Sample records for permanent lunar settlement

  1. Toward a permanent lunar settlement in the coming decade: the Columbus Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Ishikawa, M.Y.; Wood, L.L.

    1985-11-19

    The motivation for creating a permanent lunar settlement is sketched, and reasons for doing so in the coming decade are put forward. A basic plan to accomplish this is outlined, along technical and programmatic axes. It is concluded that founding a lunar settlement on the five hundredth anniversary of the Columbus landing - a Columbus Project - could be executed as a volunteer-intensive American enterprise requiring roughly six thousand man-years of skilled endeavor and a total Governmental contribution of the order of a half-billion dollars. 8 figs.

  2. Steps toward lunar settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The costs of transporting people and material to low-earth-orbit (LEO), and thence to the lunar surface, will constrain the pace and pattern of lunar development. Beginning as a spartan ''base camp'' completely supplied from Earth, a lunar science-and-resource-development facility could grow in size, amenities, and capability to the point that passenger transport becomes a major expense. At such a stage, some employees of the facility might be given the opportunity to become permanent residents; and at that point, lunar settlement will have begun. We assume growth rates of facilities and staff contained by the annual delivery of 900 tons to LEO. During the base camp era, about 100 tons would be delivered annually to the lunar surface. Within six years, the facility could grow to a collection of 25 modules, housing a staff of about 16 with each member of the staff serving a six-month tour on a staggered schedule. At the end of this first phase, oxygen produced from lunar ilmenite and delivered to lunar orbit for use as propellant would allow annual lunar-bound cargos of about 200 tons. Production from lunar materials of heat shields for aerobraking would enable economical delivery of lunar oxygen to LEO and, therefore, could raise lunar-bound cargoes to about 450 tons. Accumulatin of production capabilities would eventually allow use of lunar construction materials, to build farms and increase per capita living and working space. Once closed-loop environmental systems are in place, transport costs are dominated by staff rotation and the facility is limited to a maximum staff size of about 300. Further expansion requires that some staff become permanent residents.

  3. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Morgenthaler

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that

  4. AQUAPLEX An Environmentally Aware Model Lunar Settlement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darel Preble

    2003-01-01

    The construction and operation of a replica Lunar settlement (CELSS), can provide many lessons in in-situ resource utilization, telerobotic operation and reducing the hygiene water demanded by existing models of Lunar operation - a larger settlement may be operated with the same amount of precious water. Hypes and Hall and all other CELSS models found in the literature propose quantities

  5. A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Eric M.

    1992-01-01

    High transport costs will dominate the course of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of fuel, food, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earnings through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents could support themselves, but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufacturers, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, export taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

  6. Lunar settlements - A socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Factors in the design and development of a lunar settlement (LS) which affect the performance of the crew members are discussed. Topics examined include LS-program time constraints imposed by decisions made in developing and operating the Space Station; changes to make allowance for the long-term requirements of LSs; the design of the physical, technical, and organic LS environment; and the vital role of group dynamics in assuring LS success. It is suggested that many short-term cost-minimization strategies employed in spacecraft development may be inappropriate for LS programs.

  7. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  8. Lunar Limb Observatory: An Incremental Plan for the Utilization, Exploration, and Settlement of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul. D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive incremental program, Lunar Limb Observatory (LLO), for a return to the Moon, beginning with robotic missions and ending with a permanent lunar settlement. Several recent technological developments make such a program both affordable and scientifically valuable: robotic telescopes, the Internet, light-weight telescopes, shared- autonomy/predictive graphics telerobotic devices, and optical interferometry systems. Reasons for focussing new NASA programs on the Moon include public interest, Moon-based astronomy, renewed lunar exploration, lunar resources (especially helium-3), technological stimulus, accessibility of the Moon (compared to any planet), and dispersal of the human species to counter predictable natural catastrophes, asteroidal or cometary impacts in particular. The proposed Lunar Limb Observatory would be located in the crater Riccioli, with auxiliary robotic telescopes in M. Smythii and at the North and South Poles. The first phase of the program, after site certification, would be a series of 5 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to Riccioli (or Grimaldi if Riccioli proves unsuitable), emplacing robotic telescopes and carrying out surface exploration. The next phase would be 7 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to M. Smythii (2 missions), the South Pole (3 missions), and the North Pole (2 missions), emplacing robotic telescopes to provide continuous all-sky coverage. Lunar base establishment would begin with two unmanned Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur missions to Riccioli, for shelter emplacement, followed by the first manned return, also using the Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur mode. The main LLO at Riccioli would then be permanently or periodically inhabited, for surface exploration, telerobotic rover and telescope operation and maintenance, and support of Earth-based student projects. The LLO would evolve into a permanent human settlement, serving, among other functions, as a test area and staging base for the exploration, settlement, and terraforming of Mars.

  9. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory work can be accomplished with existing capabilities such as the ISS, the full implementation of a lunar habitat with an Earth-like environment will require the development of a lunar mission architecture that goes beyond VSE concepts. The proven knowledge of how to build such a lunar habitat can then be applied to various approaches for space settlement.

  10. Lunar magnetic field - Permanent and induced dipole moments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    Apollo 15 subsatellite magnetic field observations have been used to measure both the permanent and the induced lunar dipole moments. Although only an upper limit of 1.3 x 10 to the 18th gauss-cubic centimeters has been determined for the permanent dipole moment in the orbital plane, there is a significant induced dipole moment which opposes the applied field, indicating the existence of a weak lunar ionosphere.

  11. Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litton, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models.

  12. Possible Applications of Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies at Lunar Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Allen, Carl; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Brown, I.; Sarkisova, S.; Garrison, D.

    2007-01-01

    The most ambitious goal of the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar system. Today, however, missions would have to bring all of the propellant, air, food, water, habitable volumes and shielding needed to sustain settlers beyond Earth. That is why resources for propellants, life support and construction of support systems and habitats must be found in space and utilized if humans hope to ever explore and colonize the solar system. The life support, fuel production and material processing systems currently proposed for spaceflight are essentially disconnected. Only traditional crop production has been proposed as a segment for bioregenerative life support systems, although the efficiency of higher plants for air regeneration is generally low. Thus, the investigation of air bioregeneration techniques based on the activity of photosynthetic organisms with higher rates of CO2 scrubbing and O2 release is very timely and important. Future systems for organic waste utilization in space may also benefit from the use of specific microorganisms. This janitorial job is efficiently carried out by microbes on Earth, which drive and connect different elemental cycles. It is likely that environmental control and life support systems based on bioregeneration will be capable of converting both organic and inorganic components of the waste at lunar settlements into edible biomass. The most challenging technologies for future lunar settlements are the extraction of elements (e.g. Fe, O, Si, etc) from local rocks for industrial feedstocks and the production of propellants. While such extraction can be accomplished by purely inorganic processes, the high energy requirements of such processes motivates the search for alternative technologies with lower energy requirements and appropriate efficiency. Well-developed terrestrial industrial biotechnologies for metals extraction and conversion could therefore be the prototypes for extraterrestrial biometallurgy.

  13. Three Alternatives for the Acquisition of an Initial Lunar Installation: Lunar Laboratory, Temporary Lunar Base, Permanent Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.

    The exploration of the Moon began with the APOLLO Program in 1969. The first phase ended in 1972 with the 6th landing of a two man crew. An attempt of President George H. Bush in 1989 to revive this program failed due to drastic changes in the geopolitical environment prevaling in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. However, the exploration and utilization of lunar resources is likely to continue. This will be possible as soon as the state of the planet permits an adequate priority for this enterprise, provided that viable plans are available to enter the next phase of lunar exploration. This paper presents three such program options: A Permanent Lunar Base, a Temporary Lunar Base, and a Temporary Lunar Laboratory , the latter solely for research purposes. These programs have an optional life cycle of 30 or 10 years and a crew of 50 to 100 people, respectively. Life cycle program costs of the se Lunar installation options range between 25 and 50 B, and can double if they are including the cost of the logistic system. However, average annual program cost do not exceed 3 B, a level that indicates that programs of this type and size are affordable.

  14. Tidal settlement of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus spp. in SW Portugal: interaction between diel and semi-lunar cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Jacinto; Teresa Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and processes of tidal settlement (within 1 tidal cycle) of Chthamalus spp. in SW Portugal were investigated during the summer of 2003. Settlement patterns in relation to differ- ent periods of the day (night and day) and semi-lunar tidal cycles (spring and neap tides) were assessed using artificial plates deployed in intertidal habitats dominated by C. montagui. Settlement of

  15. Mechanical and load-settlement characteristics of two lunar soil simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Steven W.; Madson, Craig R.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, attention has been devoted to problems of construction of facilities on the lunar surface. Due to the unavailability of real lunar regolith, experimental studies have relied on the use of lunar soil simulants, with two of the more common simulants being Minnesota Lunar Simulant and a simulant produced in cooperation with the Johnson Space Center. Since various studies have used either simulant, it is important to be able to compare the engineering properties of these two simulants when comparing the results of various studies. The purpose of this paper is to compare the physical and mechanical properties of these two simulants. The load-settlement characteristics of the two materials are compared by examining data from centrifuge model foundation experiments. The two simulants are quite comparable in terms of physical and mechanical properties. Differences in the load-settlement behavior as seen in model foundation experiments are due to differences in the specific gravity of the two materials. The mechanical properties of the simulants pose significant problems when attempting to use conventional stability solutions for the design of lunar facilities.

  16. Thermal Analyses of Apollo Lunar Soils Provide Evidence for Water in Permanently Shadowed Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Smith, M. C.; Gibson, E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally-evolved-gas analyses were performed on the Apollo lunar soils shortly after their return to Earth [1-8]. The analyses revealed the presence of water evolving at temperatures above 200 C. Of particular interest are samples that were collected from permanently-shadowed locations (e.g., under a boulder) with a second sample collected in nearby sunlight, and pairs in which one was taken from the top of a trench, and the second was taken at the base of the trench, where the temperature would have been -10 to -20 C prior to the disturbance [9]. These samples include 63340/63500, 69941/69961, and 76240/76280. At the time that this research was first reported, the idea of hydrated minerals on the lunar surface was somewhat novel. Nevertheless, goethite was observed in lunar breccias from Apollo 14 [10], and it was shown that goethite, hematite and magnetite could originate in an equilibrium assemblage of lunar rocks

  17. Direct Solar Wind Proton Access into Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent analyses of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) data have suggested that high abundances of hydrogen exist within cold traps at the lunar poles, and it has often been assumed that hydrogen-bearing volatiles sequestered in permanent shadow are topographically shielded from sputtering by solar wind protons. However, recent simulation results are presented showing that solar wind protons clearly access the floor of an idealized, shadowed lunar crater through a combination of thermal and ambipolar processes, in effect creating a plasma "miniwake". These simulations are the first to model the mini-wake environment in two spatial dimensions with a self-consistent lunar surface-plasma interaction. Progress is reported on constraining the nonzero particle fluxes and energies incident on kilometer-scale shadowed topography, such as a small crater embedded within a larger one. The importance of direct solar wind proton bombardment is discussed within the context of understanding the stability and inventory of hydrogen-bearing volatiles in shadow at the lunar poles. The support of the National Lunar Science institute, the DREAM institute, LPROPS, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center administered by ORAU are gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Anticipated Electrical Environment Within Permanently Shadowed Lunar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Collier, M. R.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Shadowed locations ncar the lunar poles arc almost certainly electrically complex regions. At these locations near the terminator, the local solar wind flows nearly tangential to the surface and interacts with large-scale topographic features such as mountains and deep large craters, In this work, we study the solar wind orographic effects from topographic obstructions along a rough lunar surface, On the leeward side of large obstructions, plasma voids are formed in the solar wind because of the absorption of plasma on the upstream surface of these obstacles, Solar wind plasma expands into such voids) producing an ambipolar potential that diverts ion flow into the void region. A surface potential is established on these leeward surfaces in order to balance the currents from the expansion-limited electron and ion populations, Wc find that there arc regions ncar the leeward wall of the craters and leeward mountain faces where solar wind ions cannot access the surface, leaving an electron-rich plasma previously identified as an "electron cloud." In this case, some new current is required to complete the closure for current balance at the surface, and we propose herein that lofted negatively charged dust is one possible (nonunique) compensating current source. Given models for both ambipolar and surface plasma processes, we consider the electrical environment around the large topographic features of the south pole (including Shoemaker crater and the highly varied terrain near Nobile crater), as derived from Goldstone radar data, We also apply our model to moving and stationary objects of differing compositions located on the surface and consider the impact of the deflected ion flow on possible hydrogen resources within the craters

  19. Mechanical and load-settlement characteristics of two lunar soil simulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven W. Perkins; Craig R. Madson

    1996-01-01

    Recently, attention has been devoted to problems of construction of facilities on the lunar surface. Due to the unavailability of real lunar regolith, experimental studies have relied on the use of lunar soil simulants, with two of the more common simulants being Minnesota Lunar Simulant and a simulant produced in cooperation with the Johnson Space Center. Since various studies have

  20. Preliminary Mapping of Permanently Shadowed and Sunlit Regions Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E.; Koeber, S.; Robinson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    The spin axis of the Moon is tilted by only 1.5° (compared with the Earth's 23.5°), leaving some areas near the poles in permanent shadow while other nearby regions remain sunlit for a majority of the year. Theory, radar data, neutron measurements, and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observations suggest that volatiles may be present in the cold traps created inside these permanently shadowed regions. While areas of near permanent illumination are prime locations for future lunar outposts due to benign thermal conditions and near constant solar power. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has two imaging systems that provide medium and high resolution views of the poles. During almost every orbit the LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) acquires images at 100 m/pixel of the polar region (80° to 90° north and south latitude). In addition, the LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) targets selected regions of interest at 0.7 to 1.5 m/pixel [Robinson et al., 2010]. During the first 11 months of the nominal mission, LROC acquired almost 6,000 WAC images and over 7,300 NAC images of the polar region (i.e., within 2° of pole). By analyzing this time series of WAC and NAC images, regions of permanent shadow and permanent, or near-permanent illumination can be quantified. The LROC Team is producing several reduced data products that graphically illustrate the illumination conditions of the polar regions. Illumination movie sequences are being produced that show how the lighting conditions change over a calendar year. Each frame of the movie sequence is a polar stereographic projected WAC image showing the lighting conditions at that moment. With the WAC’s wide field of view (~100 km at an altitude of 50 km), each frame has repeat coverage between 88° and 90° at each pole. The same WAC images are also being used to develop multi-temporal illumination maps that show the percent each 100 m × 100 m area is illuminated over a period of time. These maps are derived by stacking all the WAC frames, selecting a threshold to determine if the surface is illuminated, and summing the resulting binary images. In addition, mosaics of NAC images are also being produced for regions of interest at a scale of 0.7 to 1.5 m/pixel. The mosaics produced so far have revealed small illuminated surfaces on the tens of meters scale that were previously thought to be shadowed during that time. The LROC dataset of the polar regions complements previous illumination analysis of Clementine images [Bussey et al., 1999], Kaguya topography [Bussey et al., 2010], and the current efforts underway by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Team [Mazarico et al., 2010] and provide an important new dataset for science and exploration. References: Bussey et al. (1999), Illumination conditions at the lunar south pole, Geophysical Research Letters, 26(9), 1187-1190. Bussey et al. (2010), Illumination conditions of the south pole of the Moon derived from Kaguya topography, Icarus, 208, 558-564. Mazarico et al. (2010), Illumination of the lunar poles from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Topography Data, paper presented at 41st LPSC, Houston, TX. Robinson et al. (2010), Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Instrument Overview, Space Sci Rev, 150, 81-124.

  1. W.W.W. Moon The Why, What and When of a Permanent Manned Lunar Colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, M.

    Several reasons for going back to the Moon are listed: scientific study of our natural satellite, Earth and in general the Solar System; exploitation of the resources of Outer Space; geopolitical considerations that made Apollo possible and are still valid in the long term; advancement of manned spaceflight, as robot- based exploration is time-wise inefficient and politically negligible. Technological, organisational and legal challenges are then outlined. After a discussion of human physiology, building materials and transporta- tion of people and goods, an underground polar location is proposed as settlement site, either within kilometre-size lava tubes or man-made caves. An analysis of spaceflight history is conducted to determine a target date for returning to the Moon to stay. In the absence of political or commercial competition, experience indicates the last decades of the XXI century. To shorten this timescale, it is recommended to focus on accomplishing the task of establishing a reliable lunar travel and settlement system, rather than developing new technologies: simplifying the goals of each single step forward (as was the case of the Clementine mission) and concentrating on production-ready (or almost-ready) equipment (compare the ill- fated X-33 to the dependable Soyuz capsules)

  2. Testing Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results from LRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R. D.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    We use measurements from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) collimated sensors during more than one year of the mapping phase of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to make estimates of the epithermal neutron flux within known large Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). These are compared with the local neutron background measured outside PSRs in sunlit regions. Individual and collective analyses of PSR properties have been performed. Only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the south and Rozhdestvensky U in the north, have been found to manifest significant neutron suppression. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, only a few percent, if at all. Some even display an excess of neutron emission in comparison to the sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only the group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 square kilometers, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, approx. 2%, with low statistical confidence. An approx. 2% suppression corresponds to approx. 125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous H distribution in depth in the regolith. This means that all PSRs, except those in Shoemaker, Cabeus and Rozhdestvensky U craters, do not contain any significant amount of hydrogen in comparison with sunlit areas around them at the same latitude.

  3. Deep dielectric charging of the lunar regolith within permanently shadowed regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N.; Smith, S. S.; Spence, H.; Wilson, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) can penetrate within the lunar regolith, causing deep dielectric charging. The discharging timescale depends on the regolith's electrical conductivity and permittivity. In permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the lunar poles, this timescale is on the order of a lunation (~20 days). To estimate the resulting electric fields within the regolith, we develop a data-driven, one-dimensional, time-dependent model. For model inputs, we use GCR data from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and SEP data from the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). We find that, during the recent solar minimum, GCRs create persistent electric fields up to 700 V/m. We also find that large SEP events create sporadic but strong fields (>10^6 V/m) that may induce dielectric breakdown. Meteoritic gardening limits the amount of time the regolith can spend close enough to the surface to be charged by SEPs, and we find that the gardened regolith within PSRs has likely experienced >10^6 breakdown-inducing events. Since dielectric breakdown typically creates cracks along the boundaries of changes in dielectric constant, we predict repeated breakdown to have fragmented a fraction of the regolith within PSRs into its mineralogical components.

  4. The Distribution of Ice in Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions: Science Enabling Exploration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Elphic, R. C.; Bussey, B.; Hibbitts, C.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent prospecting indicates that water ice occurs in enhanced abundances in some lunar PSRs. That water constitutes a resource that enables lunar exploration if it can be harvested for fuel and life support. Future lunar exploration missions will need detailed information about the distribution of volatiles in lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). In addition, the volatiles also offer key insights into the recent and distant past, as they have trapped volatiles delivered to the moon over ~2 Gyr. This comprises an unparalleled reservoir of past inner solar system volatiles, and future scientific missions are needed to make the measurements that will reveal the composition of those volatiles. These scientific missions will necessarily have to acquire and analyze samples of volatiles from the PSRs. For both exploration and scientific purposes, the precise location of volatiles will need to be known. However, data indicate that ice is distributed heterogeneously on the Moon. It is unlikely that the distribution will be known a priori with enough spatial resolution to guarantee access to volatiles using a single point sample. Some mechanism for laterally or vertically distributed access will increase the likelihood of acquiring a rich sample of volatiles. Trade studies will need to be conducted to anticipate the necessary range and duration of missions to lunar PSRs that will be needed to accomplish the mission objectives. We examine the spatial distribution of volatiles in lunar PSRs reported from data analyses and couple those with models of smaller scale processes. FUV and laser data from PSRs that indicate the average surface distribution is consistent with low abundances on the extreme surface in most PSRs. Neutron and radar data that probe the distribution at depth show heterogeneity at broad spatial resolution. We consider those data in conjunction with the model to understand the full, 3-D nature of the heterogeneity. A Monte Carlo technique simulates the stochastic process of impact gardening on a putative ice deposit. The model uses the crater production function as a basis for generating a random selection of impact craters over time. Impacts are implemented by modifying the topography, volatile content, and depth distribution in the simulation volume on a case by case basis. This technique will never be able to reproduce the exact impact history of a particular area. But by conducting multiple runs with the same initial conditions and a different seed to the random number generator, we are able to calculate the probability of situations occurring. Further, by repeating the simulations with varied initial conditions, we calculate the dependence of the expectation values on the inputs. We present findings regarding the heterogeneity of volatiles in PSRs as a function of age, initial ice thickness, and contributions from steady sources.

  5. Human safety in the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Any attempt to establish a continuously staffed base or permanent settlement on the Moon must safely meet the challenges posed by the Moon's surface environment. This environment is drastically different from the Earth's, and radiation and meteoroids are significant hazards to human safety. These dangers may be mitigated through the use of underground habitats, the piling up of lunar materials as shielding, and the use of teleoperated devices for surface operations. The lunar environment is detailed along with concepts for survival.

  6. Topography of the lunar south polar region - Implications for the location and distribution of permanently shaded areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    1997-03-01

    We perform an analysis of Clementine altimetry to understand the extent to which the location and distribution of any permanently shadowed region(s) can be clarified and quantified on the basis of our present knowledge of lunar topography. We recognize that the altimetry does not extend into the region in question but does completely surround it. Our analysis yields a conservative estimate of the elevation of the moon in the vicinity of the south pole of -1 +/- 2 km (relative to the mean) with an average long wavelength slope of less than 0.5 deg, much less than the 1.6-deg lunar obliquity. The data demonstrate that permanent shadowing is very unlikely to be a consequence of the south pole-Aitken Basin and that any perennially dark regions must be a due to much shorter length scale (50 km) topography such as small craters, nearly centered on the pole.

  7. Magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface and the interpretation of permanent remanence in lunar surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    A magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface is presented. It was found that there is a distinct correlation between natural remanence (NRM), saturation magnetization, and the hysteresis ratios for the rock samples. The hysteresis classification is able to explain some aspects of time dependent magnetization in the lunar samples and relates the initial susceptibility to NRM, viscous remanence, and to other aspects of magnetization in lunar samples. It is also considered that since up to 60% of the iron in the lunar soil may be super paramagnetic at 400 K, and only 10% at 100 K, the 50% which becomes ferromagnetic over the cycle has the characteristics of thermoremanence and may provide for an enhancement in measurable field on the dark side during a subsatellite magnetometer circuit.

  8. Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits - An ideal lunar resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Clark, B.; Coombs, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    With a view of investigating possible economic benefits that a permanent lunar settlement might provide to the near-earth space infrastructures, consideration was given to the ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits as sources of oxygen (for use as a propellant) and He-3 (for nuclear fusion fuel). This paper demonstrates that ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits would be excellent sources of a wide variety of valuable elements besides O and He-3, including Fe, Ti, H2, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb. It is shown that several ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent exist on the lunar surface. The suitability of regional pyroclastic deposits for lunar mining operations, construction activities, and the establishment of permanent lunar settlements is examined.

  9. Beagle to the Moon: An Experiment Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Near the beginning of the next decade we will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface and have the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration

  10. Design of an unmanned lunar cargo lander that reconfigures into a shelter for a habitation module or disassembles into parts useful to a permanent manned lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davanay, Lisa; Garner, Brian; Rigol, Jason

    1989-01-01

    NASA plans to establish a permanent manned lunar base by the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is extremely expensive to transport material from earth to the moon. Therefore, expense would be reduced if the vehicle that lands cargo on the moon could itself meet some of the material needs of establishing the lunar base. The design of a multi-functional lander that is entirely useful to the base after landing is described. Alternate designs of the overall lander configuration and possible uses of the lander and its components after landing are contained. The design solution is a lander employing the Saddlebagged Fuel Tank Configuration. After landing, its structure will be converted into a habitation module shelter that supports a protective layer of regolith. The fuel tanks will be cleaned and used as storage tanks for the lunar base. The engines and instrumentation will be saved as stock parts. Recommendations for further research and technology development to enhance future lander designs are given.

  11. Evolving concepts of lunar architecture: The potential of subselene development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daga, Andrew W.; Daga, Meryl A.; Wendel, Wendel R.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the superior environmental and operational conditions that are thought to exist in lava tubes, popular visions of permanent settlements built upon the lunar surface may prove to be entirely romantic. The factors that will ultimately come together to determine the design of a lunar base are complex and interrelated, and they call for a radical architectural solution. Whether lunar surface-deployed superstructures can answer these issues is called into question. One particularly troublesome concern in any lunar base design is the need for vast amounts of space, and the ability of man-made structures to provide such volumes in a reliable pressurized habitat is doubtful. An examination of several key environmental design issues suggests that the alternative mode of subselene development may offer the best opportunity for an enduring and humane settlement.

  12. A Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster for Pulsed Orbit Control of Lunar Polar Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Moraes, Brunno; Ferreira, José Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Cabo Winter, Othon; Cardozo Mourão, Décio

    2014-05-01

    Future Moon missions devoted to Lunar surface remote sensing, for example, will require very fine and accurate orbit control. It is well known that Lunar satellites in polar orbits will suffer a high increase on the eccentricity due to the gravitational perturbation of the Earth. Without proper orbit correction the satellite lifetime will decrease and end up in a collision with the Moon surface. It is pointed out by many authors that this effect is a natural consequence of the Lidov-Kozai resonance. We studied different arcs of active lunar satellite propulsion, centered on the orbit apoapsis or periapsis, in order to be able to introduce a correction of the eccentricity at each cycle. The proposed method is based on an approach intended to keep the orbital eccentricity of the satellite at low values.

  13. Beagle 2 the Moon: An Experimental Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2008-01-01

    NASA has announced the selection of several Lunar Science Sortie Concept Studies for potential scientific payloads with future Lunar Missions. The Beagle 2 scientific package was one of those chosen for study. Near the beginning of the next decade will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface with the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package developed to seek the signatures of life on Mars is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration.

  14. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Maps of the Permanently Shaded Regions (PSR) at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Paul; Retherford, Kurt; Gladstone, Randall; Stern, Alan; Egan, Anthony; Miles, Paul; Parker, Joel; Kaufmann, David; Horvath, David; Greathouse, Thomas; Versteeg, Maartem; Steffl, Andrew; Mukherjee, Joey; Davis, Michael; Slater, David; Bayless, Amanda; Feldmann, Paul; Hurley, Dana; Pryor, Wayne; Hendrix, Amanda

    2013-04-01

    The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on-board LRO is a UV spectrograph covering the spectral range of 57-196 nm. We present Lyman-alpha and far-UV albedo maps of the north and south poles. These maps indicate that the coldest, permanently shadowed regions (PSR) in deep polar craters have significantly lower Lyman-alpha albedo than the surrounding regions, which is best explained by a high surface porosity there - possibly related to the accumulation of volatile frosts.

  15. Lunar Polar Coring Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

  16. Permanent shadow in simple craters near the lunar poles D. Ben J. Bussey,1

    E-print Network

    Spudis, Paul D.

    in winter than in summer. INDEX TERMS: 5462 Planetology: Solid Surface Planets: Polar regions; 5464.5°), causing locations near the pole to experience extreme illumination conditions. Topographic lows. This technique permits all possible illumination scenarios to be investigated. [5] Topographic data for the lunar

  17. Critical issues for establishment of a permanently-occupied lunar base

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul C. Kent II

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the critical issues for a potential lunar outpost by polling a group of experts knowledgeable about decision-making involving the allocation of large-scale resources. A Delphi exercise is an iterative polling technique in which the group opinion is refined during successive iterations, while at the same time preserving differing viewpoints. The experts identified

  18. Testing of Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results for about Three Years of Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanin, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. R.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Starr, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: More than 50 years ago, it was sug-gested that some areas near the lunar poles are suffi-ciently cold to trap and preserve for a very long time (~Gy) hydrogen bearing volatiles, either primordial or produced at the Moon via solar wind interactions or brought to the Moon as water ice by comets and mete-oroids [1,2]. The results of observations made by radar onboard the Clementine spacecraft and by neutron (LPNS) and gamma-ray (LPGRS) spectrometers onboard the Lunar Prospector mission have been inter-preted as an enhancement of hydrogen abundance in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) [3]. Unfortu-nately, the spatial resolution of these instruments were much broader than the size of any largest PSRs [4] requiring model dependent data deconvolution to res-lve signal from PSRs itself. Data Analysis: We would like to present updated results of analysis of Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) data for about three years of lunar mapping. Data measured by collimated LEND detectors allows one to look at neutron flux distribution at Moon poles with much better spatial resolution then was achieved at previous space missions. Using the LEND data we had tested the hypothesis that all PSRs are contain a large amount of water ice permafrost and test for hydrogen presents in regolith of regions outside of PSRs. Discussion: Both analyses of individual PSRs and studies of groups of PSRs have shown that these spots of extreme cold at lunar poles are not associated with a strong effect of epithermal neutron flux suppression [5]. We found only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the South and Rozhdestvensky U in the North, which manifest significant neutron suppression, from -5.5% to -14.9%. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, no more than few percentages, if at all. Some PSRs even display excess of neutron emis-sion in respect to sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 km2, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, ~2%, with low statistical confidence. A ~2% suppression corresponds to ~125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous Hydrogen distribution in depth in the regolith [6]. References: [1] Arnold, J. R. (1979) JGR, 84, 5659-5668. [2] Watson, K., Murray B. C. and Brown H. (1961) JGR, 66, 3033-3045. [3] Feldman W. C. et al. (2001) JGR, 106, 23231-23252. [4] Maurice S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04, 40 PP. [5] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483. [6] Sanin A.B. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H26

  19. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Paige, D. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2014-10-01

    The Lunar Flashlight mission will measure surface ice within the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole in support of NASA’s Strategic Knowledge Gap to understand water and other volatiles in lunar cold traps.

  20. Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Lunar Mystery

    E-print Network

    LCROSS Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Lunar Mystery Earth's closest neighbor signatures detected in permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles by NASA's Lunar Prospector exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. The Lunar CRater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission

  1. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  2. Location selection and layout for LB10, a lunar base at the Lunar North Pole with a liquid mirror observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsis, Emmanouil; Doule, Ondrej; Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2013-04-01

    We present the site selection process and urban planning of a Lunar Base for a crew of 10 (LB10), with an infrared astronomical telescope, based on the concept of the Lunar LIquid Mirror Telescope. LB10 is a base designated for permanent human presence on the Moon. The base architecture is based on utilization of inflatable, rigid and regolith structures for different purposes. The location for the settlement is identified through a detailed analysis of surface conditions and terrain parameters around the Lunar North and South Poles. A number of selection criteria were defined regarding construction, astronomical observations, landing and illumination conditions. The location suggested for the settlement is in the vicinity of the North Pole, utilizing the geographical morphology of the area. The base habitat is on a highly illuminated and relatively flat plateau. The observatory in the vicinity of the base, approximately 3.5 kilometers from the Lunar North Pole, inside a crater to shield it from Sunlight. An illustration of the final form of the habitat is also depicted, inspired by the baroque architectural form.

  3. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  4. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Bases, Habitats, and Colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes the design and construction of lunar and Mars bases, habitats, and settlements; construction materials and equipment; life support systems; base operations and logistics; thermal management and power systems; and robotic systems.

  6. Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). We will focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation, but not immediately autonomous. It will prepare the next permanent lunar base by assessing its technologies, and give scientific results about the environment. The autonomy will be gained in the evolution of the base, and added equipment. A lunar outpost in a polar region would allow missions longer than 14 days, and a frequent addition of equipments. Moreover, a polar outpost will get both advantages of far-side for simulating direct or indirect communications to Earth and dark-side for observations. The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the outpost into a autonomous base. The South Pole, by its position on the edge of the South Pole Aitken (SPA) Basin, will allow different fast new data in analysis mantle samples, easily reachable due to the crater morphology. These samples will constrain the putative Late Heavy Bombarment (LHB). After a robotic sample return mission, a human presence will allow deeper research through well chosen geological samples [6]. In this modular concept, we consider various infrastructure elements: core habitat, EVA, crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. Many of these elements have already been studied in space agencies' architecture proposals, with the tech-nological possibilities of industrial partners (lunar landers, lunar orbiter, rovers …). A deeper reflection will be therefore done about the core habitat and the laboratory equipment, proposing scientific priority experiments. Each element will be added in a range considering their priority to life support in duration [7]. Considering surface operations, protocols will be specified in the use of certain elements. After a reflexion on the different dependancies and priorities between these modules, a demonstration can assess the reliability of the concept and develo

  7. Selenia: A habitability study for the development of a third generation lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Apollo astronauts landed on the Moon, the first generation of lunar bases was established. They consisted essentially of a lunar module and related hardware capable of housing two astronauts for not more than several days. Second generation lunar bases are being developed, and further infrastructure, such as space station, orbital transfer, and reusable lander vehicles will be necessary, as prolonged stay on the Moon is required for exploration, research, and construction for the establishment of a permanent human settlement there. Human life in these habitats could be sustained for months, dependent on a continual flow of life-support supplies from Earth. Third-generation lunar bases will come into being as self sufficiency of human settlements becomes feasible. Regeneration of water, oxygen production, and development of indigenous construction materials from lunar resources will be necessary. Greenhouses will grow food supplies in engineered biospheres. Assured protection from solar flares and cosmic radiation must be provided, as well as provision for survival under meteor showers, or the threat of meteorite impact. All these seem to be possible within the second decade of the next century. Thus, the builders of Selenia, the first of the third-generation lunar bases are born today. During the last two years students from the School of Architecture of the University of Puerto Rico have studied the problems that relate to habitability for prolonged stay in extraterrestrial space. An orbital personnel transport to Mars developed originally by the Aerospace Engineering Department of the University of Michigan was investigated and habitability criteria for evaluation of human space habitats were proposed. An important finding from that study was that the necessary rotational diameter of the vessel has to be on the order of two kilometers to ensure comfort for humans under the artificial gravity conditions necessary to maintain physiological well being of passengers, beyond the level of mere survival.

  8. Remote Sensing Assessment of Lunar Resources: We Know Where to Go to Find What We Need

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Lucey, P. G.

    2004-01-01

    The utilization of space resources is necessary to not only foster the growth of human activities in space, but is essential to the President s vision of a "sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond." The distribution of resources will shape planning permanent settlements by affecting decisions about where to locate a settlement. Mapping the location of such resources, however, is not the limiting factor in selecting a site for a lunar base. It is indecision about which resources to use that leaves the location uncertain. A wealth of remotely sensed data exists that can be used to identify targets for future detailed exploration. Thus, the future of space resource utilization pre-dominantly rests upon developing a strategy for resource exploration and efficient methods of extraction.

  9. Martian settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.

    1987-01-01

    The rationale for a manned Mars mission and the establishment of a base is divided into three areas: science, resource utilization, and strategic issues. The effects of a Mars mission on the objectives of near-term NASA programs, and the applications of these programs to a Mars mission are examined. The use of extraterrestrial resources to supply space settlements and thereby reduce transportation costs is studied; the development of systems for extraterrestrial materials processing will need to be researched. The possibility of a joint U.S./Soviet Mars mission is discussed by the symposium participants.

  10. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  11. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS) is examined. The basic design time line is around 2010 to 2030 and is referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases and equipment would have been present. Present plans for lunar colonization call for a phased return of personnel and materials to the moons's surface. During settlement of lunar bases, the lunar lander is stationary in a very hostile environment and would have to be in a state of readiness for use in case of an emergency. Cargo and personnel would have to be removed from the lander and transported to a safe environment at the lunar base. An integrated system is required to perform these functions. These needs are addressed which center around the design of a lunar lander servicing system. The servicing system could perform several servicing functions to the lander in addition to cargo servicing. The following were considered: (1) reliquify hydrogen boiloff; (2) supply power; and (3) remove or add heat as necessary. The final design incorporates both original designs and existing vehicles and equipment on the surface of the moon at the time considered. The importance of commonality is foremost in the design of any lunar machinery.

  12. Lunar soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Cherkasov; V. V. Shvarev

    1975-01-01

    The book discusses the methods and results of the various investigations to date into the mechanical properties of the lunar soil, including both manned and unmanned lunar probes and laboratory studies on earth. Current knowledge on the formation and natural bedding of lunar soils is reviewed. Some technical details are given on the Soviet Luna series of unmanned lunar probes,

  13. Lunar Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Seminara; Richard J. Shavelson

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of simulated lunar environmental variables on human performance. A facility was developed to simulate the following aspects of the astronaut's lunar environment: confinement within a lunar shelter habitat with an oxygen-enriched atmosphere, high-risk vacuum, ? g., lunar “terrain” characteristics, and space suit encumbrances. Four subjects were confined for five

  14. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  15. Urbanization appeared with the first permanent human settlements 8,000 years ago. Since then urban development has occurred all across the world, although at different times and in different ways depending

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    revolution, with its steam engines and its revolution in coal mining and metallurgy, led to sharp population improvements in agriculture lead to population growth and more densely populated settlements. Next comes a period of industrialization. New jobs associated with industrialization draw even more people from rural

  16. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  17. African rural settlement patterns.

    PubMed

    Kaloko, F R

    1983-11-01

    Rural settlements, characterized by illiteracy, traditionalism, isolationism, and an agricultural economy, dominate Tropical Africa. This paper presents an historical review of settlement evolution from before colonial rule to the present, to provide a better understanding of rural life for government policy formulation purposes. Before colonial rule, the early 19th century slave trade drove many villagers into scattered, remote settlements which were further established by increased food production, and decreased migration. After Africa's partition (1885), various governments concentrated dispersed settlements for security and administrative control. Rural settlements were transformed through colonial force, desires by the villagers for more land and wealth, and new settlement establishment by Europeans. In present day Africa, improved communication, a more diversified economy, and less traditional conservatism still influence rural settlement patterns. Resource development and agricultural and medical reasons currently act to change settlements, but villagers are now compensated for such moves and may even improve their earning power from them. The author describes settlement patterns in Sierra Leone, which typify much of Tropical Africa. Hill settlements, which offered security against intertribal wars, predominated in the 19th Century, but the Hut Tax War (1989) brought tranquility and an improved economy. Today, much of rural Sierra Leone has lost its population to diamond and iron mining areas. Modernization has changed food, housing, settlement size, and arrangement and farming techniques. The author emphasizes the strong environmental influences on settlement evolution and development, and urges a greater understanding of rural settlements to aid in future planning for Tropical Africa's people. PMID:12143658

  18. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  19. Self-unloading, reusable, lunar lander project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arseculeratne, Ruwan; Cavazos, Melissa; Euker, John; Ghavidel, Fred; Hinkel, Todd J.; Hitzfelder, John; Leitner, Jesse; Nevik, James; Paynter, Scott; Zolondek, Allen

    1990-01-01

    In the early 21st century, NASA will return to the Moon and establish a permanent base. To achieve this goal safely and economically, B&T Engineering has designed an unmanned, reusable, self-unloading lunar lander. The lander is designed to deliver 15,000 kg payloads from an orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) in a low lunar polar orbit and an altitude of 200 km to any location on the lunar surface.

  20. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  1. Lunar Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

  2. Lunar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified.

  3. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  4. Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae to settle at unfavourable times, with potential consequences for larval survival and population replenishment.

  5. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  6. TRANSITIONAL SETTLEMENTS Planning Homeless

    E-print Network

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    TRANSITIONAL SETTLEMENTS 1 Planning Homeless Settlement Communities Western Washington University the living conditions faced by our fellow citizens who live in Homeless camps, public resources are necessary to help the Homeless segment of society regain their footing in society. PROJECT FOCUS This course

  7. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  8. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  9. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  10. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  11. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  12. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

  13. Lunar Surface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This activity is about the lunar geology. Learners will model of the Moon's surface and to consider the geologic processes and rocks of each area. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program. Estimated materials cost does not include cost of binoculars or telescope.

  14. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  15. Microwave Extraction of Water from Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the DOD Clementine lunar orbital mission obtained data indicating that the permanently shaded regions at the lunar poles may have permanently frozen water in the lunar soil. Currently NASA's Robotic Lunar Exploration Program, RLEP-2, is planned to land at the lunar pole to determine if water is present. The detection and extraction of water from the permanently frozen permafrost is an important goal for NASA. Extraction of water from lunar permafrost has a high priority in the In-Situ Resource Utilization, ISRU, community for human life support and as a fuel. The use of microwave processing would permit the extraction of water without the need to dig, drill, or excavate the lunar surface. Microwave heating of regolith is potentially faster and more efficient than any other heating methods due to the very low thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith. Also, microwaves can penetrate into the soil permitting water removal from deep below the lunar surface. A cryogenic vacuum test facility was developed for evaluating the use of microwave heating and water extraction from a lunar regolith permafrost simulant. Water is obtained in a cryogenic cold trap even with soil conditions below 0 C. The results of microwave extraction of water experiments will be presented.

  16. A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on each piloted round trip mission. As the initial lunar outposts grow to centralized bases and settlements with a substantial permanent human presence, a LANTR-powered shuttle capable of 36 to 24 hour 'one-way' trip times to the moon and back becomes possible with initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) requirements of approximately 160 to 240 metric tons, respectively.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture" contained the following reports:Approaches for Approximating Topography in High Resolution, Multispectral Data; Verification of Quality and Compatibility for the Newly Calibrated Clementine NIR Data Set; Near Infrared Spectral Properties of Selected Nearside and Farside Sites ; Global Comparisons of Mare Volcanism from Clementine Near-Infrared Data; Testing the Relation Between UVVIS Color and TiO2 Composition in the Lunar Maria; Color Reflectance Trends in the Mare: Implications for Mapping Iron with Multispectral Images ; The Composition of the Lunar Megaregolith: Some Initial Results from Global Mapping; Global Images of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data; The Origin of Lunar Crater Rays; Properties of Lunar Crater Ejecta from New 70-cm Radar Observations ; Permanent Sunlight at the Lunar North Pole; and ESA s SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals, Status and First Results.

  18. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  19. Electrical power integration for lunar operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

  20. Conceptual second-generation lunar equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. The basic assumption made in designing second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment was that a network of permanent lunar bases already existed. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground-based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. Two teams of two or three members competed on each topic and results were exhibited at a formal presentation. A clean-propellant powered lunar flying transport vehicle, an extra-vehicular activity life support system, a pressurized lunar rover for greater distances, and a robotic arm design project are discussed.

  1. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  2. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an exciting new mission concept in preformulation studies for NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) by a team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, UCLA, and Marshall Space Flight Center. This innovative, low-cost concept will map the lunar south pole for volatiles and demonstrate several technological firsts, including being the first CubeSat to reach the Moon, the first mission to use an 80 m2 solar sail, and the first mission to use a solar sail as a reflector for science observations. The Lunar Flashlight mission spacecraft maneuvers to its lunar polar orbit and uses its solar sail as a mirror to reflect 50 kW of sunlight down into shaded polar regions, while the on-board spectrometer measures surface reflection and composition. The Lunar Flashlight 6U spacecraft has heritage elements from multiple cubesat systems. The deployable solar sail/reflector is based on previous solar sail experiments, scaled up for this mission. The mission will demonstrate a path where 6U CubeSats could, at dramatically lower cost than previously thought possible, explore, locate and estimate size and composition of ice deposits on the Moon. Locating ice deposits in the Moon's permanently shadowed craters addresses one of NASA's Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) to detect composition, quantity, distribution, form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps. Polar volatile data collected by Lunar Flashlight could then ensure that targets for more expensive lander- and rover-borne measurements would include volatiles in sufficient quantity and near enough to the surface to be operationally useful.

  3. 75 FR 8701 - Notice of Settlement Agreement Pertaining to Construction of a Waste Repository on the Settlors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq., notice is hereby given of a Settlement Agreement pertaining to Construction of a Waste Repository on Settlor's Property located on the Tar Creek Superfund Site in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The settlement requires a permanent waste repository on the......

  4. ISA accelerometer and Lunar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David; Santoli, Francesco; Lefevre, Carlo; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Nozzoli, Sergio; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Milyukov, Vadim

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of the Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments: in fact a wide variety of them has been proposed to be conducted on the lunar surface. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its design it works on-ground with the same configuration developed for in-orbit applications. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been the subject of preliminary studies and has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. ISA-S (ISA-Seismometer) has a very high sensitivity, which has already been demonstrated with long time periods of usage on Earth. It features also a wide bandwidth, extended towards the low frequencies. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of landing missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the systems.

  5. Lunar anorthosites.

    PubMed

    Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

    1970-01-30

    Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context. PMID:17781512

  6. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Banazadeh, P.; Baker, J. D.; Staehle, R. L.; Paine, C..; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Water ice and other volatiles may be located in the Moon's polar regions, with sufficient quantities for in situ extraction and utilization by future human and robotic missions. Evidence from orbiting spacecraft and the LCROSS impactor suggests the presence of surface and/or nearsurface volatiles, including water ice. These deposits are of interest to human exploration to understand their potential for use by astronauts. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits could also reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system, so are of scientific interest. The scientific exploration of the lunar polar regions was one of the key recommendations of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program selected three lowcost 6-U CubeSat missions for launch as secondary payloads on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS) scheduled for 2017. The Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as one of these missions, specifically to address the SKG associated with lunar volatiles. Development of the Lunar Flashlight CubeSat concept leverages JPL's Interplanetary Nano- Spacecraft Pathfinder In Relevant Environment (INSPIRE) mission, MSFC's intimate knowledge of the Space Launch System and EM-1 mission, small business development of solar sail and electric propulsion hardware, and JPL experience with specialized miniature sensors. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and its physical state, and map its concentration at the kilometer scale within the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight deploys its solar panels and solar sail and maneuvers into a low-energy transfer to lunar orbit. The solar sail and attitude control system work to bring the satellite into an elliptical polar orbit spiraling down to a perilune of 30-10 km above the south pole for data collection. Lunar Flashlight uses its solar sail to shine reflected sunlight into permanently shadowed regions, measuring surface albedo with a four-filter point spectrometer at 1.1, 1.5 1.9, and 2.0 microns. Water ice will be distinguished from dry regolith from these measurements in two ways: 1) spatial variations in absolute reflectance (water ice is much brighter in the continuum channels), and 2) reflectance ratios between absorption and continuum channels. Derived reflectance and reflectance ratios will be mapped onto the lunar surface in order to distinguish the composition of the PSRs from that of the sunlit terrain. Lunar Flashlight enables a low-cost path to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) by identifying operationally useful deposits (if there are any), which is a game-changing capability for expanded human exploration.

  7. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, R. K.

    2014-10-01

    The concept of a gene bank in the lunar polar craters provides a permanent solution to the menace of endangered species and the failure of the prevailing strategies to protect them. This is one vital, technologically viable yet cost effective option.

  8. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  9. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  10. Lunar Biospheres

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the conditions for a sustainable biosphere. Learners will build a biosphere that is a balanced, self-enclosed living system able to run efficiently over a long period of time. This activity is in Unit 3 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

  11. Lunar oasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.; Niehoff, John

    1989-01-01

    The 'lunar oasis' emphasizes development toward self-sufficiency in order to reduce dependence on the earth for resupply, and to enable expansion utilizing indigeneous resources. The oasis phase includes: (1) habitation and work facilities for 10 people, (2) capability for extraction of volatile consumables (H2O, O2, N2, etc.) from indigenous resources for resupply of losses and filling of reservoirs, and (3) a highly closed life support system, including food production. In the consolidation phase, the base grows from 10 to 30 crewmembers. Lunar resources are used for expanding the lunar foothold, including construction of habitats, extraction of metals for the fabrication of products for maintenance and repair, and expansion of the power system. The strategy does not produce propellants for space transportation. A 10-year scenario is laid out, which contains all elements needed to allow the base to enter a self-expanding utilization phase. Three lunar missions yer year, two cargo missions and one crew flight, are required. At the end of a decade, the base is producing more than it requires for its continued support, although it is unlikely to be completely self-sufficient.

  12. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  13. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Definition Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laifr, J.; Auster, U.; Bale, S. D.; Delory, G. T.; Devoto, P.; Farrell, W. M.; Glassmeier, K.; Guicking, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Hellinger, P.; Hercik, D.; Horanyi, M.; Kataria, D.; Kozacek, Z.; Mazelle, C. X.; Omura, Y.; Owen, C. J.; Pavelka, R.; Plaschke, F.; Rucker, H. O.; Saito, Y.; Sternovsky, Z.; Stverak, S.; Travnicek, P. M.; Turin, P.; Vana, P.

    2012-12-01

    Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic and human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in-situ measurements. Here we present results from the concept and design phase A - a study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic Lunar Dust Analyser, LPM - Langmuir Probe and Magnetometer, LRU - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae and LEIA - Lunar Electron and Ion Analyser. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package CAD Model

  14. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  15. Concepts for manned lunar habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Butterfield, A. J.; King, C. B.; Qualls, G. D.; Davis, W. T.; Gould, M. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Simonsen, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    The design philosophy that will guide the design of early lunar habitats will be based on a compromise between the desired capabilities of the base and the economics of its development and implantation. Preferred design will be simple, make use of existing technologies, require the least amount of lunar surface preparation, and minimize crew activity. Three concepts for an initial habitat supporting a crew of four for 28 to 30 days are proposed. Two of these are based on using Space Station Freedom structural elements modified for use in a lunar-gravity environment. A third concept is proposed that is based on an earlier technology based on expandable modules. The expandable modules offer significant advantages in launch mass and packaged volume reductions. It appears feasible to design a transport spacecraft lander that, once landed, can serve as a habitat and a stand-off for supporting a regolith environmental shield. A permanent lunar base habitat supporting a crew of twelve for an indefinite period can be evolved by using multiple initial habitats. There appears to be no compelling need for an entirely different structure of larger volume and increased complexity of implantation.

  16. The lunar community church: Contributions to lunar living and to evolution of ethical and spiritual thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Should religious institutions get interested in lunar settlement? Would their participation make positive contributions or would it discourage creative diversity and interfere with science and good technical judgement? Among the spacefaring nations of today, religion is distinctly separated from the governments that plan and pay for space exploration. However, as we move off the Earth, our art and philosophy will follow our science and technology. Spiritual thinking will follow as part of our culture. It is time to consider in what ways this can occur constructively. Transport of religious values to a lunar base may have positive effects in two ways. First, the social structure of a 'community church' as found in today's United States, supports its members psychologically. Mutual psychological and social support will be needed in a lunar community. Second, our space pioneers will experience a unique view of the universe which may, in their philosophical discussions, forge new ideas in the spiritual realm.

  17. Lunar exploration and development--a sustainable model.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A long-term goal of space exploration is the development of a lunar settlement that will not only be largely self-sufficient but also contribute to the economy of the Earth-Moon system. Proposals for lunar mining and materials processing developments, as well as tourism-based applications, have appeared in the literature for many years. However, so great are the technical and financial difficulties associated with sustained lunar development that, more than 30 years after the end of the Apollo programme, there have been no practical advances towards this goal. While this may soon be remedied by a series of proposed unmanned orbiters, landers and rovers, the philosophy of lunar exploration and development remains the same as it has for decades: conquer, exploit, and ignore the consequences. By contrasting the well-recognised problems of Earth orbital debris and the barely recognised issue of intentional spacecraft impacts on the lunar surface, this paper illustrates the need for a new model for lunar exploration and development. This new paradigm would assign a value to the lunar environment and provide a balance between protection and exploitation, creating, in effect, a philosophy of sustainable development for the Moon. It is suggested that this new philosophy should be an integral part of any future strategy for lunar colonisation. PMID:16010758

  18. Lunar Ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Berwick

    1879-01-01

    WHILE experimenting on the actenic power of lunar light on August 30 last (period of full moon), at 9.30 P.M., I obtained, with a minute-and-a-half exposure, a photographic negative of the moon, which shows a distinct and well-defined ring or glory around it which was not visible to the naked eye on looking directly at the moon in a clear

  19. Lunar Lander

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation depicts a lunar lander that can be maneuvered over the surface of the moon by either activating its lateral thrusters or varying the thrust of the main engine while under the influence of the moon's gravity. Users activate the thrusters and main engine to vary the horizontal and vertical speeds in order to land successfully in a rock free environment with a low velocity. The resource includes indicators of the landers altitude, attitude, velocity, fuel level and thrust in N.

  20. The permanent and induced magnetic dipole moment of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Lichtenstein, B. R.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    Magnetic field observations with the Apollo 15 subsatellite have been used to deduce the components of both the permanent and induced lunar dipole moments in the orbital plane. The present permanent lunar magnetic dipole moment in the orbital plane is less than 1.3 times ten to the eighteenth power gauss-cu cm. Any uniformly magnetized near surface layer is therefore constrained to have a thickness-magnetization product less than 2.5 emu-cm per g. The induced moment opposes the external field, implying the existence of a substantial lunar ionosphere with a permeability between 0.63 and 0.85. Combining this with recent measures of the ratio of the relative field strength at the ALSEP and Explorer 35 magnetometers indicates that the global lunar permeability relative to the plasma in the geomagnetic tail lobes is between 1.008 and 1.03.

  1. Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

  2. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  3. Design of a lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are also outlined.

  4. Lunar Magnetic Fields: Implications for Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  5. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  6. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  7. A lunar construction shack vehicle: Final design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A lunar construction shack vehicle is a critical component in most of the plans proposed for the construction of a permanent base on the moon. The Selene Engineering Company (SEC) has developed a concept for this vehicle which is both innovative and practical. The design makes use of the most advanced technology available to meet the goals for a safe, versatile and durable habitat that will serve as a starting point for the initial phase of the construction of a permanent lunar base. This document outlines SEC's proposed design for a lander vehicle which will be fully self-sufficient and will provide for all necessary life support, including consumables and radiation protection, needed by the construction crew until they can complete the assembly of a more permanent habitat. Since it is highly likely that it will take more than one crew to complete the construction of a permanent lunar base, the design emphasis is on systems which can be easily maintained and resupplied and which will take a minimum of start up preparation by succeeding crews.

  8. LCROSS: Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmie, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the success of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) project. The LCROSS mission science goals was to: (1) Confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region on the Moon (2) Identify the form/state of hydrogen observed by at the lunar poles (3) Quantify, if present, the amount of water in the lunar regolith, with respect to hydrogen concentrations (4) Characterize the lunar regolith within a permanently shadowed crater on the Moon. The mission confirmed the presence of water ice on the moon by impacting a part of the spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater.. The presentation includes pictures of the development of the spacecraft, testing, launch, impact site, impact and a section of what the author called "Lunacy" which showed joking cartoons.

  9. Extraction of Water from Lunar Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 5 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. Dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured. Microwave absorption and attenuation in lunar soil simulant has been correlated with measured dielectric properties. Future work will be discussed.

  10. Lunar base activities and the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

  11. Magnetostatic potential theory and the lunar magnetic dipole field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    The lunar magnetic dipole moment is discussed. It is proposed that if a primordial core magnetic field existed, it would give rise to a present day nonzero external dipole magnetic field. This conclusion is based on the assumption that the lunar mantle is at least slightly ferromagnetic, and thus would maintain a permanent magnetization after the disappearance of the core magnetic field. Using a simple mathematical model of the moon, calculations are performed which support this hypothesis.

  12. Lunar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Shahin

    The climatic conditions of Earth and human trends for discover the space, make these questions that how we can design a camp on the moon as a base for traveling in space or how we can live on that condition and what kind of camp we can have on the moon?!The first step in this way was creating the International Space Station on earth's orbit. (International Space Station, 2001) Settlement on moon was proposed since knowledge about it growth. Regarding to new technologies, architects parallel to engineers are trying to design and invent new ways for human settlement on moon because of its suitable conditions. Proposed habitats range from the actual spacecraft lander or their used fuel tanks, to inflatable modules of various shapes. Due to the researches until now, the first requirement for the living on other planets is water existence for human breath and fuel and after that we need to solve air pressure and gravity difference. (Colonization of the Moon, 2004) The Goal of this research is to answer to the question which is designing a camp on the Moon. But for this goal, there is need to think and study more about the subject and its factors. With qualitative and comparative methodology, the conditions of the Earth and the Moon will be comparing in different categories such as nature, human and design. I think that after water discovery, with using local materials and appropriate building design which can be on surface or underground, along with new sciences, we can plan for long period living on Moon. The important point is to consider Function, Form and Structure together in designing on the Moon. References: Colonization of the Moon. (2004). Retrieved December 14, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonizationo ft heM oonStructure, InternationalSpaceStation.(2001).Retrie http : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InternationalS paceS tation

  13. Lunar resources: Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) lunar resources and surface conditions; (2) guidelines for early lunar technologies; (3) the lunar farm; (4) the lunar filling station; (5) lunar construction materials; (6) the lunar power company; (7) the electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the Moon and in near-Earth space.

  14. A bootstrap lunar base: Preliminary design review 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A bootstrap lunar base is the gateway to manned solar system exploration and requires new ideas and new designs on the cutting edge of technology. A preliminary design for a Bootstrap Lunar Base, the second provided by this contractor, is presented. An overview of the work completed is discussed as well as the technical, management, and cost strategies to complete the program requirements. The lunar base design stresses the transforming capabilities of its lander vehicles to aid in base construction. The design also emphasizes modularity and expandability in the base configuration to support the long-term goals of scientific research and profitable lunar resource exploitation. To successfully construct, develop, and inhabit a permanent lunar base, however, several technological advancements must first be realized. Some of these technological advancements are also discussed.

  15. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  16. LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) Observation Campaign: Strategies, Implementation, and Lessons Learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Heldmann; Anthony Colaprete; Diane H. Wooden; Robert F. Ackermann; David D. Acton; Peter R. Backus; Vanessa Bailey; Jesse G. Ball; William C. Barott; Samantha K. Blair; Marc W. Buie; Shawn Callahan; Nancy J. Chanover; Young-Jun Choi; Al Conrad; Dolores M. Coulson; Kirk B. Crawford; Russell Dehart; Imke de Pater; Michael Disanti; James R. Forster; Reiko Furusho; Tetsuharu Fuse; Tom Geballe; J. Duane Gibson; David Goldstein; Stephen A. Gregory; David J. Gutierrez; Ryan T. Hamilton; Taiga Hamura; David E. Harker; Gerry R. Harp; Junichi Haruyama; Morag Hastie; Yutaka Hayano; Phillip Hinz; Peng K. Hong; Steven P. James; Toshihiko Kadono; Hideyo Kawakita; Michael S. Kelley; Daryl L. Kim; Kosuke Kurosawa; Duk-Hang Lee; Michael Long; Paul G. Lucey; Keith Marach; Anthony C. Matulonis; Richard M. McDermid; Russet McMillan; Charles Miller; Hong-Kyu Moon; Ryosuke Nakamura; Hirotomo Noda; Natsuko Okamura; Lawrence Ong; Dallan Porter; Jeffery J. Puschell; John T. Rayner; J. Jedadiah Rembold; Katherine C. Roth; Richard J. Rudy; Ray W. Russell; Eileen V. Ryan; William H. Ryan; Tomohiko Sekiguchi; Yasuhito Sekine; Mark A. Skinner; Mitsuru Sôma; Andrew W. Stephens; Alex Storrs; Robert M. Suggs; Seiji Sugita; Eon-Chang Sung; Naruhisa Takatoh; Jill C. Tarter; Scott M. Taylor; Hiroshi Terada; Chadwick J. Trujillo; Vidhya Vaitheeswaran; Faith Vilas; Brian D. Walls; Jun-Ihi Watanabe; William J. Welch; Charles E. Woodward; Hong-Suh Yim; Eliot F. Young

    2011-01-01

    NASA’s LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was designed to explore the nature of previously detected\\u000a enhanced levels of hydrogen near the lunar poles. The LCROSS mission impacted the spent upper stage of the launch vehicle\\u000a into a permanently shadowed region of the lunar surface to create an ejecta plume. The resultant impact crater and plume were\\u000a then

  17. Lunar Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Weiss, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    We have completed a reanalysis of the old Apollo paleomagnetic data using modern techniques of analysis and presentation. The principal result from the mare basalts is that several samples, such as 10020, 10017, 10049, and 70215 appear to be carrying primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) acquired on the Moon as they cooled initially on the lunar surface, but in almost every case alternating field (AF) demagnetization was not carried out to strong enough fields to isolate this primary magnetization properly. When modern measurements are available, the agreement between old Apollo era data and new data is strikingly good. It also appears that the fields recorded by the basalts of Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 are stronger than those recorded by Apollo 12 and Apollo 15 basalts. Indeed it is not clear that any reliable records have come from these younger samples. The histories of breccias are more complicated than those of mare basalts and their NRM is harder to interpret. For regolith breccias, interpretations are complicated because of their strong superparamagnetic components and their complex, polymict lithologies. It would be unwise to use these samples for paleointensity estimates unless one can be sure that the NRM was entirely acquired as TRM during cooling after the shock event, as may be the case for 15498. In contrast, the melt rock and melt breccias, which include samples formed at high temperatures far above the Curie point of any magnetic carriers, have an excellent chance of recording lunar fields faithfully as they cool. This cooling may have taken place in a melt pool in a simple crater, or in a melt layer in a complex crater. Such samples would then have been excavated and deposited in the regolith and some appear to have recorded strong fields, but more work needs to be done to test this suggestion. Other melt rocks and melt breccias have had more complicated histories and appear to have been deposited in ejecta blankets, where final cooling took place. A useful, if imperfect, analogy may be pyroclastic volcanic deposits. The samples from the Apollo 17 layered boulder 1 at station 2 provide an example of this history. If a pTRM can be related to this secondary cooling, then we may recover a record of the field during this cooling. Samples such as 62235 and 72215 may provide just such a record, with Apollo-era and modern estimates of fields of the order of around 100 microT. Explaining such high paleointensities so late in lunar history is a major challenge to dynamo models based on cooling of the core, given its small size, and has led to alternative models.

  18. Lunar base and Mars base design projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, J.; Campbell, J.; Hudson, C.; Kenny, E.; Markward, D.; Pham, C.; Wolf, C.

    1989-01-01

    The space design classes at the University of Texas at Austin undertook seven projects in support of the NASA/USRA advanced space design program during the 1988-89 year. A total of 51 students, including 5 graduate students, participated in the design efforts. Four projects were done within the Aerospace Engineering (ASE) design program and three within the Mechanical Engineering (ME) program. Both lunar base and Mars base design efforts were studied, and the specific projects were as follows: Lunar Crew Emergency Rescue Vehicle (ASE); Mars Logistics Lander Convertible to a Rocket Hopper (ME); A Robotically Constructed Production and Supply Base on Phobos (ASE); A Mars/Phobos Transportation System (ASE); Manned Base Design and Related Construction Issues for Mars/Phobos Mission (ME); and Health Care Needs for a Lunar Colony and Design of Permanent Medical Facility (ME).

  19. Pyroclastic deposits as sites for lunar bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. Ray; Clark, Beth; Coombs, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits may prove to be excellent sites for the establishment of a permanent lunar base for mining purposes. A wide variety of potentially useful by-products could be produced (e.g., Fe, Ti, H, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb). A number of ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent has been studied. The physical properties of the regional pyroclastic units have important implications for lunar construction. These extensive, deep deposits of ilmenite-rich pyroclastic material are block-free and uncontaminated; they could be easily excavated and would be ideal for lunar mining operations. These deep, loose pyroclastic deposits would also be ideal for rapidly covering base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding.

  20. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  1. Bank for International Settlements

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), a creation of the Hague Conference of 1930, is "a[n international] central banking institution" whose aim is "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations." Its web site provides a detailed profile of BIS, along with its basic texts and charters. However, the power of the site is its publication section, a small but growing list of full text publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), highlighted by the quarterly International Banking and Financial Market Developments, a "commentary on recent developments in international banking, securities and global derivatives markets based on partial information available for the [most recent quarter] and on more detailed banking data for [the previous quarter]." The site also contains BIS Review, "a collection of important articles and speeches by senior central bankers."

  2. Architecture Studies for Commercial Production of Propellants From the Lunar Poles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Duke; Javier Diaz; Brad R. Blair; Mark Oderman; Marc Vaucher

    2003-01-01

    Two architectures are developed that could be used to convert water held in regolith deposits within permanently shadowed lunar craters into propellant for use in near-Earth space. In particular, the model has been applied to an analysis of the commercial feasibility of using lunar derived propellant to convey payloads from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit. Production and transportation

  3. Material Damage from Impacts of Lunar Soil Particles Ejected by the Rocket Exhaust of Landing Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittbrodt, Audelia C.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper details the experimentation of lunar stimulant sandblasting. This was done to understand the damage that landing spacecraft on the moon will have to a permanent lunar outpost. The sandblasting was done with JSC-1A onto glass coupons. Correlations between the velocity and the damage done to the glass were not found. Reasons for this and future analyses are discussed.

  4. Lunar Learning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Everyone has gazed at the Moon but why does it not always look the same to us? Sometimes it is a big, bright, circle, but, other times, it is only a tiny sliver. Students create Moon Logs to record and sketch how the Moon looks each night in the sky. With these first-hand observations, they are ready to figure out how the continuously changing relative positions of the Moon, Earth and Sun result in the different shapes and sizes. These different appearances of the Moon—its phases—change periodically over the course of the 28-day lunar month. A lesson demonstration using a golf ball, softball and basketball, along with a flashlight, serves as a model to aid in comprehension. Then, in the associated activity, student pairs use Styrofoam balls and lamps to act it out, reproducing the Moon phases.

  5. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  6. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  7. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  8. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  9. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  10. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  11. First Lunar Outpost support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartz, Christopher; Cook, John; Rusingizandekwe, Jean-Luc

    1993-01-01

    The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) is the first manned step in the accomplishment of the Space Exploration Initiative, the Vice President's directive to NASA on the 20th anniversary of the Apollo moon landing. FLO's broad objectives are the establishment of a permanent human presence on the moon, supporting the utilization of extraterrestrial resources in a long-term, sustained program. The primary objective is to emplace and validate the first elements of a man tended outpost on the lunar surface to provide the basis for: (1) establishing, maintaining and expanding human activities and influence across the surface; (2) establishing, maintaining and enhancing human safety and productivity; (3) accommodating space transportation operations to and from the surface; (4) accommodating production of scientific information; (5) exploiting in-situ resources. Secondary objectives are: (1) to conduct local, small scale science (including life science); (2) In-situ resource utilization (ISRU) demonstrations; (3) engineering and operations tests; (4) to characterize the local environment; and (5) to explore locally. The current work is part of ongoing research at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture supporting NASA's First Lunar Outpost initiative. Research at SICSA supporting the First Lunar Outpost initiative has been funded through the Space Exploration Initiatives office at Johnson Space Center. The objectives of the current study are to further develop a module concept from an evaluation of volumetric and programmatic requirements, and pursue a high fidelity design of this concept, with the intention of providing a high fidelity design mockup to research planetary design issues and evaluate future design concepts.

  12. Microcracks in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1979-01-01

    Lunar samples contain abundant open microcracks that have closure characteristics completely unlike any shocked terrestrial rock; however, the microcracks present in the lunar rocks before the rocks reached the surface of the moon were likely similar to the microcracks in the shocked terrestrial rocks. Because the microcracks present in the lunar rocks in situ inside the moon were different, radically different, from the microcracks present today in returned lunar samples, any property that is sensitive to microcracks measured on the returned lunar samples is inappropriate for predicting that property as a function of depth in the moon. Therefore, many data that have been measured already on lunar samples simply do not apply to rocks in situ inside the moon. A plausible mechanism with which to account for the difference in microcrack characteristics of lunar samples on the surface of the moon and the microcrack characteristics of lunar rock in situ inside the moon is thermal cycling during residence on the moon's surface.

  13. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  14. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  15. Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

  16. Moonport: Transportation node in lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    An orbital transporation system between the Earth and Moon was designed. The design work focused on the requirements and configuration of an orbiting lunar base. The design utilized current Space Station technologies, but also focused on the specific requirements involved with a permanently manned, orbiting lunar station. A model of the recommended configuration was constructed. In order to analyze Moonport activity and requirements, a traffic model was designed, defining traffic between the lunar port, or Moonport and low Earth orbit. Also, a lunar base model was used to estimate requirements of the surface base on Moonport traffic and operations. A study was conducted to compare Moonport traffic and operations based in low lunar orbit and the L (sub 2) equilibrium point, behind the Moon. The study compared delta-V requirements to each location and possible payload deliveries to low Earth orbit from each location. Products of the Moonport location study included number of flights annually to Moonport, net payload delivery to low Earth orbit, and Moonport storage requirement.

  17. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  18. The Use of Data from Two Major Lunar Neutron Campaigns (Apollo 17 and Lunar Prospector) as a Benchmark for the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND, on board LRO spacecraft)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandikotkur, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Usikov, D.; Milikh, G. M.; Chin, G.; McClanahan, T. P.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Harshman, K.; Droege, G.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A.; Golovin, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment (LPNE, 1972) has opened an era of the neutron probing technique in studying the elemental composition and its stratification in lunar soil bombarded by Galactic Cosmic Rays. The unique in situ measurements provided a guideline for the next generation neutron experiments based on remote sensing from the orbit of Lunar Prospector around the Moon (LPNS,1998-1999). Current lunar neutron studies from LEND, on board LRO, constitute the next step in remote sensing by adding higher spatial resolution (for epithermal range of neutron energies) over Lunar surface and allowing us to "look" inside permanently shaded craters in a search of frozen water. This is why it is important to cross calibrate neutron detecting capabilities of these Lunar neutron campaigns and facilitate the creation of unique data set encompassing in situ and remote sensing.

  19. Lunar Dust-Tolerant Electrical Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jason; Sadick, Shazad; Roberts, Dustyn

    2010-01-01

    An electrical connector was developed that is tolerant of the presence of lunar dust. Novel features of the connector include the use of a permeable membrane to act both as a dust barrier and as a wiper to limit the amount of dust that makes its way into the internal chamber of the connector. The development focused on the Constellation lunar extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit s portable life support system (PLSS) battery recharge connector; however, continued research is applying this technology to other lunar surface systems such as lunar rover subsystems and cryogenic fluid transfer connections for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) applications. Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. In addition to posing contamination and health risks for human explorers, the interlocking, angular nature of lunar dust and its broad grain size distribution make it particularly harmful to mechanisms with which it may come into contact. All Apollo lunar missions experienced some degree of equipment failure because of dust, and it appears that dust accumulation on exposed material is unavoidable and difficult to reverse. Both human EVA and ISRU activities are on the mission horizon and are paramount to the establishment of a permanent human base on the Moon. Reusable and dust-tolerant connection mechanisms are a critical component for mission success. The need for dust-tolerant solutions is also seen in utility work and repair, mass transit applications, construction, mining, arctic and marine environments, diving (search and rescue), and various operations in deserts, where dust or sand clogging and coating different mechanisms and connections may render them difficult to operate or entirely inoperable.

  20. Russian Lunar Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  1. Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

  2. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  3. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  4. Solar and lunar eclipses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Dagaev

    1978-01-01

    The book reviews historical and scientific information on solar and lunar eclipses and presents mathematical and astronomical analyses of past and future eclipses. Principles of Egyptian, Chinese, and Roman solar and lunar calendars are examined, noting that they were based on the periodicity of lunar phases and changes in seasons. Observable solar motion relative to the earth orbit and causes

  5. Design of a lunar transportation system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. A brief summary of four of the final projects, is presented. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. A lunar flying vehicle that uses clean propellants for propulsion is examined. A design that will not contribute to the considerable amount of caustic pollution already present in the sparse lunar atmosphere is addressed by way of ballistic flight techniques. A second generation redesign of the current Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suit to increase operating time, safety, and efficiency is also addressed. A separate life support system is also designed to be permanently attached to the lunar rover. The two systems would interact through the use of an umbilical cord connection. A ground based vehicle which will travel for greater distances than a 37.5 kilometer radius from a base on the lunar surface was designed. The vehicle is pressurized due to the fact that existing lunar rovers are limited by the EVA suits currently in use. A robotic arm for use at lunar bases or on roving vehicles on the lunar surface was designed. The arm was originally designed as a specimen gathering device, but it can be used for a wide range of tasks through the use of various attachments.

  6. A quasi-economic role for lunar science

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    In broad economic terms, the development of lunar products will begin with a sequence of technology, production, and delivery demonstrations which will have to precede the emergence of markets. Economically viable products will tend to be those for which the sum of production and transport costs are lower for lunar suppliers than for terrestrial suppliers. As long as lunar production costs exceed terrestrial production costs -- as will be the case for most lunar products until such time as lunar development has reached a mature stage -- the most viable industries will be those producing low-tech products for lunar markets. The scale of initial lunar markets will depend on the size of a lunar base and/or its rate of growth. For a given level of public support, maximum base size can be achieved through the conduct, at the base, of a vigorous program of scientific and engineering research making use of as much local production and as many permanently-resident support staff as feasible. 5 refs.

  7. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  8. Lunar sample 14425 - Not a lunar tektite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of a polished section of lunar sample 14425 shows, in contradiction to a previous report, that it has a composition similar to Apollo 14 breccias, but not to high-magnesium microtektites. Lunar sample 14425 is a large (8.006±0.006 mm dia.) glass bead. Sample 14425 is one of the largest glass beads returned from the moon. Semiquantitative analysis of the bead indicated that it has a composition unlike other lunar samples, but similar to high-magnesium microtektites (O'Keefe and Glass, 1985). A polished section was prepared at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Quantitative analysis of this section shows that the spherule is extremely homogenous in composition and that the composition is similar to Apollo 14 impact breccias and not to any known terrestrial tektite. It appears that the glass bead was formed by impact melting and that it is not a lunar tektite.

  9. The ISA accelerometer and Lunar science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Massimo Lucchesi, David; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Milyukov, Vadim; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Santoli, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments: in fact a wide variety of them has been proposed to be conducted on the lunar surface. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one-dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in-orbit and on-ground, with the same configuration. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been the subject of preliminary studies and has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. ISA-S (ISA-Seismometer) has a very high sensitivity, which has already been demonstrated with long time periods of usage on Earth. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of landing missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the systems.

  10. Lunar Observatory in a future Lunar Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Hideo; Iwata, Takahiro; Sasaki, Sho; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Araki, Hiroshi; Noda, Hirotomo

    ILOM (In-situ Lunar Orientation Measurements) and LLFAST (Lunar Low Frequency Astronomical Observatory) are proposed as plans of astronomical observations on the Moon which should be realized in a future lunar mission. ILOM is a selenodetic mission to study lunar rotational dynamics by direct observations of the lunar physical libration and the free librations from the lunar surface with an accuracy of 1 millisecond of arc in the post-SELENE project. Year-long trajectories of the stars provide information on various components of the physical librations and we will also try to detect the lunar free librations in order to investigate the lunar mantle and the liquid core. The PZT on the moon is similar to that used for the international latitude observations of the Earth is applied. The measurement of the rotation of the Moon is one of the essential technique to obtain the information of the internal structure. The highly accurate observation in the very low frequency band below about 10 MHz is yet to be realized, so that this range is remarkable as one of the last frontiers for astronomy. This is mainly because that the terrestrial ionosphere prevents us from observing the radio waves below the ionospheric cutoff frequency on the ground. It is, moreover, difficult to observe the faint radio waves from planets and celestial objects even on the earth's orbit because of the interference caused by the solar burst, artificial noises and terrestrial aurora emissions. The lunar far-side is a suitable site for the low frequency astronomical observations, because noises from the Earth can always avoided and radio waves from the Sun can be shielded during the lunar night.

  11. Lunar soil mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Chua, Koon Meng; Carrier, W. David, III

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the mechanical and physical properties of the lunar soil as a function and depth beneath the surface assists in the interpretation of experiments such as active and passive seismology, heat flow and core sampling, which have been conducted on the Moon and will be resumed when lunar development is underway in the next century. Such data on the mechanical and physical properties are required for the construction of a lunar base. We anticipate using soil mechanics data to design foundations for telescopes and other structures on the Moon. The predictions of the performance of lunar vehicles rest upon an understanding of lunar soil properties.

  12. Lunar soil science. Physicomechanical properties of lunar soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Cherkasov; V. V. Shvarev; A. Y. Ishlinskii

    1975-01-01

    Current (1975) views of the genesis, structure and properties of lunar soils based on astronomical and radiophysical studies of the moon are presented. Lunar research from orbital spacecraft is discussed, and techniques and equipment employed to investigate lunar soils in soft-landed lunar stations are described in detail. A separate section is devoted to examinations of the first lunar rock samples

  13. Lunar in-core thermionic nuclear reactor power system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Gallup, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a lunar in-core thermionic reactor power system. The concept consists of a thermionic reactor located in a lunar excavation with surface mounted waste heat radiators. The system was integrated with a proposed lunar base concept representative of recent NASA Space Exploration Initiative studies. The reference mission is a permanently-inhabited lunar base requiring a 550 kWe, 7 year life central power station. Performance parameters and assumptions were based on the Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) Verification Program. Five design cases were analyzed ranging from conservative to advanced. The cases were selected to provide sensitivity effects on the achievement of TFE program goals.

  14. Lunar base surface mission operations. Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to perform an analysis of the surface operations associated with a human-tended lunar base. Specifically, the study defined surface elements and developed mission manifests for a selected base scenario, determined the nature of surface operations associated with this scenario, generated a preliminary crew extravehicular and intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) time resource schedule for conducting the missions, and proposed concepts for utilizing remotely operated equipment to perform repetitious or hazardous surface tasks. The operations analysis was performed on a 6 year period of human-tended lunar base operation prior to permanent occupancy. The baseline scenario was derived from a modified version of the civil needs database (CNDB) scenario. This scenario emphasizes achievement of a limited set of science and exploration objectives while emplacing the minimum habitability elements required for a permanent base.

  15. 49 CFR 386.22 - Settlement agreements and their contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement agreements and their contents. 386.22 Section...HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS Settlement Agreements § 386.22 Settlement agreements and their contents. (a) Settlement...

  16. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  17. A short course in lunar geology for earth science instructors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Shultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A four-day short course in lunar geology was developed, leading to the publication of a primer in lunar geology. The course was offered to 22 sponsored participants (community college teachers) and to representatives from the Lunar Science Institute, Houston, Texas, and from the Educational Program Office of NASA-Ames, on April 25-28, 1974. A follow-up survey of the course participants was made in two steps: on the last day of the course, and one year later. In general, the participants felt that the course was well organized and that the speakers were effective. Most of the participants introduced some aspects of what they learned into their own teaching material. Finally, a well-panel display about 7 1/2 feet high and 16 feet long designed to acquaint the viewer with elementary facts of lunar geology was constructed and permanently installed at the Space Science Center of Foothill College.

  18. Lunar Crater Mini-Wakes: Structure, Variability, and Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Michael I.; Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Within a permanently shadowed lunar crater the horizontal flow of solar wind is obstructed by upstream topography, forming a regional plasma mini-wake. In the present work kinetic simulations are utilized to investigate how the most prominent structural aspects of a crater mini-wake are modulated during passage of a solar storm. In addition, the simulated particle fluxes are coupled into an equivalent-circuit model of a roving astronaut,. including triboelectric charging due to frictional contact with the lunar regolith, to characterize charging of the astronaut suit during the various stages of the storm. In some cases, triboelectric charging of the astronaut suit becomes effectively perpetual, representing a critical engineering concern for roving within shadowed lunar regions. Finally, the present results suggest that wake structure plays a critical role in modulating the spatial distribution of volatiles at the lunar poles.

  19. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1525 Settlement...authorized, may negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning...

  20. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1525 Settlement...authorized, may negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning...

  1. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1525 Settlement...authorized, may negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning...

  2. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1525 Settlement...authorized, may negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning...

  3. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1525 Settlement...authorized, may negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning...

  4. Impact Generated Plasmas on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T.; Robertson, S. H.; Sternovsky, Z.; Wang, X.

    2009-12-01

    Lunar dust mobilization and transport remains a debated issue. There are several historical data sets from in situ and remote sensing observations that indicate the presence of lofted dust populations, possibly reaching high altitudes over the lunar surface. The expected charge density of the surface, combined with the relatively weak electric fields in a UV produced plasma sheath on the dayside, seem insufficient to explain these observations. While the surface potentials are much higher on the nightside, the very low plasma density results in a large screening distance and, hence, an even weaker electric field. In addition to solar wind plasma and UV radiation, the lunar surface is also exposed to the continual bombardment by interplanetary dust particles. Based on measurements at Earth, the Moon is expected to collect about 5×103 kg/day of dust which hits the surface at high speeds (>> km/s). These impacts generate secondary particles with a typical mass yield of 103 - 104 that form a permanently present dust exosphere about the Moon. In addition, these impacts also generate neutral and plasma clouds. Impact-generated neutrals are suspected to be one of the major sources of the tenuous lunar atmosphere, in addition to out-gassing and sputtering by solar wind ions. The impact plasma cloud is expected to expand, cool, and recombine, but for a short period of time it will significantly increase the plasma density near the surface, as well as the surface charge density. The combination of these is expected to result in a highly increased efficiency to mobilize and loft small charged grains from the surface. We report on the status of the modeling of the impact generated plasma clouds, as well as on the planned series of experiments to observe its properties at the dust accelerator facility of the recently established NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies. We will also discuss the possible observational opportunities to map the properties of the lunar dust environment using the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft to be launched in early 2012.

  5. Involvement of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC) in species recognition at settlement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Dreanno; Richard R. Kirby; Anthony S. Clare

    2007-01-01

    A cuticular glycoprotein known as the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC) induces gregarious settlement in the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Here the ability of B. amphitrite cyprids to discriminate among the SIPCs of three related Balanidae, B. improvisus, Megabalanus rosa and Elminius modestus is examined. Using a laboratory settlement assay, the effective surface-adsorbed concentration of B. amphitrite SIPC that achieved 50% settlement

  6. Technical comment on "Hydrogen mapping of the lunar South Pole using the LRO neutron detector experiment LEND".

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David J; Eke, Vincent R; Elphic, Richard C; Feldman, William C; Funsten, Herbert O; Prettyman, Thomas H; Teodoro, Luis F A

    2011-11-25

    Based on a study of high-energy epithermal (HEE) neutrons in data from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), the background from HEE neutrons is larger than initially estimated. Claims by Mitrofanov et al. (Reports, 22 October 2010, p. 483) of enhanced hydrogen abundance in sunlit portions of the lunar south pole and quantitative hydrogen concentration values in south pole permanently shaded regions are therefore insufficiently supported. PMID:22116865

  7. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (editor); Schultz, P. H. (editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  8. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  9. Roadmap for Future Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; International Lunar Exploration Working Group

    We discuss strategies for future lunar exploration. This includes open science questions about comparative planetology, the origin of the Earth --Moon system, the early evolution of life, the planetary environment and the existence of in-situ resources necessary to support human presence. We discuss areas of instrumentation: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. We discuss technologies in robotic exploration: Mecha-electronics-sensors; Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots. We compare Moon-Mars system aspects related to In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructure, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. Finally, we discuss possible roadmaps and synergies for Moon-Mars exploration, starting with the missions for the coming decade, and building effectively on joint technology developments.

  10. Current NASA lunar base concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Connolly, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology has completed a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define a point design for an evolving lunar base that supports substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. This study addressed the following: systems level design; element requirements and conceptual design; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and operations concepts. The central base is assumed to be located equatorially on the lunar nearside north of the crater Moltke in Mare Tranquilliatis. The study considers an aggressive case with three main phases. The initial Man-Tended Phase established basic enabling facilities that include a modular habitat that periodically houses a crew of four. During the Experimental Phase, the base becomes permanently manned with the construction of a larger habitat that provides augmented workshop and laboratory volumes and housing for crew. The Operational Phase expands base capabilities to a substantially mature level while reducing reliance on Earth. The analysis classifies base characteristics into several major functional areas: Human Systems; Assembly and Construction; Energy Management; Launch and Landing; Surface Transportation; In-Situ Resources Utilization; User Accommodations; and Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management. Results of various NASA-sponsored studies were synthesized to meet requirements. The system level architecture was determined, the physical layout was developed from a set of proximity criteria and related functions, and the evlotuionary path of the base was analyzed. Conclusions include a summary of technology needs, design drivers, high leverage items, and important issues.

  11. A lunar polar expedition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Thomas

    This paper reviews issues related to a five-person expedition to the lunar north pole which primarily addresses site selection and the requirements for transportation, power, and life support. A one-year stay on the lunar surface is proposed based on available technology, and proposals are detailed for incorporating flight-proven systems, abort or rescue options, and the use of the base as the nucleus for subsequent operations. Specific details are given regarding lunar orbital data, the characteristics of the proposed base, power and consumables requirements, and equipment such as two-person lunar roving vehicles and space suits. During the expedition: (1) water is recycled; (2) Autolanders are used to deliver equipment; (3) two rovers are included in the mass budget; (4) the lunar surface is studied in detail. A polar lunar-base site offers the advantages of unobstructed astronomy, enhanced heat rejection, and the potential for reuse.

  12. Lunar Prospecting Using Thermal Wadis and Compact Rovers. Part A; Infrastructure for Surviving the Lunar Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Suzuki, Nantel H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent missions have confirmed the existence of water and other volatiles on the Moon, both in permanently-shadowed craters and elsewhere. Non-volatile lunar resources may represent significant additional value as infrastructure or manufacturing feedstock. Characterization of lunar resources in terms of abundance concentrations, distribution, and recoverability is limited to in-situ Apollo samples and the expanding remote-sensing database. This paper introduces an approach to lunar resource prospecting supported by a simple lunar surface infrastructure based on the Thermal Wadi concept of thermal energy storage and using compact rovers equipped with appropriate prospecting sensors and demonstration resource extraction capabilities. Thermal Wadis are engineered sources of heat and power based on the storage and retrieval of solar-thermal energy in modified lunar regolith. Because Thermal Wadis keep compact prospecting rovers warm during periods of lunar darkness, the rovers are able to survive months to years on the lunar surface rather than just weeks without being required to carry the burdensome capability to do so. The resulting lower-cost, long-lived rovers represent a potential paradigm breakthrough in extra-terrestrial prospecting productivity and will enable the production of detailed resource maps. Integrating resource processing and other technology demonstrations that are based on the content of the resource maps will inform engineering economic studies that can define the true resource potential of the Moon. Once this resource potential is understood quantitatively, humans might return to the Moon with an economically sound objective including where to go, what to do upon arrival, and what to bring along.

  13. First Lunar Flashes Observed from Morocco (ILIAD Network): Implications for Lunar Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Moulay Larbi, Mamoun; Daassou, Ahmed; Baratoux, David; Bouley, Sylvain; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Garcia, Raphael; Colas, Francois

    2015-03-01

    We report the detection of two transient luminous events recorded on the lunar surface on February 6, 2013, at 06:29:56.7 UT and April 14, 2013, 20:00:45.4 from the Atlas Golf Marrakech observatory in Morocco. Estimated visual magnitudes are 9.4 ± 0.2 and 7.7 ± 0.2. We show that these events have the typical characteristics of impact flashes generated by meteoroids impacting the lunar surface, despite proof using two different telescopes is not available. Assuming these events were lunar impact flashes, meteoroid masses are 0.3 ± 0.05 and 1.8 ± 0.3 kg, corresponding to diameters of 7-8 and 14-15 cm for a density of 1500 kg m-3. The meteoroids would have produced craters of about 2.6 ± 0.3 and 4.4 ± 0.3 m in diameter. We then present a method based on the identification of lunar features illuminated by the Earthshine to determine the position of the flash. The method does not require any information about the observation geometry or lunar configuration. The coordinates are respectively 08.15° ± 0.15°S 59.1° ± 0.15°E and 26.81° ± 0.15°N 09.10° ± 0.15°W. Further improvement on the determination of the flash position is necessary for seismological applications. This studies demonstrates that permanent lunar impact flashes observation programs may be run in different parts of the globe using mid-sized telescopes. We call for the development of an international lunar impact astronomical detection networks that would represent an opportunity for scientific and cultural developments in countries where astronomy is under-represented.

  14. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape.

    PubMed

    Kirch, P V; Hartshorn, A S; Chadwick, O A; Vitousek, P M; Sherrod, D R; Coil, J; Holm, L; Sharp, W D

    2004-06-29

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km(2)) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples. PMID:15210963

  15. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirch, P.V.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Chadwick, O.A.; Vitousek, P.M.; Sherrod, D.R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L.; Sharp, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples.

  16. Lunar Land Use

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about lunar and terrestrial stratigraphy. Learners will design a development on the Moon that is suitable, feasible, and beneficial and present proposals for developments on the Moon in a competition for approval from a student-staffed Lunar Council. This activity is in Unit 3 of the "Exploring the Moon" teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

  17. Mysteries of the Lunar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar atmosphere has been probed by various instruments since the Apollo program, and continues to be measured today by the instruments onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LRO. But like Sisyphus' trek, the progress has not been linear. LAMP, The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project, onboard LRO, measured He in the lunar exosphere, confirming the Apollo 17 result from the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Hoffman et al., 1973), but LAMP did not observe Ar although the expected 0.1 R should have been detectable by their instrument (Gladstone et al., Science, 2010). A surfeit of O+ was reported in the lunar wake (Mall et al. 1998; Hilchenbach et al. 1992;1993), but the origin of those ions is unknown, since oxygen has not been seen. Water and OH were measured on the surface of the moon, but theory tells us that efficiencies of production of water by solar wind proton bombardment may be low (Burke et al., Icarus, 2011). Starukhina and Shukaratov (LPSC, abstract 1385, 2010) suggest that the observed diurnal variation in the 3 micron band at the moon is due to thermal emission and not to variation in OH. LAMP observed Hg vapor following the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater, but Hg atoms at 800 K (Wooden et al., LPSC abstract 2025, 2010) are too heavy to reach the altitudes where they would be exposed to sunlight, and thereby resonantly scatter photons, unless they are entrained in a gas with bulk velocity 3.5 km/s (Hurley et al., JGR, 2012). This bulk velocity is high for a 2 km/s impact. Another mystery from LCROSS is the H2 energy budget. Given the large amount of H2 observed after the LCROSS impact, and the high velocity required (a few km/s) to get in the field of view when it did, the kinetic energy associated with the H2 is too large of a fraction of the impactor energy. One possibility is that the H2 is produced by an exothermic reaction, which has implications for how it is stored in the regolith in permanently shadowed regions. The Na density is known to be low in the lunar exosphere when the Moon enters and traverses the Earth's magnetosphere, even though the major source processes should still be operative there. The high-energy component of Na observed in the extended Na tail at the moon, along with the very energetic Ca and Mg atoms observed at Mercury, also suggest the possibility of exothermic chemical reactions at or near the surfaces of these bodies. LCROSS also reported the presence of organics (Colaprete et al., Science, 2010), but their origin is unknown. The Apollo 15 coronal photographs recorded light scattering that was attributed to dust lofted from the lunar surface. More recently, upper limits on line of sight dust column of 103 cm-2 for 0.1 micron grains have been made via an analysis of Clementine star tracker data, much less than that predicted from Apollo results (Glenar et al., NLSI, 2012). We will report on modeling efforts that aim to resolve some of these uncertainties. Future observations by LADEE will be used along with models to further constrain the source and loss rates of volatiles.

  18. Space Math: Lunar Math

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sten Odenwald

    2008-01-01

    This booklet includes 17 problems relating to the Moon and its exploration. Images from NASA are analyzed to determine image scales and the physical sizes of various crates and features. The probability of meteor impacts near a lunar colony are calculated, and the horizon distance is determined using simple geometry. Also covered are: determining the mass of the Moon, a simple model for the lunar interior, heat flow rates, extracting oxygen from lunar rock, and lunar transits and eclipses. (8.5 x11, 28 pages, 11 color images, PDF file)

  19. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic contributions to lunar science. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was enthusiastically positive. 2012 was the third and final year for the LWEs in the current funding cycle. They will continue in a modified version at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, where the LRO Project Office and Education and Public Outreach Team are based. We will present evaluation results from our external evaluator, and share lessons learned from this workshop series. The LWEs can serve as a model for others interested in incorporating scientist and engineer involvement, data from planetary missions, and data-based activities into a thematic professional development experience for science educators. For more information about the LWEs, please visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

  20. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Benefits of Essure FDA’s ... More in Products and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Phakic Intraocular Lenses Breast ...

  1. Mechanics of lunar soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Io Cherkasov; V. V. Mikheev; V. P. Petrukhin; V. V. Shvarev

    1970-01-01

    The basic areas of the mechanics of lunar soils may be stated as: a study of the effect of low-level gravitational accelerations and high vacuum on the properties of mineral grains of various soils; a selection of soils and materials on the earth which may serve as analogs of the lunar soils and investigation of their properties and uses on

  2. Lunar soil mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart W. Johnson; Koon Meng Chua; W. David Carrier III

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the mechanical and physical properties of the lunar soil as a function and depth beneath the surface assists in the interpretation of experiments such as active and passive seismology, heat flow and core sampling, which have been conducted on the Moon and will be resumed when lunar development is underway in the next century. Such data on the

  3. Proposed lunar missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Three lunar missions are proposed: a 65 kg Artemis payload with an in-situ materials utilization (ISMU) pilot plant; a 65 kg Artemis payload with a lunar resource prospector; and a 200 kg Artemis payload with an integrated oxygen production plant. All material is presented in viewgraph format.

  4. Thermoluminescence of Lunar Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Brent Dalrymple; Richard R. Doell

    1970-01-01

    Appreciable natural thermoluminescence with glow curve peaks at about 350 degrees centigrade for lunar fines and breccias and above 400 degrees centigrade for crystalline rocks has been recognized in lunar samples. Plagioclase has been identified as the principal carrier of thermoluminescence, and the difference in peak temperatures indicates compositional or structural differences between the feldspars of the different rock types.

  5. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  6. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  7. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn Knutson; Nancy Holloway

    2010-01-01

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to

  8. Lunar crescent visibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Doggett; B. E. Schaefer

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of five Moonwatches, in which more than 2000 observers throughout North America attempted to sight the thin lunar crescent. For each Moonwatch we were able to determine the position of the Lunar Date Line (LDL), the line along which a normal observer has a 50% probability of spotting the Moon. The observational LDLs were then compared

  9. Lunar soil density and porosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Houston; J. K. Mitchell; W. D. Carrier III

    1974-01-01

    Lunar soil density and porosity data from core tube samples, lunar drill samples, astronaut footprints, Lunar Roving Vehicle and Modularized Equipment Transporter tracks, boulder tracks and penetration resistance were used to develop a pattern which statistically describes the variation of the near-surface lunar soil density, with depth and laterally. The results of these studies indicate that soil density increases quite

  10. Humanoids for lunar and planetary surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Csaszar, Ambrus; Gan, Quan; Hidalgo, Timothy; Moore, Jeff; Newton, Jason; Sandoval, Steven; Xu, Jiajing

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a vision of humanoid robots as human's key partners in future space exploration, in particular for construction, maintenance/repair and operation of lunar/planetary habitats, bases and settlements. It integrates this vision with the recent plans, for human and robotic exploration, aligning a set of milestones for operational capability of humanoids with the schedule for the next decades and development spirals in the Project Constellation. These milestones relate to a set of incremental challenges, for the solving of which new humanoid technologies are needed. A system of systems integrative approach that would lead to readiness of cooperating humanoid crews is sketched. Robot fostering, training/education techniques, and improved cognitive/sensory/motor development techniques are considered essential elements for achieving intelligent humanoids. A pilot project in this direction is outlined.

  11. Lunar Resource Assessment: Strategies for Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    Use of the indigenous resources of space to support long-term human presence is an essential element of the settlement of other planetary bodies. We are in a very early stage of understanding exactly how and under what circumstances space resources will become important. The materials and processes to recover them that we now think are critical may not ultimately be the raison d'etre for a resource utilization program. However, the need for strategic thinking proceeds in parallel with efforts to implement such plans and it is not too soon to begin thinking how we could and should use the abundant resources of materials and energy available from the Moon. The following commodities from the Moon are discussed: (1) bulk regolith, for shielding and construction on the lunar surface (ultimately for export to human-tended stations in Earth-Moon space), and (2) oxygen and hydrogen, for propellant and life support.

  12. A Common Lunar Lander (CLL) for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Artemis project, a plan to establish a permanent base on the Moon. Information includes a summary of past and future events, the program rationale, a summary of potential payloads, the physical characteristics of experiments, sketches of equipment, design study objectives, and details of such payloads as the Geophysical Station Network, teleoperated rovers, astronomical telescopes, a Moon-Earth radio interferometer, very low frequency radio antennas, the Lunar Polar Crater Telescope, Lunar Resource Utilization Experiments, and biological experiments.

  13. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology needs in all areas to support the development, deployment, operation and disposal of the unit.

  14. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology needs in all areas to support the development, deployment, operation and disposal of the unit.

  15. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard [Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne Inc., P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, CA 91309 (United States); Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben [Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc., 10707 Gilroy Rd, Hunt Valley, MD 21031 (United States)

    2006-01-20

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology needs in all areas to support the development, deployment, operation and disposal of the unit.

  16. A socio-economic evaluation of the lunar environment and resources. I. Principles and overall system strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehricke, Krafft A.

    This first of several study papers, based on a fundamental paper presented in 1972, provides an independent conceptual analysis and evaluation of the lunar environment as industrial base and habitat. A selenosphere system strategy is outlined. The underlying concept is that of one or several lunar industrial zones for resource extraction and on-surface processing, integrated with a circumlunar zero-g processing capability, serving markets in geolunar space. A classification of lunar elements by utilization category is presented. Lunar oxygen is a prime candidate for being an initial economic "drawing card", because of its value for fast transportation in geolunar space, requiring significantly fewer ships for equal transfer capability per unit time than electric transports which, however, have value, especially between geosynchronous and lunar orbit. The reduced development difficulties of controlled fusion outside the atmosphere and its advantages for extracting oxygen and other elements in quantity are summarized. Examples of lunar cycle management as fundamental exoindustrial requirement for economic resource enhancement are presented. The principal initial socio-economic value of lunar industry lies in the use of lunar resources for exoindustrial products and operations designed to accelerate, intensify and diversify Earth-related benefits. In the longer run, lunar settlements are a highly suitable proving ground for studying and testing the complex matrix of technological, biological, cultural, social and psychological aspects that must be understood and manageable before large settlements beyond Earth can have a realistic basis for viability. The lunar environment is more suitable for experimentation and comparatively more "forgiving" in case of failures than is orbital space.

  17. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (editor); Oleary, B. (editor); Gosset, B. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  18. In-situ resource utilization in the design of advanced lunar facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    Resource utilization will play an important role in the establishment and support of a permanently manned lunar base. At the University of Houston - College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, a study team recently investigated the potential use of lunar in-situ materials in the design of lunar facilities. The team identified seven potential lunar construction materials; concrete, sulfur concrete, cast basalt, sintered basalt, glass, fiberglass, and metals. Analysis and evaluation of these materials with respect to their physical properties, processes, energy requirements, resource efficiency, and overall advantages and disadvantages lead to the selection of basalt materials as the more likely construction material for initial use on a lunar base. Basalt materials can be formed out of in-situ lunar regolith, with minor material beneficiation, by a simple process of heating and controlled cooling. The team then conceptualized a construction system that combines lunar regolith sintering and casting to make pressurized structures out of lunar resources. The design uses a machine that simultaneously excavates and sinters the lunar regolith to create a cylindrical hole, which is then enclosed with cast basalt slabs, allowing the volume to be pressurized for use as a living or work environment. Cylinder depths of up to 4 to 6 m in the lunar mare or 10 to 12 m in the lunar highlands are possible. Advantages of this construction system include maximum resource utilization, relatively large habitable volumes, interior flexibility, and minimal construction equipment needs. Conclusions of this study indicate that there is significant potential for the use of basalt, a lunar resource derived construction material, as a low cost alternative to Earth-based materials. It remains to be determined when in lunar base phasing this construction method should be implemented.

  19. In-situ resource utilization in the design of advanced lunar facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Resource utilization will play an important role in the establishment and support of a permanently manned lunar base. At the University of Houston - College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, a study team recently investigated the potential use of lunar in-situ materials in the design of lunar facilities. The team identified seven potential lunar construction materials; concrete, sulfur concrete, cast basalt, sintered basalt, glass, fiberglass, and metals. Analysis and evaluation of these materials with respect to their physical properties, processes, energy requirements, resource efficiency, and overall advantages and disadvantages lead to the selection of basalt materials as the more likely construction material for initial use on a lunar base. Basalt materials can be formed out of in-situ lunar regolith, with minor material beneficiation, by a simple process of heating and controlled cooling. The team then conceptualized a construction system that combines lunar regolith sintering and casting to make pressurized structures out of lunar resources. The design uses a machine that simultaneously excavates and sinters the lunar regolith to create a cylindrical hole, which is then enclosed with cast basalt slabs, allowing the volume to be pressurized for use as a living or work environment. Cylinder depths of up to 4 to 6 m in the lunar mare or 10 to 12 m in the lunar highlands are possible. Advantages of this construction system include maximum resource utilization, relatively large habitable volumes, interior flexibility, and minimal construction equipment needs. Conclusions of this study indicate that there is significant potential for the use of basalt, a lunar resource derived construction material, as a low cost alternative to Earth-based materials. It remains to be determined when in lunar base phasing this construction method should be implemented.

  20. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Results and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Petro, Noah; McLanahan, Timothy; Vondrak, Richard; Garvin, James

    2014-05-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is poised to take advantage of recent extraordinary discoveries on the Moon to advance lunar and planetary science with new, targeted investigations that focus on geologically recent and even contemporaneous changes on the Moon. We will present recent results for the mission and describe plans for a second two-year extension of the science mission. LRO has been in orbit for nearly 5 years. In that time it has been a witness to, and participant in, a remarkable era of lunar science where a paradigm shift is taking place from the view of the Moon as a static planet to one with many active processes. As we approach the end of the first extended mission, we review here the major results from the LRO. Examples include: enabled the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measured of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the Cabeus PSR; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  1. The lunar environment as a fractional-gravity biological laboratory.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1994-07-01

    A quarter of a century ago men stepped upon the lunar surface and established the possibility of human expansion beyond Earth. When humans return to the moon to occupy it with greater permanency, an applied lunar biological laboratory would provide a means of conducting experiments on the long-term effects of fractional gravity in animals and plants and provide necessary data to enhance the health, safety and well-being of lunar workers and inhabitants. In-depth studies can go beyond zero-g observations, on-orbit centrifuge studies, and ground-based research providing important insight into continuous 1/6-g effects on biological systems. Studies concentrating on development, gravity sensing, and adaptation/readaptation would provide preliminary data on whether long-term fractional gravity is detrimental or compromising to fundamental biological function. Food production research in 1/6-g would provide important information for on site application to improve the yield and quality of food (animal and plant) produced in the unique lunar environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some examples of the major gravitational biology areas that could be studied on the moon and applied to lunar population needs utilizing lunar biological facilities and continuous fractional gravity. PMID:11539524

  2. A taxonomy for the evolution of human settlements on the moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Mandell, Humboldt C.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed structure is described for partnerships with shared interests and investments to develop the technology and approach for evolutionary surface systems for the moon and Mars. Five models are presented for cooperation with specific references to the technical evolutionary path of the surface systems. The models encompass the standard customer/provider relationship, a concept for exclusive government use, a joint venture with a government-sponsored non-SEI market, a technology joint-development approach, and a redundancy model to insure competitive pricing. The models emphasize the nonaerospace components of the settlement technologies and the decentralized nature of surface systems that make the project suitable for private industrial development by several companies. It is concluded that the taxonomy be considered when examining collaborative opportunities for lunar and Martian settlement.

  3. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  4. Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  5. Lunar seismicity and tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammlein, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an analysis of all moonquake data obtained by the Apollo seismic stations during the period from November 1969 to May 1974 and a preliminary analysis of critical data obtained in the interval from May 1974 to May 1975. More accurate locations are found for previously located moonquakes, and additional sources are located. Consideration is given to the sources of natural seismic signals, lunar seismic activity, moonquake periodicities, tidal periodicities in moonquake activity, hypocentral locations and occurrence characteristics of deep and shallow moonquakes, lunar tidal control over moonquakes, lunar tectonism, the locations of moonquake belts, and the dynamics of the lunar interior. It is concluded that: (1) moonquakes are distributed in several major belts of global extent that coincide with regions of the youngest and most intense volcanic and tectonic activity; (2) lunar tides control both the small quakes occurring at great depth and the larger quakes occurring near the surface; (3) the moon has a much thicker lithosphere than earth; (4) a single tectonic mechanism may account for all lunar seismic activity; and (5) lunar tidal stresses are an efficient triggering mechanism for moonquakes.

  6. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the construction of a telescope, a lunar hotel, a lunar solar power system or even harvesting of Helium-3. The preliminary design study shows the feasibility of both missions, meaning that ESA has the capability to put a man on the Moon to search for ice and bring him back safely with today's technology.

  7. The Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    A thick layer of regolith, fragmental and unconsolidated rock material, covers the entire lunar surface. This layer is the result of the continuous impact of meteoroids large and small and the steady bombardment of charged particles from the sun and stars. The regolith is generally about 4-5 m thick in mare regions and 10-15 m in highland areas (McKay et al., 1991) and contains all sizes of material from large boulders to sub-micron dust particles. Below the regolith is a region of large blocks of material, large-scale ejecta and brecciated bedrock, often referred to as the "megaregolith". Lunar soil is a term often used interchangeably with regolith, however, soil is defined as the subcentimeter fraction of the regolith (in practice though, soil generally refers to the submillimeter fraction of the regolith). Lunar dust has been defined in many ways by different researchers, but generally refers to only the very finest fractions of the soil, less than approx.10 or 20 microns. Lunar soil can be a misleading term, as lunar "soil" bears little in common with terrestrial soils. Lunar soil contains no organic matter and is not formed through biologic or chemical means as terrestrial soils are, but strictly through mechanical comminution from meteoroids and interaction with the solar wind and other energetic particles. Lunar soils are also not exposed to the wind and water that shapes the Earth. As a consequence, in contrast to terrestrial soils, lunar soils are not sorted in any way, by size, shape, or chemistry. Finally, without wind and water to wear down the edges, lunar soil grains tend to be sharp with fresh fractured surfaces.

  8. The International Lunar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    A new lunar science flight projects line has been introduced within NASA s Science Mission Directorate's (SMDs) proposed 2009 budget, including two new robotic missions designed to accomplish key scientific objectives and, when possible, provide results useful to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD) as those organizations grapple with the challenges of returning humans to the Moon. The first mission in this line will be the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, an ESMD mission that will acquire key information for human return to the moon activities, which will transition after one year of operations to the SMD Lunar Science Program for a 2-year nominal science mission. The second mission, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) will be launch in 2011 along with the GRAIL Discovery mission to the moon. The third is delivery of two landed payloads as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN). This flight projects line provides a robust robotic lunar science program for the next 8 years and beyond, complements SMD s initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines, and increases international participation in NASA s robotic exploration plans. The International Lunar Network is envisioned as a global lunar geophysical network, which fulfills many of the stated recommendations of the recent National Research Council report on The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon [2], but is difficult for any single space agency to accomplish on its own. The ILN would provide the necessary global coverage by involving US and international landed missions as individual nodes working together. Ultimately, this network could comprise 8-10 or more nodes operating simultaneously, while minimizing the required contribution from each space agency. Indian, Russian, Japanese, and British landed missions are currently being formulated and SMD is actively seeking partnership with these and other space agencies to establish the ILN.

  9. Lunar subsurface architecture enhanced by artificial biosphere concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassi, Jason D.; Rocha, Carlos J.; Carr, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of artificial biosphere technology with subselene architecture can create a life-enhancing, productive habitat that is safe from solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations while maximizing resources brought from Earth and derived from lunar regolith. In the short term, the resulting biotectural (biosphere and architectural) designs will not only make the structures more habitable, productive, and manageable, but will ultimately provide the self-sufficiency factors necessary for the mature lunar settlement. From a long-term perspective, this biotecture approach to astronautics and extraterrestrial development (1) helps reduce mass lift requirements, (2) contributes to habitat self-sufficiency, and (3) actualizes at least one philosophy of solar system exploration, which is to exploit nonterrestrial resources in an effort to conserve our natural resources on this planet.

  10. Construction of the 16 meter Large Lunar Telescope (LLT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam Anwar

    1990-01-01

    The different materials that could be used to design the pedestal for a Moon based 16 meter telescope are discussed. The material that should be used has a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high modulus of elasticity, and high compressive and tensile strengths. For the model developed in this study, an aluminum-manganese alloy was used because of its low coefficient of thermal expansion. Due to variations in lunar soil conditions, both vertically and horizontally, three foundation systems are presented. The spudcan footing can be used in the case where dense soil is more than three meters. The spread footing is recommended where the dense soil is between one and three meters. Finally, in the third system, the Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) is used as a base support for the telescope's pedestal. The LEV support requires a prepared site. The soil should be compacted and stabilized, if necessary, to reduce settlement.

  11. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  12. Common lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, S.; Stecklein, J.; Chen, H.; Culpepper, W.; Hyatt, C. D.; Kluksdahl, E.; Pelischek, T.; Pruett, D.; Rickman, S.; Wagner, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report focuses on the reference lander design developed at the Johnson Space Center, describing a small lunar soft lander with the capability to soft land about 64 kilograms of payload at any lunar latitude and longitude. The Artemis lander is a sun-pointing, three-axis vehicle that contributes to the translunar injection burn and performs the lunar orbit insertion, deorbit, descent and landing maneuvers with a single liquid bipropellant lander stage. Attention is given to mission profile and performance, the guidance, navigation and control subsystem, the propulsion subsystem, and the flight data subsystem.

  13. The lunar hopping transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degner, R.; Kaplan, M. H.; Manning, J.; Meetin, R.; Pasternack, S.; Peterson, S.; Seifert, H.

    1971-01-01

    Research on several aspects of lunar transport using the hopping mode is reported. Hopping exploits the weak lunar gravity, permits fuel economy because of partial recompression of propellant gas on landing, and does not require a continuous smooth surface for operation. Three questions critical to the design of a lunar hopping vehicle are addressed directly in this report: (1) the tolerance of a human pilot for repeated accelerations; (2) means for controlling vehicle attitude during ballistic flight; and (3) means of propulsion. In addition, a small scale terrestrial demonstrator built to confirm feasibility of the proposed operational mode is described, along with results of preliminary study of unmanned hoppers for moon exploration.

  14. High-priority lunar landing sites for in situ and sample return studies of polar volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, Myriam; Blair, David M.; Roberts, Carolyn E.; Runyon, Kirby D.; Nowka, Daniela; Kring, David A.

    2014-10-01

    Our understanding of the Moon has advanced greatly over the last several decades thanks to analyses of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites, and recent lunar orbital missions. Notably, it is now thought that the lunar poles may be much more enriched in H2O and other volatile chemical species than the equatorial regions sampled during the Apollo missions. The equatorial regions sampled, themselves, contain more H2O than previously thought. A new lunar mission to a polar region is therefore of great interest; it could provide a measure of the sources and processes that deliver volatiles while also evaluating the potential in situ resource utilization value they may have for human exploration. In this study, we determine the optimal sites for studying lunar volatiles by conducting a quantitative GIS-based spatial analysis of multiple relevant datasets. The datasets include the locations of permanently shadowed regions, thermal analyses of the lunar surface, and hydrogen abundances. We provide maps of the lunar surface showing areas of high scientific interest, including five regions near the lunar north pole and seven regions near the lunar south pole that have the highest scientific potential according to rational search criteria. At two of these sites-a region we call the “Intercrater Polar Highlands” (IPH) near the north pole, and Amundsen crater near the south pole-we provide a more detailed assessment of landing sites, sample locations, and exploration strategies best suited for future human or robotic exploration missions.

  15. Lunar microcosmos. [human factors of lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, N.

    1974-01-01

    A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.

  16. Effects of delayed settlement on post-settlement growth and survival of scleractinian coral larvae.

    PubMed

    Graham, Erin M; Baird, Andrew H; Willis, Bette L; Connolly, Sean R

    2013-10-01

    Demographic connectivity requires both the dispersal of individuals between sub-populations, and their subsequent contribution to population dynamics. For planktonic, non-feeding marine larvae, the capacity to delay settlement enables greater dispersal distances, but the energetic cost of delayed settlement has been shown to adversely impact post-settlement fitness in several taxa. Here, we assess whether delayed settlement influences mortality rates or growth rates for the first 6 weeks following settlement of the scleractinian coral, Acropora tenuis. Coral larvae that were settled at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after spawning, and then deployed in the field, showed negligible effects of delayed settlement on post-settlement survival and time to initial budding for colony formation. Between-cohort differences in budding rate appeared to be explained by temporal variation in the post-settlement acquisition of zooxanthellae. The potential for coral larvae to remain in the pelagic zone for increased periods of time with little to no effect on post-settlement survival and growth suggests that the capacity for delayed settlement is likely to have meaningful demographic consequences for broadcast-spawning reef-building corals, and that the predicted trade-off between delayed settlement and post-settlement fitness is less applicable to reef-building scleractinian corals than other taxa with non-feeding larvae. PMID:23525803

  17. Insolation Effects on Lunar Hydrogen: Observation from the LRO LEND and LOLA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Livak, M. M.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Namkung, M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Neumann, G.; Smith, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. G.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H) Largely, this was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, recent discoveries indicate that the H picture may be more complex than thc PSR hypothesis suggests. Observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detect (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) indicate some H concentrations lie outside PSR. Similarly, observations from Chandraayan-l's M3 and Deep Impact's EPOXI near infra-red observations indicate diurnal cycling of volatile H in lower latitudes. These results suggest other geophysical phenomena may also play a role in the Lunar Hydrogen budget. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies

  18. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.H. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)); Shemansky, D.E. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The presence of sodium and potassium on the Moon implies that other more abundant species should be present. Volatile molecules like H{sub 2}O are significantly more abundant than sodium in any of the proposed external atmospheric sources. Source mechanisms which derive atoms from the surface should favor abundant elements in the regolith. It is therefore puzzling that the Apollo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of N{sub O} < 5 {times} 10{sup 2} cm{sup {minus}3}, and that the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply N{sub O} < 50 cm{sup {minus}3} above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occur ed during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the Moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stablized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, the authors predict a possible emission brightness of {approximately} 50 R in the OH(A {minus} X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb. A very uncertain small comet source of H{sub 2}O could raise this value by more than two orders of magnitude.

  19. 40 CFR 209.19 - Informal settlement and consent agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 true Informal settlement and consent agreement. 209.19 Section 209... § 209.19 Informal settlement and consent agreement. (a) Settlement policy...agreement shall be expressed in a written consent agreement. Conferences with...

  20. 40 CFR 209.19 - Informal settlement and consent agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Informal settlement and consent agreement. 209.19 Section 209... § 209.19 Informal settlement and consent agreement. (a) Settlement policy...agreement shall be expressed in a written consent agreement. Conferences with...

  1. 40 CFR 209.19 - Informal settlement and consent agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Informal settlement and consent agreement. 209.19 Section 209... § 209.19 Informal settlement and consent agreement. (a) Settlement policy...agreement shall be expressed in a written consent agreement. Conferences with...

  2. 40 CFR 209.19 - Informal settlement and consent agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Informal settlement and consent agreement. 209.19 Section 209... § 209.19 Informal settlement and consent agreement. (a) Settlement policy...agreement shall be expressed in a written consent agreement. Conferences with...

  3. 40 CFR 209.19 - Informal settlement and consent agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Informal settlement and consent agreement. 209.19 Section 209... § 209.19 Informal settlement and consent agreement. (a) Settlement policy...agreement shall be expressed in a written consent agreement. Conferences with...

  4. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500...SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

  5. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500...SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

  6. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500...SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

  7. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500...SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

  8. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500...SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

  9. 7 CFR 1956.112 - Debts ineligible for settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) DEBT SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.112 Debts ineligible for settlement. Debts will not be settled: ...protect the interests of the Government is contemplated or...

  10. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...substance. In such cases, debt settlement may proceed...best interests of the Government to proceed with debt settlement, (iii...For example, the Government may have consented...liability. In such cases, debt settlement may...

  11. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...substance. In such cases, debt settlement may proceed...best interests of the Government to proceed with debt settlement, (iii...For example, the Government may have consented...liability. In such cases, debt settlement may...

  12. 7 CFR 1956.112 - Debts ineligible for settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) DEBT SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.112 Debts ineligible for settlement. Debts will not be settled: ...protect the interests of the Government is contemplated or...

  13. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...substance. In such cases, debt settlement may proceed...best interests of the Government to proceed with debt settlement, (iii...For example, the Government may have consented...liability. In such cases, debt settlement may...

  14. 7 CFR 1956.112 - Debts ineligible for settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) DEBT SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.112 Debts ineligible for settlement. Debts will not be settled: ...protect the interests of the Government is contemplated or...

  15. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...substance. In such cases, debt settlement may proceed...best interests of the Government to proceed with debt settlement, (iii...For example, the Government may have consented...liability. In such cases, debt settlement may...

  16. 7 CFR 1956.112 - Debts ineligible for settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) DEBT SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.112 Debts ineligible for settlement. Debts will not be settled: ...protect the interests of the Government is contemplated or...

  17. 7 CFR 1956.109 - General requirements for debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...substance. In such cases, debt settlement may proceed...best interests of the Government to proceed with debt settlement, (iii...For example, the Government may have consented...liability. In such cases, debt settlement may...

  18. 7 CFR 1956.112 - Debts ineligible for settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) DEBT SETTLEMENT Debt Settlement-Community and Business Programs § 1956.112 Debts ineligible for settlement. Debts will not be settled: ...protect the interests of the Government is contemplated or...

  19. Lunar base launch and landing facility conceptual design, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the Lunar Base Launch and Landing Facility Conceptual Design study. The purpose of this study was to examine the requirements for launch and landing facilities for early lunar bases and to prepare conceptual designs for some of these facilities. The emphasis of this study is on the facilities needed from the first manned landing until permanent occupancy. Surface characteristics and flight vehicle interactions are described, and various facility operations are related. Specific recommendations for equipment, facilities, and evolutionary planning are made, and effects of different aspects of lunar development scenarios on facilities and operations are detailed. Finally, for a given scenario, a specific conceptual design is developed and presented.

  20. Research Spotlight: Map of lunar hydrogen points to large amounts of water ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Leslie; Tretkoff, Ernie

    2010-12-01

    In October 2009, NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission smashed into a crater on the Moon and confirmed previous studies that suggested that water ice existed on the Moon. To learn more about lunar water, scientists are examining the abundance and distribution of hydrogen. Hydrogen has been detected near the lunar poles, but scientists have not been certain whether this hydrogen is the form of water ice or in other compounds such as molecular hydrogen. If hydrogen exists in a volatile compound such as water, it would remain stable only in cold, permanently shaded regions such as deep craters.

  1. Space Solar Power Technology for Lunar Polar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark W.; Howell, Joe T.

    2004-01-01

    The technology for Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transistor (Laser-PV WPT) is being developed for lunar polar applications by Boeing and NASA Marshall Space Center. A lunar polar mission could demonstrate and validate Laser-PV WPT and other SSP technologies, while enabling access to cold, permanently shadowed craters that are believed to contain ice. Crater may hold frozen water and other volatiles deposited over billion of years, recording prior impact event on the moon (and Earth). A photo-voltaic-powered rover could use sunlight, when available, and laser light, when required, to explore a wide range of lunar terrain. The National Research Council recently found that a mission to the moon's south pole-Aitkir basin has priority for space science

  2. Restoration and PDS Archive of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, P. A.; Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Runco, S. K.; LaBasse, D.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory (under the auspices of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate or ARES) began work on a 4-year project to digitize the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs. These rock samples together with lunar regolith and core samples were collected as part of the lander missions for Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17. The original film negatives are stored at JSC under cryogenic conditions. This effort is data restoration in the truest sense. The images represent the only record available to scientists which allows them to view the rock samples when making a sample request. As the negatives are being scanned, they are also being formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) archive. The ARES group is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving.

  3. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  4. Lunar sample contracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.

  5. Menstrual and lunar cycles.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E

    1981-06-01

    A double-blind, prospective study during the fall of 1979 investigated the association between the menstrual cycles of 305 Brooklyn College undergraduates and their associates and the lunar cycles. All subjects were 19-35 years old and using neither OCs (oral contraceptives) nor the IUD. Approximately 1/3 of the subjects had lunar period cycles, i.e., a mean cycle length of 29.5 +/- l day. Almost 2/3 of the subjects started their October cycle in the light 1/2 of the lunar cycle, significantly more than would be expected by random distribution. The author concludes that there is a lunar influence on ovulation. PMID:7246643

  6. Space Math: Lunar Cratering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Math @ NASA

    2012-07-14

    Students explore the formation of craters on the lunar surface using real world imaging data and mathematical reasoning. Students make observations and inferences about the time that impact craters were formed using probability and percentages.

  7. Lunar Lander Night Sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    'This multiple exposure shows a simulated Moon landing of the LEMS trainer at Langley's Lunar Landing Research Facility.' Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 70), by James Schultz.

  8. Lunar robotic maintenance module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    A design for a robotic maintenance module that will assist a mobile 100-meter lunar drill is introduced. The design considers the following areas of interest: the atmospheric conditions, actuator systems, power supply, material selection, weight, cooling system and operation.

  9. Lunar outpost agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

  10. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  11. Lunar Sulfur Capture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor downstream of an in-ISRU process such as hydrogen reduction. The lunar-soil-sorbent trap is held at a temperature significantly lower than the operating temperature of the hydrogen reduction or other ISRU process in order to maximize capture of contaminants, but is held at a high enough temperature to allow moisture to pass through without condensing. The lunar soil benefits from physical beneficiation to remove ultrafine particles (to reduce pressure drop through a fixed bed reactor) and to upgrade concentrations of iron and/or calcium compounds (to improve reactivity with gaseous contaminants).

  12. Ice in the lunar polar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The idea that ice and other trapped volatiles exist in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles was proposed by Watson, Murray, and Brown (1961). It is reexamined in the present paper, in the light of the vast increase of lunar knowledge. The stability of the traps and the trapping mechanism are verified. Four potential sources of lunar H2O, namely (1) solar wind reduction of Fe in the regolith, (2) H2O-containing meteoroids, (3) cometary impact, and (4) (the least certain) degassing of the interior, can supply amounts of trapped H2O estimated in the range of 10 to the 16th to 10 to the 17th g. Two important destructive mechanisms have been identified: photodissociation of H2O molecules adsorbed on the sunlit surface and sputtering or decomposition of trapped H2O by solar wind particles. The effect of impact gardening is mainly protective. The question of the presence of H2O in the traps remains open; it can be settled by experiment.

  13. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  14. Is the tobacco settlement constitutional?

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Rahul; Gross, Cary P; Forman, Howard P

    2006-01-01

    In August 2005, the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI), a conservative advocacy organization, filed a lawsuit in Louisiana challenging the legality of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). The suit alleges that the MSA, under which the states receive monetary payments and the four major tobacco companies are insulated from price competition, violates the Compact Clause and other provisions of the U.S. Constitution. This lawsuit threatens to unravel of one of the most significant opportunities to improve public health in United States history. We consider the merits of the lawsuit, the problems with the MSA that it highlights, and the potential consequences of the suit for public health. PMID:17199817

  15. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  16. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

  17. Lunar Resources: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which are found to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industrial capability within the Earth-Moon system. In this way, gradually increasing access to lunar resources may help 'bootstrap' a space-based economy from which the world economy, and possibly also the world's environment, will ultimately benefit.

  18. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  19. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  20. The Lunar Orbital Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; Mccurdy, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  1. Lunar Orbit Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio, L.

    2012-12-01

    Independent experiments show a large anomaly in measurements of lunar orbital evolution, with applications to cosmology and the speed of light. The Moon has long been known to be slowly drifting farther from Earth due to tidal forces. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LLRE) indicates the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. If the Moon were today gaining angular momentum at this rate, it would have coincided with Earth less than 2 Gyr ago. Study of tidal rhythmites indicates a rate of 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. Historical eclipse observations independently measure a recession rate of 2.82 ± .08 cm/yr. Detailed numerical simulation of lunar orbital evolution predicts 2.91 cm/yr. LLRE differs from three independent experiments by over12 sigma. A cosmology where speed of light c is related to time t by GM=tc^3 has been suggested to predict the redshifts of Type Ia supernovae, and a 4.507034% proportion of baryonic matter. If c were changing in the amount predicted, lunar orbital distance would appear to increase by an additional 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the lunar orbit may be precisely calculated, shedding light on puzzles of 'dark energy'. In Planck units this cosmology may be summarized as M=R=t.Lunar Recession Rate;

  2. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  3. The science of the lunar poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct imaging of interiors of polar shadowed craters has been accomplished by many instruments from the ultraviolet to the radar. Imaging radars on Chandrayaan-1 and LRO have identified anomalous craters that may contain rich water ice deposits. Neutron spectrometers on Lunar Prospector and LRO directly detected hydrogen enhancements at both poles. Spectacularly, the LCROSS impact experiment detected a wide range of volatile elements and species at Cabeus crater in the lunar south polar region. While these measurements have catapulted polar science forward, much remains to be understood about the polar system, both from analysis of the current data, and new missions planned and in development. The general state of the lunar atmosphere is planned to be addressed by the UV and neutral mass spectrometers carried by the planned NASA LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere And Dust Environment Explorer) spacecraft creating an important baseline. But more data is necessary, from an in situ direct assay of polar volatiles to measurements of species and fluxes into and out of the cold traps over lengthy timescales.

  4. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  5. 34 CFR 81.14 - Settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    (a) If the parties to a case file a joint motion requesting a stay of the proceedings for settlement negotiations, or for approval of a settlement agreement, the ALJ may grant a stay of the proceedings upon a finding of good...

  6. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS... (i) If, the value of the collateral at settlement is less than the amount due, the producer shall pay to CCC the amount... (i) If, the value of the collateral at settlement is less than the amount due, the producer shall pay to CCC the...

  7. Apollo 9 Lunar Module in lunar landing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module, in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed form the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module 'Spider' is flying upside down in relation to the earth below. The landing gear on the 'Spider' had been deployed. Lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads.

  8. Modeling Lunar Radar Scattering From Icy Regoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Ustinov, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    For lunar orbital synthetic aperture radars, such as the Chandrayaan Mini-RF operating at S-Band (13cm) wavelength and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF operating at S-Band and X-Band (3-cm) wavelengths, it is important to understand and model the radar backscattering characteristics of the icy regoliths. If ices in the permanently shadowed areas of the lunar poles backscatters like the ices on Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites, then it will have a substantial radar enhancement characterized by a Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) greater than unity. We examine the possibilities that these distinct signatures may be diminished by factors such as a thin regolith covering and/or the ice occupies small patches within a larger radar pixel. Our first model for scattering from lunar surface assumes a simple mixing model consisting of diffuse and quasi- specular components. The quasi-specular component results from the surface and sub-surface layers that are oriented perpendicular to the radar's line-of-sight. The diffuse component associated with either rocks or ice is assumed to be uniformly bright, where backscatter is proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle. Rocks are assumed to have CPRs of unity while ices are assumed to have CPRs of 2 like those observed on Mercury, Mars and Galilean Satellites. This first model shows that radar signatures for ice and rocks are separable if the depolarized (SC, same sense circular) enhancements are larger than about 4 and are indistinguishable for smaller depolarized (SC) enhancements. Our second model addresses CPR changes for ice filling the pores of the regolith. Here only the quasi-specular backscatter from the surface and the diffuse backscattering from sub-surface rocks will change with increased abundances of ice in the regolith. This model indicates that only small indistinguishable changes in CPRs would occur.

  9. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Captain, Janine E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Weis, Kyle H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted within the CMU rover "Scarab" and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in November 2008. This technology could be used on Mars as well. As described at the 2008 Mars Society Convention, the Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) supports the objectives of the RESOLVE project by capturing and quantifying water and hydrogen released by regolith upon heating. Field test results for the quantification of water using LWRD showed that the volcanic ash (tephra) samples contained 0.15-0.41% water, in agreement with GC water measurements. Reduction of the RH in the surge tank to near zero during recirculation show that the water is captured by the water beds as desired. The water can be recovered by heating the Water Beds to 230 C or higher. Test results for the capture and quantification of pure hydrogen have shown that over 90% of the hydrogen can be captured and 98% of the absorbed hydrogen can be recovered upon heating the hydride to 400 C and desorbing the hydrogen several times into the evacuated surge tank. Thus, the essential requirement of capturing hydrogen and recovering it has been demonstrated. ,

  10. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Carl Graf

    1994-01-01

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the

  11. Lunar regolith and structure mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Frank; Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein; Carter, Tyrone R.; Evenson, Kraig A.; Nathan, Mark P.; Perkins, Steve W.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: modeling of regolith-structure interaction in extraterrestrial constructed facilities; densification of lunar soil simulant; and vibration assisted penetration of lunar soil simulant.

  12. Lunar regolith and structure mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Frank; Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein; Carter, Tyrone R.; Evenson, Kraig A.; Nathan, Mark P.; Perkins, Steve W.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: modeling of regolith-structure interaction in extraterrestrial constructed facilities; densification of lunar soil simulant; and vibration assisted penetration of lunar soil simulant.

  13. Catalog of lunar mission data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantel, E. J. (editor); Miller, E. R. (editor)

    1977-01-01

    Several series of spacecraft were developed, designed, built and launched to determine different characteristics of the lunar surface and environment for a manned landing. Both unmanned and manned spacecrafts, spacecraft equipment and lunar missions are documented.

  14. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  15. Fast Ray Tracing of Lunar Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Mitrofanov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Ray-tracing (RT) of Lunar Digital Elevation Models (DEM)'s is performed to virtually derive the degree of radiation incident to terrain as a function of time, orbital and ephemeris constraints [I- 4]. This process is an integral modeling process in lunar polar research and exploration due to the present paucity of terrain information at the poles and mission planning activities for the anticipated spring 2009 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). As part of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) preparations RI methods are used to estimate the critical conditions presented by the combined effects of high latitude, terrain and the moons low obliquity [5-7]. These factors yield low incident solar illumination and subsequently extreme thermal, and radiation conditions. The presented research uses RT methods both for radiation transport modeling in space and regolith related research as well as to derive permanently shadowed regions (PSR)'s in high latitude topographic minima, e.g craters. These regions are of scientific and human exploration interest due to the near constant low temperatures in PSRs, inferred to be < 100 K. Hydrogen is thought to have accumulated in PSR's through the combined effects of periodic cometary bombardment and/or solar wind processes, and the extreme cold which minimizes hydrogen sublimation [8-9]. RT methods are also of use in surface position optimization for future illumination dependent on surface resources e.g. power and communications equipment.

  16. SILVER: Surface Imaging for Lunar Volatiles, Resources, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Cobabe-Ammann, E.; Cook, A. C.; Greeley, R.; Gulick, V. C.; McClintock, W. E.; Moore, J. M.; Stern, S. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; McClelland, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Surface Imaging for Lunar Volatiles, Exploration, and Resources (SILVER) instrument is a proposed imaging investigation for the 2008 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. SILVER and its experienced Measurement Team will prepare for and support future lunar human exploration activities, especially landing site identification and certification on the basis of potential resources. SILVER combines a high-resolution pushbroom visible imaging channel (SILVER-HR) and a wide-field-of-view (45 deg) framing imaging channel (SILVER-WF). SILVER-HR will obtain a single-detector 6 km imaging swath of 12,228 pixels at 0.5 m/pixel to image greater than 100 sq km target areas from 50 km altitude, imaging greater than 15% the lunar surface during a 1 year nominal mission. SILVER-HR has excellent stray-light rejection and its imaging detector has selectable time delay integration (TDI) with up to 128 stages for extreme low-light sensitivity, permitting direct imaging of permanently shadowed polar regions in scattered sunlight or earthshine. SILVER-WF will obtain geodetic framing images in a 2048 x 2048 format at 20m/pixel, with 60% along-track overlap stereo for imaging context and for derivation of a global digital elevation model of meter-scale lunar topography.

  17. Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

    Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

  18. Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and radar experiments, a very sensitive magnetometer and gradiometer, a subsatellite, and a state-of-the-art optical communication system. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter concept is technologically challenging but feasible, and will gather unique, integrated, interdisciplinary data sets that are of high scientific interest and will provide an unprecedented new context for all other international lunar missions. In fact, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter will further establish Germany as a leader among space-faring nations and will demonstrate expertise and technological know-how, which is "Made in Germany". With its high visibility, LEO will foster the growing acceptance of space exploration in Germany and will capture the imagination of the general public.

  19. Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; French, Raymond; Nall,Mark; Muery, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL and USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single, common, intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. LMMP will provide such products as DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data.

  20. The Lunar Thermal Ice Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonson, O.; Schorghofer, N.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical considerations and recent observations indicate the lunar polar regions harbor deposits of water ice in extremely cold regions. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial match to permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that ice is not simply trapped by low temperature but another mechanism plays a role in concentrating H2O. Under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H2O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated to be mean surface temperatures below 105 K and peak surface temperatures higher than 130 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps, roughly defined by peak temperatures <120 K. Temperatures were obtained by analyzing the LRO Diviner measurements and geographic regions of positive pumping differential are identified. These extend the ice distribution beyond traditional cold traps. At latitudes poleward of 85 degrees equator-facing slopes have a positive pumping differential because at this latitude their aspect allows larger temperature oscillations while remaining on average cold. At lower polar latitudes, down to about 70 degrees, pole-facing slopes have positive pumping differential, because here the slope aspect allows the surface to remain cooler than average.

  1. The Lunar Thermal Ice Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorghofer, Norbert; Aharonson, Oded

    2014-06-01

    It has long been suggested that water ice can exist in extremely cold regions near the lunar poles, where sublimation loss is negligible. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial or ambiguous correlation with permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that another mechanism may contribute to locally enhancing water concentrations. We show that under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H2O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated and found to occur where the mean surface temperature is below 105 K and the peak surface temperature is above 120 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps that are roughly defined by peak temperatures lower than 120 K. On the present-day Moon, an estimated 0.8% of the global surface area experiences such temperature variations. Typically, pumping occurs on pole-facing slopes in small areas, but within a few degrees of each pole the equator-facing slopes are preferred. Although pumping of water molecules is expected over cumulatively large areas, the absolute yield of this pump is low; at best, a few percent of the H2O delivered to the surface could have accumulated in the near-surface layer in this way. The amount of ice increases with vapor diffusivity and is thus higher in the regolith with large pore spaces.

  2. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris; Dorrity, J. Lewis

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5k W, the proposed machine will run continuously, unmanned in fourteen day cycles, matching the length of moon days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  3. A lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  4. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris; Dorrity, J. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5k W, the proposed machine will run continuously, unmanned in fourteen day cycles, matching the length of moon days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  5. Lunar Resources: A Review

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which I find to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industr...

  6. Lunar Simulation in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar has been assembled at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide a high fidelity lunar simulation facility to test the interactions of lunar dust and lunar dust simulant with candidate aerospace materials and coatings. It has a sophisticated design which enables it to treat dust in a way that will remove adsorbed gases and create a chemically reactive surface. It can simulate the vacuum, thermal, and radiation environments of the Moon, including proximate areas of illuminated heat and extremely cold shadow. It is expected to be a valuable tool in the development of dust repellant and cleaning technologies for lunar surface systems.

  7. Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney; Brannon, David P.; Underwood, Lauren; Russell, Kristen J.

    2007-01-01

    In polar regions of the Moon, some areas within craters are permanently shadowed from solar illumination and can reach temperatures of 100 K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding 50 K in many cases. Observed temperatures suggest that these regions could enable equivalent liquid nitrogen cryogenic functions. These permanently shaded polar craters also offer unprecedented high-vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their current state could support cryogenic applications. Besides ice stores, the unique conditions at the lunar poles harbor an environment that provides an opportunity to reduce the power, weight, and total mass that needs to be carried from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research. Reducing the heat flux of geothermal, black body radiation can have significant impacts on the achievable temperature. With a few manmade augmentations, permanently shaded craters located near the lunar poles achieve temperatures even lower than those that naturally exist. Our analysis reveals that lightweight thermal shielding within shaded craters could create an environment several Kelvin above absolute zero. The temperature ranges of both naturally shaded and thermally augmented craters could enable the long-term storage of most gases, low-temperature superconductors for large magnetic fields, devices and advanced high-speed computing instruments. Augmenting thermal conditions in these craters could then be used as a basis for the development of an advanced thermal management architecture that would support a wide variety of cryogenically based applications. Lunar exploration and habitation capabilities would significantly benefit if permanently shaded craters, augmented with thermal shielding, were used to facilitate the operation of near absolute zero instruments, including a wide variety of cryogenically based propulsion, energy, communication, sensing, and computing devices. The required burden of carrying massive life-supporting components from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research potentially could be reduced.

  8. Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), located in the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), concentrates on research dealing with the current state, evolution, and formation of the solar system. At the website, users can find a technical report about the Forum on the Impact Cratering Process, a summary of the Oxygen in the Solar System Initiative, and other resources regarding the Institute's research foci. Visitors can view the educational Digital Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon. The site offers materials on upcoming meetings, a schedule of the seminar series, and many of the Institute's publications. Teachers and students should check out the Education link where they can find fun activities and fascinating images about the evolution of the solar system, lunar phases, seasons, and much more.

  9. A lunar polar expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  10. The lunar apatite paradox.

    PubMed

    Boyce, J W; Tomlinson, S M; McCubbin, F M; Greenwood, J P; Treiman, A H

    2014-04-25

    Recent discoveries of water-rich lunar apatite are more consistent with the hydrous magmas of Earth than the otherwise volatile-depleted rocks of the Moon. Paradoxically, this requires H-rich minerals to form in rocks that are otherwise nearly anhydrous. We modeled existing data from the literature, finding that nominally anhydrous minerals do not sufficiently fractionate H from F and Cl to generate H-rich apatite. Hydrous apatites are explained as the products of apatite-induced low magmatic fluorine, which increases the H/F ratio in melt and apatite. Mare basalts may contain hydrogen-rich apatite, but lunar magmas were most likely poor in hydrogen, in agreement with the volatile depletion that is both observed in lunar rocks and required for canonical giant-impact models of the formation of the Moon. PMID:24652938

  11. Lunar crane hook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    The base and ball hook system is an attachment that is designed to be used on the lunar surface as an improved alternative to the common crane hook and eye system. The design proposed uses an omni-directional ball hook and base to overcome the design problems associated with a conventional crane hook. The base and ball hook is not sensitive to cable twist which would render a robotic lunar crane useless since there is little atmospheric resistance to dampen the motion of an oscillating member. The symmetric characteristics of the ball hook and base eliminates manual placement of the ball hook into the base; commonly associated with the typical hook and eye stem. The major advantage of the base and ball hook system is it's ease of couple and uncouple modes that are advantages during unmanned robotic lunar missions.

  12. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  13. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseney, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry Dean; Lindbergh, Charles

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar based subjected to one atmosphere internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design: (1) during construction; (2) under pressurization; and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the air-tightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the moon.

  14. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseny, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry D.; Lindbergh, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar base subjected to 1-atm internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design (1) during construction, (2) under pressurization, and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the airtightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the Moon.

  15. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  16. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  17. The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet changing science objectives. The two main technical disadvantages of the Moon are: 1) its gravity field; and 2) direct Sun and Earth light. The gravity term is manageable. It also appears to be feasible to shield the telescope from direct sun and Earth light and from scattering from nearby lunar terrain. Thermal disturbances to the telescope also appear to be manageable by proper shielding, enabling the telescope to become as cold as if it were at a lunar pole crater. If these conditions are met, the telescope could be at a logistically convenient location near the Lunar Outpost. We want to address a concept that is significantly different from those presented in the preliminary communications from Garth Illingworth in order to help fill in the matrix of possibilities. This option, moreover, is of special interest to JPL and could be an area where JPL can contribute in future studies.

  18. The lunar laser ranging experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Currie, D. G.; Poultney, S. K.; Dicke, R. H.; Eckhardt, D. H.; Kaula, W. M.; Mulholland, J. D.; Plotkin, H. H.; Silverberg, E. C.; Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives achievable through high-accuracy range measurements to lunar retroreflectors are considered. A specific study of design questions related to the operation of retroreflectors on the lunar surface indicated that a reflector panel containing a number of solid fused silica corner reflectors would be capable of maintaining essentially diffraction limited performance under direct solar illumination. Initial Apollo 11 observations are discussed together with the installation of additional lunar retroreflectors in connection with the Luna 17, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, and Luna 21 missions. Range measurements at the McDonald Observatory are considered along with new results from lunar range data, and prospects regarding future lunar ranging stations.

  19. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-03-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  20. Concept for a radioisotope powered dual mode lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.; Schriener, Timothy M.; Coste, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Over three decades ago, the Apollo missions manifestly demonstrated the value of a lunar rover to expand the exploration activities of lunar astronauts. The stated plan of the new Vision for Space Exploration to establish a permanent presence on the moon in the next decades gives new impetus to providing long range roving and exploration capability in support of the siting, construction, and maintenance of future human bases. The incorporation of radioisotope power systems and telerobotic capability in the design has the potential to significantly expand the capability of such a rover, allowing continuous operation during the full lunar day/night cycle, as well as enabling exploration in permanently shadowed regions that may be of interest to humans for the resources they may hold. This paper describes a concept that builds on earlier studies originated in the Apollo program for a Dual Mode (crewed and telerobotic) Lunar Roving Vehicle (DMLRV). The goal of this vehicle would be to provide a multipurpose infrastructure element and remote science platform for the exploration of the moon. The DMLRV would be essential for extending the productivity of human exploration crews, and would provide a unique capability for diverse long-range, long-duration science exploration between human visits. With minimal reconfiguration this vehicle could also provide the basic platform to support a range of site survey and preparation activities in anticipation of the establishment of a permanent human presence on the moon. A conceptual design is presented for the DMLRV, including discussion of mission architecture, vehicle performance, representative science payload accommodation, and equipment and crew radiation considerations.

  1. European Settlement-Era Vegetation of the

    E-print Network

    provide clues to Native American influencEuropean Settlement-Era Vegetation of the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia Melissa A Research Station General Technical Report NRS-101 White oak Scarlet oak American chestnut White oak Maple

  2. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a) A...obtain release of all or any part of the loan seed cotton by paying to CCC the amount of the loan, plus...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a) A...obtain release of all or any part of the loan seed cotton by paying to CCC the amount of the loan, plus...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a) A...obtain release of all or any part of the loan seed cotton by paying to CCC the amount of the loan, plus...

  5. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (1) The publisher submits a copy...settlement. (3) The publisher submits a signed...clearly releases the United States from any further liability to the publisher and the claimant...have sufficient information to approve...

  6. 32 CFR 842.81 - Settlement agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...81 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Use of Government Property Claims (10 U.S.C. 2737) § 842.81 Settlement agreement. Do...

  7. 32 CFR 842.81 - Settlement agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...81 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Use of Government Property Claims (10 U.S.C. 2737) § 842.81 Settlement agreement. Do...

  8. 32 CFR 842.81 - Settlement agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...81 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Use of Government Property Claims (10 U.S.C. 2737) § 842.81 Settlement agreement. Do...

  9. 32 CFR 842.81 - Settlement agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...81 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Use of Government Property Claims (10 U.S.C. 2737) § 842.81 Settlement agreement. Do...

  10. 32 CFR 842.81 - Settlement agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...81 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Use of Government Property Claims (10 U.S.C. 2737) § 842.81 Settlement agreement. Do...

  11. 37 CFR 11.26 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.26 Settlement. Before or after a complaint...

  12. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements. These rules do not preclude the disposition of...

  13. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements. These rules do not preclude the disposition of...

  14. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements. These rules do not preclude the disposition of...

  15. 39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements. These rules do not preclude the disposition of...

  16. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ...burden for small business concerns with...is the Small Business Regulatory...SBREFA). \\2\\ International Settlements...participation and competition in the U.S. international marketplace...term ``small business,''...

  17. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions...Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less...

  18. Trade-off Analysis of ROI for Capability Stepping-Stones to a Lunar Habitat

    E-print Network

    Permanent Moon Base Capability: Commercial tourism Focus: Promote seed funding Capabilities: Reduced debris. ROIInvestment Seed Funding Lunar Habitat ROI Calculator Top Level Model Design Stepping Stone Capabilities Each" 1963" 1968" 1973" 1978" 1983" 1988" 1993" 1998" 2003" 2008" %"of"Total"Federal"Budget" Years" NASA

  19. Using Web 2.0 to Disseminate Information About NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, B. C.; Weir, H. M.; Bleacher, L. V.

    2009-03-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is NASA’s first step in establishing a permanent human presence on the Moon. In order to capitalize on the excitement of the mission, the LRO team makes use of social media networking and Web 2.0 platforms.

  20. Counting Lunar Phase Cycles in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanis?aw

    Though ancient Mesoamericans did not develop formal lunar calendars, they nevertheless timed diverse agricultural activities with the lunar phases. Only the Classic Period Maya created a complex system of recording the lunar cycles, called the Lunar Series, attached to various mythological or historical narratives. It is probable that the structure of the Lunar Series was used to make eclipse predictions.

  1. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Hovland, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The study to identify and define recognizable fabrics in lunar soil in order to determine the history of the lunar regolith in different locations is reported. The fabric of simulated lunar soil, and lunar soil samples are discussed along with the behavior of simulated lunar soil under dynamic and static loading. The planned research is also included.

  2. New Agricultural Settlement, Meheba River, Zambia, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This infra-red view of a new settlement along the Meheba River, Zambia, Africa (12.5S, 26.0E) resembles the resettlement clusters in the Amazon basin of Brazil. However, this settlement is on savanna land not a tropical forest region, so relatively little land clearing was required. The familiar pattern of small single family plots, no large commercial fields, along the branches of a herringbone road network is evident.

  3. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D.; Hougen, D.; Shirley, D.

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore the Hadley Rille site; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by Apollo 15 thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of the parts of the Rille that were considered too dangerous to be explored by the Apollo 15 crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. When we asked what we could do to motivate students the way the authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon, we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon, as is going to the Moo n. The students seem to agree.

  4. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  5. Lunar stratigraphy and sedimentology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Lindsay

    1976-01-01

    The moon is examined as a planet, taking into account the crust, the upper mantle, the middle mantle, the lower mantle, the core, the moon's magnetic field, and the hypotheses concerning the origin of the moon. The energy at the lunar surface is considered along with cratering mechanisms, aspects of crater shape, energy partitioning during impact, the stratigraphy and chronology

  6. Lunar permafrost - Dielectric identification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, R.

    1973-01-01

    A simulator of lunar permafrost at 100 K exhibits a dielectric relaxation centered at approximately 300 hertz. If permafrost exists in the moon between 100 and 213 K, it should present a relaxation peak at approximately 300 hertz. For temperatures up to 263 K it may go up to 20 kilohertz.

  7. Lunar surface gravimeter experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giganti, J. J.; Larson, J. V.; Richard, J. P.; Tobias, R. L.; Weber, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lunar surface gravimeter used the moon as an instrumented antenna to search for gravitational waves predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. Tidal deformation of the moon was measured. Gravitational radiation is a channel that is capable of giving information about the structure and evolution of the universe.

  8. A Lunar Chronology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Oliver A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses methods used in determination of absolute isotopic ages for the returned lunar material, including the uranium-lead, rubidium-strontium, and argon 40-argon 39 ratio methods. Indicates that there would exist a basin-forming bombardment period for the Moon extending over at least 300 million years. (CC)

  9. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, atomic absorption analysis and a variety of simulation studies.

  10. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  11. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. Lunar transfer vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, Joseph T.

    1993-01-01

    Lunar transportation architectures exist for several different mission scenarios. Direct flights from Earth are possible, as the Apollo program clearly demonstrated. Alternatively, a space transfer vehicle could be constructed in space by using the Space Station as a base of operations, or multiple vehicles could be launched from Earth and dock in LEO without using a space station for support. Similarly, returning personnel could proceed directly to Earth or rendezvous at the Space Station for a ride back home on the Space Shuttle. Multiple design concepts exist which are compatible with these scenarios and which can support requirements of cargo, personnel, and mission objectives. Regardless of the ultimate mission selected, some technologies will certainly play a key role in the design and operation of advanced lunar transfer vehicles. Current technologies are capable of delivering astronauts to the lunar surface, but improvements are needed to affordably transfer the material and equipment that will be needed for establishing a lunar base. Materials and structures advances, in particular, will enable the development of more capable cryogenic fluid management and propulsion systems, improved structures, and more efficient vehicle assembly, servicing and processing.

  13. Lunar Influences On Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dario Camuffo; Corso Stati Uniti

    1999-01-01

    Popular beliefs on the effects of the Moon on the weather probably go back to when ancient civilisations followed a lunar calendar, and the Moon went from being a purely temporal reference to becoming a causal reference. The incoming heat flow on the Earth may vary slightly after solar activity. to and generate considerable effects. The light reflected from the

  14. Lunar Influences On Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dario Camuffo

    2001-01-01

    Popular beliefs on the effects of the Moon on the weather probably go back to when ancient civilisations followed a lunar calendar, and the Moon went from being a purely temporal reference to becoming a causal reference. The incoming heat flow on the Earth may vary slightly after solar activity. to and generate considerable effects. The light reflected from the

  15. Do Cues Matter? Highly Inductive Settlement Cues Don't Ensure High Post-Settlement Survival in Sea Urchin Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L.; Nielsen, Shaun J.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24–28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (?25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture. PMID:22162755

  16. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary design of the lunar shelter showed us that joining is a critical technology needed for building a structure from large segments. The problem of joining is important to the design of any structure that is not completely prefabricated. It is especially important when the structure is subjected to tensile loading by an internal pressure. For a lunar shelter constructed from large segments the joints between these large segments must be strong, and they must permit automated construction. With a cast basalt building material which is brittle, there is the additional problem of connecting the joint with the material and avoiding stress concentration that would cause failure. Thus, a well-defined project which we intend to pursue during this coming year is the design of joints for cast basalt structural elements.

  17. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-01-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both stages is a truss, to which all tanks and components are attached. The crew module is a conical shape similar to that of the Apollo Command Module, but significantly larger with a height and maximum diameter of six meters.

  18. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-05-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both stages is a truss, to which all tanks and components are attached. The crew module is a conical shape similar to that of the Apollo Command Module, but significantly larger with a height and maximum diameter of six meters.

  19. Lunar bases and space activities of the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, W. W. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    The present conference gives attention to such major aspects of lunar colonization as lunar base concepts, lunar transportation, lunar science research activities, moon-based astronomical researches, lunar architectural construction, lunar materials and processes, lunar oxygen production, life support and health maintenance in lunar bases, societal aspects of lunar colonization, and the prospects for Mars colonization. Specific discussions are presented concerning the role of nuclear energy in lunar development, achromatic trajectories and the industrial scale transport of lunar resources, advanced geologic exploration from a lunar base, geophysical investigations of the moon, moon-based astronomical interferometry, the irradiation of the moon by particles, cement-based composites for lunar base construction, electrostatic concentration of lunar soil minerals, microwave processing of lunar materials, a parametric analysis of lunar oxygen production, hydrogen from lunar regolith fines, metabolic support for a lunar base, past and future Soviet lunar exploration, and the use of the moons of Mars as sources of water for lunar bases.

  20. Lunar Global Topography by Laser Altimeter (LALT) on board SELENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, H.; Tazawa, S.; Sasaki, S.; Noda, H.; Tsubokawa, T.; Asari, K.; Kawano, N.

    Japanese lunar orbiting mission SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) incorporates three selenodetic experiments by RISE group (Researches In SElenodesy) in National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The first is Laser Altimeter (LALT) which measures the distance between the main orbiter and the lunar surface for the lunar topography. Second is four-way range-rate measurement by using a sub-satellite (RSAT) and the last is differential VLBI measurement of the two sub-satellites which are equipped with radio sources of S and X bands (VRAD). SELENE is scheduled to be launched in summer 2007 and various tests has been carried out. LALT incorporates Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system which transmits laser pulses per 1 second with 1064nm in wavelength, 17nsec time width, and 100mJ energy. Q-switch consists of LiNbO3 Pockels cell. The output beam divergence is 0.4 mrad after passing through the 7.3cm Galileo refractor. Beam spot size on lunar surface is typically 40m when main orbiter altitude is 100km. Range accuracy between SELENE orbiter and the lunar surface is ±5m. The range data are transformed to the topography of the moon with the aid of position and attitude data of the SELENE orbiter. The foot print spacing will be about 1.6 km in the equatorial region after 1 yr mission period. In the pole regions the distance of ranged position on the moon will be less than 300m and the mean distance will be 100m. Mission objectives of LALT are summarized as making a low degree model of lunar figure and construction of lunar global topographic map with the accuracy that has never been so far. New topography of the moon will contribute the following scientific topics: [1] determination of the lunar global figure, [2] internal structure and surface processes, and [3] exploration of the lunar pole regions especially for permanent shadow or illuminated zones. The manufacture of flight model of LALT (LALT-FM) was finished in March 2003. LALT-FM joined the SELENE system integration test by March 2004 for checking mechanical and electrical interfaces with SELENE main orbiter as well as functional performance of LALT itself. PFM (Proto-Flight Model) integration test (PFT 1st half) was carried out successfully from May 2005 to Oct. 2005. LALT shall be in the middle of the PFT 2nd half or final environmental integration test scheduled from July 2006 to January 2007.

  1. Property Status of Lunar Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, V.

    Most of the lunar material in private hands is of meteoric origin, and its property sta- tus does not present many challenges. The intention of Applied Space Resources, Inc, to fly a commercial lunar sample return mission and to subsequently offer lunar ma- terial for sale, raises the issue of the legality of exploitation and private ownership of retrieved lunar material. Lunar samples have been returned in the past by means of the Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) missions and, while most of the material re- mains government property and is used for scientific means, a small fraction has been transferred abroad and some has entered the private market. Apollo-collected moon- rocks have been offered, symbolically, to heads of States, and some foreign nations have subsequently transferred ownership to private individuals. The same, lunar ma- terial of Soviet provenience has entered the private market, this forming a valuable legal precedent for the lawfulness of sale of lunar material. Recently, plans were made public to award the Apollo astronauts with lunar rocks. While in the US there is a popular misconception that it is illegal to own lunar material, the truth lies elsewhere. As the Apollo samples are the property of the US government and a small fraction was stolen, lost, or misplaced, the US government intends to recover this material, unlawfully owned. In the same time, a significant number of individuals have been prosecuted for offering for sale fake lunar rocks. The present paper will analyse the different categories of lunar material according to its ownership status, and will as- sert that private property of lunar material is lawful, and lunar material that will be returned in the future will be able to enter the market without hindrances.

  2. Architecture for a Mobile Lunar Base Using Lunar Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitherman, David V.; Dayal, Vinay; Dunn, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    During the summers of 2004, and 2005, several studies were conducted in the Future Concepts Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with assistance from summer faculty and student program participants to develop concepts and architectures for mobile lunar habitats. This work included conceptual designs for a launch architecture derived from existing expendable launch systems; a lunar walker based on existing technology for the robotics; compatible hardware from the International Space Station (ISS) program for pressurized modules; and lunar resources utilization for environmental shielding. This paper provides a brief summary of some of the key findings from these studies, and identifies areas for future work that could lead to more robust lunar exploration architectures in the future. In conclusion, it is recommended that future exploration missions consider reusable depot / transfer vehicles, robotic walking technology for lunar exploration, and lunar resources utilization for environmental shielding of surface habitats.

  3. The Lunar Quest Program and the International Lunar Network (ILN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science group at Marshall provides core capabilities to support the Agency's lunar exploration goals. ILN Anchor Nodes are currently in development by MSFC and APL under the Lunar Quest Program at MSFC. The Science objectives of the network are to understand the interior structure and composition of the moon. Pre-phase A engineering assessments are complete, showing a design that can achieve the science requirements, either on their own (if 4 launched) or in concert with international partners. Risk reduction activities are ongoing. The Lunar Quest Program is a Science-based program with the following goals: a) Fly small/medium science missions to accomplish key science goals; b) Build a strong lunar science community; c) Provide opportunities to demonstrate new technologies; and d) Where possible, help ESMD and SOMG goals and enhance presence of science in the implementation of the VSE. The Lunar Quest Program will be guided by recommendations from community reports.

  4. An update on the MoonLite Lunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, R.

    2009-04-01

    In December 2008 the UK BNSC/STFC announced that it would undertake a phase-A study of the proposed 4 penetrator lunar mission, MoonLITE. A status report will be given which includes: a brief science overview; technological assessment (including some results of the first impact trials) and identification of critical areas; organisation and plans for the phase A; longer term plans given a successful phase A; and role of international collaborations. Background: The MoonLITE mission involves implanting 4 penetrators globally spaced at impact speeds of ~300m/s and is aimed for launch in 2014 and operate for 1 year. Each penetrator is designed to come to rest a few metres under the lunar surface to provide a solid emplacement for an effective seismic network and for geochemical and heat flow investigations. Polar emplacement will also allow an exciting ability to characterize the presence of water-ice currently indirectly inferred in the permanently shaded craters. They will also allow investigation of the presence of other volatiles, possibly including organics of astrobiologic interest. MoonLITE can also provide strong support for future human lunar missions including seismic detection of large quakes of surface regions which may dangerous to the construction of lunar habitation or observation facilities; and the possible presence and concentration of water which is important to support future human missions. Potential International Collaboration: The timing of this mission may allow arrangement of coincident impacts of other spacecraft which are at the end of their natural mission lifetime, to provide strong artificial seismic signals to allow probing the deep interior of the Moon. Perhaps no better way to end an otherwise very successful mission ? In addition, the presence of multiple Lunar orbiting spacecraft may allow the possibility of inter-communication between different missions to enhance telemetry rates from the lunar surface and provide mission fault tolerance.

  5. The Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder. [lunar orbit coherent radar experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Jordan, R.; Adams, G. F.; Jackson, P.; Peeples, W. J.; Porcello, L. J.; Ryu, J.; Eggleton, R. E.; Schaber, G.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment, a coherent radar operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission, has scientific objectives of mapping lunar subsurface structure, surface profiling, surface imaging, and galactic noise measurement. Representative results from each of the four disciplines are presented. Subsurface reflections have been interpreted in both optically and digitally processed data. Images and profiles yield detailed selenomorphological information. The preliminary galactic noise results are consistent with earlier measurements by other workers.

  6. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Taylor, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence and EPR can be used to measure the reactivity of lunar soil. Lunar soil is highly activated by grinding. Reactivity is dependent upon soil maturity and locale. Maturity is based on the amount of nanophase iron (np-Fe) in a soil relative to the total iron (FeO). Lunar soil activity ia a direct function of the amount of np-Fe present. Reactive soil can be "deactivated" by humid atmosphere.

  7. What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

  8. Lunar Gene Bank For Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, R.; Behera, D.; Sahoo, P. K.; Swain, S. K.; Sasmal, A.

    2012-09-01

    Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. The gene pools of many human ethnic groups are also threatened. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. Against such indispensable losses scientists are starting cryopreservation of germplasms by creation of gene banks. I propose to construct a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions [4].

  9. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  10. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Mohit; R. J. Phillips

    2004-01-01

    The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are

  11. Age of a lunar anorthosite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, L.; Schaeffer, O. A.; Sutter, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The crystallization age of an Apollo 15 anorthosite rock, 15415,9, returned from the lunar highlands has been measured to be 4.09 (plus or minus 0.19) b.y. The primitive lunar crust must have been formed in the first 300 to 400 m.y. The results give some credence to the hypothesis that the primitive lunar surface was molten and large-scale fractional crystallization occurred in the early history of the moon.

  12. Age of a lunar anorthosite.

    PubMed

    Husain, L; Schaeffer, O A; Sutter, J F

    1972-01-28

    The crystallization age of an Apollo 15 anorthosite rock, 15415,9, returned from the lunar highlands has been measured to be (4.09 +/- 0.19) x 10(9) years. The primitive lunar crust must have been formed in the first 300 to 400 x 10(6) years. The results give some credence to the hypothesis that the primitive lunar surface was molten and large-scale fractional crystallization occurred in the early history of the moon. PMID:17731365

  13. Evidence for Phyllosilicates near the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, Faith; Jensen, E.; Domingue, Deborah; McFadden, L.; Coombs, Cassandraa; Mendell, Wendell

    1998-01-01

    While theoretically water ice could be stable in permanently shadowed areas near the lunar poles, there is conflicting observational evidence for the existence of water ice at either pole. Clementine's bistatic radar resumed a weak signal commensurate with water ice in the South Pole Aitken Basin; however, groundbased radar searches have not detected such a signal at either pole. Lunar Prospector measured large amounts of H (attributed to water) at both poles; however, Galileo near-infrared spectral measurements of the north polar region did not detect the prominent 3.0 micron absorption feature due to interlayer and adsorbed water in phyllosilicates. Evidence for the existence of water at the lunar poles is still ambiguous and controversial. We present evidence, based on the analysis of Galileo SSI images, for the presence of phyllosilicates near the lunar south pole. Using the color image sequence (560 nm, 670 nm, 756 nm, and 889 nm) of Lunmap 14 taken during the Galileo Earth-Moon pass I, we have identified areas that show evidence for a 0.7 microns absorption feature present in Fe-bearing phyllosilicates.

  14. Permanent magnet applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. D. Coey

    2002-01-01

    Rare-earth permanent magnets are ideally suited to generate magnetic fields comparable to their spontaneous polarization JS. Near-square hysteresis loops and large values of the coercivity and anisotropy fields greatly simplify magnet design, as each magnet block is effectively transparent to the magnetic fields produced elsewhere in the magnet assembly. The fields generated by compact and efficient magnet structures requiring no

  15. Density of the lunar interior.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, P. W.; Giuli, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    It is attempted to derive the constraints that can be placed on the density of the lunar interior. The moment of inertia of the moon and its mean density are being considered in the investigation together with the mass and density of the lunar crust that have been inferred from the seismic refraction data recorded by the passive seismometer. The calculations presented show that the density of the lunar interior can easily approach values as high as 3.5 for a fraction of the lunar mass which lies in the range from 1/2 to 2/3.

  16. The lunar laser ranging experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Dicke, R. H.; Wilkinson, D. T.; Alley, C. O.; Currie, D. G.; Faller, J. E.; Mulholland, J. D.; Silverberg, E. C.; Plotkin, H. E.; Kaula, W. M.

    1971-01-01

    With data from two or more well-located observing stations, the lunar range can be corrected accurately for the effects of polar motion and fluctuations in the earth's rotation rate. Very accurate corrections can be made for the earth tides at each station. It appears that the use of lasers giving roughly 0.1-msec pulse lengths is highly desirable. With them, single-shot ranging accuracies of about 3 cm are expected. The actual lunar range results will be analyzed by fitting a numerical integration for the lunar motion to the data. A mathematical model for lunar range is given. Tests of the theory of gravitation are considered.

  17. Microwave and optical lunar transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, P. L.; Faller, J. E.; Hall, J. L.; Degnan, J. J.; Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.; King, R. W.; Macknik, L. O.; O'Gara, D.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific areas which used data from the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment, collected from measurements to the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 and Lunakhod 2, include lunar science (i.e., studies of variations in the lunar angular orientation from that for uniform rotation, lunar tidal displacements, and the lunar mass distribution), geodynamics, astrometry, and gravitational physics. This paper argues that the placement of microwave and optical transponders on the moon would improve the accuracy of laser range measurements by nearly two orders of magnitude and would simplify the measurements. The K-band microwave transponders would be operated at the lunar base and at two remote sites on the moon surface, yielding much improved lunar libration and tidal displacement measurements. A two-wavelength laser transponder also would be operated at the lunar base, allowing accurate tropospheric propagation corrections to be made. This would introduce major improvements in measurements of the lunar orbit and of the earth's rotation, and in tests of general relativity.

  18. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, John Carl

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the moon and the earth, but as a construction material, the regolith is poorly characterized and poorly understood. To better understand how to 'work' with the lunar regolith, four loosely related research projects were conducted. Two projects relate to characterizing and understanding the geotechnical properties of regolith, two projects relate to manipulating and processing granular materials in the lunar environment. The shapes of lunar soil grains are characterized using fractals - results directly and quantitatively describe the rugged reentrant nature of the large scale structure and the relatively smooth surface texture of lunar soil grains. The nature of lunar soil cohesion is considered using tensile strength measurements of lunar soil simulant. It is likely that mechanical interlocking of irregular grains is the primary cause of lunar soil cohesion. This mechanism is highly sensitive to grain shape, but relatively insensitive to particle packing density. A series of experiments are conducted to try to understand how granular particles might sort by size in a vacuum. Even in a vacuum, fine particle subjected to shear strain segregate by a mechanism called the random fluctuating sieve The random fluctuating sieve also controls particle motion that determines the structure of wind-blown sand ripples. Hybrid microwave heating was used to sinter large structural bricks from lunar soil stimulant. While heating was prone to thermal runaway, microwave heating holds great promise as a simple, direct method of making sintered structural bricks.

  19. Cosmic Ray Albedo Proton Yield Correlated with Lunar Elemental Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. K.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Blake, J. B.; Golightly, M. J.; Kasper, J. C.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    High energy cosmic rays constantly bombard the lunar regolith, producing secondary "albedo" or "splash" particles like protons and neutrons, some of which escape back to space. Two lunar missions, Lunar Prospector and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), have shown that the energy distribution of albedo neutrons is modulated by the elemental composition of the lunar regolith[1-4], with reduced neutron fluxes near the lunar poles being the result of collisions with hydrogen nuclei in ice deposits[5] in permanently shadowed craters. Here we investigate an analogous phenomenon with high energy (~100 MeV) lunar albedo protons. LRO has been observing the surface and environment of the Moon since June of 2009. The CRaTER instrument (Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation) on LRO is designed to characterize the lunar radiation environment and its effects on simulated human tissue. CRaTER's multiple solid-state detectors can discriminate the different elements in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) population above ~10 MeV/nucleon, and can also distinguish between primary GCR protons arriving from deep space and albedo particles propagating up from the lunar surface. We use albedo protons with energies greater than 60 MeV to construct a cosmic ray albedo proton map of the Moon. The yield of albedo protons is proportional to the rate of lunar proton detections divided by the rate of incoming GCR detections. The map accounts for time variation in the albedo particles driven by time variations in the primary GCR population, thus revealing any true spatial variation of the albedo proton yield. Our current map is a significant improvement over the proof-of-concept map of Wilson et al.[6]. In addition to including twelve more months of CRaTER data here, we use more numerous minimum ionizing GCR protons for normalization, and we make use of all six of CRaTER's detectors to reduce contamination from spurious non-proton events in the data stream. We find find that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. In general the yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1.1% ± 0.4% higher than the flux from the highlands. In addition there appear to be localized peaks in the albedo proton yield that are co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer. References: [1] Feldman W. C. et al. (1998) Sci-ence, 281, 1496-1500. [2] Gasnault, O. et al. (2001) GRL, 28, 3797-3800. [3] Maurice, S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04. [4] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483-486. [5] Feldman W. C. et al. (1997) JGR, 102, 25565-25574. [6] Wilson, J. K. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H23.

  20. Lunar regolith densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein

    1991-11-01

    Core tube samples of the lunar regolith obtained during the Apollo missions showed a rapid increase in the density of the regolith with depth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the possible cause of this phenomenon, including the densification of the loose regolith material by repeated shaking from the seismic tremors which have been found to occur at regular monthly intervals when the moon and earth are closest to one another. A test bed was designed to study regolith densification. This test bed uses Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS) to conduct shaking experiments in the geotechnical centrifuge with an inflight shake table system. By reproducing realistic in-situ regolith properties, the experiment also serves to test penetrator concepts. The shake table system was designed and used for simulation experiments to study effects of earthquakes on terrestrial soil structures. It is mounted on a 15 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge in which the self-weight induced stresses are replicated by testing an n-th scale model in a gravity field which is n times larger than Earth's gravity. A similar concept applies when dealing with lunar prototypes, where the gravity ratio required for proper simulation of lunar gravity effects is that between the centrifugal acceleration and the lunar gravity. Records of lunar seismic tremors, or moonquakes, were obtained. While these records are being prepared for use as the input data to drive the shake table system, records from the El Centro earthquake of 1940 are being used to perform preliminary tests, using a soil container which was previously used for earthquake studies. This container has a laminar construction, with the layers free to slide on each other, so that the soil motion during the simulated earthquake will not be constrained by the otherwise rigid boundaries. The soil model is prepared by pluviating the MLS from a hopper into the laminar container to a depth of 6 in. The container is mounted on the shake table and the centrifuge is operated to generate an acceleration of 10 times Earth's gravity or 60 times the lunar gravity, thus simulating a lunar regolith thickness of 30 ft. The shake table is then operated using the scaled 'moonquake' as the input motion. One or more model moonquakes are used in each experiment, after which the soil is analyzed for its density profile with depth. This is accomplished by removing from the soil bed a column of soil contained within a thin rubber sleeve which has been previously embedded vertically in the soil during pluviation. This column of soil is transferred to a gamma ray device, in which the gamma ray transmission transversely through the soil is measured and compared with standard calibration samples. In this manner, the density profile can be determined.

  1. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  2. Investigations of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, G. M.; Fvwaraye, A. O.; Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The investigations were directed at determining the radiation history and surface chronology of lunar materials using the etched particle track technique. The major lunar materials studied are the igneous rocks and double core from Apollo 12, the breccia and soil samples from Apollo 14, and the core samples from Luna 16. In the course of this work two new and potentially important observations were made: (1) Cosmic ray-induced spallation-recoil tracks were identified. The density of such tracks, when compared with the density of tracks induced by a known flux of accelerator protons, yields the time of exposure of a sample within the top meter or two of moon's surface. (2) Natural, fine scale plastic deformation was found to have fragmented pre-existing charged particle tracks, allowing the dating of the mechanical event causing the deformation.

  3. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently being developed in a collaborative effort between Langley Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. The screens typically consist of spiral shaped conductive traces patterned on high dielectric substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, polyimide film, etc.). Two broad categories of substrate materials are being investigated for the screens. One category consists of transparent substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, sapphire, etc.), and the other non-transparent sub-strates (Kapton, polyimide films, metals, etc.). The transparent screens utilize patterns made from indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive material, on clear substrates while the non-transparent screens use copper patterns on a transluscent or opaque substrates. Further, the screen is coated with a high dielectric polyimide cover layer to protect the screen pattern. One promising cover layer material that is currently being investigated is Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI), a NASA LaRC developed polyimide. Lastly, a top-coat of hard, inorganic material is evaporated onto the cover layer for protection from scratches due to abrasive nature of the dust. Of note, several top-coat materials are under investigation and include: aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, and zinc sulfide. The electrostatic dust mitigation screens function when a high voltage (700V or greater) is applied to the screen electrodes, thus creating an electromagnetic wave across the surface of the screen that repels the dust. Lunar dust typically contains a high positive charge; therefore, the screens are charged with a higher positive charge that effectively repels dust from the surface (i.e. like charges repel, unlike charges attract). It is anticipated that full development and maturation of this technology will enable humans to sustain a long term presence on the moon, and other planets where dust may have negative implications.

  4. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  5. Two wheeled lunar dumptruck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brus, Michael R.; Haleblain, Ray; Hernandez, Tomas L.; Jensen, Paul E.; Kraynick, Ronald L.; Langley, Stan J.; Shuman, Alan G.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a two wheel bulk material transport vehicle is described in detail. The design consists of a modified cylindrical bowl, two independently controlled direct drive motors, and two deformable wheels. The bowl has a carrying capacity of 2.8 m (100 ft) and is constructed of aluminum. The low speed, high HP motors are directly connected to the wheels, thus yielding only two moving parts. The wheels, specifically designed for lunar applications, utilize the chevron tread pattern for optimum traction. The vehicle is maneuvered by varying the relative angular velocities of the wheels. The bulk material being transported is unloaded by utilizing the motors to oscillate the bowl back and forth to a height at which dumping is achieved. The analytical models were tested using a scaled prototype of the lunar transport vehicle. The experimental data correlated well with theoretical predictions. Thus, the design established provides a feasible alternative for the handling of bulk material on the moon.

  6. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  7. Lunar hand tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

  8. Lunar Core and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  9. Lunar regolith densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    Core tube samples of the lunar regolith obtained during the Apollo missions showed a rapid increase in the density of the regolith with depth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the possible cause of this phenomenon, including the densification of the loose regolith material by repeated shaking from the seismic tremors which have been found to occur at regular monthly intervals when the moon and earth are closest to one another. A test bed was designed to study regolith densification. This test bed uses Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS) to conduct shaking experiments in the geotechnical centrifuge with an inflight shake table system. By reproducing realistic in-situ regolith properties, the experiment also serves to test penetrator concepts. The shake table system was designed and used for simulation experiments to study effects of earthquakes on terrestrial soil structures. It is mounted on a 15 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge in which the self-weight induced stresses are replicated by testing an n-th scale model in a gravity field which is n times larger than Earth's gravity. A similar concept applies when dealing with lunar prototypes, where the gravity ratio required for proper simulation of lunar gravity effects is that between the centrifugal acceleration and the lunar gravity. Records of lunar seismic tremors, or moonquakes, were obtained. While these records are being prepared for use as the input data to drive the shake table system, records from the El Centro earthquake of 1940 are being used to perform preliminary tests, using a soil container which was previously used for earthquake studies. This container has a laminar construction, with the layers free to slide on each other, so that the soil motion during the simulated earthquake will not be constrained by the otherwise rigid boundaries. The soil model is prepared by pluviating the MLS from a hopper into the laminar container to a depth of 6 in. The container is mounted on the shake table and the centrifuge is operated to generate an acceleration of 10 times Earth's gravity or 60 times the lunar gravity, thus simulating a lunar regolith thickness of 30 ft. The shake table is then operated using the scaled 'moonquake' as the input motion. One or more model moonquakes are used in each experiment, after which the soil is analyzed for its density profile with depth. This is accomplished by removing from the soil bed a column of soil contained within a thin rubber sleeve which has been previously embedded vertically in the soil during pluviation. This column of soil is transferred to a gamma ray device, in which the gamma ray transmission transversely through the soil is measured and compared with standard calibration samples. In this manner, the density profile can be determined. Preliminary results to date are encouraging, and the Center plans to study the effects of duration of shaking, intensity of the shaking motion, and the frequency of the motion.

  10. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  11. The lunar dust pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2013-07-01

    An analytic model for the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum is presented. It is shown that the dust grain executes oscillatory trajectories, and an expression is derived for the period of oscillation. Simulations used to verify the analytic expression also show that because the trajectories are unstable, dust grains are either ejected from the crater's vicinity or deposited into the crater forming "dust ponds." The model also applies to other airless bodies in the solar system, such as asteroids, and predicts that under certain conditions, particularly near lunar sunset, oscillating dust "canopies" or "swarms" will form over negatively charged craters.

  12. Lunar asymmetry and palaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1980-10-01

    A model is proposed for the early lunar evolution which accounts for the compositional asymmetry between the nearside and farside of the moon and the natural remanent magnetism of lunar rocks. According to the model, the preferred gravitational energy state consisted of an asymmetric accumulation of a liquid iron alloy (Fe-Ni and a small amount of sulfur) which displaces upwards the cold primordial undifferentiated core. The resulting depth asymmetry of the outer partially molten zone leads eventually to the subcrustal accumulation of light magnesium-rich pyroxenes and olivine, preferentially in one hemisphere, sufficient to explain the offset and also indirectly providing a possible explanation for the nearside concentration of KREEP and mass basalt. Slow downward migration of iron releases gravitational energy sufficient for convection and dynamo generation in an iron layer for about a billion years.

  13. Lunar concrete for construction

    SciTech Connect

    Cullingford, H.S.; Keller, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Our experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Lunar Phases Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The NAAP Lunar Phases Lab demonstrates how the earth-sun-moon geometry gives rise to the phases of the moon as seen from earth. A distant view of an observer looking down on earth as well as a perspective of an observer looking into the sky are used in the the simulator. This lab provides resources which include demonstration guides, in-class worksheets, technical documents and assessment pre- and post- tests.

  15. First lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health maintenance, waste management, EVA operations facilities, and safe havens.

  16. Lunar concrete for construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  17. The lunar dust environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eberhard Grün; Mihaly Horanyi; Zoltan Sternovsky

    2011-01-01

    Each year the Moon is bombarded by about 106kg of interplanetary micrometeoroids of cometary and asteroidal origin. Most of these projectiles range from 10nm to about 1mm in size and impact the Moon at 10–72km\\/s speed. They excavate lunar soil about 1000 times their own mass. These impacts leave a crater record on the surface from which the micrometeoroid size

  18. Uses of lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D.; Pettit, D.; Heiken, G.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical, and biochemical properties. Although known abundances on the Moon are limited (approximately 0.1 percent in mare soils), sulfur is relatively extractable by heating. Coproduction of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich mare soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10 percent of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource.

  19. Lunar concrete for construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1992-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar base construction was discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Our experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the Moon are provided in this paper, along with specific conclusions from the existing database.

  20. Uses of lunar sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Habitat configuration and availability influences the settlement of temperate reef fishes (Tripterygiidae)

    E-print Network

    Shima, Jeff

    Habitat configuration and availability influences the settlement of temperate reef fishes Habitat availability Habitat configuration Settlement Tripterygiidae To survive, most benthic marine organisms must find suitable settlement habitat. For reef fishes, settlement hab- itat is often structurally

  2. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  3. Lunar Exploration Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perino, Maria Antonietta

    The international space exploration plans foresee in the next decades multiple robotic and human missions to Moon and robotic missions to Mars, Phobos and other destinations. Notably the US has since the announcement of the US space exploration vision by President G. W. Bush in 2004 made significant progress in the further definition of its exploration programme focusing in the next decades in particular on human missions to Moon. Given the highly demanding nature of these missions, different initiatives have been recently taken at international level to discuss how the lunar exploration missions currently planned at national level could fit in a coordinate roadmap and contribute to lunar exploration. Thales Alenia Space - Italia is leading 3 studies for the European Space Agency focus on the analysis of the transportation, in-space and surface architectures required to meet ESA provided stakeholders exploration objectives and requirements. Main result of this activity is the identification of European near-term priorities for exploration missions and European long-term priorities for capability and technology developments related to planetary exploration missions. This paper will present the main studies' results drawing a European roadmap for exploration missions and capability and technology developments related to lunar exploration infrastructure development, taking into account the strategic and programmatic indications for exploration coming from ESA as well as the international exploration context.

  4. Lunar crescent visibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Leroy E.; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of five Moonwatches, in which more than 2000 observers throughout North America attempted to sight the thin lunar crescent. For each Moonwatch we were able to determine the position of the Lunar Date Line (LDL), the line along which a normal observer has a 50% probability of spotting the Moon. The observational LDLs were then compared with predicted LDLs derived from crescent visibility prediction algorithms. We find that ancient and medieval rules are higly unreliable. More recent empirical criteria, based on the relative altitude and azimuth of the Moon at the time of sunset, have a reasonable accuracy, with the best specific formulation being due to Yallop. The modern theoretical model by Schaefer (based on the physiology of the human eye and the local observing conditions) is found to have the least systematic error, the least average error, and the least maximum error of all models tested. Analysis of the observations also provided information about atmospheric, optical and human factors that affect the observations. We show that observational lunar calendars have a natural bias to begin early.

  5. Human Exploration and Settlement of the Moon Using LUNOX-Augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.

    1995-01-01

    An innovative trimodal nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) concept is described which combines conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR, Brayton cycle power generation and supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) technologies. Known as the liquid oxygen (LOX) augmented NTR (LANTR), this concept utilizes the large divergent section of the NTR nozzle as an 'afterburner' into which LOX is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the LANTR's choked sonic throat--'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. As the MR varies from zero to seven, the thrust-to-weight ratio for a 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR increases by approximately 440%--from 3 to 13--while the Isp decreases by only approximately 45%--from 940 to 515 seconds. This thrust augmentation feature of the LANTR means that 'big engine' performance can be obtained using smaller more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. 'Reoxidizing' the bipropellant LANTR system in low lunar orbit (LLO) with high density 'lunar-derived' LOX (LUNOX) enables a reusable, reduced size and mass lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which can be deployed and resupplied using two 66 t-class Shuttle-derived launch vehicles. The reusable LANTR can also transport 200 to 300% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than an expendable 'all LH2' NTR system. As initial outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can also enable a rapid 'commuter' shuttle capable of 36 to 24 hour 'one way' trips to the Moon and back with reasonable size vehicles and initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) requirements.

  6. An evolution strategy for lunar nuclear surface power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1992-01-01

    The production and transmission of electric power for a permanently inhabited lunar base poses a significant challenge which can best be met through an evolution strategy. Nuclear systems offer the best opportunity for evolution in terms of both life and performance. Applicable nuclear power technology options include isotope systems (either radioisotope thermoelectric generators or dynamic isotope power systems) and reactor systems with either static (thermoelectric or thermionic) or dynamic (Brayton, Stirling, Rankine) conversion. A power system integration approach that takes evolution into account would benefit by reduced development and operations cost, progressive flight experience, and simplified logistics, and would permit unrestrained base expansion. For the purposes of defining a nuclear power system evolution strategy, the lunar base development shall consist of four phases: precursor, emplacement, consolidation, and operations.

  7. Sensitivity of Lunar Resource Economic Model to Lunar Ice Concentration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad Blair; Javier Diaz

    2002-01-01

    Lunar Prospector mission data indicates sufficient concentration of hydrogen (presumed to be in the form of water ice) to form the basis for lunar in-situ mining activities to provide a source of propellant for near-Earth and solar system transport missions. A model being developed by JPL, Colorado School of Mines, and CSP, Inc. generates the necessary conditions under which a

  8. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  9. Recent Lunar Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buz, J.; Weiss, B. P.; Garrick-Bethell, I.

    2010-12-01

    Although the Moon today does not have a core dynamo magnetic field [1], paleomagnetic analyses of Apollo samples and spacecraft magnetometry measurements of the lunar crust show magnetization and suggest there were magnetic fields on the Moon > 3 billion years ago [2]. It is unclear whether this magnetization is the product of an ancient core dynamo or that of impact-generated plasmas [3,4,5]. A key way to distinguish between these two hypotheses is to conduct paleomagnetic analyses of lunar impact glasses that formed after any putative core dynamo. Here we present a paleomagnetic study of Apollo 12 basalt 12017. This sample consists of a 3.2 billion year old basalt covered by ~9000 year old impact glass [6,7,8]. We have found that both the rock and glass are magnetized, but in widely divergent directions. The intensity of the fields which magnetized the rock and glass were 40 ?T and 1 ?T, respectively. Given the near certain absence of a lunar dynamo 9000 years ago, we have two hypotheses to explain the magnetization of the glass: magnetization by an impact-generated field and magnetization by magnetic fields generated by the rock underneath. The long cooling time of the glass (~10 s) relative to that expected for impact-generated field (milliseconds) suggests that impact-generated magnetization is highly improbable. We are currently modeling the magnetic fields of the underlying rock in order to determine whether it had sufficient strength and appropriate orientation to explain the magnetization of the glass. Initial calculations suggest that this is possible. [1] Russell et al., JGR, 79, 1105-1109, 1974 [2] Garrick-Bethell et al., Science,323, 356-359, 2009 [3] Wieczorek et al., Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 60, 221-364, 2006 [4] Crawford and Schultz, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 23, 169-180, 1999 [5] Hood and Artemieva, Icarus, 193, 485-502, 2007 [6] Horn et al., Meteoritical Society, 417-418, 1975 [7] Morrisson et al., Proceedings of the 3rd Lunar Science Conference, 3, 2767-2791, 1973 [8] Fleischer et al., Proceedings of the 2nd Lunar Science Conference, 2, 2559-2568, 1971

  10. Environmental control of lunar samples in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, M. A.; Turner, N. L.; Hurgeton, J. C.; Barbee, M. F.; Flory, D. A.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    The contamination controls used in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory during the processing of lunar samples are described. Initially, the lunar sample containers were opened and the material was examined in a vacuum complex with approximated lunar surface conditions. The process of examining and distributing the samples from this vacuum complex was time consuming. During both Apollo 11 and 12 missions portions of the lunar samples were processed for allocation in a small sterile glove box in a dry nitrogena atmosphere. After Apollo 12 a new system was installed based upon the experience gained from the small glove box. The system uses dry nitrogen as an environmental blanket and has the capability of being sterilized and of maintaining this sterility.

  11. Hydrogen mapping of the lunar south pole using the LRO neutron detector experiment LEND.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, I G; Sanin, A B; Boynton, W V; Chin, G; Garvin, J B; Golovin, D; Evans, L G; Harshman, K; Kozyrev, A S; Litvak, M L; Malakhov, A; Mazarico, E; McClanahan, T; Milikh, G; Mokrousov, M; Nandikotkur, G; Neumann, G A; Nuzhdin, I; Sagdeev, R; Shevchenko, V; Shvetsov, V; Smith, D E; Starr, R; Tretyakov, V I; Trombka, J; Usikov, D; Varenikov, A; Vostrukhin, A; Zuber, M T

    2010-10-22

    Hydrogen has been inferred to occur in enhanced concentrations within permanently shadowed regions and, hence, the coldest areas of the lunar poles. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was designed to detect hydrogen-bearing volatiles directly. Neutron flux measurements of the Moon's south polar region from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft were used to select the optimal impact site for LCROSS. LEND data show several regions where the epithermal neutron flux from the surface is suppressed, which is indicative of enhanced hydrogen content. These regions are not spatially coincident with permanently shadowed regions of the Moon. The LCROSS impact site inside the Cabeus crater demonstrates the highest hydrogen concentration in the lunar south polar region, corresponding to an estimated content of 0.5 to 4.0% water ice by weight, depending on the thickness of any overlying dry regolith layer. The distribution of hydrogen across the region is consistent with buried water ice from cometary impacts, hydrogen implantation from the solar wind, and/or other as yet unknown sources. PMID:20966247

  12. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024...ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

  13. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024...and Escrow Accounts § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

  14. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024...ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

  15. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124...ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  16. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124...ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  17. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124...ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  18. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124...ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  19. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124...ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  20. 47 CFR 3.50 - Retention of settlement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.50 Retention...following settlement of an account with a foreign administration or...

  1. 47 CFR 3.50 - Retention of settlement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.50 Retention...following settlement of an account with a foreign administration or...

  2. 47 CFR 3.50 - Retention of settlement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.50 Retention...following settlement of an account with a foreign administration or...

  3. 47 CFR 3.50 - Retention of settlement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.50 Retention...following settlement of an account with a foreign administration or...

  4. 47 CFR 3.50 - Retention of settlement records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.50 Retention...following settlement of an account with a foreign administration or...

  5. 12 CFR 344.7 - Settlement of securities transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Settlement of securities transactions. 344.7 Section 344...RECORDKEEPING AND CONFIRMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITIES TRANSACTIONS § 344.7 Settlement of securities transactions. (a) A bank...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.457 - Negotiated debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...than the full amount of that debt. The Agency may approve a negotiated debt settlement only in cases where...best interest of the Federal Government and tenants. (b) Required...information. Borrowers requesting debt settlement must submit...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.457 - Negotiated debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...than the full amount of that debt. The Agency may approve a negotiated debt settlement only in cases where...best interest of the Federal Government and tenants. (b) Required...information. Borrowers requesting debt settlement must submit...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.457 - Negotiated debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...than the full amount of that debt. The Agency may approve a negotiated debt settlement only in cases where...best interest of the Federal Government and tenants. (b) Required...information. Borrowers requesting debt settlement must submit...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.457 - Negotiated debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...than the full amount of that debt. The Agency may approve a negotiated debt settlement only in cases where...best interest of the Federal Government and tenants. (b) Required...information. Borrowers requesting debt settlement must submit...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.457 - Negotiated debt settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...than the full amount of that debt. The Agency may approve a negotiated debt settlement only in cases where...best interest of the Federal Government and tenants. (b) Required...information. Borrowers requesting debt settlement must submit...

  11. SETTLEMENT AND COVER SUBSIDENCE OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical models using equations for linearly elastic deformation were developed to predict the maximum expected amount of settlement and cover subsidence and potential cracking of the cover by differential settlement in uniformly, horizontally layered hazardous waste landfills. ...

  12. 5 CFR 2423.25 - Post complaint, prehearing settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post complaint, prehearing settlements. 2423...AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS Post Complaint, Prehearing Procedures § 2423.25 Post complaint, prehearing settlements....

  13. Optimising settlement assays of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Carl, C; Poole, A J; Vucko, M J; Williams, M R; Whalan, S; de Nys, R

    2011-09-01

    The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a common aquaculture species, and also a major fouling organism that has negative economic impacts. There are no standard assay conditions for this important species and therefore, this study quantified the effect of key factors on the settlement of pediveligers and plantigrades. Density dependent settlement did not occur for either pediveligers or plantigrades. Settlement increased in drop assays in a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, while bottom shade had no effect of any magnitude. In addition, settlement was significantly enhanced by storing pediveligers for between 4 and 24 days at 4 °C. Overall, these data provide the template to optimise and standardise static laboratory settlement assays for mussels in order to develop materials that either enhance settlement for the aquaculture industry, or deter settlement for antifouling applications. Furthermore, simple mechanisms such as storage at 4 °C can enhance settlement beyond current methods used in aquaculture hatcheries. PMID:21827335

  14. Modeling Lunar Radar Scatter from Icy Regoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Heggy, E.; Ustinov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    For lunar orbital synthetic aperture radars, such as the Chandrayaan Mini-RF operating at S-Band (13cm) wavelength and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF operating at S-Band and X-Band (3-cm) wavelengths, it is important to understand and model the radar backscattering characteristics of the icy regoliths. If ice in the permanently shadowed areas of the lunar poles backscatters like the ices on Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites, then it will have a substantial radar enhancement characterized by a Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) greater than unity. We examine the possibilities that these distinct signatures may be diminished by factors such as a thin regolith covering, and/or the ice occupies small patches within a larger radar pixel. Our first model for scattering from lunar surface assumes a simple mixing model consisting of diffuse and quasi-specular components. The quasi-specular component results from the surface and sub-surface layers that are oriented perpendicular to the radar’s line-of-sight. The diffuse component associated with either rocks or ice is assumed to be uniformly bright, with the backscatter being proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle. Rocks are assumed to have CPRs of unity while ices are assumed to have CPRs of 2 like those observed on Mercury, Mars and Galilean Satellites. This first model shows that radar signatures for ice and rocks are separable if the same-sense circular (SC) enhancements are greater than about 2-4. A preliminary validation using LRO radar data for a few polar and mid-latitude craters indicate that the observed CPRs are consistent with our models for different regolith ice and roughness conditions. Our second model addresses CPR variations for ice filling the pores of the regolith. Here the quasi-specular backscatter from the surface and buried crater ejecta as well as diffuse backscatter from sub-surface rocks will change with increased abundances of ice in the regolith. This second model indicates that only small indistinguishable changes in CPRs would occur.

  15. Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Lunar Exploration Initiative Briefing Topic: Lunar Mobility Review David A. Kring #12;Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Lunar;Kring/Space Sciences 2006 Lunar Exploration Initiative Lunar Robotic Vehicles · Robotic Rovers

  16. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John; Chin, Gordon; Garvin, James

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was implemented to facilitate scientific and engineering-driven mapping of the lunar surface at new spatial scales and with new remote sensing methods, identify safe landing sites, search for in situ resources, and measure the space radiation environment. After its successful launch on June 18,2009, the LRO spacecraft and instruments were activated and calibrated in an eccentric polar lunar orbit until September 15, when LRO was moved to a circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 50 km. LRO will operate for at least one year to support the goals of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and for at least two years of extended operations for additional lunar science measurements supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). LRO carries six instruments with associated science and exploration investigations, and a telecommunications/radar technology demonstration. The LRO instruments are: Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE), Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). The technology demonstration is a compact, dual-frequency, hybrid polarity synthetic aperture radar instrument (Mini-RF). LRO observations also support the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), the lunar impact mission that was co-manifested with LRO on the Atlas V (401) launch vehicle. This paper describes the LRO objectives and measurements that support exploration of the Moon and that address the science objectives outlined by the National Academy of Science's report on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SCEM). We also describe data accessibility by the science and exploration community.

  17. A Blueprint of an International Lunar Robotic Village

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Human civilization is destined to look, find and develop a second habitable destination in our Solar System, besides Earth: Moon and Mars are the two most likely and credible places based on proximity, available local resources and economics Recent international missions have brought back valuable information on both Moon and Mars. The vision is: A permanent presence on the Moon using advanced robotic systems as precursors to the future human settlement of the Moon is possible in the near-term. An international effort should be initiated to create a permanent robotic village to demonstrate and validate advanced technologies and systems across international boundaries, conduct broad science, explore new regions of the Moon and Mars, develop infrastructure, human habitats and shelters, facilitate development of commerce and stimulate public involvement and education.

  18. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; /Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; /NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC

    2007-05-23

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.

  19. The Emotional City: Refugee Settlement and Neoliberal Urbanism in Calgary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Burke Wood; Susan McGrath; Julie Young

    Based on a case study in Calgary, we frame refugee (re)settlement through literature in emotional geography and argue that\\u000a the logistics of settlements are emotional as well as pragmatic. Social agencies play a crucial role in the settlement of\\u000a refugees, especially the government-sponsored class. Personal connections with a settlement worker make the negotiation of\\u000a the city emotional from the outset.

  20. Permanent magnet design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leupold, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Design techniques developed for the exploitation of high energy magnetically rigid materials such as Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B have resulted in a revolution in kind rather than in degree in the design of a variety of electron guidance structures for ballistic and aerospace applications. Salient examples are listed. Several prototype models were developed. These structures are discussed in some detail: permanent magnet solenoids, transverse field sources, periodic structures, and very high field structures.

  1. Permanent homelessness in America?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Freeman; Brian Hall

    1987-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine the approximate number of homeless persons in the U.S., the rate of change in the number, and whether or not the problem is likely to be permanent or transitory. It makes particular use of a new 1985 survey of over 500 homeless people in New York City. It finds that:(1)the much-maligned 1984 study by the

  2. Bearing Strength of Lunar Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Jaffe

    1971-01-01

    Bearing load vs penetration curves have been measured on a 1.3 g sample of lunar soil from the scoop of the Surveyor 3 soil mechanics surface sampler, using a circular indentor 2 mm in diameter. Measurements were made in an Earth laboratory, in air. This sample provided a unique opportunity to evaluate earlier, remotely controlled, in-situ measurements of lunar surface

  3. Bearing strength of lunar soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Jaffe

    1971-01-01

    Bearing load vs penetration curves have been measured on a 1.3 g sample of lunar soil from the scoop of the Surveyor 3 soil mechanics surface sampler, using a circular indentor 2 mm in diameter. Measurements were made in an Earth laboratory, in air. This sample provided a unique opportunity to evaluate earlier, remotely controlled, in-situ measurements of lunar surface

  4. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  5. Electromagnetic launch of lunar material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Snow; Henry H. Kolm

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil can become a source of relatively inexpensive oxygen propellant for vehicles going from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and beyond. This lunar oxygen could replace the oxygen propellant that, in current plans for these missions, is launched from the Earth's surface and amounts to approximately 75 percent of the total mass. The reason for

  6. NASA's Lunar Robotic Architecture Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Mulville

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the findings and analysis of a 60-day agency-wide Lunar Robotic Architecture Study (LRAS) conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Work on this study began in January 2006. Its purpose was to: Define a lunar robotics architecture by addressing the following issues: 1) Do we need robotic missions at all? If so, why and under

  7. PROCEEDINGS OF LUNAR AND PLANETARY ,

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    of the details can be seen by which an' impact crater might be distinguished from a solitary maar volcanic crater been adduced for the impact origin of lunar craters is thus insufficient. Many lunar craters are larger of high-explosive craters and impact craters. Because a large amount of gas is produced, the cratering

  8. Superconducting permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Wipf, S.L.; Laquer, H.L.

    1989-03-01

    The concept of superconducting permanent magnets with fields trapped in shells or cylinders of Type II superconductors is an old one. Unfortunately, the low values of 0.5 to 1T for the first flux jump field, which is independent of the actual current density, have frustrated its implementation with classical Type II superconductors. The fact that the flux jump fields for high temperature superconductors should be an order of magnitude larger at liquid nitrogen temperatures allows us to reconsider these options. Analysis of the hysteresis patterns, based on the critical state model, shows that, if the dimensions are chosen so that the sample is penetrated at a field B/sub p/, which is equal to or just less than the first flux jump field, B/sub fj/, a temporarily applied field of 2B/sub fj/ will trap 0.5 B/sub fj/. Thus for a 90 K superconductor with a B/sub fj/ of 6T, a permanent field of 3 T should be trapped, with an energy product of 1.8 MJ/m/sup 3/ (225 MG . Oe). This is five times as large as for the best permanent magnet materials. The authors discuss means to verify the analysis and the limitations imposed by the low critical current densities in presently available high temperature superconductors.

  9. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    THE NEED FOR RESOURCES: When mankind returns to the moon, there will be an aspect of the architecture that will totally change how we explore the solar system. We will take the first steps towards breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables by extracting resources from planetary bodies. Our first efforts in this area, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), will be to extract the abundant oxygen found in the lunar regolith. But the "holy grail" of lunar ISRU will be finding an exploitable source of lunar hydrogen. If we can find a source of extractable hydrogen, it would provide a foundation for true independence from Earth. With in-situ hydrogen (or water) and oxygen we can produce many of the major consumables needed to operate a lunar outpost. We would have water to drink, oxygen to breath, as well as rocket propellants and fuel cell reagents to enable extended access and operations on the moon. These items make up a huge percentage of the mass launched from the Earth. Producing them in-situ would significantly reduce the cost of operating a lunar outpost while increasing payload availability for science. PROSPECTING: The Lunar Prospector found evidence of elevated hydrogen at the lunar poles, and measurements made at these locations from the Clementine mission bistatic radar have been interpreted as correlating to water/ice concentrations. At the South Pole, there is reasonably strong correlation between the elevated areas of hydrogen and permanently shadowed craters. However, there is considerable debate on the form and concentration of this hydrogen since the orbiting satellites had limited resolution and their data can be interpreted in different ways. The varying interpretations are based on differing opinions and theories of lunar environment, evolution, and cometary bombardment within the lunar Science community. The only way to truly answer this question from both a Science and resource availability perspective is to go to the lunar poles and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of interstellar volatiles from cold molecular clouds. These sources leave distinctive s

  10. Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; French, R. A.; Nall, M. E.; Muery, K. G.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar commercial community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data. A beta version of the portal and visualization systems is expected to be released in late 2009, with a version 1 release planned for early 2011.

  11. Species specificity of barnacle settlement-inducing proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Kato-Yoshinaga; M Nagano; S Mori; A. S Clare; N Fusetani; K Matsumura

    2000-01-01

    We previously isolated a larval settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC) from adult extracts of the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite using a nitrocellulose membrane settlement assay. In the present study, we found that the extracts of other adult barnacles, Megabalanus rosa and Balanus eburneus, also induced the settlement of B. amphitrite cyprids although the inductive activity was slightly lower than that of conspecific

  12. Marie Russo: An Oral History of the Italian Settlement House

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    The Settlement House Movement in the United States was a response by progressive reformers to meet the needs of urban poor and immigrant families in the early years of the 20th century. Some settlements were outreach services of churches. There are limited accounts of the experiences of the individuals who used the settlement houses. This study…

  13. Estimation of the components of municipal solid waste settlement.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar Babu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the municipal solid waste settlements and the contribution of each of the components are essential in the estimation of the volume of the waste that can be accommodated in a landfill and increase the post-usage of the landfill. This article describes an experimental methodology for estimating and separating primary settlement, settlement owing to creep and biodegradation-induced settlement. The primary settlement and secondary settlement have been estimated and separated based on 100% pore pressure dissipation time and the coefficient of consolidation. Mechanical creep and biodegradation settlements were estimated and separated based on the observed time required for landfill gas production. The results of a series of laboratory triaxial tests, creep tests and anaerobic reactor cell setups were conducted to describe the components of settlement. All the tests were conducted on municipal solid waste (compost reject) samples. It was observed that biodegradation accounted to more than 40% of the total settlement, whereas mechanical creep contributed more than 20% towards the total settlement. The essential model parameters, such as the compression ratio (Cc'), rate of mechanical creep (c), coefficient of mechanical creep (b), rate of biodegradation (d) and the total strain owing to biodegradation (EDG ), are useful parameters in the estimation of total settlements as well as components of settlement in landfill. PMID:25428429

  14. 76 FR 78977 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...to or part of a settlement service need not...by a practice, pattern or course of conduct...calendar days of settlement. As noted in Sec...escrow account analysis before establishing...example of aggregate analysis. Lines 1100-1108...and closing or settlement agents. The...

  15. Is the Proposed Google Book Settlement "Fair"? Pamela Samuelson*

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    1 Is the Proposed Google Book Settlement "Fair"? Pamela Samuelson* Introduction Class action.1 The class at issue in the Authors Guild v. Google case now consists of all owners of copyrights settlement of the Authors Guild v. Google lawsuit.3 A ruling on this settlement is expected in the late

  16. Temperature, stratification and barnacle larval settlement in two Californian sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Pineda; Manuel López

    2002-01-01

    Barnacle settlement was monitored in two sites 100km apart along the coast of Alta and Baja California. In five periods of observations completed between 1991 and 1996, Chthamalus spp., Pollicipes polymerus, and Balanus glandula settlement was consistently higher in the northern site, La Jolla (LJ), than in the southern site, La Salina (LS). For Chthamalus, the most abundant settler, settlement

  17. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  18. Organics in APOLLO Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    One of many unknowns prior to the Apollo landings concerned the possibility of life, its remains, or its organic precursors on the surface of the Moon. While the existence of lunar organisms was considered highly unlikely, a program of biological quarantine and testing for the astronauts, the Apollo Command Modules, and the lunar rock and soil samples, was instituted in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). No conclusive evidence of lunar organisms, was detected and the quarantine program was ended after Apollo 14. Analyses for organic compounds were also con-ducted. Considerable effort was expended, during lunar surface operations and in the LRL, to minimize and quantify organic contamination. Post-Apollo curatorial operations and cleaning minimize contamination from particulates, oxygen, and water but no longer specifically address organic contamination. The organic compounds measured in Apollo samples are generally consistent with known sources of contamination.

  19. Mechanical properties of lunar soil and simulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerij V. Gromov; W. D. Carrier III

    1992-01-01

    Investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil carried out by the USSR and the USA, both in situ and on returned samples, has resulted in considerable information regarding the soil properties. This has permitted the development of lunar soil simulants for purposes of evaluating lunar technologies. Comparison tests among lunar soil simulants that have different granulometric composition

  20. Properties of lunar soil simulant JSC1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M. Willman; Walter W. Boles; David S. McKay; Carlton C. Allen

    1995-01-01

    With the establishment of a lunar base, many tasks will require direct interaction between the in-situ lunar soil and a wide variety of instruments and implements. The individual tasks may be scientific in nature, or simply the manipulation of the lunar soil. To help fulfill the need for relatively large quantities of lunar soil simulant in researching these operations, Johnson

  1. NASA Planetary Astronomy Lunar Atmospheric Imaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1996-01-01

    Authors have conducted a program of research focused on studies of the lunar atmosphere. Also present preliminary results of an ongoing effort to determine the degree that metal abundances in the lunar atmosphere are stoichiometric, that is, reflective of the lunar surface composition. We make the first-ever mid-ultraviolet spectroscopic search for emission from the lunar atmosphere.

  2. Test Results from a Simulated High Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was modified to simulate high voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high frequency AC power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  3. Test Results From a Simulated High-Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was modified to simulate high-voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high-frequency ac power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  4. Press abstracts of the 21st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Program Committee for the Twenty-fisrt Lunar and Planetary Science Conference has chosen these contributions as having the greatest potential interest for the general public. The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. More technical abstracts will be found in Lunar and Planetary Science XXI. Representative titles are: Ancient Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Mars: Global Model and Geological Evidence; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Ordinary Chondrites and Their Chondrules; Exposure Ages and Collisional History of L-Chondrite Parent Bodies; Models of Solar-Powered Geysers on Triton; and Search for Life: A Science Rationale for a Permanent Base on Mars.

  5. RESOLVE: An International Mission to Search for Volatiles at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Picard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the use of space resources to manufacture propellant and consumables can significantly reduce the launch mass of space exploration beyond earth orbit. Even the Moon, which has no atmosphere, is ricb in resources that can theoretically be harvested. A series of lunar missions over the last 20 years has shown an unexpected resource on the Moon. There is evidence that water ice and other volatiles useful for the production of propellants are located at the lunar poles, though most of it is located within permanently shadowed craters where accessing these resources is challenging.

  6. Advances in Lunar Science and Observational Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Lunar science is currently undergoing a renaissance as our understanding of our Moon continues to evolve given new data from multiple lunar mission and new analyses. This talk will overview NASA's recent and future lunar missions to explain the scientific questions addressed by missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (Grail), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The talk will also overview opportunities for participatory exploration whereby professional and amateur astronomers are encouraged to participate in lunar exploration in conjunction with NASA.

  7. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  8. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  9. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  10. 16 CFR 1025.26 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    and the form of a consent agreement and order, shall be signed by the respondent or respondent's representative, and may be signed by any other party. Each offer of settlement shall be accompanied by a motion to transmit the proposed agreement and order to the...

  11. BURNING ISSUES IN THE TOBACCO SETTLEMENT PAYMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANE G. GRAVELLE

    1998-01-01

    The tobacco settlement does not appear to achieve the efficiency objectives of a liability suit, even though it derives from an agreement between the industry and plaintiffs. There is no change in the product, information on hazards is widely available, payments are not made in lump sums because of past behavior, and the financial claims made by the states for

  12. Ethnic Conflict Resolution: Routes Towards Settlement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Coakley

    2009-01-01

    This article generalizes on the basis of a set of case studies of ethnic conflicts that have followed different routes towards the goal of a long-term settlement: Belgium, Spain, Northern Ireland, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Lebanon, South Africa, and Sri Lanka. It begins by reviewing the significance of ethnicity in the modern state, exploring the political implications of different terminologies

  13. The economic impacts of the tobacco settlement.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Gruber, Jonathan; Hartman, Raymond S; Landrum, Mary Beth; Newhouse, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2002-01-01

    Recent litigation against the major tobacco companies culminated in a master settlement agreement (MSA) under which the participating companies agreed to compensate most states for Medicaid expenses. Here the terms of the settlement are outlined and its economic implications analyzed using data from Massachusetts. The financial compensation to Massachusetts (and other states) under the MSA is substantial. However, this compensation is dwarfed by the value of the health impacts induced by the settlement. Specifically, Medicaid spending will fall, but only by a modest amount. More importantly, the value of health benefits ($65 billion through 2025 in 1999 dollars) from increased longevity is an order of magnitude greater than any other impacts or payments. The net efficiency implications of the settlement turn mainly on a comparison of the value of these health benefits relative to a valuation of the foregone pleasure of smoking. To the extent that the value of the health benefits is not offset by the value of the pleasure foregone, the economic impacts of the MSA will include a share of these health benefits. PMID:11887906

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION FIRST REPORTED SETTLEMENT OF ZEBRA

    E-print Network

    McCarthy, T.K.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION FIRST REPORTED SETTLEMENT OF ZEBRA MUSSELS DREISSENA POLYMORPHA IN THE ERNE The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) is a freshwater bivalve which attaches to hard substrates of plankton communities (Leach 1993; Reeders et al. 1993). Following the rapid colonisation by zebra mussels

  15. Seismic bearing capacity and settlements of foundations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Jr. Richards; D. G. Elms; M. Budhu

    1993-01-01

    Field and laboratory observations of seismic settlements of shallow foundations on granular soils that are not attributable to changes in density or liquefaction are explained in terms of seismic degradation of bearing capacity. Limit analysis using a Coulomb-type mechanism including inertial forces in the soil and on the footing gives expressions for seismic bearing capacity factors that are directly related

  16. Seismic bearing capacity and settlements of foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, R. Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States)); Elms, D.G. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)); Budhu, M. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Field and laboratory observations of seismic settlements of shallow foundations on granular soils that are not attributable to changes in density or liquefaction are explained in terms of seismic degradation of bearing capacity. Limit analysis using a Coulomb-type mechanism including inertial forces in the soil and on the footing gives expressions for seismic bearing capacity factors that are directly related to their static counterparts. Comparison of the two depicts clearly the rapid deterioration of the overall foundation capacity with increasing acceleration. Such periodic inertial fluidization causes finite settlements that are possible even in moderate earthquakes. Reduction in foundation capacity is due to both the seismic degradation of soil strength and the lateral inertial forces transmitted by shear to the foundation through the structure and any surcharge. A straightforward sliding-block procedure with examples is also presented for computing these settlements due to loss of bearing capacity for short time periods. The approach also leads to a design procedure for footings based on limiting seismic settlements to a prescribed value.

  17. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...stipulations between the parties as to any or all of the matters in controversy; (2) To consider the necessity for or desirability...issues; (4) To encourage settlement of the matters in controversy by agreement between the parties; and (5) To...

  18. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...stipulations between the parties as to any or all of the matters in controversy; (2) To consider the necessity for or desirability...issues; (4) To encourage settlement of the matters in controversy by agreement between the parties; and (5) To...

  19. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...stipulations between the parties as to any or all of the matters in controversy; (2) To consider the necessity for or desirability...issues; (4) To encourage settlement of the matters in controversy by agreement between the parties; and (5) To...

  20. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...stipulations between the parties as to any or all of the matters in controversy; (2) To consider the necessity for or desirability...issues; (4) To encourage settlement of the matters in controversy by agreement between the parties; and (5) To...

  1. Spanish Colonial Settlement Development and colonial Latin

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    struggle for independence · 1820s-1850s "balkanization" into smaller states #12;#12;#12;Neo-colonial (postLAST TIME · Spanish Colonial Settlement patterns #12;TODAY · Development and colonial Latin America -- development and colonial Latin America · The "wealth of the Indies" (i.e., colonial Latin America) was created

  2. GOOGLE BOOK SETTLEMENT: BRILLIANT BUT EVIL?

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    injunction or order to destroy its scans of in-© works · G had better technology & ideas about how to create1 GOOGLE BOOK SETTLEMENT: BRILLIANT BUT EVIL? Pamela Samuelson, Berkeley Law Cisco Distinguished Lecture May 13, 2010 OVERVIEW · Google Book Search Project, the lawsuit it k d & f ttli itprovoked

  3. SOFT SOIL CREEP MODELLING OF LARGE SETTLEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan van Baars

    The most commonly used model in The Netherlands to predict settlements is the Koppejan Model. This model gives reasonable predictions, but sometimes there are large discrepancies with reality. This is caused (among others) by: 1) The inaccurate calculation of the degree of consolidation, 2) The omission of the consolidation process for creep, which causes superposition errors for (temporarily) surcharge calculations,

  4. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated. PMID:19582224

  5. Lunar Phases: Addressing Misconceptions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Philip Childs

    This exercise was designed to address student misconceptions about why the Moon exhibits phases. Using a sketchbook, digital camera, or flex cam, a student sits at the center of a darkened room illuminated by a single light source in a stationary position. Stools are set up surrounding the student in the center and other students take those positions, always keeping their faces toward the center. The center student sketches or take pictures of the faces at each of the positions. Substituting a sphere (such as a ball) for the students' faces provides an even more vivid illustration of the shadowing of the sphere and connects directly to the rationale for lunar phases.

  6. Lunar neutron stratigraphy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russ, G. P., III; Burnett, D. S.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the isotopic composition of gadolinium and samarium in four soil and seven drill stem samples returned by the Apollo 15 mission. The results show the possibility to date sedimentary processes on the lunar surface for time scales of around 100 million years because of the particular dependence of neutron capture reactions on depth. The neutron flux has a distinct peak as a function of depth. This peak appears to lie below the level of shallow cratering for time scales of less than one billion years and consequently forms a readily identified marker layer of both depth and time.

  7. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter - recent results and plans for an exteneded mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Vondrak, Richard; Garvin, Jim; Petro, Noah; McClanahan, Timothy

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter(LRO) mission is poised to take advantage of recent extraordinary discoveries on the Moon to advance lunar and planetary science with new, targeted investigations that focus on geologically recent and even contemporaneous changes on the Moon. We will present recent results for the mission and describe plans for a second two-year extension of the science mission. LRO has been in orbit for nearly 5 years during a remarkable era of lunar science where a paradigm shift has taken place from the view of the Moon as a static planet to one with many active processes. As we approach the end of the first extended mission, we review here the major results from the LRO. Examples include: enabled the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measured of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the Cabeus PSR; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles

  8. Extraction of Water from Polar Lunar Permafrost with Microwaves - Dielectric Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 10 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. The dielectric properties of lunar soil will determine the hardware requirements for extraction processes. Microwave frequency dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured.

  9. Searching for Lunar Water: The Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Dewar, K. R.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Howe, C. J.; Waugh, L. J.; Pilinger, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    The ESA Lunar Lander has been conceived to demonstrate an autonomous landing capability. Once safely on the Moon the scientific payload will conduct investigations aimed at preparing the way for human exploration. As part of the provisional payload an instrument known as The Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP) will analyse surface and exospheric volatiles. The presence and abundance of lunar water is an important consideration for ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilisation) since this is likely to be part of a strategy for supporting long-term human exploration of the Moon.

  10. Lunar Crustal History from Isotopic Studies of Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Bogard, D. D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of approx.3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. [1]. We will present recent chronological studies of anorthosites [2] that are relevant both to the LMO hypothesis and also to the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Old (approx.4.4 Ga) Sm-Nd ages have been determined for some Apollo 16 anorthosites, and primitive initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios have been measured for several, but well-defined Rb-Sr ages concordant with the Sm-Nd ages have not been determined until now. Lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater, has concordant Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages of 4.47+/-0.07 Ga and 4.49+/-0.07 Ga, respectively. Initial Nd-143/Nd-144 determined from the Sm-Nd isochron corresponds to E(sub Nd,CHUR) = 0.3+/-0.5 compared to a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir, or E(sub Nd,HEDPB) = -0.6+/-0.5 compared to the initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of the HED Parent Body [3]. Lunar anorthosites tend to have E(sub Nd) > 0 when compared to CHUR, apparently inconsistent with derivation from a single lunar magma ocean. Although E(sub Nd) < 0 for some anorthosites, if lunar initial Nd-143/Nd-144 is taken equal to HEDR for the HED parent body [3], enough variability remains among the anorthosite data alone to suggest that lunar anorthosites do not derive from a single source, i.e., they are not all products of the LMO. An anorthositic clast from desert meteorite Dhofar 908 has an Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.42+/-0.04 Ga, the same as the 4.36-4.41+/-0.035 Ga Ar-39-Ar-40 age of anorthositic clast Y-86032,116 in Antarctic meteorite Yamato- 86032 [3,4]. Conclusions: (i) Lunar anorthosites come from diverse sources. Orbital geochemical studies confirm variability in lunar crustal composition [1, 5]. We suggest that the variability extends to anorthosites alone as shown by the Sm-Nd data (Fig. 2) and the existence of magnesian anorthosites (MAN, [6]) and "An93 anorthosites" [3,4]. (ii) Anorthositic clasts in lunar meteorites retain "high" Ar-Ar ages compared to Apollo anorthosites. This is perhaps a hint that "cataclysmic" impacts were on average less energetic in the mostly farside source regions of these meteorites than on the lunar nearside.

  11. LROC Advances in Lunar Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Since entering orbit in 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has acquired over 700,000 Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the Moon. This new image collection is fueling research into the origin and evolution of the Moon. NAC images revealed a volcanic complex 35 x 25 km (60N, 100E), between Compton and Belkovich craters (CB). The CB terrain sports volcanic domes and irregular depressed areas (caldera-like collapses). The volcanic complex corresponds to an area of high-silica content (Diviner) and high Th (Lunar Prospector). A low density of impact craters on the CB complex indicates a relatively young age. The LROC team mapped over 150 volcanic domes and 90 volcanic cones in the Marius Hills (MH), many of which were not previously identified. Morphology and compositional estimates (Diviner) indicate that MH domes are silica poor, and are products of low-effusion mare lavas. Impact melt deposits are observed with Copernican impact craters (>10 km) on exterior ejecta, the rim, inner wall, and crater floors. Preserved impact melt flow deposits are observed around small craters (25 km diam.), and estimated melt volumes exceed predictions. At these diameters the amount of melt predicted is small, and melt that is produced is expected to be ejected from the crater. However, we observe well-defined impact melt deposits on the floor of highland craters down to 200 m diameter. A globally distributed population of previously undetected contractional structures were discovered. Their crisp appearance and associated impact crater populations show that they are young landforms (<1 Ga). NAC images also revealed small extensional troughs. Crosscutting relations with small-diameter craters and depths as shallow as 1 m indicate ages <50 Ma. These features place bounds on the amount of global radial contraction and the level of compressional stress in the crust. WAC temporal coverage of the poles allowed quantification of highly illuminated regions, including one site that remains lit for 94% of a year (longest eclipse period of 43 hours). Targeted NAC images provide higher resolution characterization of key sites with permanent shadow and extended illumination. Repeat WAC coverage provides an unparalleled photometric dataset allowing spatially resolved solutions (currently 1 degree) to Hapke's photometric equation - data invaluable for photometric normalization and interpreting physical properties of the regolith. The WAC color also provides the means to solve for titanium, and distinguish subtle age differences within Copernican aged materials. The longevity of the LRO mission allows follow up NAC and WAC observations of previously known and newly discovered targets over a range of illumination and viewing geometries. Of particular merit is the acquisition of NAC stereo pairs and oblique sequences. With the extended SMD phase, the LROC team is working towards imaging the whole Moon with pixel scales of 50 to 200 cm.

  12. The study of lunar rotation by Japanese lunar landing missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Hanada, Hideo; Noda, Hirotomo; Sasaki, Sho; Iwata, Takahiro

    2010-05-01

    The internal structure of the planet is one of the important clues to know its origin and evolution. So far, gravity, rotation, seismic wave, electro-magnetic wave, and heat flow observations have been carried out. In these methods, we plan to load rotation estimation instrument for next Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE-2 and SELENE-3. LLR: The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) is the method to measure the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser beam. For more than 30 years since the Apollo and the Lunokhod mission placed retrograde reflectors on the Moon, LLR produced data on the lunar rotation as well as the lunar orbital evolution. On the basis of LLR data, the state of lunar interior is discussed. Williams discussed the dissipation between the solid mantle and a fluid core from LLR data. LLR observation has also provided information of moment of inertia and tidal Love number of the Moon. We are proposing a new LLR on board SELENE-II. Instead of conventional corner cube reflector (CCR) array, we are planning to use a larger single reflector. This has an advantage over the conventional CCR array, because a single cube should have smaller distance variation within the reflector upon monthly libration of the lunar rotation. We are proposing that a new reflector should be somewhere in the southern hemisphere on the nearside Moon. Then in combination with a powerful A15 CCR, latitudinal component of lunar libration and its dissipation can be measured precisely. We also prepare the inverse-VLBI and ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) missions for post-SELENE-2 mission. ILOM: ILOM is a selenodetic mission to study lunar rotational dynamics by direct observations of the lunar physical libration and the free librations from the lunar surface with an accuracy of 1 millisecond of arc in the post-SELENE project. Year-long trajectories of the stars provide information on various components of the physicallibrations and we will also try to detect the lunar free librations in order to investigate the lunar mantle and the liquid core. The PZT on the moon is similar to that used for the international latitude observations of the Earth is applied. The measurement of the rotation of the Moon is one of the essential technique to obtain the information of the internal structure. As the result of thermal analysis of the ILOM system, it is difficult to attain such an accuracy on the lunar surface if we use an objectives with combination of conventional lenses. We are developing a new system with diffractive lense and adaptive optics which can be used on the lunar surface. iVLBI: In the inverse VLBI mission, two or more artificial radio sources are loaded on multiple landers. These transmit radio signals and the differences of the distance between landers and ground VLBI station are measured. This differential range measurement is sensitive to the rotation of the Moon. This new lunar rotation estimation method will contribute to investigate the internal structure of the Moon and can be used to confirm the conventional LLR results. In the presentation, the detail of the instruments, scientific target, and recent status are presented. We also introduce the latest results of the Japanese lunar exploration project Kaguya, especially new SELENE gravity model (SGM), k2 value, and moment of inertia in particular are shown.

  13. Permanent pacemakers in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coolen, J; Turnelp, R; Vonder Muhll, I; Chandra, S

    2011-01-01

    Advances in cardiology and cardiovascular surgery have increased the use of permanent pacemakers in young adults such that there are more women with pacemakers becoming pregnant. This case report describes the pregnancy and delivery of a young woman with a demand pacemaker and reviews the principles of management of cardiac pacemakers in pregnancy. As part of the multidisciplinary team including cardiology, anesthesia, nursing and caring for these patients, it is important that obstetricians be informed and follow the principles of management of cardiac pacemakers in pregnancy to continue to achieve successful pregnancy outcomes. PMID:21995172

  14. Lunar cartographic dossier, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimerman, L. A. (editor)

    1975-01-01

    The dossier is designed to provide an up to date summary of the extent and quality of cartographic information as well as describing materials available to support lunar scientific investigation and study. It covers the specific photographic, selenodetic and cartographic data considered to be of continuing significance to users of lunar cartographic information. Historical background data is included. Descriptive and evaluative information is presented concerning lunar maps, photomaps and photo mosaics. Discussion comprises identification of series or individual sheet characteristics, control basis, source materials and compilation methodology used. The global, regional and local selenodetic control are described which were produced for lunar feature location in support of lunar mapping or positional study. Further discussion covers the fundamental basis for each control system, number of points produced, techniques employed and evaluated accuracy. Although lunar photography is an informational source rather than a cartographic product, a photography section was included to facilitate correlation to the mapping and control works described. Description of lunar photographic systems, photography and photo support data are presented from a cartographic-photogrammetric viewpoint with commentary on cartographic applications.

  15. Electromagnetic launch of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, William R.; Kolm, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil can become a source of relatively inexpensive oxygen propellant for vehicles going from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and beyond. This lunar oxygen could replace the oxygen propellant that, in current plans for these missions, is launched from the Earth's surface and amounts to approximately 75 percent of the total mass. The reason for considering the use of oxygen produced on the Moon is that the cost for the energy needed to transport things from the lunar surface to LEO is approximately 5 percent the cost from the surface of the Earth to LEO. Electromagnetic launchers, in particular the superconducting quenchgun, provide a method of getting this lunar oxygen off the lunar surface at minimal cost. This cost savings comes from the fact that the superconducting quenchgun gets its launch energy from locally supplied, solar- or nuclear-generated electrical power. We present a preliminary design to show the main features and components of a lunar-based superconducting quenchgun for use in launching 1-ton containers of liquid oxygen, one every 2 hours. At this rate, nearly 4400 tons of liquid oxygen would be launched into low lunar orbit in a year.

  16. Size of the lunar core

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    A 0.2 arc second phase shift in the 18.6 year forced precession of the lunar figure was inferred from analysis of lunar laser ranging data. The source of the phase shift is either viscous friction at a lunar core mantle boundary or solid friction caused by tidal flexing of the Moon by the Earth. Core mantle viscous coupling will explain the signature if the core radius R sub c approximately equals 330 km. On the other hand, solid friction can account for the signature only if the lunar solid friction 0 approximately equals 30 is abnormally small compared with that observed for, say, Mars (approximately equals 100 - 200). Although the inferred core radius is certainly within the limits imposed by the Apollo seismic experiment, it is significantly smaller than estimates of order 400-500 km from electromagnetic sounding. How accurate is the estimate of the R sub c derived from the phase shift. The effect of uncertainties in the frictional coupling mechanism, core density and ellipticity on the inferred core radius are discussed. The excitation of lunar free librations by core turbulence vis-a-vis other mechanisms (e.g., cometary or asteroidal impacts) and the influence of changes in lunar precession in the past on lunar dynamo generation are also examined.

  17. Lunar radiator shade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for rejecting waste heat from a system located on or near the lunar equator is presented. The system utilizes a reflective catenary shaped trough deployed about a vertical radiator to shade the radiator from heat emitted by the hot lunar surface. The catenary shaped trough is constructed from a film material and is aligned relative to the sun so that incoming solar energy is focused to a line just above the vertical radiator and can thereby isolate the radiator from the effects of direct sunlight. The film is in a collapsed position between side by side support rods, all of which are in a transport case. To deploy the film and support rods, a set of parallel tracks running perpendicular to length of the support rods are extended out from the transport case. After the support tracks are deployed, the support rods are positioned equidistant from each other along the length of the support tracks so that the flexible film shade between adjacent support rods is unfolded and hangs in a catenary shaped trough. A heat radiator is supported between each pair of support rods above each hanging reflective trough.

  18. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  19. Lunar Regolith Bagging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sebrina; Lundberg, Kimberly; Mcgarity, Ginger; Silverman, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A regolith container to be used as a fundamental building block in radiation protection of a habitable lunar base was designed. Parameters for the container are its: size, shape, material, and structural design. Also, a machine was designed to fill the regolith container which is capable of grasping and opening an empty container, filling it, closing it when full, and depositing it on the surface of the Moon. The simple design will bag lunar soil in a relatively short amount of time, with a low equipment weight, and with moving parts distanced from the dirt. The bags are made out of Kevlar 149 with a fabric weight of 6 oz. per square yard. All machine parts are composed of aluminum 6061-T6. Assuming that the vehicle runs at 7 km/hr for 8 hours a day, the machine will bag the necessary 450 cu m of soil in about 12 days. The total mass of the bags and the machine to be shipped to the Moon will be 687 kg. The cost of shipping this weight will be $6.23 million.

  20. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  1. High-Grading Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge; Mosie, Andrea; Schwarz, Carol; Parker, Terry; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to high-grade their samples to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth and to leave others on the Moon. We are supporting studies to define the necessary and sufficient measurements and techniques for high-grading samples at a lunar outpost. A glovebox, dedicated to testing instruments and techniques for high-grading samples, is in operation at the JSC Lunar Experiment Laboratory. A reference suite of lunar rocks and soils, spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, is available for testing in this laboratory. Thin sections of these samples are available for direct comparison. The Lunar Sample Compendium, on-line at http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, summarizes previous analyses of these samples. The laboratory, sample suite, and Compendium are available to the lunar research and exploration community. In the first test of possible instruments for lunar sample high-grading, we imaged 18 lunar rocks and four soils from the reference suite using the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) developed by Arizona State University and JPL (see Farmer et. al. abstract). The MMI is a fixed-focus digital imaging system with a resolution of 62.5 microns/pixel, a field size of 40 x 32 mm, and a depth-of-field of approximately 5 mm. Samples are illuminated sequentially by 21 light emitting diodes in discrete wavelengths spanning the visible to shortwave infrared. Measurements of reflectance standards and background allow calibration to absolute reflectance. ENVI-based software is used to produce spectra for specific minerals as well as multi-spectral images of rock textures.

  2. Lunar Prospector lifted at Astrotech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Lockheed Martin Missile Systems integration and test staff prepare NASA's Lunar Prospector spacecraft for mating to the Trans Lunar Injection Module of the spacecraft at Astrotech, a commercial payload processing facility, in Titusville, Fla. The small robotic spacecraft, to be launched for NASA on an Athena II launch vehicle by Lockheed Martin, is designed to provide the first global maps of the Moon's surface compositional elements and its gravitational and magnetic fields. The launch of Lunar Prospector is scheduled for Jan. 5, 1998 at 8:31 p.m.

  3. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  4. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  5. Lunar resource surveys from orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical composition of lunar soil and rocks is known now for nine surface sites, by analysis of returned samples. Three classes of silicate material, mare basalt, KREEP, and highland material (sometimes called ANT) have been identified as major components. Gamma-ray and X-ray instruments have mapped the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks for major elements, K, and Th. It is hoped that the Lunar Polar Orbiter will carry instruments capable of producing a chemical map of the entire moon. The most exciting possibility is that ice may exist in shadowed regions near the lunar pole.

  6. New permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, K.-H.; Krabbes, G.; Fink, J.; Gruß, S.; Kirchner, A.; Fuchs, G.; Schultz, L.

    2001-05-01

    Permanent magnets play an important role and are widely spread in daily-life applications. Due to their very low costs, large availability of the row materials and their high chemical stability, hard ferrites are still dominant in the permanent magnet market although their relatively poor magnetic properties are a distinct disadvantage. Today's high-performance magnets are mostly made from Nd 2Fe 14B. The aim of research is to combine the large spontaneous magnetization of 3d metals with strong anisotropy fields known from rare-earth transition-metal compounds and, at the same time, to maintain a high value of the Curie temperature. However, the number of iron-rich rare-earth intermetallics is very limited and, consequently, not much success can be noted in this field for the last 10 years. One alternative concept is to use magnetic fields trapped in type II superconductors where much higher fields can be achieved compared to conventional rare-earth magnets. Very recently, we obtained a trapped field as high as 14.4 T in a melt-textured YBCO bulk sample of a few centimeters in diameter. This is the highest value ever achieved in a bulk superconductor. The trapped field of a superconductor is not governed by the Laplace equation and, therefore, levitation works without any additional (active) stabilization. The disadvantage of these magnets is their low working temperature (of liquid nitrogen and below).

  7. Lunar surface operations. Volume 4: Lunar rover trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to design a lunar rover trailer for exploration missions. The trailer was designed to carry cargo such as lunar geological samples, mining equipment and personnel. It is designed to operate in both day and night lunar environments. It is also designed to operate with a maximum load of 7000 kilograms. The trailer has a ground clearance of 1.0 meters and can travel over obstacles 0.75 meters high at an incline of 45 degrees. It can be transported to the moon fully assembled using any heavy lift vehicle with a storage compartment diameter of 5.0 meters. The trailer has been designed to meet or exceed the performance of any perceivable lunar vehicle.

  8. Observations of Lunar Swirls by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotch, T. D.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Bandfield, J. L.; Hayne, Paul O.; Allen, Carlton C.; Elphic, Richard C.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of anomalous, high albedo markings on the lunar surface has been known since the Apollo era. These features, collectively known as lunar swirls, occur on both the mare and highlands. Some swirls are associated with the antipodes of major impact basins, while all are associated with magnetic field anomalies of varying strength. Three mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the swirls: (1) solar wind standoff due to the presence of magnetic fields, (2) micrometeoroid or comet swarms impacting and disturbing the lunar surface, revealing unweathered regolith, and (3) transport and deposition of fine-grained feldspathic material. Diviner s unique capabilities to determine silicate composition and degree of space weathering of the lunar surface, in addition to its capabilities to determine thermophysical properties from night-time temperature measurements, make it an ideal instrument to examine the swirls and help differentiate among the three proposed formation mechanisms.

  9. Lunar igneous rocks and the nature of the lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, J. F.; Walker, D.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar igneous rocks are interpreted, which can give useful information about mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry as a function of depth in the lunar interior. Terra rocks, though intensely brecciated, reveal, in their chemistry, evidence for a magmatic history. Partial melting of feldspathic lunar crustal material occurred in the interval 4.6 to 3.9 gy. Melting of ilmenite-bearing cumulates at depths near 100 km produced parent magmas for Apollo 11 and 17 titaniferous mare basalts in the interval 3.8 to 3.6 gy. Melting of ilmenite-free olivine pyroxenites at depths greater than 200 km produced low-titanium mare basalts in the interval 3.4 to 3.1 gy. No younger igneous rocks have yet been recognized among the lunar samples and present-day melting seems to be limited to depths greater than 1000 km.

  10. Implications of Lunar Prospector Data for Lunar Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Research is sumamrized in the following areas: The Asymmetric Thermal Evolution of the Moon; Magma Transport Process on the Moon;The Composition and Origin of the Deep Lunar Crust;The Redistribution of Thorium on the Moon's Surface.

  11. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and South polar regions that satisfy the stated goals. Lunar titanium: Objectives of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbital (LRO) mission are to find potential safe landing sites and locate potential resources. New imaging from NASA' LRO has shown the Moon has areas that are rich in titanium ore. Some lunar rocks have ten times as much titanium ore as rocks on Earth. The titanium deposits were observed with the help of visible and ultraviolet imaging. The researchers scanned the lunar surface, collecting roughly 4,000 images, and compared the brightness in the range of wavelengths from ultraviolet to visible light. The scientists then cross-referenced their findings with lunar samples that were brought back to Earth from NASA's Apollo flights and the Russian Luna missions. The abundance of titanium has puzzled researchers. While rocks on Earth contain around one percent titanium at most, the lunar rocks ranged from one percent all the way up to ten percent. Researchers still don't why the titanium levels are higher on the moon, but do believe it gives insight into the conditions of the Moon shortly after it formed. The titanium seems to be found primarily in the mineral ilmenite, a compound containing iron, titanium, and oxygen. Lunar rare earth elements: The Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) dominates the nearside of the Moon. "KREEP" is an acronym for lunar rocks that are high in potassium (K), rare earth elements (REE), and phosphorous (P). The PKT is a mixture of assorted rocks, including most of the mare basalts on the Moon, and is characterized by high Th (about 5 parts per million on average). This region has also been called the "high-Th Oval Region". PKT occupies about 16% of the lunar surface.

  12. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Garvin, James B.; Rice, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September, 2012. The LRO mission has been extended for two years under SMD. The extended mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution Of the Solar System. Here we will review the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for the extended science phase out to 2014. Results from the LRO mission include but are not limited to the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the day and night time temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs, evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon, and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions as the poles. The objectives for the second and extended science phases of the mission under SMD include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5) measuring the Lunar atmosphere and radiation environment.

  13. A permanent settlement on Mars : the first cut in the land of a new frontier

    E-print Network

    Petrov, Georgi Ivanov, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Humans have been fascinated with the planet Mars for thousands of years. Only in the last half a century has it been possible to contemplate sending people to our celestial neighbor. Since then, a rich discourse has evolved ...

  14. CIS-lunar space infrastructure lunar technologies: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, W.; Hoehn, A.; Johnson, S.; Moos, P.; Wiltberger, N.

    1989-01-01

    Technologies necessary for the creation of a cis-Lunar infrastructure, namely: (1) automation and robotics; (2) life support systems; (3) fluid management; (4) propulsion; and (5) rotating technologies, are explored. The technological focal point is on the development of automated and robotic systems for the implementation of a Lunar Oasis produced by Automation and Robotics (LOAR). Under direction from the NASA Office of Exploration, automation and robotics were extensively utilized as an initiating stage in the return to the Moon. A pair of autonomous rovers, modular in design and built from interchangeable and specialized components, is proposed. Utilizing a buddy system, these rovers will be able to support each other and to enhance their individual capabilities. One rover primarily explores and maps while the second rover tests the feasibility of various materials-processing techniques. The automated missions emphasize availability and potential uses of Lunar resources, and the deployment and operations of the LOAR program. An experimental bio-volume is put into place as the precursor to a Lunar environmentally controlled life support system. The bio-volume will determine the reproduction, growth and production characteristics of various life forms housed on the Lunar surface. Physicochemical regenerative technologies and stored resources will be used to buffer biological disturbances of the bio-volume environment. The in situ Lunar resources will be both tested and used within this bio-volume. Second phase development on the Lunar surface calls for manned operations. Repairs and re-configuration of the initial framework will ensue. An autonomously-initiated manned Lunar oasis can become an essential component of the United States space program.

  15. Lunar highland meteorites and the composition of the lunar crust

    SciTech Connect

    Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Jochum, K.P.; Dreibus, G.; Weber, H.; Weckwerth, G.; Waenke, H. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (West Germany)); Bischoff, A.; Stoeffler, D. (Inst. fuer Planetologie, Muenster (West Germany))

    1991-11-01

    Major, minor, and trace element data obtained by neutron activation techniques and by spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS) on two lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 are reported. Both MAC samples were also analyzed for their contents and isotopic compositions of rare gases. Additional SSMS-data were obtained on four lunar highland meteorites previously found in Antarctica: ALHA81005, Y791197, Y82192, and Y86032. MAC88104 and MAC88105 are very similar in chemistry, suggesting that they are pieces of a single fall event. The bulk chemical composition of MAC88104/5 is not very different from the other lunar highland meteorites: highly aluminous with relatively low contents of REE and siderophile element concentrations slightly above 1% of a CI-chondritic level. The contents of solar rare gases in the two MAC samples are low, indicating only a small regolith contribution in agreement with rare petrographically identifiable regolith components. There is no correlation among lunar meteorites between peak shock pressures and solar gas contents, indicating that peak shock pressures of up to 25 GPa do not lead to gas loss. A low {sup 26}Al activity (VOGT et al., 1990) and high contents of cosmogenic rare gases in MAC88104/5 suggest a long exposure (400,000 years) in the lunar sub-surface. K-Ar ages are in excess of 3.9 by. Since lunar highland meteorites are associated with at least three but probably four different fall events, and since they are not derived from chemically exotic front-side terranes, they may represent a better sampling of the average chemical composition of the lunar crust than previous estimates based on returned lunar samples and remote sensing data.

  16. Scientific preparations for lunar exploration with the European Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Houdou, B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Lunar missions and new scientific results in multiple disciplines have shown that working and operating in the complex lunar environment and exploiting the Moon as a platform for scientific research and further exploration poses major challenges. Underlying these challenges are fundamental scientific unknowns regarding the Moon's surface, its environment, the effects of this environment and the availability of potential resources. The European Lunar Lander is a mission proposed by the European Space Agency to prepare for future exploration. The mission provides an opportunity to address some of these key unknowns and provide information of importance for future exploration activities. Areas of particular interest for investigation on the Lunar Lander include the integrated plasma, dust, charge and radiation environment and its effects, the properties of lunar dust and its physical effects on systems and physiological effects on humans, the availability, distribution and potential application of in situ resources for future exploration. A model payload has then been derived, taking these objectives to account and considering potential payloads proposed through a request for information, and the mission's boundary conditions. While exploration preparation has driven the definition there is a significant synergy with investigations associated with fundamental scientific questions. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission, which emphasise human exploration preparatory science and introduces the model scientific payload considered as part of the on-going mission studies, in advance of a formal instrument selection.

  17. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

    2011-12-01

    This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

  18. Lunar surface: Dust dynamics and regolith mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Batiste, S.; Horányi, M.; Robertson, S.; Sture, S.

    2007-06-01

    The lunar surface is characterized by a collisionally evolved regolith resulting from meteoroid bombardment. This lunar soil consists of highly angular particles in a broad, approximately power law size distribution, with impact-generated glasses. The regolith becomes densified and difficult to excavate when subjected to lunar quakes or, eventually, manned and unmanned activity on the surface. Solar radiation and the solar wind produce a plasma sheath near the lunar surface. Lunar grains acquire charge in this environment and can exhibit unusual behavior, including levitation and transport across the surface because of electric fields in the plasma sheath. The fine component of the lunar regolith contributes to the operational and health hazards posed to planned lunar expeditions. In this paper we discuss the mechanical response of the regolith to anticipated exploration activities and review the plasma environment near the lunar surface and the observations, models, and dynamics of charged lunar dust.

  19. Pressurized lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; Mcclure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar

    1992-01-01

    The pressurized lunar rover (PLR) consists of a 7 m long, 3 m diameter cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, directional lighting, cameras, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The PLR shell is constructed of a layered carbon-fiber/foam composite. The rover has six 1.5 m diameter wheels on the main body and two 1.5 m diameter wheels on the trailer. The wheels are constructed of composites and flex to increase traction and shock absorption. The wheels are each attached to a double A-arm aluminum suspension, which allows each wheel 1 m of vertical motion. In conjunction with a 0.75 m ground clearance, the suspension aids the rover in negotiating the uneven lunar terrain. The 15 N-m torque brushless electric motors are mounted with harmonic drive units inside each of the wheels. The rover is steered by electrically varying the speeds of the wheels on either side of the rover. The PLR trailer contains a radiosotope thermoelectric generator providing 6.7 kW. A secondary back-up energy storage system for short-term high-power needs is provided by a bank of batteries. The trailer can be detached to facilitate docking of the main body with the lunar base via an airlock located in the rear of the PLR. The airlock is also used for EVA operation during missions. Life support is a partly regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center. The water absorbs any damaging radiation, allowing the command center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. Guidance, navigation, and control are supplied by a strapdown inertial measurement unit that works with the on-board computer. Star mappers provide periodic error correction. The PLR is capable of voice, video, and data transmission. It is equipped with two 5 W X-band transponder, allowing simultaneous transmission and reception. An S-band transponder is used to communicate with the crew during EVA. The PLR has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a nominal speed of 10 km/hr and a top speed of 18 km/hr. The rover is capable of towing 3 metric tons (in addition to the RTG trailer).

  20. Solar Wind Access to Lunar Polar Craters: Feedback Between Surface Charging and Plasma Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Jackson, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the plasma environment within permanently shadowed lunar craters is critical to understanding local processes such as surface charging, electrostatic dust transport, volatile sequestration, and space weathering. In order to investigate the nature of this plasma environment, the first two-dimensional kinetic simulations of solar wind expansion into a lunar crater with a self-consistent plasma-surface interaction have been undertaken. The present results reveal how the plasma expansion into a crater couples with the electrically-charged lunar surface to produce a quasi-steady wake structure. In particular, there is a negative feedback between surface charging and ambipolar wake potential that allows an equilibrium to be achieved, with secondary electron emission strongly moderating the process. A range of secondary electron yields is explored, and two distinct limits are highlighted in which either surface charging or ambipoiar expansion is responsible for determining the overall wake structure.