Science.gov

Sample records for permanent lunar settlement

  1. A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities. [Lunar settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    High transport costs will dominate the pattern of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of food, fuel, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earning through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally-produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents would support themselves but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufactures, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, severance taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

  2. Toward a permanent lunar settlement in the coming decade: the Columbus Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Ishikawa, M.Y.; Wood, L.L.

    1985-11-19

    The motivation for creating a permanent lunar settlement is sketched, and reasons for doing so in the coming decade are put forward. A basic plan to accomplish this is outlined, along technical and programmatic axes. It is concluded that founding a lunar settlement on the five hundredth anniversary of the Columbus landing - a Columbus Project - could be executed as a volunteer-intensive American enterprise requiring roughly six thousand man-years of skilled endeavor and a total Governmental contribution of the order of a half-billion dollars. 8 figs.

  3. Steps toward lunar settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The costs of transporting people and material to low-earth-orbit (LEO), and thence to the lunar surface, will constrain the pace and pattern of lunar development. Beginning as a spartan ''base camp'' completely supplied from Earth, a lunar science-and-resource-development facility could grow in size, amenities, and capability to the point that passenger transport becomes a major expense. At such a stage, some employees of the facility might be given the opportunity to become permanent residents; and at that point, lunar settlement will have begun. We assume growth rates of facilities and staff contained by the annual delivery of 900 tons to LEO. During the base camp era, about 100 tons would be delivered annually to the lunar surface. Within six years, the facility could grow to a collection of 25 modules, housing a staff of about 16 with each member of the staff serving a six-month tour on a staggered schedule. At the end of this first phase, oxygen produced from lunar ilmenite and delivered to lunar orbit for use as propellant would allow annual lunar-bound cargos of about 200 tons. Production from lunar materials of heat shields for aerobraking would enable economical delivery of lunar oxygen to LEO and, therefore, could raise lunar-bound cargoes to about 450 tons. Accumulatin of production capabilities would eventually allow use of lunar construction materials, to build farms and increase per capita living and working space. Once closed-loop environmental systems are in place, transport costs are dominated by staff rotation and the facility is limited to a maximum staff size of about 300. Further expansion requires that some staff become permanent residents.

  4. A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Eric M.

    1992-01-01

    High transport costs will dominate the course of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of fuel, food, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earnings through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents could support themselves, but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufacturers, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, export taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

  5. Lunar settlements - A socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Factors in the design and development of a lunar settlement (LS) which affect the performance of the crew members are discussed. Topics examined include LS-program time constraints imposed by decisions made in developing and operating the Space Station; changes to make allowance for the long-term requirements of LSs; the design of the physical, technical, and organic LS environment; and the vital role of group dynamics in assuring LS success. It is suggested that many short-term cost-minimization strategies employed in spacecraft development may be inappropriate for LS programs.

  6. Lunar settlements--a socio-economic outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    The primary ingredient in a Lunar Settlement Program is the people. At the very high cost that will be required to transport, maintain and supply the people who will staff the Lunar operation, it is important to do everything possible to ensure their continued effectiveness in such an isolated, confined, and barren environment. This paper will attempt to identify the issues involved in providing for effective human performance in Lunar Settlements. The approach to be used will be contextual, and thus will not only examine the facets of the Lunar Settlement itself, but will also look at the organizational elements and the design and development processes used in project management from the point of view of long term success and cost effectiveness. The approach will also attempt to look at the Lunar Settlement "in time" as it is connected to events and experiences as they will evolve from the Space Station to Lunar Settlements. Finally, the approach will be contextual in the range of disciplines considered and their impact on planning, evolution, and activities in the entire process of Lunar Settlement. We will hope that Lunar settlers will be able to work and live as effective team members, and to make that possible, the designers, developers, builders, and managers must also function as a coherent team working together to bring about a common goal.

  7. Lunar Limb Observatory: An Incremental Plan for the Utilization, Exploration, and Settlement of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul. D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive incremental program, Lunar Limb Observatory (LLO), for a return to the Moon, beginning with robotic missions and ending with a permanent lunar settlement. Several recent technological developments make such a program both affordable and scientifically valuable: robotic telescopes, the Internet, light-weight telescopes, shared- autonomy/predictive graphics telerobotic devices, and optical interferometry systems. Reasons for focussing new NASA programs on the Moon include public interest, Moon-based astronomy, renewed lunar exploration, lunar resources (especially helium-3), technological stimulus, accessibility of the Moon (compared to any planet), and dispersal of the human species to counter predictable natural catastrophes, asteroidal or cometary impacts in particular. The proposed Lunar Limb Observatory would be located in the crater Riccioli, with auxiliary robotic telescopes in M. Smythii and at the North and South Poles. The first phase of the program, after site certification, would be a series of 5 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to Riccioli (or Grimaldi if Riccioli proves unsuitable), emplacing robotic telescopes and carrying out surface exploration. The next phase would be 7 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to M. Smythii (2 missions), the South Pole (3 missions), and the North Pole (2 missions), emplacing robotic telescopes to provide continuous all-sky coverage. Lunar base establishment would begin with two unmanned Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur missions to Riccioli, for shelter emplacement, followed by the first manned return, also using the Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur mode. The main LLO at Riccioli would then be permanently or periodically inhabited, for surface exploration, telerobotic rover and telescope operation and maintenance, and support of Earth-based student projects. The LLO would evolve into a permanent human settlement, serving, among other functions, as a test area and staging base for the exploration, settlement, and terraforming of Mars.

  8. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory work can be accomplished with existing capabilities such as the ISS, the full implementation of a lunar habitat with an Earth-like environment will require the development of a lunar mission architecture that goes beyond VSE concepts. The proven knowledge of how to build such a lunar habitat can then be applied to various approaches for space settlement.

  9. Possible Applications of Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies at Lunar Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Allen, Carl; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Brown, I.; Sarkisova, S.; Garrison, D.

    2007-01-01

    The most ambitious goal of the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar system. Today, however, missions would have to bring all of the propellant, air, food, water, habitable volumes and shielding needed to sustain settlers beyond Earth. That is why resources for propellants, life support and construction of support systems and habitats must be found in space and utilized if humans hope to ever explore and colonize the solar system. The life support, fuel production and material processing systems currently proposed for spaceflight are essentially disconnected. Only traditional crop production has been proposed as a segment for bioregenerative life support systems, although the efficiency of higher plants for air regeneration is generally low. Thus, the investigation of air bioregeneration techniques based on the activity of photosynthetic organisms with higher rates of CO2 scrubbing and O2 release is very timely and important. Future systems for organic waste utilization in space may also benefit from the use of specific microorganisms. This janitorial job is efficiently carried out by microbes on Earth, which drive and connect different elemental cycles. It is likely that environmental control and life support systems based on bioregeneration will be capable of converting both organic and inorganic components of the waste at lunar settlements into edible biomass. The most challenging technologies for future lunar settlements are the extraction of elements (e.g. Fe, O, Si, etc) from local rocks for industrial feedstocks and the production of propellants. While such extraction can be accomplished by purely inorganic processes, the high energy requirements of such processes motivates the search for alternative technologies with lower energy requirements and appropriate efficiency. Well-developed terrestrial industrial biotechnologies for metals extraction and conversion could therefore be the prototypes for extraterrestrial biometallurgy.

  10. A Global Catalogue of Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, D. B. J.; Cahill, J. T. S.; McGovern, J. A.; Spudis, P. D.

    2012-09-01

    The lunar polar regions experience unusual illumination conditions that make them attractive candidate sites for future exploration. The small angle between the Moon's spin axis and the ecliptic plane result in locations that are permanently shadowed as well as some that are nearly continuously illuminated. Using an illuminationsimulation tool, together with the latest data sets from the Kaguya and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LROC), we have mapped all permanently shadowed regions on the Moon larger than 0.04 km2. We have discovered that permanent shadows exist as far from the pole as +/-58o of latitude. We have begun analysis of these areas to see if they are capable of harboring volatile deposits. The existence of ice deposits at long distances from the poles would represent an exciting resource for future surface missions.

  11. Albedo of Permanently Shadowed Regions of the Lunar Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riner, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Bussey, B.; Cahill, J. T.; McGovern, A.

    2012-12-01

    Due to the slight tilt in the Moon's spin axis, some topographic depressions near the lunar poles experience permanent shadow and may serve as cold traps, harboring water ice and/or other volatile compounds [1]. Permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) provide an opportunity toward understanding the amount, nature and transport of volatiles on the Moon and may also be a potential resource for human exploration. While many different data sets have suggested the presence of water ice in PSRs near the lunar poles many questions remain. For example, ice does not appear to be uniformly distributed across identified PSRs. More work is needed to understand the distribution of ice in PSRs and how delivery and retention mechanisms influence the distribution. The active illumination of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) provides a unique contribution toward exploration PSR exploration. While LOLA is principally a laser altimeter used for quantitative topography and related cartographic and geodetic applications [2], LOLA also measures the intensity and width of the return laser pulse (1064 nm) from the surface. Here we use a global mosaic (4 pixels per degree) of LOLA albedo data corrected for instrumental drift, irregular variations, and calibrated to normal albedo using local equatorial measurements of normal albedo obtained by the Kaguya Multiband Imager [3]. Recent work using LOLA albedo shows the floor of Shackleton crater, near the lunar south pole, is brighter than the surrounding terrain (and the interior of nearby craters) at 1064 nm [4]. This albedo difference may be due to decreased space weathering due to shadowing from the Sun or to a 1 ?m thick layer with 20% water ice a the surface of the crater floor [4]. Here we use LOLA dayside reflectance measurements to examine the albedo of PSRs catalogued by [5] derived from illumination modeling of a hybrid 100 m/pixel LOLA-LROC digital terrain model (DTM) up to 83° north and south latitudes. The upper latitude limit is due to a complete loss of received laser signal as the spacecraft crosses the terminator due to thermal contraction of insulating blankets that pull the LOLA telescope out of alignment with the detectors. Fortuitously, two of the five laser spots reposition onto detectors after a transition period, so good laser range is obtained on a portion of the lunar night side. Additional calibration of night side reflectance data pole ward of 83° is ongoing [4]. The albedo of measured permanently shaded regions is 0.31 +/- 0.031 (1?) compared to 0.31 +/- 0.033 (1?) for measured sunlit regions from 60-80° north and south latitudes. This suggests that the high albedo of the floor of Shackleton is either unique or that the cause of the high albedo only acts at higher latitudes. Additional study of PSRs pole ward of 83° from LOLA night side data and examination of individual orbit tracks through PSRs may help elucidate the relationship between PSRs and albedo and contribute to understanding of these unique thermal environments, distribution of ice in PSRs, and volatile delivery and retention mechanisms. [1] Ingersoll et al. (1992) Icarus, 100, 40-47. [2] Smith et al. (2010) Space Sci. Rev., 150, 209-241. [3] Riner and Lucey (2011) AGU Fall Meeting, #P13D-1707. [4] Zuber et al. (2012) Nature, 486, 378-381. [5] McGovern et al. (2012), Icarus, accepted pending final review.

  12. Passive indirect sunlighting systems for a permanent NASA lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Mullican, R.; Hamm, J.

    1996-10-01

    Principles of the new field of nonimaging optics were utilized to develop toplight and sidelight indirect sunlight delivery systems for a proposed permanent lunar habitat. Both trough shaped 2-D and cone shaped 3-D compound parabolic concentrators are successful in collecting sunlight from wide incident angles and directing it through a small exit aperture. This transformation of sunlight from a large moving source into a small fixed position source allows this light to be redistributed with a high degree of optical control in an interior environment. With the exception of extreme off axis collector sunlight angles, both toplight and sidelight systems can provide the necessary luminance distributions to meet interior luminance contrast design standards required for computer intensive environments and long term human visual comfort, while minimizing the size of envelope apertures.

  13. Simulated Water Delivery to Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John

    2015-11-01

    A set of Monte Carlo simulations was run to examine water diffusion across the lunar surface and specifically to the Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). This work extends the results of Schorghofer (2014) to latitudes above 5º from the pole and to specific PSRs and is accomplished using a separately derived model to independently test Schorghofer’s (2014) results. The model was validated using the results of Schorghofer (2014) at the 5º latitude line, replicating all of the behaviors of that model, but with slightly different values for the total number of tracer particles arriving and their fractionation.25 times fewer particles were able to survive to arrive within 1º of the pole, as compared to those that were able to arrive within 5º of the pole. For the PSRs themselves, 1.87% of particles were eventually sequestered within the PSRs by the end of our simulations. Examining the amount of water which could be transported over geological time reveals that sufficient water moves via migration to (1) supply the hydrogen signals observed by LEND, (Mitrofanov et al., 2012), (2) the frost at Haworth Crater (Gladstone et al., 2012) as well as to explain (3) the high level of water seen in the soils of Cabeus Crater in the LCROSS experiment (Colaprete et al., 2010) without the need to invoke another water supply mechanism.In all cases, the average time required for migration was small with average arrival times of less than a lunar day following an impact. Substantial differences were observed in the amount of water accreted by the different PSRs with Cabeus Crater accreting by far the most water per square meter. Faustini and the Haworth Lowlands have the next highest delivery, receiving ~60% each as much water as Cabeus per square meter. Shackleton has the lowest water delivery, receiving only ~5% as much water per square meter as Cabeus. The simulated results show a clear latitudinal trend with more water emplaced at lower latitudes. Yet, the data show very little difference between the PSRs in terms of the amount of fractionation taking place and low levels of fractionation overall, considering 100:1 distillation between the impactor and the PSRs.

  14. Radiological operational scenario for a permanent lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, Percival D.

    An operational scenario for a lunar base is postulated based on 30 lunar base personnel and 2 year tours of duty plus stipulated numbers of EVA's and sorties in the lunar rover vehicles. It is also postulated that the main shielding material for the lunar base units (habitats, laboratories, etc.) will be lunar regolith. Using the solar minimum period as the basis, total accumulated dose equivalents for the galactic cosmic radiation over the two year period are computed at various shielding depths. Depths of regolith of over 20 g/sq cm are sufficient to reduce the total dose equivalents to well under the present limits. The second arm of the radiological health strategy -- continuous and all-encompassing radiation dosimetry -- is also discussed in some detail. It is also emphasized that monitoring of the base personnel for genetic mutations and chromosomal aberrations must be part of the radiological health program in the lunar base.

  15. Thermal Analyses of Apollo Lunar Soils Provide Evidence for Water in Permanently Shadowed Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Smith, M. C.; Gibson, E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally-evolved-gas analyses were performed on the Apollo lunar soils shortly after their return to Earth [1-8]. The analyses revealed the presence of water evolving at temperatures above 200 C. Of particular interest are samples that were collected from permanently-shadowed locations (e.g., under a boulder) with a second sample collected in nearby sunlight, and pairs in which one was taken from the top of a trench, and the second was taken at the base of the trench, where the temperature would have been -10 to -20 C prior to the disturbance [9]. These samples include 63340/63500, 69941/69961, and 76240/76280. At the time that this research was first reported, the idea of hydrated minerals on the lunar surface was somewhat novel. Nevertheless, goethite was observed in lunar breccias from Apollo 14 [10], and it was shown that goethite, hematite and magnetite could originate in an equilibrium assemblage of lunar rocks

  16. Direct Solar Wind Proton Access into Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent analyses of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) data have suggested that high abundances of hydrogen exist within cold traps at the lunar poles, and it has often been assumed that hydrogen-bearing volatiles sequestered in permanent shadow are topographically shielded from sputtering by solar wind protons. However, recent simulation results are presented showing that solar wind protons clearly access the floor of an idealized, shadowed lunar crater through a combination of thermal and ambipolar processes, in effect creating a plasma "miniwake". These simulations are the first to model the mini-wake environment in two spatial dimensions with a self-consistent lunar surface-plasma interaction. Progress is reported on constraining the nonzero particle fluxes and energies incident on kilometer-scale shadowed topography, such as a small crater embedded within a larger one. The importance of direct solar wind proton bombardment is discussed within the context of understanding the stability and inventory of hydrogen-bearing volatiles in shadow at the lunar poles. The support of the National Lunar Science institute, the DREAM institute, LPROPS, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center administered by ORAU are gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Anticipated Electrical Environment Within Permanently Shadowed Lunar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Collier, M. R.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Shadowed locations ncar the lunar poles arc almost certainly electrically complex regions. At these locations near the terminator, the local solar wind flows nearly tangential to the surface and interacts with large-scale topographic features such as mountains and deep large craters, In this work, we study the solar wind orographic effects from topographic obstructions along a rough lunar surface, On the leeward side of large obstructions, plasma voids are formed in the solar wind because of the absorption of plasma on the upstream surface of these obstacles, Solar wind plasma expands into such voids) producing an ambipolar potential that diverts ion flow into the void region. A surface potential is established on these leeward surfaces in order to balance the currents from the expansion-limited electron and ion populations, Wc find that there arc regions ncar the leeward wall of the craters and leeward mountain faces where solar wind ions cannot access the surface, leaving an electron-rich plasma previously identified as an "electron cloud." In this case, some new current is required to complete the closure for current balance at the surface, and we propose herein that lofted negatively charged dust is one possible (nonunique) compensating current source. Given models for both ambipolar and surface plasma processes, we consider the electrical environment around the large topographic features of the south pole (including Shoemaker crater and the highly varied terrain near Nobile crater), as derived from Goldstone radar data, We also apply our model to moving and stationary objects of differing compositions located on the surface and consider the impact of the deflected ion flow on possible hydrogen resources within the craters

  18. Depth and Horizontal Distribution of Volatiles in Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D. M.; Bussey, B.; Lawrence, D. J.; Gladstone, R.; Elphic, R. C.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Neutron spectroscopy from Lunar Prospector returned data consistent with the presence of water ice in the near-subsurface of the Moon in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) at low spatial resolution. Clementine and ground-based radar returned tantalizing, but inconclusive evidence of ice in lunar PSRs. Later, Mini-RF on Chandrayaan-1 and LRO detected a signature consistent with water ice in some polar craters on the Moon, but not all PSRs. Similarly, LEND on LRO detected a heterogeneous distribution of hydrogen among lunar PSRs. In addition, LAMP on LRO detected FUV spectra consistent with a heterogeneous distribution of frost on the surface of permanently shadowed regions. Yet the weakest spectral feature from LAMP was associated with the crater with the strongest hydrogen feature from LEND. The impact of LCROSS into Cabeus released water and other volatiles, but abundances were higher than the background amounts detected by neutron spectroscopy implying heterogeneity within that PSR. Data from any one instrument taken alone would lead one to a different conclusion about the distribution of volatiles than data taken from any other single instrument. Although the data from different instrumentation can seem to be disparate, the apparent discrepancy results from the different fields of view and sensitivities of the detection techniques. The complementary nature of these data can be exploited to provide a multi-dimensional view of volatiles in lunar PSRs. We apply a Monte Carlo model to describe the retention and redistribution of volatiles within lunar cold traps. The model runs constrain the coherence of volatile deposits with depth, area, and time, which allows us to examine how a given volatile distribution would appear to remote sensing experiments. This provides a big picture framework for integrating the observations of volatiles on the surface and at depth at the poles of the Moon with the goal of finding a distribution of volatiles in lunar PSRs consistent with all of the data.

  19. Preliminary Mapping of Permanently Shadowed and Sunlit Regions Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E.; Koeber, S.; Robinson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    The spin axis of the Moon is tilted by only 1.5° (compared with the Earth's 23.5°), leaving some areas near the poles in permanent shadow while other nearby regions remain sunlit for a majority of the year. Theory, radar data, neutron measurements, and Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observations suggest that volatiles may be present in the cold traps created inside these permanently shadowed regions. While areas of near permanent illumination are prime locations for future lunar outposts due to benign thermal conditions and near constant solar power. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has two imaging systems that provide medium and high resolution views of the poles. During almost every orbit the LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) acquires images at 100 m/pixel of the polar region (80° to 90° north and south latitude). In addition, the LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) targets selected regions of interest at 0.7 to 1.5 m/pixel [Robinson et al., 2010]. During the first 11 months of the nominal mission, LROC acquired almost 6,000 WAC images and over 7,300 NAC images of the polar region (i.e., within 2° of pole). By analyzing this time series of WAC and NAC images, regions of permanent shadow and permanent, or near-permanent illumination can be quantified. The LROC Team is producing several reduced data products that graphically illustrate the illumination conditions of the polar regions. Illumination movie sequences are being produced that show how the lighting conditions change over a calendar year. Each frame of the movie sequence is a polar stereographic projected WAC image showing the lighting conditions at that moment. With the WAC’s wide field of view (~100 km at an altitude of 50 km), each frame has repeat coverage between 88° and 90° at each pole. The same WAC images are also being used to develop multi-temporal illumination maps that show the percent each 100 m × 100 m area is illuminated over a period of time. These maps are derived by stacking all the WAC frames, selecting a threshold to determine if the surface is illuminated, and summing the resulting binary images. In addition, mosaics of NAC images are also being produced for regions of interest at a scale of 0.7 to 1.5 m/pixel. The mosaics produced so far have revealed small illuminated surfaces on the tens of meters scale that were previously thought to be shadowed during that time. The LROC dataset of the polar regions complements previous illumination analysis of Clementine images [Bussey et al., 1999], Kaguya topography [Bussey et al., 2010], and the current efforts underway by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Team [Mazarico et al., 2010] and provide an important new dataset for science and exploration. References: Bussey et al. (1999), Illumination conditions at the lunar south pole, Geophysical Research Letters, 26(9), 1187-1190. Bussey et al. (2010), Illumination conditions of the south pole of the Moon derived from Kaguya topography, Icarus, 208, 558-564. Mazarico et al. (2010), Illumination of the lunar poles from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Topography Data, paper presented at 41st LPSC, Houston, TX. Robinson et al. (2010), Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Instrument Overview, Space Sci Rev, 150, 81-124.

  20. W.W.W. MOON? The why, what and when of a permanent manned lunar colony.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Several reasons for going back to the Moon are listed: scientific study of our natural satellite, Earth and in general the Solar System; exploitation of the resources of Outer Space; geopolitical considerations that made Apollo possible and are still valid in the long term; advancement of manned spaceflight, as robot-based exploration is time-wise inefficient and politically negligible. Technological, organisational and legal challenges are then outlined. After a discussion of human physiology, building materials and transportation of people and goods, an underground polar location is proposed as settlement site, either within kilometre-size lava tubes or man-made caves. An analysis of spaceflight history is conducted to determine a target date for returning to the Moon to stay. In the absence of political or commercial competition, experience indicates the last decades of the XXI century. To shorten this timescale, it is recommended to focus on accomplishing the task of establishing a reliable lunar travel and settlement system, rather than developing new technologies: simplifying the goals of each single step forward (as was the case of the Clementine mission) and concentrating on production-ready (or almost-ready) equipment (compare the ill-fated X-33 to the dependable Soyuz capsules). PMID:15852541

  1. Testing Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results from LRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R. D.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    We use measurements from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) collimated sensors during more than one year of the mapping phase of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to make estimates of the epithermal neutron flux within known large Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). These are compared with the local neutron background measured outside PSRs in sunlit regions. Individual and collective analyses of PSR properties have been performed. Only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the south and Rozhdestvensky U in the north, have been found to manifest significant neutron suppression. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, only a few percent, if at all. Some even display an excess of neutron emission in comparison to the sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only the group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 square kilometers, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, approx. 2%, with low statistical confidence. An approx. 2% suppression corresponds to approx. 125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous H distribution in depth in the regolith. This means that all PSRs, except those in Shoemaker, Cabeus and Rozhdestvensky U craters, do not contain any significant amount of hydrogen in comparison with sunlit areas around them at the same latitude.

  2. The Distribution of Ice in Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions: Science Enabling Exploration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, D.; Elphic, R. C.; Bussey, B.; Hibbitts, C.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent prospecting indicates that water ice occurs in enhanced abundances in some lunar PSRs. That water constitutes a resource that enables lunar exploration if it can be harvested for fuel and life support. Future lunar exploration missions will need detailed information about the distribution of volatiles in lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). In addition, the volatiles also offer key insights into the recent and distant past, as they have trapped volatiles delivered to the moon over ~2 Gyr. This comprises an unparalleled reservoir of past inner solar system volatiles, and future scientific missions are needed to make the measurements that will reveal the composition of those volatiles. These scientific missions will necessarily have to acquire and analyze samples of volatiles from the PSRs. For both exploration and scientific purposes, the precise location of volatiles will need to be known. However, data indicate that ice is distributed heterogeneously on the Moon. It is unlikely that the distribution will be known a priori with enough spatial resolution to guarantee access to volatiles using a single point sample. Some mechanism for laterally or vertically distributed access will increase the likelihood of acquiring a rich sample of volatiles. Trade studies will need to be conducted to anticipate the necessary range and duration of missions to lunar PSRs that will be needed to accomplish the mission objectives. We examine the spatial distribution of volatiles in lunar PSRs reported from data analyses and couple those with models of smaller scale processes. FUV and laser data from PSRs that indicate the average surface distribution is consistent with low abundances on the extreme surface in most PSRs. Neutron and radar data that probe the distribution at depth show heterogeneity at broad spatial resolution. We consider those data in conjunction with the model to understand the full, 3-D nature of the heterogeneity. A Monte Carlo technique simulates the stochastic process of impact gardening on a putative ice deposit. The model uses the crater production function as a basis for generating a random selection of impact craters over time. Impacts are implemented by modifying the topography, volatile content, and depth distribution in the simulation volume on a case by case basis. This technique will never be able to reproduce the exact impact history of a particular area. But by conducting multiple runs with the same initial conditions and a different seed to the random number generator, we are able to calculate the probability of situations occurring. Further, by repeating the simulations with varied initial conditions, we calculate the dependence of the expectation values on the inputs. We present findings regarding the heterogeneity of volatiles in PSRs as a function of age, initial ice thickness, and contributions from steady sources.

  3. Human safety in the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Any attempt to establish a continuously staffed base or permanent settlement on the Moon must safely meet the challenges posed by the Moon's surface environment. This environment is drastically different from the Earth's, and radiation and meteoroids are significant hazards to human safety. These dangers may be mitigated through the use of underground habitats, the piling up of lunar materials as shielding, and the use of teleoperated devices for surface operations. The lunar environment is detailed along with concepts for survival.

  4. Science objectives in the lunar base advocacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1988-01-01

    The author considers the potential function of astronomy in planning for a lunar base during the 21st century. He is one of the leading advocates for a permanent settlement on the Moon and has given considerable thought to the possible impact of such a station on science. He considers the rationale for a lunar base, research on the Moon, and the definition of science objectives.

  5. Magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface and the interpretation of permanent remanence in lunar surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    A magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface is presented. It was found that there is a distinct correlation between natural remanence (NRM), saturation magnetization, and the hysteresis ratios for the rock samples. The hysteresis classification is able to explain some aspects of time dependent magnetization in the lunar samples and relates the initial susceptibility to NRM, viscous remanence, and to other aspects of magnetization in lunar samples. It is also considered that since up to 60% of the iron in the lunar soil may be super paramagnetic at 400 K, and only 10% at 100 K, the 50% which becomes ferromagnetic over the cycle has the characteristics of thermoremanence and may provide for an enhancement in measurable field on the dark side during a subsatellite magnetometer circuit.

  6. Beagle to the Moon: An Experiment Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Near the beginning of the next decade we will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface and have the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration

  7. Design of an unmanned lunar cargo lander that reconfigures into a shelter for a habitation module or disassembles into parts useful to a permanent manned lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davanay, Lisa; Garner, Brian; Rigol, Jason

    1989-01-01

    NASA plans to establish a permanent manned lunar base by the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is extremely expensive to transport material from earth to the moon. Therefore, expense would be reduced if the vehicle that lands cargo on the moon could itself meet some of the material needs of establishing the lunar base. The design of a multi-functional lander that is entirely useful to the base after landing is described. Alternate designs of the overall lander configuration and possible uses of the lander and its components after landing are contained. The design solution is a lander employing the Saddlebagged Fuel Tank Configuration. After landing, its structure will be converted into a habitation module shelter that supports a protective layer of regolith. The fuel tanks will be cleaned and used as storage tanks for the lunar base. The engines and instrumentation will be saved as stock parts. Recommendations for further research and technology development to enhance future lander designs are given.

  8. Beagle 2 the Moon: An Experimental Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2008-01-01

    NASA has announced the selection of several Lunar Science Sortie Concept Studies for potential scientific payloads with future Lunar Missions. The Beagle 2 scientific package was one of those chosen for study. Near the beginning of the next decade will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface with the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package developed to seek the signatures of life on Mars is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration.

  9. Evolving concepts of lunar architecture: The potential of subselene development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daga, Andrew W.; Daga, Meryl A.; Wendel, Wendel R.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the superior environmental and operational conditions that are thought to exist in lava tubes, popular visions of permanent settlements built upon the lunar surface may prove to be entirely romantic. The factors that will ultimately come together to determine the design of a lunar base are complex and interrelated, and they call for a radical architectural solution. Whether lunar surface-deployed superstructures can answer these issues is called into question. One particularly troublesome concern in any lunar base design is the need for vast amounts of space, and the ability of man-made structures to provide such volumes in a reliable pressurized habitat is doubtful. An examination of several key environmental design issues suggests that the alternative mode of subselene development may offer the best opportunity for an enduring and humane settlement.

  10. Modeling Lunar Borehole Temperature in order to Reconstruct Historical Total Solar Irradiance and Estimate Surface Temperature in Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, G.; Cahalan, R. F.; Miyahara, H.; Ohmura, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Moon is an ideal place to reconstruct historical total solar irradiance (TSI). With undisturbed lunar surface albedo and the very low thermal diffusivity of lunar regolith, changes in solar input lead to changes in lunar surface temperature that diffuse downward to be recorded in the temperature profile in the near-surface layer. Using regolith thermal properties from Apollo, we model the heat transfer in the regolith layer, and compare modeled surface temperature to Apollo observations to check model performance. Using as alternative input scenarios two reconstructed TSI time series from 1610 to 2000 (Lean, 2000; Wang, Lean, and Sheeley 2005), we conclude that the two scenarios can be distinguished by detectable differences in regolith temperature, with the peak difference of about 10 mK occuring at a depth of about 10 m (Miyahara et al., 2007). The possibility that water ice exists in permanently shadowed areas near the lunar poles (Nozette et al., 1997; Spudis et al, 1998), makes it of interest to estimate surface temperature in such dark regions. "Turning off" the Sun in our time dependent model, we found it would take several hundred years for the surface temperature to drop from ~~100K immediately after sunset down to a nearly constant equilibrium temperature of about 24~~38 K, with the range determined by the range of possible input from Earth, from 0 W/m2 without Earth visible, up to about 0.1 W/m2 at maximum Earth phase. A simple equilibrium model (e.g., Huang 2007) is inappropriate to relate the Apollo-observed nighttime temperature to Earth's radiation budget, given the long multi- centennial time scale needed for equilibration of the lunar surface layer after sunset. Although our results provide the key mechanisms for reconstructing historical TSI, further research is required to account for topography of lunar surfaces, and new measurements of regolith thermal properties will also be needed once a new base of operations is established. References Huang, S., (2007), Surface Temperatures at the Nearside of the Moon as a Record of the Radiation Budget of Earth's Climate System, Advances in Space Research, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.04.093. Lean, J., Geophys. Res. Lett., (2000), 27(16), 2425-2428. Miyahara, H., G. Wen, R. F. Cahalan, and A. Ohmura, (2007), Deriving Historical Total Solar Irradiance from Lunar Borehole Temperatures, submitted to Geophy. Res. Lett. Nozette, S., E. M. Shoemaker, P. D. Spudis, and C. L. Lichtenberg, The possibility of ice on the Moon, Science, 278, 144-145, 1997. Spudis, P.D., T. Cook, M. Robinson, B. Bussey, and B. Fessler, Topography of the southe polar region from Clementine stereo imaging, New views of the Moon, Integrated remotely sensed, geophysical, and sample datasets, Lunar Planet. Inst., [CD-ROM], abstract 6010, 1998. Wang, Y. M., J. L. Lean and N. R. Sheeley (2005), Astrophys. J., 625, 522-538.

  11. Lunar Polar Coring Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

  12. Testing of Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results for about Three Years of Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanin, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. R.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Starr, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: More than 50 years ago, it was sug-gested that some areas near the lunar poles are suffi-ciently cold to trap and preserve for a very long time (~Gy) hydrogen bearing volatiles, either primordial or produced at the Moon via solar wind interactions or brought to the Moon as water ice by comets and mete-oroids [1,2]. The results of observations made by radar onboard the Clementine spacecraft and by neutron (LPNS) and gamma-ray (LPGRS) spectrometers onboard the Lunar Prospector mission have been inter-preted as an enhancement of hydrogen abundance in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) [3]. Unfortu-nately, the spatial resolution of these instruments were much broader than the size of any largest PSRs [4] requiring model dependent data deconvolution to res-lve signal from PSRs itself. Data Analysis: We would like to present updated results of analysis of Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) data for about three years of lunar mapping. Data measured by collimated LEND detectors allows one to look at neutron flux distribution at Moon poles with much better spatial resolution then was achieved at previous space missions. Using the LEND data we had tested the hypothesis that all PSRs are contain a large amount of water ice permafrost and test for hydrogen presents in regolith of regions outside of PSRs. Discussion: Both analyses of individual PSRs and studies of groups of PSRs have shown that these spots of extreme cold at lunar poles are not associated with a strong effect of epithermal neutron flux suppression [5]. We found only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the South and Rozhdestvensky U in the North, which manifest significant neutron suppression, from -5.5% to -14.9%. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, no more than few percentages, if at all. Some PSRs even display excess of neutron emis-sion in respect to sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 km2, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, ~2%, with low statistical confidence. A ~2% suppression corresponds to ~125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous Hydrogen distribution in depth in the regolith [6]. References: [1] Arnold, J. R. (1979) JGR, 84, 5659-5668. [2] Watson, K., Murray B. C. and Brown H. (1961) JGR, 66, 3033-3045. [3] Feldman W. C. et al. (2001) JGR, 106, 23231-23252. [4] Maurice S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04, 40 PP. [5] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483. [6] Sanin A.B. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H26

  13. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  14. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  15. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  16. Lunar and Planetary Bases, Habitats, and Colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes the design and construction of lunar and Mars bases, habitats, and settlements; construction materials and equipment; life support systems; base operations and logistics; thermal management and power systems; and robotic systems.

  17. Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). We will focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation, but not immediately autonomous. It will prepare the next permanent lunar base by assessing its technologies, and give scientific results about the environment. The autonomy will be gained in the evolution of the base, and added equipment. A lunar outpost in a polar region would allow missions longer than 14 days, and a frequent addition of equipments. Moreover, a polar outpost will get both advantages of far-side for simulating direct or indirect communications to Earth and dark-side for observations. The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the outpost into a autonomous base. The South Pole, by its position on the edge of the South Pole Aitken (SPA) Basin, will allow different fast new data in analysis mantle samples, easily reachable due to the crater morphology. These samples will constrain the putative Late Heavy Bombarment (LHB). After a robotic sample return mission, a human presence will allow deeper research through well chosen geological samples [6]. In this modular concept, we consider various infrastructure elements: core habitat, EVA, crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. Many of these elements have already been studied in space agencies' architecture proposals, with the tech-nological possibilities of industrial partners (lunar landers, lunar orbiter, rovers …). A deeper reflection will be therefore done about the core habitat and the laboratory equipment, proposing scientific priority experiments. Each element will be added in a range considering their priority to life support in duration [7]. Considering surface operations, protocols will be specified in the use of certain elements. After a reflexion on the different dependancies and priorities between these modules, a demonstration can assess the reliability of the concept and develo

  18. A lunar venture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Trinh, Lu X.

    1989-01-01

    As the Earth's space station is in its final stages of design, the dream of a permanent manned space facility is now a reality. Despite this monumental achievement, however, man's quest to extend human habitation further out into space is far from being realized. The next logical step in space exploration must be the construction of a permanent lunar base. This lunar infrastucture can, in turn, be used as a staging ground for further exploration of the remote regions of the solar system. As outlined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the lunar base program consists of three exploratory and implementation phases. In response to the technological and facility requirements of Phase 1 and 2 of this program, the Aerospace Vehicle Design Program of the University of Virgina (UVA) is proud to present a preliminary design for such a lunar infrastructure. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the mission requirements as well as the design criteria for space vehicles and facilities. The UVA Lunar Venture is a dual system that consists of a lunar space station and a fleet of lunar landers/transporters. With such a design, it is demonstrated that all initial exploratory and construction requirements for the lunar base can be efficiently satisfied. Additionally, the need for such a dual system is justified both from a logistic and economic standpoint.

  19. Preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility (Complex 39L)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, H. Dennis; Jenson, Eric B.; Linsley, Jerald N.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary definition of a lunar landing and launch facility has been formulated. A permanently manned lunar base and a baseline lunar module are assumed. The major features of the facility are specified and major design areas are described.

  20. Selenia: A habitability study for the development of a third generation lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Apollo astronauts landed on the Moon, the first generation of lunar bases was established. They consisted essentially of a lunar module and related hardware capable of housing two astronauts for not more than several days. Second generation lunar bases are being developed, and further infrastructure, such as space station, orbital transfer, and reusable lander vehicles will be necessary, as prolonged stay on the Moon is required for exploration, research, and construction for the establishment of a permanent human settlement there. Human life in these habitats could be sustained for months, dependent on a continual flow of life-support supplies from Earth. Third-generation lunar bases will come into being as self sufficiency of human settlements becomes feasible. Regeneration of water, oxygen production, and development of indigenous construction materials from lunar resources will be necessary. Greenhouses will grow food supplies in engineered biospheres. Assured protection from solar flares and cosmic radiation must be provided, as well as provision for survival under meteor showers, or the threat of meteorite impact. All these seem to be possible within the second decade of the next century. Thus, the builders of Selenia, the first of the third-generation lunar bases are born today. During the last two years students from the School of Architecture of the University of Puerto Rico have studied the problems that relate to habitability for prolonged stay in extraterrestrial space. An orbital personnel transport to Mars developed originally by the Aerospace Engineering Department of the University of Michigan was investigated and habitability criteria for evaluation of human space habitats were proposed. An important finding from that study was that the necessary rotational diameter of the vessel has to be on the order of two kilometers to ensure comfort for humans under the artificial gravity conditions necessary to maintain physiological well being of passengers, beyond the level of mere survival.

  1. Lunar base agriculture: Soils for plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W. (editor); Henninger, Donald L. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    This work provides information on research and experimentation concerning various aspects of food production in space and particularly on the moon. Options for human settlement of the moon and Mars and strategies for a lunar base are discussed. The lunar environment, including the mineralogical and chemical properties of lunar regolith are investigated and chemical and physical considerations for a lunar-derived soil are considered. It is noted that biological considerations for such a soil include controlled-environment crop production, both hydroponic and lunar regolith-based; microorganisms and the growth of higher plants in lunar-derived soils; and the role of microbes to condition lunar regolith for plant cultivation. Current research in the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) project is presented in detail and future research areas, such as the growth of higher research plants in CELSS are considered. Optimum plant and microbiological considerations for lunar derived soils are examined.

  2. Lunar Ice Cube: Determining Volatile Systematics Via Lunar Orbiting Cubesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Malphrus, B.; MacDowall, R.; Folta, D.; Mandell, A.; Brambora, C.; Patel, D.; Banks, S.; Hohman, K.; Hruby, V.; Brown, K.; Kruth, J.; Cox, R.

    2015-10-01

    We have applied the CubeSat Paradigm to science requirements-driven deep space exploration mission, Lunar Ice Cube, and are developing a compact 'workhorse' instrument for a high priority science application, which has just been selected for the HEOMD NextSTEP program for EM1 launch. Lunar Ice Cube complements Lunar Flashlight, a mission previously selected for EM1, by focusing on the abundance, location and transportation physics of water forms and components on the lunar surface at a variety of latitudes and terminator crossings not restricted to Permanently Shadowed Regions.

  3. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  4. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS) is examined. The basic design time line is around 2010 to 2030 and is referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases and equipment would have been present. Present plans for lunar colonization call for a phased return of personnel and materials to the moons's surface. During settlement of lunar bases, the lunar lander is stationary in a very hostile environment and would have to be in a state of readiness for use in case of an emergency. Cargo and personnel would have to be removed from the lander and transported to a safe environment at the lunar base. An integrated system is required to perform these functions. These needs are addressed which center around the design of a lunar lander servicing system. The servicing system could perform several servicing functions to the lander in addition to cargo servicing. The following were considered: (1) reliquify hydrogen boiloff; (2) supply power; and (3) remove or add heat as necessary. The final design incorporates both original designs and existing vehicles and equipment on the surface of the moon at the time considered. The importance of commonality is foremost in the design of any lunar machinery.

  5. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  6. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  7. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, R. K.; Behera, D.; Sahoo, P. K.; Swain, S. K.; Sasmal, A.

    2012-03-01

    In the face of failure of conservation programs, a Gene Bank in the lunar PSR, preferably the Shoemaker crater incorporating natural cryopreservation will provide permanent preservation of germplasms to protect endangered species from extinction.

  8. Self-unloading, reusable, lunar lander project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arseculeratne, Ruwan; Cavazos, Melissa; Euker, John; Ghavidel, Fred; Hinkel, Todd J.; Hitzfelder, John; Leitner, Jesse; Nevik, James; Paynter, Scott; Zolondek, Allen

    1990-01-01

    In the early 21st century, NASA will return to the Moon and establish a permanent base. To achieve this goal safely and economically, B&T Engineering has designed an unmanned, reusable, self-unloading lunar lander. The lander is designed to deliver 15,000 kg payloads from an orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) in a low lunar polar orbit and an altitude of 200 km to any location on the lunar surface.

  9. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  10. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  11. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  12. Lunar Flashlight: Exploration and Science at the Moon with a 6U CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Lunar Flashlight mission, manifested on the SLS EM-1 flight scheduled for 2018, will illuminate permanently shadowed regions at the lunar south pole to measure the abundance and distribution of surface water ice for human resource utilization.

  13. Lunar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified.

  14. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  15. Lunar Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

  16. ILEWG report and discussion on Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" will include oral papers and posters, and a series of discussions. Members of ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group will debate: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open - Celebrating the lunar legacy of pioneers Gerhard Neukum, Colin Pillinger and Manfred Fuchs planetary science and exploration - Latest results from LADEE and Chang'e 3/4 - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang-E1 and Chang-E2, Chandrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and LCROSS impactor, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs, Chang'E 5, Future landers, Lunar sample return - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar sorties - Preparation: databases, instruments, terrestrial field campaigns - The future international lunar exploration programme towards ILEWG roadmap of a global robotic village and permanent international lunar base - The proposals for an International Lunar Decade and International Lunar Research Parks - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Human Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with the perspective of robotic and human exploration. The session will include invited and contributed talks as well as a panel discussion and interactive posters with short oral introduction.

  17. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

  18. Lunar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

  19. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  20. Challenges of Rover Navigation at the Lunar Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara; Deans, Matt; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Larry; Dille, Michael; Fong, Terry; Colaprete, Tony; Miller, Scott; Vaughan, Ryan; Andrews, Dan; Allan, Mark; Furlong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Observations from Lunar Prospector, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and other missions have contributed evidence that water and other volatiles exist at the lunar poles in permanently shadowed regions. Combining a surface rover and a volatile prospecting and analysis payload would enable the detection and characterization of volatiles in terms of nature, abundance, and distribution. This knowledge could have impact on planetary science, in-situ resource utilization, and human exploration of space. While Lunar equatorial regions of the Moon have been explored by manned (Apollo) and robotic missions (Lunokhod, Cheng'e), no surface mission has reached the lunar poles.

  1. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  2. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  3. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  4. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  5. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

  6. Microwave Extraction of Water from Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the DOD Clementine lunar orbital mission obtained data indicating that the permanently shaded regions at the lunar poles may have permanently frozen water in the lunar soil. Currently NASA's Robotic Lunar Exploration Program, RLEP-2, is planned to land at the lunar pole to determine if water is present. The detection and extraction of water from the permanently frozen permafrost is an important goal for NASA. Extraction of water from lunar permafrost has a high priority in the In-Situ Resource Utilization, ISRU, community for human life support and as a fuel. The use of microwave processing would permit the extraction of water without the need to dig, drill, or excavate the lunar surface. Microwave heating of regolith is potentially faster and more efficient than any other heating methods due to the very low thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith. Also, microwaves can penetrate into the soil permitting water removal from deep below the lunar surface. A cryogenic vacuum test facility was developed for evaluating the use of microwave heating and water extraction from a lunar regolith permafrost simulant. Water is obtained in a cryogenic cold trap even with soil conditions below 0 C. The results of microwave extraction of water experiments will be presented.

  7. A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on each piloted round trip mission. As the initial lunar outposts grow to centralized bases and settlements with a substantial permanent human presence, a LANTR-powered shuttle capable of 36 to 24 hour 'one-way' trip times to the moon and back becomes possible with initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) requirements of approximately 160 to 240 metric tons, respectively.

  8. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture" contained the following reports:Approaches for Approximating Topography in High Resolution, Multispectral Data; Verification of Quality and Compatibility for the Newly Calibrated Clementine NIR Data Set; Near Infrared Spectral Properties of Selected Nearside and Farside Sites ; Global Comparisons of Mare Volcanism from Clementine Near-Infrared Data; Testing the Relation Between UVVIS Color and TiO2 Composition in the Lunar Maria; Color Reflectance Trends in the Mare: Implications for Mapping Iron with Multispectral Images ; The Composition of the Lunar Megaregolith: Some Initial Results from Global Mapping; Global Images of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data; The Origin of Lunar Crater Rays; Properties of Lunar Crater Ejecta from New 70-cm Radar Observations ; Permanent Sunlight at the Lunar North Pole; and ESA s SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals, Status and First Results.

  10. Electrical power integration for lunar operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

  11. Lunar exospheric argon modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grava, Cesare; Chaufray, J.-Y.; Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hurley, D. M.; Hodges, R. R.; Bayless, A. J.; Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    Argon is one of the few known constituents of the lunar exosphere. The surface-based mass spectrometer Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) deployed during the Apollo 17 mission first detected argon, and its study is among the subjects of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) and Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission investigations. We performed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutral atomic argon that we use to better understand its transport and storage across the lunar surface. We took into account several loss processes: ionization by solar photons, charge-exchange with solar protons, and cold trapping as computed by recent LRO/Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) mapping of Permanently Shaded Regions (PSRs). Recycling of photo-ions and solar radiation acceleration are also considered. We report that (i) contrary to previous assumptions, charge exchange is a loss process as efficient as photo-ionization, (ii) the PSR cold-trapping flux is comparable to the ionization flux (photo-ionization and charge-exchange), and (iii) solar radiation pressure has negligible effect on the argon density, as expected. We determine that the release of 2.6 × 1028 atoms on top of a pre-existing argon exosphere is required to explain the maximum amount of argon measured by LACE. The total number of atoms (1.0 × 1029) corresponds to ?6700 kg of argon, 30% of which (?1900 kg) may be stored in the cold traps after 120 days in the absence of space weathering processes. The required population is consistent with the amount of argon that can be released during a High Frequency Teleseismic (HFT) Event, i.e. a big, rare and localized moonquake, although we show that LACE could not distinguish between a localized and a global event. The density of argon measured at the time of LACE appears to have originated from no less than four such episodic events. Finally, we show that the extent of the PSRs that trap argon, 0.007% of the total lunar surface, is consistent with the presence of adsorbed water in such PSRs.

  12. Conceptual second-generation lunar equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. The basic assumption made in designing second-generation lunar vehicles and equipment was that a network of permanent lunar bases already existed. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground-based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. Two teams of two or three members competed on each topic and results were exhibited at a formal presentation. A clean-propellant powered lunar flying transport vehicle, an extra-vehicular activity life support system, a pressurized lunar rover for greater distances, and a robotic arm design project are discussed.

  13. Can the United States afford a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trend.

  14. Lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  15. Prospecting for lunar resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much larger than elsewhere in a region. (4) We are developing a strategy that represents a comprehensive, integrated program to prospect for resources throughout the solar system. The plan involves a hierarchy of surface exploration techniques. At the base is a huge swarm (thousands to millions) of microrobots equipped with sensors to identify targeted resources. The tiny robots work in consort with sophisticated all- terrain rovers that serve as communication links and make detailed observations at promising locations identified by the microrobots.

  16. Microwave Extraction of Water from Lunar Regolith Simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethridge, Edwin; Kaukler, William

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the DOD Clementine lunar orbital mission obtained data indicating that the permanently shaded regions at the lunar poles may have permanently frozen water in the lunar soil or `permafrost'. Currently a Lunar Lander Exploration Program is expected to land at the lunar pole to determine if water is present. The detection of water from the permafrost is an important goal for NASA. Extraction of water from lunar permafrost would be a valuable In-Situ Resource for Utilization (ISRU) in human life support and as a fuel. The use of microwave processing could permit the extraction of water without the need to dig, drill, or excavate the lunar surface. Microwave heating of regolith is potentially faster and more efficient than any other heating methods due to the very low thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith. Also, microwaves can penetrate into the soil permitting water removal from deep below the lunar surface. A cryogenic vacuum test facility was developed for evaluating the use of microwave heating and water extraction from a lunar regolith simulant. Water was collected in a cryogenic cold trap even with soil temperature well below 0 °C. The results of microwave extraction of water experiments will be presented.

  17. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an exciting new mission concept in preformulation studies for NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) by a team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, UCLA, and Marshall Space Flight Center. This innovative, low-cost concept will map the lunar south pole for volatiles and demonstrate several technological firsts, including being the first CubeSat to reach the Moon, the first mission to use an 80 m2 solar sail, and the first mission to use a solar sail as a reflector for science observations. The Lunar Flashlight mission spacecraft maneuvers to its lunar polar orbit and uses its solar sail as a mirror to reflect 50 kW of sunlight down into shaded polar regions, while the on-board spectrometer measures surface reflection and composition. The Lunar Flashlight 6U spacecraft has heritage elements from multiple cubesat systems. The deployable solar sail/reflector is based on previous solar sail experiments, scaled up for this mission. The mission will demonstrate a path where 6U CubeSats could, at dramatically lower cost than previously thought possible, explore, locate and estimate size and composition of ice deposits on the Moon. Locating ice deposits in the Moon's permanently shadowed craters addresses one of NASA's Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) to detect composition, quantity, distribution, form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps. Polar volatile data collected by Lunar Flashlight could then ensure that targets for more expensive lander- and rover-borne measurements would include volatiles in sufficient quantity and near enough to the surface to be operationally useful.

  18. Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Although pioneer settlements are often founded for political or ideological reasons distinct from short-term economic justifications, their survival and growth depend on economic factors. The settlers must be able to make a living, whether at subsistence, commercial farming, fishing, mining, manufacturing, trade, or in government service. Although most of this discussion is highly speculative, it does seem from the historical material that there are plausible ways in which an evolutionary lunar program could lead, step by step, to settlement. Once a lunar facility has achieved basic self-sufficiencies in the production of oxygen, food, and construction materials, crew rotation would become a dominant cost factor in continuing lunar operations. At such a point, establishment of a resident staff begins to make economic sense. Subsequent encouragement of private-sector economic activities through such mechanisms as resident bonuses, local purchase preferences, and transfer of responsibility of basic services and production capabilities might well reduce operating costs and significantly multiply the economic effects of the basic import capacity provided by the facility's local expenditures.

  19. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, R. K.

    2014-10-01

    The concept of a gene bank in the lunar polar craters provides a permanent solution to the menace of endangered species and the failure of the prevailing strategies to protect them. This is one vital, technologically viable yet cost effective option.

  20. GEOSCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED FROM A LUNAR BASE

    E-print Network

    Spudis, Paul D.

    ) lunar crustal structure, composition, and petrogenesis, 3) Earth - Moon bombardment history; and 4 for chemical analysis on the Moon will be required. 1. INTRODUCTION It seems likely that a permanent base will be established on the surface of the Moon some nation or group of nations during the early years of the next

  1. Lunar Missions, Science, & Astronauts! Lunar Transfer Trajectories!

    E-print Network

    Stengel, Robert F.

    Seminar 7! Lunar Missions, Science, & Astronauts! Lunar Transfer Trajectories! FRS 112, Princeton! Apollo 12! Lunar Transfer Trajectories! Understanding Space, Sec 7.2, 7.3! Modern Spacecraft Dynamics" No landing intended" Apollo 9! March 1969! Earth-orbit test of Lunar Module, rendezvous, and docking" 3! 4

  2. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  3. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  4. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  5. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  6. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order... following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement negotiations at any time during the...

  7. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Banazadeh, P.; Baker, J. D.; Staehle, R. L.; Paine, C..; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Water ice and other volatiles may be located in the Moon's polar regions, with sufficient quantities for in situ extraction and utilization by future human and robotic missions. Evidence from orbiting spacecraft and the LCROSS impactor suggests the presence of surface and/or nearsurface volatiles, including water ice. These deposits are of interest to human exploration to understand their potential for use by astronauts. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits could also reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system, so are of scientific interest. The scientific exploration of the lunar polar regions was one of the key recommendations of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program selected three lowcost 6-U CubeSat missions for launch as secondary payloads on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS) scheduled for 2017. The Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as one of these missions, specifically to address the SKG associated with lunar volatiles. Development of the Lunar Flashlight CubeSat concept leverages JPL's Interplanetary Nano- Spacecraft Pathfinder In Relevant Environment (INSPIRE) mission, MSFC's intimate knowledge of the Space Launch System and EM-1 mission, small business development of solar sail and electric propulsion hardware, and JPL experience with specialized miniature sensors. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and its physical state, and map its concentration at the kilometer scale within the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight deploys its solar panels and solar sail and maneuvers into a low-energy transfer to lunar orbit. The solar sail and attitude control system work to bring the satellite into an elliptical polar orbit spiraling down to a perilune of 30-10 km above the south pole for data collection. Lunar Flashlight uses its solar sail to shine reflected sunlight into permanently shadowed regions, measuring surface albedo with a four-filter point spectrometer at 1.1, 1.5 1.9, and 2.0 microns. Water ice will be distinguished from dry regolith from these measurements in two ways: 1) spatial variations in absolute reflectance (water ice is much brighter in the continuum channels), and 2) reflectance ratios between absorption and continuum channels. Derived reflectance and reflectance ratios will be mapped onto the lunar surface in order to distinguish the composition of the PSRs from that of the sunlit terrain. Lunar Flashlight enables a low-cost path to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) by identifying operationally useful deposits (if there are any), which is a game-changing capability for expanded human exploration.

  8. Lunar anorthosites.

    PubMed

    Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

    1970-01-30

    Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context. PMID:17781512

  9. Evaluation of Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Megalopal Settlement and Condition during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Grey, Erin K; Chiasson, Susan C; Williams, Hannah G; Troeger, Victoria J; Taylor, Caz M

    2015-01-01

    The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, is a commercially, culturally, and ecologically significant species in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), whose offshore stages were likely impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). To test for DWH effects and to better understand the planktonic ecology of this species, we monitored Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement and condition at sites within and outside of the spill extent during and one year after the DWH. We tested for DWH effects by comparing 2010 settlement against baseline data available for two sites, and by testing for differences in settlement and condition inside and outside of the spill extent. We also developed time series models to better understand natural drivers of daily settlement variation (seasonal and lunar trends, hydrodynamics, wind) during 2010 and 2011. Overall, we found that neither megalopal settlement nor body weight were significantly reduced at oiled sites, but that high unexplained variation and low statistical power made detection of even large effects unlikely. Time series models revealed remarkably consistent and relatively strong seasonal and lunar trends within sites (explaining on average 28% and 9% of variation, respectively), while wind and hydrodynamic effects were weak (1-5% variation explained) and variable among sites. This study provides insights into DWH impacts as well as the natural drivers of Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement across the northern GOM. PMID:26270970

  10. Evaluation of Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Megalopal Settlement and Condition during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Erin K.; Chiasson, Susan C.; Williams, Hannah G.; Troeger, Victoria J.; Taylor, Caz M.

    2015-01-01

    The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, is a commercially, culturally, and ecologically significant species in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), whose offshore stages were likely impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). To test for DWH effects and to better understand the planktonic ecology of this species, we monitored Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement and condition at sites within and outside of the spill extent during and one year after the DWH. We tested for DWH effects by comparing 2010 settlement against baseline data available for two sites, and by testing for differences in settlement and condition inside and outside of the spill extent. We also developed time series models to better understand natural drivers of daily settlement variation (seasonal and lunar trends, hydrodynamics, wind) during 2010 and 2011. Overall, we found that neither megalopal settlement nor body weight were significantly reduced at oiled sites, but that high unexplained variation and low statistical power made detection of even large effects unlikely. Time series models revealed remarkably consistent and relatively strong seasonal and lunar trends within sites (explaining on average 28% and 9% of variation, respectively), while wind and hydrodynamic effects were weak (1–5% variation explained) and variable among sites. This study provides insights into DWH impacts as well as the natural drivers of Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement across the northern GOM. PMID:26270970

  11. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  12. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  13. An engineer/constructor's view of lunar resource development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Carleton H.

    1992-01-01

    A strawman lunar outpost scenario has been postulated as a special focus to guide the papers in this symposium. This scenario describes an evolving facility with basic components, personnel, and activities intended to support lunar missions that lead to a permanent occupation on the lunar surface. The engineer/constructor's view of establishing a lunar outpost is largely concerned with identifying and analyzing the logistics needed to transform the engineering designs on paper into a constructed and operating facility. This means that all aspects of the outpost design will be examined to satisfy constructability requirements and to develop a construction management plan that leads to successful facility startup and routine operations. Whether the facility is to be devoted to materials production, vehicle refueling, or science projects will influence the construction plan in its details, but the construction of all lunar facilities will be mainly governed by the difficult logistics path from Earth to the lunar surface.

  14. Lunar Seismology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary V.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

  15. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The surface composition of lunar fines, the solar wind sputtering process, and the profile of reduced Fe in lunar samples are reported. Atomic absorption studies of trace metal, especially lead, distribution in lunar fines samples are described.

  16. Concepts for manned lunar habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Butterfield, A. J.; King, C. B.; Qualls, G. D.; Davis, W. T.; Gould, M. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Simonsen, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    The design philosophy that will guide the design of early lunar habitats will be based on a compromise between the desired capabilities of the base and the economics of its development and implantation. Preferred design will be simple, make use of existing technologies, require the least amount of lunar surface preparation, and minimize crew activity. Three concepts for an initial habitat supporting a crew of four for 28 to 30 days are proposed. Two of these are based on using Space Station Freedom structural elements modified for use in a lunar-gravity environment. A third concept is proposed that is based on an earlier technology based on expandable modules. The expandable modules offer significant advantages in launch mass and packaged volume reductions. It appears feasible to design a transport spacecraft lander that, once landed, can serve as a habitat and a stand-off for supporting a regolith environmental shield. A permanent lunar base habitat supporting a crew of twelve for an indefinite period can be evolved by using multiple initial habitats. There appears to be no compelling need for an entirely different structure of larger volume and increased complexity of implantation.

  17. Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

  18. Lunar exploration and development--a sustainable model.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A long-term goal of space exploration is the development of a lunar settlement that will not only be largely self-sufficient but also contribute to the economy of the Earth-Moon system. Proposals for lunar mining and materials processing developments, as well as tourism-based applications, have appeared in the literature for many years. However, so great are the technical and financial difficulties associated with sustained lunar development that, more than 30 years after the end of the Apollo programme, there have been no practical advances towards this goal. While this may soon be remedied by a series of proposed unmanned orbiters, landers and rovers, the philosophy of lunar exploration and development remains the same as it has for decades: conquer, exploit, and ignore the consequences. By contrasting the well-recognised problems of Earth orbital debris and the barely recognised issue of intentional spacecraft impacts on the lunar surface, this paper illustrates the need for a new model for lunar exploration and development. This new paradigm would assign a value to the lunar environment and provide a balance between protection and exploitation, creating, in effect, a philosophy of sustainable development for the Moon. It is suggested that this new philosophy should be an integral part of any future strategy for lunar colonisation. PMID:16010758

  19. Lunar exploration and development—A sustainable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Mark

    2005-07-01

    A long-term goal of space exploration is the development of a lunar settlement that will not only be largely self-sufficient but also contribute to the economy of the Earth Moon system. Proposals for lunar mining and materials processing developments, as well as tourism-based applications, have appeared in the literature for many years. However, so great are the technical and financial difficulties associated with sustained lunar development that, more than 30 years after the end of the Apollo programme, there have been no practical advances towards this goal. While this may soon be remedied by a series of proposed unmanned orbiters, landers and rovers, the philosophy of lunar exploration and development remains the same as it has for decades: conquer, exploit, and ignore the consequences. By contrasting the well-recognised problems of Earth orbital debris and the barely recognised issue of intentional spacecraft impacts on the lunar surface, this paper illustrates the need for a new model for lunar exploration and development. This new paradigm would assign a value to the lunar environment and provide a balance between protection and exploitation, creating, in effect, a philosophy of sustainable development for the Moon. It is suggested that this new philosophy should be an integral part of any future strategy for lunar colonisation.

  20. The lunar community church: Contributions to lunar living and to evolution of ethical and spiritual thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    Should religious institutions get interested in lunar settlement? Would their participation make positive contributions or would it discourage creative diversity and interfere with science and good technical judgement? Among the spacefaring nations of today, religion is distinctly separated from the governments that plan and pay for space exploration. However, as we move off the Earth, our art and philosophy will follow our science and technology. Spiritual thinking will follow as part of our culture. It is time to consider in what ways this can occur constructively. Transport of religious values to a lunar base may have positive effects in two ways. First, the social structure of a 'community church' as found in today's United States, supports its members psychologically. Mutual psychological and social support will be needed in a lunar community. Second, our space pioneers will experience a unique view of the universe which may, in their philosophical discussions, forge new ideas in the spiritual realm.

  1. Lunar Magnetic Fields: Implications for Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that solar-wind-implanted hydrogen and helium-3 in lunar soils are potentially usable resources for future manned activities. For economical mining of these implanted gases, it is desirable that relative concentrations exceed that of typical soils. It has previously been noted that the monthly variation of solar wind flux on the surface due to lunar immersion in the geomagnetic tail may have measurable consequences for resource utilization. It is pointed out that, for a constant external flux, locally strong lunar crustal magnetic fields will exert the dominant influence on solar wind volatile implantation rates. In particular, the strongest lunar crustal magnetic fields will both deflect and focus incident ions in local regions leading to local enhancements of the incident ion flux. Thus, the most economical sites for extraction of solar-wind-implanted volatiles may be within or adjacent to strong crustal magnetic fields. In addition, solar wind ion deflection by crustal magnetic fields must be considered in evaluating the issue of whether remnant cometary ice or water-bearing minerals have survived in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles. This is because sputter erosion of water ice by solar wind ions has been suggested to be an important ice loss mechanism within permanently shadowed regions. Thus, permanently shadowed regions that are also shielded from the solar wind by locally strong crustal fields could be the most promising locations for the survival of cometary ice. Additional numerical simulations are employed to show that solar wind ion deflection by strong lunar magnetic anomalies can produce local increases in the implantation rate of solar wind gases such as hydrogen.

  2. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  3. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  4. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  5. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  6. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  7. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of State, forwarding a proposed settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103... settlement agreement and order, which, in accordance with 22 CFR 103.9(b), the Secretary will approve and... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of...

  8. Rover Traverse Planning to Support a Lunar Polar Volatiles Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J.L.; Colaprete, A.C.; Elphic, R. C.; Bussey, B.; McGovern, A.; Beyer, R.; Lees, D.; Deans, M. C.; Otten, N.; Jones, H.; Wettergreen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of lunar polar volatile depositsare of interest for scientific purposes to understandthe nature and evolution of the volatiles, and alsofor exploration reasons as a possible in situ resource toenable long term exploration and settlement of theMoon. Both theoretical and observational studies havesuggested that significant quantities of volatiles exist inthe polar regions, although the lateral and horizontaldistribution remains unknown at the km scale and finerresolution. A lunar polar rover mission is required tofurther characterize the distribution, quantity, andcharacter of lunar polar volatile deposits at thesehigher spatial resolutions. Here we present two casestudies for NASA’s Resource Prospector (RP) missionconcept for a lunar polar rover and utilize this missionarchitecture and associated constraints to evaluatewhether a suitable landing site exists to support an RPflight mission.

  9. A lunar construction shack vehicle: Final design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A lunar construction shack vehicle is a critical component in most of the plans proposed for the construction of a permanent base on the moon. The Selene Engineering Company (SEC) has developed a concept for this vehicle which is both innovative and practical. The design makes use of the most advanced technology available to meet the goals for a safe, versatile and durable habitat that will serve as a starting point for the initial phase of the construction of a permanent lunar base. This document outlines SEC's proposed design for a lander vehicle which will be fully self-sufficient and will provide for all necessary life support, including consumables and radiation protection, needed by the construction crew until they can complete the assembly of a more permanent habitat. Since it is highly likely that it will take more than one crew to complete the construction of a permanent lunar base, the design emphasis is on systems which can be easily maintained and resupplied and which will take a minimum of start up preparation by succeeding crews.

  10. LCROSS: Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmie, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the success of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) project. The LCROSS mission science goals was to: (1) Confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region on the Moon (2) Identify the form/state of hydrogen observed by at the lunar poles (3) Quantify, if present, the amount of water in the lunar regolith, with respect to hydrogen concentrations (4) Characterize the lunar regolith within a permanently shadowed crater on the Moon. The mission confirmed the presence of water ice on the moon by impacting a part of the spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater.. The presentation includes pictures of the development of the spacecraft, testing, launch, impact site, impact and a section of what the author called "Lunacy" which showed joking cartoons.

  11. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  12. Third Lunar Science Conference.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A.; Burnett, D.; Doe, B.; Gault, D.; Haskin, L.; Schnoes, H.; Heymann, D.; Melson, W.; Papike, J.; Tilling, R.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the nature and properties of lunar rock as deduced from the examination of Apollo lunar rock samples. The topics include the lunar crust, the Fra Mauro formation, the interior of the moon, lunar chronology, surface processes, and earth-moon environment.

  13. Extraction of Water from Lunar Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 5 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. Dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured. Microwave absorption and attenuation in lunar soil simulant has been correlated with measured dielectric properties. Future work will be discussed.

  14. Fusion power from lunar resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcinski, G.L. . Fusion Technology Inst.); Schmitt, H.H.

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that the moon contains an enormous energy source in {sup 3}He deposited by the solar wind. Fusion of only 100 kg of {sup 3}He with deuterium in thermonuclear fusion power plants can produce {gt} 1000 MW (electric) of electrical energy, and the lunar resource base is estimated at 1 {times} 10{sup 9} kg of {sup 3}He. This fuel can supply {gt}1000 yr of terrestrial electrical energy demand. The methods for extracting this fuel and the other solar wind volatiles are described. Alternate uses of D-{sup 3}He fusion in direct thrust rockets will enable more ambitious deep-space missions to be conducted. The capability of extracting hydrogen, water, nitrogen, and other carbon-containing molecules will open up the moon to a much greater level of human settlement than previously thought.

  15. 49 CFR 511.67 - Settlement order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... settlement shall be issued, setting out the terms of the settlement, and containing a brief discussion of the... discussion of comments received under § 511.65. If the Administrator rejects a petition for settlement,...

  16. Lunar lander conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

  17. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... on the status of FDA’s evaluation of the Essure System Essure is a permanent birth control method ...

  18. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  19. A bootstrap lunar base: Preliminary design review 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A bootstrap lunar base is the gateway to manned solar system exploration and requires new ideas and new designs on the cutting edge of technology. A preliminary design for a Bootstrap Lunar Base, the second provided by this contractor, is presented. An overview of the work completed is discussed as well as the technical, management, and cost strategies to complete the program requirements. The lunar base design stresses the transforming capabilities of its lander vehicles to aid in base construction. The design also emphasizes modularity and expandability in the base configuration to support the long-term goals of scientific research and profitable lunar resource exploitation. To successfully construct, develop, and inhabit a permanent lunar base, however, several technological advancements must first be realized. Some of these technological advancements are also discussed.

  20. Material Damage from Impacts of Lunar Soil Particles Ejected by the Rocket Exhaust of Landing Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittbrodt, Audelia C.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper details the experimentation of lunar stimulant sandblasting. This was done to understand the damage that landing spacecraft on the moon will have to a permanent lunar outpost. The sandblasting was done with JSC-1A onto glass coupons. Correlations between the velocity and the damage done to the glass were not found. Reasons for this and future analyses are discussed.

  1. Lunar Lava Tubes as Potential Human Settlements and Refuge Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, K. A.; Mardon, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Lava tubes have been detected on the surface of Earth's moon via satellite images. Upon further exploration of these caves through robotic technology and other means, a refuge place for astronauts may be installed.

  2. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  3. Lunar resources: Toward living off the lunar land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are addressed: (1) lunar resources and surface conditions; (2) guidelines for early lunar technologies; (3) the lunar farm; (4) the lunar filling station; (5) lunar construction materials; (6) the lunar power company; (7) the electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the Moon and in near-Earth space.

  4. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  5. Lunar Paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M.; Weiss, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    We have completed a reanalysis of the old Apollo paleomagnetic data using modern techniques of analysis and presentation. The principal result from the mare basalts is that several samples, such as 10020, 10017, 10049, and 70215 appear to be carrying primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) acquired on the Moon as they cooled initially on the lunar surface, but in almost every case alternating field (AF) demagnetization was not carried out to strong enough fields to isolate this primary magnetization properly. When modern measurements are available, the agreement between old Apollo era data and new data is strikingly good. It also appears that the fields recorded by the basalts of Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 are stronger than those recorded by Apollo 12 and Apollo 15 basalts. Indeed it is not clear that any reliable records have come from these younger samples. The histories of breccias are more complicated than those of mare basalts and their NRM is harder to interpret. For regolith breccias, interpretations are complicated because of their strong superparamagnetic components and their complex, polymict lithologies. It would be unwise to use these samples for paleointensity estimates unless one can be sure that the NRM was entirely acquired as TRM during cooling after the shock event, as may be the case for 15498. In contrast, the melt rock and melt breccias, which include samples formed at high temperatures far above the Curie point of any magnetic carriers, have an excellent chance of recording lunar fields faithfully as they cool. This cooling may have taken place in a melt pool in a simple crater, or in a melt layer in a complex crater. Such samples would then have been excavated and deposited in the regolith and some appear to have recorded strong fields, but more work needs to be done to test this suggestion. Other melt rocks and melt breccias have had more complicated histories and appear to have been deposited in ejecta blankets, where final cooling took place. A useful, if imperfect, analogy may be pyroclastic volcanic deposits. The samples from the Apollo 17 layered boulder 1 at station 2 provide an example of this history. If a pTRM can be related to this secondary cooling, then we may recover a record of the field during this cooling. Samples such as 62235 and 72215 may provide just such a record, with Apollo-era and modern estimates of fields of the order of around 100 microT. Explaining such high paleointensities so late in lunar history is a major challenge to dynamo models based on cooling of the core, given its small size, and has led to alternative models.

  6. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  7. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  8. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  9. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  10. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

  11. Genesis lunar outpost: An evolutionary lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Gary T. (compiler); Baschiera, Dino; Fieber, Joe; Moths, Janis

    1990-01-01

    Students at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Department of Agriculture undertook a series of studies of lunar habitats during the 1989 to 1990 academic year. Undergraduate students from architecture and mechanical and structural engineering with backgrounds in interior design, biology and construction technology were involved in a seminar in the fall semester followed by a design studio in the spring. The studies resulted in three design alternatives for lunar habitation and an integrated design for an early stage lunar outpost.

  12. First Lunar Outpost support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartz, Christopher; Cook, John; Rusingizandekwe, Jean-Luc

    1993-01-01

    The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) is the first manned step in the accomplishment of the Space Exploration Initiative, the Vice President's directive to NASA on the 20th anniversary of the Apollo moon landing. FLO's broad objectives are the establishment of a permanent human presence on the moon, supporting the utilization of extraterrestrial resources in a long-term, sustained program. The primary objective is to emplace and validate the first elements of a man tended outpost on the lunar surface to provide the basis for: (1) establishing, maintaining and expanding human activities and influence across the surface; (2) establishing, maintaining and enhancing human safety and productivity; (3) accommodating space transportation operations to and from the surface; (4) accommodating production of scientific information; (5) exploiting in-situ resources. Secondary objectives are: (1) to conduct local, small scale science (including life science); (2) In-situ resource utilization (ISRU) demonstrations; (3) engineering and operations tests; (4) to characterize the local environment; and (5) to explore locally. The current work is part of ongoing research at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture supporting NASA's First Lunar Outpost initiative. Research at SICSA supporting the First Lunar Outpost initiative has been funded through the Space Exploration Initiatives office at Johnson Space Center. The objectives of the current study are to further develop a module concept from an evaluation of volumetric and programmatic requirements, and pursue a high fidelity design of this concept, with the intention of providing a high fidelity design mockup to research planetary design issues and evaluate future design concepts.

  13. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  14. Moonport: Transportation node in lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    An orbital transporation system between the Earth and Moon was designed. The design work focused on the requirements and configuration of an orbiting lunar base. The design utilized current Space Station technologies, but also focused on the specific requirements involved with a permanently manned, orbiting lunar station. A model of the recommended configuration was constructed. In order to analyze Moonport activity and requirements, a traffic model was designed, defining traffic between the lunar port, or Moonport and low Earth orbit. Also, a lunar base model was used to estimate requirements of the surface base on Moonport traffic and operations. A study was conducted to compare Moonport traffic and operations based in low lunar orbit and the L (sub 2) equilibrium point, behind the Moon. The study compared delta-V requirements to each location and possible payload deliveries to low Earth orbit from each location. Products of the Moonport location study included number of flights annually to Moonport, net payload delivery to low Earth orbit, and Moonport storage requirement.

  15. Design of a lunar transportation system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Spring 1990 Introduction to Design class was asked to conceptually design second generation lunar vehicles and equipment as a semester design project. A brief summary of four of the final projects, is presented. The designs were to facilitate the transportation of personnel and materials. The eight topics to choose from included flying vehicles, ground based vehicles, robotic arms, and life support systems. A lunar flying vehicle that uses clean propellants for propulsion is examined. A design that will not contribute to the considerable amount of caustic pollution already present in the sparse lunar atmosphere is addressed by way of ballistic flight techniques. A second generation redesign of the current Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suit to increase operating time, safety, and efficiency is also addressed. A separate life support system is also designed to be permanently attached to the lunar rover. The two systems would interact through the use of an umbilical cord connection. A ground based vehicle which will travel for greater distances than a 37.5 kilometer radius from a base on the lunar surface was designed. The vehicle is pressurized due to the fact that existing lunar rovers are limited by the EVA suits currently in use. A robotic arm for use at lunar bases or on roving vehicles on the lunar surface was designed. The arm was originally designed as a specimen gathering device, but it can be used for a wide range of tasks through the use of various attachments.

  16. A quasi-economic role for lunar science

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    In broad economic terms, the development of lunar products will begin with a sequence of technology, production, and delivery demonstrations which will have to precede the emergence of markets. Economically viable products will tend to be those for which the sum of production and transport costs are lower for lunar suppliers than for terrestrial suppliers. As long as lunar production costs exceed terrestrial production costs -- as will be the case for most lunar products until such time as lunar development has reached a mature stage -- the most viable industries will be those producing low-tech products for lunar markets. The scale of initial lunar markets will depend on the size of a lunar base and/or its rate of growth. For a given level of public support, maximum base size can be achieved through the conduct, at the base, of a vigorous program of scientific and engineering research making use of as much local production and as many permanently-resident support staff as feasible. 5 refs.

  17. Design of a lunar surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghi, Sohrob

    The next step for manned exploration and settlement is a return to the Moon. In such a return, the most challenging task is the construction of structures for habitation, considering the Moon's hostile environment. Therefore the question is: What is the best way to erect habitable structures on the lunar surface? Given the cost associated with bringing material to the Moon, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is viewed by most as the basis for a successful manned exploration and settlement of the Solar system. Along these lines, we propose an advanced concept where the use of freeform fabrication technologies by autonomous mini-robots can form the basis for habitable lunar structures. Also, locally-available magnesium is proposed as the structural material. While it is one of the most pervasive metals in the regolith, magnesium has been only suggested only briefly as a viable option in the past. Therefore, a study has been conducted on magnesium and its alloys, taking into account the availability of the alloying elements on the Moon. An igloo-shaped magnesium structure, covered by sandbags of regolith shielding and supported on a sintered regolith foundation, is considered as a potential design of a lunar base, as well as the test bed for the proposed vision. Three studies are carried out: First a static analysis is conducted which proves the feasibility of the proposed material and method. Second, a thermal analysis is carried out to study the effect of the regolith shielding as well as the sensitivity of such designs to measurement uncertainties of regolith and sintered thermal properties. The lunar thermal environment is modeled for a potential site at 88º latitude in the lunar South Pole Region. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties are in an acceptable range where a three-meter thick shield is considered. Also, the required capacity of a thermal rejection system is estimated, choosing the thermal loads to be those of the Space Station modules. In the third study, a seismic model based on best available data has been developed and applied to our typical structure to assess the vulnerability of designs that ignore seismicity. Using random vibration and modal superposition methods, the structural response to a lunar seismic event of 7 Richter magnitude indicates that the seismic risk is very low. However, it must be considered for certain types of structural designs.

  18. Lunar Dust-Tolerant Electrical Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jason; Sadick, Shazad; Roberts, Dustyn

    2010-01-01

    An electrical connector was developed that is tolerant of the presence of lunar dust. Novel features of the connector include the use of a permeable membrane to act both as a dust barrier and as a wiper to limit the amount of dust that makes its way into the internal chamber of the connector. The development focused on the Constellation lunar extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit s portable life support system (PLSS) battery recharge connector; however, continued research is applying this technology to other lunar surface systems such as lunar rover subsystems and cryogenic fluid transfer connections for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) applications. Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. In addition to posing contamination and health risks for human explorers, the interlocking, angular nature of lunar dust and its broad grain size distribution make it particularly harmful to mechanisms with which it may come into contact. All Apollo lunar missions experienced some degree of equipment failure because of dust, and it appears that dust accumulation on exposed material is unavoidable and difficult to reverse. Both human EVA and ISRU activities are on the mission horizon and are paramount to the establishment of a permanent human base on the Moon. Reusable and dust-tolerant connection mechanisms are a critical component for mission success. The need for dust-tolerant solutions is also seen in utility work and repair, mass transit applications, construction, mining, arctic and marine environments, diving (search and rescue), and various operations in deserts, where dust or sand clogging and coating different mechanisms and connections may render them difficult to operate or entirely inoperable.

  19. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  20. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  1. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  2. Ground Cracking and Differential Settlement

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Ground cracking and differential settlement dueg to liquefaction of beach and Salinas River deposits damaged approach and abutment of bridge linking Moss Landing spit to the mainland, near Moss Landing Marine Laboratory....

  3. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  4. Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

  5. Russian Lunar Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

  6. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  7. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  8. Lunar in-core thermionic nuclear reactor power system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Gallup, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design of a lunar in-core thermionic reactor power system. The concept consists of a thermionic reactor located in a lunar excavation with surface mounted waste heat radiators. The system was integrated with a proposed lunar base concept representative of recent NASA Space Exploration Initiative studies. The reference mission is a permanently-inhabited lunar base requiring a 550 kWe, 7 year life central power station. Performance parameters and assumptions were based on the Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) Verification Program. Five design cases were analyzed ranging from conservative to advanced. The cases were selected to provide sensitivity effects on the achievement of TFE program goals.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith" included the following:Compositional and Structural Study of the Aristarchus Plateau from Integrated UV-VIS-NIR Spectral Data; Clementine 2.7-?m Data: Mapping the Mare and Searching for Water; On the Search for Water at the Lunar Poles: Results of Forward Modeling of Permanently Shaded Areas and Lunar Prospector Measurements; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints I: Finding the Regions of Interest; Semi-automated Extraction of Contours from Lunar Topographic Maps; Basalts in Mare Humorum and S.E. Procellarum; The Hansteen and Helmet Volcanic Dome Regions on the Moon: Stratigraphy and Ages; Derivation of Elemental Abundance Maps at 15-km Spatial Resolution from the Merging of Clementine Optical and Lunar Prospector Geochemical Data; Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of the Balmer Region of the Moon; Lava Flows in Mare Nubium and Mare Cognitum: A Geological History Based on Analysis of Multispectral Data; Development of Ground-based Lunar VIS/NEAR IR Spectral Imager; A BRDF Measurement Apparatus for Lab-based Samples; A New Source of High Resolution Lunar Images: Amateur Astronomers! ; Leakage of Gamma Rays and Neutrons from Thick Targets Bombarded by Energetic Protons; Progress on Reviving Lunar Orbiter: Scanning, Archiving, and Cartographic Processing at USGS; Modeling Lateral and Vertical Mixing by Impact Cratering with Applications for the Moon; Optical Maturity Study of Stuart#s Crater Candidate Impact; Evidence for Three Basins Beneath Oceanus Procellarum; and Ellipses of the South Pole-Aitken Basin: Implications for Basin Formation.

  10. Moon Lunar Orbiter - Lunar Orbiter III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The hidden or dark side of the Moon was taken by Lunar Orbiter III During its mission to photograph potential lunar-landing sites for Apollo missions. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 94), by James Schultz.

  11. Lunar base surface mission operations. Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to perform an analysis of the surface operations associated with a human-tended lunar base. Specifically, the study defined surface elements and developed mission manifests for a selected base scenario, determined the nature of surface operations associated with this scenario, generated a preliminary crew extravehicular and intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) time resource schedule for conducting the missions, and proposed concepts for utilizing remotely operated equipment to perform repetitious or hazardous surface tasks. The operations analysis was performed on a 6 year period of human-tended lunar base operation prior to permanent occupancy. The baseline scenario was derived from a modified version of the civil needs database (CNDB) scenario. This scenario emphasizes achievement of a limited set of science and exploration objectives while emplacing the minimum habitability elements required for a permanent base.

  12. Lunar Prospector measurements of secondary electron emission from lunar regolith

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Lunar Prospector measurements of secondary electron emission from lunar regolith J.S. Halekas a Lunar Prospector a b s t r a c t We present the first in situ measurements of the secondary electron emission efficiency of lunar regolith, utilizing Lunar Prospector measurements of secondary electrons

  13. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the extraction of volatiles and determine the volatile inventory of the moon with a view for future In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Surface samples will be collected by a robotic arm with the possibility of a rover to collect more distant samples. The concentration, chemical and accurate isotopic ratios (D/H, 12C/13C, 15N/14N, 18O/16O and noble gases) of liberated volatiles will be determined, possibly using similar technology to the Philae comet lander of the Rosetta mission [6]. An additional aim is the monitoring of the chemical and isotopic composition of the tenuous lunar atmosphere [7] which will become contaminated by active human exploration. The lunar atmosphere will provide information on the processes involved in forming lunar volatiles and their concentration mechanisms. Modelling the effects of contamination from the Lander is an essential part of this study so that these can be recognized and minimized.

  14. Toxicity of lunar dust

    E-print Network

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  15. LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION and TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS by W. David Carrier, III Lunar Geotechnical.0 RECOMMENDED LUNAR SOIL TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS Table 9.14 in the Lunar Sourcebook (Carrier et al. 1991, p. 529) lists the current recommended lunar soil trafficability parameters: bc = 0.017 N/cm2 bN = 35° K

  16. Lunar Crater Mini-Wakes: Structure, Variability, and Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Michael I.; Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Within a permanently shadowed lunar crater the horizontal flow of solar wind is obstructed by upstream topography, forming a regional plasma mini-wake. In the present work kinetic simulations are utilized to investigate how the most prominent structural aspects of a crater mini-wake are modulated during passage of a solar storm. In addition, the simulated particle fluxes are coupled into an equivalent-circuit model of a roving astronaut,. including triboelectric charging due to frictional contact with the lunar regolith, to characterize charging of the astronaut suit during the various stages of the storm. In some cases, triboelectric charging of the astronaut suit becomes effectively perpetual, representing a critical engineering concern for roving within shadowed lunar regions. Finally, the present results suggest that wake structure plays a critical role in modulating the spatial distribution of volatiles at the lunar poles.

  17. Cost estimates for lunar products and their respective commercial prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.; Johenning, B.

    A permanent lunar base as proposed by the President of the United States within the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) will have many uses, among others the production of goods. Initially, they will contribute to the logistic support and extension of facilities. On the long haul there might be commercial products to be sold on the extraterrestrial market. This paper presents the results of a detailed analysis of potential lunar products and services of a sizable lunar base having a life cycle of at least 50 years. Four different production scenarios between 5000 and 500,000 metric tons output of all lunar facilities per annum have been investigated. The cost estimated for each of the products and services considered are presented as functions of time and production volume.

  18. Power requirements for the first lunar outpost (FLO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bozek, John M.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Program Office is currently developing a preliminary reference mission description that lays the framework from which the nation can return to the Moon by the end of the decade. The First Lunar Outpost is the initial phase of establishing a permanent presence on the Moon and the next step of sending humans to Mars. Many systems required for missions to Mars will be verified on the Moon, while still accomplishing valuable lunar science and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Some of FLO's major accomplishments will be long duration habitation, extended surface roving (both piloted and teleoperated) and a suite of science experiments, including lunar resources extraction. Of equal challenge will be to provide long life, reliable power sources to meet the needs of a lunar mission.

  19. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  20. Rare earth permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Major-Sosias, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    Permanent magnets were discovered centuries ago from what was known as {open_quotes}lodestone{close_quotes}, a rock containing large quantities of the iron-bearing mineral magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The compass was the first technological use for permanent magnetic materials; it was used extensively for navigational purposes by the fifteenth century. During the twentieth century, as new applications for permanent magnets were developed, interest and research in permanent magnetic materials soared. Four major types of permanent magnets have been developed since the turn of the century.

  1. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  2. Roadmap for Future Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; International Lunar Exploration Working Group

    We discuss strategies for future lunar exploration. This includes open science questions about comparative planetology, the origin of the Earth --Moon system, the early evolution of life, the planetary environment and the existence of in-situ resources necessary to support human presence. We discuss areas of instrumentation: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. We discuss technologies in robotic exploration: Mecha-electronics-sensors; Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots. We compare Moon-Mars system aspects related to In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructure, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. Finally, we discuss possible roadmaps and synergies for Moon-Mars exploration, starting with the missions for the coming decade, and building effectively on joint technology developments.

  3. Lunar Exploration Manned and Unmanned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Duxbury, N.; Friesen, L. J.; Gillis, J. J.; Hawke, B. R.; Heiken, G.; Lawrence, D.; Manifold, J.; Slade, M. A.; Smith, A.; Taylor, G. J.; Yingst, R. A.

    2002-08-01

    The past decade has seen two global reconnaissance missions to the Moon, Clementine and Lunar Prospector, which have mapped the surface in multiple wavelengths, determined the Moon's topography and gravity fields, and discovered the presence of water ice in the permanently dark regions near the poles. Although we have learned much about the Moon, many key aspects of its history and evolution remain obscure. The three highest priority questions in lunar science are: 1) the Moon's global composition, particularly the abundance of aluminum and magnesium; 2) the extent, composition, and physical state of polar deposits, including the extent, purity, and thickness of ice, the elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of polar volatiles, the environment of the polar regions; and 3) the cratering chronology of the Moon and the implications of a possibly unique history, such as a cataclysm, for our understanding of other Solar System objects. Answering and addressing these questions require a series of new missions, including an orbiter (carrying XRF, imaging radar, and other instruments), the deployment of surface network stations equipped with seismometers and heat flow probes, selected robotic sample return missions from geologically simple areas (e.g., youngest lava flow or crater melt sheet), and complex geological field work, conducted by human explorers. Because the Moon is a touchstone for the history and evolution of other rocky bodies in the solar system, we believe that these questions are of very high scientific priority and that lunar missions should receive much more serious attention and detailed study than they have in the past by the NASA Office of Space Science.

  4. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  5. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (editor); Schultz, P. H. (editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  6. Lunar Prospecting Using Thermal Wadis and Compact Rovers. Part A; Infrastructure for Surviving the Lunar Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Suzuki, Nantel H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent missions have confirmed the existence of water and other volatiles on the Moon, both in permanently-shadowed craters and elsewhere. Non-volatile lunar resources may represent significant additional value as infrastructure or manufacturing feedstock. Characterization of lunar resources in terms of abundance concentrations, distribution, and recoverability is limited to in-situ Apollo samples and the expanding remote-sensing database. This paper introduces an approach to lunar resource prospecting supported by a simple lunar surface infrastructure based on the Thermal Wadi concept of thermal energy storage and using compact rovers equipped with appropriate prospecting sensors and demonstration resource extraction capabilities. Thermal Wadis are engineered sources of heat and power based on the storage and retrieval of solar-thermal energy in modified lunar regolith. Because Thermal Wadis keep compact prospecting rovers warm during periods of lunar darkness, the rovers are able to survive months to years on the lunar surface rather than just weeks without being required to carry the burdensome capability to do so. The resulting lower-cost, long-lived rovers represent a potential paradigm breakthrough in extra-terrestrial prospecting productivity and will enable the production of detailed resource maps. Integrating resource processing and other technology demonstrations that are based on the content of the resource maps will inform engineering economic studies that can define the true resource potential of the Moon. Once this resource potential is understood quantitatively, humans might return to the Moon with an economically sound objective including where to go, what to do upon arrival, and what to bring along.

  7. First Lunar Flashes Observed from Morocco (ILIAD Network): Implications for Lunar Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Moulay Larbi, Mamoun; Daassou, Ahmed; Baratoux, David; Bouley, Sylvain; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Garcia, Raphael; Colas, Francois

    2015-07-01

    We report the detection of two transient luminous events recorded on the lunar surface on February 6, 2013, at 06:29:56.7 UT and April 14, 2013, 20:00:45.4 from the Atlas Golf Marrakech observatory in Morocco. Estimated visual magnitudes are 9.4 ± 0.2 and 7.7 ± 0.2. We show that these events have the typical characteristics of impact flashes generated by meteoroids impacting the lunar surface, despite proof using two different telescopes is not available. Assuming these events were lunar impact flashes, meteoroid masses are 0.3 ± 0.05 and 1.8 ± 0.3 kg, corresponding to diameters of 7-8 and 14-15 cm for a density of 1500 kg m-3. The meteoroids would have produced craters of about 2.6 ± 0.3 and 4.4 ± 0.3 m in diameter. We then present a method based on the identification of lunar features illuminated by the Earthshine to determine the position of the flash. The method does not require any information about the observation geometry or lunar configuration. The coordinates are respectively 08.15° ± 0.15°S 59.1° ± 0.15°E and 26.81° ± 0.15°N 09.10° ± 0.15°W. Further improvement on the determination of the flash position is necessary for seismological applications. This studies demonstrates that permanent lunar impact flashes observation programs may be run in different parts of the globe using mid-sized telescopes. We call for the development of an international lunar impact astronomical detection networks that would represent an opportunity for scientific and cultural developments in countries where astronomy is under-represented.

  8. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, T. H.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1991-02-01

    Apollo UV spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of less than 500/cu cm, and the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply a value less than 50/cu cm above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occurred during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stabilized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, a possible emission brightness of 50 R in the OH(A - X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb is predicted.

  9. 24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1525 Settlement...authorized, may negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning...

  10. 20 CFR 498.126 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Settlement. 498.126 Section 498.126 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has exclusive...

  11. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  12. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  13. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  14. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  15. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less adjustments as...

  16. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape.

    PubMed

    Kirch, P V; Hartshorn, A S; Chadwick, O A; Vitousek, P M; Sherrod, D R; Coil, J; Holm, L; Sharp, W D

    2004-06-29

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km(2)) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples. PMID:15210963

  17. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, P. V.; Hartshorn, A. S.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Sherrod, D. R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L.; Sharp, W. D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples. PMID:15210963

  18. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirch, P.V.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Chadwick, O.A.; Vitousek, P.M.; Sherrod, D.R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L.; Sharp, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples.

  19. Mysteries of the Lunar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar atmosphere has been probed by various instruments since the Apollo program, and continues to be measured today by the instruments onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LRO. But like Sisyphus' trek, the progress has not been linear. LAMP, The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project, onboard LRO, measured He in the lunar exosphere, confirming the Apollo 17 result from the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Hoffman et al., 1973), but LAMP did not observe Ar although the expected 0.1 R should have been detectable by their instrument (Gladstone et al., Science, 2010). A surfeit of O+ was reported in the lunar wake (Mall et al. 1998; Hilchenbach et al. 1992;1993), but the origin of those ions is unknown, since oxygen has not been seen. Water and OH were measured on the surface of the moon, but theory tells us that efficiencies of production of water by solar wind proton bombardment may be low (Burke et al., Icarus, 2011). Starukhina and Shukaratov (LPSC, abstract 1385, 2010) suggest that the observed diurnal variation in the 3 micron band at the moon is due to thermal emission and not to variation in OH. LAMP observed Hg vapor following the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater, but Hg atoms at 800 K (Wooden et al., LPSC abstract 2025, 2010) are too heavy to reach the altitudes where they would be exposed to sunlight, and thereby resonantly scatter photons, unless they are entrained in a gas with bulk velocity 3.5 km/s (Hurley et al., JGR, 2012). This bulk velocity is high for a 2 km/s impact. Another mystery from LCROSS is the H2 energy budget. Given the large amount of H2 observed after the LCROSS impact, and the high velocity required (a few km/s) to get in the field of view when it did, the kinetic energy associated with the H2 is too large of a fraction of the impactor energy. One possibility is that the H2 is produced by an exothermic reaction, which has implications for how it is stored in the regolith in permanently shadowed regions. The Na density is known to be low in the lunar exosphere when the Moon enters and traverses the Earth's magnetosphere, even though the major source processes should still be operative there. The high-energy component of Na observed in the extended Na tail at the moon, along with the very energetic Ca and Mg atoms observed at Mercury, also suggest the possibility of exothermic chemical reactions at or near the surfaces of these bodies. LCROSS also reported the presence of organics (Colaprete et al., Science, 2010), but their origin is unknown. The Apollo 15 coronal photographs recorded light scattering that was attributed to dust lofted from the lunar surface. More recently, upper limits on line of sight dust column of 103 cm-2 for 0.1 micron grains have been made via an analysis of Clementine star tracker data, much less than that predicted from Apollo results (Glenar et al., NLSI, 2012). We will report on modeling efforts that aim to resolve some of these uncertainties. Future observations by LADEE will be used along with models to further constrain the source and loss rates of volatiles.

  20. 37 CFR 351.7 - Settlement conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement conference. 351.7... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.7 Settlement conference. A post-discovery settlement conference will be held among the participants, within 21 days after the close of discovery, outside of...

  1. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Settlement weight. 981.18 Section 981.18 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight...) For weight of containers, (b) For excess moisture, (c) For trash or other foreign material of any...

  2. 7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement weight. 981.18 Section 981.18 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.18 Settlement weight. Settlement weight means the actual gross weight...) For weight of containers, (b) For excess moisture, (c) For trash or other foreign material of any...

  3. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 43, 63 and 64 International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal... Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA). \\2\\ International Settlements Policy Reform... under delegated authority. See, e.g., International Settlements Policy Reform, IB Docket Nos. 11-80,...

  4. Development of a Korean Lunar Simulant(KLS-1) and its Possible Further Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, I.; Ryn, B. H.; Cho, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid development on space exploration finally found that water exists on the moon according to NASA's recent studies. This becomes a turning point in lunar science and surface development because the existence of water raises the possibility of human survival on the moon. In this case, advanced space construction technology against the distinctive lunar environment (i.e., atmosphereless, subgravity, different geology) becomes a key issue for consistent and reliable settlement of human beings. Thus, understandings on the lunar surface and its composition must be secured as an important role in lunar development. During project Apollo (1961~1972), only 320 kg of real lunar soils were collected and sent to the Earth. Due to the lack of samples, many space agencies are attempting to simulate the lunar soil using Earth materials to be used in large and massive practical studies and simulations. In the same vein, we developed a Korean lunar simulant from a specific basalt type Cenozoic Erathem in Korea. The simulated regolith sample shows a high similarity to the Apollo average samples in mineral composition, density, and particle shape aspects. Therefore, the developed regolith simulant is expected to be used in various lunar exploration purposes.

  5. Permanent contraception for women.

    PubMed

    Micks, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2015-11-01

    Permanent methods of contraception are used by an estimated 220 million couples worldwide, and are often selected due to convenience, ease of use and lack of side effects. A variety of tubal occlusion techniques are available for female permanent contraception, and procedures can be performed using a transcervical or transabdominal approach. This article reviews currently available techniques for female permanent contraception and discusses considerations when helping patients choose a contraceptive method and tubal occlusion technique. PMID:26626698

  6. Evidence for the Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation in Barnacle Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus (?=?Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

  7. Integration of Lunar Polar Remote-Sensing Data Sets: Evidence for Ice at the Lunar South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, Stewart; Spudis, Paul D.; Robinson, Mark S.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Lichtenberg, Chris; Bonner, Robert

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of ice deposits at the lunar south pole, we have integrated all relevant lunar polar data sets. These include illumination data, Arecibo ground-based monostatic radar data, newly processed Clementine bistatic radar data, and Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer measurements. The possibility that the lunar poles harbor ice deposits has important implications not only as a natural resource for future human lunar activity but also as a record of inner solar system volatiles (e.g., comets and asteroids) over the past billion years or more. We find that the epithermal neutron flux anomalies, measured by Lunar Prospector, are coincident with permanently shadowed regions at the lunar south pole, particularly those associated with Shackleton crater. Furthermore, these areas also correlate with the beta=0 circular polarization ratio (CPR) enhancements revealed by new processing of Clementine bistatic radar echoes, which in turn are colocated with areas of anomalous high CPR observed by Arecibo Observatory on the lower, Sun-shadowed wall of Shackleton crater. Estimates of the extent of high CPR from Arecibo Observatory and Clementine bistatic radar data independently suggest that approximately 10 square kilometers of ice may be present on the inner Earth-facing wall of Shackleton crater. None of the experiments that obtained the data presented here were ideally suited for definitively identifying ice in lunar polar regions. By assessing the relative merits of all available data, we find that it is plausible that ice does occur in cold traps at the lunar south pole and that future missions with instruments specifically designed to investigate these anomalies are worthy.

  8. Estimating Background and Lunar Contribution to Neutrons Detected by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Chin, G.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Litvak, M. L.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Su, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The fraction of hydrogen-bearing species embedded in planetary regolith can be determined from the ratio between measured epithermal neutron leakage flux and the flux measured from similar dry regolith. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft is equipped with the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument to measure embedded hydrogen in the Moon's polar regions and elsewhere. We have investigated the relative contribution of lunar and non-lunar (spacecraft-sourced) neutrons by modeling maps of the measured count rate from three of the LEND detector systems using linear combinations of maps compiled from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer (LPNS) and the LEND detectors, demonstrating that the two systems are compatible and enabling reference signal to be inferred to enable detecting hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing volatiles. The pole-to-equator contrast ratio in epithermal neutrons indicates that the average concentration of hydrogen in the Moon's polar regolith above 80° north or south latitude is ~110 ppmw, or 0.10±0.01 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Above 88° north or south, the concentration increases to ~140 ppmw, or 0.13±0.02 wt% water-equivalent hydrogen. Nearly identical suppression of neutron flux at both the north and south poles, despite differences in topography and distribution of permanently-shadowed regions, supports the contention that hydrogen is broadly distributed in the polar regions and increasingly concentrated approaching the poles. Similarity in the degree of neutron suppression in low-energy and high-energy epithermal neutrons suggests that the hydrogen fraction is relatively uniform with depth down to ~1 m; the neutron leakage flux is insensitive to greater depth.

  9. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  10. Apollo 9 Lunar Module in lunar landing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module, in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed form the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on the Lunar Module 'Spider' has been deployed. Note Lunar Module's upper hatch and docking tunnel.

  11. A Common Lunar Lander (CLL) for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Artemis project, a plan to establish a permanent base on the Moon. Information includes a summary of past and future events, the program rationale, a summary of potential payloads, the physical characteristics of experiments, sketches of equipment, design study objectives, and details of such payloads as the Geophysical Station Network, teleoperated rovers, astronomical telescopes, a Moon-Earth radio interferometer, very low frequency radio antennas, the Lunar Polar Crater Telescope, Lunar Resource Utilization Experiments, and biological experiments.

  12. Extending terrestrial mobile robotics to a proposed lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Klarer, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently been conducting studies regarding missions to establish permanent manned facilities either on Earth's moon or on Mars sometime in the next few decades. This paper addresses issues associated with the operation of manned, teleoperated and autonomous land vehicles to be used in the lunar environment. Current capabilities in teleoperation and autonomous navigation for land vehicles in the terrestrial environment are discussed, as are the technology issues and new capabilities required to extend the current capabilities to a lunar operating environment. 16 refs.

  13. Lunar base launch and landing facilities conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Paul G.; Simonds, Charles H.; Stump, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a first look at the requirements for launch and landing facilities for early lunar bases and to prepared conceptual designs for some of these facilities. The emphasis of the study is on the facilities needed from the first manned landing until permanent occupancy, the Phase 2 lunar base. Factors including surface characteristics, navigation system, engine blast effects, and expected surface operations are used to develop landing pad designs, and definitions fo various other elements of the launch and landing facilities. Finally, the dependence of the use of these elements and the evolution of the facilities are established.

  14. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  15. Permanent tensions in organization.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Noora

    2015-09-21

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between permanent tensions and organizational change. Design/methodology/approach - This study used paradox theory and a case study. The case organization is a public university hospital in Finland involving several stakeholders. Findings - The analysis suggests that the relationship between permanent tensions and organizational change is a paradox that is part of organizational reality. As an organization learns to live with its permanent tensions, the renewal paradox settles into equilibrium. When tensions are provoked, the paradox is disturbed until it finds a new balance. This flexible nature of the paradox is the force that keeps the different stakeholders simultaneously empowered to maintain their unique missions and cohesive in order to benefit from the larger synergy. Practical implications - This research suggests that identification and evaluation of each permanent tension within an organization is important when executing organizational change. The fact that certain tensions are permanent and cannot be solved may have an influence on how planned change initiatives are executed. The results show that permanent tensions may be harnessed for the benefit of an organizational change. Originality/value - This research demonstrates originality by offering an alternative view of tensions, a view which emphasizes not only their permanent and plural nature but their importance for enabling the organization to change at its own, non-disruptive pace. The research also proposes a new concept, the "renewal paradox", to enhance understanding of the relationship between permanent tensions and organizational change. PMID:26394250

  16. In-situ resource utilization in the design of advanced lunar facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Resource utilization will play an important role in the establishment and support of a permanently manned lunar base. At the University of Houston - College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, a study team recently investigated the potential use of lunar in-situ materials in the design of lunar facilities. The team identified seven potential lunar construction materials; concrete, sulfur concrete, cast basalt, sintered basalt, glass, fiberglass, and metals. Analysis and evaluation of these materials with respect to their physical properties, processes, energy requirements, resource efficiency, and overall advantages and disadvantages lead to the selection of basalt materials as the more likely construction material for initial use on a lunar base. Basalt materials can be formed out of in-situ lunar regolith, with minor material beneficiation, by a simple process of heating and controlled cooling. The team then conceptualized a construction system that combines lunar regolith sintering and casting to make pressurized structures out of lunar resources. The design uses a machine that simultaneously excavates and sinters the lunar regolith to create a cylindrical hole, which is then enclosed with cast basalt slabs, allowing the volume to be pressurized for use as a living or work environment. Cylinder depths of up to 4 to 6 m in the lunar mare or 10 to 12 m in the lunar highlands are possible. Advantages of this construction system include maximum resource utilization, relatively large habitable volumes, interior flexibility, and minimal construction equipment needs. Conclusions of this study indicate that there is significant potential for the use of basalt, a lunar resource derived construction material, as a low cost alternative to Earth-based materials. It remains to be determined when in lunar base phasing this construction method should be implemented.

  17. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  18. Fifth Lunar Month Picnic

    E-print Network

    Kha Bum

    2010-01-01

    , Xunhua Salar Autonomous County, Qinghai Province, China. These cultural materials were collected from Xunhua Tibetan communities from 2008-2010. Disc Number 4: Fifth Lunar Month Picnic. An annual picnic held on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month...

  19. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  20. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  1. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology needs in all areas to support the development, deployment, operation and disposal of the unit.

  2. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology needs in all areas to support the development, deployment, operation and disposal of the unit.

  3. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-20

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology needs in all areas to support the development, deployment, operation and disposal of the unit.

  4. Lunar Influences on Human Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; Dua, Manjula

    1983-01-01

    Used league records of all Canadian hockey games (N=426) played during a season to test a lunar-aggression hypothesis. Despite the use of multiple measures of lunar phase and interpersonal aggression, support for lunar influence was not forthcoming. Supplemental data revealed that beliefs in lunar influence are fairly common. (JAC)

  5. The lunar environment as a fractional-gravity biological laboratory.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1994-07-01

    A quarter of a century ago men stepped upon the lunar surface and established the possibility of human expansion beyond Earth. When humans return to the moon to occupy it with greater permanency, an applied lunar biological laboratory would provide a means of conducting experiments on the long-term effects of fractional gravity in animals and plants and provide necessary data to enhance the health, safety and well-being of lunar workers and inhabitants. In-depth studies can go beyond zero-g observations, on-orbit centrifuge studies, and ground-based research providing important insight into continuous 1/6-g effects on biological systems. Studies concentrating on development, gravity sensing, and adaptation/readaptation would provide preliminary data on whether long-term fractional gravity is detrimental or compromising to fundamental biological function. Food production research in 1/6-g would provide important information for on site application to improve the yield and quality of food (animal and plant) produced in the unique lunar environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some examples of the major gravitational biology areas that could be studied on the moon and applied to lunar population needs utilizing lunar biological facilities and continuous fractional gravity. PMID:11539524

  6. The lunar environment as a fractional-gravity biological laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garshnek, V.

    A quarter of a century ago men stepped upon the lunar surface and established the possibility of human expansion beyond Earth. When humans return to the moon to occupy it with greater permanency, an applied lunar biological laboratory would provide a means of conducting experiments on the long-term effects of fractional gravity in animals and plants and provide necessary data to enhance the health, safety and well-being of lunar workers and inhabitants. In-depth studies can go beyond zero-g observations, on-orbit centrifuge studies, and ground-based research providing important insight into continuous 1/6- g effects on biological systems. Studies concentrating on development, gravity sensing, and adaptation/readaptation would provide preliminary data on whether long-term fractional gravity is detrimental or compromising to fundamental biological function. Food production research in 1/6- g would provide important information for on site application to improve the yield and quality of food (animal and plant) produced in the unique lunar environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some examples of the major gravitational biology areas that could be studied on the moon and applied to lunar population needs utilizing lunar biological facilities and continuous fractional gravity.

  7. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  8. Thermoluminescence of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Doell, Richard R.

    1970-01-01

    Appreciable natural thermoluminescence with glow curve peaks at about 350 degrees centigrade for lunar fines and breccias and above 400 degrees centigrade for crystalline rocks has been recognized in lunar samples. Plagioclase has been identified as the principal carrier of thermoluminescence, and the difference in peak temperatures indicates compositional or structural differences between the feldspars of the different rock types. The present thermoluminescence in the lunar samples is probably the result of a dynamic equilibrium between acquisition from radiation and loss in the lunar thermal environment. A progressive change in the glow curves of core samples with depth below the surface suggests the use of thermoluminescence disequilibrium to detect surfaces buried by recent surface activity, and it also indicates that the lunar diurnal temperature variation penetrates to at least 10.5 centimeters.

  9. Lunar Resource Assessment: Strategies for Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    Use of the indigenous resources of space to support long-term human presence is an essential element of the settlement of other planetary bodies. We are in a very early stage of understanding exactly how and under what circumstances space resources will become important. The materials and processes to recover them that we now think are critical may not ultimately be the raison d'etre for a resource utilization program. However, the need for strategic thinking proceeds in parallel with efforts to implement such plans and it is not too soon to begin thinking how we could and should use the abundant resources of materials and energy available from the Moon. The following commodities from the Moon are discussed: (1) bulk regolith, for shielding and construction on the lunar surface (ultimately for export to human-tended stations in Earth-Moon space), and (2) oxygen and hydrogen, for propellant and life support.

  10. Lunar Science from Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, tidal Love number k2, and moment of inertia differences. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core/mantle boundary (CMB) and fluid core moment of inertia. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to variations in lunar rotation, orientation and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for Love numbers plus dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core. Detection of the fluid core polar minus equatorial moment of inertia difference due to CMB flattening is weakly significant. This strengthens the case for a fluid lunar core. Future approaches are considered to detect a solid inner core.

  11. High-priority lunar landing sites for in situ and sample return studies of polar volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, Myriam; Blair, David M.; Roberts, Carolyn E.; Runyon, Kirby D.; Nowka, Daniela; Kring, David A.

    2014-10-01

    Our understanding of the Moon has advanced greatly over the last several decades thanks to analyses of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites, and recent lunar orbital missions. Notably, it is now thought that the lunar poles may be much more enriched in H2O and other volatile chemical species than the equatorial regions sampled during the Apollo missions. The equatorial regions sampled, themselves, contain more H2O than previously thought. A new lunar mission to a polar region is therefore of great interest; it could provide a measure of the sources and processes that deliver volatiles while also evaluating the potential in situ resource utilization value they may have for human exploration. In this study, we determine the optimal sites for studying lunar volatiles by conducting a quantitative GIS-based spatial analysis of multiple relevant datasets. The datasets include the locations of permanently shadowed regions, thermal analyses of the lunar surface, and hydrogen abundances. We provide maps of the lunar surface showing areas of high scientific interest, including five regions near the lunar north pole and seven regions near the lunar south pole that have the highest scientific potential according to rational search criteria. At two of these sites-a region we call the “Intercrater Polar Highlands” (IPH) near the north pole, and Amundsen crater near the south pole-we provide a more detailed assessment of landing sites, sample locations, and exploration strategies best suited for future human or robotic exploration missions.

  12. Oxygen extraction from lunar soil by fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, W.; Lingner, S.; Hoernes, S.; Grimmeisen, W.

    Mining and processing of lunar material could possibly lead to more cost-efficient scenarios for permanent presence of man in space and on the Moon. Production of oxygen for use as propellant seems especially important. Different candidate processes for oxygen-extraction from lunar soil were proposed, of which the reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen was studied most. This process, however, needs the concentration of ilmenite from lunar regolith to a large extent and releases oxygen only with low efficiency. Another possibility - the fluorination method - which works with lunar bulk material as feedstock is discussed. Liberation of oxygen from silicate or oxide materials by fluorination methods has been applied in geoscience since the early sixties. The fact that even at moderate temperatures 98 to 100 percent yields can be attained, suggests that fluorination of lunar regolith could be an effective way of propellant production. Lunar soil contains about 50 percent oxygen by weight which is gained nearly completely through this process as O2 gas. The second-most element Si is liberated as gaseous SiF4. It could be used for production of Si-metal and fluorine-recycling. All other main elements of lunar soil will be converted into solid fluorides which also can be used for metal-production and fluorine-recycling. Preliminary results of small scale experiments with different materials are discussed, giving information on specific oxygen-yields and amounts of by-products as functions of temperature. These experiments were performed with an already existing fluorine extraction and collection device at the University of Bonn, normally used for determination of oxygen-isotopic abundances. Optimum conditions, especially concerning energy consumption, are investigated. Extrapolation of the experimental results to large industrial-type plants on the Moon is tried and seems to be promising at first sight. The recycling of the fluorine is, however, crucial for the process. It might be achieved by means of electrolysis. This needs further investigation.

  13. Oxygen extraction from lunar soil by fluorination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seboldt, W.; Lingner, S.; Hoernes, S.; Grimmeisen, W.

    1991-01-01

    Mining and processing of lunar material could possibly lead to more cost-efficient scenarios for permanent presence of man in space and on the Moon. Production of oxygen for use as propellant seems especially important. Different candidate processes for oxygen-extraction from lunar soil were proposed, of which the reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen was studied most. This process, however, needs the concentration of ilmenite from lunar regolith to a large extent and releases oxygen only with low efficiency. Another possibility - the fluorination method - which works with lunar bulk material as feedstock is discussed. Liberation of oxygen from silicate or oxide materials by fluorination methods has been applied in geoscience since the early sixties. The fact that even at moderate temperatures 98 to 100 percent yields can be attained, suggests that fluorination of lunar regolith could be an effective way of propellant production. Lunar soil contains about 50 percent oxygen by weight which is gained nearly completely through this process as O2 gas. The second-most element Si is liberated as gaseous SiF4. It could be used for production of Si-metal and fluorine-recycling. All other main elements of lunar soil will be converted into solid fluorides which also can be used for metal-production and fluorine-recycling. Preliminary results of small scale experiments with different materials are discussed, giving information on specific oxygen-yields and amounts of by-products as functions of temperature. These experiments were performed with an already existing fluorine extraction and collection device at the University of Bonn, normally used for determination of oxygen-isotopic abundances. Optimum conditions, especially concerning energy consumption, are investigated. Extrapolation of the experimental results to large industrial-type plants on the Moon is tried and seems to be promising at first sight. The recycling of the fluorine is, however, crucial for the process. It might be achieved by means of electrolysis. This needs further investigation. The technical problem of transport and handling of the toxic and corrosive fluorine seems to be solvable and could be done by inert storage vessels.

  14. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the construction of a telescope, a lunar hotel, a lunar solar power system or even harvesting of Helium-3. The preliminary design study shows the feasibility of both missions, meaning that ESA has the capability to put a man on the Moon to search for ice and bring him back safely with today's technology.

  15. Exploration of Lunar Craters using a Tracked Microrover Concept for the ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunskill, C.; Smith, B.; Humphrey, S.; Makhlouta, M.; Baig, S.; Lappas, V.

    Robotic exploration of the lunar terrain is a crucial step towards future manned missions. There is evidence to suggest water ice ores may be found in the base of deep, polar craters as a result of the meteorite impacts which created them. These regions are in a permanent state of darkened deep-freeze due to their extreme latitudes, allowing the ice to remain intact. Lunar terrain is extremely inhospitable to all but the most robust of exploration vehicles. Surface conditions around the rim of large craters are rarely favourable for the descent and, more importantly, ascent of a ground-based vehicle. The ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge tasked eight teams from Universities across Europe to build microrovers capable of climbing into a terrestrial analogue of such a lunar crater, search the base for small samples of ore simulants and return them to a lander site outside of the crater. The University of Surrey Space Centre team designed a tracked vehicle based on a modified Mobile Robots Pioneer 3-AT microrover. The Pioneer on-board computer and microcontroller allowed the microrover to be equipped with off-the-shelf components, including a stereo camera for navigation, wireless Ethernet communications system for teleoperation and 5 degree of freedom robotic manipulator.

  16. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (editor); Oleary, B. (editor); Gosset, B. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  17. Insolation Effects on Lunar Hydrogen: Observation from the LRO LEND and LOLA Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Livak, M. M.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Namkung, M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Neumann, G.; Smith, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. G.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H) Largely, this was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, recent discoveries indicate that the H picture may be more complex than thc PSR hypothesis suggests. Observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detect (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) indicate some H concentrations lie outside PSR. Similarly, observations from Chandraayan-l's M3 and Deep Impact's EPOXI near infra-red observations indicate diurnal cycling of volatile H in lower latitudes. These results suggest other geophysical phenomena may also play a role in the Lunar Hydrogen budget. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies

  18. A taxonomy for the evolution of human settlements on the moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Mandell, Humboldt C.

    1991-01-01

    A proposed structure is described for partnerships with shared interests and investments to develop the technology and approach for evolutionary surface systems for the moon and Mars. Five models are presented for cooperation with specific references to the technical evolutionary path of the surface systems. The models encompass the standard customer/provider relationship, a concept for exclusive government use, a joint venture with a government-sponsored non-SEI market, a technology joint-development approach, and a redundancy model to insure competitive pricing. The models emphasize the nonaerospace components of the settlement technologies and the decentralized nature of surface systems that make the project suitable for private industrial development by several companies. It is concluded that the taxonomy be considered when examining collaborative opportunities for lunar and Martian settlement.

  19. Lunar base launch and landing facility conceptual design, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the Lunar Base Launch and Landing Facility Conceptual Design study. The purpose of this study was to examine the requirements for launch and landing facilities for early lunar bases and to prepare conceptual designs for some of these facilities. The emphasis of this study is on the facilities needed from the first manned landing until permanent occupancy. Surface characteristics and flight vehicle interactions are described, and various facility operations are related. Specific recommendations for equipment, facilities, and evolutionary planning are made, and effects of different aspects of lunar development scenarios on facilities and operations are detailed. Finally, for a given scenario, a specific conceptual design is developed and presented.

  20. Lunar neutron leakage fluxes as a function of composition and hydrogen content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Reedy, R. C.; Mckay, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Areas of the moon that might have enhanced concentrations of hydrogen are discussed. The fluxes of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons escaping from the lunar surface were calculated for eight different compositions and several hydrogen contents. These flux ratios depend on composition and are very sensitive to the hydrogen content. Their measurement using flight-proven techniques from lunar orbit should allow detection and identification of hydrogen residing in either permanently shaded cold traps near the lunar poles or mature regoliths. Knowledge of composition, especially of Fe and Ti, improves the thresholds for hydrogen detection and also could allow identification of Gd and Sm.

  1. Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  2. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Rocks from Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205; LAP02205 Lunar Meteorite: Lunar Mare Basalt with Similarities to the Apollo 12 Ilmenite Basalt; Mineral Chemistry of LaPaz Ice Field 02205 - A New Lunar Basalt; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032; KREEP-rich Basaltic Magmatism: Diversity of Composition and Consistency of Age; Mineralogy of Yamato 983885 Lunar Polymict Breccia with Alkali-rich and Mg-rich Rocks; Ar-Ar Studies of Dhofar Clast-rich Feldspathic Highland Meteorites: 025, 026, 280, 303; Can Granulite Metamorphic Conditions Reset 40Ar-39Ar Ages in Lunar Rocks? [#1009] A Ferroan Gabbronorite Clast in Lunar Meteorite ALHA81005: Major and Trace Element Composition, and Origin; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite PCA02007, a New Feldspathic Regolith Breccia; and Troilite Formed by Sulfurization: A Crystal Structure of Synthetic Analogue

  4. Construction of the 16 meter Large Lunar Telescope (LLT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Husam Anwar

    1990-01-01

    The different materials that could be used to design the pedestal for a Moon based 16 meter telescope are discussed. The material that should be used has a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high modulus of elasticity, and high compressive and tensile strengths. For the model developed in this study, an aluminum-manganese alloy was used because of its low coefficient of thermal expansion. Due to variations in lunar soil conditions, both vertically and horizontally, three foundation systems are presented. The spudcan footing can be used in the case where dense soil is more than three meters. The spread footing is recommended where the dense soil is between one and three meters. Finally, in the third system, the Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) is used as a base support for the telescope's pedestal. The LEV support requires a prepared site. The soil should be compacted and stabilized, if necessary, to reduce settlement.

  5. Lunar subsurface architecture enhanced by artificial biosphere concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassi, Jason D.; Rocha, Carlos J.; Carr, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of artificial biosphere technology with subselene architecture can create a life-enhancing, productive habitat that is safe from solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations while maximizing resources brought from Earth and derived from lunar regolith. In the short term, the resulting biotectural (biosphere and architectural) designs will not only make the structures more habitable, productive, and manageable, but will ultimately provide the self-sufficiency factors necessary for the mature lunar settlement. From a long-term perspective, this biotecture approach to astronautics and extraterrestrial development (1) helps reduce mass lift requirements, (2) contributes to habitat self-sufficiency, and (3) actualizes at least one philosophy of solar system exploration, which is to exploit nonterrestrial resources in an effort to conserve our natural resources on this planet.

  6. The International Lunar Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    A new lunar science flight projects line has been introduced within NASA s Science Mission Directorate's (SMDs) proposed 2009 budget, including two new robotic missions designed to accomplish key scientific objectives and, when possible, provide results useful to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD) as those organizations grapple with the challenges of returning humans to the Moon. The first mission in this line will be the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, an ESMD mission that will acquire key information for human return to the moon activities, which will transition after one year of operations to the SMD Lunar Science Program for a 2-year nominal science mission. The second mission, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) will be launch in 2011 along with the GRAIL Discovery mission to the moon. The third is delivery of two landed payloads as part of the International Lunar Network (ILN). This flight projects line provides a robust robotic lunar science program for the next 8 years and beyond, complements SMD s initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines, and increases international participation in NASA s robotic exploration plans. The International Lunar Network is envisioned as a global lunar geophysical network, which fulfills many of the stated recommendations of the recent National Research Council report on The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon [2], but is difficult for any single space agency to accomplish on its own. The ILN would provide the necessary global coverage by involving US and international landed missions as individual nodes working together. Ultimately, this network could comprise 8-10 or more nodes operating simultaneously, while minimizing the required contribution from each space agency. Indian, Russian, Japanese, and British landed missions are currently being formulated and SMD is actively seeking partnership with these and other space agencies to establish the ILN.

  7. Space Solar Power Technology for Lunar Polar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark W.; Howell, Joe T.

    2004-01-01

    The technology for Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transistor (Laser-PV WPT) is being developed for lunar polar applications by Boeing and NASA Marshall Space Center. A lunar polar mission could demonstrate and validate Laser-PV WPT and other SSP technologies, while enabling access to cold, permanently shadowed craters that are believed to contain ice. Crater may hold frozen water and other volatiles deposited over billion of years, recording prior impact event on the moon (and Earth). A photo-voltaic-powered rover could use sunlight, when available, and laser light, when required, to explore a wide range of lunar terrain. The National Research Council recently found that a mission to the moon's south pole-Aitkir basin has priority for space science

  8. Restoration and PDS Archive of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, P. A.; Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Runco, S. K.; LaBasse, D.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory (under the auspices of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate or ARES) began work on a 4-year project to digitize the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs. These rock samples together with lunar regolith and core samples were collected as part of the lander missions for Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17. The original film negatives are stored at JSC under cryogenic conditions. This effort is data restoration in the truest sense. The images represent the only record available to scientists which allows them to view the rock samples when making a sample request. As the negatives are being scanned, they are also being formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) archive. The ARES group is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving.

  9. Lunar regolith bagging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

    1990-01-01

    A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

  10. The lunar hopping transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degner, R.; Kaplan, M. H.; Manning, J.; Meetin, R.; Pasternack, S.; Peterson, S.; Seifert, H.

    1971-01-01

    Research on several aspects of lunar transport using the hopping mode is reported. Hopping exploits the weak lunar gravity, permits fuel economy because of partial recompression of propellant gas on landing, and does not require a continuous smooth surface for operation. Three questions critical to the design of a lunar hopping vehicle are addressed directly in this report: (1) the tolerance of a human pilot for repeated accelerations; (2) means for controlling vehicle attitude during ballistic flight; and (3) means of propulsion. In addition, a small scale terrestrial demonstrator built to confirm feasibility of the proposed operational mode is described, along with results of preliminary study of unmanned hoppers for moon exploration.

  11. Geomicrobiology beyond Earth: microbe-mineral interactions in space exploration and settlement.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Geomicrobiology investigates the interactions of microorganisms with geological substrates, and this branch of microbiology has enormous potential in the exploration and settlement of space. Microorganisms can be used to extract useful elements from extraterrestrial materials for industrial processes or for use as nutrients in life support systems. In addition, microorganisms could be used to create soil from lunar and Martian rocks. Furthermore, understanding the interactions of microorganisms with rocks is essential for identifying mineral biomarkers to be used in the search for life on other planetary bodies. Increasing space exploration activities make geomicrobiology an important applied science beyond Earth. PMID:20381355

  12. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.H. ); Shemansky, D.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The presence of sodium and potassium on the Moon implies that other more abundant species should be present. Volatile molecules like H{sub 2}O are significantly more abundant than sodium in any of the proposed external atmospheric sources. Source mechanisms which derive atoms from the surface should favor abundant elements in the regolith. It is therefore puzzling that the Apollo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of N{sub O} < 5 {times} 10{sup 2} cm{sup {minus}3}, and that the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply N{sub O} < 50 cm{sup {minus}3} above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occur ed during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the Moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stablized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, the authors predict a possible emission brightness of {approximately} 50 R in the OH(A {minus} X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb. A very uncertain small comet source of H{sub 2}O could raise this value by more than two orders of magnitude.

  13. Lunar microcosmos. [human factors of lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, N.

    1974-01-01

    A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.

  14. Frontispiece Advanced Lunar Base

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    oxygen. Each reactor is heated by a solar mirror. The vehicle near them is collecting liquid oxygen from chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make

  15. Lunar sample contracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.

  16. An Unusual Lunar Halo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Bartley L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a photograph of an unusual combination of lunar halos: the 22-degree refraction halo, the circumscribed halo, and a reflection halo. Deduces the form and orientations of the ice crystals responsible for the observed halo features. (MLH)

  17. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  18. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  19. The science of the lunar poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct imaging of interiors of polar shadowed craters has been accomplished by many instruments from the ultraviolet to the radar. Imaging radars on Chandrayaan-1 and LRO have identified anomalous craters that may contain rich water ice deposits. Neutron spectrometers on Lunar Prospector and LRO directly detected hydrogen enhancements at both poles. Spectacularly, the LCROSS impact experiment detected a wide range of volatile elements and species at Cabeus crater in the lunar south polar region. While these measurements have catapulted polar science forward, much remains to be understood about the polar system, both from analysis of the current data, and new missions planned and in development. The general state of the lunar atmosphere is planned to be addressed by the UV and neutral mass spectrometers carried by the planned NASA LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere And Dust Environment Explorer) spacecraft creating an important baseline. But more data is necessary, from an in situ direct assay of polar volatiles to measurements of species and fluxes into and out of the cold traps over lengthy timescales.

  20. Lunar Sulfur Capture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor downstream of an in-ISRU process such as hydrogen reduction. The lunar-soil-sorbent trap is held at a temperature significantly lower than the operating temperature of the hydrogen reduction or other ISRU process in order to maximize capture of contaminants, but is held at a high enough temperature to allow moisture to pass through without condensing. The lunar soil benefits from physical beneficiation to remove ultrafine particles (to reduce pressure drop through a fixed bed reactor) and to upgrade concentrations of iron and/or calcium compounds (to improve reactivity with gaseous contaminants).

  1. 48 CFR 1449.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...General Principles 1449.111 Review of proposed settlements. All proposed settlement agreements shall be reviewed by the SOL and approved at one level above the CO. Settlement agreements of $250,000 or more shall be approved by the...

  2. 48 CFR 1449.111 - Review of proposed settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...General Principles 1449.111 Review of proposed settlements. All proposed settlement agreements shall be reviewed by the SOL and approved at one level above the CO. Settlement agreements of $250,000 or more shall be approved by the...

  3. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

  4. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  5. Lunar cinder cones.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Head, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Data on terrestrial eruptions of pyroclastic material and ballistic considerations suggest that in the lunar environment (vacuum and reduced gravity) low-rimmed pyroclastic rings are formed rather than the high-rimmed cinder cones so abundant on the earth. Dark blanketing deposits in the Taurus-Littrow region (Apollo 17 landing area) are interpreted as being at least partly composed of lunar counterparts of terrestrial cinder cones.

  6. Lunar sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housley, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of the lunar regolith under solar wind and micrometeorite bombardment is discussed as well as the size distribution of ultrafine iron in lunar soil. The most important characteristics of complex graphite, sulfide, arsenide, palladium, and platinum mineralization in a pegmatoid pyroxenite of the Stillwater Complex in Montana are examined. Oblique reflected light micrographs and backscattered electron SEM images of the graphite associations are included.

  7. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  8. Lunar Resources: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which are found to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industrial capability within the Earth-Moon system. In this way, gradually increasing access to lunar resources may help 'bootstrap' a space-based economy from which the world economy, and possibly also the world's environment, will ultimately benefit.

  9. Lunar atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moosn were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

  10. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  11. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  12. Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Echols, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes current Lunar Exploration plans and objectives. It begins with specific statements from the President s vision for U.S. Space Exploration which pertain to robotic lunar missions. An outline of missions objectives is provided, along with a high-level schedule of events through the year 2025. Focus is then given to the Lunar Robotic and Precursor Program (LPRP) to describe objectives and goals. Recent developments in the Program are explained - specifically, the renaming of the RLEP program to "LPRP" and the movement of the program office to MSFC. A brief summary of the synergy expected between the robotic and crewed missions, with the LSAM descent stage Project is given. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, with its co-manifested Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), is then described with an overview of the payloads and mission objectives. Finally, information is given about the expected future of the LPRP program and Exploration and the development of a compressive Lunar Exploration Architecture.

  13. Lunar Orbit Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio, L.

    2012-12-01

    Independent experiments show a large anomaly in measurements of lunar orbital evolution, with applications to cosmology and the speed of light. The Moon has long been known to be slowly drifting farther from Earth due to tidal forces. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment (LLRE) indicates the Moon's semimajor axis increasing at 3.82 ± .07 cm/yr, anomalously high. If the Moon were today gaining angular momentum at this rate, it would have coincided with Earth less than 2 Gyr ago. Study of tidal rhythmites indicates a rate of 2.9 ± 0.6 cm/yr. Historical eclipse observations independently measure a recession rate of 2.82 ± .08 cm/yr. Detailed numerical simulation of lunar orbital evolution predicts 2.91 cm/yr. LLRE differs from three independent experiments by over12 sigma. A cosmology where speed of light c is related to time t by GM=tc^3 has been suggested to predict the redshifts of Type Ia supernovae, and a 4.507034% proportion of baryonic matter. If c were changing in the amount predicted, lunar orbital distance would appear to increase by an additional 0.935 cm/yr. An anomaly in the lunar orbit may be precisely calculated, shedding light on puzzles of 'dark energy'. In Planck units this cosmology may be summarized as M=R=t.Lunar Recession Rate;

  14. Observations of Lunar Swirls by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.; Hayne, P. O.; Bandfield, J. L.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Shirley, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    Diviner observations of lunar swirls show a CF anomaly consistent with abnormal space weathering. Night time cooling and surface roughness models indicate that the finely structured lunar regolith has not been disturbed at swirls.

  15. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Captain, Janine E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Weis, Kyle H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted within the CMU rover "Scarab" and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in November 2008. This technology could be used on Mars as well. As described at the 2008 Mars Society Convention, the Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) supports the objectives of the RESOLVE project by capturing and quantifying water and hydrogen released by regolith upon heating. Field test results for the quantification of water using LWRD showed that the volcanic ash (tephra) samples contained 0.15-0.41% water, in agreement with GC water measurements. Reduction of the RH in the surge tank to near zero during recirculation show that the water is captured by the water beds as desired. The water can be recovered by heating the Water Beds to 230 C or higher. Test results for the capture and quantification of pure hydrogen have shown that over 90% of the hydrogen can be captured and 98% of the absorbed hydrogen can be recovered upon heating the hydride to 400 C and desorbing the hydrogen several times into the evacuated surge tank. Thus, the essential requirement of capturing hydrogen and recovering it has been demonstrated. ,

  16. Lunar surface reflectance by LALT aboard KAGUYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Tazawa, S.; Sasaki, S.; Kawano, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Laser Altimeter (LALT) aboard Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) is a ranging instrument which measures the distance between the satellite and the lunar surface with accuracy of 1 m by detecting the timing delay of the reflected laser light. The main science goal of the LALT is to obtain the lunar global topographic data including polar regions for the study of the origin and the evolution of the Moon [1]. Besides, the LALT is equipped with an intensity monitor of the returned pulses. The intensity of the returned pulses contains information concerning surface roughness and reflectance of the footprints, which will contribute to the study of the lunar surface maturity and age. The reflectance at LALT wavelength (1064nm) is sensitive to the surface maturity and composition. The data should be particularly important at lunar polar regions where camera instruments should suffer from phase angle effects in the surface reflectance and moreover cannot obtain reflectance data at the permanently shadowed area. The normal operation of the LALT began on 30th, December 2007 after two months’ commissioning phase. Before the end of the normal operation phase in October 2008, the LALT measured more than 10 million range data. Unfortunately, due to the laser power decrease and also possible smaller surface reflectance than the expected value before launch (15 % at 1 micro meter), the return pulse intensity during the nominal mission phase is so small that they are not reliable enough to discuss the surface property. During the extended mission phase, which started November 2008, the satellite altitude decreased to 50 km. Due to the malfunction of the reaction wheel and high-voltage instruments were shutdown, the observation was suspended until 11th of February, 2009. LALT successfully resumed observation on 12th February and continued observation until the controlled crash of KAGUYA onto the Moon on 10th of June, 2009. Thanks to the lower orbit during this phase, the return pulse intensity is high enough to be used for the study of the surface property. Especially, it is of interest whether water ice exists or not on the bottom of the eternal shaded regions in the polar region. If we assume that the surface roughness within the size of the footprint is the same inside and the vicinity of a crater, the change of the intensity is due to the variety of the reflectance. It can be used for possible detection of the water ice if exists. We will report the initial results of the analysis of derived reflectance, especially of the lunar polar regions. references [1] H. Araki et. al., Science, 323, 897-900 (2009).

  17. Apollo 9 Lunar Module in lunar landing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module, in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed form the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module 'Spider' is flying upside down in relation to the earth below. The landing gear on the 'Spider' had been deployed. Lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads.

  18. Apollo 9 Lunar Module in lunar landing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module, in a lunar landing configuration, as photographed form the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on the 'Spider' has been deployed. Lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the 'Spider' were Astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot.

  19. Feasibility and Definition of a Lunar Polar Volatiles Prospecting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Elphic, Richard; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry; Pedersen, Liam; Beyer, Ross; Cockrell, James

    2012-01-01

    The recent Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission has provided evidence for significant amounts of cold trapped volatiles in Cabeus crater near the Moon's south pole. Moreover, LRO/Diviner measurements of extremely cold lunar polar surface temperatures imply that volatiles can be stable outside or areas of strict permanent shadows. These discoveries suggest that orbital neutron spectrometer data point to extensive deposits at both lunar poles. The physical state, composition and distribution of these volatiles are key scientific issues that relate to source and emplacement mechanisms. These issues are also important for enabling lunar in situ resource utilization (ISRU). An assessment of the feasibility of cold-trapped volatile ISRU requires a priori information regarding the location, form, quantity, and potential for extraction of available resources. A robotic mission to a mostly shadowed but briefly .unlit location with suitable environmental conditions (e.g. short periods of oblique sunlight and subsurface cryogenic temperatures which permit volatile trapping) can help answer these scientific and exploration questions. Key parameters must be defined in order to identify suitable landing sites, plan surface operations, and achieve mission success. To address this need, we have conducted an initial study for a lunar polar volatile prospecting mission, assuming the use of a solar-powered robotic lander and rover. Here we present the mission concept, goals and objectives, and landing site selection analysis for a short-duration, landed, solar-powered mission to a potential hydrogen volatile-rich site.

  20. Fast Ray Tracing of Lunar Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Mitrofanov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Ray-tracing (RT) of Lunar Digital Elevation Models (DEM)'s is performed to virtually derive the degree of radiation incident to terrain as a function of time, orbital and ephemeris constraints [I- 4]. This process is an integral modeling process in lunar polar research and exploration due to the present paucity of terrain information at the poles and mission planning activities for the anticipated spring 2009 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). As part of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) preparations RI methods are used to estimate the critical conditions presented by the combined effects of high latitude, terrain and the moons low obliquity [5-7]. These factors yield low incident solar illumination and subsequently extreme thermal, and radiation conditions. The presented research uses RT methods both for radiation transport modeling in space and regolith related research as well as to derive permanently shadowed regions (PSR)'s in high latitude topographic minima, e.g craters. These regions are of scientific and human exploration interest due to the near constant low temperatures in PSRs, inferred to be < 100 K. Hydrogen is thought to have accumulated in PSR's through the combined effects of periodic cometary bombardment and/or solar wind processes, and the extreme cold which minimizes hydrogen sublimation [8-9]. RT methods are also of use in surface position optimization for future illumination dependent on surface resources e.g. power and communications equipment.

  1. Lunar in situ resource utilization by activated thermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen

    2011-10-01

    NASA's anticipated returns to the Moon by 2020, subsequent establishment of lunar in situ resource utilization technologies are essential. The surface of Moon is covered with small eroded particles of regolith called lunar dust that adheres electro-statically to everything coming in contact with it, and is of much concern for future lunar base because of its continual mitigation. The next major concern is the protection of equipment and personnel in long term expeditions from harmful UV radiation, which can be made by constructing protective buildings. For construction of permanent structures it is highly desired to have regular shaped sintered regolith with utilization of local materials and with minimum energy consumption. In this study the concept of sintering of lunar regolith with activated thermite reactions is discussed. The thermodynamic calculations as well as the experimental procedure is provided to prove the effectiveness of activated thermites for regolith sintering using local lunar resources with a low (15 wt. %) concentration of aluminum or magnesium. The thermite method is much more energy efficient than the other sintering methods suggested in literature.

  2. On seismically induced pore pressure and settlement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Albert T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Two different approaches are used to estimate pore pressures and settlement in a 50-ft (15.2-m) sand deposit subjected to a variety of earthquake loadings. Although the two approaches seem consistent in predicting the occurrence of liquefaction, the results show that they are quite divergent in estimating pore-pressure build-ups and magnitude of ground settlement.

  3. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  4. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may...

  5. 47 CFR 1.956 - Settlement conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement conferences. 1.956 Section 1.956... Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.956 Settlement conferences. Parties... their attorneys to appear before it for a conference. (a) The purposes of such conferences are: (1)...

  6. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement...obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey that is delivered from other than an approved warehouse,...

  7. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement...obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey that is delivered from other than an approved warehouse,...

  8. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement...obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey that is delivered from other than an approved warehouse,...

  9. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement...obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey that is delivered from other than an approved warehouse,...

  10. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement...obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey that is delivered from other than an approved warehouse,...

  11. Principals' Perceptions of the "Gaskin" Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silla-Zaleski, Vanessa A.; Bauman, Dona C.; Stufft, Derry L.

    2007-01-01

    The "Gaskin" settlement resulted from a class action lawsuit brought on the behalf of students with significant disabilities in Pennsylvania. With the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 and the "Gaskin" settlement, schools in Pennsylvania are mandated to increase the placement of students with…

  12. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies...

  13. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Settlement agreements. 536.63 Section 536.63 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.63 Settlement agreements. (a) When required. (1) A claimant's acceptance of...

  14. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...provision in the contract has the effect of bringing the settlement...L.C. v. FCC, 166 F.3d 1224 (D.C. Cir. 1999...provision in the contract has the effect of bringing the settlement...L.C. v. FCC, 166 F.3d 1224 (D.C. Cir....

  15. Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

    Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

  16. Permanent versus disconnectable FPSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yong; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2009-06-01

    Floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) vessels offer a cost-effective field development solution, especially in deepwater areas lacking an adequate pipeline network. Most FPSOs are permanently moored, i.e. the complete system is designed to withstand any kind of extreme environment at the field location. FPSOs that can be quickly disconnected from their moorings and risers have also been designed and deployed. The key feature of this type of disconnectable FPSO is that it can be disconnect and so avoid dangerous environmental conditions such as icebergs, hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and typhoons in the South China Sea. In this paper, the concept of disconnectable FPSOs for deepwater field development is presented. Key technologies and their engineering analyses are highlighted. The merits and demerits of disconnectable vs permanent FPSOs are then evaluated. The paper concludes that both permanent and disconnectable FPSOs are versatile floating systems and their selection depends on safety, technological, cost and operational considerations.

  17. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  18. Lunar regolith and structure mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Frank; Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein; Carter, Tyrone R.; Evenson, Kraig A.; Nathan, Mark P.; Perkins, Steve W.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: modeling of regolith-structure interaction in extraterrestrial constructed facilities; densification of lunar soil simulant; and vibration assisted penetration of lunar soil simulant.

  19. Catalog of lunar mission data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantel, E. J. (editor); Miller, E. R. (editor)

    1977-01-01

    Several series of spacecraft were developed, designed, built and launched to determine different characteristics of the lunar surface and environment for a manned landing. Both unmanned and manned spacecrafts, spacecraft equipment and lunar missions are documented.

  20. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Haas, W. Randall; Klink, Cynthia J.; Maggard, Greg J.; Aldenderfer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare—behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  1. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    PubMed

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  2. Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney; Brannon, David P.; Underwood, Lauren; Russell, Kristen J.

    2007-01-01

    In polar regions of the Moon, some areas within craters are permanently shadowed from solar illumination and can reach temperatures of 100 K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding 50 K in many cases. Observed temperatures suggest that these regions could enable equivalent liquid nitrogen cryogenic functions. These permanently shaded polar craters also offer unprecedented high-vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their current state could support cryogenic applications. Besides ice stores, the unique conditions at the lunar poles harbor an environment that provides an opportunity to reduce the power, weight, and total mass that needs to be carried from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research. Reducing the heat flux of geothermal, black body radiation can have significant impacts on the achievable temperature. With a few manmade augmentations, permanently shaded craters located near the lunar poles achieve temperatures even lower than those that naturally exist. Our analysis reveals that lightweight thermal shielding within shaded craters could create an environment several Kelvin above absolute zero. The temperature ranges of both naturally shaded and thermally augmented craters could enable the long-term storage of most gases, low-temperature superconductors for large magnetic fields, devices and advanced high-speed computing instruments. Augmenting thermal conditions in these craters could then be used as a basis for the development of an advanced thermal management architecture that would support a wide variety of cryogenically based applications. Lunar exploration and habitation capabilities would significantly benefit if permanently shaded craters, augmented with thermal shielding, were used to facilitate the operation of near absolute zero instruments, including a wide variety of cryogenically based propulsion, energy, communication, sensing, and computing devices. The required burden of carrying massive life-supporting components from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research potentially could be reduced.

  3. Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, R. E.; McKellip, R. C.; Brannon, D. P.; Underwood, L. W.; Russell, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    In polar regions of the Moon, there are areas within craters that are permanently shadowed from solar illumination, which can reach temperatures of 100K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding 50K in many cases. Temperatures observed in theses regions suggest that they could enable equivalent liquid nitrogen cryogenic functions. These permanently shaded polar craters also offer unprecedented high vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their current state could support cryogenic applications. The unique conditions at the lunar poles, besides ice stores, harbor an environment that provides an opportunity to reduce the power, weight and total mass that needs to be carried from the Earth to the moon for lunar exploration and research. Reducing the heat flux of geothermal, black body radiation can have significant impacts on the achievable temperature. With a few man-made augmentations, permanently shaded craters located near the lunar poles achieve temperatures even lower than those that naturally exist there. Our analysis reveals that lightweight thermal shielding, within shaded craters, could create an environment several Kelvin above absolute zero. The temperature ranges of naturally shaded craters and thermally augmented ones could enable the long-term storage of most gases, low temperature superconductors for large magnetic fields, devices and advanced high speed computing instruments. Augmenting thermal conditions in these craters could then be used as a basis for the development of an advanced thermal management architecture that would support a wide variety of cryogenically based applications. Lunar exploration and habitation capabilities would significantly benefit if permanently shaded craters, augmented with thermal shielding, were to be used to facilitate the operation of near absolute zero instruments, including wide variety of cryogenically based propulsion, energy, communication, sensing and computing devices. Potentially, the required burden of carrying massive life-supporting components from the Earth to the moon for lunar exploration and research could be reduced.

  4. The lunar thermal ice pump

    SciTech Connect

    Schorghofer, Norbert; Aharonson, Oded

    2014-06-20

    It has long been suggested that water ice can exist in extremely cold regions near the lunar poles, where sublimation loss is negligible. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial or ambiguous correlation with permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that another mechanism may contribute to locally enhancing water concentrations. We show that under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H{sub 2}O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated and found to occur where the mean surface temperature is below 105 K and the peak surface temperature is above 120 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps that are roughly defined by peak temperatures lower than 120 K. On the present-day Moon, an estimated 0.8% of the global surface area experiences such temperature variations. Typically, pumping occurs on pole-facing slopes in small areas, but within a few degrees of each pole the equator-facing slopes are preferred. Although pumping of water molecules is expected over cumulatively large areas, the absolute yield of this pump is low; at best, a few percent of the H{sub 2}O delivered to the surface could have accumulated in the near-surface layer in this way. The amount of ice increases with vapor diffusivity and is thus higher in the regolith with large pore spaces.

  5. The Lunar Thermal Ice Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonson, O.; Schorghofer, N.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical considerations and recent observations indicate the lunar polar regions harbor deposits of water ice in extremely cold regions. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial match to permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that ice is not simply trapped by low temperature but another mechanism plays a role in concentrating H2O. Under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H2O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated to be mean surface temperatures below 105 K and peak surface temperatures higher than 130 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps, roughly defined by peak temperatures <120 K. Temperatures were obtained by analyzing the LRO Diviner measurements and geographic regions of positive pumping differential are identified. These extend the ice distribution beyond traditional cold traps. At latitudes poleward of 85 degrees equator-facing slopes have a positive pumping differential because at this latitude their aspect allows larger temperature oscillations while remaining on average cold. At lower polar latitudes, down to about 70 degrees, pole-facing slopes have positive pumping differential, because here the slope aspect allows the surface to remain cooler than average.

  6. Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; French, Raymond; Nall,Mark; Muery, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL and USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single, common, intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. LMMP will provide such products as DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data.

  7. LUNAR MASS SPECTROMETER RELIABILITY PREDICTION

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    LUNAR MASS SPECTROMETER RELIABILITY PREDICTION Contract No. NAS 9-5829 I'IU. ATM-965 PAGE 1 tu:v. 1'10. A OF Jl DATE 9 June 1971 Presented in this ATM are the Lunar Mass Spectrometer (LMS) reliability--t::J~ S. J. Ellison, Manager ALSEP Reliability #12;LUNAR MASS SPECTROMETER RELIABILITY PREDICTION Contract

  8. Lunar Simulation in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar has been assembled at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide a high fidelity lunar simulation facility to test the interactions of lunar dust and lunar dust simulant with candidate aerospace materials and coatings. It has a sophisticated design which enables it to treat dust in a way that will remove adsorbed gases and create a chemically reactive surface. It can simulate the vacuum, thermal, and radiation environments of the Moon, including proximate areas of illuminated heat and extremely cold shadow. It is expected to be a valuable tool in the development of dust repellant and cleaning technologies for lunar surface systems.

  9. Lunar Extravehicular Activity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heartsill, Amy Ellison

    2006-01-01

    Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has proven an invaluable tool for space exploration since the inception of the space program. There are situations in which the best means to evaluate, observe, explore and potentially troubleshoot space systems are accomplished by direct human intervention. EVA provides this unique capability. There are many aspects of the technology required to enable a "miniature spaceship" to support individuals in a hostile environment in order to accomplish these tasks. This includes not only the space suit assembly itself, but the tools, design interfaces of equipment on which EVA must work and the specific vehicles required to support transfer of humans between habitation areas and the external world. This lunar mission program will require EVA support in three primary areas. The first of these areas include Orbital stage EVA or micro-gravity EVA which includes both Low Earth Orbit (LEO), transfer and Lunar Orbit EVA. The second area is Lunar Lander EVA capability, which is lunar surface EVA and carries slightly different requirements from micro-gravity EVA. The third and final area is Lunar Habitat based surface EVA, which is the final system supporting a long-term presence on the moon.

  10. Lunar preform manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris; Dorrity, J. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5k W, the proposed machine will run continuously, unmanned in fourteen day cycles, matching the length of moon days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  11. Formation of Lunar Swirls

    E-print Network

    Bamford, R A; Cruz, F; Kellett, B J; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Trines, R M G M; Halekas, J S; Kramer, G; Harnett, E; Cairns, R A; Bingham, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show a plausible mechanism that could lead to the formation of the Dark Lanes in Lunar Swirls, and the electromagnetic shielding of the lunar surface that results in the preservation of the white colour of the lunar regolith. We present the results of a fully self-consistent 2 and 3 dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of mini-magnetospheres that form above the lunar surface and show that they are consistent with the formation of `lunar swirls' such as the archetypal formation Reiner Gamma. The simulations show how the microphysics of the deflection/shielding of plasma operates from a kinetic-scale cavity, and show that this interaction leads to a footprint with sharp features that could be the mechanism behind the generation of `dark lanes'. The physics of mini-magnetospheres is described and shown to be controlled by space-charge fields arising due to the magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions. A comparison between model and observation is shown for a number of key plasma parameters...

  12. A lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  13. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  14. Simulation of lunar carbon chemistry. II - Lunar winds contribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Burlingame, A. L.; Wszolek, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    Simulation experiments, computations, and analysis of glassy agglutinates show that a directly condensed lunar wind vapor phase is strongly depleted in carbon and sulfur compounds and may recrystallize rapidly in the lunar thermal cycle and separate from host crystals. Factors preventing identification of low-energy species implanted from the lunar atmosphere are discussed. Computational results indicate that the implanted lunar winds carbon originates both from the vapor phases injected into the lunar atmosphere during thermal metamorphism of mature lunar soil grains and from direct volatization of impacting micrometeorites. It is suggested that microglass splashes and tiny crystalline grains possibly attached to the surface of coarser grains do not affect the characteristics of solar wind carbon chemistry in the lunar soil.

  15. Using Web 2.0 to Disseminate Information About NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, B. C.; Weir, H. M.; Bleacher, L. V.

    2009-03-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is NASA’s first step in establishing a permanent human presence on the Moon. In order to capitalize on the excitement of the mission, the LRO team makes use of social media networking and Web 2.0 platforms.

  16. Estimating Lunar Pyroclastic Deposit Depth from Imaging Radar Data: Applications to Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. A.; Stacy, N. J.; Campbell, D. B.; Zisk, S. H.; Thompson, T. W.; Hawke, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar pyroclastic deposits represent one of the primary anticipated sources of raw materials for future human settlements. These deposits are fine-grained volcanic debris layers produced by explosive volcanism contemporaneous with the early stage of mare infilling. There are several large regional pyroclastic units on the Moon (for example, the Aristarchus Plateau, Rima Bode, and Sulpicius Gallus formations), and numerous localized examples, which often occur as dark-halo deposits around endogenic craters (such as in the floor of Alphonsus Crater). Several regional pyroclastic deposits were studied with spectral reflectance techniques: the Aristarchus Plateau materials were found to be a relatively homogeneous blanket of iron-rich glasses. One such deposit was sampled at the Apollo 17 landing site, and was found to have ferrous oxide and titanium dioxide contents of 12 percent and 5 percent, respectively. While the areal extent of these deposits is relatively well defined from orbital photographs, their depths have been constrained only by a few studies of partially filled impact craters and by imaging radar data. A model for radar backscatter from mantled units applicable to both 70-cm and 12.6-cm wavelength radar data is presented. Depth estimates from such radar observations may be useful in planning future utilization of lunar pyroclastic deposits.

  17. The lunar apatite paradox.

    PubMed

    Boyce, J W; Tomlinson, S M; McCubbin, F M; Greenwood, J P; Treiman, A H

    2014-04-25

    Recent discoveries of water-rich lunar apatite are more consistent with the hydrous magmas of Earth than the otherwise volatile-depleted rocks of the Moon. Paradoxically, this requires H-rich minerals to form in rocks that are otherwise nearly anhydrous. We modeled existing data from the literature, finding that nominally anhydrous minerals do not sufficiently fractionate H from F and Cl to generate H-rich apatite. Hydrous apatites are explained as the products of apatite-induced low magmatic fluorine, which increases the H/F ratio in melt and apatite. Mare basalts may contain hydrogen-rich apatite, but lunar magmas were most likely poor in hydrogen, in agreement with the volatile depletion that is both observed in lunar rocks and required for canonical giant-impact models of the formation of the Moon. PMID:24652938

  18. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  19. Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  20. A lunar polar expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  1. Lunar materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper surveys current information, describes some important unknowns about lunar materials, and discusses ways to gain more scientific and engineering knowledge concerning the industrial processes that could be used on the moon for the production of products useful in future enterprises in space. Lunar rocks and soils are rich in oxygen, but it is mostly chemically bound in silicates, so that chemical or thermal energy must be supplied to recover it. Iron and titanium are abundant and, in some of their known forms, readily recoverable; aluminum is plentiful but harder to extract. Methods for recovering lunar oxygen and metals fall into three classes: chemical, electrolytic, and dissociative, broadly characterized by their respective process temperatures. Examples of these methods are briefly discussed.

  2. Lunar crane hook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    The base and ball hook system is an attachment that is designed to be used on the lunar surface as an improved alternative to the common crane hook and eye system. The design proposed uses an omni-directional ball hook and base to overcome the design problems associated with a conventional crane hook. The base and ball hook is not sensitive to cable twist which would render a robotic lunar crane useless since there is little atmospheric resistance to dampen the motion of an oscillating member. The symmetric characteristics of the ball hook and base eliminates manual placement of the ball hook into the base; commonly associated with the typical hook and eye stem. The major advantage of the base and ball hook system is it's ease of couple and uncouple modes that are advantages during unmanned robotic lunar missions.

  3. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseney, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry Dean; Lindbergh, Charles

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar based subjected to one atmosphere internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design: (1) during construction; (2) under pressurization; and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the air-tightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the moon.

  4. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseny, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry D.; Lindbergh, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar base subjected to 1-atm internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design (1) during construction, (2) under pressurization, and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the airtightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the Moon.

  5. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  6. Radiation Environments for Lunar Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Blackwell, Willliam C.; Harine, Katherine J.

    2007-01-01

    Developing reliable space systems for lunar exploration and infrastructure for extended duration operations on the lunar surface requires analysis and mitigation of potential system vulnerabilities to radiation effects on materials and systems. This paper reviews the characteristics of space radiation environments relevant to lunar programs including the trans-Earth and trans-lunar injection trajectories through the Earth's radiation belts, solar wind surface dose environments, energetic solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays and discusses the radiation design environments being developed for lunar program requirements to assure that systems operate successfully in the space environment.

  7. The Lunar Polesitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Here-to-fore, sailcraft mission and system studies have focused on sailcraft applications in support of NASA's science missions and, in a few studies, on the needs of other federal agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Department of Defense (DoD). These studies have identified numerous promising applications for solar sails, leading NASA to support proposal efforts for three NASA New Millennium Program (NMP) flight demonstration opportunities (the Space Technology-5, -7, and -9 opportunities) as well as an extensive three-year ground development program in FY 2003-2005 sponsored by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program. What has not been done to date, however, is to investigate how the technology might also benefit the nation's (and NASA's) emerging interest in the Human Exploration Initiative (HEI). This paper reports on the first effort to address this shortfall in mission applications studies in support of HEI: the use of solar-sail-propelled Lunar Polesitter spacecraft which make use of the natural properties of the Earth-Moon L2 point and solar sail propulsion to enable their positioning near the Lunar poles to serve as communications relay stations. Suitably positioned, such spacecraft enable continuous communications to and from the Earth from any point on the lunar far side. The paper shows that a viable sailcraft system design exists permitting station-keeping of a Lunar Polesitter relay station at 40 Lunar radii from the Moon in the anti-Earth direction, displaced 6-8 Lunar radii below the Earth- Moon plane.

  8. Frontispiece Advanced Lunar Base

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328 ISBN 0-16-038062-6 #12;Technical papers derived from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested

  9. Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Settlement Prediction, Gas Modeling and Slope Stability Analysis in Coll Cardús Landfill Li Yu UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA DE CATALUÑA April, 2007 GEOMODELS #12;Introduction to Coll Cardús landfill Prediction of settlement in Coll Cardús landfill 1) Settlement prediction by empirical method 2) Settlement prediction

  10. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1-40amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE,LRO, etc.).

  11. Moonquakes and lunar tectonism.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, G.; Ewing, M.; Dorman, J.; Lammlein, D.; Press, F.; Toksoz, N.; Sutton, G.; Duennebier, F.; Nakamura, Y.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the major discoveries that have resulted to date from the analysis of seismic data from a network of geophysical stations on the moon. It is found that lunar seismic signals differ greatly from typical terrestrial seismic signals; the moon possesses a crust and a mantle, at least in the region of the Apollo 12 and 14 stations; natural lunar events detected by the Apollo seismic network are moonquakes and meteoroid impacts; and in addition to the repeating moonquakes, moonquake 'swarms' have been discovered.

  12. Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Paschalidis, N.; Sittler, E. C.; Jones, S. L.; Stubbs, T. J.; Sarantos, M.; Khurana, K. K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Jordan, A. P.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Lunar Hydrospheric Explorer (HYDROX) is a 6U CubeSat designed to further confirm the existence of lunar exospheric water, and to determine source processes and surface sites, through ion mass spectrometer measurements of water group (O+, OH+, H2O+) and related ions at energy/charge up to 2 keV/e. and mass/charge 1 - 40 amu/e. HYDROX would follow up on the now-concluded exospheric compositional measurements by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the NASA LADEE mission and on other remote sensing surface and exospheric measurements (LADEE, LRO, etc.).

  13. Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Hovland, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The study to identify and define recognizable fabrics in lunar soil in order to determine the history of the lunar regolith in different locations is reported. The fabric of simulated lunar soil, and lunar soil samples are discussed along with the behavior of simulated lunar soil under dynamic and static loading. The planned research is also included.

  14. Lunar exploration and the advancement of biomedical research: a physiologist's view.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Claude A

    2006-10-01

    Over the next few years, it will become apparent just how important lunar exploration is to biomedical research and vice versa, and how critical both are to the future of human spaceflight. NASA's Project Constellation should put a new lunar-capable vehicle into service by 2014 that will rely on proven Space Shuttle components and allow four astronauts to spend 7 d on the lunar surface. A modern space transportation system opens up a unique opportunity in the space sciences--the establishment of a permanent lunar laboratory for the physical and life sciences. This commentary presents a rationale for focusing American efforts in space on such a Moon base in order to promote understanding of the long-term physiological effects of living on a planetary body outside the Van Allen belts. PMID:17042257

  15. Permanent magnet design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leupold, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Design techniques developed for the exploitation of high energy magnetically rigid materials such as Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B have resulted in a revolution in kind rather than in degree in the design of a variety of electron guidance structures for ballistic and aerospace applications. Salient examples are listed. Several prototype models were developed. These structures are discussed in some detail: permanent magnet solenoids, transverse field sources, periodic structures, and very high field structures.

  16. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a) A...obtain release of all or any part of the loan seed cotton by paying to CCC the amount of the loan, plus...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a) A...obtain release of all or any part of the loan seed cotton by paying to CCC the amount of the loan, plus...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a) A...obtain release of all or any part of the loan seed cotton by paying to CCC the amount of the loan, plus...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a) A...obtain release of all or any part of the loan seed cotton by paying to CCC the amount of the loan, plus...

  20. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies, Enforcement and Compliance § 7.43 Settlement...

  1. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies, Enforcement and Compliance § 7.43 Settlement...

  2. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies, Enforcement and Compliance § 7.43 Settlement...

  3. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies, Enforcement and Compliance § 7.43 Settlement...

  4. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies, Enforcement and Compliance § 7.43 Settlement...

  5. 37 CFR 42.409 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Derivation After Institution of Derivation Proceeding § 42.409 Settlement agreements. An agreement or understanding under 35 U.S.C. 135(e)...

  6. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  7. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The... decision will have the same force and effect as would a decision made after a hearing; and (4) A...

  8. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  9. Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S.

    2007-11-15

    Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

  10. 42 CFR 417.810 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.810 Final settlement. (a) General requirement. CMS and an...

  11. 14 CFR 1262.305 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering...settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after the underlying proceeding has been concluded. If...

  12. 14 CFR 1262.305 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering...settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after the underlying proceeding has been concluded. If...

  13. 14 CFR 1262.305 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering...settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after the underlying proceeding has been concluded. If...

  14. 14 CFR 1262.305 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering...settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after the underlying proceeding has been concluded. If...

  15. 14 CFR 1262.305 - Settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION...ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering...settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after the underlying proceeding has been concluded. If...

  16. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that the foregoing requirements are materially impeding settlement of the claim, bring the matter to... agreement as a sum not to exceed 20% of the award. (2) Costs are a matter to be determined solely...

  17. 32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that the foregoing requirements are materially impeding settlement of the claim, bring the matter to... agreement as a sum not to exceed 20% of the award. (2) Costs are a matter to be determined solely...

  18. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  19. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  20. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  1. 24 CFR 7.43 - Settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and/or their designees; and (4) Otherwise comply with 29 CFR part 1614. (b) Any settlement agreement... Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, Disability or Reprisal Remedies,...

  2. 78 FR 59684 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...Reporting Rule''). Under the terms of the proposed settlement agreement, Petitioners would dismiss their claims if, at the conclusion of a rulemaking process that has included notice and an opportunity for public comment, EPA promulgates in final form...

  3. Adsorption of Water on JSC-1A Lunar Simulant Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goering, John; Sah, Shweta; Burghaus, Uwe; Street, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing probes sent to the moon in the 1990s indicated that water may exist in areas such as the bottoms of deep, permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles, buried under regolith. Water is of paramount importance for any lunar exploration and colonization project which would require self-sustainable systems. Therefore, investigating the interaction of water with lunar regolith is pertinent to future exploration. The lunar environment can be approximated in ultra-high vacuum systems such as those used in thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Questions about water dissociation, surface wetting, degree of crystallization, details of water-ice transitions, and cluster formation kinetics can be addressed by TDS. Lunar regolith specimens collected during the Apollo missions are still available though precious, so testing with simulant is required before applying to use lunar regolith samples. Hence, we used for these studies JSC-1a, mostly an aluminosilicate glass and basaltic material containing substantial amounts of plagioclase, some olivine and traces of other minerals. Objectives of this project include: 1) Manufacturing samples using as little raw material as possible, allowing the use of surface chemistry and kinetics tools to determine the feasibility of parallel studies on regolith, and 2) Characterizing the adsorption kinetics of water on the regolith simulant. This has implications for the probability of finding water on the moon and, if present, for recovery techniques. For condensed water films, complex TDS data were obtained containing multiple features, which are related to subtle rearrangements of the water adlayer. Results from JSC-1a TDS studies indicate: 1) Water dissociation on JSC-1a at low exposures, with features detected at temperatures as high as 450 K and 2) The formation of 3D water clusters and a rather porous condensed water film. It appears plausible that the sub- m sized particles act as nucleation centers.

  4. Design and development of volatile analysis system for analog field test of lunar exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Captain, Janine E.; Weis, Kyle; Cryderman, Katherine; Coan, Mary; Lance, Lucas; Levine, Lanfang; Brooks Loftin, Kathleen; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Bauer, Brint; Quinn, Jaqueline

    2015-05-01

    The recent evidence of water in the lunar crater Cabeus from the LCROSS mission (Colaprete et al., 2010) provides confirmation of a valuable resource on the lunar surface. To understand this resource and the impact it can have on future exploration, further information is needed on the distribution and availability of the water ice. The Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is a part of the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload, designed to provide ground truth to the volatile distribution near the permanently shadowed regions on the lunar surface. The payload is designed to drill and extract a regolith core sample, heat the regolith to drive off the volatiles, and identify and quantify the volatile resources. The LAVA subsystem is specifically responsible for processing and analyzing the volatile gas sample from the lunar regolith sample. The main objective of this paper is to provide insight into the operations and hardware for volatile analysis developed and deployed at the 2012 RESOLVE Field Test on the slopes of Mauna Kea. The vision of employing Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) and modified COTS hardware to lower the cost for mission-enabling field tests will be highlighted. This paper will discuss how the LAVA subsystem hardware supported several high level RESOLVE mission objectives to demonstrate the challenging lunar mission concept proposed.

  5. Lunar permafrost - Dielectric identification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, R.

    1973-01-01

    A simulator of lunar permafrost at 100 K exhibits a dielectric relaxation centered at approximately 300 hertz. If permafrost exists in the moon between 100 and 213 K, it should present a relaxation peak at approximately 300 hertz. For temperatures up to 263 K it may go up to 20 kilohertz.

  6. Lunar surface gravimeter experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giganti, J. J.; Larson, J. V.; Richard, J. P.; Tobias, R. L.; Weber, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lunar surface gravimeter used the moon as an instrumented antenna to search for gravitational waves predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. Tidal deformation of the moon was measured. Gravitational radiation is a channel that is capable of giving information about the structure and evolution of the universe.

  7. The Lunar Petrographic Educational

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    that the NASA curator loans to upper division petrography classes. It needs to be supplemented by educationalThe Lunar Petrographic Educational Thin Section Set Charles Meyer Astromaterials Curation NASA Educational Thin Section Set C Meyer - 2003 Foreword Precautions Disclaimer Objective Petrography Some

  8. Lunar construction utility vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

  9. Recent lunar magnetism

    E-print Network

    Buz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The magnetization of young lunar samples (<1.5 Ga) is a mystery because common sources of magnetic fields (e.g. core dynamo and long-lived impact plasma fields) have not been present within the last 1.5 Ga. To better ...

  10. Lunar Lab Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, technicians are transferring mice from a support germ free isolator, through a hypochlorite dunk tank, into the class III cabinetry in the Germ-free and Conventional Animal Laboratories of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, building 37, of the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of the Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

  11. A Lunar Chronology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Oliver A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses methods used in determination of absolute isotopic ages for the returned lunar material, including the uranium-lead, rubidium-strontium, and argon 40-argon 39 ratio methods. Indicates that there would exist a basin-forming bombardment period for the Moon extending over at least 300 million years. (CC)

  12. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Apollo Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Artist rendering of the Lunar Orbiter, the most successful of the pre-Apollo probes, which mapped the equatorial regions of the moon and gave NASA the data it needed to pinpoint ideal landing spots. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 314.

  14. Lunar troilite: Crystallography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Fine, euhedral crystals of troilite from lunar sample 10050 show a hexagonal habit consistent with the high-temperature NiAs-type structure. Complete three-dimensional counter intensity data have been measured and used to confirm and refine Bertaut's proposed low-temperature crystal structure.

  15. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar Engineering Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D.; Hougen, D.; Shirley, D.

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore the Hadley Rille site; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by Apollo 15 thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of the parts of the Rille that were considered too dangerous to be explored by the Apollo 15 crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. When we asked what we could do to motivate students the way the authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon, we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon, as is going to the Moo n. The students seem to agree.

  16. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  17. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-05-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both stages is a truss, to which all tanks and components are attached. The crew module is a conical shape similar to that of the Apollo Command Module, but significantly larger with a height and maximum diameter of six meters.

  18. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary design of the lunar shelter showed us that joining is a critical technology needed for building a structure from large segments. The problem of joining is important to the design of any structure that is not completely prefabricated. It is especially important when the structure is subjected to tensile loading by an internal pressure. For a lunar shelter constructed from large segments the joints between these large segments must be strong, and they must permit automated construction. With a cast basalt building material which is brittle, there is the additional problem of connecting the joint with the material and avoiding stress concentration that would cause failure. Thus, a well-defined project which we intend to pursue during this coming year is the design of joints for cast basalt structural elements.

  19. Extended duration lunar lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

    1993-01-01

    Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both stages is a truss, to which all tanks and components are attached. The crew module is a conical shape similar to that of the Apollo Command Module, but significantly larger with a height and maximum diameter of six meters.

  20. Lunar Gene Bank For Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, R.; Behera, D.; Sahoo, P. K.; Swain, S. K.; Sasmal, A.

    2012-09-01

    Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. The gene pools of many human ethnic groups are also threatened. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. Against such indispensable losses scientists are starting cryopreservation of germplasms by creation of gene banks. I propose to construct a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions [4].

  1. Lunar Dust: Characterization and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt. Mark J.; Feighery, John

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust is a ubiquitous phenomenon which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. Near term plans to revisit the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond, places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it's potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. The same hold true for assessing the risk it may pose for toxicological health problems if inhaled. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program's Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. This work further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it's characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost. The paper also presents a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware.

  2. Do Cues Matter? Highly Inductive Settlement Cues Don't Ensure High Post-Settlement Survival in Sea Urchin Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L.; Nielsen, Shaun J.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24–28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (?25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture. PMID:22162755

  3. Recent Research on Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, M.

    2002-01-01

    exploration. There are several kinds of rare gas in the lunar soil such as 3He. 3He is the 'clear' nuclear source for the nuclear energy output. It must accelerate economic development if people can know the distribution and content of the useful elements in lunar soil. The scientific goal of the Chinese lunar exploration is based on to search the lunar useful elements and to understand the lunar conditions. The Scientific detecting method and the payloads of lunar exploration are mentioned. They include the lunar observation and space environment probing in the lunar orbit. content using remote sensing methods. The scientific goal is to gain the lunar map of the content of the lunar useful elements, and to determine the distribution of the different lunar rock. It needs Optical Remote Sensor System (CCD Camera) and ?-Detector (elements Analysis). soil's thickness and the distribution and content of the rare gas in the lunar soil with?-Detector (elements Analysis)and Micro-Wave Detector system (probing the lunar surface). Micro-Wave Detector system, the LASER meter and the neutron detector if people want to look for any status of H2O on the moon, especially on the south pole of moon. surface and the inside core, The Durpler meter, the electron reflex spectrum meter and the magnetometer are all needed. high-energy particle detector, low energy particle detector can monitor the flux of the solar cosmic-ray and the solar wind, and the magnetometer can describe the change of the magneto-field.

  4. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies needed for lunar operations (robotic and human), lunar mining, materials processing, manufacturing, transportation, life support and other.

  5. The Lunar Quest Program and the International Lunar Network (ILN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Science group at Marshall provides core capabilities to support the Agency's lunar exploration goals. ILN Anchor Nodes are currently in development by MSFC and APL under the Lunar Quest Program at MSFC. The Science objectives of the network are to understand the interior structure and composition of the moon. Pre-phase A engineering assessments are complete, showing a design that can achieve the science requirements, either on their own (if 4 launched) or in concert with international partners. Risk reduction activities are ongoing. The Lunar Quest Program is a Science-based program with the following goals: a) Fly small/medium science missions to accomplish key science goals; b) Build a strong lunar science community; c) Provide opportunities to demonstrate new technologies; and d) Where possible, help ESMD and SOMG goals and enhance presence of science in the implementation of the VSE. The Lunar Quest Program will be guided by recommendations from community reports.

  6. Lunar Imaging and Ionospheric Calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov Technique

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Rebecca; Mevius, Maaijke

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the ionosphere is an important experimental concern as it reduces the pulse amplitude and subsequent chances of detection. We are continuing to investigate a new method to calibrate the dispersive effect of the ionosphere on lunar Cherenkov pulses via Faraday rotation measurements of the Moon's polarised emission combined with geomagnetic field models. We also extend this work to include radio imaging of the Lunar surface, which provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the lunar surface that may affect experimental strategies for the lunar Cherenkov technique.

  7. Software Architecture for Planetary and Lunar Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans; Fong, Teny; Nesnas, Iasa A. D.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the role that software architecture plays in space and lunar robotics is shown. The topics include: 1) The Intelligent Robotics Group; 2) The Lunar Mission; 3) Lunar Robotics; and 4) Software Architecture for Space Robotics.

  8. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle - Duration: 49 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  9. Exobiology and SETI from the lunar farside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, Jill C.; Rummel, John

    1990-01-01

    Within the Life Sciences Division of NASA, the Exobiology Program seeks to understand the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. There are two feasible methods of searching for life beyond the earth. The first is to return to Mars and systematically explore its surface and subsurface with instrumentation capable of identifying extinct as well as extant life. The second is to search for advanced forms of life in other planetary systems that have developed a technology capable of modifying their environment in ways that make it detectable across the vast interstellar distances. The Exobiology Program is currently pursuing both of these options. If NASA's SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence) Microwave Observing Project of the 1990s fails to detect evidence of radio signals generated by an extraterrestrial technology, what might be the next step? The establishment of a permanent lunar base early in the next century may enable the construction of large aperture radio telescopes that can extend both the sensitivity and the frequency range of SETI observations. A lunar base may also provide the opportunity for construction of optical and IR telescopes intended for the direct detection of extrasolar planetary systems.

  10. The Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder. [lunar orbit coherent radar experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Jordan, R.; Adams, G. F.; Jackson, P.; Peeples, W. J.; Porcello, L. J.; Ryu, J.; Eggleton, R. E.; Schaber, G.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment, a coherent radar operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission, has scientific objectives of mapping lunar subsurface structure, surface profiling, surface imaging, and galactic noise measurement. Representative results from each of the four disciplines are presented. Subsurface reflections have been interpreted in both optically and digitally processed data. Images and profiles yield detailed selenomorphological information. The preliminary galactic noise results are consistent with earlier measurements by other workers.

  11. What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

  12. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, W. T.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Taylor, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence and EPR can be used to measure the reactivity of lunar soil. Lunar soil is highly activated by grinding. Reactivity is dependent upon soil maturity and locale. Maturity is based on the amount of nanophase iron (np-Fe) in a soil relative to the total iron (FeO). Lunar soil activity ia a direct function of the amount of np-Fe present. Reactive soil can be "deactivated" by humid atmosphere.

  13. Molecular Nanotechnology and Space Settlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomically precise manipulation of matter is becoming increasingly common in laboratories around the world. As this control moves into aerospace systems, huge improvements in computers, high-strength materials, and other systems are expected. For example, studies suggest that it may be possible to build: 10(exp 18) MIPS computers, 10(exp 15) bytes/sq cm write once memory, $153-412/kg-of-cargo single- stage-to-orbit launch vehicles and active materials which sense their environment and react intelligently. All of NASA's enterprises should benefit significantly from molecular nanotechnology. Although the time may be measured in decades and the precise path to molecular nanotechnology is unclear, all paths (diamondoid, fullerene, self-assembly, biomolecular, etc.) will require very substantial computation. This talk will discuss fullerene nanotechnology and early work on hypothetical active materials consisting of large numbers of identical machines. The speaker will also discuss aerospace applications, particularly missions leading to widespread space settlement (e.g., small near-Earth - object retrieval). It is interesting to note that control of the tiny - individual atoms and molecules - may lead to colonization of the huge -first the solar system, then the galaxy.

  14. Liquids with permanent porosity.

    PubMed

    Giri, Nicola; Del Pópolo, Mario G; Melaugh, Gavin; Greenaway, Rebecca L; Rätzke, Klaus; Koschine, Tönjes; Pison, Laure; Gomes, Margarida F Costa; Cooper, Andrew I; James, Stuart L

    2015-11-12

    Porous solids such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks are useful in molecular separation and in catalysis, but their solid nature can impose limitations. For example, liquid solvents, rather than porous solids, are the most mature technology for post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide because liquid circulation systems are more easily retrofitted to existing plants. Solid porous adsorbents offer major benefits, such as lower energy penalties in adsorption-desorption cycles, but they are difficult to implement in conventional flow processes. Materials that combine the properties of fluidity and permanent porosity could therefore offer technological advantages, but permanent porosity is not associated with conventional liquids. Here we report free-flowing liquids whose bulk properties are determined by their permanent porosity. To achieve this, we designed cage molecules that provide a well-defined pore space and that are highly soluble in solvents whose molecules are too large to enter the pores. The concentration of unoccupied cages can thus be around 500 times greater than in other molecular solutions that contain cavities, resulting in a marked change in bulk properties, such as an eightfold increase in the solubility of methane gas. Our results provide the basis for development of a new class of functional porous materials for chemical processes, and we present a one-step, multigram scale-up route for highly soluble 'scrambled' porous cages prepared from a mixture of commercially available reagents. The unifying design principle for these materials is the avoidance of functional groups that can penetrate into the molecular cage cavities. PMID:26560299

  15. Liquids with permanent porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Nicola; Del Pópolo, Mario G.; Melaugh, Gavin; Greenaway, Rebecca L.; Rätzke, Klaus; Koschine, Tönjes; Pison, Laure; Gomes, Margarida F. Costa; Cooper, Andrew I.; James, Stuart L.

    2015-11-01

    Porous solids such as zeolites and metal–organic frameworks are useful in molecular separation and in catalysis, but their solid nature can impose limitations. For example, liquid solvents, rather than porous solids, are the most mature technology for post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide because liquid circulation systems are more easily retrofitted to existing plants. Solid porous adsorbents offer major benefits, such as lower energy penalties in adsorption–desorption cycles, but they are difficult to implement in conventional flow processes. Materials that combine the properties of fluidity and permanent porosity could therefore offer technological advantages, but permanent porosity is not associated with conventional liquids. Here we report free-flowing liquids whose bulk properties are determined by their permanent porosity. To achieve this, we designed cage molecules that provide a well-defined pore space and that are highly soluble in solvents whose molecules are too large to enter the pores. The concentration of unoccupied cages can thus be around 500 times greater than in other molecular solutions that contain cavities, resulting in a marked change in bulk properties, such as an eightfold increase in the solubility of methane gas. Our results provide the basis for development of a new class of functional porous materials for chemical processes, and we present a one-step, multigram scale-up route for highly soluble ‘scrambled’ porous cages prepared from a mixture of commercially available reagents. The unifying design principle for these materials is the avoidance of functional groups that can penetrate into the molecular cage cavities.

  16. Lunar crane system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    In many lunar construction scenarios, mechanical cranes in some form will be indispensible in moving large masses around with various degrees of fine positioning. While thorough experience exists in the use of terrestrial cranes new thinking is required about the design of cranes to be used in extraterrestrial construction. The primary driving force for this new thinking is the need to automate the crane system so that space cranes can be operated as telerobotic machines with a large number of automatic capabilities. This is true because in extraterrestrial construction human resources will need to be critically rationed. The design problems of mechanisms and control systems for a lunar crane must deal with at least two areas of performance. First, the automated crane must be capable of maneuvering a large mass, so that when the mass arrives at the target position there are only small vibrations. Secondly, any residue vibrations must be automatically damped out and a fine positioning must be achieved. For extraterrestrial use there are additional challenges to a crane design - for example, to design a crane system so that it can be transformed for other construction uses. This initial project in crane design does not address such additional issues, although they may be the subject of future CSC research. To date the Center has designed and analyzed many mechanisms. The fundamental problem of trade-offs between passively stabilizing the load and actively controlling the load by actuators was extensively studied. The capability of 3D dynamics modeling now exists for such studies. A scaled model of a lunar crane was set up and it has been most fruitful in providing basic understanding of lunar cranes. Due to an interesting scaling match-up, this scaled model exhibits the load vibration frequencies one would expect in the real lunar case. Using the analytical results achieved to date, a laboratory crane system is now being developed as a test bed for verifying a wide variety of mechanisms and control designs. Future development will be aimed at making the crane system a telerobotic test bed into which external sensors such as computer vision systems, and other small robotic devices such as CSC lunar rovers, will be integrated.

  17. Age of a lunar anorthosite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, L.; Schaeffer, O. A.; Sutter, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The crystallization age of an Apollo 15 anorthosite rock, 15415,9, returned from the lunar highlands has been measured to be 4.09 (plus or minus 0.19) b.y. The primitive lunar crust must have been formed in the first 300 to 400 m.y. The results give some credence to the hypothesis that the primitive lunar surface was molten and large-scale fractional crystallization occurred in the early history of the moon.

  18. Age of a lunar anorthosite.

    PubMed

    Husain, L; Schaeffer, O A; Sutter, J F

    1972-01-28

    The crystallization age of an Apollo 15 anorthosite rock, 15415,9, returned from the lunar highlands has been measured to be (4.09 +/- 0.19) x 10(9) years. The primitive lunar crust must have been formed in the first 300 to 400 x 10(6) years. The results give some credence to the hypothesis that the primitive lunar surface was molten and large-scale fractional crystallization occurred in the early history of the moon. PMID:17731365

  19. A permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon.

    PubMed

    Horányi, M; Szalay, J R; Kempf, S; Schmidt, J; Grün, E; Srama, R; Sternovsky, Z

    2015-06-18

    Interplanetary dust particles hit the surfaces of airless bodies in the Solar System, generating charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds that form dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, but have hitherto not been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces. High-altitude Apollo 15 and 17 observations of a 'horizon glow' indicated a putative population of high-density small dust particles near the lunar terminators, although later orbital observations yielded upper limits on the abundance of such particles that were a factor of about 10(4) lower than that necessary to produce the Apollo results. Here we report observations of a permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon, caused by impacts of high-speed cometary dust particles on eccentric orbits, as opposed to particles of asteroidal origin following near-circular paths striking the Moon at lower speeds. The density of the lunar ejecta cloud increases during the annual meteor showers, especially the Geminids, because the lunar surface is exposed to the same stream of interplanetary dust particles. We expect all airless planetary objects to be immersed in similar tenuous clouds of dust. PMID:26085272

  20. A permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horányi, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Kempf, S.; Schmidt, J.; Grün, E.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2015-06-01

    Interplanetary dust particles hit the surfaces of airless bodies in the Solar System, generating charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds that form dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, but have hitherto not been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces. High-altitude Apollo 15 and 17 observations of a `horizon glow' indicated a putative population of high-density small dust particles near the lunar terminators, although later orbital observations yielded upper limits on the abundance of such particles that were a factor of about 104 lower than that necessary to produce the Apollo results. Here we report observations of a permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon, caused by impacts of high-speed cometary dust particles on eccentric orbits, as opposed to particles of asteroidal origin following near-circular paths striking the Moon at lower speeds. The density of the lunar ejecta cloud increases during the annual meteor showers, especially the Geminids, because the lunar surface is exposed to the same stream of interplanetary dust particles. We expect all airless planetary objects to be immersed in similar tenuous clouds of dust.

  1. An evolution strategy for lunar nuclear surface power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1992-01-01

    The production and transmission of electric power for a permanently inhabited lunar base poses a significant challenge which can best be met through an evolution strategy. Nuclear systems offer the best opportunity for evolution in terms of both life and performance. Applicable nuclear power technology options include isotope systems (either radioisotope thermoelectric generators or dynamic isotope power systems) and reactor systems with either static (thermoelectric or thermionic) or dynamic (Brayton, Stirling, Rankine) conversion. A power system integration approach that takes evolution into account would benefit by reduced development and operations cost, progressive flight experience, and simplified logistics, and would permit unrestrained base expansion. For the purposes of defining a nuclear power system evolution strategy, the lunar base development shall consist of four phases: precursor, emplacement, consolidation, and operations.

  2. Hydrogen mapping of the lunar south pole using the LRO neutron detector experiment LEND.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, I G; Sanin, A B; Boynton, W V; Chin, G; Garvin, J B; Golovin, D; Evans, L G; Harshman, K; Kozyrev, A S; Litvak, M L; Malakhov, A; Mazarico, E; McClanahan, T; Milikh, G; Mokrousov, M; Nandikotkur, G; Neumann, G A; Nuzhdin, I; Sagdeev, R; Shevchenko, V; Shvetsov, V; Smith, D E; Starr, R; Tretyakov, V I; Trombka, J; Usikov, D; Varenikov, A; Vostrukhin, A; Zuber, M T

    2010-10-22

    Hydrogen has been inferred to occur in enhanced concentrations within permanently shadowed regions and, hence, the coldest areas of the lunar poles. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was designed to detect hydrogen-bearing volatiles directly. Neutron flux measurements of the Moon's south polar region from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft were used to select the optimal impact site for LCROSS. LEND data show several regions where the epithermal neutron flux from the surface is suppressed, which is indicative of enhanced hydrogen content. These regions are not spatially coincident with permanently shadowed regions of the Moon. The LCROSS impact site inside the Cabeus crater demonstrates the highest hydrogen concentration in the lunar south polar region, corresponding to an estimated content of 0.5 to 4.0% water ice by weight, depending on the thickness of any overlying dry regolith layer. The distribution of hydrogen across the region is consistent with buried water ice from cometary impacts, hydrogen implantation from the solar wind, and/or other as yet unknown sources. PMID:20966247

  3. Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter observations for lunar base site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, James B.; Bufton, Jack L.

    1992-01-01

    One of the critical datasets for optimal selection of future lunar landing sites is local- to regional-scale topography. Lunar base site selection will require such data for both engineering and scientific operations purposes. The Lunar Geoscience Orbiter or Lunar Observer is the ideal precursory science mission from which to obtain this required information. We suggest that a simple laser altimeter instrument could be employed to measure local-scale slopes, heights, and depths of lunar surface features important to lunar base planning and design. For this reason, we have designed and are currently constructing a breadboard of a Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument capable of acquiring contiguous-footprint topographic profiles with both 30-m and 300-m along-track resolution. This instrument meets all the severe weight, power, size, and data rate limitations imposed by Observer-class spacecraft. In addition, LOLA would be capable of measuring the within-footprint vertical roughness of the lunar surface, and the 1.06-micron relative surface reflectivity at normal incidence. We have used airborne laser altimeter data for a few representative lunar analog landforms to simulate and analyze LOLA performance in a 100-km lunar orbit. We demonstrate that this system in its highest resolution mode (30-m diameter footprints) would quantify the topography of all but the very smallest lunar landforms. At its global mapping resolution (300-m diameter footprints), LOLA would establish the topographic context for lunar landing site selection by providing the basis for constructing a 1-2 km spatial resolution global, geodetic topographic grid that would contain a high density of observations (e.g., approximately 1000 observations per each 1 deg by 1 deg cell at the lunar equator). The high spatial and vertical resolution measurements made with a LOLA-class instrument on a precursory Lunar Observer would be highly synergistic with high-resolution imaging datasets, and will allow for direct quantification of critical slopes, heights, and depths of features visible in images of potential lunar base sites.

  4. Lunar regolith densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    Core tube samples of the lunar regolith obtained during the Apollo missions showed a rapid increase in the density of the regolith with depth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the possible cause of this phenomenon, including the densification of the loose regolith material by repeated shaking from the seismic tremors which have been found to occur at regular monthly intervals when the moon and earth are closest to one another. A test bed was designed to study regolith densification. This test bed uses Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS) to conduct shaking experiments in the geotechnical centrifuge with an inflight shake table system. By reproducing realistic in-situ regolith properties, the experiment also serves to test penetrator concepts. The shake table system was designed and used for simulation experiments to study effects of earthquakes on terrestrial soil structures. It is mounted on a 15 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge in which the self-weight induced stresses are replicated by testing an n-th scale model in a gravity field which is n times larger than Earth's gravity. A similar concept applies when dealing with lunar prototypes, where the gravity ratio required for proper simulation of lunar gravity effects is that between the centrifugal acceleration and the lunar gravity. Records of lunar seismic tremors, or moonquakes, were obtained. While these records are being prepared for use as the input data to drive the shake table system, records from the El Centro earthquake of 1940 are being used to perform preliminary tests, using a soil container which was previously used for earthquake studies. This container has a laminar construction, with the layers free to slide on each other, so that the soil motion during the simulated earthquake will not be constrained by the otherwise rigid boundaries. The soil model is prepared by pluviating the MLS from a hopper into the laminar container to a depth of 6 in. The container is mounted on the shake table and the centrifuge is operated to generate an acceleration of 10 times Earth's gravity or 60 times the lunar gravity, thus simulating a lunar regolith thickness of 30 ft. The shake table is then operated using the scaled 'moonquake' as the input motion. One or more model moonquakes are used in each experiment, after which the soil is analyzed for its density profile with depth. This is accomplished by removing from the soil bed a column of soil contained within a thin rubber sleeve which has been previously embedded vertically in the soil during pluviation. This column of soil is transferred to a gamma ray device, in which the gamma ray transmission transversely through the soil is measured and compared with standard calibration samples. In this manner, the density profile can be determined. Preliminary results to date are encouraging, and the Center plans to study the effects of duration of shaking, intensity of the shaking motion, and the frequency of the motion.

  5. Lunar hand tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

  6. Lunar Core and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  7. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  8. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  9. Two wheeled lunar dumptruck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brus, Michael R.; Haleblain, Ray; Hernandez, Tomas L.; Jensen, Paul E.; Kraynick, Ronald L.; Langley, Stan J.; Shuman, Alan G.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a two wheel bulk material transport vehicle is described in detail. The design consists of a modified cylindrical bowl, two independently controlled direct drive motors, and two deformable wheels. The bowl has a carrying capacity of 2.8 m (100 ft) and is constructed of aluminum. The low speed, high HP motors are directly connected to the wheels, thus yielding only two moving parts. The wheels, specifically designed for lunar applications, utilize the chevron tread pattern for optimum traction. The vehicle is maneuvered by varying the relative angular velocities of the wheels. The bulk material being transported is unloaded by utilizing the motors to oscillate the bowl back and forth to a height at which dumping is achieved. The analytical models were tested using a scaled prototype of the lunar transport vehicle. The experimental data correlated well with theoretical predictions. Thus, the design established provides a feasible alternative for the handling of bulk material on the moon.

  10. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  11. Investigations of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, G. M.; Fvwaraye, A. O.; Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The investigations were directed at determining the radiation history and surface chronology of lunar materials using the etched particle track technique. The major lunar materials studied are the igneous rocks and double core from Apollo 12, the breccia and soil samples from Apollo 14, and the core samples from Luna 16. In the course of this work two new and potentially important observations were made: (1) Cosmic ray-induced spallation-recoil tracks were identified. The density of such tracks, when compared with the density of tracks induced by a known flux of accelerator protons, yields the time of exposure of a sample within the top meter or two of moon's surface. (2) Natural, fine scale plastic deformation was found to have fragmented pre-existing charged particle tracks, allowing the dating of the mechanical event causing the deformation.

  12. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Stubbs, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    An analytic model for the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum is presented. It is shown that the dust grain executes oscillatory trajectories, and an expression is derived for the period of oscillation. Simulations used to verify the analytic expression also show that because the trajectories are unstable, dust grains are either ejected from the crater's vicinity or deposited into the crater forming "dust ponds." The model also applies to other airless bodies in the solar system, such as asteroids, and predicts that under certain conditions, particularly near lunar sunset, oscillating dust "canopies" or "swarms" will form over negatively charged craters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of COSPAR.

  13. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently being developed in a collaborative effort between Langley Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. The screens typically consist of spiral shaped conductive traces patterned on high dielectric substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, polyimide film, etc.). Two broad categories of substrate materials are being investigated for the screens. One category consists of transparent substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, sapphire, etc.), and the other non-transparent sub-strates (Kapton, polyimide films, metals, etc.). The transparent screens utilize patterns made from indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive material, on clear substrates while the non-transparent screens use copper patterns on a transluscent or opaque substrates. Further, the screen is coated with a high dielectric polyimide cover layer to protect the screen pattern. One promising cover layer material that is currently being investigated is Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI), a NASA LaRC developed polyimide. Lastly, a top-coat of hard, inorganic material is evaporated onto the cover layer for protection from scratches due to abrasive nature of the dust. Of note, several top-coat materials are under investigation and include: aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, and zinc sulfide. The electrostatic dust mitigation screens function when a high voltage (700V or greater) is applied to the screen electrodes, thus creating an electromagnetic wave across the surface of the screen that repels the dust. Lunar dust typically contains a high positive charge; therefore, the screens are charged with a higher positive charge that effectively repels dust from the surface (i.e. like charges repel, unlike charges attract). It is anticipated that full development and maturation of this technology will enable humans to sustain a long term presence on the moon, and other planets where dust may have negative implications.

  14. Lunar Occultation of MACHOs

    E-print Network

    Cheongho Han; Vijay K. Narayanan; Andrew Gould

    1995-05-30

    Lunar occultation can be used to measure the proper motions of some of the long time scale microlensing events, $t_{e} \\gsim 70$ days, now being detected toward the Galactic bulge. The long events are difficult to explain within the context of standard models of the mass distribution and dynamics of the Galaxy. Han & Gould (1995b) have suggested that they may be due to a kinematically cold population near the Sun. To resolve the mass, distance, and velocity of individual events and so to determine their nature, one must measure parallaxes and proper motions. For long events, parallaxes can be often obtained from ground-based measurements, but proper motions can only rarely be determined using conventional methods. Lunar occultations are therefore key to the understanding of the long events. We carry out realistic simulations to estimate the uncertainty of these measurements and show that proper motions could be measured for about one long event per year.

  15. Operations analysis for a large lunar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thyen, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a study of the operations and assembly of a 16-m large lunar telescope (LLT), which deals with the operations and assembly of the telescope from LEO to the lunar surface for assembly. The study of LLT operations and assembly is broken down into three divisions to allow easier operations analysis: earth to orbit operations, LEO operations (transfer to lunar surface operations), and lunar surface operations. The following guidelines were set down to ensure a reasonable starting point for a large, lunar, untended installation: the existence of a lunar base, a space transportation system from LEO to the lunar surface, continuous manning of the lunar base during the assembly period, and availability/capability to perform lunar assembly with the lunar base crew. The launch/vehicle packaging options, lunar site selection and assembly options, and assembly crew assumptions are discussed.

  16. [Presentation of the Lunar Precursor Robotics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP) is the host program for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate's (ESMD) lunar robotic precursor missions to the Moon. The program includes two missions, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). Both missions will provide the required lunar information to support development and operations of those systems required for Human lunar return. LPRP is developing a lunar mapping plan, Called the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project, to create the capability to archive and present all data from LRO, LCROSS, historical lunar missions, and international lunar missions for future mission planning and operations. LPRP is also developing its educational and public outreach activities for the Vision for Space Exploration's first missions. LPRP is working closely with the Science Mission Directorate as their lunar activities come into focus.

  17. Lunar Impact Flash Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    A bright impact flash detected by the NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring Program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. A process for locating the impact flash, and presumably its associated crater, was developed using commercially available software tools. The process was successfully applied to the March 2013 impact flash and put into production on an additional 300 impact flashes. The goal today: provide a description of the geolocation technique developed.

  18. Lunar seismic data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific data transmitted continuously from all ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) stations on the Moon and recorded on instrumentation tapes at receiving stations distributed around the Earth were processed. The processing produced sets of computer-compatible digital tapes, from which various other data sets convenient for analysis were generated. The seismograms were read, various types of seismic events were classified; the detected events were cataloged.

  19. Lunar concrete for construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  20. Lunar concrete for construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1992-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar base construction was discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Our experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the Moon are provided in this paper, along with specific conclusions from the existing database.

  1. Uses of lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D.; Pettit, D.; Heiken, G.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical, and biochemical properties. Although known abundances on the Moon are limited (approximately 0.1 percent in mare soils), sulfur is relatively extractable by heating. Coproduction of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich mare soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10 percent of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource.

  2. Uses of lunar sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  3. First lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health maintenance, waste management, EVA operations facilities, and safe havens.

  4. Human Exploration and Settlement of the Moon Using LUNOX-Augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.

    1995-01-01

    An innovative trimodal nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) concept is described which combines conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR, Brayton cycle power generation and supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) technologies. Known as the liquid oxygen (LOX) augmented NTR (LANTR), this concept utilizes the large divergent section of the NTR nozzle as an 'afterburner' into which LOX is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the LANTR's choked sonic throat--'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. As the MR varies from zero to seven, the thrust-to-weight ratio for a 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR increases by approximately 440%--from 3 to 13--while the Isp decreases by only approximately 45%--from 940 to 515 seconds. This thrust augmentation feature of the LANTR means that 'big engine' performance can be obtained using smaller more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. 'Reoxidizing' the bipropellant LANTR system in low lunar orbit (LLO) with high density 'lunar-derived' LOX (LUNOX) enables a reusable, reduced size and mass lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which can be deployed and resupplied using two 66 t-class Shuttle-derived launch vehicles. The reusable LANTR can also transport 200 to 300% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than an expendable 'all LH2' NTR system. As initial outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can also enable a rapid 'commuter' shuttle capable of 36 to 24 hour 'one way' trips to the Moon and back with reasonable size vehicles and initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) requirements.

  5. Habitat configuration and availability influences the settlement of temperate reef fishes (Tripterygiidae)

    E-print Network

    Shima, Jeff

    Habitat configuration and availability influences the settlement of temperate reef fishes Habitat availability Habitat configuration Settlement Tripterygiidae To survive, most benthic marine organisms must find suitable settlement habitat. For reef fishes, settlement hab- itat is often structurally

  6. A Blueprint of an International Lunar Robotic Village

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Human civilization is destined to look, find and develop a second habitable destination in our Solar System, besides Earth: Moon and Mars are the two most likely and credible places based on proximity, available local resources and economics Recent international missions have brought back valuable information on both Moon and Mars. The vision is: A permanent presence on the Moon using advanced robotic systems as precursors to the future human settlement of the Moon is possible in the near-term. An international effort should be initiated to create a permanent robotic village to demonstrate and validate advanced technologies and systems across international boundaries, conduct broad science, explore new regions of the Moon and Mars, develop infrastructure, human habitats and shelters, facilitate development of commerce and stimulate public involvement and education.

  7. Lunar Surface Morphology and Composition using Chandrayaan-1 TMC and Hyper-Spectral Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Prakash; Ajai, A.; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The data provided by instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 has been extensively used to pursue questions related to lunar science and to understand lunar evolution and lunar resources. Significant contributions to newer aspects of lunar geosciences have been addressed by the use of data provided by Chandrayaan-1 TMC and Hyperspectral instruments. Large number of lunar science studies in particular to study the morphology, surface age determination and composition of the Moon have resulted in better understanding of lunar evolutionary processes. Three instruments of Chandrayaan-1, Hyperspectral Imager (HYSI) of ISRO, Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) of NASA/JPL and SIR-2 of placecountry-regionGermany have provided new data on lunar surface composition by measuring lunar surface reflectance in an extended range of 0.4 to 3.0 mm of electromagnetic spectrum. Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) provided high resolution stereoscopic images of Moon surface at 5m spatial resolution for photo-geological mapping and three dimensional visualization. Compositional mapping of the Moon surfaces based on spectroscopy has been carried out using remotely acquired reflectance spectra from HySI, Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and SIR-2 spectrometers. Towards the generation of science data, spectral lunar surface radiance data was converted to obtain surface reflectance in sixty four bands of HySI imager in the spectral region of 0.4 to 0.95 mm and corrections to photometric effects were done to normalized the lunar reflectance to a common viewing geometry. HySI reflectance data was used to map various lithological units of the Mare Moscoviense on the far side of the Moon. Five major compositional units of highland basin soils, ancient mature mare, highland contaminated mare, buried lava flows with low Ca-pyroxene and young mare units were identified. The central park of Tycho crater was studied in detail by using TMC, HySI and M3 data. Newer aspects about its morphology and composition have been reported by using these data sets. Compositionally, M3 data suggested that the lava ponds and channels on the summit of the central peak are dominated by high-Ca pyroxene rich rocks with sparse distribution of olivine. These new findings suggest that Tycho's central peak has undergone multiphase post-impact volcanic events. A new Lunar mineral Mg-Spinel was discovered at the central placePlaceTypepeak of PlaceNameCrater Theophilus on the near side of the Moon. These newly identified Mg-Spinel rich rock types are defined by their strong 2-? m absorption and lack of 1-? m absorptions in spectral reflectance response. High spatial resolution TMC data had been used extensively for studying the morphology of impact craters and to understand the impact cratering mechanism over lunar highlands and mare basatls. TMC data was used to study lunar morphological features such as lava tubes, sinous rilles, volcanic domes etc. Lunar surface is known to have presence of sinous rilles, which are believed to be collapsed lave tubes. A Lunar volcanic tube (figure 4) around ˜4 km length was identified as a potential source of future human settlement on the Moon using TMC images and digital elevation data in the Oceanus Procellarum region of the Moon. TMC data have also been used for absolute dating of lunar surface by employing. Studies have also been done to study the lunar non-mare volcanism around domes and few such domes were identified in the Mare Procellarum region of the Moon.

  8. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  9. Press abstracts of the 21st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Program Committee for the Twenty-fisrt Lunar and Planetary Science Conference has chosen these contributions as having the greatest potential interest for the general public. The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. More technical abstracts will be found in Lunar and Planetary Science XXI. Representative titles are: Ancient Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Mars: Global Model and Geological Evidence; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Ordinary Chondrites and Their Chondrules; Exposure Ages and Collisional History of L-Chondrite Parent Bodies; Models of Solar-Powered Geysers on Triton; and Search for Life: A Science Rationale for a Permanent Base on Mars.

  10. Test Results from a Simulated High Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was modified to simulate high voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high frequency AC power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  11. Test Results From a Simulated High-Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was modified to simulate high-voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high-frequency ac power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  12. LRO-LAMP Determination of FUV Reflectances in the Moon's Permanently Shadowed Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Retherford, K. D.; Stern, S. A.; Egan, A. F.; Miles, P. F.; Versteeg, M. H.; Slater, D. C.; Davis, M. W.; Parker, J. W.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Greathouse, T. K.; Steffl, A. J.; Mukherjee, J.; Horvath, D. G.; Rojas, P. M.; Feldman, P. D.; Hurley, D. M.; Pryor, W. R.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon's permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) near each pole present difficult targets for remote sensing. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is able to map PSRs at far-ultraviolet (FUV) wavelengths using faint sources of illumination from the night sky; the all-sky Ly? glow produced as interplanetary H atoms scatter the Sun's bright Ly? emission line, and the much fainter source from UV-bright stars.

  13. Environmental control of lunar samples in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, M. A.; Turner, N. L.; Hurgeton, J. C.; Barbee, M. F.; Flory, D. A.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    The contamination controls used in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory during the processing of lunar samples are described. Initially, the lunar sample containers were opened and the material was examined in a vacuum complex with approximated lunar surface conditions. The process of examining and distributing the samples from this vacuum complex was time consuming. During both Apollo 11 and 12 missions portions of the lunar samples were processed for allocation in a small sterile glove box in a dry nitrogena atmosphere. After Apollo 12 a new system was installed based upon the experience gained from the small glove box. The system uses dry nitrogen as an environmental blanket and has the capability of being sterilized and of maintaining this sterility.

  14. Lunar radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

    One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of moon’s radiation environment, its implications for human exploration, and its interaction with lunar regolith.

  15. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    THE NEED FOR RESOURCES: When mankind returns to the moon, there will be an aspect of the architecture that will totally change how we explore the solar system. We will take the first steps towards breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables by extracting resources from planetary bodies. Our first efforts in this area, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), will be to extract the abundant oxygen found in the lunar regolith. But the "holy grail" of lunar ISRU will be finding an exploitable source of lunar hydrogen. If we can find a source of extractable hydrogen, it would provide a foundation for true independence from Earth. With in-situ hydrogen (or water) and oxygen we can produce many of the major consumables needed to operate a lunar outpost. We would have water to drink, oxygen to breath, as well as rocket propellants and fuel cell reagents to enable extended access and operations on the moon. These items make up a huge percentage of the mass launched from the Earth. Producing them in-situ would significantly reduce the cost of operating a lunar outpost while increasing payload availability for science. PROSPECTING: The Lunar Prospector found evidence of elevated hydrogen at the lunar poles, and measurements made at these locations from the Clementine mission bistatic radar have been interpreted as correlating to water/ice concentrations. At the South Pole, there is reasonably strong correlation between the elevated areas of hydrogen and permanently shadowed craters. However, there is considerable debate on the form and concentration of this hydrogen since the orbiting satellites had limited resolution and their data can be interpreted in different ways. The varying interpretations are based on differing opinions and theories of lunar environment, evolution, and cometary bombardment within the lunar Science community. The only way to truly answer this question from both a Science and resource availability perspective is to go to the lunar poles and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of interstellar volatiles from cold molecular clouds. These sources leave distinctive s

  16. Density and Porosity of Lunar Feldspathic Rocks and Implications for Lunar Gravity Modeling

    E-print Network

    Kiefer, Walter S.

    Density and Porosity of Lunar Feldspathic Rocks and Implications for Lunar Gravity Modeling Walter and porosity of lunar rocks. We previously reported density and porosity re- sults for 13 lunar samples, and porosity for feld- spathic highland rocks, including 3 Apollo samples and 21 lunar meteorites (4

  17. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John; Chin, Gordon; Garvin, James

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was implemented to facilitate scientific and engineering-driven mapping of the lunar surface at new spatial scales and with new remote sensing methods, identify safe landing sites, search for in situ resources, and measure the space radiation environment. After its successful launch on June 18,2009, the LRO spacecraft and instruments were activated and calibrated in an eccentric polar lunar orbit until September 15, when LRO was moved to a circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 50 km. LRO will operate for at least one year to support the goals of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and for at least two years of extended operations for additional lunar science measurements supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). LRO carries six instruments with associated science and exploration investigations, and a telecommunications/radar technology demonstration. The LRO instruments are: Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE), Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). The technology demonstration is a compact, dual-frequency, hybrid polarity synthetic aperture radar instrument (Mini-RF). LRO observations also support the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), the lunar impact mission that was co-manifested with LRO on the Atlas V (401) launch vehicle. This paper describes the LRO objectives and measurements that support exploration of the Moon and that address the science objectives outlined by the National Academy of Science's report on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SCEM). We also describe data accessibility by the science and exploration community.

  18. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124...ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  19. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124...ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  20. SETTLEMENT AND COVER SUBSIDENCE OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical models using equations for linearly elastic deformation were developed to predict the maximum expected amount of settlement and cover subsidence and potential cracking of the cover by differential settlement in uniformly, horizontally layered hazardous waste landfills. ...

  1. 43 CFR 29.9 - Claims, settlement and adjudication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...settlement and adjudication. 29.9 Section 29.9 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE LIABILITY FUND § 29.9 Claims, settlement and adjudication. (a)(1) Claims in...

  2. 43 CFR 29.9 - Claims, settlement and adjudication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...settlement and adjudication. 29.9 Section 29.9 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE LIABILITY FUND § 29.9 Claims, settlement and adjudication. (a)(1) Claims in...

  3. 43 CFR 29.9 - Claims, settlement and adjudication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...settlement and adjudication. 29.9 Section 29.9 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE LIABILITY FUND § 29.9 Claims, settlement and adjudication. (a)(1) Claims in...

  4. 43 CFR 29.9 - Claims, settlement and adjudication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...settlement and adjudication. 29.9 Section 29.9 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE LIABILITY FUND § 29.9 Claims, settlement and adjudication. (a)(1) Claims in...

  5. 43 CFR 29.9 - Claims, settlement and adjudication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...settlement and adjudication. 29.9 Section 29.9 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior TRANS-ALASKA PIPELINE LIABILITY FUND § 29.9 Claims, settlement and adjudication. (a)(1) Claims in...

  6. 27 CFR 71.38 - Limitation on informal settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...RULES OF PRACTICE IN PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Compliance and Settlement Informal Settlement...alleged violation will not insure future compliance with the laws and regulations,...

  7. Money vs. Sovereignty: An Analysis of the Maine Settlement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallchief, A.

    1980-01-01

    The article analyzes the proposed Maine Settlement. It also looks at a viable alternative to the settlement based on the premise that Indian tribes can survive only as nations, not as state municipalities or United States landowners. (Author/SB)

  8. Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. Space Plasmas and Lunar Electrodynamics

    E-print Network

    , MARCH 23, 2005 #12;LOIS Lunar wake plasma WIND satellite results · Lunar wake electron density 104 m-3, heated up to a few 100 eV · Filled with EM radiation with frequencies matching the plasma frequency are a strong motivation for reopening the field of fundamen

  10. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  11. Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Wendell

    1970-01-01

    Report of a conference called to discuss the findings of 142 scientists from their investigations of samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission. Significant findings reported include the age and composition of the lunar samples, and the absence of water and organic matter. Much discussed was the origin and structure of…

  12. Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; French, R. A.; Nall, M. E.; Muery, K. G.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar commercial community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data. A beta version of the portal and visualization systems is expected to be released in late 2009, with a version 1 release planned for early 2011.

  13. NASA Planetary Astronomy Lunar Atmospheric Imaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1996-01-01

    Authors have conducted a program of research focused on studies of the lunar atmosphere. Also present preliminary results of an ongoing effort to determine the degree that metal abundances in the lunar atmosphere are stoichiometric, that is, reflective of the lunar surface composition. We make the first-ever mid-ultraviolet spectroscopic search for emission from the lunar atmosphere.

  14. Invited Review Lunar meteorites from Oman

    E-print Network

    Invited Review Lunar meteorites from Oman Randy L. KOROTEV Department of Earth and Planetary­Sixty named lunar meteorite stones representing about 24 falls have been found in Oman. In an area of 10.7 · 103 km2 in southern Oman, lunar meteorite areal densities average 1 g km)2 . All lunar meteorites from

  15. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012 67947 Granulitic Breccia 2.43 grams Table 1. Chemical. (1972a) Lunar Sample Information CatalogApollo 16. Lunar Receiving Laboratory. MSC 03210 Curator's Catalog. pp. 370. LSPET (1973b) TheApollo 16 lunar samples: Petrographic and chemical description. Science

  16. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012 Figure 1: Photo of 67775. Sample is 1 cm wide. S72-51259 67775 other rake samples. #12;Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012 References for 67775 Butler P. (1972a) Lunar Sample Information CatalogApollo 16. Lunar Receiving Laboratory. MSC 03210 Curator's Catalog. pp

  17. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011 77537 Impact melt Breccia 71.7 grams Figure 1: Photo of 77537 T1. Scale in cm. S73-19144. Figure 2: Photo of 77537 B1. Scale in cm. S73-19145. #12;Lunar Sample P. (1973) Lunar Sample Information CatalogApollo 17. Lunar Receiving Laboratory. MSC 03211 Curator

  18. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011 12023 - 407.9 grams 12024 - 56.5 grams Trench Soils Figure 1 Introduction Lunar samples 12023 and 12024 were collected on the east rim of Sharp Crater, a small (10 meter) fresh crater about 400 meter southeast of the Lunar Module (figure 2). 12023 was collected with a Lunar

  19. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011 70012 Drive Tube 485 grams Figure 1: Photo of Apollo 17 Lunar Module (LM) showing smooth terrain of landing site. AS17-137-20873. Introduction Lunar core 70012 "was-support system bag was opened in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, the bottom cap of the core was off and lying

  20. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011 76136 Ilmenite Basalt 86.6 grams Figure 1: Photos of 76135. Processing There are 7 thin sections. #12;Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011 Figure 2: Photomicrograph of thin section 76136,28. 2.8 mm across #12;Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011 #12;Lunar Sample

  1. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2010

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2010 75081 Mare Soil 1562 grams Figure 1: Picture of location where et al. (1975) and Heiken and McKay (1974). Von Guten et al. (1979) also determined the #12;Lunar maturity (Is/FeO) C ppm Lunar Soils 75081 Figure 3: Chemical composition of lunar soils with 75081. Figure

  2. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012 Figure 1: Photo of 64548. Mm scale. S72-55353. 64548 Dilithic. Processing There is only one thin section of 64548. #12;Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012 Figure 2 for 64548 (Blanchard). #12;Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012 References for 64548 Butler P. (1972a) Lunar

  3. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2010

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2010 76330 306 grams ,2 5.9 g ,5 43 g ,4 2.1 g ,3 1 g 1 - 2 mm 2, but no measurements are reported. References for 76330 Butler P. (1973) Lunar Sample Information Catalog Apollo 17. Lunar Receiving Laboratory. MSC 03211 Curator's Catalog. pp. 447. Heiken G.H. (1974) A catalog of lunar

  4. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2011 10003 Ilmenite Basalt (low K) 213 grams Figure 1: Photo of 10003,25. Sample is 5 cm across. NASA S76-25545. Introduction Lunar sample 10003 is a low-K, high on the lunar surface was not recorded. It was returned in ALSRC #1004, and was one of the first lunar samples

  5. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012 68845 ­ 4.6 grams 68846 ­ 2.3 grams 68847 ­ 2.8 grams References for 68845, 46, 47 Butler P. (1972a) Lunar Sample Information CatalogApollo 16. Lunar Receiving Laboratory. MSC 03210 Curator's Catalog. pp. 370. LSPET (1973b) TheApollo 16 lunar samples: Petrographic

  6. Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer 2012 61225 Impact melt Breccia 3.52 grams Figure 1: Photo of 61225 et al. (2006) obtained two dates for chips of 61225 (figure 2). #12;Lunar Sample Compendium C Meyer. (1972a) Lunar Sample Information CatalogApollo 16. Lunar Receiving Laboratory. MSC 03210 Curator

  7. Extraction of Water from Polar Lunar Permafrost with Microwaves - Dielectric Property Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 10 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. The dielectric properties of lunar soil will determine the hardware requirements for extraction processes. Microwave frequency dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured.

  8. Organics in APOLLO Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    One of many unknowns prior to the Apollo landings concerned the possibility of life, its remains, or its organic precursors on the surface of the Moon. While the existence of lunar organisms was considered highly unlikely, a program of biological quarantine and testing for the astronauts, the Apollo Command Modules, and the lunar rock and soil samples, was instituted in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). No conclusive evidence of lunar organisms, was detected and the quarantine program was ended after Apollo 14. Analyses for organic compounds were also con-ducted. Considerable effort was expended, during lunar surface operations and in the LRL, to minimize and quantify organic contamination. Post-Apollo curatorial operations and cleaning minimize contamination from particulates, oxygen, and water but no longer specifically address organic contamination. The organic compounds measured in Apollo samples are generally consistent with known sources of contamination.

  9. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  10. Phosphorus as a lunar volatile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is an important minor element on the Moon. It is moderately volatile and is found as both phosphates and phosphides in lunar material. The phosphides, such as schreibersite, are common to impact breccias at all Apollo sites. The origin of this schreibersite has been proposed to be a meteoritic contaminant, or alternatively produced in situ by reduction on the lunar surface. I propose that schreibersite and other siderophilic P phases have an origin from impact volatilization of phosphates at the lunar oxygen fugacity, followed by reaction of P gases with metal to form metal phosphides. This pathway is broadly consistent with the composition and structure of metal grains, as well as the native oxygen fugacity of the lunar surface. Additionally, this pathway suggests schreibersite is widespread across the lunar surface and likely on other planetary bodies, and hence may serve as a good P source for in situ resource utilization.

  11. Secret Settlement Restrictions and Unintended Consequences

    E-print Network

    Drahozal, Christopher R.; Hines, Laura J.

    2006-01-01

    stream_size 1344 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Christopher R. Drahozal & Laura J. Hines, Secret Settlement Restrictions and Unintended Consequences, 54 University of Kansas Law Review 1457 (2006).pdf.txt stream..._source_info Christopher R. Drahozal & Laura J. Hines, Secret Settlement Restrictions and Unintended Consequences, 54 University of Kansas Law Review 1457 (2006).pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Hein...

  12. Lunar Global Petrologic Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, D. B. J.; Spudis, P. D.; Gillis, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial attempt at producing petrologic province maps of the lunar highlands combined orbital and sample geochemical data in variation diagrams.Three different variation diagrams were produced: Mg* (= 100 Mg/Mg+Fe) vs. [(Th/Ti)c, Al vs. Mg*/(Th/Ti)c, and Fe vs. (Th/Ti)c. ([Th/Ti]c is the ratio of Th to Ti, normalized to the chrondritic ratio for these elements.] Later work applied a ternary diagram approach to look at global lunar petrologic variations. This work used the Fe-(Th/Ti)c technique as this had the most spatial coverage with the available data and also appeared to be adequate at distinguishing between different rock types. In the ternary diagram, the apexes were assigned the average Fe and (Th/Ti), values of ferroan anorthosite, mare basalt, and KREEP rocks. Each apex was assigned a primary color while the center of the triangle was represented by gray. Each point on the lunar surface, covered by the Apollo geochemical instruments, was then assigned a color depending on where in the ternary their composition placed them. The resultant petrologic classification map shows how the petrologic units vary spatially. The main results from this work were as follows: (1) The highlands contain large areas of relatively pure ferroan anorthosite; (2) KREEP/Mg suite rocks represent a small percentage of the upper lunar crust; (3) farside outcrops of KREEP/ Mg suite rocks are associated with areas of crustal thinning, particularly on the floor of South Pole Aitken Basin; (4) the average composition of the highlands is richer in Fe than ferroan anorthosite, which supports the magma ocean hypothesis of crystal formation; and (5) regions of the eastern limb and farside highlands are relatively more mafic than average highlands. These areas have a high density of dark halo craters, supporting the idea that mare volcanism occurred in this region before the end of the heavy bombardment. This earlier work utilized the Apollo gamma and X-ray orbital datasets. These data provided limited coverage of the lunar surface (mostly confined to the equatorial latitudes). The gamma ray instrument covered approximately 19% of the lunar surface while the X-ray only covered 9%. With the Clementine and Lunar Prospector datasets, we now have global maps of Fe, Ti, and Th. Apart from global coverage, another important advantage of the new datasets is higher spatial resolution. The resolution of the Apollo instruments was 15 km for the X-ray and 100 km for the gamma ray. The Fe and Ti maps are derived from the full-resolution Clementine UV-VIS data, i.e., about 250 m/pixel. The resolution of the Th data, obtained by Lunar Prospector's neutron spectrometer, is currently about 150 km, but will be available in the future with a spatial resolution of 60 km. The other improvement provided by the recent lunar missions is the error associated with the data. The errors associated with the Fe, Ti, and Th values obtained by Apollo were 10-25 wt%. The error of the Clementine-derived Fe and Ti values is about 1% while the Th data have an error of about 1 ppm. We intend to investigate the petrologic variations on the Moon at a global scale using the new Clementine and Lunar Prospector elemental maps for Fe, Ti, and Th. We shall use the technique described in Davis and Spudis. An initial study has been undertaken that looks at some regions that were covered by the Apollo geochemistry data. Two mare regions, one in Imbrium and the other in Procellarum, match well with the results using the Apollo data. The highland terrain appears problematic. The calibration of the Th data is based on the assumption of a constant background. This is a valid assumption where Th counts are well above background limits, but as count rates decrease variations in Th concentration are more sensitive to background fluctuations. Eventually we will circumvent this problem by using the lower-altitude (i.e., higher resolution) Prospector data and a calibration derived from deconvolution of the gamma ray spectra with proper attention to background variations. The Th/Ti vs. Fe technique p

  13. Advances in Lunar Science and Observational Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Lunar science is currently undergoing a renaissance as our understanding of our Moon continues to evolve given new data from multiple lunar mission and new analyses. This talk will overview NASA's recent and future lunar missions to explain the scientific questions addressed by missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (Grail), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The talk will also overview opportunities for participatory exploration whereby professional and amateur astronomers are encouraged to participate in lunar exploration in conjunction with NASA.

  14. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  15. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  16. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  17. 12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024.9... ACT (REGULATION X) Mortgage Settlement and Escrow Accounts § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  18. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  19. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  20. 46 CFR 502.91 - Opportunity for informal settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 502.91 Section 502.91 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Settlement; Prehearing Procedure § 502.91 Opportunity for informal settlement. (a) Parties are encouraged to make use of all the...

  1. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  3. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  5. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  6. 6 CFR 13.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 13.46 Section 13.46 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may Make offers of compromise or settlement at any...

  7. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  8. [The Object Permanence Fallacy.] Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Ben S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…

  9. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, William; Taylor, L. A.; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, dust was found to cause numerous problems for various instruments and systems. Additionally, the dust may have caused momentary health issues for some of the astronauts. Therefore, the plan to resume robotic and manned missions to the Moon in the next decade has led to a renewed interest in the properties of lunar dust, ranging from geological to chemical to toxicological. An important property to understand is the reactivity of the dust particles. Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. On the Moon, these species can be maintained for millennia without oxygen or water vapor present to satisfy the broken bonds. Unfortunately, the Apollo dust samples that were returned to Earth were inadvertently exposed to the atmosphere, causing them to lose their reactive characteristics. In order to aid in the preparation of mitigation techniques prior to returning to the Moon, we measured the ability of lunar dust, lunar dust simulant, and quartz samples to produce hydroxyl radicals in solution[1]. As a first approximation of meteorite impacts on the lunar surface, we ground samples using a mortar and pestle. Our initial studies showed that all three test materials (lunar dust (62241), lunar dust simulant (JSC-1Avf), and quartz) produced hydroxyl radicals after grinding and mixing with water. However, the radical production of the ground lunar dust was approximately 10-fold and 3-fold greater than quartz and JSC-1 Avf, respectively. These reactivity differences between the different samples did not correlate with differences in specific surface area. The increased reactivity produced for the quartz by grinding was attributed to the presence of silicon- or oxygen-based radicals on the surface, as had been seen previously[2]. These radicals may also play a part in the reactivity of the lunar dust and lunar simulant. However, other factors would seem to be required to account for the greatly increased reactivity of the lunar soil. It was proposed that nanometer-size Fe 0 (zero valent) particles in the lunar soil might play a role, as they are not present in quartz or lunar dust simulant. The present work has been performed with the aim of understanding the origin of the considerable reactivity of lunar dust[3]. We have ground 8 lunar soils of varying maturity and source (highland or mare) and measured the hydroxyl-radical production and decay of the reactivity. It was determined that there is a direct correlation between the reactivity and the amount of nanophase metallic iron particles (as a function of soil maturity, I s/FeO, in which Is is the amount of iron present as nanophase iron particles present and FeO is the total iron content) in the samples; thus, the highland soils, with their lesser total FeO content, are less reactive than ground mare soils. Additionally, grinding of nanophase iron simulant [4] showed reactivity in line with the lunar soils and much greater than lunar dust simulant or quartz. Studies aimed at determining the time required to deactivate the reactive soils in a habitable environment showed that the average time to reach 50% of the initial reactivity was approximately 3.5 hours. However, even after one week, none of the soils had returned completely to its unground level of reactivity. In contrast to the reactivity results, there was no obvious correlation between the maturity of the soil and its deactivation time. These results provide the first chemical reactivity and persistence values as an important property of lunar soils, data that is paramount as mankind prepares to return to the Moon.

  10. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  11. Developing technologies for lunar-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Prospects for lunar-based astronomy and the development of the required technologies are briefly reviewed. A systematic approach to lunar-based astronomy includes a progression in capability from small automated telescopes to the 16-meter reflector on the moon. A next step beyond the 16-meter reflector will be a Lunar Optical/Ultraviolet/Infrared Synthesis Array. Intermediate steps are represented by the Lunar Transit Telescope and the Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment. Priorities for the required technology development are identified.

  12. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  13. A permanent settlement on Mars : the first cut in the land of a new frontier

    E-print Network

    Petrov, Georgi Ivanov, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Humans have been fascinated with the planet Mars for thousands of years. Only in the last half a century has it been possible to contemplate sending people to our celestial neighbor. Since then, a rich discourse has evolved ...

  14. LROC Advances in Lunar Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Since entering orbit in 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has acquired over 700,000 Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the Moon. This new image collection is fueling research into the origin and evolution of the Moon. NAC images revealed a volcanic complex 35 x 25 km (60N, 100E), between Compton and Belkovich craters (CB). The CB terrain sports volcanic domes and irregular depressed areas (caldera-like collapses). The volcanic complex corresponds to an area of high-silica content (Diviner) and high Th (Lunar Prospector). A low density of impact craters on the CB complex indicates a relatively young age. The LROC team mapped over 150 volcanic domes and 90 volcanic cones in the Marius Hills (MH), many of which were not previously identified. Morphology and compositional estimates (Diviner) indicate that MH domes are silica poor, and are products of low-effusion mare lavas. Impact melt deposits are observed with Copernican impact craters (>10 km) on exterior ejecta, the rim, inner wall, and crater floors. Preserved impact melt flow deposits are observed around small craters (25 km diam.), and estimated melt volumes exceed predictions. At these diameters the amount of melt predicted is small, and melt that is produced is expected to be ejected from the crater. However, we observe well-defined impact melt deposits on the floor of highland craters down to 200 m diameter. A globally distributed population of previously undetected contractional structures were discovered. Their crisp appearance and associated impact crater populations show that they are young landforms (<1 Ga). NAC images also revealed small extensional troughs. Crosscutting relations with small-diameter craters and depths as shallow as 1 m indicate ages <50 Ma. These features place bounds on the amount of global radial contraction and the level of compressional stress in the crust. WAC temporal coverage of the poles allowed quantification of highly illuminated regions, including one site that remains lit for 94% of a year (longest eclipse period of 43 hours). Targeted NAC images provide higher resolution characterization of key sites with permanent shadow and extended illumination. Repeat WAC coverage provides an unparalleled photometric dataset allowing spatially resolved solutions (currently 1 degree) to Hapke's photometric equation - data invaluable for photometric normalization and interpreting physical properties of the regolith. The WAC color also provides the means to solve for titanium, and distinguish subtle age differences within Copernican aged materials. The longevity of the LRO mission allows follow up NAC and WAC observations of previously known and newly discovered targets over a range of illumination and viewing geometries. Of particular merit is the acquisition of NAC stereo pairs and oblique sequences. With the extended SMD phase, the LROC team is working towards imaging the whole Moon with pixel scales of 50 to 200 cm.

  15. Lunar neutron stratigraphy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russ, G. P., III; Burnett, D. S.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the isotopic composition of gadolinium and samarium in four soil and seven drill stem samples returned by the Apollo 15 mission. The results show the possibility to date sedimentary processes on the lunar surface for time scales of around 100 million years because of the particular dependence of neutron capture reactions on depth. The neutron flux has a distinct peak as a function of depth. This peak appears to lie below the level of shallow cratering for time scales of less than one billion years and consequently forms a readily identified marker layer of both depth and time.

  16. Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated. PMID:19582224

  17. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  18. SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT WHEREAS, the parties to this Settlement Agreement are the Plaintiffs in Colorado

    E-print Network

    in Colorado Citizens Against Toxic Waste and Rocky Mountain Clean Air Action v. Jackson, Civ. Action No. 08-cv, the Paries wish to effectuate a settlement of Colorado Citizens Against Toxic Waste et at v. Jackson, Civ

  19. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial-like lava flow geology adds to Mauna Kea / Moon similarities. Operating amidst the extinct volcano's fine grain lava and dust particles offers experience for major challenges posed by silicon-edged, powdery, deep and abundant lunar regolith. Power stations for lunar observatories, both robotic and low cost at first, are an immediate enabling necessity and will serve as a commercial-industrial driver for a wide range of lunar base technologies. Both microwave rectenna-transmitters and radio-optical telescopes, maybe 1-meter diameter, can be designed using the same, new ultra-lightweight materials. Five of the world's six major spacefaring powers - America, Russia, Japan, China and India, are located around Hawaii in the Pacific / Asia area. With Europe, which has many resources in the Pacific hemisphere including Arianespace offices in Tokyo and Singapore, they have 55-60% of the global population. New international business partnerships such as Sea Launch in the mid-Pacific, and national ventures like China's Hainan spaceport, Japan's Kiribati shuttle landing site, Australia and Indonesia's emerging launch sites, and Russia's Ekranoplane sea launcher / lander - all combine with still more and advancing technologies to provide the central Pacific a globally representative, state-of-the-art and profitable access to space in this new century. The astronomer / engineers tasked with operation of the lunar observatory / power station will be the first to voyage from Hawaii to the Moon, before this decade is out. Their scientific and technical training at the world's leading astronomical complex on the lunar-like landscape of Mauna Kea may be enhanced with the learning and transmission of local cultures. Following the astronomer / engineers, tourism and travel in the commercially and technologically dynamic Pacific hemisphere will open the new ocean of space to public access in the 21st century like they opened the old ocean of sea and air to Hawaii in the 20th - with Hawaii becoming the place to go to honeymoon, and to go to the Moon. A world apart, Hawaii, with its

  20. Lunar Crustal History from Isotopic Studies of Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Bogard, D. D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of approx.3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. [1]. We will present recent chronological studies of anorthosites [2] that are relevant both to the LMO hypothesis and also to the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Old (approx.4.4 Ga) Sm-Nd ages have been determined for some Apollo 16 anorthosites, and primitive initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios have been measured for several, but well-defined Rb-Sr ages concordant with the Sm-Nd ages have not been determined until now. Lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater, has concordant Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages of 4.47+/-0.07 Ga and 4.49+/-0.07 Ga, respectively. Initial Nd-143/Nd-144 determined from the Sm-Nd isochron corresponds to E(sub Nd,CHUR) = 0.3+/-0.5 compared to a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir, or E(sub Nd,HEDPB) = -0.6+/-0.5 compared to the initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of the HED Parent Body [3]. Lunar anorthosites tend to have E(sub Nd) > 0 when compared to CHUR, apparently inconsistent with derivation from a single lunar magma ocean. Although E(sub Nd) < 0 for some anorthosites, if lunar initial Nd-143/Nd-144 is taken equal to HEDR for the HED parent body [3], enough variability remains among the anorthosite data alone to suggest that lunar anorthosites do not derive from a single source, i.e., they are not all products of the LMO. An anorthositic clast from desert meteorite Dhofar 908 has an Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.42+/-0.04 Ga, the same as the 4.36-4.41+/-0.035 Ga Ar-39-Ar-40 age of anorthositic clast Y-86032,116 in Antarctic meteorite Yamato- 86032 [3,4]. Conclusions: (i) Lunar anorthosites come from diverse sources. Orbital geochemical studies confirm variability in lunar crustal composition [1, 5]. We suggest that the variability extends to anorthosites alone as shown by the Sm-Nd data (Fig. 2) and the existence of magnesian anorthosites (MAN, [6]) and "An93 anorthosites" [3,4]. (ii) Anorthositic clasts in lunar meteorites retain "high" Ar-Ar ages compared to Apollo anorthosites. This is perhaps a hint that "cataclysmic" impacts were on average less energetic in the mostly farside source regions of these meteorites than on the lunar nearside.

  1. Searching for Lunar Water: The Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Dewar, K. R.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Howe, C. J.; Waugh, L. J.; Pilinger, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    The ESA Lunar Lander has been conceived to demonstrate an autonomous landing capability. Once safely on the Moon the scientific payload will conduct investigations aimed at preparing the way for human exploration. As part of the provisional payload an instrument known as The Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP) will analyse surface and exospheric volatiles. The presence and abundance of lunar water is an important consideration for ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilisation) since this is likely to be part of a strategy for supporting long-term human exploration of the Moon.

  2. Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Garvin, James B.; Rice, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September, 2012. The LRO mission has been extended for two years under SMD. The extended mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution Of the Solar System. Here we will review the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for the extended science phase out to 2014. Results from the LRO mission include but are not limited to the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the day and night time temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs, evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon, and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions as the poles. The objectives for the second and extended science phases of the mission under SMD include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5) measuring the Lunar atmosphere and radiation environment.

  3. 76 FR 67728 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE NESHAP), 75 FR 51570 (August 20, 2010... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (the RICE... settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by the Engine Manufacturers Association, in the United...

  4. 29 CFR 2700.31 - Penalty settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... was unauthorized. See 29 CFR 2700.6. A motion and proposed order filed electronically constitute written documents for the purpose of applying the Commission's procedural rules (29 CFR part 2700), and... clerical errors in an order approving settlement in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 2700.69(c)....

  5. 78 FR 59684 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ..., avoiding the use of special characters and any form of encryption, and may be mailed to the mailing address... Department of Justice may withdraw or withhold consent to the proposed settlement agreement if the comments... may use the www.regulations.gov to submit or view public comments, access the index listing of...

  6. 75 FR 82390 - Proposed Settlement Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...,'' published at 73 FR 35838 (June 24, 2008). The proposed settlement agreement establishes deadlines for EPA's... of Performance for Petroleum Refineries, Final Rule,'' published at 73 FR 35838 (June 24, 2008... reconsideration with respect to some of the issues raised in that petition for reconsideration. 73 FR 55751...

  7. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... (ECFS) or by hand delivery. See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121..., 63 FR 24121 (1998). Paper Filers: Parties who choose to file by paper must file an original and one... settlement rate adopted for that country in IB Docket No. 96-261, Report and Order, 12 FCC Rcd 19,806, 62...

  8. The study of lunar rotation by Japanese lunar landing missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Hanada, Hideo; Noda, Hirotomo; Sasaki, Sho; Iwata, Takahiro

    2010-05-01

    The internal structure of the planet is one of the important clues to know its origin and evolution. So far, gravity, rotation, seismic wave, electro-magnetic wave, and heat flow observations have been carried out. In these methods, we plan to load rotation estimation instrument for next Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE-2 and SELENE-3. LLR: The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) is the method to measure the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser beam. For more than 30 years since the Apollo and the Lunokhod mission placed retrograde reflectors on the Moon, LLR produced data on the lunar rotation as well as the lunar orbital evolution. On the basis of LLR data, the state of lunar interior is discussed. Williams discussed the dissipation between the solid mantle and a fluid core from LLR data. LLR observation has also provided information of moment of inertia and tidal Love number of the Moon. We are proposing a new LLR on board SELENE-II. Instead of conventional corner cube reflector (CCR) array, we are planning to use a larger single reflector. This has an advantage over the conventional CCR array, because a single cube should have smaller distance variation within the reflector upon monthly libration of the lunar rotation. We are proposing that a new reflector should be somewhere in the southern hemisphere on the nearside Moon. Then in combination with a powerful A15 CCR, latitudinal component of lunar libration and its dissipation can be measured precisely. We also prepare the inverse-VLBI and ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) missions for post-SELENE-2 mission. ILOM: ILOM is a selenodetic mission to study lunar rotational dynamics by direct observations of the lunar physical libration and the free librations from the lunar surface with an accuracy of 1 millisecond of arc in the post-SELENE project. Year-long trajectories of the stars provide information on various components of the physicallibrations and we will also try to detect the lunar free librations in order to investigate the lunar mantle and the liquid core. The PZT on the moon is similar to that used for the international latitude observations of the Earth is applied. The measurement of the rotation of the Moon is one of the essential technique to obtain the information of the internal structure. As the result of thermal analysis of the ILOM system, it is difficult to attain such an accuracy on the lunar surface if we use an objectives with combination of conventional lenses. We are developing a new system with diffractive lense and adaptive optics which can be used on the lunar surface. iVLBI: In the inverse VLBI mission, two or more artificial radio sources are loaded on multiple landers. These transmit radio signals and the differences of the distance between landers and ground VLBI station are measured. This differential range measurement is sensitive to the rotation of the Moon. This new lunar rotation estimation method will contribute to investigate the internal structure of the Moon and can be used to confirm the conventional LLR results. In the presentation, the detail of the instruments, scientific target, and recent status are presented. We also introduce the latest results of the Japanese lunar exploration project Kaguya, especially new SELENE gravity model (SGM), k2 value, and moment of inertia in particular are shown.

  9. Lunar cartographic dossier, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimerman, L. A. (editor)

    1975-01-01

    The dossier is designed to provide an up to date summary of the extent and quality of cartographic information as well as describing materials available to support lunar scientific investigation and study. It covers the specific photographic, selenodetic and cartographic data considered to be of continuing significance to users of lunar cartographic information. Historical background data is included. Descriptive and evaluative information is presented concerning lunar maps, photomaps and photo mosaics. Discussion comprises identification of series or individual sheet characteristics, control basis, source materials and compilation methodology used. The global, regional and local selenodetic control are described which were produced for lunar feature location in support of lunar mapping or positional study. Further discussion covers the fundamental basis for each control system, number of points produced, techniques employed and evaluated accuracy. Although lunar photography is an informational source rather than a cartographic product, a photography section was included to facilitate correlation to the mapping and control works described. Description of lunar photographic systems, photography and photo support data are presented from a cartographic-photogrammetric viewpoint with commentary on cartographic applications.

  10. Electromagnetic launch of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, William R.; Kolm, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil can become a source of relatively inexpensive oxygen propellant for vehicles going from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and beyond. This lunar oxygen could replace the oxygen propellant that, in current plans for these missions, is launched from the Earth's surface and amounts to approximately 75 percent of the total mass. The reason for considering the use of oxygen produced on the Moon is that the cost for the energy needed to transport things from the lunar surface to LEO is approximately 5 percent the cost from the surface of the Earth to LEO. Electromagnetic launchers, in particular the superconducting quenchgun, provide a method of getting this lunar oxygen off the lunar surface at minimal cost. This cost savings comes from the fact that the superconducting quenchgun gets its launch energy from locally supplied, solar- or nuclear-generated electrical power. We present a preliminary design to show the main features and components of a lunar-based superconducting quenchgun for use in launching 1-ton containers of liquid oxygen, one every 2 hours. At this rate, nearly 4400 tons of liquid oxygen would be launched into low lunar orbit in a year.

  11. High-Grading Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge; Mosie, Andrea; Schwarz, Carol; Parker, Terry; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to high-grade their samples to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth and to leave others on the Moon. We are supporting studies to define the necessary and sufficient measurements and techniques for high-grading samples at a lunar outpost. A glovebox, dedicated to testing instruments and techniques for high-grading samples, is in operation at the JSC Lunar Experiment Laboratory. A reference suite of lunar rocks and soils, spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, is available for testing in this laboratory. Thin sections of these samples are available for direct comparison. The Lunar Sample Compendium, on-line at http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, summarizes previous analyses of these samples. The laboratory, sample suite, and Compendium are available to the lunar research and exploration community. In the first test of possible instruments for lunar sample high-grading, we imaged 18 lunar rocks and four soils from the reference suite using the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) developed by Arizona State University and JPL (see Farmer et. al. abstract). The MMI is a fixed-focus digital imaging system with a resolution of 62.5 microns/pixel, a field size of 40 x 32 mm, and a depth-of-field of approximately 5 mm. Samples are illuminated sequentially by 21 light emitting diodes in discrete wavelengths spanning the visible to shortwave infrared. Measurements of reflectance standards and background allow calibration to absolute reflectance. ENVI-based software is used to produce spectra for specific minerals as well as multi-spectral images of rock textures.

  12. Lunar Prospector in Clean Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The fully assembled Lunar Prospector spacecraft is shown mated atop the Star 37 Trans Lunar Injection module. Lunar Prospector represented the first NASA spacecraft to revisit the Moon in 25 years. In December of 1972 Apollo 17 astronauts Gene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt were the last humans to set foot upon the Moon and the last NASA mission to visit the lunar frontier. On January 6, 1998 at 9:28 p.m., Lunar Prospector was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida aboard a Lockheed Martin Athena II rocket. Also onboard were the ash remains of astrogeologist Eugene M. Shoemaker. A scientist from the U.S. Geological Survey, he was detailed to NASA and helped train Apollo astronauts in lunar geology. However, as co- founder of a 'rogue string' of comet fragments, his name will forever be linked to the much hearlded Shoemaker-Levy 9 cometary impact of the planet Jupiter in 1995. Lunar Prospector mapped the Moon's elemental composition, gravity fields, magnetic fields and resources. Prospector provided insights into the origin and evolution of the Moon. One of the most significant finds by Lunar Prospector was confirmation that there could be as much as 10 billion tons of subsurface frozen water near the Moon's polar region. The Lunar Prospector mission came to a creative and daring conclusion when on July 31, 1999 at 2:52:00.8 a.m. PDT Mission Control Ames directed the spacecraft to a crash landing into a deep crater near the Moon's South pole. The hope was that the impact might release trapped water vapor. However no visible debris plume was detected by numerous observatories monitoring the event. This lack of direct evidence has not diminished the hope or belief that subsurface frozen water does exist.

  13. Lunar Reference Suite to Support Instrument Development and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C.; Sellar, G.; Nuñez, J. I.; Winterhalter, D.; Farmer, J.

    2010-03-01

    Instruments are being developed for possible use on lunar robotic landers, for lunar field work, and for analyses at a lunar outpost. JSC Curation will support such instrument testing by providing lunar sample “ground truth”.

  14. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  15. Possible lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the conventional wisdom that there are no lunar ores, geochemical considerations suggest that local concentrations of useful rare elements exist on the Moon in spite of its extreme dryness. The Moon underwent protracted igneous activity in its history, and certain magmatic processes can concentrate incompatible elements even if anhydrous. Such processes include: (1) separation of a magma into immiscible liquid phases (depending on composition, these could be silicate-silicate, silicate-oxide, silicate-sulfide, or silicate-salt); (2) cumulate deposits in layered igneous intrusions; and (3) concentrations of rare, refractory, lithophile elements (e.g., Be, Li, Zr) in highly differentiated, silica-rich magmas, as in the lunar granites. Terrestrial mining experience indicates that the single most important characteristic of a potential ore is its concentration of the desire element. The utility of a planet as a resource base is that the welter of interacting processes over geologic time can concentrate rare element automatically. This advantage is squandered if adequate exploration for ores is not first carried out.

  16. Lunar Regolith Bagging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Sebrina; Lundberg, Kimberly; Mcgarity, Ginger; Silverman, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A regolith container to be used as a fundamental building block in radiation protection of a habitable lunar base was designed. Parameters for the container are its: size, shape, material, and structural design. Also, a machine was designed to fill the regolith container which is capable of grasping and opening an empty container, filling it, closing it when full, and depositing it on the surface of the Moon. The simple design will bag lunar soil in a relatively short amount of time, with a low equipment weight, and with moving parts distanced from the dirt. The bags are made out of Kevlar 149 with a fabric weight of 6 oz. per square yard. All machine parts are composed of aluminum 6061-T6. Assuming that the vehicle runs at 7 km/hr for 8 hours a day, the machine will bag the necessary 450 cu m of soil in about 12 days. The total mass of the bags and the machine to be shipped to the Moon will be 687 kg. The cost of shipping this weight will be $6.23 million.

  17. Lunar radiator shade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for rejecting waste heat from a system located on or near the lunar equator is presented. The system utilizes a reflective catenary shaped trough deployed about a vertical radiator to shade the radiator from heat emitted by the hot lunar surface. The catenary shaped trough is constructed from a film material and is aligned relative to the sun so that incoming solar energy is focused to a line just above the vertical radiator and can thereby isolate the radiator from the effects of direct sunlight. The film is in a collapsed position between side by side support rods, all of which are in a transport case. To deploy the film and support rods, a set of parallel tracks running perpendicular to length of the support rods are extended out from the transport case. After the support tracks are deployed, the support rods are positioned equidistant from each other along the length of the support tracks so that the flexible film shade between adjacent support rods is unfolded and hangs in a catenary shaped trough. A heat radiator is supported between each pair of support rods above each hanging reflective trough.

  18. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  19. Solar Wind Access to Lunar Polar Craters: Feedback Between Surface Charging and Plasma Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Jackson, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the plasma environment within permanently shadowed lunar craters is critical to understanding local processes such as surface charging, electrostatic dust transport, volatile sequestration, and space weathering. In order to investigate the nature of this plasma environment, the first two-dimensional kinetic simulations of solar wind expansion into a lunar crater with a self-consistent plasma-surface interaction have been undertaken. The present results reveal how the plasma expansion into a crater couples with the electrically-charged lunar surface to produce a quasi-steady wake structure. In particular, there is a negative feedback between surface charging and ambipolar wake potential that allows an equilibrium to be achieved, with secondary electron emission strongly moderating the process. A range of secondary electron yields is explored, and two distinct limits are highlighted in which either surface charging or ambipoiar expansion is responsible for determining the overall wake structure.

  20. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.