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1

A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities. [Lunar settlement  

SciTech Connect

High transport costs will dominate the pattern of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of food, fuel, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earning through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally-produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents would support themselves but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufactures, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, severance taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

Jones, E.M.

1988-01-01

2

Toward a permanent lunar settlement in the coming decade: the Columbus Project  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for creating a permanent lunar settlement is sketched, and reasons for doing so in the coming decade are put forward. A basic plan to accomplish this is outlined, along technical and programmatic axes. It is concluded that founding a lunar settlement on the five hundredth anniversary of the Columbus landing - a Columbus Project - could be executed as a volunteer-intensive American enterprise requiring roughly six thousand man-years of skilled endeavor and a total Governmental contribution of the order of a half-billion dollars. 8 figs.

Hyde, R.A.; Ishikawa, M.Y.; Wood, L.L.

1985-11-19

3

Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that

G. Morgenthaler

2002-01-01

4

Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the International Space Station program, high-thrust propulsion stages adapted from current upper stages with changes as needed to operate them space-based, and solar electric low-thrust propulsion systems for moving large cargo elements from one orbital state to another. The transportation system operates via a lunar libration point "gateway", similarly to some of NASA's current thinking, and has a growth option for development of lunar-supplied propellant for ascent from the lunar surface, and re-supply of a propellant depot at the gateway. We show further growth paths to the Mars transportation system described in our 2001 paper.

Morgenthaler, G.

5

Armstrong City: A Permanent Settlement for Exo-Planetary Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a permanent placement lunar base is the next fundamental step in an international program to explore and settle other planets within our solar system. While technical, operational, managerial and long-term issues must be considered, the establishment of a lunar facility can serve the preliminary needs of manned civilization in space. Numerous issues become apparent in the consideration of the activation of a lunar base. Specific and realistic determinations must be made about various types of interests in addition to the general conjectures given above. These activities include: - Spacecraft landings and vehicle systems - Crew selection, supplies and habitability - Power production and distribution - Risk management - Science and lunar activities - Base planning and configurations - Integrated operations and maintenance - Management. The development and activation of a lunar colony will require careful consideration to the future of space activities and operations in near Earth space. A lunar city, which we call Armstrong city, is defined by its own unique natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense. Armstrong City, a preliminary first lunar base, will most probably be serving as an extended "division" of Earth's space exploration offices. The reasons are very simple and practical. -First, the costs of maintaining a permanent space facility will be lower in the long run than the costs of a series of short duration, rotating manned bases, -Second, studies in long-term space habitation can effectively be carried out in relative safety, -Third, the initial tasks which need to be done will define and establish methodologies and issues for development of future extraterrestrial base concepts, and -Fourth, the complexities of the initial facilities necessary to sustain the citizens can be tempered through developing local resources and reproducible research. In order to bring about development of Armstrong City, four things are necessary: resources, power, labour, and planning. 1.The lunar surface has an abundance of available resources for exploitation. Lava tubes can provide safe havens, the soil has a wealth of usable minerals, and the natural environment provides an unhindered scientific platform. 2.Power development, production and management will provide a novel sideline to the operation of Armstrong City. The ability to develop and operate solar collection systems as well as functional fusion plants will enhance the power capabilities of Earth itself, 3.Labour at Armstrong City will be demanding. This is going to be akin to developing and maintaining an off-shore oil platform completely on-site, and 4.Both on-site and Earth-based planning can be integrated dependent on mission operational needs.and thus will not be too expensive.

Greenspon, J.

6

Anticipated electrical environment within permanently shadowed lunar craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadowed locations near the lunar poles are almost certainly electrically complex regions. At these locations near the terminator, the local solar wind flows nearly tangential to the surface and interacts with large-scale topographic features such as mountains and deep large craters. In this work, we study the solar wind orographic effects from topographic obstructions along a rough lunar surface. On

W. M. Farrell; T. J. Stubbs; J. S. Halekas; R. M. Killen; G. T. Delory; M. R. Collier; R. R. Vondrak

2010-01-01

7

Direct solar wind proton access into permanently shadowed lunar polar craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent analyses of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) data have suggested that high abundances of hydrogen exist within cold traps at the lunar poles, and it has often been assumed that hydrogen-bearing volatiles sequestered in permanent shadow are topographically shielded from sputtering by solar wind protons. However, recent simulation results are presented showing that textbf{solar wind protons clearly access the floor of an idealized, shadowed lunar crater} through a combination of thermal and ambipolar processes, in effect creating a plasma "mini-wake". These simulations are the first to model the mini-wake environment in two spatial dimensions with a self-consistent lunar surface-plasma interaction. Progress is reported on constraining the nonzero particle fluxes and energies incident on kilometer-scale shadowed topography, such as a small crater embedded within a larger one. The importance of direct solar wind proton bombardment is discussed within the context of understanding the stability and inventory of hydrogen-bearing volatiles in shadow at the lunar poles. textit{The support of the National Lunar Science Institute, the DREAM Institute, LPROPS, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center administered by ORAU are gratefully acknowledged.}

Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

2011-12-01

8

Depth and Horizontal Distribution of Volatiles in Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron spectroscopy from Lunar Prospector returned data consistent with the presence of water ice in the near-subsurface of the Moon in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) at low spatial resolution. Clementine and ground-based radar returned tantalizing, but inconclusive evidence of ice in lunar PSRs. Later, Mini-RF on Chandrayaan-1 and LRO detected a signature consistent with water ice in some polar craters on the Moon, but not all PSRs. Similarly, LEND on LRO detected a heterogeneous distribution of hydrogen among lunar PSRs. In addition, LAMP on LRO detected FUV spectra consistent with a heterogeneous distribution of frost on the surface of permanently shadowed regions. Yet the weakest spectral feature from LAMP was associated with the crater with the strongest hydrogen feature from LEND. The impact of LCROSS into Cabeus released water and other volatiles, but abundances were higher than the background amounts detected by neutron spectroscopy implying heterogeneity within that PSR. Data from any one instrument taken alone would lead one to a different conclusion about the distribution of volatiles than data taken from any other single instrument. Although the data from different instrumentation can seem to be disparate, the apparent discrepancy results from the different fields of view and sensitivities of the detection techniques. The complementary nature of these data can be exploited to provide a multi-dimensional view of volatiles in lunar PSRs. We apply a Monte Carlo model to describe the retention and redistribution of volatiles within lunar cold traps. The model runs constrain the coherence of volatile deposits with depth, area, and time, which allows us to examine how a given volatile distribution would appear to remote sensing experiments. This provides a big picture framework for integrating the observations of volatiles on the surface and at depth at the poles of the Moon with the goal of finding a distribution of volatiles in lunar PSRs consistent with all of the data.

Hurley, D. M.; Bussey, B.; Lawrence, D. J.; Gladstone, R.; Elphic, R. C.; Vondrak, R. R.

2011-12-01

9

Preliminary Mapping of Permanently Shadowed and Sunlit Regions Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin axis of the Moon is tilted by only 1.5° (compared with the Earth's 23.5°), leaving some areas near the poles in permanent shadow while other nearby regions remain sunlit for a majority of the year. Theory, radar data, neutron measurements, and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observations suggest that volatiles may be present in the cold traps created inside these permanently shadowed regions. While areas of near permanent illumination are prime locations for future lunar outposts due to benign thermal conditions and near constant solar power. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has two imaging systems that provide medium and high resolution views of the poles. During almost every orbit the LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) acquires images at 100 m/pixel of the polar region (80° to 90° north and south latitude). In addition, the LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) targets selected regions of interest at 0.7 to 1.5 m/pixel [Robinson et al., 2010]. During the first 11 months of the nominal mission, LROC acquired almost 6,000 WAC images and over 7,300 NAC images of the polar region (i.e., within 2° of pole). By analyzing this time series of WAC and NAC images, regions of permanent shadow and permanent, or near-permanent illumination can be quantified. The LROC Team is producing several reduced data products that graphically illustrate the illumination conditions of the polar regions. Illumination movie sequences are being produced that show how the lighting conditions change over a calendar year. Each frame of the movie sequence is a polar stereographic projected WAC image showing the lighting conditions at that moment. With the WAC’s wide field of view (~100 km at an altitude of 50 km), each frame has repeat coverage between 88° and 90° at each pole. The same WAC images are also being used to develop multi-temporal illumination maps that show the percent each 100 m × 100 m area is illuminated over a period of time. These maps are derived by stacking all the WAC frames, selecting a threshold to determine if the surface is illuminated, and summing the resulting binary images. In addition, mosaics of NAC images are also being produced for regions of interest at a scale of 0.7 to 1.5 m/pixel. The mosaics produced so far have revealed small illuminated surfaces on the tens of meters scale that were previously thought to be shadowed during that time. The LROC dataset of the polar regions complements previous illumination analysis of Clementine images [Bussey et al., 1999], Kaguya topography [Bussey et al., 2010], and the current efforts underway by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Team [Mazarico et al., 2010] and provide an important new dataset for science and exploration. References: Bussey et al. (1999), Illumination conditions at the lunar south pole, Geophysical Research Letters, 26(9), 1187-1190. Bussey et al. (2010), Illumination conditions of the south pole of the Moon derived from Kaguya topography, Icarus, 208, 558-564. Mazarico et al. (2010), Illumination of the lunar poles from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Topography Data, paper presented at 41st LPSC, Houston, TX. Robinson et al. (2010), Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Instrument Overview, Space Sci Rev, 150, 81-124.

Speyerer, E.; Koeber, S.; Robinson, M. S.

2010-12-01

10

Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice: LEND results from LRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use measurements from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) collimated sensors during more than one year of the mapping phase of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to make estimates of the epithermal neutron flux within known large Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). These are compared with the local neutron background measured outside PSRs in sunlit regions. Individual and collective analyses of PSR properties have been performed. Only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the south and Rozhdestvensky U in the north, have been found to manifest significant neutron suppression. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, only a few percent, if at all. Some even display an excess of neutron emission in comparison to the sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only the group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 km2, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, ˜2%, with low statistical confidence. A ˜2% suppression corresponds to ˜125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous H distribution in depth in the regolith. This means that all PSRs, except those in Shoemaker, Cabeus and Rozhdestvensky U craters, do not contain any significant amount of hydrogen in comparison with sunlit areas around them at the same latitude.

Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R. D.; Zuber, M. T.

2012-06-01

11

W.W.W. MOON? The why, what and when of a permanent manned lunar colony.  

PubMed

Several reasons for going back to the Moon are listed: scientific study of our natural satellite, Earth and in general the Solar System; exploitation of the resources of Outer Space; geopolitical considerations that made Apollo possible and are still valid in the long term; advancement of manned spaceflight, as robot-based exploration is time-wise inefficient and politically negligible. Technological, organisational and legal challenges are then outlined. After a discussion of human physiology, building materials and transportation of people and goods, an underground polar location is proposed as settlement site, either within kilometre-size lava tubes or man-made caves. An analysis of spaceflight history is conducted to determine a target date for returning to the Moon to stay. In the absence of political or commercial competition, experience indicates the last decades of the XXI century. To shorten this timescale, it is recommended to focus on accomplishing the task of establishing a reliable lunar travel and settlement system, rather than developing new technologies: simplifying the goals of each single step forward (as was the case of the Clementine mission) and concentrating on production-ready (or almost-ready) equipment (compare the ill-fated X-33 to the dependable Soyuz capsules). PMID:15852541

Morabito, Maurizio

12

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Maps of the Permanently Shaded Regions (PSR) at the Lunar Poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched on June 18, 2009 and is currently in a polar orbit. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on-board LRO is a UV spectrograph covering the spectral range of 57-196 nm. Its 6 deg x 0.3 deg slit is arranged in push-broom mode to collect photon events in time ordered pixel-list mode, which allows reconstruction of exquisite 240m/pixel far-UV maps. The instrument sensitivity is optimized for faint nightside and PSR reflectivity measurements, requiring use of a pinhole aperture during dayside viewing. We present Lyman-alpha and far-UV albedo maps of the north and south poles with comparisons to topographic and other LRO datasets. These maps indicate that the coldest, permanently shadowed regions (PSR) in deep polar craters have significantly lower Lyman-alpha albedo than the surrounding regions, which is best explained by a high surface porosity there - possibly related to the accumulation of volatile frosts. Spectral ratios at longer far-UV wavelengths suggest that water frost is accumulated on the surface of certain PSRs at 1-2% abundance.

Bayless, Amanda J.; Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Stern, S. A.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Parker, J. W.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Horvath, D. G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Versteeg, M. H.; Steffl, A. J.; Mukherjee, J.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Rojas, P. M.; Feldmann, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

2012-01-01

13

Science Objectives in the Lunar Base Advocacy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author considers the potential function of astronomy in planning for a lunar base during the 21st century. He is one of the leading advocates for a permanent settlement on the Moon and has given considerable thought to the possible impact of such a st...

W. W. Mendell

1988-01-01

14

a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster for Orbit Control of Lunar Polar Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future moon missions devoted to lunar surface remote sensing and to many others scientific exploration topics will require more fine and higher precision orbit control. It is well known that, lunar satellites in polar orbits will suffer a high increase on the eccentricity due to the gravitational perturbation of the Earth. Without proper orbit correction the satellite life time will decrease and end up in a collision with the moon surface. It is pointed out by many authors that this effect is a natural consequence of the Lidov-Kozai resonance. In the present work, we propose a precise method of orbit eccentricity control based on the use of a low thrust Hall plasma thruster. The proposed method is based on an approach intended to keep the orbital eccentricity of the satellite at low values. A previous work on this subject was made using numerical integration considering two systems: the 3-body problem, Moon-Earth-satellite and the 4-body problem, Moon-Earth-Sun-satellite (??). In such simulation it is possible to follow the evolution of the satellite's eccentricity and find empirical expressions for the length of time needed to occur the collision with the moon. In this work, a satellite orbit eccentricity control maneuvering is proposed. It is based on working parameters of a low thrust propulsion permanent magnet Hall plasma thruster (PMHT), which is been developed at University of Brasilia, Brazil. We studied different arcs of active lunar satellite propulsion in order to be able to introduce a correction of the eccentricity at each cycle. The calculations were made considering a set of different thrust values, from 0.1N up to 0.4N which can be obtained by using the PMHT. In each calculation procedure we measured the length of eccentricity correction provided by active propulsion. From these results we obtained empirical expressions of the time needed for the corrections as a function of the initial altitude and as a function of the thrust value. 1. Winter, O. C. et all in Controlling the Eccentricity of Polar Lunar Orbits with Low Thrust Propulsion, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. on Space Dynamics, 2009.

Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Silva Moraes, Bruno; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Cardozo Mour, Decio; Winter, Othon

15

Beagle to the Moon: An Experiment Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Beagle Science Package is a flight qualified set of instruments which should be deployed to the lunar surface to answer the questions about water and volatiles present in permanently shadowed regions and/or beneath the surface.

Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

2007-03-01

16

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Maps of the Permanently Shaded Regions (PSR) at the Lunar Poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is currently in orbit around the moon. The Lyman Alpha Mapping project (LAMP) instrument on-board LRO is a UV spectrograph covering the spectral range of 57-196 nm. LAMP produces exquisite 240m/pixel far-UV maps. The instrument sensitivity is optimized for faint measurements. We present Lyman-alpha and far-UV albedo maps of the north and south poles with comparisons to topographic and other LRO datasets.

Rojas, Paul; Retherford, Kurt; Gladstone, Randall; Stern, Alan; Egan, Anthony; Miles, Paul; Parker, Joel; Kaufmann, David; Horvath, David; Greathouse, Thomas; Versteeg, Maarten; Steffl, Andrew; Mukherjee, Joey; Davis, Michael; Slater, David; Bayless, Amanda; Feldmann, Paul; Hurley, Dana; Pryor, Wayne; Hendrix, Amanda

2012-03-01

17

Lunar polar coring lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

1990-05-01

18

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Maps of the Permanently Shaded Regions (PSR) at the Lunar Poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on-board LRO is a UV spectrograph covering the spectral range of 57-196 nm. We present Lyman-alpha and far-UV albedo maps of the north and south poles. These maps indicate that the coldest, permanently shadowed regions (PSR) in deep polar craters have significantly lower Lyman-alpha albedo than the surrounding regions, which is best explained by a high surface porosity there - possibly related to the accumulation of volatile frosts.

Rojas, Paul; Retherford, Kurt; Gladstone, Randall; Stern, Alan; Egan, Anthony; Miles, Paul; Parker, Joel; Kaufmann, David; Horvath, David; Greathouse, Thomas; Versteeg, Maartem; Steffl, Andrew; Mukherjee, Joey; Davis, Michael; Slater, David; Bayless, Amanda; Feldmann, Paul; Hurley, Dana; Pryor, Wayne; Hendrix, Amanda

2013-04-01

19

Results of Observational Campaigns Carried Out During the Impact of Lunar Prospector into a Permanently Shadowed Crater near the South Pole of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 31, 1999 the Lunar Prospector (LP) spacecraft was commanded to deorbit and thus impact into the floor of a permanently shadowed crater at -88.7S, 42E (Goldstein, et al. 1999, GRL 26, pp1653-1656 and paper 38.06 at this conference). Coordinated observational program (spectroscopy and imaging) were carried out at HST, SWAS, Keck, McDonald, WIRO, Mt.Lemmon, Mt. Bigelow, McMath-Pierce, WIYN,

E. S. Barker; C. Allende Prieto; T. L. Farnham; D. B. Goldstein; R. S. Nerem; J. V. Austin; J. Y. Shim; A. B. Storrs; S. A. Stern; A. B. Binder; T. Bida; T. Morgan; S. M. Larson; A. L. Sprague; D. M. Hunten; R. E. Hill; R. W. H. Kozlowski; B. Ludwig; S. Rubinson; J. Baumgardner; M. Mendillo; J. Wilson; J. Wroten; S. Verani; C. R. Benn; R. J. Garcia Lopez; E. Gates; D. L. Talent; A. Alday; A. Pozar; D. Witte; B. Africano; B. Villanneva; R. Anderson; P. Kervin; G. S. Rossano; R. W. Walker; S. Hoss; C. M. Anderson; W. Offutt

1999-01-01

20

Lunar laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

1986-01-01

21

Lunar base reference design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lunar base concept resulting from using a systems engineering design approach is presented. System requirements are developed from a base mission statement, and a conceptual design meeting the requirements is proposed. An iterative approach is employed to allocate base capabilities to phases that could evolve into a permanently manned lunar colony.

Renton, M. B.; McKee, J. M.; Sirko, R. J.; Siegfried, W. H.; Takagi, K.; Saito, T.; Matsumoto, S.

1992-08-01

22

Lunar base construction robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

President Bush called for the construction of a permanently manned lunar base. All serious plans for such a base require the use of lunar soil as shielding material against the Sun's radiation. Plans rely on the use of a large bulldozer-like vehicle to be driven by an astronaut, either locally or under teleoperation control. Brooks and Flynn (89) proposed an

Rodney A. Brooks; Pattie Maes; Maja J Mataric; Grinell More

1990-01-01

23

Lunar outpost agriculture.  

PubMed

America's long-term commitment to a new Space Exploration Initiative has focused attention on the basic requirements for establishing a permanently manned lunar outpost and, ultimately, a martian one. High among these is the development of Regenerative Life Support Systems--with lunar agriculture an essential component--to provide a high level of self-sufficiency. PMID:11537088

Hossner, L R; Ming, D W; Henninger, D L; Allen, E R

1991-01-01

24

Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

2010-12-01

25

The Initial Nine Space Settlements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

2003-01-01

26

Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). We will focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation, but not immediately autonomous. It will prepare the next permanent lunar base by assessing its technologies, and give scientific results about the environment. The autonomy will be gained in the evolution of the base, and added equipment. A lunar outpost in a polar region would allow missions longer than 14 days, and a frequent addition of equipments. Moreover, a polar outpost will get both advantages of far-side for simulating direct or indirect communications to Earth and dark-side for observations. The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the outpost into a autonomous base. The South Pole, by its position on the edge of the South Pole Aitken (SPA) Basin, will allow different fast new data in analysis mantle samples, easily reachable due to the crater morphology. These samples will constrain the putative Late Heavy Bombarment (LHB). After a robotic sample return mission, a human presence will allow deeper research through well chosen geological samples [6]. In this modular concept, we consider various infrastructure elements: core habitat, EVA, crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. Many of these elements have already been studied in space agencies' architecture proposals, with the tech-nological possibilities of industrial partners (lunar landers, lunar orbiter, rovers …). A deeper reflection will be therefore done about the core habitat and the laboratory equipment, proposing scientific priority experiments. Each element will be added in a range considering their priority to life support in duration [7]. Considering surface operations, protocols will be specified in the use of certain elements. After a reflexion on the different dependancies and priorities between these modules, a demonstration can assess the reliability of the concept and develo

Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

2009-04-01

27

Adding coral rubble to substrata enhances settlement of Pocillopora damicornis larvae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Settlement preferences of Pocillopora damicornis larvae were examined on artificial substrata. Planulation of P. damicornis followed a lunar cycle and the release of larvae occurred after new moon. P. damicornis larvae had the highest rates of settlement within 3 days of being presented settlement substrata. Cumulative settlement gradually increased from 3 to 8 days, and post-settlement mortality was most frequent after 8 days. Settlement experiments showed greatest settlement preference to cement tiles containing 10% coral rubble. This study suggests that physical cues are important in the settlement process, which may be useful for coral reef rehabilitation projects.

Lee, C. S.; Walford, J.; Goh, B. P. L.

2009-06-01

28

Noninvasive Lunar Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a permanent manned base on the moon it is almost essential that methods for extracting water from lunar minerals will need to be developed. One potential source of water is the mineral ilmenite. Mobile ground penetrating radar units can potentially locate sources of ilmenite on the moon. However, the method needs to be initially verified on earth. This

John Meredith

2010-01-01

29

Insurance Fraud and Optimal Claims Settlement Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the optimal claims settlement strategy for a liability insurer when claimants can permanently misrepresent their losses by engaging in costly claims falsification. In this environment, claims auditing is not a possible deterrent to fraud, and the settlement strategy consists of an indemnification profile that relates the insurance payment to the claimed amount of loss. The optimal indemnification profile

Sharon Tennyson

2002-01-01

30

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only by starlight; Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), which will investigate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on tissue-equivalent plastics as a constraint on models of biological response to background space radiation. The technology demonstration is an advanced radar (mini-RF) that will demonstrate X- and S-band radar imaging and interferometry using a light-weight synthetic aperture radar.

Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

2007-08-01

31

ICE IN THE LUNAR POLAR REGIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that ice and other trapped volatiles exist in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles was proposed by Watson, Murray, and Brown (1961). It is reexamined in the present paper, in the light of the vast increase of our lunar knowledge. The Stability of the traps and the trapping mechanism are

James R. Arnold

1979-01-01

32

Can the US afford a lunar base  

SciTech Connect

Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

Keaton, P.W.

1986-01-01

33

LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is designed to address two of the prime LRO measurement requirements. 1) Assess meter and smaller-scale features to facilitate safety analysis for potential lunar landing sites near polar resources, and elsewhere on the Moon. 2) Acquire multi-temporal synoptic imaging of the poles every orbit to characterize the polar illumination environment (100 m scale), identifying regions of permanent shadow and permanent or near-permanent illumination over a full lunar year. The LROC consists of two narrow-angle camera components (NACs) to provide 0.5-m scale panchromatic images over a 5-km swath, a wide-angle camera component (WAC) to provide images at a scale of 100 and 400 m in seven color bands over a 100-km swath, and a common Sequence and Compressor System (SCS). In addition to acquiring the two LRO prime measurement sets, LROC will return six other high-value datasets that support LRO goals, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP), and basic lunar science. These additional datasets include: 3) meter-scale mapping of regions of permanent or near-permanent illumination of polar massifs; 4) multiple co-registered observations of portions of potential landing sites and elsewhere for derivation of high-resolution topography through stereogrammetric and photometric stereo analyses; 5) a global multispectral map in 7 wavelengths (300-680 nm) to characterize lunar resources, in particular ilmenite; 6) a global 100-m/pixel basemap with incidence angles (60-80°) favorable for morphologic interpretations; 7) sub-meter imaging of a variety of geologic units to characterize physical properties, variability of the regolith, and key science questions; and 8) meter-scale coverage overlapping with Apollo era Panoramic images (1-2 m/pixel) to document the number of small impacts since 1971-1972, to ascertain hazards for future surface operations and interplanetary travel.

Robinson, M. S.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Brylow, S. M.; Eliason, E.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; McEwen, A. S.; Malin, M. C.; Roberts, D.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E.

2006-12-01

34

Lunar geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a lunar geological map is traced, from the post-war period through the final Apollo mission. The impact of geological discoveries on earth on lunar geology is explained, and the use of photographs of the lunar surface to deduce its stratigraphy is described. The confirmation of the ages of various parts of the moon's surface through analysis of moon rocks is also discussed.

Shoemaker, E.

35

Lunar Prospector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists at the 30th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held March 15-19, 1999 in Houston, Texas, have presented support for the theory that the "bulk of the Moon was ripped away from the early Earth when an object the size of Mars collided with the Earth." Analysis of data collected from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Lunar Prospector spacecraft has supported this theory. This site provides information on the Lunar Prospector Project.

36

The Moon's Permanent Shadows  

NASA Video Gallery

Deep in the craters of the moon's south pole lurk permanently shadowed regions: areas that have not seen sunlight in more than two billion years. Now, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is shedding a new light on some of our satellite's darkest mysteries. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center › Download video in HD formats

gsfcvideo

2013-03-05

37

Lunar Prospector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides information about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Lunar Prospector mission. The mission, which concluded in 1999 when the spacecraft was purposely crashed into the lunar surface, was the first NASA mission to the moon in 25 years. A set of links accesses an overview of the project, results of the various instrument surveys, a history of lunar exploration, and some aspects of lunar science. Educational materials include a teachers' guide, lesson plans, activities, a model of the spacecraft, and others. A glossary and links to additional information on the moon are also provided.

38

First Lunar Outpost support study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) is the first manned step in the accomplishment of the Space Exploration Initiative, the Vice President's directive to NASA on the 20th anniversary of the Apollo moon landing. FLO's broad objectives are the establishment of a permanent human presence on the moon, supporting the utilization of extraterrestrial resources in a long-term, sustained program. The primary

Christopher Bartz; John Cook; Jean-Luc Rusingizandekwe

1993-01-01

39

Lunar Beagle: An Experimental Package for Measuring Polar Ice and Volatiles Beneath the Lunar Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar Beagle payload has the capabilities of determining the presence of polar ice and volatiles in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. The instrument suite can provide critical information to assist "living off the land".

Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; McKay, D. S.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.; Waugh, L.; Lunar Beagle Consortium

2008-07-01

40

Lunar Seismology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 4 years have marked the beginning of a new era in lunar exploration. With the successful landing of instruments on the lunar surface by unmanned spacecrafts of the Luna, Ranger, and Surveyor series, and finally the first manned landing on the moon in July 1969, as part of the Apollo program, direct measurements of the physical and chemical

Gary V. Latham

1971-01-01

41

Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar sounding with the onboard transmitter and Earth-based receiver and i terferometry with the onboardn transmitter and two Earth-based receiving antennas that allows reconstruction of surface topography with high resolution.

Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

42

Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in ages and initial 143Nd/144Nd of lunar anorthosites show they do not all derive from the LMO. "Old" Ar-Ar ages for anorthosites in lunar meteorites suggest the "lunar cataclysm" may be a localized phenomenon.

Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.; Park, J.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Yamaguchi, A.

2010-03-01

43

Applicability of the Beamed Power Concept to Lunar Rovers, Construction, Mining, Explorers and Other Mobile Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the technical issues dealing with the feasibility of high power (10 Kw to 100 Kw) mobile manned equipment for settlement, exploration and exploitation of Lunar resources are addressed. Short range mining/construction equipment, a moderate range (5...

J. L. Christian

1989-01-01

44

Electrical power integration for lunar operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

Woodcock, Gordon

1992-02-01

45

Conceptual second-generation lunar equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. The basic assumption made in designing second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment was that a network of permanent lunar bases already existed. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground-based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. Two teams of two or three members competed on each topic and results were exhibited at a formal presentation. A clean-propellant powered lunar flying transport vehicle, an extra-vehicular activity life support system, a pressurized lunar rover for greater distances, and a robotic arm design project are discussed.

1990-11-01

46

ISA accelerometer and Lunar science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one--dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in--orbit and on--ground, with the same configuration. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of the missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the respective experiments.

Iafolla, V.; Carmisciano, C.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Magnafico, C.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Nozzoli, S.; Ungaro, D.; Argada, S.

2012-04-01

47

A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on each piloted round trip mission. As the initial lunar outposts grow to centralized bases and settlements with a substantial permanent human presence, a LANTR-powered shuttle capable of 36 to 24 hour 'one-way' trip times to the moon and back becomes possible with initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) requirements of approximately 160 to 240 metric tons, respectively.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.

1994-08-01

48

Lunar Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lunar Phases online science activity is provided by the Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education Web site, which is the educational outreach program of the HiRes Cosmic Ray Research Group at the University of Utah. This fascinating lesson utilizes an interactive lunar animation that allows students to learn how the moon's orbit around the earth affects how we see it. Although this concept may seem fairly straightforward, it can actually be somewhat confusing. This activity, though, does a good job of explaining and illustrating what is actually happening with the sun, earth, and moon at various times throughout the month. The entire lesson is also available in Spanish.

49

Lunar anorthosites.  

PubMed

Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context. PMID:17781512

Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

1970-01-30

50

Lunar Obliquity History Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation for a LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) related study of possible lunar polar volatiles, we re- examined the lunar orbital and rotational history, with primary focus on the obliquity history of the Moon. Though broad models have been made of lunar obliquity, a cohesive obliquity history was not found. We report on a new model of lunar obliquity including

M. Siegler; B. Bills; D. Paige

2007-01-01

51

Lunar Prospecting Using Thermal Wadis and Compact Rovers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent missions have confirmed the existence of water and other volatiles on the Moon, both in permanently-shadowed craters and elsewhere. Non-volatile lunar resources may represent significant additional value as infrastructure or manufacturing feedstock...

K. R. Sacksteder N. H. Suzuki R. S. Wegeng

2012-01-01

52

Lunar Seismology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)|

Latham, Gary V.

1973-01-01

53

Lunar Luminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a recent article, Kopal1 has directed attention to a report by Sir William Herschel2 of `volcanoes' in the neighbourhood of the lunar crater Aristarchus seen in April of 1787. Both he and Middlehurst3 note the similarity between Herschel's description and two recent reports by Greenacre4,5 of reddish luminescence near Aristarchus in October and November 1963. In Table 1 are

E. J. Flamm; R. E. Lingenfelter

1965-01-01

54

Lunar Base Sitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

1993-12-01

55

Lunar Construction Shack Vehicle: Final Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lunar construction shack vehicle is a critical component in most of the plans proposed for the construction of a permanent base on the moon. The Selene Engineering Company (SEC) has developed a concept for this vehicle which is both innovative and pract...

1988-01-01

56

Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae to settle at unfavourable times, with potential consequences for larval survival and population replenishment.

Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

2012-03-01

57

Lunar sulfur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

Kuck, David L.

58

Improved modeling of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer data: Implications for hydrogen deposits at the lunar poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New models have been computed for the Lunar Prospector (LP) thermal and epithermal neutron counting rates using the particle transport code MCNPX. This work improves upon previous studies by using one code to model the neutron production, transport, and detection processes, and by examining the sensitivity of epithermal neutrons to elements other than hydrogen. Our modeling results for standard anhydrous lunar soils show that when hydrogen is not included in a soil, epithermal neutrons are most sensitive to variations in the abundances of Fe, Gd, and Sm, which is consistent with measured epithermal neutron data. We use our current modeling results, in conjunction with known mineral compositions of lunar soils and other lunar global data sets to conclude that the best explanation for a decrease in the counting rate of epithermal neutrons near both lunar poles is the presence of hydrogen. We have further concluded that the average hydrogen abundance near both lunar poles is 100-150 ppm and is likely buried by 10 +/- 5 cm of dry lunar soil, a result that is consistent with previous studies. The localized hydrogen abundance for small (<20 km) areas of permanently shaded regions remains highly uncertain and could range from 200 ppm H up to 40 wt% H2O in some isolated regions.

Lawrence, David J.; Feldman, W. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Hagerty, J. J.; Maurice, S.; McKinney, G. W.; Prettyman, T. H.

2006-08-01

59

Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Denition Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external in uences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. We present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientic objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver and electric eld antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Flux-gate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

Travnicek, P. M.

2012-04-01

60

15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

2013-01-01

61

The Lunar Surface Layer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct and indirect evidence for the nature of lunar surface materials are examined and compared with theoretical predictions. Conclusions are then drawn concerning the most probable character of these materials. It is concluded that the lunar surface is ...

J. W. Salisbury V. G. Smalley

1964-01-01

62

Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)|

Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

1982-01-01

63

Apollo lunar sounder experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

Phillips, R. J.; Adams, G. F.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Eggleton, R. E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W. I.; Peeples, W. J.; Porcello, L. J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W. R.; Thompson, T. W.; Ward, S. H.; Zelenka, J. S.

1973-01-01

64

Extended Duration Lunar Lander.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar sur...

N. Babic M. Carter D. Cosper D. Garza E. Gonzalez

1993-01-01

65

Solar and lunar eclipses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book reviews historical and scientific information on solar and lunar eclipses and presents mathematical and astronomical analyses of past and future eclipses. Principles of Egyptian, Chinese, and Roman solar and lunar calendars are examined, noting that they were based on the periodicity of lunar phases and changes in seasons. Observable solar motion relative to the earth orbit and causes

M. M. Dagaev

1978-01-01

66

Lunar outpost agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief

Lloyd R. Hossner; Douglas W. Ming; Donald L. Henninger; Earl R. Allen

1991-01-01

67

Microcracks in lunar rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar samples contain abundant open microcracks that have closure characteristics completely unlike any shocked terrestrial rock; however, the microcracks present in the lunar rocks before the rocks reached the surface of the moon were likely similar to the microcracks in the shocked terrestrial rocks. Because the microcracks present in the lunar rocks in situ inside the moon were different, radically

G. Simmons

1979-01-01

68

Unmanned lunar surface exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the study of unmanned lunar surface exploration, including the one for obtaining ground truths for remote sensing and that can not be accomplished without lunar surface activities, for the missions of purely scientific exploration and examining explorations necessary for lunar development and utilization, especially lunar base construction, is presented. In the fields of scientific exploration, the following subjects are outlined: (1) mineral exploration by landing modules and roving vehicles, including acquisition of ground truths for mineral remote sensing, identification of minerals on the lunar surface, x-ray fluorescence analysis equipment and x-ray powder refractometer, etc.; (2) observation of artificial RF (Radio Frequency) wave sources on the lunar surface; (3) lunar earthquake observation; (4) lunar gravity observation; (5) microwave remote sensing of the moon; and (6) acquisition of ground truths for microwave radars, and others. In the fields of explorations for lunar development and utilization, the following subjects are outlined: (1) bearing power of the lunar ground; (2) lunar ground subsidence; (3) difficulty of excavation; and (4) selection of examining methods.

Koshiishi, Hajime; Motomura, Natsuhiko

1992-07-01

69

Material Damage from Impacts of Lunar Soil Particles Ejected by the Rocket Exhaust of Landing Spacecraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper details the experimentation of lunar stimulant sandblasting. This was done to understand the damage that landing spacecraft on the moon will have to a permanent lunar outpost. The sandblasting was done with JSC-1A onto glass coupons. Correlatio...

A. C. Wittbrodt P. T. Metzger

2008-01-01

70

Design and emplacement of an integrated lunar power system—issues and concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous issues regarding the construction and operation of a stationary lunar surface power system must be resolved within the coming decade before man’s permanent presence on the lunar surface becomes a viable possibility. Some of the issues which need to be resolved during the early stages of this planning phase include: whether the electrical power system should be centralized, decentralized,

Kenneth M. Sprouse; James E. Robin; Kenneth J. Metcalf; Robert Cataldo

1991-01-01

71

Design and emplacement of an integrated lunar power system-issues and concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous issues regarding the construction and operation of a stationary lunar surface power system must be resolved within the coming decade before man's permanent presence on the lunar surface becomes a viable possibility. Some of the issues which need to be resolved during the early stages of this planning phase include: whether the electrical power system should be centralized, decentralized,

Kenneth M. Sprouse; James E. Robin; Kenneth J. Metcalf; Robert Cataldo

1991-01-01

72

Thermal, Mechanical and Chemical Analysis for VELOX Verification Experiments for Lunar Oxygen Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major aspect for the development of a long-term human presence on the moon will be sustainability and autonomy of any kind of a permanent base. Important resources, such as breathable air and water for the survival of the crew on the lunar surface will have to be extracted in-situ from the lunar regolith, the major resource on the Moon,

Caroline Lange; Eugen Ksenik; Andy Braukhane; Lutz Richter

2010-01-01

73

Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications  

SciTech Connect

The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

1984-01-01

74

A quasi-economic role for lunar science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In broad economic terms, the development of lunar products will begin with a sequence of technology, production, and delivery demonstrations which will have to precede the emergence of markets. Economically viable products will tend to be those for which the sum of production and transport costs are lower for lunar suppliers than for terrestrial suppliers. As long as lunar production costs exceed terrestrial production costs - as will be the case for most lunar products until such time as lunar development has reached a mature stage - the most viable industries will be those producing low-tech products for lunar markets. The scale of initial lunar markets will depend on the size of a lunar base and/or its rate of growth. For a given level of public support, maximum base size can be achieved through the conduct, at the base, of a vigorous program of scientific and engineering research making use of as much local production and as many permanently-resident support staff as feasible.

Jones, Eric M.

75

A quasi-economic role for lunar science  

SciTech Connect

In broad economic terms, the development of lunar products will begin with a sequence of technology, production, and delivery demonstrations which will have to precede the emergence of markets. Economically viable products will tend to be those for which the sum of production and transport costs are lower for lunar suppliers than for terrestrial suppliers. As long as lunar production costs exceed terrestrial production costs -- as will be the case for most lunar products until such time as lunar development has reached a mature stage -- the most viable industries will be those producing low-tech products for lunar markets. The scale of initial lunar markets will depend on the size of a lunar base and/or its rate of growth. For a given level of public support, maximum base size can be achieved through the conduct, at the base, of a vigorous program of scientific and engineering research making use of as much local production and as many permanently-resident support staff as feasible. 5 refs.

Jones, E.M.

1989-01-01

76

Ideal free settlement of California’s Northern Channel Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prehistoric establishment and expansion of permanent settlements on the Northern Channel Islands of southern California generally follows a pattern predicted by the population ecology model, the ideal free distribution (IFD). We determine this by comparing the abundant archaeological record of these Islands against a careful quantification of habitat suitability using areal photography, satellite imagery, and field studies. We assess

Bruce Winterhalder; Douglas J. Kennett; Mark N. Grote; Jacob Bartruff

2010-01-01

77

Habitat selection at settlement endures in recruitment time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metamorphosis from a pelagic to a benthic stage is a critical transition in the life cycle of sessile marine invertebrates. The barnacle Semibalanus balanoides attaches permanently during set- tlement, and once attached, its gross location in the adult habitat is fixed. The partitioning of benthic habitat among barnacles in a recruit cohort is often mediated by settlement timing because early

Jonathan N. Blythe; Jesús Pineda

2009-01-01

78

Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout Program Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout (LRM/LGS) program status. Topics covered include the LEXWG Lunar Observer science measurement priorities, space exploration initiative priorities, the question of why...

M. Conley

1992-01-01

79

The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the extraction of volatiles and determine the volatile inventory of the moon with a view for future In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Surface samples will be collected by a robotic arm with the possibility of a rover to collect more distant samples. The concentration, chemical and accurate isotopic ratios (D/H, 12C/13C, 15N/14N, 18O/16O and noble gases) of liberated volatiles will be determined, possibly using similar technology to the Philae comet lander of the Rosetta mission [6]. An additional aim is the monitoring of the chemical and isotopic composition of the tenuous lunar atmosphere [7] which will become contaminated by active human exploration. The lunar atmosphere will provide information on the processes involved in forming lunar volatiles and their concentration mechanisms. Modelling the effects of contamination from the Lander is an essential part of this study so that these can be recognized and minimized.

Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

2011-10-01

80

A Primer in Lunar Geology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

P. H. Schultz R. Greeley

1974-01-01

81

Orbital Studies of Lunar Magnetism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are include...

M. G. Mcleod P. J. Coleman

1982-01-01

82

Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design,...

K. G. Muery M. E. Nall R. A. French S. K. Noble

2009-01-01

83

29 CFR 2200.120 - Settlement procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the settlement proceeding may not be used in litigation unless obtained through appropriate discovery...settlement the parties have reached. (2) At the termination of the settlement period without a full settlement, the Chief...

2013-07-01

84

CAS1 lunar soil simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar soil simulant is a geochemical reproduction of lunar regolith, and is needed for lunar science and engineering researches. This paper describes a new lunar soil simulant, CAS-1, prepared by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, to support lunar orbiter, soft-landing mission and sample return missions of China’s Lunar Exploration Program, which is scheduled for 2004–2020. Such simulants should match the

Yongchun Zheng; Shijie Wang; Ziyuan Ouyang; Yongliao Zou; Jianzhong Liu; Chunlai Li; Xiongyao Li; Junming Feng

2009-01-01

85

Lunar base parametric model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A steady-state model for first-order magnitude estimates of lunar base masses is presented. The main focus of the model is the derivation of initial and annual resupply mass estimates for a lunar base at certain development stages. These estimates are not only a function of several thousand input parameters and boundary conditions such as crew size; lunar base location; and environmental conditions, but also specific system masses; specific power requirements; and specific thermal loads. This integrated lunar base model indicates which systems and subsystems have the greatest mass impact on the overall base. Also, brief overviews of possible activities at a lunar base and of lunar development strategies are given.

Eckart, Peter

1997-04-01

86

Lunar Ultraviolet Reflectance Experiment (LURE): Exploring Signatures of Water Ice on Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory measurements of the far ultraviolet (FUV) spectral signatures of many common minerals and ices are few to nonexistant. To better interpret Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) observations of the moon and its permanently shaded regions we've developed an experiment to measure the bidirectional reflectance of samples at FUV wavelengths (1150 - 2200 Å) over various reflectance angles to investigate the reflective properties of water ice and lunar soils. Named the Lunar Ultraviolet Reflectance Experiment (LURE), our study characterizes the FUV bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of water ice and lunar regolith simulants. Our first results will be reported.

Retherford, K. D.; Davis, M. W.; Winters, G. S.; Patrick, E. L.; Escobedo, S. M.; Gladstone, G. R.; Miles, P. F.; Parker, J. W.; Stern, S. A.; Hendrix, A. R.

2011-10-01

87

Lunar Landing Research Vehicle  

NASA Video Gallery

The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first glance it seemed that a helicopter could be used to simulate flying the LM, but early test flights proved that it was not even close. Helicopters, or any vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, are

Marty Curry

2010-05-11

88

Lunar resource base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

89

Designers of Human Settlements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

Cliff, Ursula

1976-01-01

90

Designers of Human Settlements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)|

Cliff, Ursula

1976-01-01

91

NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Cameras (LROC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO mission is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2008 as part of NASA s Robotic Lunar Exploration Program and is the first spacecraft to be built as part of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration The orbiter will be equipped with seven scientific instrument packages one of which is LROC The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera LROC has been designed to address two of LRO s primary measurement objectives landing site certification and monitoring of polar illumination In order to examine potential landing sites high-resolution images 0 5 m pixel will be used to assess meter-scale features near the pole and other regions on the lunar surface The LROC will also acquire 100 m pixel images of the polar regions of the Moon during each orbit for a year to identify areas of permanent shadow and permanent or near-permanent illumination In addition to these two main objectives the LROC team also plans to conduct meter-scale monitoring of polar regions under varying illumination angles acquire overlapping observations to enable derivation of meter-scale topography acquire global multispectral imaging to map ilmenite and other minerals derive a global morphology base map characterize regolith properties and determine current impact hazards by re-imaging areas covered by Apollo images to search for newly-formed impact craters The LROC is a modified version of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter s Context Camera and Mars Color Imager The LROC will be made up of four optical elements two identical narrow-angle telescopes

Robinson, M.; McEwen, A.; Eliason, E.; Joliff, B.; Hiesinger, H.; Malin, M.; Thomas, P.; Turtle, E.; Brylow, S.

92

Lunar Dust, Plasma, Waves and Fields Exploration Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight shadow transitions. A detail under-standing of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. Here we present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Fluxgate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

Travnicek, P. M.

2012-09-01

93

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Lunar Precursor Robotic Program (LPRP), formulated in response to the President’s Vision for Space Exploration, will execute a series of robotic missions that will pave the way for eventual permanent human presence on the Moon. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is first in this series of LPRP missions, and plans to launch in October of 2008 for at least one year of operation. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources, Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration, Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits, Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only by starlight. Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), which will investigate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on tissue-equivalent plastics as a constraint on models of biological response to background space radiation. The technology demonstration is an advanced radar (mini-RF) that will demonstrate X- and S-band radar imaging and interferometry using light weight synthetic aperture radar. This paper will give an introduction to each of these instruments and an overview of their objectives.

Chin, Gordon; Brylow, Scott; Foote, Marc; Garvin, James; Kasper, Justin; Keller, John; Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor; Paige, David; Raney, Keith; Robinson, Mark; Sanin, Anton; Smith, David; Spence, Harlan; Spudis, Paul; Stern, S. Alan; Zuber, Maria

2007-04-01

94

Limits to the lunar atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apollo UV spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of less than 500/cu cm, and the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply a value less than 50/cu cm above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occurred during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stabilized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, a possible emission brightness of 50 R in the OH(A - X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb is predicted.

Morgan, T. H.; Shemansky, D. E.

1991-02-01

95

Configuring innovative regolith moving techniques for lunar outposts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA exploration vision calls for extended human presence at lunar outposts within the coming decades. Any permanent outpost requires a significant amount of infrastructure and a cost-effective way of preparing this infrastructure is to utilize native materials such as regolith and rocks inherently present. This work investigates techniques for excavating, transporting, and building up regolith in the context of

Krzysztof Skonieczny; Matthew E. DiGioia; Raymond L. Barsa; David S. Wettergreen; William L. Whittaker

2009-01-01

96

Mechanics of lunar soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic areas of the mechanics of lunar soils may be stated as: a study of the effect of low-level gravitational accelerations and high vacuum on the properties of mineral grains of various soils; a selection of soils and materials on the earth which may serve as analogs of the lunar soils and investigation of their properties and uses on

I. Io Cherkasov; V. V. Mikheev; V. P. Petrukhin; V. V. Shvarev

1970-01-01

97

Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to

Shawn Knutson; Nancy Holloway

2010-01-01

98

Lunar Crescent Visibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report the results of five Moonwatches, in which more than 2000 observers throughout North America attempted to sight the thin lunar crescent. For each Moonwatch we were able to determine the position of the Lunar Date Line (LDL), the line along which ...

B. E. Schaefer L. E. Doggett

1994-01-01

99

Lunar crescent visibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of five Moonwatches, in which more than 2000 observers throughout North America attempted to sight the thin lunar crescent. For each Moonwatch we were able to determine the position of the Lunar Date Line (LDL), the line along which a normal observer has a 50% probability of spotting the Moon. The observational LDLs were then compared

L. E. Doggett; B. E. Schaefer

1994-01-01

100

Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km du...

K. Creel J. Frampton D. Honaker K. Mcclure M. Zeinali

1992-01-01

101

Mascons and Lunar Gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mascon in a lunar ringed mare is approximately proportional to the area of the mare material in the basin. This relationship is consistent with the hypothesis that the lunar mascons are produced by dense plugs in the maria, and it means that the maximum thickness of the uncompensated rock is the same for all maria. The relationship also predicts

John R. Booker; Robert L. Kovach; Lee Lu

1970-01-01

102

Indigenous lunar construction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The

Wayne P. Rogers; Stein Sture

1991-01-01

103

Electrified Lunar Polar Craters?  

NASA Video Gallery

New research from NASA's Lunar Science Institute indicates that the solar wind may be charging certain regions at the lunar poles to hundreds of volts. In this short video Dr. Bill Farrell discusses this research and what it means for future exploration of the moon's poles.

Robert Garner

2010-04-16

104

Roadmap for Future Lunar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss strategies for future lunar exploration. This includes open science questions about comparative planetology, the origin of the Earth --Moon system, the early evolution of life, the planetary environment and the existence of in-situ resources necessary to support human presence. We discuss areas of instrumentation: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. We discuss technologies in robotic exploration: Mecha-electronics-sensors; Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots. We compare Moon-Mars system aspects related to In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructure, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. Finally, we discuss possible roadmaps and synergies for Moon-Mars exploration, starting with the missions for the coming decade, and building effectively on joint technology developments.

Foing, B. H.; International Lunar Exploration Working Group

105

Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided

Y. Shkuratov; L. Litvinenko; V. Shulga; Y. Yatskiv; V. Kislyuk

2002-01-01

106

Lunar orbiting and landing missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbits for a lunar orbiting spacecraft and unmanned lunar surface rovers are identified. The orbit to the moon is divided into two phases: one is the lunar transfer phase and the other is the landing phase. For each phase standard orbits are designed, and mission profiles are presented. The minimum weight of the lunar orbiting spacecraft is estimated to be

Tsutomu Iwata; Kazumi Okuda; Yutaka Kaneko

1989-01-01

107

Property Status of Lunar Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the lunar material in private hands is of meteoric origin, and its property sta- tus does not present many challenges. The intention of Applied Space Resources, Inc, to fly a commercial lunar sample return mission and to subsequently offer lunar ma- terial for sale, raises the issue of the legality of exploitation and private ownership of retrieved lunar

V. Pop

2002-01-01

108

First Lunar Outpost construction analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the construction problem with the radiation shielding; preliminary construction analysis; the feasibility analysis of a small lunar tractor-scraper vehicle (LTSV); the scraper preliminary power analysis; LTSV feasibility; a small lunar dragline crane (LDC); a lunar superstructure arch (LSA); and the feasibility analysis of a lunar self-offloading lander crane.

Grasso, Chris; Happel, John; Helleckson, Brent; Jolly, Steve; Mikulas, Martin; Pavlich, Jane; Su, Renjeng; Taylor, Rob

109

Lunar Space Elevators for CisLunar Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar space elevators could revolutionize the development of the Moon. The lunar space elevator system allows solar-powered robotic vehicles to climb a high-strength composite ribbon from the lunar surface to beyond the L1 Lagrangian point, where payloads of lunar resources could be released into Earth orbit for major space construction projects. The overall system concept includes the lunar space elevator,

Jerome Pearson; Eugene Levin; John Oldson; Harry Wykes

2005-01-01

110

Geophysics and lunar resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about the physical properties of the lunar surface obtained in connection with the Apollo program provides an important basis for evaluating the role which geophysical methods will play in the context of the establishment of a lunar base and the resulting opportunity for exploration. The application of geohysical methods to lunar resource studies is discussed, taking into account the suitability of a use of electromagnetic methods, since the moon is quite transparent to most electromagnetic signals in a manner entirely different from most terrestrial environments. In the absence of a lunar magnetic field corresponding to that of the earth, conditions for lunar magnetic mapping are also different from those found on earth. Attention is also given to the use of seismic methods for assessing the character of the regolith, and the employment of gravity methods for exploring the character of basaltic rocks.

Strangway, D.

111

Closer look at lunar volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the American Apollo and Soviet Lunar missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

Vaniman, D. T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G. J.

112

Integration of lunar polar remote-sensing data sets: Evidence for ice at the lunar south pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the feasibility of ice deposits at the lunar south pole, we have integrated all relevant lunar polar data sets. These include illumination data, Arecibo ground-based monostatic radar data, newly processed Clementine bistatic radar data, and Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer measurements. The possibility that the lunar poles harbor ice deposits has important implications not only as a natural resource for future human lunar activity but also as a record of inner solar system volatiles (e.g., comets and asteroids) over the past billion years or more. We find that the epithermal neutron flux anomalies, measured by Lunar. Prospector, are coincident with permanently shadowed regions at the lunar south pole, particularly those associated with Shackleton crater. Furthermore, these areas also correlate with the ?=0 circular polarization ratio (CPR) enhancements revealed by new processing of Clementine bistatic radar echoes, which in turn are eolocated with areas of anomalous high CPR observed by Arecibo Observatory on the lower, Sun-shadowed wall of Shackleton crater. Estimates of the extent of high CPR from Arecibo Observatory and Clementine bistatic radar data independently suggest that ~10 km2 of ice may be present on the inner Earth-facing wall of Shackleton crater. None of the experiments that obtained the data presented here were ideally suited for definitively identifying ice in lunar polar regions. By assessing the relative merits of all available data, we find that it is plausible that ice does occur in cold traps at the lunar south pole and that future missions with instruments specifically designed to investigate these anomalies are worthy.

Nozette, Stewart; Spudis, Paul D.; Robinson, Mark S.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Lichtenberg, Chris; Bonner, Robert

2001-10-01

113

Early lunar magnetism.  

PubMed

It is uncertain whether the Moon ever formed a metallic core or generated a core dynamo. The lunar crust and returned samples are magnetized, but the source of this magnetization could be meteoroid impacts rather than a dynamo. Here, we report magnetic measurements and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronological calculations for the oldest known unshocked lunar rock, troctolite 76535. These data imply that there was a long-lived field on the Moon of at least 1 microtesla approximately 4.2 billion years ago. The early age, substantial intensity, and long lifetime of this field support the hypothesis of an ancient lunar core dynamo. PMID:19150839

Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Buz, Jennifer

2009-01-16

114

Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology needs in all areas to support the development, deployment, operation and disposal of the unit.

Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

2006-01-01

115

The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build\\/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo

D. P. Miller; D. F. Hougen; D. Shirley

2003-01-01

116

The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar Engineering Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build\\/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore the Hadley Rille site; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by Apollo 15 thirty years

D. Miller; D. Hougen; D. Shirley

2002-01-01

117

Lunar Meteorites and the Lunar Cataclysm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon has been pummeled with asteroids and comets throughout its long, 4.5 billion-year history. While even a single impact can be an impressive event, there seems to have been one particularly spectacular era about 3.9 billion years ago which saw the formation of 1700 craters 100 kilometers in size or larger, resurfacing 80% of the Moon's crust. This intense bombardment, known as the "Lunar Cataclysm," was first suspected nearly 30 years ago, based on the rocks returned by the Apollo astronauts. However, because the Apollo Moon rocks all come from a relatively small region on the Moon, many scientists worried that the effect was really just a local pounding. In the December 1, 2000 issue of Science, my colleagues, Tim Swindle and David Kring, and I report that this intense bombardment is also reflected in lunar meteorites. Because lunar meteorites are a more random sampling of the Moon than the Apollo samples, the Lunar Cataclysm does indeed seem to have been a Moon-wide phenomenon. The Earth would not have escaped a similar beating during this time -- and neither would life on Earth.

Cohen, B. A.

2001-01-01

118

Conceptual design of lunar lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar exploration/development will be one of the most significant future space activities. In the initial phase of lunar exploration, various unmanned missions will be undertaken and effective transportation means will be required. This paper discusses the results of the conceptual design of a Japanese lunar lander to be used in such explorations. The lunar lander would be launched on a Japanese H-II launch vehicle and would transport a payload, such as a lunar mobile explorer or a lunar sample return vehicle, on to the Moon. Requirements definition, mission analysis, system and subsystem definition of a lunar lander were performed. Our analysis shows that it should be able to carry an 750 kg payload onto the lunar surface. This lunar lander features are summarized.

Iwata, Tsutomu; Eto, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

119

Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment: Initial global mapping results (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has been mapping the moon continuously since early July, 2009. The instrument has acquired thermal emission and solar reflectance data in nine spectral channels spanning a wavelength range from 0.3 to 400 microns, at spatial resolutions ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 km (Paige et al., 2009). Diviner’s growing dataset is revealing, for the first time, the extreme nature of the lunar thermal environment, and its diurnal and seasonal variability. The lunar polar regions are of special interest due to the presence of permanently shadowed regions that may contain cold-trapped water and other volatiles. Diviner has obtained sufficient coverage to make complete maps of annual maximum temperatures in the south polar region, and annual minimum temperatures in the north polar region. The results reveal the presence of large areas on the surface and beneath the surface that are capable of serving as long-term cold traps for water ice, as well as compounds of lower and higher volatility. In the low and mid-latitude regions, Diviner is mapping daytime and nighttime thermal emission in multiple spectral channels. Daytime measurements in Diviner’s three 8-micron channels have been used to map the wavelength of a distinct peak in the Moon’s thermal emission spectrum due to the Christiansen feature, an emissivity maximum associated with Si-O stretching vibrations (Greenhagen et al., this meeting). The results show strong correlations with lunar mineralogy derived from other remote sensing techniques and analysis of lunar samples. Diviner’s nighttime measurements in its four thermal mapping channels are mapping the global distribution of isolated exposures of high thermal inertia material associated with the recent excavation of blocky material by impact craters (Vasavada et al., this meeting). Diviner’s observations to date cover nearly 50% of the surface area of the moon. Over time, it is anticipated that Diviner will accumulate sufficient coverage to map most locations at multiple times per day. Future combined analyses of Diviner temperature, thermophysical properties and compositional data may provide new insights into the structure and history of the lunar regolith, and the nature and distribution of cold-trapped volatile compounds at the lunar poles. Greenhagen, B. T. et al. LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer: Compositional Investigation Coverage and Results, this meeting, 2009. Paige, D. A. et. al. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, Space Science Reviews, DOI: 10.1007/s11214-009-9529-2, 2009. Vasavada, A. R. et al. LRO Diviner: First Look at Lunar Global Temperatures and Thermophysical Properties, this meeting, 2009.

Paige, D. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Vasavada, A. R.; Allen, C.; Bandfield, J. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; de Jong, E. M.; Elphic, R. C.; Foote, E. J.; Foote, M. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; McCleese, D. J.; Ghent, R. R.; Glotch, T. D.; Hayne, P. O.; Lucey, P. G.; Murray, B. C.; Schofield, J. T.; Siegler, M. A.; Snook, K.; Soderblom, L. A.; Taylor, F. W.; Thomas, I. R.; Wyatt, M. B.

2009-12-01

120

Lunar Surface Gravimeter Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lunar surface gravimeter used the moon as an instrumented antenna to search for gravitational waves predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. Tidal deformation of the moon was measured. Gravitational radiation is a channel that is capable ...

J. Weber J. J. Giganti J. P. Richard J. V. Larson R. L. Tobias

1977-01-01

121

Lunar Sample Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectrosc...

R. M. Housley

1986-01-01

122

Lunar outpost agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

123

Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)|

Geotimes, 1980

1980-01-01

124

Lunar Influence On Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerning lunar periodicity in biology, we summarized all what has been observationally and experimentally found and published in scientific literature till 1996. We summoned up as many as about 600 living species (mostly animals) with identified lunar periodicities, functioning in a more or less endogenous manner. Here we give a short review about the occurrence in the plant kingdom. In Thallophytes 45 species have been described as well as 40 species of Angiosperms. In Prokaryonts no lunar rhythms could be found. Their individual life cycles do not reach the time span of at least comparable parts of a lunar day. Thus as in all Eukaryonts the occurrence of the cell nucleus constitutes specifically ndogenous rhythms in plants as well as in the animal kingdom.

Schad, Wolfgang

125

Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the construction of a telescope, a lunar hotel, a lunar solar power system or even harvesting of Helium-3. The preliminary design study shows the feasibility of both missions, meaning that ESA has the capability to put a man on the Moon to search for ice and bring him back safely with today's technology.

Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

126

Closer look at lunar volcanism  

SciTech Connect

Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

1984-01-01

127

Lunar transient phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar transient phenomena (LTP) sightings are classified into five categories: brightenings, darkenings, reddish colorations, bluish colorations, and obscurations. There is evidence that the remaining LTP's are of lunar origin. A substantial number of sightings are independently confirmed. They have been recorded on film and spectrograms, as well as with photoelectric photometers and polarization equipment. It suggested that the LTP's may be gentle outgassings of less-than-volcanic proportions.

Cameron, W. S.

1991-03-01

128

Oxygen from lunar regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarise the various methods that have been explored for the production of oxygen from lunar materials. Our main focus in this paper is on a novel approach developed at the University of Cambridge that employs molten salt electrochemistry to achieve the combined winning of oxygen and metal from solid lunar materials of varying composition. This makes the Cambridge process attractive because it will work equally well in mare as in highland regions.

Schwandt, C.; Hamilton, J. A.; Fray, D. J.; Crawford, I. A.

129

Lunar association with suicide.  

PubMed

Suicides in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, for 1972--1975 are tabulated by year, month of year, day of week, lunar phase, and holiday occurrence. Only lunar phase demonstrates a significant (p less than .01) variation in suicide rate; an increase is observed in this sample with respect to new moon phase but not for full moon phase. Explanations for this finding are considered, but the precise reasons remain unknown. PMID:613499

Jones, P K; Jones, S L

1977-01-01

130

Lunar Spectral Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral reflectance properties (0'.3-1.1 t) of a number of lunar mare, upland, and bright crater areas were observed with the use of ground-based telescopes. These new data are discussed in view of earlier studies in an attempt to provide a basis for more detailed interpretation. The spectral reflectivity curves (0.3-1.1 s) for all lunar areas studied consist of a

Thomas B. McCord; MICHAEL P. CttARETTE; Torrence V. Johnson; Larry A. Lebofsky; Carle Pieters; John B. Adams

1972-01-01

131

Rationale and robotics payload for a lunar polar lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study for a lunar polar lander conducted at ESA CDF Concurrent Design Facility until December 2005. The goal is to demonstrate lunar landing, survival and exploration technologies for the future, geochemical studies of the piles, and search for ice in permanent shadows. We describe the top objectives, mission analysis, design and associated lander and rover. We also describe the possible payload complement in discussion with the community. The robotic payload includes a nanorover, a regional rover with robotic arm and drilling capability. The sensors include cameras, spectrometers and analysis facilities.

Foing, B.; Hovland, S.; Les3 Lander Study Team

132

Settlement Behavior of Compacted Oklahoma Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous highway embankments experience post-construction settlement problems, such as bridge approach settlement that results in the 'bump at the end of the bridge'. One of the causes may be wetting-induced collapse settlement or simply, collapse settlem...

Y. Y. Lim G. A. Miller K. Kanthasamy K. Muraleetharan

2003-01-01

133

Lunar preform manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

134

A new theory of lunar magnetism.  

PubMed

In the hypothesis advanced here it is supposed that the field, in which rocks at the lunar surface acquired the remanent magnetization found through the Apollo project, arose from permanent magnetization of the deep interior of the moon. This theory involves the assumption that the moon, apart from a surface shell, accreted cold and remained below the Curie point of iron until sometime later than 3 x 10(9) years ago. The magnetization was acquired as the moon formed in a gas sphere in the strong magnetic field of the early sun. PMID:17774287

Runcorn, S K; Urey, H C

1973-05-11

135

Exploration of Lunar Craters using a Tracked Microrover Concept for the ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robotic exploration of the lunar terrain is a crucial step towards future manned missions. There is evidence to suggest water ice ores may be found in the base of deep, polar craters as a result of the meteorite impacts which created them. These regions are in a permanent state of darkened deep-freeze due to their extreme latitudes, allowing the ice to remain intact. Lunar terrain is extremely inhospitable to all but the most robust of exploration vehicles. Surface conditions around the rim of large craters are rarely favourable for the descent and, more importantly, ascent of a ground-based vehicle. The ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge tasked eight teams from Universities across Europe to build microrovers capable of climbing into a terrestrial analogue of such a lunar crater, search the base for small samples of ore simulants and return them to a lander site outside of the crater. The University of Surrey Space Centre team designed a tracked vehicle based on a modified Mobile Robots Pioneer 3-AT microrover. The Pioneer on-board computer and microcontroller allowed the microrover to be equipped with off-the-shelf components, including a stereo camera for navigation, wireless Ethernet communications system for teleoperation and 5 degree of freedom robotic manipulator.

Brunskill, C.; Smith, B.; Humphrey, S.; Makhlouta, M.; Baig, S.; Lappas, V.

136

Who Wins in Settlement Negotiations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

When lawsuits are resolved out of court, what determines the settlement price? This article uses a laboratory simulation and path analysis to estimate the relative importance of measurable variables in determining who wins the battle for the cooperative surplus. In the simulated negotiation conditions, seven variables explained more than half of the variation in settlement outcomes achieved by participants, with

Joseph Doherty

2009-01-01

137

Integrating the European Securities Settlement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross-border securities settlement in Europe is still said to be highly inefficient. One main reason can be seen in technical barriers between the different domestic settlement systems. Beside efforts to implement industry-specific communication standards an integration of the different settlement systems is necessary. The CSD-link model, the hub and spokes model, and the European CSD model aim to integrate European securities settlement. They have in common that they address the problem of interlinkage of national Central Securities Depositories and differ essentially in the way of achieving integration. These models are evaluated from a macro-economic perspective considering transaction costs, risks, and the integration of the cross-border securities settlement process.

Schaper, Torsten

138

Lunar dust and lunar simulant activation and monitoring.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA plans to resume human exploration of the Moon in the next decade. One of the pressing concerns is the effect that lunar dust (the fraction of the lunar regolith <20 µm in diameter) will have on systems, both human and mechanical, due to the fact that various problems were caused by dust during the Apollo missions. The loss of vacuum integrity in the lunar sample containers during the Apollo era ensured that the present lunar samples are not in the same condition as they were on the Moon; they have been passivated by oxygen and water vapor. To mitigate the harmful effects of lunar dust on humans, methods of “reactivating” the dust must be developed for experimentation, and, ideally, it should be possible to monitor the level of activity to determine methods of deactivating the dust in future lunar habitats. Here we present results demonstrating that simple grinding, as a simple analog to micrometeorite crushing, is capable of substantially activating lunar dust and lunar simulant, and it is possible to determine the level of chemical activity by monitoring the ability of the dust to produce hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solution. Comparisons between ground samples of lunar dust, lunar simulant, and quartz reveal that ground lunar dust is capable of producing over three times the amount of hydroxyl radicals as lunar simulant and an order of magnitude more than ground quartz.

Wallace, W. T.; Taylor, L. A.; Liu, Y.; Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Chen, B.; Jeevarajan, A. S.

2009-08-01

139

Lunar Quest Program and the International Lunar Network (ILN).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lunar and Planetary Science group at Marshall provides core capabilities to support the Agency's lunar exploration goals. ILN Anchor Nodes are currently in development by MSFC and APL under the Lunar Quest Program at MSFC. The Science objectives of th...

B. A. Cohen

2009-01-01

140

First Oxygen from Lunar Basalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmen...

M. A. Gibson C. W. Knudsen D. J. Brueneman H. Kanamori R. O. Ness

1993-01-01

141

Closer Look at Lunar Volcanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption p...

D. T. Vaniman G. Heiken G. J. Taylor

1984-01-01

142

The Lunar Albedo as Measured by LRO-LAMP: Space Weathering Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been in orbit since July 2009. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) [1] on board LRO has a primary focus of investigating the lunar poles (see abstracts by Gladstone et al. and Retherford et al., this meeting), searching for water frost in the permanently shadowed regions, as well as studying the lunar atmosphere. LAMP also makes measurements of the dayside lunar surface on each orbit. In this project, we utilize the LAMP dayside data to study the lunar surface and to understand its spectral variations. The canonical method for investigating the surface composition of planetary surfaces is nearinfrared spectroscopy. Here we utilize the ultraviolet wavelength range, shown to be sensitive to weathering effects and also containing diagnostic compositional features. We focus on data in the 110- 190 nm range.

Hendrix, A. R.; Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Feldman, P. D.; Stern, S. A.; Parker, J. W.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Horvath, D. G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Versteeg, M. H.; Steffl, A. J.; Mukherjee, J.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Rojas, P. M.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.

2011-10-01

143

The science of the lunar poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct imaging of interiors of polar shadowed craters has been accomplished by many instruments from the ultraviolet to the radar. Imaging radars on Chandrayaan-1 and LRO have identified anomalous craters that may contain rich water ice deposits. Neutron spectrometers on Lunar Prospector and LRO directly detected hydrogen enhancements at both poles. Spectacularly, the LCROSS impact experiment detected a wide range of volatile elements and species at Cabeus crater in the lunar south polar region. While these measurements have catapulted polar science forward, much remains to be understood about the polar system, both from analysis of the current data, and new missions planned and in development. The general state of the lunar atmosphere is planned to be addressed by the UV and neutral mass spectrometers carried by the planned NASA LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere And Dust Environment Explorer) spacecraft creating an important baseline. But more data is necessary, from an in situ direct assay of polar volatiles to measurements of species and fluxes into and out of the cold traps over lengthy timescales.

Lucey, P. G.

2011-12-01

144

Noninvasive Prospecting for Lunar Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of a lunar base is planned as the first step in sending humans to explore our solar system. One of the essential ingredients for supporting a manned lunar base is oxygen. Significant deposits of the mineral ilmenite, a titanium-iron oxide, are thought to occur on or near the lunar surface; oxygen can readily be extracted from ilmenite. A

John Meredith

2009-01-01

145

Widmanstatten ferrite in lunar iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of lunar matter recovered by Luna 16 are subjected to metallographic analyses. Based on thermodynamic analyses, the specific nature of the Widmanstatten ferrite found in the high-iron lunar metal is discussed. The Widmanstatten microstructure of the iron-nickel lunar metal differs morphologically from the Widmanstatten structure found in meteorities. Chemical data indicate similar processes are responsible for the development of

R. I. Mints; T. M. Petukhova; V. M. Segal; L. S. Tarasov

1975-01-01

146

Widmanstatten ferrite in lunar iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of lunar matter recovered by Luna 16 are subjected to metallographic analyses. Based on thermodynamic analyses, the specific nature of the Widmanstatten ferrite found in the high-iron lunar metal is discussed. The Widmanstatten microstructure of the iron-nickel lunar metal differs morphologically from the Widmanstatten structure found in meteorities. Chemical data indicate similar processes are responsible for the development of

R. I. Mints; T. M. Petukhova; V. M. Segal; L. S. Tarasov

1974-01-01

147

Lunar semimonthly signal in cloudiness: Lunar-phase or lunar-declination effect?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cloud amount summer nighttime data obtained from the 1994 to 2007 NASA satellite infrared and visible range measurements taken within the framework of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) were analyzed, and the contribution by lunar signal to the cloud amount was extracted. Although the fact of lunar influence on cloudiness is known, this investigation has made it possible to separate the lunar-phase and lunar-declination effects on cloudiness. The relative cloud amount tends to grow with a change in lunar phase from a quadrature to the New Moon or Full Moon and with an increase in lunar declination by absolute value. Both the effects are statistically significant, the lunar-declination effect is a little stronger. The obtained results do not seem to contradict the theory of lunar tides.

Pertsev, N.; Dalin, P.

2010-06-01

148

Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and radar experiments, a very sensitive magnetometer and gradiometer, a subsatellite, and a state-of-the-art optical communication system. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter concept is technologically challenging but feasible, and will gather unique, integrated, interdisciplinary data sets that are of high scientific interest and will provide an unprecedented new context for all other international lunar missions. In fact, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter will further establish Germany as a leader among space-faring nations and will demonstrate expertise and technological know-how, which is "Made in Germany". With its high visibility, LEO will foster the growing acceptance of space exploration in Germany and will capture the imagination of the general public.

Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

2007-08-01

149

An Overview of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), an accompanying payload to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission (Vondrak et al. 2010), was launched with LRO on 18 June 2009. The principle goal of the LCROSS mission was to shed light on the nature of the materials contained within permanently shadowed lunar craters. These Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs) are of considerable interest due to the very low temperatures, <120 K, found within the shadowed regions (Paige et al. 2010a, 2010b) and the possibility of accumulated, cold-trapped volatiles contained therein. Two previous lunar missions, Clementine and Lunar Prospector, have made measurements that indicate the possibility of water ice associated with these PSRs. LCROSS used the spent LRO Earth-lunar transfer rocket stage, an Atlas V Centaur upper stage, as a kinetic impactor, impacting a PSR on 9 October 2009 and throwing ejecta up into sunlight where it was observed. This impactor was guided to its target by a Shepherding Spacecraft (SSC) which also contained a number of instruments that observed the lunar impact. A campaign of terrestrial ground, Earth orbital and lunar orbital assets were also coordinated to observe the impact and subsequent crater and ejecta blanket. After observing the Centaur impact, the SSC became an impactor itself. The principal measurement goals of the LCROSS mission were to establish the form and concentration of the hydrogen-bearing material observed by Lunar Prospector, characterization of regolith within a PSR (including composition and physical properties), and the characterization of the perturbation to the lunar exosphere caused by the impact itself.

Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Heldmann, Jennifer; Ennico, Kimberly

2012-05-01

150

Lunar preform manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5k W, the proposed machine will run continuously, unmanned in fourteen day cycles, matching the length of moon days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris; Dorrity, J. Lewis

151

Generating lunar bistatic SAR images using Arecibo and Mini-RF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have employed the Arecibo Observatory Planetary Radar (AO) transmitter and the Mini-RF radar onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) as a receiver to collect bistatic data of the lunar surface. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability to form bistatic polarimetric imagery with spatial resolution on the order of 50m, and to create polarimetric maps that could potentially reveal the presence of ice in lunar permanently shadowed craters. We discuss the details of the signal processing techniques that are required to allow these products to be formed.

Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Bussey, Ben; Jakowatz, Charles V., Jr.

2012-05-01

152

Advanced and Intelligent Robotics for Lunar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future unmanned (and later again, manned) missions to the Moon will require several critical technologies from the realm of space robotics, that is electromechanical systems with several degrees of freedom and a limited amount of on-board autonomy. Prime examples of relevance for lunar missions are roving vehicles, manipulator arms and sample acquisition systems. This paper gives an overview of applicable technologies and their readiness that have been studied for lunar landing mission opportunities during this decade. Rovers that have been suggested for Europe's Euromoon lander initiative of the late 1990's were tethered short-range vehicles of less than 5 kg mass for deployment of geochemical instruments and so-called `Regional Rovers' of masses between 10 and 30 kg that on lunar Mare-like terrain could cover several 100 m range during mission durations of 5 to 10 Earth days and which would not be able to survive the lunar night. If deployed at high latitude regions, the Regional Rovers were conceived to be able to spend short times (several h) in shaded areas for measurements there. Development of both the tethered and the regional class has been funded by ESA and is still on-going. A much larger rover of the 300-500 kg class modeled after the Russian-French IARES prototype was proposed for the European LEDA lander scenario and could offer superior range capability and nighttime survival if nuclear power or at least a nuclear heat source were used. The Japanese Selene-B mission is planning to deploy a surface rover of the regional rover class of several 10's of kg mass. Sampling devices for lunar landing missions, generally also part of robotics technologies, are gaining renewed interest, in the context of lunar sample return missions (e.g. SPA-SR) but also for possible missions to elucidate the nature of the anomalous hydrogen concentrations in permanently shaded craters in the polar regions into which short-lived landers could be deployed which are tasked to perform subsurface regolith sampling and in-situ analyses of the regolith. Candidate sampling systems are soil core drills and self-penetrating Moles based on the Beagle 2 sampling Mole system.

Richter, L.

153

Modeling Lunar Radar Scattering From Icy Regoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For lunar orbital synthetic aperture radars, such as the Chandrayaan Mini-RF operating at S-Band (13cm) wavelength and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF operating at S-Band and X-Band (3-cm) wavelengths, it is important to understand and model the radar backscattering characteristics of the icy regoliths. If ices in the permanently shadowed areas of the lunar poles backscatters like the ices on Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites, then it will have a substantial radar enhancement characterized by a Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) greater than unity. We examine the possibilities that these distinct signatures may be diminished by factors such as a thin regolith covering and/or the ice occupies small patches within a larger radar pixel. Our first model for scattering from lunar surface assumes a simple mixing model consisting of diffuse and quasi- specular components. The quasi-specular component results from the surface and sub-surface layers that are oriented perpendicular to the radar's line-of-sight. The diffuse component associated with either rocks or ice is assumed to be uniformly bright, where backscatter is proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle. Rocks are assumed to have CPRs of unity while ices are assumed to have CPRs of 2 like those observed on Mercury, Mars and Galilean Satellites. This first model shows that radar signatures for ice and rocks are separable if the depolarized (SC, same sense circular) enhancements are larger than about 4 and are indistinguishable for smaller depolarized (SC) enhancements. Our second model addresses CPR changes for ice filling the pores of the regolith. Here only the quasi-specular backscatter from the surface and the diffuse backscattering from sub-surface rocks will change with increased abundances of ice in the regolith. This model indicates that only small indistinguishable changes in CPRs would occur.

Thompson, T. W.; Ustinov, E. A.

2007-12-01

154

Lunar neutrino physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and investigation of neutrinos is considered in terms of lunar observation with reference to TeV astronomy, the detection of SSC-type neutrino-beams, and detection based on neutrino acoustic radiation. Reference is made to the limitations of earth-based observations related to neutrinos which result from cosmic rays incident on the atmosphere, and the practical aspects of lunar observations are listed. One square km of lunar surface can be used as a shield for cosmic rays and a target for TeV neutrinos within which emerging muons are observed. An EeV detector based on acoustic detection of the moon's core is also proposed to investigate this energy range. The TeV-detection and acoustical experiments are concluded to be feasible experiments (contingent upon development of the appropriate technologies) which can yield significant results in the field of neutrino physics.

Learned, J. G.

1990-03-01

155

Lunar crane hook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The base and ball hook system is an attachment that is designed to be used on the lunar surface as an improved alternative to the common crane hook and eye system. The design proposed uses an omni-directional ball hook and base to overcome the design problems associated with a conventional crane hook. The base and ball hook is not sensitive to cable twist which would render a robotic lunar crane useless since there is little atmospheric resistance to dampen the motion of an oscillating member. The symmetric characteristics of the ball hook and base eliminates manual placement of the ball hook into the base; commonly associated with the typical hook and eye stem. The major advantage of the base and ball hook system is it's ease of couple and uncouple modes that are advantages during unmanned robotic lunar missions.

Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

1988-06-01

156

15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

2013-01-01

157

Lunar base siting.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are widely dispersed lunar sites of interest for known and potential resources, selenology and observatories. Discriminating characteristics include certain geologic and topographic features, local mineralogy and petrology, solar illumination, view of Earth and the celestial sphere, and soil engineering properties. Space vehicle arrival and departure trajectories favor equatorial and polar sites. Over time, base sites will be developed serving different purposes. Information may be the initial lunar "resource", in the form of observational and in-situ research. A base in Mare Smythii with subsidiary outposts is favorable for a variety of purposes, and preserves broad resource flexibility.

Staehle, R. L.; Burke, J. D.; Snyder, G. C.; Dowling, R.; Spudis, P. D.

158

Ground Cracking and Differential Settlement  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Ground cracking and differential settlement dueg to liquefaction of beach and Salinas River deposits damaged approach and abutment of bridge linking Moss Landing spit to the mainland, near Moss Landing Marine Laboratory....

2009-01-26

159

Clearing, Settlement, and Monetary Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper develops a general equilibrium model of the clearing and settlement of private payment instruments. Spatial separation, heterogeneous preference shocks and limited communication provide a role for private credit as a means of payment. Although ...

J. M. Lacker

1997-01-01

160

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar

S. K. Noble; M. E. Nall; R. A. French; K. G. Muery

2009-01-01

161

Lunar Topography and Crustal Thickness by KAGUYA (SELENE) Selenodesy Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched on September 14th, 2007 and continued its operation by June 11th, 2009. Laser altimeter(LALT) on board KAGUYA obtained the first precise global topography data with range accuracy of 5m [1]. In the polar regions where CLEMENTINE LIDAR could not obtain data, KAGUYA clarified topographic features including permanently shadowed areas. Distribution of solar

Sho Sasaki; Y. Ishihara; H. Araki; H. Noda; S. Goossens; N. Namiki; T. Iwata; H. Hanada; K. Matsumoto; N. Kawano; F. Kikuchi; Q. Liu; Y. Harada

2009-01-01

162

Lunar Influences On Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular beliefs on the effects of the Moon on the weather probably go back to when ancient civilisations followed a lunar calendar, and the Moon went from being a purely temporal reference to becoming a causal reference. The incoming heat flow on the Earth may vary slightly after solar activity. to and generate considerable effects. The light reflected from the

Dario Camuffo

2001-01-01

163

Lunar Influences On Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular beliefs on the effects of the Moon on the weather probably go back to when ancient civilisations followed a lunar calendar, and the Moon went from being a purely temporal reference to becoming a causal reference. The incoming heat flow on the Earth may vary slightly after solar activity. to and generate considerable effects. The light reflected from the

Dario Camuffo; Corso Stati Uniti

1999-01-01

164

Lunar Phases Planisphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

Shawl, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

165

Beneficiation of Lunar Ilmenite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and reg...

J. Ruiz

1991-01-01

166

A Lunar Chronology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses methods used in determination of absolute isotopic ages for the returned lunar material, including the uranium-lead, rubidium-strontium, and argon 40-argon 39 ratio methods. Indicates that there would exist a basin-forming bombardment period for the Moon extending over at least 300 million years. (CC)|

Schaeffer, Oliver A.

1973-01-01

167

Lunar Exploration Orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase 0 investigations for the German Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO) mission were carried out during 2007 leading to a sophisticated mission concept currently in phase A to be further detailed. Following an announcement of opportunity, also in 2007, the German Space Agency (DLR) received several proposals for the instrumentation of the LEO mission from the national science community. A board

Carsten Henselowsky; Ralf Jaumann; Uwe Kummer; Friedhelm Claasen

2008-01-01

168

Lunar Biaxial Pointing Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optical electronic devices, similar to the Aerobee Solar Pointing Control (see PB-153 442 or AD-247 034), were designed, fabricated and tested to orient rocket-borne lunar spectrographs toward the moon with a pointing accuracy of 15 minutes of arc, or les...

F. E. Wise F. C. Wilshusen V. Stone R. Mason

1966-01-01

169

Lunar Dimensions: Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annotated bibliography compiled from Soviet open sources published 1964-1966 and one Chicom open source published in 1965. It is the second in a series and it reflects Soviet developments from about mid-1965 in investigating lunar revolution, rotation,...

1966-01-01

170

For Lunar Rock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion is reported of the spaceflights by Soviet devices to the moon and the results of the research which they carried out on the lunar surface. The work performed by the Lunokhod-1 is described and the results of an analysis of the samples of luna...

G. S. Narimanov L. Lebedev V. Alekseyev

1973-01-01

171

Lunar regolith densification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core tube samples of the lunar regolith obtained during the Apollo missions showed a rapid increase in the density of the regolith with depth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the possible cause of this phenomenon, including the densification of the loose regolith material by repeated shaking from the seismic tremors which have been found to occur at regular monthly

Hon-Yim Ko; Stein Sture

1991-01-01

172

Lunar orbiter gravity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results to date of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) effort at analyzing the tracking data from the five Lunar Orbiter spacecraft. Emphasis is placed on the long-arc evaluation, to which most of the work was directed, rather than on the mascon analysis, which will be reported separately.

J. Lorell

1970-01-01

173

A Lunar Chronology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods used in determination of absolute isotopic ages for the returned lunar material, including the uranium-lead, rubidium-strontium, and argon 40-argon 39 ratio methods. Indicates that there would exist a basin-forming bombardment period for the Moon extending over at least 300 million years. (CC)

Schaeffer, Oliver A.

1973-01-01

174

The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar Engineering Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore the Hadley Rille site; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by Apollo 15 thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of the parts of the Rille that were considered too dangerous to be explored by the Apollo 15 crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. When we asked what we could do to motivate students the way the authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon, we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon, as is going to the Moo n. The students seem to agree.

Miller, D.; Hougen, D.; Shirley, D.

175

The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

2003-06-01

176

The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet changing science objectives. The two main technical disadvantages of the Moon are: 1) its gravity field; and 2) direct Sun and Earth light. The gravity term is manageable. It also appears to be feasible to shield the telescope from direct sun and Earth light and from scattering from nearby lunar terrain. Thermal disturbances to the telescope also appear to be manageable by proper shielding, enabling the telescope to become as cold as if it were at a lunar pole crater. If these conditions are met, the telescope could be at a logistically convenient location near the Lunar Outpost. We want to address a concept that is significantly different from those presented in the preliminary communications from Garth Illingworth in order to help fill in the matrix of possibilities. This option, moreover, is of special interest to JPL and could be an area where JPL can contribute in future studies.

Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

1990-01-01

177

Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the ionosphere is an important experimental concern as it reduces the pulse amplitude and subsequent chances of detection. We are continuing to investigate a new method to calibrate the dispersive effect of the ionosphere on lunar Cherenkov pulses via Faraday rotation measurements of the Moon's polarised emission combined with geomagnetic field models. We also extend this work to include radio imaging of the Lunar surface, which provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the lunar surface that may affect experimental strategies for the lunar Cherenkov technique.

McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

2013-05-01

178

Statistical Models of Lunar Rocks and Regolith.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mathematical, statistical, and computational approaches used in the investigation of the interrelationship of lunar fragmental material, regolith, lunar rocks, and lunar craters are described. The first two phases of the work explored the sensitivity ...

A. H. Marcus

1973-01-01

179

Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In polar regions of the Moon, there are areas within craters that are permanently shadowed from solar illumination, which can reach temperatures of 100K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding 50K in many cases. Temperatures observed in theses regions suggest that they could enable equivalent liquid nitrogen cryogenic functions. These permanently shaded polar craters also offer unprecedented high vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their current state could support cryogenic applications. The unique conditions at the lunar poles, besides ice stores, harbor an environment that provides an opportunity to reduce the power, weight and total mass that needs to be carried from the Earth to the moon for lunar exploration and research. Reducing the heat flux of geothermal, black body radiation can have significant impacts on the achievable temperature. With a few man-made augmentations, permanently shaded craters located near the lunar poles achieve temperatures even lower than those that naturally exist there. Our analysis reveals that lightweight thermal shielding, within shaded craters, could create an environment several Kelvin above absolute zero. The temperature ranges of naturally shaded craters and thermally augmented ones could enable the long-term storage of most gases, low temperature superconductors for large magnetic fields, devices and advanced high speed computing instruments. Augmenting thermal conditions in these craters could then be used as a basis for the development of an advanced thermal management architecture that would support a wide variety of cryogenically based applications. Lunar exploration and habitation capabilities would significantly benefit if permanently shaded craters, augmented with thermal shielding, were to be used to facilitate the operation of near absolute zero instruments, including wide variety of cryogenically based propulsion, energy, communication, sensing and computing devices. Potentially, the required burden of carrying massive life-supporting components from the Earth to the moon for lunar exploration and research could be reduced.

Ryan, R. E.; McKellip, R. C.; Brannon, D. P.; Underwood, L. W.; Russell, K. J.

2007-12-01

180

Lunar gravity - A harmonic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sixteenth-degree and sixteenth-order spherical harmonic lunar gravity field has been derived from the long-term Keplerian variations in the orbits of the Apollo subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter 5. This model resolves the major mascon gravity anomalies of the lunar near side and is in very good agreement with line-of-sight acceleration results. The far-side map shows the major ringed basins to

A. J. Ferrari

1977-01-01

181

Lunar thermal anomalies: infrared observations.  

PubMed

The lunar craters Tycho, Copernicus, and Aristarchus have been observed during lunar night at wavelengths between 3 and 14 microns. After an initial fast decrease to a color temperature of 220 degrees K, the temperature remains nearly constant through the lunar night. The data suggest that these thermal anomalies (craters) contain hot and cold regions with the hot portions constituting 2 to 10 percent of the area and probably thermally connected to a subsurface temperatuer of about 200 degrees K. PMID:17800369

Allen, D A; Ney, E P

1969-04-25

182

Lunar Base 2015 Stage 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a design study for a modular Lunar Base built of at least six cylindrical modules. For launching an ARIANE-Rocket with a payload of 12 ton can be used. To land the modules on the moon the author has designed a Teleoperated Rocket Crane, which is assembled in the Lunar Orbit. The modules are made of aluminium sheets, using a double-shell structure to protect a crew of eight astronauts from radiation, micrometeorites, heat and low temperatures during the lunar night. Lunar material (regolith) is used for shielding.

Grandl, Werner

2007-02-01

183

Adhesion of Lunar Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

Walton, Otis R.

2007-04-01

184

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-03-01

185

48 CFR 49.109-7 - Settlement by determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...if a settlement proposal is not submitted...Justification of settlement proposal. (1) The contractor...The transmittal letter shall advise the...forms for settlement proposals prescribed in...formats of settlement agreements in 49.603 to...

2012-10-01

186

Carbothermal Reduction of Lunar Materials for Oxygen Production on the Moon: Reduction of Lunar Simulants with Methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of extraterrestrial resources will become a key element in space exploration and colonization of the Moon and Mars in the 21st century. Indeed, the development and operation of in-situ manufacturing plants are required to enable the establishment of permanent lunar and Martian bases. Oxygen manufacture for life support and propulsion will be the most important manufacturing process for the first of these plants. The Carbothermal Reduction Process for the manufacture of oxygen from lunar materials has three essential steps: the reduction of ferrous oxide and metallic silicates with methane to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen; the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen to form methane and water; and the electrolysis of water to form oxygen and hydrogen. This closed cyclic process does not depend upon the presence of water or water precursors in the lunar materials. It produces oxygen from silicates regardless of their precise composition and fine structure. In accord with the Statement of Work of Contract NAS 9-19080, Carbothermal Reduction of Lunar Materials for Oxygen Production on the Moon, ORBITEC has placed emphasis on the following issues to gain a better understanding of the Carbothermal Reduction Reaction of lunar regolith and to develop a low-risk, light-weight design for a lunar lander experiment: (1) highly efficient, i.e., greater than 95%, reduction of the lunar simulants with methane; (2) determination of conditions, particularly temperatures, required for initial and complete reduction of the lunar simulants; (3) identification of the products formed, gases and solids; (4) determination of solid product properties; (5) determination of reaction rates and mechanisms; and (6) demonstration of container materials. The most important of these issues were: (1) efficient reduction of the lunar simulants, i.e., JSC-1 and MLS-1A, with methane; (2) identification of the products formed , i.e., carbon monoxide, metals, e.g., iron and silicon, and slags, e.g., complex silicates; and (3) delivery of methane to the surface of the molten simulants without premature pyrolysis of the methane. The results of this empirical research are reported in this paper.

Rosenberg, S. D.; Musbah, O.; Rice, E. E.

1996-03-01

187

Carbothermal Reduction of Lunar Materials for Oxygen Production on the Moon: Reduction of Lunar Simulants with Carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of extraterrestrial resources will become a key element in space exploration and colonization of the Moon and Mars in the 21st century. Indeed, the development and operation of in-situ manufacturing plants are required to enable the establishment of permanent lunar and Martian bases. Oxygen manufacture for life support and propulsion will be the most important manufacturing process for the first of these plants. The Carbothermal Reduction Process for the manufacture of oxygen from lunar materials has three essential steps: the reduction of ferrous oxide and metallic silicates with methane to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen; the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen to form methane and water; and the electrolysis of water to form oxygen and hydrogen. This closed cyclic process does not depend upon the presence of water or water precursors in the lunar materials. It produces oxygen from silicates regardless of their precise composition and fine structure. In accord with the Statement of Work of Contract NAS 9-19080, Carbothermal Reduction of Lunar Materials for Oxygen Production on the Moon, ORBITEC has placed emphasis on the following issues to gain a better understanding of the Carbothermal Reduction Reaction of lunar regolith and to develop a low-risk, light-weight design for a lunar lander experiment: (1) reduction of lunar simulants with carbon (or equivalent); (2) determination of conditions, particularly temperatures, required for initial and complete reduction of lunar simulants by the carbon-containing reducing agents; (3) identification of the products formed, gases and solids; (4) determination of solid product properties; (5) determination of reaction rates and mechanisms; (6) selection and demonstration of container materials; and (7) selection and demonstration of heating methods. The most important of these issues were: (1) reduction of lunar simulants, i.e., JSC-1, MLS-1A, Ilmenite, and Gruenerite, with carbon, i.e., graphite; (2) identification of the products formed , i.e., carbon monoxide, metals, e.g., iron and silicon, and slags, e.g., complex silicates; (3) selection and demonstration of container materials, e.g., stabilized zirconia and yttria; and (4) selection and demonstration of heating methods. The results of this empirical research are reported in this paper.

Rosenberg, S. D.; Musbah, O.; Rice, E. E.

1996-03-01

188

An update on the MoonLite Lunar mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2008 the UK BNSC/STFC announced that it would undertake a phase-A study of the proposed 4 penetrator lunar mission, MoonLITE. A status report will be given which includes: a brief science overview; technological assessment (including some results of the first impact trials) and identification of critical areas; organisation and plans for the phase A; longer term plans given a successful phase A; and role of international collaborations. Background: The MoonLITE mission involves implanting 4 penetrators globally spaced at impact speeds of ~300m/s and is aimed for launch in 2014 and operate for 1 year. Each penetrator is designed to come to rest a few metres under the lunar surface to provide a solid emplacement for an effective seismic network and for geochemical and heat flow investigations. Polar emplacement will also allow an exciting ability to characterize the presence of water-ice currently indirectly inferred in the permanently shaded craters. They will also allow investigation of the presence of other volatiles, possibly including organics of astrobiologic interest. MoonLITE can also provide strong support for future human lunar missions including seismic detection of large quakes of surface regions which may dangerous to the construction of lunar habitation or observation facilities; and the possible presence and concentration of water which is important to support future human missions. Potential International Collaboration: The timing of this mission may allow arrangement of coincident impacts of other spacecraft which are at the end of their natural mission lifetime, to provide strong artificial seismic signals to allow probing the deep interior of the Moon. Perhaps no better way to end an otherwise very successful mission ? In addition, the presence of multiple Lunar orbiting spacecraft may allow the possibility of inter-communication between different missions to enhance telemetry rates from the lunar surface and provide mission fault tolerance.

Gowen, R.

2009-04-01

189

Lunar agriculture in Mesoamerica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the moon' s role in choosing the proper time for planting, harvesting and woodcutting is widely attested in ethnographic reports, the cultural logic and structure of actions by which this celestial body is perceived and used has not been satisfactorily explained. The aim of this paper is to offer such an explanatory framework within which the role of the moon in the agricultural cycle may be explained. My examples of the beliefs about lunar agriculture derive from the Mesoamerican cultural tradition.

Iwaniszewski, S.

190

Astrogeology - lunar geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA discussion of the morphology of lunar surface features is given. The circular features are, principally, impact craters, volcanic craters, and ring-structures. There is evidence for lava flows and for isostatic adjustments of the larger rings. Adjustments have also taken place by faulting and, on a global scale, ridgelineaments thought to be fault-controlled conform to a definite pattern. There appears

Gilbert Fielder

1966-01-01

191

Lunar concrete for construction  

SciTech Connect

Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Our experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Cullingford, H.S.; Keller, M.D.

1988-01-01

192

Uses of lunar sulfur  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

1988-01-01

193

Concept for a Radioisotope Powered Dual Mode Lunar Rover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over three decades ago, the Apollo missions manifestly demonstrated the value of a lunar rover to expand the exploration activities of lunar astronauts. The stated plan of the new Vision for Space Exploration to establish a permanent presence on the moon in the next decades gives new impetus to providing long range roving and exploration capability in support of the siting, construction, and maintenance of future human bases. The incorporation of radioisotope power systems and telerobotic capability in the design has the potential to significantly expand the capability of such a rover, allowing continuous operation during the full lunar day/night cycle, as well as enabling exploration in permanently shadowed regions that may be of interest to humans for the resources they may hold. This paper describes a concept that builds on earlier studies originated in the Apollo program for a Dual Mode (crewed and telerobotic) Lunar Roving Vehicle (DMLRV). The goal of this vehicle would be to provide a multipurpose infrastructure element and remote science platform for the exploration of the moon. The DMLRV would be essential for extending the productivity of human exploration crews, and would provide a unique capability for diverse long-range, long-duration science exploration between human visits. With minimal reconfiguration this vehicle could also provide the basic platform to support a range of site survey and preparation activities in anticipation of the establishment of a permanent human presence on the moon. A conceptual design is presented for the DMLRV, including discussion of mission architecture, vehicle performance, representative science payload accommodation, and equipment and crew radiation considerations.

Elliott, John O.; Schriener, Timothy M.; Coste, Keith

2006-01-01

194

Lunar crescent visibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of five Moonwatches, in which more than 2000 observers throughout North America attempted to sight the thin lunar crescent. For each Moonwatch we were able to determine the position of the Lunar Date Line (LDL), the line along which a normal observer has a 50% probability of spotting the Moon. The observational LDLs were then compared with predicted LDLs derived from crescent visibility prediction algorithms. We find that ancient and medieval rules are higly unreliable. More recent empirical criteria, based on the relative altitude and azimuth of the Moon at the time of sunset, have a reasonable accuracy, with the best specific formulation being due to Yallop. The modern theoretical model by Schaefer (based on the physiology of the human eye and the local observing conditions) is found to have the least systematic error, the least average error, and the least maximum error of all models tested. Analysis of the observations also provided information about atmospheric, optical and human factors that affect the observations. We show that observational lunar calendars have a natural bias to begin early.

Doggett, L. E.; Schaefer, B. E.

1994-02-01

195

Religion and Lunar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

Pop, V.

196

37 CFR 11.26 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...34 is filed, a settlement conference may occur between the OED Director and the practitioner. Any offers of compromise and...discussions shall not be admissible in subsequent proceedings. The OED Director may recommend to the USPTO Director any settlement...

2013-07-01

197

45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the...

2011-10-01

198

7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the...

2012-01-01

199

7 CFR 1786.32 - Settlement procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...settlements with borrowers involved. (d) Repayment of FFB. Prior to 1:00 p.m. prevailing local time in New York, New York, on the settlement date, the borrower shall wire immediately available funds to RUS through the...

2013-01-01

200

Lunar Crater Rays Point to a New Lunar Time Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Time Scale should be reevaluated -- suggest remote sensing studies of lunar crater rays by B. Ray Hawke (University of Hawaii) and colleagues at the University of Hawaii, NovaSol, Cornell University, National Air and Space Museum, and Northwestern University. These scientists have found that the mere presence of crater rays is not a reliable indicator that the crater

L. M. V. Martel

2004-01-01

201

The lunar exploration and lunar science in the coming years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar exploration has come to a new period during these years. From 1990, several missions have been launched; several new missions are under preparation and will be launched in the following years. The Space Agency of China is thinking about developing our own lunar exploration project. These missions will study the origin and the evolution of the Moon by using

Jing-Song Ping

2003-01-01

202

Joint Workshop on New Technologies for Lunar Resource Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop included talks on NASA's and DOE's role in Space Exploration Initiative, lunar geology, lunar resources, the strategy for the first lunar outpost, and an industry perspective on lunar resources. The sessions focused on four major aspects of lunar resource assessment: (1) Earth-based remote sensing of the Moon; (2) lunar orbital remote sensing; (3) lunar lander and roving investigations;

Rick C. Elphic; David S. McKay

1992-01-01

203

Spatial variation in the environmental control of crab larval settlement in a micro-tidal austral estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Settlement of benthic marine invertebrates is determined by the interaction between physical factors and biological processes, in which the tide, wind, and predation can play key roles, especially for species that recruit within estuaries. This complexity promotes high variability in recruitment and limited predictability of the size of annual cohorts. This study describes the settlement patterns of megalopae of the commercially important crab Cancer edwardsii at three locations (one in the center and two at the mouth of the estuary) within the Valdivia River estuary (~39.9°S), over three consecutive years (2006-2008). At each location, 12 passive benthic collectors with a natural substratum were deployed for 48 h at 7-day intervals, over a lunar cycle. Half of the collectors were covered with mesh to exclude predators. The main findings were as follows: (1) circulation changes due to upwelling relaxation or onshore winds controlled crab settlement at sites within the mouth of the estuary, (2) at the internal estuarine site, settlement was dominated by tidal effects, and (3) the effect of predation on settlement was negligible at all scales. The results show that the predominant physical factor controlling the return of competent crab larvae to estuarine environments varies spatially within the estuary. The lack of tidal influence on settlement at the mouth of the estuary can be explained by the overwhelming influence of the intense upwelling fronts and the micro-tidal regime in the study area.

Pardo, Luis Miguel; Cardyn, Carlos Simón; Garcés-Vargas, José

2012-09-01

204

Satellite SAR and Human Settlement Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the peculiar features of human settlement areas, with enormous variance of objects and the resulting variability and possibly also ambiguity of data, such areas represent the most demanding cases for information extraction from SAR data. This research is particularly aimed at human settlement mapping at a regional scale. Indeed, informal settlement monitoring is an important topic for the

Paolo Gamba; Fabio Dell' Acqua; Giovanna Trianni

2007-01-01

205

Real Estate Settlement Pricing: A Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the pricing of real estate settlement services. Prices charged by real estate brokers, title insurers, private mortgage companies and other settlement service providers have been a public policy issue for a decade. The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 did little to alleviate public concerns or change pricing practices.The paper provides both a conceptual framework and

Kevin E. Villani; John Simonson

1982-01-01

206

Design of the Scarab Rover for Mobility & Drilling in the Lunar Cold Traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scarab is a demonstration of a lunar rover design to explore polar cold traps for water ice as a potential resource. The envisioned mission scenario lands the rover on the floor of a permanently shadowed crater. The radioisotope powered rover then traverses kilometers in darkness, stopping to drill into the near subsurface and take data. The vehicle design employs a

Paul W. Bartlett; David Wettergreen; William Whittaker

207

Design and emplacement of an integrated lunar power system - Issues and concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues regarding the construction and operation of a stationary lunar surface power system that must be resolved in order to create a permanent manned presence on the moon are addressed. The issues considered include: (1) the centralization or decentralization of the electrical power system; (2) whether power transmission should be ac or dc; (3) what mix of power generating technology

Kenneth M. Sprouse; James E. Robin; Kenneth J. Metcalf; Robert Cataldo

1991-01-01

208

Lunar South Polar Hydrogen Concentrations in the Context of LRO\\/Diviner Results and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Moon, the leakage flux of cosmic ray-generated epithermal neutrons depends strongly on soil hydrogen content, and less strongly on other factors such as soil temperature [Lawrence et al., 2006]. For the lunar polar regions where warm sunlit features lie adjacent to permanently-shadowed (and very cold) areas, and where significant seasonal changes occur, it is important to take soil

R. C. Elphic; D. A. Paige; M. A. Siegler; A. R. Vasavada; D. J. Lawrence; M. R. James; J. L. Bandfield

2009-01-01

209

LRO Reveals 'Recent' Lunar Activity  

NASA Video Gallery

New images acquired by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft show that the moon's crust is being slightly stretched, forming small valleys - at least in some small areas. High-resolution images obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) provide evidence that these valleys are very young, suggesting the moon has experienced relatively recent geologic activity.

gsfcvideo

2012-02-17

210

The origin of lunar craters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of four hypotheses concerning the origin of lunar craters, taking into account the bubble hypothesis, the tide hypothesis, the volcanic hypothesis, and the impact hypothesis. A description is given of a series of experiments on impact craters and studies of a meteorite crater in Arizona are considered. It is concluded that the typical lunar craters can

Alfred Wegener; A. M. Celâl ?engör

1975-01-01

211

NASA's Lunar Robotic Architecture Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the findings and analysis of a 60-day agency-wide Lunar Robotic Architecture Study (LRAS) conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Work on this study began in January 2006. Its purpose was to: Define a lunar robotics architecture by addressing the following issues: 1) Do we need robotic missions at all? If so, why and under

Daniel R. Mulville

2006-01-01

212

Refractory materials from lunar resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refractories - materials which are able to withstand extremely high temperatures - are sure to be an important part of any processing facility or human outpost which is built on Mars. Containers for processing lunar oxygen will need high temperature components. Fabrication of structural material from lunar resources need both containment vessels to hold high temperature melts and molds in

B. D. Fabes; W. H. Poisl

1991-01-01

213

Lunar science: The Apollo Legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general review of lunar science is presented, utilizing two themes: a summary of fundamental problems relating to the composition, structure, and history of the moon and a discussion of some surprising, unanticipated results obtained from Apollo lunar science. (1) The moon has a crust of approximately 60-km thickness, probably composed of feldspar-rich rocks. Such rocks are exposed at the

D. S. Burnett

1975-01-01

214

Thermodynamics of Lunar Ilmenite Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel ...

B. H. Altenberg H. A. Franklin C. H. Jones

1993-01-01

215

SMART-1 Lunar Science Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SMART-1 spacecraft reached lunar capture on 17 November 2004, and on 15 March 2005 a lunar orbit 400-3000 km for a nominal science period of six months, with 1 year science extension. We report on the SMART-1 science planning methods, tools and lesson

Koschny, D.; Foing, B. H.; Frew, D.; Almeida, M.; Sarkarati, M.; Volp, J.; Grande, M.; Huovelin, J.; Josset, J.-L.; Nathues, A.; Malkki, A.; Noci, G.; Kellett, B.; Beauvivre, S.; Heather, D.; Zender, J.; McMannamon, P.; Schwehm, G.; Camino, O.; Blake, R.

2007-03-01

216

Russia sets sights on lunar base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vladimir Popovkin, director of Roscomos, the Russian Federal Space Agency, said the agency is setting its sights on the Moon. “We strongly feel that it is time for us to start working toward being able to establish a permanent base on the Moon,” Popovkin said at a 22 May panel discussion and news briefing held in conjunction with the Global Space Exploration Conference in Washington, D. C. Establishing a goal of lunar exploration does not mean that Roscomos is giving up on other priorities such as exploration of Mars, asteroids, or the moons of Jupiter, Popovkin said. “We have much better chances to come up with very productive and tangible results while concentrating on Moon exploration,” he said, noting the findings of water in polar areas.

Showstack, Randy

2012-06-01

217

Conceptual Design of a Lunar Colony.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A systems engineering study is presented for a proposed lunar colony. The lunar colony was to grow from an existent, 12-man, earth-dependent lunar surface base and was to utilize lunar resources, becoming as earth-independent as possible. An in-depth trea...

C. Dalton E. Hohmann

1972-01-01

218

Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar

John Hodge

1993-01-01

219

Developing the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) was developed to aid instructors in assessing students' mental models of lunar phases. Based upon an in-depth qualitative investigation of students' initial models of lunar phases, this multiple- choice inventory was designed to take advantage of the innovative model analysis theory (1) to probe the different dimensions of students' mental models of lunar phases.

Rebecca S. Lindell; James P. Olsen

220

Lunar Global Petrologic Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An initial attempt at producing petrologic province maps of the lunar highlands combined orbital and sample geochemical data in variation diagrams.Three different variation diagrams were produced: Mg* (= 100 Mg/Mg+Fe) vs. [(Th/Ti)c, Al vs. Mg*/(Th/Ti)c, and Fe vs. (Th/Ti)c. ([Th/Ti]c is the ratio of Th to Ti, normalized to the chrondritic ratio for these elements.] Later work applied a ternary diagram approach to look at global lunar petrologic variations. This work used the Fe-(Th/Ti)c technique as this had the most spatial coverage with the available data and also appeared to be adequate at distinguishing between different rock types. In the ternary diagram, the apexes were assigned the average Fe and (Th/Ti), values of ferroan anorthosite, mare basalt, and KREEP rocks. Each apex was assigned a primary color while the center of the triangle was represented by gray. Each point on the lunar surface, covered by the Apollo geochemical instruments, was then assigned a color depending on where in the ternary their composition placed them. The resultant petrologic classification map shows how the petrologic units vary spatially. The main results from this work were as follows: (1) The highlands contain large areas of relatively pure ferroan anorthosite; (2) KREEP/Mg suite rocks represent a small percentage of the upper lunar crust; (3) farside outcrops of KREEP/ Mg suite rocks are associated with areas of crustal thinning, particularly on the floor of South Pole Aitken Basin; (4) the average composition of the highlands is richer in Fe than ferroan anorthosite, which supports the magma ocean hypothesis of crystal formation; and (5) regions of the eastern limb and farside highlands are relatively more mafic than average highlands. These areas have a high density of dark halo craters, supporting the idea that mare volcanism occurred in this region before the end of the heavy bombardment. This earlier work utilized the Apollo gamma and X-ray orbital datasets. These data provided limited coverage of the lunar surface (mostly confined to the equatorial latitudes). The gamma ray instrument covered approximately 19% of the lunar surface while the X-ray only covered 9%. With the Clementine and Lunar Prospector datasets, we now have global maps of Fe, Ti, and Th. Apart from global coverage, another important advantage of the new datasets is higher spatial resolution. The resolution of the Apollo instruments was 15 km for the X-ray and 100 km for the gamma ray. The Fe and Ti maps are derived from the full-resolution Clementine UV-VIS data, i.e., about 250 m/pixel. The resolution of the Th data, obtained by Lunar Prospector's neutron spectrometer, is currently about 150 km, but will be available in the future with a spatial resolution of 60 km. The other improvement provided by the recent lunar missions is the error associated with the data. The errors associated with the Fe, Ti, and Th values obtained by Apollo were 10-25 wt%. The error of the Clementine-derived Fe and Ti values is about 1% while the Th data have an error of about 1 ppm. We intend to investigate the petrologic variations on the Moon at a global scale using the new Clementine and Lunar Prospector elemental maps for Fe, Ti, and Th. We shall use the technique described in Davis and Spudis. An initial study has been undertaken that looks at some regions that were covered by the Apollo geochemistry data. Two mare regions, one in Imbrium and the other in Procellarum, match well with the results using the Apollo data. The highland terrain appears problematic. The calibration of the Th data is based on the assumption of a constant background. This is a valid assumption where Th counts are well above background limits, but as count rates decrease variations in Th concentration are more sensitive to background fluctuations. Eventually we will circumvent this problem by using the lower-altitude (i.e., higher resolution) Prospector data and a calibration derived from deconvolution of the gamma ray spectra with proper attention to background variations. The Th/Ti vs. Fe technique p

Bussey, D. B. J.; Spudis, P. D.; Gillis, J. J.

1999-01-01

221

Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape.  

PubMed

Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km(2)) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples. PMID:15210963

Kirch, P V; Hartshorn, A S; Chadwick, O A; Vitousek, P M; Sherrod, D R; Coil, J; Holm, L; Sharp, W D

2004-06-21

222

Lunar Surface Morphology and Composition using Chandrayaan-1 TMC and Hyper-Spectral Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data provided by instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 has been extensively used to pursue questions related to lunar science and to understand lunar evolution and lunar resources. Significant contributions to newer aspects of lunar geosciences have been addressed by the use of data provided by Chandrayaan-1 TMC and Hyperspectral instruments. Large number of lunar science studies in particular to study the morphology, surface age determination and composition of the Moon have resulted in better understanding of lunar evolutionary processes. Three instruments of Chandrayaan-1, Hyperspectral Imager (HYSI) of ISRO, Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) of NASA/JPL and SIR-2 of placecountry-regionGermany have provided new data on lunar surface composition by measuring lunar surface reflectance in an extended range of 0.4 to 3.0 mm of electromagnetic spectrum. Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) provided high resolution stereoscopic images of Moon surface at 5m spatial resolution for photo-geological mapping and three dimensional visualization. Compositional mapping of the Moon surfaces based on spectroscopy has been carried out using remotely acquired reflectance spectra from HySI, Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and SIR-2 spectrometers. Towards the generation of science data, spectral lunar surface radiance data was converted to obtain surface reflectance in sixty four bands of HySI imager in the spectral region of 0.4 to 0.95 mm and corrections to photometric effects were done to normalized the lunar reflectance to a common viewing geometry. HySI reflectance data was used to map various lithological units of the Mare Moscoviense on the far side of the Moon. Five major compositional units of highland basin soils, ancient mature mare, highland contaminated mare, buried lava flows with low Ca-pyroxene and young mare units were identified. The central park of Tycho crater was studied in detail by using TMC, HySI and M3 data. Newer aspects about its morphology and composition have been reported by using these data sets. Compositionally, M3 data suggested that the lava ponds and channels on the summit of the central peak are dominated by high-Ca pyroxene rich rocks with sparse distribution of olivine. These new findings suggest that Tycho's central peak has undergone multiphase post-impact volcanic events. A new Lunar mineral Mg-Spinel was discovered at the central placePlaceTypepeak of PlaceNameCrater Theophilus on the near side of the Moon. These newly identified Mg-Spinel rich rock types are defined by their strong 2-? m absorption and lack of 1-? m absorptions in spectral reflectance response. High spatial resolution TMC data had been used extensively for studying the morphology of impact craters and to understand the impact cratering mechanism over lunar highlands and mare basatls. TMC data was used to study lunar morphological features such as lava tubes, sinous rilles, volcanic domes etc. Lunar surface is known to have presence of sinous rilles, which are believed to be collapsed lave tubes. A Lunar volcanic tube (figure 4) around ˜4 km length was identified as a potential source of future human settlement on the Moon using TMC images and digital elevation data in the Oceanus Procellarum region of the Moon. TMC data have also been used for absolute dating of lunar surface by employing. Studies have also been done to study the lunar non-mare volcanism around domes and few such domes were identified in the Mare Procellarum region of the Moon.

Chauhan, Prakash; Ajai, A.; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

2012-07-01

223

Living on the Lunar Surface: Determining the Health Effects of Exposure to Respirable Lunar Dusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to determine the toxicological effects of lunar dust. This interdisciplinary group is comprised of leading experts in space toxicology, lunar geology, space medicine and biomedical research.

Khan-Mayberry, N. N.

2008-07-01

224

Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Ne...

D. S. Draper J. F. Rapp

2013-01-01

225

Lunar Calendars - the Missing Date Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies on global visibility of the new lunar crescent have revealed the systematic nature of the phenomenon and have given rise to a global international date-line system suitable for the internationalization of the lunar calendar based on the concept of "first visibility". Extending this study to several lunar calendars has shown that the lunar date-line concept is a natural and integral part of lunar calendrical systems.

Ilyas, M.

1986-12-01

226

Modeling Lunar Radar Scatter from Icy Regoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For lunar orbital synthetic aperture radars, such as the Chandrayaan Mini-RF operating at S-Band (13cm) wavelength and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF operating at S-Band and X-Band (3-cm) wavelengths, it is important to understand and model the radar backscattering characteristics of the icy regoliths. If ice in the permanently shadowed areas of the lunar poles backscatters like the ices on Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites, then it will have a substantial radar enhancement characterized by a Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) greater than unity. We examine the possibilities that these distinct signatures may be diminished by factors such as a thin regolith covering, and/or the ice occupies small patches within a larger radar pixel. Our first model for scattering from lunar surface assumes a simple mixing model consisting of diffuse and quasi-specular components. The quasi-specular component results from the surface and sub-surface layers that are oriented perpendicular to the radar’s line-of-sight. The diffuse component associated with either rocks or ice is assumed to be uniformly bright, with the backscatter being proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle. Rocks are assumed to have CPRs of unity while ices are assumed to have CPRs of 2 like those observed on Mercury, Mars and Galilean Satellites. This first model shows that radar signatures for ice and rocks are separable if the same-sense circular (SC) enhancements are greater than about 2-4. A preliminary validation using LRO radar data for a few polar and mid-latitude craters indicate that the observed CPRs are consistent with our models for different regolith ice and roughness conditions. Our second model addresses CPR variations for ice filling the pores of the regolith. Here the quasi-specular backscatter from the surface and buried crater ejecta as well as diffuse backscatter from sub-surface rocks will change with increased abundances of ice in the regolith. This second model indicates that only small indistinguishable changes in CPRs would occur.

Thompson, T. W.; Heggy, E.; Ustinov, E. A.

2010-12-01

227

Observe a lunar eclipse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth science animation enables middle and high school students to observe the events of a lunar eclipse. The introduction explains why the moon's appearance changes as is moves through the Earth's shadow. The animation shows the moon darken as it enters the penumbra, turn reddish-orange as it reaches the umbra, and lighten as it leaves the other side of the penumbra. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

228

Lunar Phases Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts the moon's rotation around the Earth and the corresponding view from a single point on the Earth as time elapses. The representation has 4 animated components: 1) A view of rotating earth and moon, shown from above 2) A clock face showing the passage of time 3) An view from Earth of the of sky, sun and moon and changing to indicate day and night views 4) A 28-day calendar The four components interactively depict lunar phases over 28 day cycle.

229

Lunar Phases: Addressing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was designed to address student misconceptions about why the Moon exhibits phases. Using a sketchbook, digital camera, or flex cam, a student sits at the center of a darkened room illuminated by a single light source in a stationary position. Stools are set up surrounding the student in the center and other students take those positions, always keeping their faces toward the center. The center student sketches or take pictures of the faces at each of the positions. Substituting a sphere (such as a ball) for the students' faces provides an even more vivid illustration of the shadowing of the sphere and connects directly to the rationale for lunar phases.

Childs, Philip

230

Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife  

PubMed Central

Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated.

Green, Jack

2009-01-01

231

SAGE III Lunar Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAGE III instrument measures the vertical distribution of atmospheric gases and aerosols by measuring the attenuation of the sun or moon's rays observed through the limb of the earth's atmosphere. The lunar measurements increase the SAGE III/Meteor mission's geographic coverage and create the opportunity to detect the nocturnal species nitrogen trioxide and chlorine dioxide, in addition to ozone and nitrogen dioxide. This paper describes the techniques employed to perform the chemical species retrieval, altitude registration, and preliminary results of the first 15 months of data.

Moore, J. R.; Zawodny, J. M.

2003-12-01

232

Lunar Influences On Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Popular beliefs on the effects of the Moon on the weather probably go back to when ancient civilisations followed a lunar calendar, and the Moon went from being a purely temporal reference to becoming a causal reference. The incoming heat flow on the Earth may vary slightly after solar activity. to and generate considerable effects. The light reflected from the Moon has also been hypothesised as a cause, but the associated energy is too small. The anomalistic period of the Moon (i.e., 27.5 days) coincides substantially with that of the sunspots found on the 17-18th parallel of the heliocentric latitude. Climatic modulation which lasts for around 27.5 days should be related to solar activity, which supplies energy with an amount of two orders of magnitude greater than the lunar-reflected energy. Another mechanism responsible for climatic variations is the redistribution of heat on the Earth. The Moon with the tides induces movement of the water masses of the oceans and with this there is a transport of heat. Semidiurnal lunar tides have been identified, although with modest impact, in the atmospheric pressure, the wind field and the precipitation. On a monthly time scale, variation of daily precipitation data shows that gravitational tides do indeed affect heavy rainfalls more than mean precipitation values. On the longer time scale, several authors have identified the 18.6-yr nutation cycle, which is clearly visible in several data analyses, but often it cannot be easily distinguished from the 19.9 Saturn-Jupiter cycle and the quasi-regular 22-yr double sunspot cycle which at times may be dominant. In the time scale of centuries, covering a number of periods with minimum solar activity, an analysis of meteorological data has demonstrated that only the Spörer Minimum (A.D. 1416-1534) was characterised by climatic anomalies., whereas the other periods had no singularities, or else the weak climate forcing was covered or masked by other factors, leaving the question still open. In practice, lunar and solar influences can be found and have been demonstrated with more or less the same level of confidence. Both have the same order of magnitude, and are generally weak, interacting, and being often masked by local effects.

Camuffo, Dario

233

RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE NEED FOR RESOURCES: When mankind returns to the moon, there will be an aspect of the architecture that will totally change how we explore the solar system. We will take the first steps towards breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables by extracting resources from planetary bodies. Our first efforts in this area, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), will be to extract the abundant oxygen found in the lunar regolith. But the "holy grail" of lunar ISRU will be finding an exploitable source of lunar hydrogen. If we can find a source of extractable hydrogen, it would provide a foundation for true independence from Earth. With in-situ hydrogen (or water) and oxygen we can produce many of the major consumables needed to operate a lunar outpost. We would have water to drink, oxygen to breath, as well as rocket propellants and fuel cell reagents to enable extended access and operations on the moon. These items make up a huge percentage of the mass launched from the Earth. Producing them in-situ would significantly reduce the cost of operating a lunar outpost while increasing payload availability for science. PROSPECTING: The Lunar Prospector found evidence of elevated hydrogen at the lunar poles, and measurements made at these locations from the Clementine mission bistatic radar have been interpreted as correlating to water/ice concentrations. At the South Pole, there is reasonably strong correlation between the elevated areas of hydrogen and permanently shadowed craters. However, there is considerable debate on the form and concentration of this hydrogen since the orbiting satellites had limited resolution and their data can be interpreted in different ways. The varying interpretations are based on differing opinions and theories of lunar environment, evolution, and cometary bombardment within the lunar Science community. The only way to truly answer this question from both a Science and resource availability perspective is to go to the lunar poles and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of interstellar volatiles from cold molecular clouds. These sources leave distinctive s

Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

2007-08-01

234

The study of lunar rotation by Japanese lunar landing missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal structure of the planet is one of the important clues to know its origin and evolution. So far, gravity, rotation, seismic wave, electro-magnetic wave, and heat flow observations have been carried out. In these methods, we plan to load rotation estimation instrument for next Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE-2 and SELENE-3. LLR: The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) is the method to measure the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser beam. For more than 30 years since the Apollo and the Lunokhod mission placed retrograde reflectors on the Moon, LLR produced data on the lunar rotation as well as the lunar orbital evolution. On the basis of LLR data, the state of lunar interior is discussed. Williams discussed the dissipation between the solid mantle and a fluid core from LLR data. LLR observation has also provided information of moment of inertia and tidal Love number of the Moon. We are proposing a new LLR on board SELENE-II. Instead of conventional corner cube reflector (CCR) array, we are planning to use a larger single reflector. This has an advantage over the conventional CCR array, because a single cube should have smaller distance variation within the reflector upon monthly libration of the lunar rotation. We are proposing that a new reflector should be somewhere in the southern hemisphere on the nearside Moon. Then in combination with a powerful A15 CCR, latitudinal component of lunar libration and its dissipation can be measured precisely. We also prepare the inverse-VLBI and ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) missions for post-SELENE-2 mission. ILOM: ILOM is a selenodetic mission to study lunar rotational dynamics by direct observations of the lunar physical libration and the free librations from the lunar surface with an accuracy of 1 millisecond of arc in the post-SELENE project. Year-long trajectories of the stars provide information on various components of the physicallibrations and we will also try to detect the lunar free librations in order to investigate the lunar mantle and the liquid core. The PZT on the moon is similar to that used for the international latitude observations of the Earth is applied. The measurement of the rotation of the Moon is one of the essential technique to obtain the information of the internal structure. As the result of thermal analysis of the ILOM system, it is difficult to attain such an accuracy on the lunar surface if we use an objectives with combination of conventional lenses. We are developing a new system with diffractive lense and adaptive optics which can be used on the lunar surface. iVLBI: In the inverse VLBI mission, two or more artificial radio sources are loaded on multiple landers. These transmit radio signals and the differences of the distance between landers and ground VLBI station are measured. This differential range measurement is sensitive to the rotation of the Moon. This new lunar rotation estimation method will contribute to investigate the internal structure of the Moon and can be used to confirm the conventional LLR results. In the presentation, the detail of the instruments, scientific target, and recent status are presented. We also introduce the latest results of the Japanese lunar exploration project Kaguya, especially new SELENE gravity model (SGM), k2 value, and moment of inertia in particular are shown.

Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Hanada, Hideo; Noda, Hirotomo; Sasaki, Sho; Iwata, Takahiro

2010-05-01

235

Evidence for the involvement of p38 MAPK activation in barnacle larval settlement.  

PubMed

The barnacle Balanus (?=?Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

2012-10-24

236

Possible lunar ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the conventional wisdom that there are no lunar ores, geochemical considerations suggest that local concentrations of useful rare elements exist on the Moon in spite of its extreme dryness. The Moon underwent protracted igneous activity in its history, and certain magmatic processes can concentrate incompatible elements even if anhydrous. Such processes include: (1) separation of a magma into immiscible liquid phases (depending on composition, these could be silicate-silicate, silicate-oxide, silicate-sulfide, or silicate-salt); (2) cumulate deposits in layered igneous intrusions; and (3) concentrations of rare, refractory, lithophile elements (e.g., Be, Li, Zr) in highly differentiated, silica-rich magmas, as in the lunar granites. Terrestrial mining experience indicates that the single most important characteristic of a potential ore is its concentration of the desire element. The utility of a planet as a resource base is that the welter of interacting processes over geologic time can concentrate rare element automatically. This advantage is squandered if adequate exploration for ores is not first carried out.

Gillett, Stephen L.

237

Characterizing Lunar Crustal Geology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our initiative to return to the Moon, knowledge of regional crustal geology is necessary both for locating resources of scientific interest and for establishing a sustained human presence. Characterizing crustal geology with global remote sensing data is difficult due to the types of weathering processes experienced by an airless, geologically torpid planetary body, which tend to reduce lithologic contrast and obscure the lithology of true bedrock. Fortunately, these processes are relatively straightforward, involving parameters with largely understood, fixed rates of flux. We describe a methodology for characterizing the chemical and mineralogical compositions of discrete geologic units, interpreted from remotely sensed surface spectra. The method utilizes two established techniques: small impact ejecta viewing and extrapolation (SIEVE) (McCord et al., JGR 1981; Staid & Pieters, LPSC 29; Kramer et al., LPSC 36; Kramer et al., JGR (in review)) and spectral mixing analysis (SMA) (Adams & Gillespie, Cambridge Univ. Press 2006, and references therein). The results of this work will be invaluable for identifying regions of interest for current and future lunar missions, such as Chandrayaan-1, carrying NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Furthermore, the methodology can be used to explore other planetary bodies that experience similar weathering processes (e.g., Mercury, Ceres, Vesta, and Mars).

Kramer, G.; Combe, J.; McCord, T.

2007-12-01

238

Approximating the ?-permanent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard matrix permanent is the solution to a number of combinatorial and graph-theoretic problems, and the ?-weighted permanent is the density function for a class of Cox processes called boson processes. The exact computation of the ordinary permanent is known to be #P-complete, and the same appears to be the case for the ?-permanent for most values of ?.

S. C. Kou; P. McCullagh

2009-01-01

239

Tests of the lunar hypothesis  

SciTech Connect

The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

Taylor, S.R.

1984-01-01

240

Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double Ackermann steering. The primary power of 8 kW is supplied by a dynamic isotope system using a closed Brayton cycle with a xenon-hydrogen mixture as the working fluid.

241

Lunar topography from earth-based radar interferometric mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An incomplete knowledge of the topography of the Moon has hindered the solution to several problems in lunar science and comparative planetology. The lack of elevation data over the polar regions and the generally sparse coverage in non-equatorial areas have restricted investigations related to the global shape of the Moon, impact cratering processes, and the possible presence of water ice at the lunar poles. Three-dimensional maps of the nearside and polar regions of the Moon can be obtained with an Earth-based radar interferometer. This technique allows surface heights to be accurately measured from the relative phase between radar echoes recorded at two separate receiving stations. The 70 m antenna and several 34 m stations of the Deep Space Network in California were configured as a radar interferometer for a sequence of observations in 1997. This experiment provided the first detailed topographic maps of the lunar polar regions, with a coverage of 300 x 1200 km at each pole. Elevation maps and radar imagery were also obtained for a 200 x 200 km region centered on Tycho Crater, the freshest large crater on the Moon. With a surface resolution of 150 m and a height resolution of 50 m or better, the radar maps represent significant improvements compared to existing lunar topographic data sets. The digital elevation model of Tycho Crater was used to determine the fundamental parameters of the crater's shape. The data revealed an asymmetry in floor elevations, rim heights, and wall slump zones, which may be related to an oblique nature for the impact. The topographic maps of the polar areas were used to verify previous estimates of global shape parameters for the Moon, and to locate regions which are in permanent shadow from solar illumination. The actual locations of the cold traps, potential reservoirs of ice deposits, are delineated on radar images of the lunar polar areas.

Margot, Jean-Luc C.

1999-09-01

242

CIS-lunar space infrastructure lunar technologies: Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technologies necessary for the creation of a cis-Lunar infrastructure, namely: (1) automation and robotics; (2) life support systems; (3) fluid management; (4) propulsion; and (5) rotating technologies, are explored. The technological focal point is on the development of automated and robotic systems for the implementation of a Lunar Oasis produced by Automation and Robotics (LOAR). Under direction from the NASA Office of Exploration, automation and robotics were extensively utilized as an initiating stage in the return to the Moon. A pair of autonomous rovers, modular in design and built from interchangeable and specialized components, is proposed. Utilizing a buddy system, these rovers will be able to support each other and to enhance their individual capabilities. One rover primarily explores and maps while the second rover tests the feasibility of various materials-processing techniques. The automated missions emphasize availability and potential uses of Lunar resources, and the deployment and operations of the LOAR program. An experimental bio-volume is put into place as the precursor to a Lunar environmentally controlled life support system. The bio-volume will determine the reproduction, growth and production characteristics of various life forms housed on the Lunar surface. Physicochemical regenerative technologies and stored resources will be used to buffer biological disturbances of the bio-volume environment. The in situ Lunar resources will be both tested and used within this bio-volume. Second phase development on the Lunar surface calls for manned operations. Repairs and re-configuration of the initial framework will ensue. An autonomously-initiated manned Lunar oasis can become an essential component of the United States space program.

Faller, W.; Hoehn, A.; Johnson, S.; Moos, P.; Wiltberger, N.

243

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

2011-12-01

244

Scientific preparations for lunar exploration with the European Lunar Lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent Lunar missions and new scientific results in multiple disciplines have shown that working and operating in the complex lunar environment and exploiting the Moon as a platform for scientific research and further exploration poses major challenges. Underlying these challenges are fundamental scientific unknowns regarding the Moon's surface, its environment, the effects of this environment and the availability of potential resources. The European Lunar Lander is a mission proposed by the European Space Agency to prepare for future exploration. The mission provides an opportunity to address some of these key unknowns and provide information of importance for future exploration activities. Areas of particular interest for investigation on the Lunar Lander include the integrated plasma, dust, charge and radiation environment and its effects, the properties of lunar dust and its physical effects on systems and physiological effects on humans, the availability, distribution and potential application of in situ resources for future exploration. A model payload has then been derived, taking these objectives to account and considering potential payloads proposed through a request for information, and the mission's boundary conditions. While exploration preparation has driven the definition there is a significant synergy with investigations associated with fundamental scientific questions. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission, which emphasise human exploration preparatory science and introduces the model scientific payload considered as part of the on-going mission studies, in advance of a formal instrument selection.

Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Houdou, B.

2012-12-01

245

KPNO LUNAR OCCULTATION SUMMARY. III  

SciTech Connect

The results for 251 lunar occultation events recorded at Kitt Peak National Observatory are presented, including 20 observations of known or suspected double stars and five measurements of stars with resolved angular diameters.

Schmidtke, P. C. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Africano, J. L., E-mail: paul.schmidtke@asu.ed [Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2011-01-15

246

Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The orbit support for Lunar Prospector (LP) consists of three main areas: (1) cislunar orbit determination, (2) rapid maneuver assessment using Doppler residuals, and (3) routine mapping orbit determination. The cislunar phase consisted of two trajectory ...

M. Beckman M. Concha

1998-01-01

247

Lunar Exploration. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers information about lunar exploration, the telescope, and space travel. Suggests that landing on the moon and returning to Earth is one of the most significant technological accomplishments. Includes a student quiz, outcomes, and references. (JOW)|

Ritz, John M.

1995-01-01

248

Power options for lunar exploration  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the types of power systems available for providing power on the moon. Lunar missions of exploration, in situ resource utilization, and colonization will be constrained by availability of adequate power. The length of the lunar night places severe limitations on solar power system designs, because a large portion of the system mass is devoted to energy storage. The selection of the ideal power source hardware will require compatibility with not only the lunar base power requirements and environment, but also with the conversion, storage, and transmission equipment. In addition, further analysis to determine the optimum operating parameters for a given power system should be conducted so that critical technologies can be identified in the early stages of base development. This paper describes the various concepts proposed for providing power on the lunar surface and compare their ranges of applicability. The importance of a systems approach to the integration of these components will also be discussed.

Bamberger, J.A.; Gaustad, K.L.

1992-01-01

249

Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

1993-03-01

250

First oxygen from lunar basalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

1993-03-01

251

Solar and Lunar Eclipse Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Solar and Lunar Eclipse model simulates the occurrences of solar and lunar eclipses. Moon's orbital inclination of 5.145 degrees with respect to the ecliptic (the Earth-Sun orbital plane) is what is responsible for solar and lunar eclipses not occurring every month. In addition, the orbital plane of Moon precesses every 8.85 years, the so-called precession of the apsides. The inclination and the motion of Moon and Earth are depicted (the size of Sun, Earth, and Moon and the size of Moon's orbit are not shown to scale). The illuminated sides of Earth and Moon and the regions of possible eclipses (in yellow and green) are also depicted. In the Ecliptic View, the motion of Sun and Moon across the sky (+/- 7 degrees from the ecliptic) are shown. Moon's phase is shown and solar and lunar eclipses can occur on the ecliptic when Earth, Sun, and Moon line up properly.

Belloni, Mario; Timberlake, Todd

2009-11-13

252

Lunar Transit Telescope Lander Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor...

H. A. Omar

1991-01-01

253

Lunar Exploration. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers information about lunar exploration, the telescope, and space travel. Suggests that landing on the moon and returning to Earth is one of the most significant technological accomplishments. Includes a student quiz, outcomes, and references. (JOW)

Ritz, John M.

1995-01-01

254

Research Review: I. Lunar Geology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interview with a scientist associated with the lunar rock analysis program in which discoveries concerning the moon and their contribution to the understanding of the origins of the earth-moon system are discussed. (Author/AL)

Jacobsen, Sally

1972-01-01

255

Lunar Magmatic Volatiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples returned from the Apollo Missions prompted a variety of experimental investigations (e.g., [1-4]) which form the basis of our current understanding of lunar compositional evolution. The observed low abundances of solidus temperature-suppressing volatiles justified volatile-free experiments. However, the low-pressure nature of the samples makes it unlikely that volatiles were retained during magma ascent and eruption. In an effort to re-assess the lunar mantle volatile budget, we are focusing on the mineral apatite because of its incorporation of F, Cl, and OH as essential structural constituents and its greater ability to retain such volatiles relative to melt. Apatite grains analyzed from magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7111, 14161,7269 and 14161,7264), KREEPy impact melt rocks associated with magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7233; 14161,7110; 14161,7062; 12033,634-25; SaU 169-4), and mare basalts (79195; 12037,224; 74246; 12023,147,1; 10084; LAP 02205; LAP 03632; NWA 2977) by electron microprobe using the technique of [5,6] show two distinct compositional groups. Apatite from the mare basalts analyzed are primarily mixtures of fluor- "missing component" (OH?) apatite with low Cl abundance, while that from the magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks are fluor-chlor mixtures. Apatite/basaltic melt partition coefficients for F, Cl, and H2O from the data of [7] provide first estimates of magmatic volatile abundances in lunar magmas. They suggest that magmatic water may have been more abundant than F and Cl at the stage of apatite crystallization in mare basalts. In contrast, at this stage, the magmas that produced the Mg-and alkali suite minerals were F- and Cl-dominated. These results have wide-reaching implications regarding the chemical and physical evolution of the Moon and therefore, the next generation of experimental investigations. [1] Walker et al. 1973 EPSL 20, 325-336. [2] Walker et al. 1975 GCA 39, 1219-1235. [3] Longhi 1992 GCA 69, 1275-1286. [4] Longhi 2003 JGR 108, E8, doi:10.1029/2002JE001941. [5] Stormer et al. 1993 Am Min 78, 641. [6] McCubbin et al. 20081st NLSI Conference. [7] Mathez and Webster 2005 GCA 69, 1275-1286.

Nekvasil, H.; McCubbin, F. M.; Lindsley, D. H.

2009-05-01

256

Pressurized lunar rover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressurized lunar rover (PLR) consists of a 7 m long, 3 m diameter cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, directional lighting, cameras, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The PLR shell is constructed of a layered carbon-fiber/foam composite. The rover has six 1.5 m diameter wheels on the main body and two 1.5 m diameter wheels on the trailer. The wheels are constructed of composites and flex to increase traction and shock absorption. The wheels are each attached to a double A-arm aluminum suspension, which allows each wheel 1 m of vertical motion. In conjunction with a 0.75 m ground clearance, the suspension aids the rover in negotiating the uneven lunar terrain. The 15 N-m torque brushless electric motors are mounted with harmonic drive units inside each of the wheels. The rover is steered by electrically varying the speeds of the wheels on either side of the rover. The PLR trailer contains a radiosotope thermoelectric generator providing 6.7 kW. A secondary back-up energy storage system for short-term high-power needs is provided by a bank of batteries. The trailer can be detached to facilitate docking of the main body with the lunar base via an airlock located in the rear of the PLR. The airlock is also used for EVA operation during missions. Life support is a partly regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center. The water absorbs any damaging radiation, allowing the command center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. Guidance, navigation, and control are supplied by a strapdown inertial measurement unit that works with the on-board computer. Star mappers provide periodic error correction.

Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar

1992-05-01

257

Illumination Conditions in the Lunar Polar regions from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the illumination conditions in the polar regions of the Moon using topographic data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). From end of June to mid-September 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was in commissioning phase, in an elliptical (~30x200km) polar orbit, with its periapsis near the south pole. As a result, initial data collection and analysis has emphasized the southern hemisphere, particularly the south polar region. We construct Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of various resolutions to survey areas with extreme lighting conditions: permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and potential peaks of eternal light (PELs). We use the horizon shadow method (e.g., Dozier et al., 1981) over the ray-tracing approach, as it enables fast computations once the initial expensive computations are done. This allows us to explore the full range of possible Sun positions. After performing the calculations on relatively-coarse DEMs, higher-resolution models are used around specific areas of interest, in particular the LCROSS impact site. In addition to direct insolation, we assess, in a simplified way, the extent to which PSRs can be affected by scattered light. We compare our results to previous work performed with Kaguya LALT data (e.g., Noda et al., 2008). References: Dozier, J., J. Bruno, P. Downey (1981), "A Faster Solution to the Horizon Problem", Computers and Geosciences, vol.7, pp. 145-151. Noda, H., H. Araki, S. Goossens, Y. Ishihara, K. Matsumoto, S. Tazawa, N. Kawano, S. Sasaki (2008), Illumination conditions at the lunar polar regions by KAGUYA(SELENE) laser altimeter, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L24203, doi:10.1029/2008GL035692.

Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

2009-12-01

258

Lunar components in Lunping scintillations  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on an anlysis of a 14 year data set of ionospheric scintillation data for 136 MHz signals transmitted from a Japanese satellite. They use a lunar age superposition method to analyze this data, breaking the data into blocks by seasons of the year. They observe a number of different scintillation types in the record, as well as impacts of lunar tides on the time record. They attempt to provide an origin for the different scintillation types.

Koster, J.R.; Lue, H.Y.; Wu, Hsi-Shu [Fu Jen Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Huang, Yinn-Nien [Ministry of Transportation and Telecommunications, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

1993-08-01

259

Lunar Rb-Sr chronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been established with the aid of Rb-Sr studies that lunar chronology consists of five episodes, including the formation of the moon approximately 4.6 AE ago (1 AE = 1000 million years), a period of intense bombardment by planetary debris resulting in the formation of the major lunar basins, the end of this period at 3.9-4.0 AE ago, a

L. E. Nyquist

1977-01-01

260

APOLLO: Multiplexed Lunar Laser Ranging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) is a next- generation lunar laser ranging (LLR) campaign aimed at order-of-magnitude improvements in tests of gravitational physics via millimeter range precision. We will employ the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory (APO), located in southern New Mexico at an altitude of 2800 m. As a result of the large

T. W. Murphy; E. G. Adelberger; J. D. Strasburg; C. W. Stubbs

261

LUNAR GRAVITY: A HARMONIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sixteenth-degree and sixteenth- ing a selenopotential usable for global geophysi- order spherical harmonic lunar gravity field has cal analysis, errors still exist in the locations been derived from the long-term KeplerJan varia- of some prominent nearside anomalies. Errors of tions in the orbits of the Apollo subsatellites this type cause considerable problems when the and Lunar Orbiter 5. This

Alfred J. Ferrari

1977-01-01

262

Lunar Water: A Brief Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most exciting recent developments in the field of lunar science has been the unambiguous detection of water (either\\u000a as OH or H2O) or water ice on the Moon through instruments flown on a number of orbiting spacecraft missions. At the same time, continued\\u000a laboratory-based investigations of returned lunar samples by Apollo missions using high-precision, low-detection, analytical\\u000a instruments

Mahesh Anand

2010-01-01

263

Electrolysis of simulated lunar melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrolysis of molten lunar soil or rock is examined as an attractive means of wresting useful raw materials from lunar rocks. It requires only hat to melt the soil or rock and electricity to electrolyze it, and both can be developed from solar power. The conductivities of the simple silicate diopside, Mg CaSi2O6 were measured. Iron oxide was added to

R. H. Lewis; D. J. Lindstrom; L. A. Haskin

1985-01-01

264

Test Results from a Simulated High Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was modified to simulate high voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high frequency AC power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

2008-01-01

265

A computational procedure for predicting the long term residual settlement of a platform induced by repeated traffic loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general structural analysis approach is developed in the present paper, allowing the evaluation of the residual settlement of a platform induced by repeated traffic loading. It notably relies upon the formulation of a cyclic constitutive law, which describes the progressive accumulation of irreversible (permanent) deformations locally exhibited by the different underlying granular materials when subjected to long term stress

Malek Abdelkrim; Guy Bonnet; Patrick de Buhan

2003-01-01

266

Magnetization of the lunar crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields measured by the satellite Lunar Prospector show large scale features resulting from remanently magnetized crust. Vector data synthesized at satellite altitude from a spherical harmonic model of the lunar crustal field, and the radial component of the magnetometer data, have been used to produce spatially continuous global magnetization models for the lunar crust. The magnetization is expressed in terms of localized basis functions, with a magnetization solution selected having the smallest root-mean square magnetization for a given fit to the data, controlled by a damping parameter. Suites of magnetization models for layers with thicknesses between 10 and 50 km are able to reproduce much of the input data, with global misfits of less than 0.5 nT (within the uncertainties of the data), and some surface field estimates. The magnetization distributions show robust magnitudes for a range of model thicknesses and damping parameters, however the magnetization direction is unconstrained. These global models suggest that magnetized sources of the lunar crust can be represented by a 30 km thick magnetized layer. Average magnetization values in magnetized regions are 30-40 mA/m, similar to the measured magnetizations of the Apollo samples and significantly weaker than crustal magnetizations for Mars and the Earth. These are the first global magnetization models for the Moon, providing lower bounds on the magnitude of lunar crustal magnetization in the absence of multiple sample returns, and can be used to predict the crustal contribution to the lunar magnetic field at a particular location.

Carley, R. A.; Whaler, K. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Halekas, J. S.

2012-08-01

267

Lunar surface mine feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a lunar surface mine, and demonstrates the economic feasibility of mining oxygen from the moon. The mine will be at the Apollo 16 landing site. Mine design issues include pit size and shape, excavation equipment, muck transport, and processing requirements. The final mine design will be driven by production requirements, and constrained by the lunar environment. This mining scenario assumes the presence of an operating lunar base. Lunar base personnel will set-up a and run the mine. The goal of producing lunar oxygen is to reduce dependence on fuel shipped from Earth. Thus, the lunar base is the customer for the finished product. The perspective of this paper is that of a mining contractor who must produce a specific product at a remote location, pay local labor, and sell the product to an onsite captive market. To make a profit, it must be less costly to build and ship specialized equipment to the site, and pay high labor and operating costs, than to export the product directly to the site.

Blair, Brad R.

268

Lunar Phases Web Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phases of the moon have interested people for thousands of years. Although often appreciated, they are not as often understood. Professor Lawrence A. Molnar of the Physics & Astronomy Department at the Calvin College provides this Java based tutorial that demonstrates lunar phases clearly and logically. It includes sections on time of day, time of month, and apparent direction of the moon. The Java demonstrations are meant to complement the simple yet elegant and powerful explanations of concepts. A typical demonstration involves a stick figure human on the earth's surface who can be interactively moved as the rotation of the planet is moved, to show how the phases change relative to time and direction. A quiz and teacher information are also provided.

1998-01-01

269

The Early Lunar Orbit and Principal Moments of Inertia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If taken at face value, the principal lunar moments of inertia suggest that the Moon froze in a past tidal and rotational state during a high eccentricity orbit [1]. At this time the Moon may have been in either synchronous rotation or in a 3:2 resonance of spin and mean motion. We have performed further investigations of the plausibility of past high eccentricity lunar orbits on the basis of orbital evolution, the dynamics of entry into any past 3:2 resonance, and tidal dissipation. We have found that the requisite permanent (B-A)/C (where A, B, and C are the principal moments of inertia) for a 3:2 resonance can be achieved in a magma ocean if a density anomaly is present shortly after lunar accretion. In a high eccentricity orbit, tidal dissipation will affect the Moon's ability to develop lithospheric strength. The Moon is presently able to support degree-two loads, while Io, which is approximately the same size as the Moon and strongly heated by tidal dissipation, probably cannot [2]. Therefore, somewhere between the present lunar radioactive heating rate (~1012 W), and Io's observed dissipation (~1014 W), the Moon may develop lithospheric strength. We use 1014 W as a loose upper bound on where freeze-in may begin and find that in a 3:2 resonance tidal dissipation [3] can drop below 1014 W at a = 25 RE and e = 0.17, and the present moments of inertia can be approximately reproduced for lunar values of QM = 475 (where a is the lunar semimajor axis, RE is the Earth radius, and Q is the specific dissipation function). This value of QM is somewhat large, but the biggest problem with a 3:2 resonance that lasts until 25 RE is how to achieve the current low eccentricity synchronous orbit. The required damping cannot be easily achieved unless the Moon is knocked out of a 3:2 resonance by an impactor that would produce a crater approximately 800 km in diameter. In sum, there is no single strong constraint that completely rules out a 3:2 resonance, but it would require a rather specific set of circumstances. For the high-eccentricity (e = 0.49) synchronous solution to the moments of inertia, we have found that dissipation at e = 0.49 is several orders higher than 1014 W for QM less than 500 and k2 = 1.5 (where k2 is the second degree tidal Love number), and therefore freeze-in during such a scenario is almost completely ruled out (in agreement with Wisdom, unpublished notes). During the magma ocean phase of lunar history it is also possible that the lunar gravity field was too homogeneous to provide a sufficient permanent (B-A)/C for even synchronous rotation. In this case the Moon would achieve an asymptotic spin rate slightly faster than synchronous [4]. If during this very early time in lunar evolution, the Moon froze in even a small amount of its shape, it would be entirely rotational, and provide an alternative explanation for the high relative amount of rotational potential in the present degree-two gravity field. References: [1] Garrick-Bethell, I., Wisdom, J., Zuber, M. T. (2006) Science 313, 652-655. [2] Anderson, J. D. et al. (2001) J. of Geophys. Res. 106, 32963-32970. [3] Wisdom, J. (2007), in press. [4] Peale, S. J.; Gold, T. (1965) Nature 206, 1240.

Garrick-Bethell, I.; Zuber, M. T.

2007-12-01

270

Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar basalts are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar basalts suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar basalts (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar basalts, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in basalt (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar basalt viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar basaltic melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a saturation pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a basalt flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar basalts are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 181, 251. (2) Liu Y, Zhang YX, Behrens H (2005) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 143, 219. (3) Murase T, McBirney A (1970) Science 167, 1491. (4) Proussevitch AA, Sahagian DL (1998) J. Geophys. Res. 103, 18223. (5) Saal AE, Hauri EH, Cascio ML, et al. (2008) Nature 454, 192. (6) Zhang YX, Stolper EM (1991) Nature 351, 306.

Zhang, Y.

2009-05-01

271

Is the tobacco settlement constitutional?  

PubMed

In August 2005, the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI), a conservative advocacy organization, filed a lawsuit in Louisiana challenging the legality of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). The suit alleges that the MSA, under which the states receive monetary payments and the four major tobacco companies are insulated from price competition, violates the Compact Clause and other provisions of the U.S. Constitution. This lawsuit threatens to unravel of one of the most significant opportunities to improve public health in United States history. We consider the merits of the lawsuit, the problems with the MSA that it highlights, and the potential consequences of the suit for public health. PMID:17199817

Rajkumar, Rahul; Gross, Cary P; Forman, Howard P

2006-01-01

272

First ARTEMIS Spacecraft Successfully Enters Lunar Orbit  

NASA Website

The first of the two ARTEMIS spacecraft entered lunar orbit this morning. ARTEMIS was the first mission to orbit the moon's Lagrangian points and this is the first ever attempt to move from the Lagrangian into lunar orbit.

273

Infrared Spectra of Lunar Soil Analogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The infrared spectra of analogs of lunar soils were investigated to further the development of methodology for interpretation of remotely measured infrared spectra of the lunar surface. The optical constants of dunite, bytownite, augite, ilmenite, and a m...

J. R. Aronson

1977-01-01

274

Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Lunar Prospector Gamma-ray data and Clementine Spectral Reflectance data to revisit the interpretation of thorium abundances at the Gruithuisen red spot, with implications for other lunar red spots.

Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

2005-03-01

275

APOD: Lunar Dust and Duct Tape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Astronomy Picture of the Day shows the "dust flaps" that Apollo 17 astronauts jury-rigged on the lunar rover. The site describes the origin of lunar dust and provides links for further information.

2008-04-25

276

NASA Lunar Robotics for Science and Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the robotic missions that NASA and the international partnership are undertaking to investigate the moon to support science and exploration objectives. These missions include the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Cr...

A. R. Lavoie B. A. Cohen J. M. Horack P. A. Gilbert

2008-01-01

277

Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further exhibits are planned. One proposal is to develop a teacher-training program to acquaint teachers with the Lunar Quest program and to provide resources.

Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

2010-12-01

278

31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...settlement approval. 50.85 Section 50.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related to settlement...

2013-07-01

279

An explanation of bright areas inside Shackleton Crater at the Lunar South Pole other than water-ice deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

water molecules of cometary and/or solar wind origin migrated to and accumulated in cold permanently shadowed areas at the lunar poles has long been debated from the perspective of scientific interest and expectations for future utilization. Recently, high reflectance condition was observed inside the lunar South Pole Shackleton Crater for the 1064.4 nm of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the high reflectance was explained to perhaps be due to a surface frost layer in excess of 20% water-ice. Here we investigate the crater with the Selenological Engineering Explorer Multi-band imager that has nine bands in the visible to near-infrared range, including a 1050 nm band (62 m/pixel resolution). Part of the illuminated inner wall of Shackleton Crater exhibits high reflectance at 1050 nm but also exhibits the diagnostic 1250 nm spectral absorption, a signature that is consistent with naturally bright purest anorthosite.

Haruyama, Junichi; Yamamoto, Satoru; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Ohtake, Makiko; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

2013-08-01

280

Constraints on Hydrogen Mobility provided by High Spatial Resolution Studies of Epithermal Neutron Emission from the Lunar Poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clementine mission suggested that deposits of water ice might exist in the permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near the lunar South Pole [1]. Subsequent data of the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) showed suppression of epithermal neutrons at both poles above 70° latitude, which were interpreted to indicate enhancement of hydrogen, thought to be predominantly within PSR areas [2]. More recently the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) on board the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) showed, when examined with its high spatial resolution, that the regions of neutron suppression were not closely related to the PSRs [3]. Two of the PSRs, those associated with the Cabeus and Shoemaker craters, showed significant suppression of neutrons, but others did not. In this work we shall focus not on the neutron suppressed regions (NSRs); rather we are concerned with the hydrogen content of the region between the NSRs.

Boynton, W. V.; Droege, G. F.; Harshman, K.; Schaffner, M. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; McClanahan, T. P.

2012-09-01

281

Nanocomposite Permanent Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nanocomposite, rare earth permanent magnet comprising at least two rare earth- or yttrium-transition metal compounds. The nanocomposite, rare earth permanent magnet can be used at operating temperatures of about 130 to about 300 degrees C. and exhibits ...

D. Lee S. Liu

2004-01-01

282

Lunar NTR vehicle design and operations study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a lunar nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicle design and operations study are presented in text and graphic form. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the potential applications of a specific NTR design to past and current (First Lunar Outpost) mission profiles for piloted and cargo lunar missions, and to assess the applicability of utilizing lunar vehicle design concepts for Mars missions.

Hodge, John

283

Regolith Biological Shield for a Lunar Outpost from High Energy Solar Protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond Earth atmosphere, natural space radiation from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Protons (SEPs) represents a significant hazard to both manned and robotic missions. For lunar settlements, protecting astronauts from SEPs is a key safety issue that needs to be addressed by identifying appropriate shielding materials. This paper investigates the interaction of SEPs with the lunar regolith, and quantifies the effectiveness of the regolith as a biological shield for a human habitat, compared to aluminum, presently the standard shielding material. Also calculated is the shielding thickness to reduce the dose in the habitat to those recommended by International Radiation Protection Committee and by NASA for operation on the international space station. The present calculations are for the most energetic solar event of February 1956, which included high energy protons up to 1000 MeV. Results show that the lunar regolith is as effective as aluminum for shielding lunar outposts. A large thickness of the regolith (~30 g/cm2) would be needed to reduce the dose in the habitat from high energy protons below the 30 days flight crew limit of 25 Rem (or 250 mSv) and significantly more shielding would be needed (~150 g/cm2) to reduce the dose down to the limit for radiation workers of 5 Rem (or 50 mSv).

Pham, Tai T.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

2008-01-01

284

Regolith Biological Shield for a Lunar Outpost from High Energy Solar Protons  

SciTech Connect

Beyond Earth atmosphere, natural space radiation from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Protons (SEPs) represents a significant hazard to both manned and robotic missions. For lunar settlements, protecting astronauts from SEPs is a key safety issue that needs to be addressed by identifying appropriate shielding materials. This paper investigates the interaction of SEPs with the lunar regolith, and quantifies the effectiveness of the regolith as a biological shield for a human habitat, compared to aluminum, presently the standard shielding material. Also calculated is the shielding thickness to reduce the dose in the habitat to those recommended by International Radiation Protection Committee and by NASA for operation on the international space station. The present calculations are for the most energetic solar event of February 1956, which included high energy protons up to 1000 MeV. Results show that the lunar regolith is as effective as aluminum for shielding lunar outposts. A large thickness of the regolith ({approx}30 g/cm{sup 2}) would be needed to reduce the dose in the habitat from high energy protons below the 30 days flight crew limit of 25 Rem (or 250 mSv) and significantly more shielding would be needed ({approx}150 g/cm{sup 2}) to reduce the dose down to the limit for radiation workers of 5 Rem (or 50 mSv)

Pham, Tai T.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies and Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States)

2008-01-21

285

Lunar Mission Profiles for Commercial Space Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lunar mission profiles for manned commercial space operations utilizing existing hardware are analyzed: (1) direct insertion into a lunar transfer trajectory from a parking Earth orbit, similar to those used on Apollo missions; (2) insertion into a lunar transfer trajectory from a high elliptical parking orbit, similar to the elliptical phasing orbit profiles used on the Hughes satellite HGS-1

Andrew Meade; David Warden; Leroy Chiao

286

Geotechnical investigation strategies for lunar base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the important types of information on the geotechnical characterization of potential lunar sites are outlined, and some of the more promising strategies which might be used to obtain such information in the lunar environment are identified. Some of the most important geotechnical information for planning and site development pertains to construction in the lunar soil. Several techniques for

Dan A. Brown; Glenn Rix

1992-01-01

287

Feasibility Study on Lunar and Mars Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical memorandum summarizes the results of an in-house study on lunar and Mars drone explorations - observation, landing and mobile explorations and sample returns for lunar and Mars respectively. So far, lunar and planet explorations have been primarily performed by the United States and the Soviet Union. ISAS and ESA have also contributed to some extent. The main purpose

Hidehiko Mori; Yoshisada Takazawa; Yutaka Kaneko; Takeshi Kawazoe; Yutaka Takano; Eijiro Namura

1996-01-01

288

The Avalanche Deposits in Lunar Crater Reiner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Avalanching appears to be a major means of the current erosion on steep lunar slopes. The age of the observed lunar slope degradation is very young. However, the lunar triggering mechanism of the down slope movement of the material remains unclear.

Shevchenko, V. V.; Pinet, P. C.; Chevrel, S.; Daydou, Y.; Skobeleva, T. P.; Kvaratskhelia, O. I.; Rosemberg, C.

2007-03-01

289

Luminescence of Apollo 11 Lunar Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luminescence measurements were made of four lunar rocks, two terrestrial rocks (granite and gabbro), and one terrestrial mineral (willemite) by comparing the spectral curves with the curve of a barium sulfate standard. Efficiencies with 3000 angstrom excitation were <= 6 × 10-5 for the lunar samples, <= 8 × 10-5 for gabbro of very similar composition to the lunar samples,

Norman N. Greenman; H. Gerald Gross

1970-01-01

290

Kinetics of Hydrogen Release from Lunar Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With increasing interest in a lunar base, there is a need for extensive examination of possible lunar resources. Hydrogen will be needed on a lunar base for many activities including providing fuel, making water, and serving as a reducing agent in the ext...

R. Bustin

1990-01-01

291

Lunar geodesy and cartography: a new era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) ushers in a new era in precision lunar geodesy and cartography. LRO was launched in June, 2009, completed its Commissioning Phase in Septem-ber 2009 and is now in its Primary Mission Phase on its way to collecting high precision, global topographic and imaging data. Aboard LRO are the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA -Smith, et

Thomas Duxbury; David Smith; Mark Robinson; Maria T. Zuber; Gregory Neumann; Jacob Danton; Juergen Oberst; Brent Archinal; Philipp Glaeser

2010-01-01

292

Polar Lunar Power Ring: Propulsion Energy Resource.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A ring shaped grid of photovoltaic solar collectors encircling a lunar pole at 80 to 85 degrees latitude is proposed as the primary research, development, and construction goal for an initial lunar base. The polar Lunar Power Ring (LPR) is designed to pro...

G. S. Galloway

1990-01-01

293

Lunar regolith control and resource utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major process for weathering and erosion on the moon is micro-meteorite impact. This produces the outer blanket of the moon known as lunar regolith or soil, which consists of numerous particles of various sizes. Lunar dust (defined as particles Lt20um) makes up about 20 wt% of the typical lunar soil. Dust contamination causes serious problems for equipment and vehicles

Michael DiGiuseppe; Ronald Pirich; Val Kraut

2009-01-01

294

NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Cameras (LROC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO mission is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2008 as part of NASA s Robotic Lunar Exploration Program and is the first spacecraft to be built as part of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration The orbiter will be equipped with seven scientific instrument packages one of which is LROC The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

M. Robinson; A. McEwen; E. Eliason; B. Joliff; H. Hiesinger; M. Malin; P. Thomas; E. Turtle; S. Brylow

2006-01-01

295

On the origin of lunar magnetization (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of lunar remanent magnetization has remained an enigmatic topic ever since the first magnetic fields of lunar origin were detected during the Apollo era. Although the Moon does not at present possess a dipolar field of internal origin, it is possible that the lunar core might have once powered a geodynamo in its early history. Such a field,

M. A. Wieczorek; B. P. Weiss

2009-01-01

296

Emission Measurements of Lunar Analogues Measured in a Simulated Lunar Environment for Interpretation of Data Returned from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lunar thermal environment simulator has been constructed, in order to measure emission spectra of lunar analogue minerals in the same thermal environment as is present on the surface of the Moon. This data is directly comparable to measurements made by the Diviner instrument, currently in orbit around the Moon onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), allowing the composition of

I. R. Thomas; N. E. Bowles; B. T. Greenhagen; D. A. Paige

2009-01-01

297

Ways of Settlement in International Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ways of settlement used within international commercial relations have evolved continuously, as an effect of the evolution of the world economy, as a whole, but also as an effect of the evolution of information technology and message transmitting techniques. In the same manner, the ways of settlement which are used in tourism, have also evolved due to the necessity

Dumitru Toanca

2009-01-01

298

Who Wins in Settlement Negotiations&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

When lawsuits are resolved out of court, what determines the settlement price? This article uses a laboratory simulation and path analysis to estimate the relative importance of measurable variables in determining who wins the battle for the cooperative surplus. In the simulated negotiation conditions, seven variables explained more than half of the variation in settlement outcomes achieved by participants, with

Russell Korobkin; J. Doherty

2009-01-01

299

7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement...obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey that is delivered from other than an approved warehouse,...

2012-01-01

300

7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement...obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey that is delivered from other than an approved warehouse,...

2013-01-01

301

Sensitivity of Lunar Resource Economic Model to Lunar Ice Concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar Prospector mission data indicates sufficient concentration of hydrogen (presumed to be in the form of water ice) to form the basis for lunar in-situ mining activities to provide a source of propellant for near-Earth and solar system transport missions. A model being developed by JPL, Colorado School of Mines, and CSP, Inc. generates the necessary conditions under which a commercial enterprise could earn a sufficient rate of return to develop and operate a LEO propellant service for government and commercial customers. A combination of Lunar-derived propellants, L-1 staging, and orbital fuel depots could make commercial LEO/GEO development, inter-planetary missions and the human exploration and development of space more energy, cost, and mass efficient.

Blair, Brad; Diaz, Javier

2002-01-01

302

Lunar transit telescope lander design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

Omar, Husam A.

303

Lunar transit telescope lander design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

Omar, Husam A.

1991-10-01

304

Electrostatic charging of lunar dust  

SciTech Connect

Transient dust clouds suspended above the lunar surface were indicated by the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor spacecrafts and the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite Experiment (Apollo 17), for example. The theoretical models cannot fully explain these observations, but they all suggest that electrostatic charging of the lunar surface due to exposure to the solar wind plasma and UV radiation could result in levitation, transport and ejection of small grains. We report on our experimental studies of the electrostatic charging properties of an Apollo-17 soil sample and two lunar simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1. We have measured their charge after exposing individual grains to a beam of fast electrons with energies in the range of 20{<=}E{<=}90 eV. Our measurements indicate that the secondary electron emission yield of the Apollo-17 sample is intermediate between MLS-1 and JSC-1, closer to that of MLS-1. We will also discuss our plans to develop a laboratory lunar surface model, where time dependent illumination and plasma bombardment will closely emulate the conditions on the surface of the Moon.

Walch, Bob [Department of Physics, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado 80639 (United States); Horanyi, Mihaly [LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0392 (United States); Robertson, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0391 (United States)

1998-10-21

305

Two lunar global asymmetries  

SciTech Connect

The Moon's center of mass is displaced from its center of figure about 2 km in a roughly earthward direction. Most maria are on the side of the Moon which faces the Earth. It is assumed that the Moon was initially spherically symmetric. The emplacement of mare basalts transfers mass which produces most of the observed center of mass displacement toward the Earth. The cause of the asymmetric distribution of lunar maria was examined. The Moon is in a spin orbit coupled relationship with the Earth and the effect of the Earth's gravity on the Moon is asymmetric. The earth-facing side of the Moon is a gravitational favored location for the extrusion of mare basalt magma in the same way that the topographically lower floor of a large impact basin is a gravitationally favored location. This asymmetric effect increases inversely with the fourth power of the Earth Moon distance. The history of the Earth-Moon system includes: formation of the Moon by accretion processes in a heliocentric orbit near that of the Earth; a gravitational encounter with the Earth about 4 billion years ago resulting in capture of the Moon into a geocentric orbit and heating of the Moon through dissipation of energy related to tides raised during close approaches to the Earth(5) to produce mare basalt magma; and evolution of the Moon's orbit to its present position, slowly at first to accommodate more than 500 million years during which magmas were extruded.

Hartung, J.B.

1984-01-01

306

Lunar meteorites: three and counting  

SciTech Connect

After extensive tests at NASA's Johnson Space Center, a 31-gram stone found in the Allen Hills region of Antarctica in early 1982 and designated ALHA-81005, has been identified as a lunar meteorite. Following this discovery, two other specimens found in 1979 and 1982-83 near the Yamato Mountains in Japan were identified to be of lunar origin. Yamato-791197, a 25-gram meteorite, and another 37-gram meteorite have an unusual interior texture consisting of anorthosites, and a silicate mineral rich in calcium and aluminum, which is common among lunar highland breccia but rare in other meteorites. Other factors which were considered important in confirming that both rocks were from the moon were: the ratio of manganese to iron, and the relative abundance of three naturally occurring isotopes of oxygen (O-16, O-17 and O-18).

Beatty, J.K.

1984-09-01

307

Lunar Eclipse Observer Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Byron W. Soulsby, an amateur research astronomer who operates the Calwell Lunar Observatory in Canberra, Australia, this site is designed for anyone with an interest in lunar eclipses, from serious researchers to the casual astronomer. Users can find numerous items of interest, including analyses of lunar eclipses in 1995-97, information on the topography of the moon, a number of animations and images of eclipses, and a collection of links to other relevant sites. In addition, the author invites amateur astronomers to submit their observations of the July 1999 partial eclipse and participate in his research on the geometry of the upper atmosphere of the Earth. An online registration form is provided for users to register.

Soulsby, Byron W.

1997-01-01

308

GSSR Waveforms for Lunar Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To increase the resolution of the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) for lunar observations, a new ranging waveform must be developed. Several candidate waveforms are identified and analytically characterized, including the existing GSSR biphase-coded (BPC) waveform; two commonly used waveforms, linear frequency modulation (LFM) and Costas frequency-hopped (Costas-FH); and a novel minimum-shift keying (MSK) type waveform developed during the course of this study. A set of requirements taking into consideration the spectrum allocation of the GSSR, the limitations of the transmit power amplifier, and the science objectives for a lunar observation were developed and used as selection criteria for the candidate waveforms. Windowed LFM, windowed Costas-FH, and MSK were identified as suitable for development consideration as a new GSSR ranging waveform for lunar observations.

Quirk, K. J.; Srinivasan, M.

2013-02-01

309

The roles and functions of a lunar base Nuclear Technology Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the roles and functions of a special Nuclear Technology Center which is developed as an integral part of a permanent lunar base. Numerous contemporary studies clearly point out that nuclear energy technology will play a major role in any successful lunar/Mars initiative program and in the overall establishment of humanity's solar system civilization. The key role of nuclear energy in the providing power has been recognized. A Nuclear Technology Center developed as part of a permanent lunar base can also help bring about many other nuclear technology applications, such as producing radioisotopes for self-illumination, food preservation, waste sterilization, and medical treatment; providing thermal energy for mining, materials processing and agricultural; and as a source of emergency habitat power. Designing such a center will involve the deployment, operation, servicing and waste product management and disposal of megawatt class reactor power plants. This challenge must be met with a minimum of direct human support at the facility. Furthermore, to support the timely, efficient integration of this Nuclear Technology Center in the evolving lunar base infrastructure, an analog of such a facility will be needed here on Earth.

Buden, D.; Angelo, J. A., Jr.

310

The roles and functions of a lunar base Nuclear Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the roles and functions of a special Nuclear Technology Center which is developed as an integral part of a permanent lunar base. Numerous contemporary studies clearly point out that nuclear energy technology will play a major role in any successful lunar/Mars initiative program and in the overall establishment of humanity's solar system civilization. The key role of nuclear energy in the providing power has been recognized. A Nuclear Technology Center developed as part of of a permanent lunar base can also help bring about many other nuclear technology applications, such as producing radioisotopes for self-illumination, food preservation, waste sterilization, and medical treatment; providing thermal energy for mining, materials processing and agricultural; and as a source of emergency habitat power. Designing such a center will involve the deployment, operation, servicing and waste product management and disposal of megawatt class reactor power plants. This challenge must be met with a minimum of direct human support at the facility. Furthermore, to support the timely, efficient integration of this Nuclear Technology Center in the evolving lunar base infrastructure, an analog of such a facility will be needed here on Earth. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Buden, D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Angelo, J.A. Jr. (Science Applications International Corp., Melbourne, FL (United States))

1991-01-01

311

Plasma wake simulations and object charging in a shadowed lunar crater during a solar storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within a permanently shadowed lunar crater the horizontal flow of solar wind is obstructed by upstream topography, forming a plasma wake that electrostatically diverts ions toward the crater floor and generates a surface potential that can reach kilovolts. In the present work kinetic plasma simulations are employed to investigate the morphology of a lunar crater wake during passage of a solar storm. Results are cast in terms of leading dimensionless ratios including the ion Mach number, ratio of crater depth to plasma Debye length, peak secondary electron yield, and electron temperature versus electron impact energy at peak secondary yield. This small set of ratios allows generalization to a much wider range of scenarios. The kinetic simulation results are fed forward into an equivalent-circuit model of a roving astronaut. In very low-plasma-current environments triboelectric charging of the astronaut suit becomes effectively perpetual, representing a critical engineering concern for roving within shadowed lunar regions. Finally, simulated ion fluxes are used to explore sputtering and implantation processes within an idealized crater. It is suggested that the physics of plasma miniwakes formed in the vicinity of permanently shadowed topography may play a critical role in modulating the enigmatic spatial distribution of volatiles at the lunar poles.

Zimmerman, M. I.; Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

2012-08-01

312

Uses for lunar crawler transporters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses state-of-the-art crawler transporters and expresses the need for additional research and development for lunar crawlers. The thrust of the paper illustrates how the basic crawler technology has progressed to a point where extremely large modules can be shop fabricated and move to some distant location at a considerable savings. Also, extremely heavy loads may be lifted by large crawler cranes and placed in designed locations. The Transi-Lift Crawler crane with its traveling counterweight is an attractive concept for lunar construction.

Kaden, Richard A.

313

Miscellaneous lunar tables from Babylon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the process of searching through unpublished astronomical material in the cuneiform collection of the British Museum I have identified a number of new tabular astronomical texts of the kind published by O. Neugebauer in Astronomical Cuneiform Texts [1955] (hereafter:ACT). Several lunar tables were published in Steele [2002]. Here I publish another group of lunar ephemerides and related texts identified over the past five years, together with two tablets (BM 36961 and BM 37021) identified and described by A. Aaboe but never published, and two previously unpublished joins to ACT tablets (ACT No. 3a and ACT No. 4a) made by A. Sachs and A. Aaboe.

Steele, J. M.

2006-03-01

314

Lunar Eclipse: Fact and Myth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lunar Eclipse: Fact and Myth consists of three major parts: 1) a description of the physical occurrence of an eclipse, 2) a method of computing the time a specific eclipse will occur, and 3) a survey of various folklore interpretations of the moon and of a lunar eclipse. The intention of the unit is to introduce students to a scientific application of mathematics and to use familiar math skills to solve an unfamiliar problem. Necessary skills include: proportions, operations with decimals, geometric constructions, chart reading, graphing, and interpolation.

Decaprio, Sheryl A.

2007-03-29

315

Lunar production of solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of manufacturing of solar cells on the moon for spacecraft applications is examined. Because of the much lower escape velocity, there is a great advantage in lunar manufacture of solar cells compared to Earth manufacture. Silicon is abundant on the moon, and new refining methods allow it to be reduced and purified without extensive reliance on materials unavailable on the moon. Silicon and amorphous silicon solar cells could be manufactured on the moon for use in space. Concepts for the production of a baseline amorphous silicon cell are discussed, and specific power levels are calculated for cells designed for both lunar and Earth manufacture.

Landis, Geoffrey A.; Perino, Maria Antonietta

1989-05-01

316

Volcanic aerosols and lunar eclipses.  

PubMed

The moon is visible during total lunar eclipses due to sunlight refracted into the earth's shadow by the atmosphere. Stratospheric aerosols can profoundly affect the brightness of the eclipsed moon. Observed brightnesses of 21 lunar eclipses during 1960-1982 are compared with theoretical calculations based on refraction by an aerosol-free atmosphere to yield globally averaged aerosol optical depths. Results indicate the global aerosol loading from the 1982 eruption of El Chichón is similar in magnitude to that from the 1963 Agung eruption. PMID:17776243

Keen, R A

1983-12-01

317

Effects of Orbital Evolution on Lunar Ice Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permanently shadowed regions of the Moon have complex thermal histories that influence their ability to act as traps for water ice. Though many areas are now cold enough that surface water ice would be stable from sublimation losses for billions of years, this has not always been the case. Here we examine the effects of the long term orbital and rotational evolution of the Moon on polar thermal history, volatile stability and mobility. Using data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer, aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, we validate models of the current temperature in the lunar polar region. This model includes the effects of topography, scattering, re-radiation, and regolith thermal properties. Then, integrating the effects of tidal torques backward from the present, we reconstruct past orbital and rotational states and use them as input to the thermal model to estimate the thermal environment of the distant lunar past. The rate of tidal evolution of the lunar orbit is quite uncertain, thus use orbital semimajor axis as independent variable, rather than time, in the reconstruction. The orbital integration results in a high obliquity period which occurred when the Moon was at about half its present distance from the Earth. This period, which caused half a year of direct sunlight on the polar region, is due to a transition between two Cassini States, spin-orbit configurations resulting from internal dissipation within the Moon. Since this event, the tilt of the Moon (with respect to the ecliptic) has slowly decreased to the current 1.54 degree. Prior to this transition, due to the relatively small Earth-Moon distance, large amplitude variations in the inclination of the orbital plain were also important. We examine the stability of polar volatiles in response to the evolving lunar orbit, and apply simple models to describe when in the Moon’s history supplied volatiles would have been most likely to be buried by thermal diffusion. When temperatures are much below 95K, ice delivered to the lunar surface is immobile in terms of thermal diffusion. Unless buried on relatively short time scales, most of the current polar environments are currently too cold to efficiently drive ice downward along thermal gradients and protect it from other surface loss processes. In the past, these same locations went through “ice trap” periods, where they were warm enough that supplied volatiles might have been buried by on short time scales, but cold enough that they would not be lost quickly, supplying the subsurface with volatiles that could still be stable today. The Cassini state transition was so warm that ice would either have been driven out into space, or possibly deep into the lunar subsurface. If a present lunar cold trap is ice bearing, that ice is likely to be representative of these “ice trap” periods and have little to do with the early Moon. As each current cold trap had a period where it was most efficient at thermal ice burial, the location of current ground ice on the Moon might also constrain the obliquity and time at which it was deposited. The presence of ice in a specific crater may imply either an increase in water flux or large comet impact during that period.

Siegler, M. A.; Bills, B. G.; Paige, D. A.

2010-12-01

318

Horizons and Opportunities in Lunar Sample Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is the cornerstone of planetary science. Lunar sample studies were fundamental in developing an understanding of the early evolution and continued development of planetary bodies, and have led to major revisions in understanding of processes for the accumulation of planetesimals and the formation of planets. Studies of lunar samples have increased an understanding of impact cratering, meteoroid and micrometeoroid fluxes, the interaction of planetary surfaces with radiations and particles, and even the history of the Sun. The lunar sample research program was especially productive, but by no means have all the important answers been determined; continued study of lunar samples will further illuminate the shadows of our knowledge about the solar system. Further, the treasures returned through the Apollo program provide information that is required for a return to the Moon, beginning with new exploration (Lunar Geoscience Observer (LGO)), followed by intensive study (new sample return missions), and eventually culminating in a lunar base and lunar resource utilization.

Lunar Planetary Sample Team

319

Lunar surface structural concepts and construction studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: lunar surface structures construction research areas; lunar crane related disciplines; shortcomings of typical mobile crane in lunar base applications; candidate crane cable suspension systems; NIST six-cable suspension crane; numerical example of natural frequency; the incorporation of two new features for improved performance of the counter-balanced actively-controlled lunar crane; lunar crane pendulum mechanics; simulation results; 1/6 scale lunar crane testbed using GE robot for global manipulation; basic deployable truss approaches; bi-pantograph elevator platform; comparison of elevator platforms; perspective of bi-pantograph beam; bi-pantograph synchronously deployable tower/beam; lunar module off-loading concept; module off-loader concept packaged; starburst deployable precision reflector; 3-ring reflector deployment scheme; cross-section of packaged starburst reflector; and focal point and thickness packaging considerations.

Mikulas, Martin

320

Architecture Studies for Commercial Production of Propellants From the Lunar Poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two architectures are developed that could be used to convert water held in regolith deposits within permanently shadowed lunar craters into propellant for use in near-Earth space. In particular, the model has been applied to an analysis of the commercial feasibility of using lunar derived propellant to convey payloads from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit. Production and transportation system masses were estimated for each architecture and cost analysis was made using the NAFCOM cost model. Data from the cost model were analyzed using a financial analysis tool reported in a companion paper (Lamassoure et al., 2002) to determine under what conditions the architectures might be commercially viable. Analysis of the architectural assumptions is used to identify the principal areas for further research, which include technological development of lunar mining and water extraction systems, power systems, reusable space transportation systems, and orbital propellant depots. The architectures and commercial viability are sensitive to the assumed concentration of ice in the lunar deposits, suggesting that further lunar exploration to determine whether higher-grade deposits exist would be economically justified.

Duke, Michael B.; Diaz, Javier; Blair, Brad R.; Oderman, Mark; Vaucher, Marc

2003-01-01

321

The reuse of logistics carriers for the first lunar outpost alternative habitat study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Systems Definition Branch deals with preliminary concepts/designs of various projects currently in progress at NASA. One of these projects is called the First Lunar Outpost. The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) is a proposed permanent lunar base to be located on the moon. In order to better understand the Lunar Habitat, a detailed analysis of the lunar environment as well as conceptual studies of the physical living arrangements for the support crew is necessary. The habitat will be inhabited for a period of 45 days followed by a six month dormant period. Requirements for the habitat include radiation protection, a safe haven for occasional solar flare storms, an airlock module and consumables to support a crew of 4 with a schedule of 34 extra vehicular activities. Consumables in order to sustain a crew of four for 45 days ranges from 430 kg of food to only 15 kg for personal hygiene items. These consumables must be brought to the moon with every mission. They are transported on logistics carriers. The logistics carrier must be pressurized in order to successfully transport the consumables. Refrigeration along with other types of thermal control and variation in pressure are defined by the list of necessary consumables. The objective of the proposed work was to collaborate the Habitat Team with their study on Logistic Carriers as possible alternatives for additional habitable volume. Options for possible reuses was also determined. From this analysis, a recommended design is proposed.

Vargas, Carolina

1992-12-01

322

Lunar Crater Rays Point to a New Lunar Time Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Time Scale should be reevaluated -- suggest remote sensing studies of lunar crater rays by B. Ray Hawke (University of Hawaii) and colleagues at the University of Hawaii, NovaSol, Cornell University, National Air and Space Museum, and Northwestern University. These scientists have found that the mere presence of crater rays is not a reliable indicator that the crater is young, as once thought, and that the working definition of the Copernican/Eratosthenian (C/E) boundary should be reconsidered. The team used Earth-based spectral and radar data with FeO, TiO2, and optical maturity maps derived from Clementine UVVIS images to determine the origin and composition of selected lunar ray segments. They conclude that the optical maturity parameter, which uses chemical analyses of lunar samples as its foundation, should be used to redefine the C/E boundary. Under this classification, the Copernican System would be defined as the time required for an immature surface to reach full optical maturity.

Martel, L. M. V.

2004-09-01

323

Lunar surface operations. Volume 1: Lunar surface emergency shelter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar surface emergency shelter (LSES) is designed to provide survival-level accommodations for up to four astronauts for a maximum of five days. It would be used by astronauts who were caught out in the open during a large solar event. The habitable section consists of an aluminum pressure shell with an inner diameter of 6 ft. and a length of 12.2 ft. Access is through a 4 in. thick aluminum airlock door mounted at the rear of the shelter. Shielding is provided by a 14.9 in. thick layer of lunar regolith contained within a second, outer aluminum shell. This provides protection against a 200 MeV event, based on a 15 REM maximum dose. The shelter is self-contained with a maximum range of 1000 km. Power is supplied by a primary fuel cell which occupies 70.7 cu ft. of the interior volume. Mobility is achieved by towing the shelter behind existing lunar vehicles. It was assumed that a fully operational, independent lunar base was available to provide communication support and tools for set-up and maintenance. Transportation to the moon would be provided by the proposed heavy lift launch vehicle. Major design considerations for the LSES were safety, reliability, and minimal use of earth materials.

Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

1993-07-01

324

Simulations of lunar gravity field determination for Lunar Observer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current plan for the Lunar Observer (LO) mission is to launch in the late 1990s and insert LO into a 100 km polar circular mapping orbit. However, prior to the mapping orbit, LO will be placed in a gravity calibration orbit (GCO) at a higher altitude to determine the gravity field of the moon. This paper examines the abilities

Alex Konopliv

1992-01-01

325

Electric propulsion for lunar exploration and lunar base development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using electric propulsion to deliver materials to lunar orbit for the development and construction of a lunar base was investigated. Because the mass of the base and its life-cycle resupply mass are large, high specific impulse propulsion systems may significantly reduce the transportation system mass and cost. Three electric propulsion technologies (arcjet, ion, and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) propulsion) were compared with oxygen/hydrogen propulsion for a lunar base development scenario. Detailed estimates of the orbital transfer vehicles' (OTV's) masses and their propellant masses are presented. The fleet sizes for the chemical and electric propulsion systems are estimated. Ion and MPD propulsion systems enable significant launch mass savings over O2/H2 propulsion. Because of the longer trip time required for the low-thrust OTV's, more of them are required to perform the mission model. By offloading the lunar cargo from the manned O2/H2 OTV missions onto the electric propulsion OTV's, a significant reduction of the low Earth orbit (LEO) launch mass is possible over the 19-year base development period.

Palaszewski, Bryan

1992-09-01

326

Regional policy for rural settlements in Bulgaria.  

PubMed

Government policies concerning rural settlement and rural-urban migration in Bulgaria since 1944 are evaluated and described. The author observes that during this period, "Bulgaria...has undergone rapid urbanization.... The marked destructive processes in the rural settlement network since 1944, mainly due to the ageing of the rural population and its migration to the cities, have necessitated the implementation of an active regional policy in rural regions. A 'policy of key settlements' and 'a policy of key regions' were developed in recent years [to encourage rural development]." PMID:12317807

Tsekov, N

1992-01-01

327

What is the Settlement Rate and Why Should We Care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

After establishing the importance of knowledge of settlement rates, this article first shows that different research questions can yield different settlement rates. Using data gathered from about 3,300 federal cases in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (EDPA) and the Northern District of Georgia (NDGA), differing measures of settlement emerge depending on whether one is interested in (1) settlement as a

Theodore Eisenberg; Charlotte Lanvers

2009-01-01

328

Origin and stability of lunar polar volatiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature regime at the LCROSS impact site is studied. All detected species in the Cabeus crater as well as CH4 and CO clathrate hydrates except H2, CO, and CH4 are stable against evaporation at the LCROSS impact site. CO and CH4 can be chemisorbed at the surface of the regolith particles and exist in the form of clathrate hydrates in the lunar cold traps. Flux rates of delivery of volatile species by asteroids, micrometeoroids, O-rich, C-rich, and low-speed comets into the permanently shadowed regions are estimated. Significant amounts of H2O, CO, H2, H2S, SO2, and CO2 can be impact-produced during collisions between asteroids and O-rich comets with the Moon while CH3OH, NH3 and complex organic species survive during low-speed comet impacts as products of disequilibrium processes. C-rich comets are main sources of CH4, and C2H4.

Berezhnoy, A. A.; Kozlova, E. A.; Sinitsyn, M. P.; Shangaraev, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. V.

2012-12-01

329

Rare earth permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent magnets were discovered centuries ago from what was known as {open_quotes}lodestone{close_quotes}, a rock containing large quantities of the iron-bearing mineral magnetite (FeâOâ). The compass was the first technological use for permanent magnetic materials; it was used extensively for navigational purposes by the fifteenth century. During the twentieth century, as new applications for permanent magnets were developed, interest and research

Major-Sosias

1993-01-01

330

Robotics for lunar surface exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robotic payload suite (including robotics for mobility and for manipulation) studied by ESA for a potential Moon landing mission is used here as a practical example, for the analysis of system-level issues. Mission and system requirements dictate lunar robotics design in terms of functions and operations, and of constraints (in terms of system resources and environment). The balance of

M. Novara; Peter Putz; L. Maréchal; S. Losito

1998-01-01

331

LUNAR SLOPE AND DISTANCE ESTIMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

When astronauts return to the moon, they will undertake frequent treks across unknown terrain for geological investigations. Lunar conditions which are expected to affect human terrain perception include: the lack of an atmosphere or haze, the regolith luminance properties, the absence of familiar objects, and reduced gravity. This project examines the perceptual errors in human judgment of slopes and distance

Laurence R. Young; Andrew M. Liu; Christopher T. Oravetz

332

Luminescence of the Lunar Surface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lunar surface is continuously bombarded by highenergy UV and X-ray quanta as well as by the corpuscular radiation from the Sun. There are indications that solar radiation gives rise to luminescent emission which can penetrate the atmosphere and become...

Z. Kopal

1965-01-01

333

THE SOVIET MANNED LUNAR PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Note: This document may be freely copied and distributed, as long as the name of the editor as well as the list of contributing authors in the REFERENCES section is included) Twenty years after the first American moon landing, on August 18, 1989 the USSR officially acknowledged the existence of their manned lunar program with an initial release of information

MARCUS LINDROOS

334

Radioactivities in Returned Lunar Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from a carbon-14 study in size fractions of lunar soil are reported. The 10 to 30 micrometers and 74 to 124 micrometers size fraction results were supplemented by 30 to 37 micrometers results that are given in this report. The gases from the less ...

E. L. Fireman

1977-01-01

335

Improved Lunar Control and Topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are completing the Unified Lunar Control Network (ULCN) 2005, an update and combination of the ULCN (Davies and Colvin 1994) and the Clementine LCN (CLCN) (unpublished) on which USGS Clementine mosaics are based. The new network should correct for large ( 7 km average to > 15 km) errors in the CLCN by constraining ULCN positions and camera angles,

B. A. Archinal; M. R. Rosiek; R. L. Kirk; B. L. Redding

2005-01-01

336

The Lunar Wake Current Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct impact of the solar wind plasma with the non-conductive body of the Moon, with no atmosphere and no global magnetic field, neutralizes the plasma in the lunar day-side, leaves a plasma void and forms an expanding rarefaction region, confined into a plasma Mach cone downstream. We show that in the transition regions between the plasma void, the rarefaction region, and the interplanetary plasma there are three main currents flowing around these regions in the lunar wake. The generated currents induce magnetic fields within these regions, perturb the field lines there and confine the field perturbations within the lunar Mach cone. We use a three-dimensional, self-consistent hybrid model of plasma (particle ions and fluid electrons) to show the flow of these three currents. First we identify the different plasma regions, separated by the currents, then we show how the currents depend on the interplanetary magnetic field direction. Finally we discuss the current closures in the lunar wake.

Fatemi, Shahab; Holmström, Mats; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Lue, Charles

2013-04-01

337

Lunar Science for Future Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will return humans to the Moon and will include robotic precursor missions in its early phases, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, now in development. Many opportunities for scientific investigations will arise from this program of exploration. Such opportunities will span across disciplines of planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science via remote observation and

B. L. Jolliff

2006-01-01

338

Lunar Surface Reactor Shielding Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor system could provide power to support long term human exploration of the moon. Such a system would require shielding to protect astronauts from its emitted radiations. Shielding studies have been performed for a Gas Cooled Reactor system because it is considered to be the most suitable nuclear reactor system available for lunar exploration, based on its tolerance

Shawn Kang; Ronald Lipinski; William McAlpine

2006-01-01

339

SMART-1 Lunar Science Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SMART-1 spacecraft reached on 15 March 2005 a lunar orbit 400-3000 km for a nominal science period of six months, with a one year science extension until impact on 3 September 2006. We report on the SMART-1 science planning methods, tools, and lessons learned.

Koschny, D.; Foing, B. H.; Frew, D.; Grieger, B.; Almeida, M.; Sarkarati, M.; Volp, J.; Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Grande, M.; Huovelin, J.; Nathues, A.; Malkki, A.; Noci, G.; Kellett, B.; Heather, D. J.; Zender, J.; McMannamon, P.; Schwehm, G.; Camino

2008-03-01

340

Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential return on investment, access to capital markets for a lunar 3He and terrestrial fusion power business will require a near-term return on investment, based on early applications of IEC fusion technology (10).

Schmitt, Harrison H.

1999-01-01

341

Lunar Science for Future Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will return humans to the Moon and will include robotic precursor missions in its early phases, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, now in development. Many opportunities for scientific investigations will arise from this program of exploration. Such opportunities will span across disciplines of planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science via remote observation and monitoring. This abstract focuses on some of the key lunar science objectives that can be addressed with robotic and human missions. Even after 35+ years of study of Apollo samples and data, and global remote sensing missions of the 1990's, key lunar science questions remain. Apollo provided ground truth for the central nearside, but ground truth is lacking for the lunar farside and poles. Lunar meteorites provide knowledge about areas potentially far distant from the central nearside, but ground truth in key areas such as the farside South Pole-Aitken Basin, which provides access to the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle, will enable more direct correlations between the lunar meteorites and global remotely sensed data. Extending and improving knowledge of surface compositions, including partially buried basalt deposits, globally, is needed to better understand the composition of the Moon's crust as a function of depth and of the mantle, and to provide new tests of the Moon's origin and early surface and internal evolution. These issues can be addressed in part with robotic measurements on the surface; however, samples cached for return to Earth are needed for detailed chemical, lithologic, and geochronologic investigations. Apollo experience has shown that regolith samples and/or rock fragments sieved from regolith provide a wealth of information that can be interpreted within the context of regional geology. Targeted sampling by humans and human/robotic teams can optimize sampling strategies. Detailed knowledge of specific sites on local to regional geologic scales is needed to assess regolith resources as well as science activities that can be accomplished from a lunar outpost. Critical resources will include O, H, other solar-wind-implanted gases, and construction materials; understanding their distribution and concentration within the local geologic setting is required. Assessment of ilmenite-rich regolith developed on high-Ti basalt surfaces is a key resource development activity. Early missions can contribute importantly to network science such as seismic and heat-flow experiments. Consideration must be given to synergistic activities with a view to long-term results and/or international collaboration, for example, through use of communication satellites to better determine far-side gravity and to test models of crust/mantle structure, impact-basin formation and compensation, and thermal history.

Jolliff, B. L.

2006-12-01

342

Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1?m resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical identification of other ejecta in the vicinity of the Lander. • Atomic (Magnetic) Force Microscope - providing nano-scale measurement of the fine particles and presence of nanophase Fe which is potentially toxic to humans • Lenseless Microscope, a novel, low mass technology based on combining diffraction patterns derived from a laser illumination of the sample to give high resolution 3D images of the regolith presented. In this paper we cover the high level science requirements and explain how this has driven the overall package design as well as the specific payload features. The complex sample handling system which allows the co-located payloads to share rego-lith samples and be able to make physical measure-ment in the sub micron scale. The use of micro-machining and MEMS technology is covered. The paper also discusses the harsh environmental conditions at the Lunar South Pole and the impact this has on the operation and survivability of an externally mounted package. The expected performance of the whole package, including the use of LIBS under lunar vacuum conditions is also presented.

Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

2012-09-01

343

Early lunar geology and geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a number of human and robotic missions to the Moon, there are still important unanswered questions about its early evolution, and how it came to be the object we observe today. Here we use observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques to examine three important events that took place early in lunar history and have left a lasting signature. The first event is the formation of the largest basin on the Moon, the South Pole-Aitken Basin. We develop a systematic method to define the previously unknown boundaries of this degraded structure and quantify its gross shape. We also combine a number of remote sensing data sets to constrain the origin of heat producing elements in its interior. The second event we examine is the evolution of the lunar orbit, and the coupling between the Moon's early geophysical properties and the growth of orbital eccentricity. We use analytical models for tidal deformations and orbit evolution to show that the shape of the Moon suggests its early orbit was highly eccentric. However, we are also able to explain the presently high eccentricity entirely by traditional, secular tidal growth while the early Moon was hot. The third event we examine is the magnetization of lunar samples. We perform extensive paleomagnetic measurements of an ancient, deep-seated lunar sample, and determine that a long-lived magnetic field like that of a core dynamo is the most plausible explanation for its magnetic remanence. In sum, the earliest portion of lunar history has been largely obscured by later geologic events, but a great deal can still be learned from this formative epoch. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

Garrick-Bethell, Ian

2009-06-01

344

Development and Commercialization of the Lunar Solar Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System consists of pairs of power bases located on opposite limbs of the Moon as seen from Earth. The power bases collect the solar energy and convert it to beams of microwaves. The microwaves are delivered directly to moonward-facing receivers on Earth or indirectly through relay satellites in orbit about Earth (1, 2, 3, 4). The LSP System may be the only reasonable method for establishing sustainable global energy prosperity within two generations. Commercial power prosperity requires at least 2 kWe/person. For ten billion people this implies 20 TWe and 2,000 TWe-y of electric energy or ~6,000 TWt-y of thermal energy per century (5, 6, 7, 8). A brief overview is presented of a reference LSP System that supplies 20 TWe by 2050. The engineering scales and the cost and benefits of this system are described. In order to provide low cost commercial electric energy, the power bases are made primarily of local lunar materials by machines, facilities, and people deployed from Earth (1, 2, 3). In addition, lunar production machinery can be made primarily from lunar materials. Advantages of this approach, versus the reference LSP System, are discussed. Full-scale production of a LSP System will certainly be proceeded by terrestrial and lunar operation of the production machinery and a small-scale demonstration of the operational system (1). Using government funds to establishing a permanent lunar base and the associated transportation system would significantly reduce the upfront cost for the demonstration of a commercial LSP System (2). The government program would provide a legal framework for commercial development of the LSP System (3, 9). The LSP System offers the opportunity to establish a materials industry on the Moon that can produce a growing mass and variety of goods and enable new services of benefit on the Earth and the Moon (10). New priorities are suggested for civilian space programs that can accelerate the establishment of a demonstration LSP System and growing commercialization of the Moon and cis-lunar space. 1. Criswell, David R. (2001) Lunar Solar Power System: Industrial Research, Development, and Demonstration, Session 1.2.2: Hydroelectricity, Nuclear Energy and New Renewables, 18th World Energy Congress. [http://www.wec.co.ukin the Congress Papers, Discussion Sessions] 2. Criswell, D. R. and Waldron, R. D. 1993. International Lunar Base and Lunar-based Power System to Supply Earth with Electric Power, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 469-480. Pergamon Press Ltd. 3. NASA TASK FORCE. 1989 (July) Report of NASA Lunar Energy Enterprise Case Study Task Force. NASA Technical Memo 101652. 163pp. NASA Headquarters, Office of Exploration (Code Z), Washington, D.C. 20546. 4. Moore, T. (2000, Spring) "Renewed interest in space solar power," EPRI Journal, pp. 6-17. 5. World Energy Council (2000) Energy for Tomorrow's World - Acting Now!, 175pp., Atalink Projects Ltd, London. 6. Criswell, David R. (2002) Energy Prosperity within the 21st Century and Beyond: Options and the Unique Roles of the Sun and the Moon. Chapter 9: Innovative Solutions To CO2 Stabilization, R. Watts (editor), Cambridge Un. Press 7. Strong, Maurice (2001) Where on Earth are We Going?, (See p. 351-352), 419pp., Random House (forward by Kofi Annan) 8. Criswell, D. R. and Thompson, R. G. (1996), "Data envelopment analysis of space and terrestrial-based large scale commercial power systems for Earth: A prototype analysis of their relative economic advantages," Solar Energy, 56, No. 1: 119-131. 9 ILEWG (1997), Proc. 2nd International Lunar Workshop, organized by: International Lunar Exploration Working Group, Inst. Space and Astronautical Science, and National Space Development Agency of Japan, Kyoto, Japan, (October 14 - 17), 89pp. 10. Criswell, D.R. 2000 (October) Commercial power for Earth and lunar industrial development, 7pp., 51st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF). (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Paper #IAA-00-IAA.13.2.06.

Criswell, D. R.

2002-01-01

345

49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Prehearing Procedures; Motions; Interlocutory Appeals; Summary Judgment...of settlement shall be accompanied by a motion to transmit to the Administrator the...proposed consent agreement by filing a motion and supporting memorandum with the...

2011-10-01

346

Kutenai Indian Subsistence and Settlement Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines traditional subsistence and settlement aspects of the Kutenai Indians, a distinctive Plateau group residing in northwest Montana and adjacent areas. The Upper Kutenai at Tobacco Plains are the focus of the study. The report uses data f...

A. H. Smith

1984-01-01

347

Study of Embankment Settlement and Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design selected for stabilizing the embankment foundation required pore pressure measurements within the foundation soil during construction. In addition to pore pressure, the researchers measured settlement and horizontal displacements. Foundation so...

J. R. Sallberg

1967-01-01

348

The Human Settlements and Services Area, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Settlements and Services Area is concerned with the dynamics of global population growth and distribution, the consequences of these dynamics for patterns of employment generation, resource consumption, and service demand, and the design of poli...

A. Rogers

1981-01-01

349

39 CFR 963.12 - Settlement agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.12 Settlement agreements. These rules do not preclude the disposition of...

2013-07-01

350

Yugoslav Compulsory Settlement, Bankruptcy and Liquidation Law.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Text is presented in English of Yugoslav federal Compulsory Settlement, Bankruptcy, and Liquidation Law (Sluzbeni List No. 84/89). Contains substantive and procedural provisions covering bankruptcy, including rights and responsibilities of debtors, effect...

1990-01-01

351

15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER QUALITY Enforcement § 280.219 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging...

2012-01-01

352

Proposal for a Lunar Tunnel-Boring Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A need exists for establishing a safe and habitable Lunar Base protected from the hazards of radiation, temperature extremes, and micrometeorites. A device for excavating lunar material and simultaneously generating living space beneath the lunar regolith...

C. S. Allen D. W. Cooper D. Davila C. S. Mahendra M. A. Tagaras

1988-01-01

353

Fast Track Lunar NTR Systems Assessment for the First Lunar Outpost and Its Evolvability to Mars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the 'fast track' lunar Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) analysis are to quantify necessary engine/stage characteristics to perform NASA's 'First Lunar Outpost' scenario and to assess the potential for evolution to Mars mission applications. ...

S. K. Borowski S. W. Alexander

1992-01-01

354

The Lunar Source Disk: Old Lunar Datasets on a New CD-ROM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compilation of previously published datasets on CD-ROM is presented. This Lunar Source Disk is intended to be a first step in the improvement\\/expansion of the Lunar Consortium Disk, in order to create an \\

H. Hiesinger

1998-01-01

355

A Short-lived Lunar Magma Ocean. Implications for the Evolution of the Early Lunar Crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexities in lunar sample geochemistry are not easily explained by the standard models for the evolution of the lunar crust. Evidence from W isotopes for a short-lived magma ocean could help in deciphering these complexities.

C. K. Shearer; H. E. Newsom

1999-01-01

356

Analysis of Global Lunar Iron Abundances: A Systematic Comparison of Lunar Prospector and Clementine Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of Lunar Prospector and Clementine global iron maps show significant differences between these datasets for specific portions of the lunar surface. We use forward modeling of gamma ray data to investigate discrepant regions of interest.

Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Klima, R. L.; Gillis-Davis, J. J.

2012-03-01

357

Improved Modeling of Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer Data: Implications for Hydrogen Content at Lunar Poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New transport modeling has been carried out for lunar neutron data to understand the variation of epithermal neutrons for all lunar soils. We find that enhanced hydrogen deposits are still the best explanation for the polar neutron signals.

Lawrence, D. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Hagerty, J. J.; Maurice, S.; McKinney, G. W.; Prettyman, T. H.

2006-03-01

358

LUNAR FIGURE AND LUNAR LIBRATION AS A CLUE TO LUNAR INTERIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of geometrical and dynamical figure of the Moon is one of the important elements of the complex approach to investigation of our satellite. Correlation of visible limb and real relief, mass distribution in lunar body, relative position of center figure and center of mass, geometrical sizes and dynamical parameters - all these questions are connected with the study

Alexander Gusev; Natasha Petrova; Naufal Rizvanov

359

Lunar partial, non-stationary space elevators and maglevs: A new lunar launch option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future lunar inhabitants could orbit payloads using a maglev-type rail system that could match velocities with the lower terminus of a non-stationary lunar space elevator. Lower elevator terminus velocities of about 90–170m\\/s can be achieved with the elevator center-of-mass 6000–10,000km above the lunar surface. Advantages of this approach over a stationary lunar skyhook, orbital stability and materials issues are discussed.

Gregory L. Matloff; Paul Roseman

2009-01-01

360

Lunar atmospheric helium detections by the LAMP UV spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LAMP far ultraviolet spectrograph aboard the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has been used in 2011 to search for helium, the lightest noble gas in the tenuous lunar atmosphere. Based on that search, we report here the first detection of lunar atmospheric He by remote sensing, and point to future observations that can address questions about its source; we also discuss a search for lunar atmospheric argon.

Stern, S. A.; Retherford, K. D.; Tsang, C. C. C.; Feldman, P. D.; Pryor, W.; Gladstone, G. R.

2012-06-01

361

Rare earth permanent magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is given of the state of the art in rare earth permanent magnet research of materials based on Nd2Fe14B. The magnetic properties of various types of interstitially modified Fe-rich rare earth intermetallics are discussed, including the possibility to apply these materials in permanent magnets.

K. H. J. Buschow; F. H. Feijen; Kees de Kort

1995-01-01

362

The Use of Lunar Lava Tubes as Emergency Storage and Habitation During Future Human Activity on the Lunar Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar lava tubes are structures all across the lunar surface that could be used for the express purpose of emergency depots for supplies and as emergency habitations once man once again steps on the lunar surface.

Mardon, A. A.; Mardon, C. A.

2008-07-01

363

Do Cues Matter? Highly Inductive Settlement Cues Don't Ensure High Post-Settlement Survival in Sea Urchin Aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24–28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (?25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture.

Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L.; Nielsen, Shaun J.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.

2011-01-01

364

Fast track lunar NTR systems assessment for the First Lunar Outpost and its evolvability to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the 'fast track' lunar Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) analysis are to quantify necessary engine\\/stage characteristics to perform NASA's 'First Lunar Outpost' scenario and to assess the potential for evolution to Mars mission applications. By developing NTR\\/stage technologies for use in NASA's 'First Lunar Outpost' scenario, NASA will make a major down payment on the key components needed

Stanley K. Borowski; Stephen W. Alexander

1992-01-01

365

Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding plume impingement by retrorockets on the surface of the Moon is paramount for safe lunar outpost design in NASA’s planned return to the Moon for the Constellation Program. Visual inspection, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and surface scanned topology have been used to investigate the damage to the Lunar Surveyor III spacecraft that was caused by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s

Christopher Immer; Philip Metzger; Paul E. Hintze; Andrew Nick; Ryan Horan

2011-01-01

366

Experimental Fractional Crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have experimentally simulated fractional crystallization of the lunar magma ocean, and present the resultant crystallizing assemblages. These experiments will provide insight into the mechanisms of lunar evolution.

Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

2012-03-01

367

Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) for NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian-made instrument LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector) is young brother of another Russian instrument HEND (High Energy Neutron Detector), which continues to perform well in its fifth year of science measurements onboard NASA Mars Odyssey. LEND and HEND have similar types of neutron sensors, and valuable science data from HEND about Martian water resources has proved adequate selection of these sensors for purposes of orbital neutron spectroscopy of the planet. The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) has been selected for NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to provide the global search of hydrogen distribution through 1-2 meters of lunar subsurface from 50 km circular polar orbit of LRO. The most important property of LEND is its capability to provide high spatial resolution mapping of epithermal neutrons with collimated neutron detectors. LEND is able to detect hydrogen-rich spot at a pole with about 100 ppm of hydrogen with spatial resolution of 5 km (Half Width Half Maximum) and to produce global mapping of hydrogen content with resolution of 5-20 km. If hydrogen is associated with water, detection limit of 100 ppm of hydrogen corresponds to ~ 0.1 wt% of water in the regolith. Neutron radiation from the regolith could have as large an impact on astronaut safety as energetic charged particles from Galactic Comic Rays and Solar Particle Events. LEND will have a full set of sensors for thermal, epithermal and high energy neutrons to provide data for neutron component of radiation environment in the broad range of more than 9 decades of energy.

Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Schvetsov, V. N.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.; Vostrukhin, A.

2006-12-01

368

The origin of lunar crater rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar rays are filamentous, high-albedo deposits occurring radial or subradial to impact craters. The nature and origin of lunar rays have long been the subjects of major controversies. We have determined the origin of selected lunar ray segments utilizing Earth-based spectral and radar data as well as FeO, TiO2, and optical maturity maps produced from Clementine UVVIS images. These include

B. Ray Hawke; D. T. Blewett; P. G. Lucey; G. A. Smith; J. F. Bell; B. A. Campbell; M. S. Robinson

2004-01-01

369

A new mechanism for lunar transient phenomena  

SciTech Connect

Lunar transient phenomena, which are changes in lunar surface brightness observed over the course of four centuries, are presently characterized by a novel mechanism in which electrodynamic effects associated with rock fracturing could account for the sporadic optical pulses noted near specific lunar features. It is suggested that only mild seismic activity, or perhaps thermal cracking, may be required for the activation of the proposed mechanism. 22 refs.

Zito, R.R. (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (USA))

1989-12-01

370

Lunar Net—a proposal in response to an ESA M3 call in 2010 for a medium sized mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emplacement of four or more kinetic penetrators geographically distributed over the lunar surface can enable a broad range of scientific exploration objectives of high priority and provide significant synergy with planned orbital missions. Whilst past landed missions achieved a great deal, they have not included a far-side lander, or investigation of the lunar interior apart from a very small area on the near side. Though the LCROSS mission detected water from a permanently shadowed polar crater, there remains in-situ confirmation, knowledge of concentration levels, and detailed identification of potential organic chemistry of astrobiology interest. The planned investigations will also address issues relating to the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system and other Solar System planetary bodies. Manned missions would be enhanced with use of water as a potential in-situ resource; knowledge of potential risks from damaging surface Moonquakes, and exploitation of lunar regolith for radiation shielding. LunarNet is an evolution of the 2007 LunarEX proposal to ESA (European Space Agency) which draws on recent significant advances in mission definition and feasibility. In particular, the successful Pendine full-scale impact trials have proved impact survivability for many of the key technology items, and a penetrator system study has greatly improved the definition of descent systems, detailed penetrator designs, and required resources. LunarNet is hereby proposed as an exciting stand-alone mission, though is also well suited in whole or in-part to contribute to the jigsaw of upcoming lunar missions, including that of a significant element to the ILN (International Lunar Network).

Smith, Alan; Crawford, I. A.; Gowen, Robert Anthony; Ambrosi, R.; Anand, M.; Banerdt, B.; Bannister, N.; Bowles, N.; Braithwaite, C.; Brown, P.; Chela-Flores, J.; Cholinser, T.; Church, P.; Coates, A. J.; Colaprete, T.; Collins, G.; Collinson, G.; Cook, T.; Elphic, R.; Fraser, G.; Gao, Y.; Gibson, E.; Glotch, T.; Grande, M.; Griffiths, A.; Grygorczuk, J.; Gudipati, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heldmann, J.; Hood, L. L.; Jones, A. P.; Joy, K. H.; Khavroshkin, O. B.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kramer, G.; Lawrence, D.; Marczewski, W.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Miljkovic, K.; Narendranath, S.; Palomba, E.; Phipps, A.; Pike, W. T.; Pullan, D.; Rask, J.; Richard, D. T.; Seweryn, K.; Sheridan, S.; Sims, M.; Sweeting, M.; Swindle, T.; Talboys, D.; Taylor, L.; Teanby, N.; Tong, V.; Ulamec, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wieczorek, M.; Wilson, L.; Wright, I.

2012-04-01

371

Excitation of lunar eccentricity by planetary resonances.  

PubMed

The origin of the Moon's nonnegligible orbital eccentricity of 0.053 has no theoretical explanation. Lunar laser ranging indicates that tides on Earth are currently increasing the Moon's eccentricity. However, ocean tides were likely much weaker during the first billion years, allowing lunar tides to damp any primordial lunar eccentricity very early on. During the tidally driven expansion of its orbit, the Moon must have been affected by two substantial resonances related to Jupiter and Venus, passage through which may have generated today's lunar eccentricity. PMID:17932291

Cuk, Matija

2007-10-12

372

Search for porphyrins in lunar dust.  

PubMed

Evidence for porphyrins was obtained in the Apollo 11 bulk sample of lunar dust by fluorescence spectrometry and analytical demetallation. The indicated porphyrins showed major fluorescence excitation at 390 nanometers. Abundance was about 10(-10) gram of porphyrin per gram of dust. Similar pigments were found in exhaust products from tests of a lunar descent engine. The similarity of results suggests that most if not all of the indicated porphyrin aggregate of the lunar sample probably was synthesized from rocket fuel during the landing of the lunar module. These compounds may be the product of a novel high-temperature synthesis of cosmochemical interest. PMID:17781584

Hodgson, G W; Peterson, E; Kvenvolden, K A; Bunnenberg, E; Halpern, B; Ponnamperuma, C

1970-01-30

373

Surface-related mercury in lunar samples.  

PubMed

Lunar samples contain mercury, which may be volatilized at lunar daytime temperatures. Such mercury may constitute part of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. If mercury can escape from the atmosphere by a nonthermal mechanism, an interior reservoir or exterior sources (such as meteorite infall or solar wind, or both) are required to replenish it. Core samples exhibit an increase in surface-related mercury with depth, which suggests that a cold trap exists below the surface. The orientation of rocks on the lunar surface may be inferred by differences in the amounts of surface-related mercury found on exterior and interior samples. PMID:17847244

Reed, G W; Goleb, J A; Jovanovic, S

1971-04-16

374

Gravity increased by lunar surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitatively large effects of lunar surface temperature on apparent gravitational force measured by lunar laser ranging (LLR) and lunar perigee may challenge widely accepted theories of gravity. LLR data grouped by days from full moon shows the moon is about 5 percent closer to earth at full moon compared to 8 days before or after full moon. In a second, related result, moon perigees were least distant in days closer to full moon. Moon phase was used as proxy independent variable for lunar surface temperature. The results support the prediction by binary mechanics that gravitational force increases with object surface temperature.

Keene, James

2013-04-01

375

Artistic philosophies in lunar drawing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual observation through drawing is still a highly valued method of recording lunar and planetary observations. When used for comparison, drawings of today can help better the understanding of past visual observations. Also, the act of drawing trains the eye to see detail normally missed through other means of data collecting such as photography and electronic imaging. For two academic semesters the author enrolled in art courses that taught drawing theory. The goal was to correct for his own shortcoming in lunar drawing by applying the artistic concepts that had been learned in drawing class and to instruct students in the A.L.P.O. Training Program about these concepts. This paper examines these artistic techniques and how they relate to what the author is seeing and attempting to record while observing the Moon.

Will, M. L.

1998-04-01

376

Energy for lunar resource exploitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

Glaser, Peter E.

1992-02-01

377

Leftovers from Ancient Lunar Impactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar basins mark a time, over three and a half billion years ago, of extreme bombardment in the early Solar System, including in the young Earth-Moon system. What hit the Moon (and by proxy, Earth) at the end of the basin-forming epoch has now been determined directly, for the first time, from the analyses of impactor debris found in samples returned from the Apollo 16 landing site. Katie Joy (Lunar and Planetary Institute, NASA Lunar Science Institute) and colleagues working in Houston and Honolulu identified 30 tiny mineral and rock relics of chondritic impactors during their systematic search of regolith breccias bormed between about 3.8-3.4 billion years ago. The relatively uniform composition of these chondritic meteorite fragments is in contrast to the variety of meteorites in our collections, supporting the idea that the influx of materials bombarding the Moon and Earth 3.4 billion years ago, or more, was different from more recent times.

Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

2012-06-01

378

Lunar Occultations Observed in Japan and Lunar Limb Profiles Derived (C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar occultation observations can provide lunar limb data, which will be used to detect the variation of the solar diameter from analyses of solar eclipse observations (see e.g. Fiala et al. 1994). Occultation observations are also useful to detect errors of the Hipparcos proper motion system because the direct comparison between Hipparcos and FK5 (Feissel & Mignard 1998) gave inconsistent results from the -3 mas/year correction to the precession parameter of FK5, which had been independently obtained from VLBI, lunar laser ranging, and proper motion analyses, and the present lunar ephemeris has the mas level accuracy with respect to the International Celestial Reference System (Standish 1998). For the lunar limb profiles, Watts' (1963) data are being used, but it is well known that the Watts data have systematic errors varying with librations and position angles, and there are also regions near the poles where no profile data are available due to Cassini's third law (see Watts 1963, p. 933). In 1994 lunar features were observed by the Clementine lunar mapping mission (Smith et al. 1997), but the Clementine laser altimeter data are too sparse (in the interval of about 3 deg in selenographic longitude) to replace Watts' data, and moreover the altimeter data for the polar regions were not obtained. The present paper demonstrates how accurately lunar occultations can provide lunar limb features by showing the results of recent lunar occultation observations made in Japan, and encourage people to observe lunar occultations by video recordings.

Sôma, Mitsuru

379

New Upper Limits on Numerous Lunar Atmosphere Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2009, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) entered a polar orbit around the Moon. The sensitive Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on LRO has observed the permanently shadowed regions (Gladstone et al. 2012), measured the composition of the material excavated by the LCROSS impact (Gladstone et al. 2010) and detected and measured variations of He in the Lunar atmosphere (Stern et al., 2012, Feldman et al., 2012). The LAMP instrument is typically oriented to view the surface. There are periods during the orbit when the surface is in darkness, but space below LRO is in sunlight. These “twilight” observations occur twice per orbit, about 11-12 times per day. In a typical orbit, the duration in twilight is about 600 seconds and the observations are concentrated around the north and south poles of the moon (>80° latitude). These periods are longest around solstices, reaching over 3600 seconds per orbit and examine all latitudes. The total integration time for these LAMP nadir observations in twilight is about 9×106 seconds over the lifetime of the mission. We bin these observations by the height of the lunar shadow (shadow height) and the altitude of the spacecraft. From September 2009 to December 2010, the altitude rage during this period was between 30 and 80 km. After December 2010, the orbit of LRO was changed to make it more elliptical, reaching a maximum of nearly 200 km. Using these data, we determine the upper limits for 30 neutrals (e.g., H, O, Ne), ions (e.g., O+) and molecules (e.g., H2) that were either detected in the LCROSS plume (Gladstone et al., 2010), suggested by the mass spectrometer LACE (Hoffman & Hodges, 1975) or predicted previously (Flynn & Stern, 1996). We will present these upper limits, compare to previous values where appropriate and discuss their significance.

Cook, Jason C.; Stern, S. A.; Retherford, K.; Tsang, C. C. C.

2012-10-01

380

Larval behavioral, morphological changes, and nematocyte dynamics during settlement of actinulae of Tubularia mesembryanthemum, Allman 1871 (Hydrozoa: Tubulariidae).  

PubMed

The marine colonial hydroid Tubularia mesembryanthemum produces a morphologically unique dispersive stage, the actinula larva. Detailed observations were made on the behaviors and nematocyte dynamics of actinula larvae during attachment and morphogenesis by employing microscopic and time lapse video techniques. These observations produced four primary results. (1) Actinula larvae demonstrated two forms of attachment: temporary attachment by atrichous isorhiza (AI)-nematocysts discharged from the aboral tentacle (AT) tips-and permanent settlement by cement secretion from the columnar gland cells of the basal protrusion. (2) During larval settlement, numerous AIs were discharged from the AT tips with sinuous movement and rubbing of the tentacles onto the substrata, leading to "nematocyte-printing" around the settlement site. (3) Simultaneous with the discharge of the AIs, migration of stenoteles, desmonemes, and microbasic mastigophores occurred, resulting in a dramatic change of nematocyte composition in the ATs after larval settlement. This was in parallel with changes in larval behavior and the tentacle function. (4) Nematocyte-printing behavior during settlement could be recognized as metamorphic behavior responsible for irreversible changes in AT function, from attachment to feeding and defense. PMID:12807703

Yamashita, Keiji; Kawaii, Satoru; Nakai, Mitsuyo; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

2003-06-01

381

Relative nonlinearity and permanence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modify the commonly used invasibility concept for coexistence of species to the stronger concept of uniform invasibility. For two-species discrete-time competition and predator–prey models, we use this concept to find broad easily checked sufficient conditions for the rigorous concept of permanent coexistence. With these results, permanent coexistence becomes a tractable concept for many discrete-time population models. To understand how

Yun Kang; Peter Chesson

2010-01-01

382

Advanced technology lunar telescopes II. High temperature superconductor bearings  

SciTech Connect

A lunar telescope to be built in the near future must be able to operate for long periods in a cold, dusty vacuum environment without on site human maintenance. The slow rotation rate of the moon requires a drive mechanism with exceedingly fine steps. Both these requirements are difficult, if not impossible, to meet with conventional motors and gear drives. The recently discovered high temperature superconductors (HTS) offer an attractive and practical solution. By using combination of HTS and permanent magnets, hybrid superconductor magnet bearing (HSMB) can be made that are stable, small in mass, passive (i.e. no power required to maintain configuration), and essentially frictionless. Since there is no mechanical contact between the rotor and stator in a HSMB, the bearing does not wear out with use and requires no maintenance. The very low friction in a HSMB permits electronic positioning control with exceedingly fine resolution. Work is currently in progress at NASA/GSFC, U. of Houston, and elsewhere to produce a working telescope model with HSMBs. The authors demonstrate the operation of a HSMB to show that currently available HTS materials can already meet the requirement for lunar applications. The authors discuss the workings of a HSMB, cooling requirements, and the effect of long term radiation exposure on HTS.

Ma, K.B.; Chen, Q.Y.; Chu, W.K.; Chu, C.W.; Oliversen, R.J.; Hojaji, H.; Pitts, R.E.; Chen, P.C.

1993-01-01

383

Advanced Technology Lunar Telescopes II. High Temperature Superconductor Bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lunar telescope to be built in the near future must be able to operate for long periods in a cold, dusty vacuum environment without on site human maintenance. The slow rotation rate of the moon requires a drive mechanism with exceedingly fine steps. Both these requirements are difficult, if not impossible, to meet with conventional motors and gear drives. The recently discovered high temperature superconductors (HTS) offer an attractive and practical solution. By using a combination of HTS and permanent magnets, hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB) can be made that are stable, small in mass, passive (i.e. no power required to maintain configuration), and essentially frictionless. Since there is no mechanical contact between the rotor and stator in a HSMB, the bearing does not wear out with use and requires no maintenance. The very low friction in a HSMB permits electronic positioning control with exceedingly fine resolution. Work is currently in progress at NASA/GSFC, U. of Houston, and elsewhere to produce a working telescope model with HSMBs. We demonstrate the operation of a HSMB to show that currently available HTS materials can already meet the requirements for lunar applications. We discuss the workings of a HSMB, cooling requirements, and the effect of long term radiation exposure on HTS.

Ma, K. B.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chu, W. K.; Chu, C. W.; Oliversen, R. J.; Hojaji, H.; Pitts, R. E.; Chen, P. C.

1993-12-01

384

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Spacecraft Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launched June 18, 2009, with its primary mission scheduled to end September 2010, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will be the first observatory ever to spend an entire year orbiting and observing the Moon at a low altitude of just 50 km. The spacecraft carries a wide variety of scientific instruments and will provide an extraordinary opportunity to study the lunar

Craig R. Tooley; Martin B. Houghton; Richard S. Saylor; Cathy Peddie; David F. Everett; Charles L. Baker; Kristina N. Safdie

2010-01-01

385

Lunar materials: Their mineralogy, petrology and chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manned Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 and the automated Luna 16 lunar missions have provided us with lunar rock and regolith (soil) samples from a number of geologically distinct sites. The mare regions were sampled by Apollo 11, 12 and Luna 16, whereas Apollo 14 landed on a terrain with more relief, the Fra Mauro Formation which represents

Cornelis Klein

1972-01-01

386

Construction of a virtual lunar environment platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the world's powerful and wealthy nations, including China, have devoted both large amounts of funding and considerable promotion to lunar research and exploration. The launch of Chinese Chang'e-1 satellite and the construction of the scientific observation data platform created a favourable opportunity for research into the lunar geometrical, physical and chemical environment. Based on this background, a Wide

Min Chen; Hui Lin; Yongning Wen; Li He; Mingyuan Hu

2011-01-01

387

Lunar Variation of Several Ionospheric Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first four harmonics of the diurnal lunar variation and the semimonthly lunar tide of two years TEC data at Ebro and at Hamilton, and for some other ionospheric parameters at Ebro have been obtained. For the parameters with sufficient number of data, ...

L. F. Alberca J. O. Cardus E. Galdon

1981-01-01

388

Periodicity of the waveform of lunar seismograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present analysis deals with the spectral composition of the waveform envelope of lunar seismograms, obtained at the Apollo ground station network for impacts of burnt-out rocket stages on the lunar surface. Eight impact events are studied, and curves showing the time-behavior of the squared amplitude of the envelope of seismic vibrations are given and discussed.

Galkin, I. N.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Khavroshkin, O. B.; Tsyplakov, V. V.

1980-07-01

389

The lunar barometric tide in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar barometric tide has been determined with reasonable accuracy, on an annual and seasonal basis, at five stations on the mainland of New Zealand and at three of the outlying islands. The determinations show that in the New Zealand region the lunar tide has a larger amplitude and smaller phase than might have been expected from previously available southern-hemisphere

J. W. Hutchings; S. J. Webber

1985-01-01

390

LUVIMS lunar UV and IR mapping spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new imaging spectrometer particularly designed for the lunar mission MORO (Moon ORbiting Observatory) is presented. This spectrometer, named LUVIMS (Lunar UV and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer), is characterized by high performances—high spectral, high spatial resolution—being at the same time small, light weight and has a low power consumption. An imaging spectrometer, operating in the visible an infrared, is able to

A. Coradini; M. C. De Sanctis; F. Reininger; R. Bonsignori; G. Racca; A. Chicarro

1996-01-01

391

A Seismometer at the Lunar South Pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given that a seismometer may soon be emplaced at or near the lunar south pole, we assess the possibility of detecting events from the known distribution of deep moonquake clusters and the likelihood of recovering seismic phases from the lunar core.

Bulow, R.; Lognonné, P.

2008-03-01

392

Small lunar lander\\/hopper performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to describe a first-order performance analysis of a lunar hopper. A hopper is a vehicle that has both landing and surface mobility capabilities on a single platform. Unlike rovers, which traverse the lunar surface while in contact with the ground, hopping reuses the landing propulsion system to lift back off again and ¿hop¿ over

A. Middleton; S. Paschall; B. Cohanim

2010-01-01

393

The magma ocean concept and lunar evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model of lunar evolution in which the anorthositic plagioclase-rich oldest crust of the moon is formed over a period of 300 Myr or less by crystallization as it floats on a global ocean of magma tens or hundreds of km thick is examined in a review of petrological and theoretical studies. Consideration is given to the classification of lunar

P. H. Warren

1985-01-01

394

Simulations of Lunar-Forming Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leading hypothesis for lunar origin is the giant impact theory, which proposes that the Moon formed from debris ejected into bound earth orbit when early Earth collided with a roughly Mars-sized protoplanet (Hartmann & Davis 1975; Cameron & Ward 1976). Simulations of potential lunar-forming impacts using a 3-D Lagrangian method known as Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (or SPH; Lucy 1977)

R. M. Canup; E. Asphaug

2001-01-01

395

Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the radiation transport and dose reduction properties of lunar soil with respect to selected heavy ion beams with charges and energies comparable to some components of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), using soil samples returned by the Apollo missions and several types of synthetic soil glasses and lunar soil simulants. The suitability for shielding studies of synthetic

J. Miller; L. Taylor; C. Zeitlin; L. Heilbronn; S. Guetersloh; M. DiGiuseppe; Y. Iwata; T. Murakami

2009-01-01

396

Real World and Lunar Base Activation Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lunar base or a network of lunar bases may have highly desirable support functions in a national or international program to explore and settle Mars. In addition, He-3 exported from the Moon could be the basis for providing much of the energy needs of h...

H. H. Schmitt

1992-01-01

397

Economic Geology of Lunar Helium-3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economic geology evaluation of lunar He-3 should answer the question: Can lunar He-3 be sold on Earth with sufficient profit margins and low enough risk to attract capital investment in the enterprise. Concepts that relate to economic geology of recoverin...

H. H. Schmitt

1988-01-01

398

Modeling lunar calendar effects in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops

Jin-Lung Lin; Tian-Syh Liu

2002-01-01

399

Modeling lunar calendar effects in taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops

Jin-Lung Lin; Tian-Syh Liu

2003-01-01

400

On the problem of lunar time  

Microsoft Academic Search

New achievements in lunar investigations by spacecrafts provide the reasons why some new international scale of special lunar time nowdays is under discussion. However, the introduction of special time scales for other celestial bodies would turn to be a complex affair. To document this point of view it is shown that, both for making precise astrometrical calculations and for creating

Sh. T. Habibullin; A. A. Gurshtein; A. N. Sanovich

1974-01-01

401

Lunar Calendars - the Missing Date Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on global visibility of the new lunar crescent have revealed the systematic nature of the phenomenon and have given rise to a global international date-line system suitable for the internationalization of the lunar calendar based on the concept of \\

M. Ilyas

1986-01-01

402

Modeling Lunar Calendar Holiday Effects in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon-boat Festival, and Mid- Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates be- fore lunar new year, almost

Jin-Lung Lin; Tian-Syh Liu

403

Review on lunar surface operation robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is given of robots to conduct construction of lunar surface sites, to layout each subsystem, and to support lunar surface experiments performed as the first step to set up a concept of lunar bases. The robots' mission requirements and the system review baselines were studied based on the following premises for their missions: (1) to support manned lunar surface sites construction; (2) to transport, install, and connect piping and wiring heavy goods being laid out in inhabited module or drive self-propelled items; (3) to be used only during day time; and (4) to be used from the initial stage of construction of manned lunar surface sites. The results of the review were presented, and the requirements, the baselines for their review, system structure and composition, main features, electric system chart, and development plans of lunar surface robots are shown. Technical problems to be solved such as stereoscopic image processing and seven degree of freedom control technology for manipulators are presented. Observation equipment to be operated by the robots on the lunar surface are: (1) radio, visible and infrared, and x-ray telescopes; (2) environment monitoring equipment; (3) lunar seismometer; and (4) thermal flow meter.

Mizuochi, Michiaki

1991-07-01

404

Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures and mechanisms to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in ...

J. R. Gaier

2007-01-01

405

Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures, mechanisms, and processes to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts o...

J. R. Gaier

2008-01-01

406

Thematic mapping of the lunar surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of thematic mapping in lunar studies is emphasized, and the activities of Soviet organizations involved in thematic mapping are briefly described. Particular attention is given to the production of a series of structural-morphological maps as well as maps representing the physical properties of the lunar surface, including areas with high and low degrees of polarization.

Krasnopevtseva, B. V.; Shingareva, K. B.; Grigor'eva, G. S.; Usova, V. V.

407

Lunar volcanism in space and time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained from lunar orbit and earth-based observations were used to extend the detailed characterizations derived from Apollo and Luna sample return missions to other parts of the moon. Lunar mare and highland volcanism are described including the distribution, volcanic features, the relation of mare morphologic features to the style of volcanic eruption, the characteristics and ages of other mare

James W. Head

1976-01-01

408

A dynamic fountain model for lunar dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much evidence to show that lunar “horizon glow” and “streamers” observed at the terminator are caused by sunlight scattered by dust grains originating from the surface. The dust grains and lunar surface are electrostatically charged by the Moon’s interaction with the local plasma environment and the photoemission of electrons due to solar UV and X-rays. This effect causes

Timothy J. Stubbs; Richard R. Vondrak; William M. Farrell

2006-01-01

409

Elemental composition of lunar surface material.  

PubMed

Elemental abundances, so far obtained, derived from the analysis of Apollo 11 lunar material are reported. Similarities and differences exist between lunar material, the eucritic achondrites, and the augite achondrite Angra dos Reis, the analysis of which is also reported. PMID:17781474

Smales, A A; Mapper, D; Webb, M S; Webster, R K; Wilson, J D

1970-01-30

410

Canon of lunar eclipses: -2002 to +2526  

Microsoft Academic Search

This catalogue, first published in 1979, is destined mainly for astronomical phenomenology. The data concerning the 10936 lunar eclipses are based upon Newcomb's theory of the Sun, and on the improved lunar theory of Brown. The instants are given to the nearest minute of time. This edition has been increased with a diagram, which enables to show the course of

J. Meeus; H. Mucke

1992-01-01

411

Lunar Cycles and Human Aggression: A Replication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tested lunar-aggression hypothesis using the aggressive penalties awarded in ice hockey over a season of competition. Interpersonal aggression was found to be unrelated to either the synodic or anomalistic cycles. Discussion centers on the persistence of lunar beliefs and their links to the literature on selective exposure and interpersonal…

Russell, Gordon W.; de Graaf, Jane P.

1985-01-01

412

Lunar magnetic fields: Implications for resource utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the

L. L. Hood

1992-01-01

413

Planetary science: Traces of ancient lunar water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of water in lunar volcanic rocks has been attributed to delivery after the Moon formed. Water detected in rocks from the ancient lunar highlands suggests that the Moon already contained water early in its history, and poses more challenges for the giant impact theory of Moon formation.

Hauri, Erik H.

2013-03-01

414

Why lunar iron does not rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that samples of lunar iron do not rust in the terrestrial atmosphere. This nonoxidizability of lunar iron is due to special effects produced by the action of the solar wind and of micrometeoroids under conditions of the space 'vacuum'.

A. Ivanov

1980-01-01

415

Investigation into Uses for Lunar Regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any sustained effort on the Moon will require use of in-situ resources as much as possible to reduce costs. Power generation is a primary concern and solar cells would be a convenient source of power for any lunar activity. Lunar regolith is an easily accessible in-situ resource. The lunar regolith consists primarily of silicon dioxide (about half) with aluminum oxide, iron oxide, calcium oxide and magnesium oxide comprising the majority of the residual. The regolith can be refined to extract silicon, aluminum and other potentially useful metals while also producing oxygen. Silicon and aluminum can be used in the fabrication of lunar based solar cells. In addition, lunar regolith can be melted to form a glassy substrate upon which the silicon solar cells are deposited. The glassy regolith melt is electrically insulating providing good isolation for solar cells. In addition, films of the lunar regolith are transparent at thicknesses less than a half micron. Measurements of the index of refraction indicate a value suitable for optical coatings. The regolith film could be used in antireflection coatings, transparent protective coatings and possibly even in electronic devices as insulating films. We will present results of our investigation into lunar regolith material properties and some alternative uses for the lunar regolith.

Horton, Charles; Gramajo, Carlos; Williams, Lance; Alemu, Andenet; Freundlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex

2003-01-01

416

Lunar Scout Two spacecraft gravity experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the gravity field of the Moon has a high science priority because of its implications for the internal structure and thermal history of the Moon, and it has a high priority for future exploration activities because of the influence of lunar gravity on spacecraft navigation and orbit maintenance. The current state of knowledge in the lunar gravity field

Andrew F. Cheng

1993-01-01

417

Structure and conditions of the lunar interior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current opinions regarding the structure of the moon are presented. The data are based on seismograph readings obtained on the lunar surface through the Apollo program and Russian space programs. Descriptions are prepared on the lunar crust, upper mantle, middle mantle, lower mantle, and core of the moon.

I. N. Galkin

1975-01-01

418

Lunar daily distance numbers D and D?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In analyses of the effect of variation of the Earth-Moon distance on geophysical phenomena, it is customary to arrange the geophysical data according to the dates of apogee and perigee. However, lunar distances at apogee and especially at perigee vary within wide limits from month to month. A new daily indexD' of lunar distance is defined to permit a more

Jagdish Chandra Gupta

1975-01-01

419

Mixing Model Analysis of Telescopic Lunar Spectra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have analyzed very high quality reflectance spectra of the lunar surface from the University of Hawaii lunar spectral data collection using a spectral mixing model. The spectra analyzed are those of 45 mare sites and 75 highland sites. The spectra were...

P. G. Lucey B. C. Clark B. R. Hawke

1993-01-01

420

Lunar Multiring Basins and the Cratering Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies of the lunar gravity field have concluded that the lunar Moho is substantially uplifted beneath the young multiring basins. This uplift is presumably due to the excavation of large quantities of crustal material during the cratering process and subsequent rebound of the impact basin floor. Using a new dual-layered crustal thickness model of the Moon, the excavation cavities

Mark A. Wieczorek; Roger J. Phillips

1999-01-01

421

The Mcdonald Observatory Lunar Laser Ranging Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the activities of the McDonald lunar laser ranging station at Fort Davis for the FY 77-78 fiscal year is presented. The lunar laser experiment uses the observatory 2.7m reflecting telescope on a thrice-per-day, 21-day-per-lunation schedule. D...

E. C. Silverberg

1978-01-01

422

TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an

Arlin P. S. Crotts; Arlin P. S

2009-01-01

423

Lunar laser ranging: 40 years of research  

SciTech Connect

The history of the origin and development of the lunar laser ranging is described. The main results of lunar laser ranging are presented and fundamental problems solved by this technique are listed. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

Kokurin, Yu L [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchnyi, Crimea (Ukraine)

2003-01-31

424

Cathodoluminescence (CL) of Lunar Minerals and Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected material from the lunar surface (Luna 16, 20, 24 missions) was investigated using a combination of CL microscopy and spectroscopy with locally resolved microanalytical methods (Micro-Raman, microprobe, SEM, PIXE) to get information about the mineralogy and the luminescence behavior. Although the general high iron content of most lunar minerals and rocks prevents luminescence activation, certain species on the moon

2009-01-01

425

SMART-1 Mission: Highlights of Lunar Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SMART-1 spacecraft reached on 15 March 2005 a lunar orbit 400-3000 km for a nominal science period of six months, with 1 year science extension until September 2006. We shall report on highlights of lunar science and exploration results.

Foing, B. H.; Grande, M.; Huovelin, J.; Josset, J.-L.; Keller, H. U.; Nathues, A.; Malkki, A.; Noci, G.; Kellett, B.; Beauvivre, S.; Cerroni, P.; Pinet, P.; Makkinen, H.; Mall, U.; Almeida, M.; Frew, D.; Volp, J.; Sarkarati, M.; Heather, D.; Koschny, D.

2007-03-01

426

Lack of exposed ice inside lunar south pole Shackleton Crater.  

PubMed

The inside of Shackleton Crater at the lunar south pole is permanently shadowed; it has been inferred to hold water-ice deposits. The Terrain Camera (TC), a 10-meter-resolution stereo camera onboard the Selenological and Engineering Explorer (SELENE) spacecraft, succeeded in imaging the inside of the crater, which was faintly lit by sunlight scattered from the upper inner wall near the rim. The estimated temperature of the crater floor, based on the crater shape model derived from the TC data, is less than approximately 90 kelvin, cold enough to hold water-ice. However, at the TC's spatial resolution, the derived albedo indicates that exposed relatively pure water-ice deposits are not on the crater floor. Water-ice may be disseminated and mixed with soil over a small percentage of the area or may not exist at all. PMID:18948501

Haruyama, Junichi; Ohtake, Makiko; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Morota, Tomokatsu; Honda, Chikatoshi; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Pieters, Carle M; Hara, Seiichi; Hioki, Kazuyuki; Saiki, Kazuto; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Iwasaki, Akira; Abe, Masanao; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Shirao, Motomaro; Yamaji, Atsushi; Josset, Jean-Luc

2008-10-23

427

Geological and geophysical field investigations from a lunar base at Mare Smythii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mare Smythii, located on the equator and east limb of the Moon, has a great variety of scientific and economic uses as the site for a permanent lunar base. Here a complex could be established that would combine the advantages of a nearside base (for ease of communications with Earth and normal operations) with those of a farside base (for shielding a radio astronomical observatory from the electromagnetic noise of Earth). The Mare Smythii region displays virtually the entire known range of geological processes and materials found on the Moon; from this site, a series of field traverses and investigations could be conducted that would provide data on and answers to fundamental questions in lunar geoscience. This endowment of geological materials also makes the Smythii region attractive for the mining of resources for use both on the Moon and in Earth-Moon space. We suggest that the main base complex be located at 0, 90 deg E, within the mare basalts of the Smythii basin; two additional outposts would be required, one at 0, 81 deg E to maintain constant communications with Earth, and and the other, at 0, 101 deg E on the lunar farside, to serve as a radio astronomical observatory. The bulk of lunar surface activities could be conducted by robotic teleoperations under the direct control of the human inhabitants of the base.

Spudis, Paul D.; Hood, Lon L.

1992-09-01

428

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL - US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation’s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar commercial community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data. A beta version of the portal and visualization systems is expected to be released in late 2009, with a version 1 release planned for early 2011.

Noble, S. K.; Nall, M. E.; French, R. A.; Muery, K. G.

2009-12-01

429

Using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Data to Support STEM Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 18 2009, reached lunar orbit four days later, and has since been returning data from the lunar surface at unprecedented rates. The seven instruments aboard LRO are designed to return data about the lunar surface and surrounding environment in order to give scientists and engineers the opportunity to make informed decisions about

B. C. Hsu; L. Bleacher; W. L. Taylor; D. Roberts; G. Sullivan

2009-01-01

430

Conceptual analysis of a lunar base transportation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important to the planning for a lunar base is the development of transportation requirements for the establishment and maintenance of that base. This was accomplished as part of a lunar base systems assessment study conducted by the NASA Langley Research Center in conjunction with the NASA Johnson Space Center. Lunar base parameters are presented using a baseline lunar facility concept

Trevor D. Hoy; Lloyd B. Johnson III; Mark B. Persons; Robert L. Wright

1992-01-01

431

The nature and origin of rims on lunar soil grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space weathering processes that operate in the lunar regolith modify the surfaces of lunar soil grains. Transmission electron microscope analysis of the lunar soil grains from the fine size fraction of several lunar soils show that most grains are surrounded by thin (60–200 nm thick) rims. The microstructure and chemical compositions of the rims can be used to classify rims

Lindsay P. Keller; David S. McKay

1997-01-01

432

Report of The Lunar Base Working Group  

SciTech Connect

Workshop attendees generally believe that a lunar base goal has a high enough potential payoff that it should be adopted by NASA in the near future. Potential gains include new possibilities for scientific investigation, utilization of the natural resources of the moon to benefit lunar and space operations, and development of a long-term capability for human self-sufficiency on another planet. To reduce the risk that near-term decisions will be made that result in future difficulties or additional unnecessary costs to a lunar base program, we must consider near-term development issues, such as the Space Station and the orbital transfer vehicle technology, in light of their potential application to a lunar base program. The lunar base program is envisioned as being less of a technological challenge and less expensive annually than Apollo was.

Duke, M.B.; Mendell, W.W.; Keaton, P.W. (comps.)

1984-08-01

433

LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) Observation Campaign: Strategies, Implementation, and Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was designed to explore the nature of previously detected enhanced levels of hydrogen near the lunar poles. The LCROSS mission impacted the spent upper stage of the launch vehicle into a permanently shadowed region of the lunar surface to create an ejecta plume. The resultant impact crater and plume were then observed by the LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft as well as a cadre of telescopes on the Earth and in space to determine the nature of the materials contained within the permanently shadowed region. The Shepherding Spacecraft then became a second impactor which was also observed by multiple assets. The LCROSS Observation Campaign was a key component of the LCROSS mission. The goal of the Observation Campaign was to realize the scientific benefits of extending the LCROSS observations to multiple ground and space-based assets. This paper describes the LCROSS Observation Campaign and provides an overview of the Campaign coordination and logistics as well as a summary of the observation techniques utilized at a multitude of observatories. Lessons learned from the LCROSS Observation Campaign are also discussed to assist with the planning of future unique observing events.

Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Wooden, Diane H.; Ackermann, Robert F.; Acton, David D.; Backus, Peter R.; Bailey, Vanessa; Ball, Jesse G.; Barott, William C.; Blair, Samantha K.; Buie, Marc W.; Callahan, Shawn; Chanover, Nancy J.; Choi, Young-Jun; Conrad, Al; Coulson, Dolores M.; Crawford, Kirk B.; DeHart, Russell; de Pater, Imke; Disanti, Michael; Forster, James R.; Furusho, Reiko; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Geballe, Tom; Gibson, J. Duane; Goldstein, David; Gregory, Stephen A.; Gutierrez, David J.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Hamura, Taiga; Harker, David E.; Harp, Gerry R.; Haruyama, Junichi; Hastie, Morag; Hayano, Yutaka; Hinz, Phillip; Hong, Peng K.; James, Steven P.; Kadono, Toshihiko; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kelley, Michael S.; Kim, Daryl L.; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Lee, Duk-Hang; Long, Michael; Lucey, Paul G.; Marach, Keith; Matulonis, Anthony C.; McDermid, Richard M.; McMillan, Russet; Miller, Charles; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Noda, Hirotomo; Okamura, Natsuko; Ong, Lawrence; Porter, Dallan; Puschell, Jeffery J.; Rayner, John T.; Rembold, J. Jedadiah; Roth, Katherine C.; Rudy, Richard J.; Russell, Ray W.; Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Sekine, Yasuhito; Skinner, Mark A.; Sôma, Mitsuru; Stephens, Andrew W.; Storrs, Alex; Suggs, Robert M.; Sugita, Seiji; Sung, Eon-Chang; Takatoh, Naruhisa; Tarter, Jill C.; Taylor, Scott M.; Terada, Hiroshi; Trujillo, Chadwick J.; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Vilas, Faith; Walls, Brian D.; Watanabe, Jun-ihi; Welch, William J.; Woodward, Charles E.; Yim, Hong-Suh; Young, Eliot F.

2012-05-01

434

SETTLEMENT AND COVER SUBSIDENCE OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerical models using equations for linearly elastic deformation were developed to predict the maximum expected amount of settlement and cover subsidence and potential cracking of the cover by differential settlement in uniformly, horizontally layered hazardous waste landfills. ...

435

Settlement of Pile Groups Bearing on Stiffer Strata.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solutions are described for the settlement interaction between two piles which rest on a bearing stratum stiffer than the overlying soil. These solutions may be used to predict group settlement ratios for any general pile group. The stiffer bearing stratu...

H. G. Poulos N. S. Mattes

1973-01-01

436

Optimising settlement assays of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis.  

PubMed

The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a common aquaculture species, and also a major fouling organism that has negative economic impacts. There are no standard assay conditions for this important species and therefore, this study quantified the effect of key factors on the settlement of pediveligers and plantigrades. Density dependent settlement did not occur for either pediveligers or plantigrades. Settlement increased in drop assays in a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, while bottom shade had no effect of any magnitude. In addition, settlement was significantly enhanced by storing pediveligers for between 4 and 24 days at 4 °C. Overall, these data provide the template to optimise and standardise static laboratory settlement assays for mussels in order to develop materials that either enhance settlement for the aquaculture industry, or deter settlement for antifouling applications. Furthermore, simple mechanisms such as storage at 4 °C can enhance settlement beyond current methods used in aquaculture hatcheries. PMID:21827335

Carl, C; Poole, A J; Vucko, M J; Williams, M R; Whalan, S; de Nys, R

2011-09-01

437

40 CFR 173.4 - Informal conference and settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Informal conference and settlement. 173.4 Section...USE VIOLATIONS § 173.4 Informal conference and settlement. (a) After receipt...the State may request that an informal conference be held between appropriate...

2011-07-01

438

Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act: Statute, Regulations, Special Information Booklet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume presents the text of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 as amended in 1975, the implementing regulations issued by HUD, and the HUD information booklet explaining to consumers the procedures involved in the settlement process an...

1979-01-01

439

Money vs. Sovereignty: An Analysis of the Maine Settlement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article analyzes the proposed Maine Settlement. It also looks at a viable alternative to the settlement based on the premise that Indian tribes can survive only as nations, not as state municipalities or United States landowners. (Author/SB)|

Tallchief, A.

1980-01-01

440

46 CFR 502.91 - Opportunity for informal settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 502.91...Prehearing Procedure § 502.91 Opportunity for informal settlement. ...all interested parties shall have the opportunity for the submission and...

2012-10-01

441

46 CFR 502.91 - Opportunity for informal settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 502.91...Prehearing Procedure § 502.91 Opportunity for informal settlement. ...all interested parties shall have the opportunity for the submission and...

2011-10-01

442

42 CFR 422.762 - Settlement of penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Settlement of penalties. 422.762 Section 422.762 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Intermediate Sanctions § 422.762 Settlement of penalties. For civil money...

2012-10-01

443

42 CFR 423.762 - Settlement of penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Settlement of penalties. 423.762 Section 423.762 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Intermediate Sanctions § 423.762 Settlement of penalties. For civil money...

2012-10-01

444

Mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of lunar regolith and its attendant properties are discussed. Tables are provided listing lunar minerals, the abundance of plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite in lunar materials, typical compositions of common lunar minerals, and cumulative grain-size distribution for a large number of lunar soils. Also provided are charts on the chemistry of breccias, the chemistry of lunar glass, and the comparative chemistry of surface soils for the Apollo sites. Lunar agglutinates, constructional particles made of lithic, mineral, and glass fragments welded together by a glassy matrix containing extremely fine-grained metallic iron and formed by micrometeoric impacts at the lunar surface, are discussed. Crystalline, igneous rock fragments, breccias, and lunar glass are examined. Volatiles implanted in lunar materials and regolith maturity are also addressed.

McKay, D. S.; Ming, D. W.

445

Implications for Tobacco Control of the Multistate Tobacco Settlement  

PubMed Central

The 1998 master settlement agreement between major tobacco manufacturers and the US states will have a profound effect on many tobacco industry practices and will significantly influence future settlements with the tobacco industry. This article analyzes the settlement's key provisions pertaining to youth sales, advertising, marketing, and lobbying. It also examines the ways in which the settlement restricts industry practices as well as the many industry practices that remain unregulated.

Daynard, Richard A.; Parmet, Wendy; Kelder, Graham; Davidson, Patricia

2001-01-01

446

Study committee on lunar bases and lunar resource development: Results and subjects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study on lunar bases and lunar resource development is conducted by a committee which consists of more than 200 researchers. Results of the study are outlined on the following subjects: (1) fundamental reviews of the study; (2) establishment of research concepts; (3) fundamental reviews of space resource utilization; (4) reviews of lunar surface development and space theory; (5) phased development of lunar bases; (6) phased development of lunar activities and detail of activities in each phase; (7) major technologies required for lunar base construction; (8) conceptual design of D-He-3 nuclear reactors; (9) roles played by lunar bases in Mars exploration; and (10) ground test equipment. The results are summarized as follows: (1) practical scenarios of lunar base realization are shown and the feasibility of initial-stage manned lunar base with Japanese technology is made clear; (2) feasibility of visible radiation interferometer (lunar astronomical observatory) with a resolution of 1/100,000 second can be made clear; (3) major research and development problems on core technologies indispensable to construct lunar bases such as closed ecological life support system, robot, space transportation, and energy supply technologies; (4) existance of lunar resources such as D-He-3, solar wind gas, and metals and problems required for utilizing those resources are made clear; (5) it is shown that D-He-3 nuclear fusion has higher economy, safety, and environment maintainability than D-He-3 laser nuclear fusion; and (6) test equipment which should be subjected to rapid start for constructing lunar bases is identified.

Hieda, Hiroo

1991-07-01

447

Integration of lunar polar remote-sensing data sets: Evidence for ice at the lunar south pole  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the feasibility of ice deposits at the lunar south pole, we have integrated all relevant lunar polar data sets. These include illumination data, Arecibo ground-based monostatic radar data, newly processed Clementine bistatic radar data, and Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer measurements. The possibility that the lunar poles harbor ice deposits has important implications not only as a

Stewart Nozette; Paul D. Spudis; Mark S. Robinson; D. B. J. Bussey; Chris Lichtenberg; Robert Bonner

2001-01-01

448

Spoil heaps and waste dumps: Settlement calculations revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical settlement calculations rely on obtaining reliable soil deformation characteristics from one- dimensional compression tests performed in an oedometer. The success of the settlement predictions hinges heavily on our ability to obtain representative undisturbed specimens from the site for which the settlement is being calculated. It is generally accepted that a correct determination of the preconsolidation stress is of a

D. Znidar?i?; C. Yao

449

48 CFR 49.103 - Methods of settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methods of settlement. 49.103 Section 49...CONTRACTS General Principles 49.103 Methods of settlement. Settlement of...3), or (d) a combination of these methods. When possible, the TCO should...

2011-10-01

450

Optimising settlement assays of pediveligers and plantigrades of Mytilus galloprovincialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a common aquaculture species, and also a major fouling organism that has negative economic impacts. There are no standard assay conditions for this important species and therefore, this study quantified the effect of key factors on the settlement of pediveligers and plantigrades. Density dependent settlement did not occur for either pediveligers or plantigrades. Settlement increased

C. Carl; A. J. Poole; M. J. Vucko; M. R. Williams; S. Whalan; R. de Nys

2011-01-01

451

Marie Russo: An Oral History of the Italian Settlement House  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Settlement House Movement in the United States was a response by progressive reformers to meet the needs of urban poor and immigrant families in the early years of the 20th century. Some settlements were outreach services of churches. There are limited accounts of the experiences of the individuals who used the settlement houses. This…

Beard, Kathryn H.

2010-01-01

452

Denison House: Women's Use of Space in the Boston Settlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established in 1892, Denison House Settlement in Boston, Massachusetts was the third college settlement of its kind in the United States. Like other settlement houses of the time, Denison House was established as a base for community refurbishment and statistical study. Located at 93 Tyler Street in the rundown South Cove area of Boston, it offered its lower class \\

Heather Marie Capitanio

2010-01-01

453

48 CFR 49.303-3 - Audit of settlement proposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit of settlement proposal. 49.303-3...Terminated for Convenience 49.303-3 Audit of settlement proposal. The TCO shall...the settlement proposal to the appropriate audit agency for review (see...

2011-10-01

454

Analysis of long-term settlement of municipal solid waste landfills as determined by various settlement estimation methods.  

PubMed

In this study, several existing municipal solid waste (MSW) settlement estimation methods are reviewed and applied to analyze the settlement data of nine MSW landfills. Because a biodegradation-related settlement contributes differently to a long-term total settlement depending on the age of landfills, the actual MSW landfill sites are classified into three groups to specifically address the validity of each method in its prediction of a long-term settlement for each age category. Results demonstrate that there are considerable decreases in predicted settlement potentials as fill age increases. Comparisons indicate that the individual estimation methods display a considerable variation in predicting settlements in the fresh MSW landfills. On the other hand, for the old refuse landfills, all of the estimation methods, except the extended soil model, predict low settlement potentials. PMID:17355085

Park, Hyun Il; Park, Borinara; Lee, Seung Rae

2007-02-01

455

LRO-LAMP Determination of FUV Reflectances in the Moon's Permanently Shadowed Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon's permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near each pole present difficult targets for remote sensing. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is able to map PSRs at far-ultraviolet (FUV) wavelengths using faint sources of illumination from the night sky; the all-sky Ly? glow produced as interplanetary H atoms scatter the Sun's bright Ly? emission line, and the much fainter source from UV-bright stars.

Gladstone, G. R.; Retherford, K. D.; Stern, S. A.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Versteeg, M. H.; Slater, D. C.; Davis, M. W.; Parker, J. W.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Greathouse, T. K.; Steffl, A. J.; Mukherjee, J.; Horvath, D. G.; Rojas, P. M.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

2011-10-01

456

Improved Lunar Control and Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are completing the Unified Lunar Control Network (ULCN) 2005, an update and combination of the ULCN (Davies and Colvin 1994) and the Clementine LCN (CLCN) (unpublished) on which USGS Clementine mosaics are based. The new network should correct for large ( 7 km average to > 15 km) errors in the CLCN by constraining ULCN positions and camera angles, and by solving for radii at all points rather than assuming a sphere. The result will be a 3-D network, including a globally complete and consistent topographic model for the Moon tied directly to horizontal control. The estimated horizontal accuracy of our current solution ranges from 1 km in the areas of ULCN points to 3 km outside these areas. The current ULCN has a vertical accuracy of a few hundred meters when compared to Clementine lidar. The true accuracy may be higher, due to interpolation and lidar positional errors involved in the comparison. The final version should be available at the time of the DPS. Our current solution includes 546,142 image measures of 272,949 points and 43,866 Clementine (mostly 750-nm) images. We will report the results in a peer-reviewed article and distribute the network data from our website (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/ControlNetworks/). This solution will be useful for scientific study of lunar morphology and basins; and for operational uses in selecting and targeting landing sites and evaluating landing hazards due to topography. A future solution will include Lunar Orbiter, Mariner 10, and Galileo data. Additionally, it will serve as the basis for solutions with data from upcoming missions, thus placing all data in one consistent coordinate system. We acknowledge the initiation of this work by T. Colvin and (the late) M. Davies at RAND, and funding from the NASA PG&G program.

Archinal, B. A.; Rosiek, M. R.; Kirk, R. L.; Redding, B. L.

2005-08-01

457

Lunar Ranging, Gravitomagnetism, and APOLLO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of lunar laser ranging (LLR) has for many decades contributed to cutting-edge tests of the fundamental nature of gravity. These include the best tests to date of the strong equivalence principle, the time-rate-of-change of the gravitational constant, gravitomagnetism, the inverse square law, and preferred frame effects. The phenomenologies of each are briefly discussed, followed by an extended discussion of gravitomagnetism. Finally, the new APOLLO project is summarized, which achieves range precision as low as one millimeter.

Murphy, T. W.

2009-12-01

458

Lunar radiators with specular reflectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique radiator, suitable for use in relatively hot thermal environments such as the moon, has been devised and analyzed. The radiator uses a parabolic specular reflector to deflect the solar rays and to shield the radiator from the hot lunar soil. It can provide sink temperatures on the order of 147 K and effective emittances approximately equal to the emittance of the surface of the radiator. Similar performance can be obtained on sun-oriented spacecraft that have a limited view of space.

Costello, Frederick A.; Swanson, T. D.

1990-01-01

459

Association of Lunar & Planetary Observers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Association of Lunar & Planetary Observers' website acts as a forum and provides educational materials for both professional and amateur astronomers interested in solar system observations. The website first presents materials about its directors, staff, and membership. Then, visitors can find a wide range of interesting materials such as images of auroras and eclipses, articles about Mars, and a guide to meteorite identification at the Section links. Users can find links to the JPL Ephemeris Generator, the Solar System Simulator, and other astronomy resource sites.

460

Mineral chemistry of lunar samples.  

PubMed

Glass spherules, glass fragments, augite, ferroaugite, titanaugite, pyroxmangite, pigeonite, hypersthene, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, maskelynite, olivine, silica, ilmenite, TiO(2), "ferropseudobrookite," spinel, ulvöspinel, native iron, nickel-iron, troilite, and chlorapatite were analyzed with the electron microprobe. There are no indications of large-scale chemical differentiation, chemical weathering, or hydrous minerals. Contributions of meteoritic material to lunar surface rocks are small. Rocks with igneous textures originated from a melt that crystallized at or near the surface, and oxygen fugacities have been low. Shock features indicate that at least some surface material is impact-produced. PMID:17781510

Keil, K; Prinz, M; Bunch, T E

1970-01-30

461

Lunar dust, lunar observatories and other operations on the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pervasiveness of the lunar fine-grained particulates or dust was alluded to many times by the twelve Apollo astronauts who briefly lived and worked on the Moon. Neil Armstrong, on the first journey to the Moon, said of the lunar dust 'The surface is fine and powdery. I can - I can pick it up loosely with my toe. It does adhere in fine layers like powdered charcoal to the sole and sides of my boots.' For engineering, construction and operations on the Moon, the dust poses unresolved riddles. This paper discusses what some of the mechanisms are that may govern the behavior of the fine particles, suggests approaches to mitigating the dust hazard and notes that experiments in laboratories and on the Moon are needed to assist in establishing effective and suitable means of limiting the detrimental effects of dust on observatory operations. Te ideas presented have implications not only for observatories but also for a variety of mining and industrial operations on the surface of the Moon in the 21st Century.

Johnson, Stewart W.; Chua, Koon Meng; Burns, Jack O.

1995-02-01

462

29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...process may not be used in litigation unless obtained through...seven working days of the termination of negotiations. The report...this to the presiding judge without further elaboration. ...settlement judge, or the termination of proceedings under...

2013-07-01

463

The ‘Australian settlement’ and Australian political thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments for reshaping political agendas invariably begin from an appraisal of past errors and achievements. Paul Kelly's notion of the ‘Australian Settlement’ attempts such a task. Kelly identifies a particular ideological and institutional tradition in Australian politics that dominated much of the twentieth century and that is now deemed to have broken down. This article accepts that the notion of

Geoffrey Stokes

2004-01-01

464

Seismic bearing capacity and settlements of foundations  

SciTech Connect

Field and laboratory observations of seismic settlements of shallow foundations on granular soils that are not attributable to changes in density or liquefaction are explained in terms of seismic degradation of bearing capacity. Limit analysis using a Coulomb-type mechanism including inertial forces in the soil and on the footing gives expressions for seismic bearing capacity factors that are directly related to their static counterparts. Comparison of the two depicts clearly the rapid deterioration of the overall foundation capacity with increasing acceleration. Such periodic inertial fluidization causes finite settlements that are possible even in moderate earthquakes. Reduction in foundation capacity is due to both the seismic degradation of soil strength and the lateral inertial forces transmitted by shear to the foundation through the structure and any surcharge. A straightforward sliding-block procedure with examples is also presented for computing these settlements due to loss of bearing capacity for short time periods. The approach also leads to a design procedure for footings based on limiting seismic settlements to a prescribed value.

Richards, R. Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States)); Elms, D.G. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)); Budhu, M. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1993-04-01

465

78 FR 59684 - Proposed Settlement Agreement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by the American Forest & Paper Association, Inc. and American Wood Council (``Petitioners'') in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia: American Forest and Paper Association, Inc. and American Wood Council v.......

2013-09-27

466

Schooling and settlement: refugee education in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schools are a stabilising feature in the unsettled lives of refugee students. They provide safe spaces for new encounters, interactions and learning opportunities. They also deliver literacy, the key to educational success, post?school options, life choices, social participation and settlement. Currently Australian schools are poorly funded and ill?equipped to provide effective English as a Second Language teaching and support. A

Julie Matthews

2008-01-01

467

7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a) A...obtain release of all or any part of the loan seed cotton by paying to CCC the amount of the loan, plus...

2013-01-01

468

7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a) A...obtain release of all or any part of the loan seed cotton by paying to CCC the amount of the loan, plus...

2012-01-01

469

OLD ORDER AMISH SETTLEMENT: DIFFUSION AND GROWTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amish originated in Europe over 280 years ago. Although they eventually disappeared in their homeland area, they have survived remarkably well in the New World. The spread of Amish settlement in the United States encompasses five distinct periods. In the early periods the Amish followed the frontier, similar to other Americans, but generally without success beyond the northeastern quadrant