accuracy range measurements to lunar retroreflectors are considered. A specific study of design questions related to the operation of retroreflectors on the lunar surface indicated that a reflector panel containing a number of solid fused silica corner reflectors would be capable of maintaining essentially diffraction limited performance under direct solar illumination. Initial Apollo 11 observations are discussed together with the installation of additional lunar retroreflectors in connection with the Luna 17, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, and Luna 21 missions. Range measurements at the McDonald Observatory are considered along with new results from lunar range data, and prospects regarding future lunar ranging stations.

  2. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1990-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet

  3. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet

  4. 12 CFR 625.20 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 625.20 Section 625.20 Banks and... UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.20 Settlement. A... decision pursuant to § 625.26 of this part. If it has not been previously filed, the application must...

  5. 12 CFR 625.20 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement. 625.20 Section 625.20 Banks and... UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.20 Settlement. A... decision pursuant to § 625.26 of this part. If it has not been previously filed, the application must...

  6. 42 CFR 1003.126 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1003.126 Section 1003.126 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has...

  7. 42 CFR 1003.126 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Settlement. 1003.126 Section 1003.126 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has...

  8. 42 CFR 1003.126 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Settlement. 1003.126 Section 1003.126 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has...

  9. Physiological parameters in space settlement design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1977-01-01

    One of the major goals of space settlement design is the provision of an environment which will allow full health and effective performance for all members of the population. Attention is given to questions concerning an alternation of 1 G-0 G environment, the physiology of weightlessness, the transit between earth and settlement, research on physiological parameters, and the need for a sensitivity analysis.

  10. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues...

  11. 12 CFR 308.179 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement negotiations. 308.179 Section 308.179 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF... § 308.179 Settlement negotiations. If counsel for the FDIC and the applicant believe that the issues...

  12. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... States that has been delinquent for a period of 180 days shall be turned over to the Secretary of the... for debt settlement will consist of Form RD 1956-1 “Application For Settlement of Indebtedness... discharged in bankruptcy shall be cancelled by the use of Form RD 1956-1. A copy of the Bankruptcy...

  13. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... States that has been delinquent for a period of 180 days shall be turned over to the Secretary of the... for debt settlement will consist of Form RD 1956-1 “Application For Settlement of Indebtedness... discharged in bankruptcy shall be cancelled by the use of Form RD 1956-1. A copy of the Bankruptcy...

  14. 49 CFR 511.67 - Settlement order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement order. 511.67 Section 511.67 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Settlement Procedure in Cases of Violation of Average Fuel Economy Standards §...

  15. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  16. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  17. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  18. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  19. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  20. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Enforcement § 280.219 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging letter. In cases in which settlement is reached before service of a charging letter, a proposed charging letter will be... action will be required by the administrative law judge. (b) Cases may also be settled after service of...

  1. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 43, 63 and 64 International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission eliminates the International Settlements... on all U.S.-international routes giving U.S. consumers competitive pricing when they...

  2. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  3. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement. 511.26 Section 511.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Prehearing Procedures; Motions; Interlocutory Appeals; Summary Judgment; Settlement §...

  4. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1434.19 Section 1434.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value...

  5. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 963.12 Section 963.12 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements....

  6. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  7. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  8. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies...

  9. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies...

  10. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement conferences. 1.956 Section 1.956 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.956 Settlement conferences....

  11. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and advances; Resource Conservation and Development loans; and 306 (c) Water and Waste Facility loans....

  12. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.956 Settlement conferences. Parties...) To consider other matters that may aid in the resolution of the contested proceeding. (b) Conferences... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement conferences. 1.956 Section...

  13. 24 CFR 1720.180 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Settlements. 1720.180 Section 1720.180 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Proceedings General Provisions § 1720.180 Settlements. Parties may propose in writing, at any time during...

  14. Breaking down barriers to electronic claims settlement.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Lynn

    2007-03-01

    Past attempts to transition payer and provider environments to electronic claims settlements have faced several obstacles. However, technological advances, the development of more secure databases, bank-independent approaches to electronic funds transfer and electronic remittance advice, and the availability of secure archives are now making electronic settlement increasingly practical, cost-effective, and attainable. PMID:19097620

  15. Principals' Perceptions of the "Gaskin" Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silla-Zaleski, Vanessa A.; Bauman, Dona C.; Stufft, Derry L.

    2007-01-01

    The "Gaskin" settlement resulted from a class action lawsuit brought on the behalf of students with significant disabilities in Pennsylvania. With the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 and the "Gaskin" settlement, schools in Pennsylvania are mandated to increase the placement of students with…

  16. Lunar Flashlight: Exploration and Science at the Moon with a 6U Cubesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as a secondary payload on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS), currently scheduled for 2018. Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest volatiles may be present on the surface, though the detection is not yet definitive. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and map its concentration at the 1-2 kilometer scale within the PSRs. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight maneuvers into a low-energy transfer to lunar orbit and then an elliptical polar orbit, spiraling down to a perilune of 10-30 km above the south pole for data collection. Lunar Flashlight will illuminate permanently shadowed regions, measuring surface albedo with point spectrometer at 1.1, 1.5 1.9, and 2.0 mm. Water ice will be distinguished from dry regolith in two ways: 1) spatial variations in absolute reflectance (water ice is much brighter in the continuum channels), and 2) reflectance ratios between absorption and continuum channels. Derived reflectance and water ice band depths will be mapped onto the lunar surface in order to distinguish the composition of the PSRs from that of the sunlit terrain, and to compare with lunar datasets such as LRO and Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Lunar Flashlight enables a low-cost path to science and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) by identifying ice deposits (if there are any), which would be a game-changing result for expanded human exploration.

  17. CAS-1 lunar soil simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongchun; Wang, Shijie; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Zou, Yongliao; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Chunlai; Li, Xiongyao; Feng, Junming

    2009-02-01

    Lunar soil simulant is a geochemical reproduction of lunar regolith, and is needed for lunar science and engineering researches. This paper describes a new lunar soil simulant, CAS-1, prepared by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, to support lunar orbiter, soft-landing mission and sample return missions of China’s Lunar Exploration Program, which is scheduled for 2004 2020. Such simulants should match the samples returned from the Moon, all collected from the lunar regolith rather than outcrops. The average mineral and chemical composition of lunar soil sample returned from the Apollo 14 mission, which landed on the Fra Mauro Formation, is chosen as the model for the CAS-1 simulant. Source material for this simulant was a low-Ti basaltic scoria dated at 1600 years from the late Quaternary volcanic area in the Changbai Mountains of northeast China. The main minerals of this rock are pyroxene, olivine, and minor plagioclase, and about 20 40% modal glass. The scoria was analyzed by XRF and found to be chemically similar to Apollo 14 lunar sample 14163. It was crushed in an impact mill with a resulting median particle size 85.9 μm, similar to Apollo soils. Bulk density, shear resistance, complex permittivity, and reflectance spectra were also similar to Apollo 14 soil. We conclude that CAS-1 is an ideal lunar soil simulant for science and engineering research of future lunar exploration program.

  18. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  19. 39 CFR 3030.40 - Policy on settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... settlement. It shall be the general policy and practice of the Commission to encourage alternative dispute resolution and settlement of complaints by informal procedures, such as correspondence, conferences...

  20. 39 CFR 3030.40 - Policy on settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... settlement. It shall be the general policy and practice of the Commission to encourage alternative dispute resolution and settlement of complaints by informal procedures, such as correspondence, conferences...

  1. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Haas, W. Randall; Klink, Cynthia J.; Maggard, Greg J.; Aldenderfer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare—behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  2. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    PubMed

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  3. Estimating Lunar Pyroclastic Deposit Depth from Imaging Radar Data: Applications to Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. A.; Stacy, N. J.; Campbell, D. B.; Zisk, S. H.; Thompson, T. W.; Hawke, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits represent one of the primary anticipated sources of raw materials for future human settlements. These deposits are fine-grained volcanic debris layers produced by explosive volcanism contemporaneous with the early stage of mare infilling. There are several large regional pyroclastic units on the Moon (for example, the Aristarchus Plateau, Rima Bode, and Sulpicius Gallus formations), and numerous localized examples, which often occur as dark-halo deposits around endogenic craters (such as in the floor of Alphonsus Crater). Several regional pyroclastic deposits were studied with spectral reflectance techniques: the Aristarchus Plateau materials were found to be a relatively homogeneous blanket of iron-rich glasses. One such deposit was sampled at the Apollo 17 landing site, and was found to have ferrous oxide and titanium dioxide contents of 12 percent and 5 percent, respectively. While the areal extent of these deposits is relatively well defined from orbital photographs, their depths have been constrained only by a few studies of partially filled impact craters and by imaging radar data. A model for radar backscatter from mantled units applicable to both 70-cm and 12.6-cm wavelength radar data is presented. Depth estimates from such radar observations may be useful in planning future utilization of lunar pyroclastic deposits.

  4. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. W.; Vondrak, R. R.; Garvin, J.; Chin, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has the objectives of mapping the lunar surface, identifying safe landing sites, searching for resources and measuring the space radiation environment. After launch on June 18, 2009, the LRO spacecraft and instruments were activated and calibrated in an eccentric polar lunar orbit until September 15, when LRO was moved to a circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 50 km. LRO will operate for at least one year to support the goals of NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and for at least two years of extended operations for additional lunar science measurements supported by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD). LRO carries six instruments and a technology demonstration. The LRO instruments are: Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Exploration Experiment (DLRE), Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). The technology demonstration is a synthetic aperture radar system (mini-RF). LRO observations also supports the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), the lunar impact mission that was co-manifested with LRO on the Atlas V launch vehicle. This paper describes the LRO objectives and measurements that support exploration of the Moon and that address the science objectives outlined by the National Academy of Science’s report on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SCEM). We also describe data accessibility by the science community.

  5. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D.; Hougen, D.; Shirley, D.

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore the Hadley Rille site; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by Apollo 15 thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of the parts of the Rille that were considered too dangerous to be explored by the Apollo 15 crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. When we asked what we could do to motivate students the way the authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon, we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon, as is going to the Moo n. The students seem to agree.

  6. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  7. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Hovland, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The study to identify and define recognizable fabrics in lunar soil in order to determine the history of the lunar regolith in different locations is reported. The fabric of simulated lunar soil, and lunar soil samples are discussed along with the behavior of simulated lunar soil under dynamic and static loading. The planned research is also included.

  8. Apollo Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Artist rendering of the Lunar Orbiter, the most successful of the pre-Apollo probes, which mapped the equatorial regions of the moon and gave NASA the data it needed to pinpoint ideal landing spots. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 314.

  9. Base Lunar Alpha

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tu misión: Recuperar los sistemas críticos cuando un meteoro daña los equipos de supervivencia de tu ambiente lunar. Parece una película de ciencia ficción, ¿verdad? En realidad, es el nuevo juego ...

  10. Lunar troilite: Crystallography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Fine, euhedral crystals of troilite from lunar sample 10050 show a hexagonal habit consistent with the high-temperature NiAs-type structure. Complete three-dimensional counter intensity data have been measured and used to confirm and refine Bertaut's proposed low-temperature crystal structure.

  11. Products from lunar anorthite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Donald L.; Cochran, C. Norman; Cochran, William C.; Haupin, Warren E.; Keller, Rudolph

    1989-01-01

    Lunar anorthositic soil can be processed to produce oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and calcium. A process scheme starting with the beneficiation of the ore by magnetic separation and yielding the pure products is being developed. Simplifications in the process are possible if requirements regarding product purity and separation may be relaxed.

  12. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, atomic absorption analysis and a variety of simulation studies.

  13. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  14. Investigations of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    In the particle track work, a series of dating techniques for learning about the surface history of soil and rock samples was developed. The surface behavior and history of diverse lunar rocks and soils, erosion rates, and deposition rates were studied, along with incident heavy cosmic ray spectrum.

  15. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  16. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. A Lunar Chronology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Oliver A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses methods used in determination of absolute isotopic ages for the returned lunar material, including the uranium-lead, rubidium-strontium, and argon 40-argon 39 ratio methods. Indicates that there would exist a basin-forming bombardment period for the Moon extending over at least 300 million years. (CC)

  18. Mechanism of lunar polarization.

    PubMed

    Hopfield, J J

    1966-03-18

    A theoretical model to explain the negative polarization of moonlight at small lunar phase angles is developed. The model is based on the polarization of light in the diffraction region bordering the geometric shadow of an opaque dielectric obstacle. PMID:17817298

  19. Lunar surface gravimeter experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giganti, J. J.; Larson, J. V.; Richard, J. P.; Tobias, R. L.; Weber, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lunar surface gravimeter used the moon as an instrumented antenna to search for gravitational waves predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. Tidal deformation of the moon was measured. Gravitational radiation is a channel that is capable of giving information about the structure and evolution of the universe.

  20. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  1. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-01-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both

  2. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-05-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both

  3. Lunar Dust: Characterization and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt. Mark J.; Feighery, John

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust is a ubiquitous phenomenon which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. Near term plans to revisit the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond, places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it's potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. The same hold true for assessing the risk it may pose for toxicological health problems if inhaled. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program's Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. This work further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it's characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost. The paper also presents a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware.

  4. Property Status of Lunar Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, V.

    Most of the lunar material in private hands is of meteoric origin, and its property sta- tus does not present many challenges. The intention of Applied Space Resources, Inc, to fly a commercial lunar sample return mission and to subsequently offer lunar ma- terial for sale, raises the issue of the legality of exploitation and private ownership of retrieved lunar material. Lunar samples have been returned in the past by means of the Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) missions and, while most of the material re- mains government property and is used for scientific means, a small fraction has been transferred abroad and some has entered the private market. Apollo-collected moon- rocks have been offered, symbolically, to heads of States, and some foreign nations have subsequently transferred ownership to private individuals. The same, lunar ma- terial of Soviet provenience has entered the private market, this forming a valuable legal precedent for the lawfulness of sale of lunar material. Recently, plans were made public to award the Apollo astronauts with lunar rocks. While in the US there is a popular misconception that it is illegal to own lunar material, the truth lies elsewhere. As the Apollo samples are the property of the US government and a small fraction was stolen, lost, or misplaced, the US government intends to recover this material, unlawfully owned. In the same time, a significant number of individuals have been prosecuted for offering for sale fake lunar rocks. The present paper will analyse the different categories of lunar material according to its ownership status, and will as- sert that private property of lunar material is lawful, and lunar material that will be returned in the future will be able to enter the market without hindrances.

  5. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  6. The Lunar Quest Program and the International Lunar Network (ILN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science group at Marshall provides core capabilities to support the Agency's lunar exploration goals. ILN Anchor Nodes are currently in development by MSFC and APL under the Lunar Quest Program at MSFC. The Science objectives of the network are to understand the interior structure and composition of the moon. Pre-phase A engineering assessments are complete, showing a design that can achieve the science requirements, either on their own (if 4 launched) or in concert with international partners. Risk reduction activities are ongoing. The Lunar Quest Program is a Science-based program with the following goals: a) Fly small/medium science missions to accomplish key science goals; b) Build a strong lunar science community; c) Provide opportunities to demonstrate new technologies; and d) Where possible, help ESMD and SOMG goals and enhance presence of science in the implementation of the VSE. The Lunar Quest Program will be guided by recommendations from community reports.

  7. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kumada, M.; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC

    2007-05-23

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.

  8. Permanent Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The health risks and side effects of fluoroquinolone use include the risk of tendon rupture and myasthenia gravis exacerbation, and on August 15, 2013, the Food and Drug Administration updated its warning to include the risk of permanent peripheral neuropathy. We present a case of fluoroquinolone-induced peripheral neuropathy in a patient treated for clinically diagnosed urinary tract infection with ciprofloxacin antibiotic. PMID:26425618

  9. Permanent magnet design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leupold, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Design techniques developed for the exploitation of high energy magnetically rigid materials such as Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B have resulted in a revolution in kind rather than in degree in the design of a variety of electron guidance structures for ballistic and aerospace applications. Salient examples are listed. Several prototype models were developed. These structures are discussed in some detail: permanent magnet solenoids, transverse field sources, periodic structures, and very high field structures.

  10. Lunar bases and space activities of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The present conference gives attention to such major aspects of lunar colonization as lunar base concepts, lunar transportation, lunar science research activities, moon-based astronomical researches, lunar architectural construction, lunar materials and processes, lunar oxygen production, life support and health maintenance in lunar bases, societal aspects of lunar colonization, and the prospects for Mars colonization. Specific discussions are presented concerning the role of nuclear energy in lunar development, achromatic trajectories and the industrial scale transport of lunar resources, advanced geologic exploration from a lunar base, geophysical investigations of the moon, moon-based astronomical interferometry, the irradiation of the moon by particles, cement-based composites for lunar base construction, electrostatic concentration of lunar soil minerals, microwave processing of lunar materials, a parametric analysis of lunar oxygen production, hydrogen from lunar regolith fines, metabolic support for a lunar base, past and future Soviet lunar exploration, and the use of the moons of Mars as sources of water for lunar bases.

  11. What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

  12. The Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder. [lunar orbit coherent radar experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Jordan, R.; Adams, G. F.; Jackson, P.; Peeples, W. J.; Porcello, L. J.; Ryu, J.; Eggleton, R. E.; Schaber, G.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment, a coherent radar operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission, has scientific objectives of mapping lunar subsurface structure, surface profiling, surface imaging, and galactic noise measurement. Representative results from each of the four disciplines are presented. Subsurface reflections have been interpreted in both optically and digitally processed data. Images and profiles yield detailed selenomorphological information. The preliminary galactic noise results are consistent with earlier measurements by other workers.

  13. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Taylor, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence and EPR can be used to measure the reactivity of lunar soil. Lunar soil is highly activated by grinding. Reactivity is dependent upon soil maturity and locale. Maturity is based on the amount of nanophase iron (np-Fe) in a soil relative to the total iron (FeO). Lunar soil activity ia a direct function of the amount of np-Fe present. Reactive soil can be "deactivated" by humid atmosphere.

  14. Software Architecture for Planetary and Lunar Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans; Fong, Teny; Nesnas, Iasa A. D.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the role that software architecture plays in space and lunar robotics is shown. The topics include: 1) The Intelligent Robotics Group; 2) The Lunar Mission; 3) Lunar Robotics; and 4) Software Architecture for Space Robotics.

  15. Adsorption of Water on JSC-1A Lunar Simulant Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goering, John; Sah, Shweta; Burghaus, Uwe; Street, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing probes sent to the moon in the 1990s indicated that water may exist in areas such as the bottoms of deep, permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles, buried under regolith. Water is of paramount importance for any lunar exploration and colonization project which would require self-sustainable systems. Therefore, investigating the interaction of water with lunar regolith is pertinent to future exploration. The lunar environment can be approximated in ultra-high vacuum systems such as those used in thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Questions about water dissociation, surface wetting, degree of crystallization, details of water-ice transitions, and cluster formation kinetics can be addressed by TDS. Lunar regolith specimens collected during the Apollo missions are still available though precious, so testing with simulant is required before applying to use lunar regolith samples. Hence, we used for these studies JSC-1a, mostly an aluminosilicate glass and basaltic material containing substantial amounts of plagioclase, some olivine and traces of other minerals. Objectives of this project include: 1) Manufacturing samples using as little raw material as possible, allowing the use of surface chemistry and kinetics tools to determine the feasibility of parallel studies on regolith, and 2) Characterizing the adsorption kinetics of water on the regolith simulant. This has implications for the probability of finding water on the moon and, if present, for recovery techniques. For condensed water films, complex TDS data were obtained containing multiple features, which are related to subtle rearrangements of the water adlayer. Results from JSC-1a TDS studies indicate: 1) Water dissociation on JSC-1a at low exposures, with features detected at temperatures as high as 450 K and 2) The formation of 3D water clusters and a rather porous condensed water film. It appears plausible that the sub- m sized particles act as nucleation centers.

  16. Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the six billion people on Earth produce less than 2,500 per year per person of Gross World Product (GWP). GWP growth is severely limited by the high cost, low availability and reliability, environmental damages, and political uncertainties of conventional fossil, nuclear, and terrestrial renewable power systems. In 2000 the World Energy Council challenged all decision makers to enable the equivalent of 6.7 kWt per person of thermal power within two generations. This implies 67 TWt, or approx.20 to 30 TWe, of sustainable electric power by 2050. Twenty-five power systems were reviewed to select which could: (1) sustainably provide 20 TWe to consumers; (2) profitably sell electricity for less than 0.01 per kWe-h; (3) be environmentally neutral, even nurturing; and (4) use understood technologies. The analyses indicated that only the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System could meet these requirements within the 21st Century.

  17. Lunar crane system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In many lunar construction scenarios, mechanical cranes in some form will be indispensible in moving large masses around with various degrees of fine positioning. While thorough experience exists in the use of terrestrial cranes new thinking is required about the design of cranes to be used in extraterrestrial construction. The primary driving force for this new thinking is the need to automate the crane system so that space cranes can be operated as telerobotic machines with a large number of automatic capabilities. This is true because in extraterrestrial construction human resources will need to be critically rationed. The design problems of mechanisms and control systems for a lunar crane must deal with at least two areas of performance. First, the automated crane must be capable of maneuvering a large mass, so that when the mass arrives at the target position there are only small vibrations. Secondly, any residue vibrations must be automatically damped out and a fine positioning must be achieved. For extraterrestrial use there are additional challenges to a crane design - for example, to design a crane system so that it can be transformed for other construction uses. This initial project in crane design does not address such additional issues, although they may be the subject of future CSC research. To date the Center has designed and analyzed many mechanisms. The fundamental problem of trade-offs between passively stabilizing the load and actively controlling the load by actuators was extensively studied. The capability of 3D dynamics modeling now exists for such studies. A scaled model of a lunar crane was set up and it has been most fruitful in providing basic understanding of lunar cranes. Due to an interesting scaling match-up, this scaled model exhibits the load vibration frequencies one would expect in the real lunar case. Using the analytical results achieved to date, a laboratory crane system is now being developed as a test bed for verifying a wide

  18. Lunar Gene Bank For Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, R.; Behera, D.; Sahoo, P. K.; Swain, S. K.; Sasmal, A.

    2012-09-01

    Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. The gene pools of many human ethnic groups are also threatened. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. Against such indispensable losses scientists are starting cryopreservation of germplasms by creation of gene banks. I propose to construct a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions [4].

  19. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  20. 5 CFR 2423.25 - Post complaint, prehearing settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post complaint, prehearing settlements... Post Complaint, Prehearing Procedures § 2423.25 Post complaint, prehearing settlements. (a) Informal and formal settlements. Post complaint settlements may be either informal or formal. (1)...

  1. 5 CFR 2423.25 - Post complaint, prehearing settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Post complaint, prehearing settlements... Post Complaint, Prehearing Procedures § 2423.25 Post complaint, prehearing settlements. (a) Informal and formal settlements. Post complaint settlements may be either informal or formal. (1)...

  2. Exobiology and SETI from the lunar farside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, Jill C.; Rummel, John

    1990-01-01

    Within the Life Sciences Division of NASA, the Exobiology Program seeks to understand the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. There are two feasible methods of searching for life beyond the earth. The first is to return to Mars and systematically explore its surface and subsurface with instrumentation capable of identifying extinct as well as extant life. The second is to search for advanced forms of life in other planetary systems that have developed a technology capable of modifying their environment in ways that make it detectable across the vast interstellar distances. The Exobiology Program is currently pursuing both of these options. If NASA's SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence) Microwave Observing Project of the 1990s fails to detect evidence of radio signals generated by an extraterrestrial technology, what might be the next step? The establishment of a permanent lunar base early in the next century may enable the construction of large aperture radio telescopes that can extend both the sensitivity and the frequency range of SETI observations. A lunar base may also provide the opportunity for construction of optical and IR telescopes intended for the direct detection of extrasolar planetary systems.

  3. Design and development of volatile analysis system for analog field test of lunar exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Captain, Janine E.; Weis, Kyle; Cryderman, Katherine; Coan, Mary; Lance, Lucas; Levine, Lanfang; Brooks Loftin, Kathleen; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Bauer, Brint; Quinn, Jaqueline

    2015-05-01

    The recent evidence of water in the lunar crater Cabeus from the LCROSS mission (Colaprete et al., 2010) provides confirmation of a valuable resource on the lunar surface. To understand this resource and the impact it can have on future exploration, further information is needed on the distribution and availability of the water ice. The Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is a part of the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload, designed to provide ground truth to the volatile distribution near the permanently shadowed regions on the lunar surface. The payload is designed to drill and extract a regolith core sample, heat the regolith to drive off the volatiles, and identify and quantify the volatile resources. The LAVA subsystem is specifically responsible for processing and analyzing the volatile gas sample from the lunar regolith sample. The main objective of this paper is to provide insight into the operations and hardware for volatile analysis developed and deployed at the 2012 RESOLVE Field Test on the slopes of Mauna Kea. The vision of employing Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) and modified COTS hardware to lower the cost for mission-enabling field tests will be highlighted. This paper will discuss how the LAVA subsystem hardware supported several high level RESOLVE mission objectives to demonstrate the challenging lunar mission concept proposed.

  4. Age of a lunar anorthosite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, L.; Schaeffer, O. A.; Sutter, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The crystallization age of an Apollo 15 anorthosite rock, 15415,9, returned from the lunar highlands has been measured to be 4.09 (plus or minus 0.19) b.y. The primitive lunar crust must have been formed in the first 300 to 400 m.y. The results give some credence to the hypothesis that the primitive lunar surface was molten and large-scale fractional crystallization occurred in the early history of the moon.

  5. Age of a lunar anorthosite.

    PubMed

    Husain, L; Schaeffer, O A; Sutter, J F

    1972-01-28

    The crystallization age of an Apollo 15 anorthosite rock, 15415,9, returned from the lunar highlands has been measured to be (4.09 +/- 0.19) x 10(9) years. The primitive lunar crust must have been formed in the first 300 to 400 x 10(6) years. The results give some credence to the hypothesis that the primitive lunar surface was molten and large-scale fractional crystallization occurred in the early history of the moon. PMID:17731365

  6. 37 CFR 42.409 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Derivation After Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.409 Settlement agreements. An agreement or understanding under 35 U.S.C. 135(e)...

  7. 32 CFR 536.55 - Structured settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...'s life expectancy cannot be reasonably determined or is likely to be shortened. (b) Under subpart D... Department of Justice never to discuss the tax-free nature of a structured settlement. Note to § 536.55:...

  8. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  9. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  10. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  11. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  12. 37 CFR 42.409 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Derivation After Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.409 Settlement agreements. An agreement or understanding under 35 U.S.C. 135(e)...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  15. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  16. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., supplemental certificate, and accompanying documents subject to adjustments for changes in quality and other...) In all cases, settlements may be adjusted for changes in quality and other factors affecting...

  18. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  19. 77 FR 37397 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP). Under the terms of the proposed settlement... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP), 75 FR 51570 (Aug. 20, 2010). Petitioners filed petitions for judicial review regarding...

  20. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...