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1

A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities. [Lunar settlement  

SciTech Connect

High transport costs will dominate the pattern of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of food, fuel, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earning through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally-produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents would support themselves but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufactures, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, severance taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

Jones, E.M.

1988-01-01

2

Steps toward lunar settlement  

SciTech Connect

The costs of transporting people and material to low-earth-orbit (LEO), and thence to the lunar surface, will constrain the pace and pattern of lunar development. Beginning as a spartan ''base camp'' completely supplied from Earth, a lunar science-and-resource-development facility could grow in size, amenities, and capability to the point that passenger transport becomes a major expense. At such a stage, some employees of the facility might be given the opportunity to become permanent residents; and at that point, lunar settlement will have begun. We assume growth rates of facilities and staff contained by the annual delivery of 900 tons to LEO. During the base camp era, about 100 tons would be delivered annually to the lunar surface. Within six years, the facility could grow to a collection of 25 modules, housing a staff of about 16 with each member of the staff serving a six-month tour on a staggered schedule. At the end of this first phase, oxygen produced from lunar ilmenite and delivered to lunar orbit for use as propellant would allow annual lunar-bound cargos of about 200 tons. Production from lunar materials of heat shields for aerobraking would enable economical delivery of lunar oxygen to LEO and, therefore, could raise lunar-bound cargoes to about 450 tons. Accumulatin of production capabilities would eventually allow use of lunar construction materials, to build farms and increase per capita living and working space. Once closed-loop environmental systems are in place, transport costs are dominated by staff rotation and the facility is limited to a maximum staff size of about 300. Further expansion requires that some staff become permanent residents.

Jones, E.M.

1988-01-01

3

A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High transport costs will dominate the course of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of fuel, food, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earnings through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents could support themselves, but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufacturers, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, export taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

Jones, Eric M.

1992-01-01

4

Lunar Limb Observatory: An Incremental Plan for the Utilization, Exploration, and Settlement of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper proposes a comprehensive incremental program, Lunar Limb Observatory (LLO), for a return to the Moon, beginning with robotic missions and ending with a permanent lunar settlement. Several recent technological developments make such a program both affordable and scientifically valuable: robotic telescopes, the Internet, light-weight telescopes, shared- autonomy/predictive graphics telerobotic devices, and optical interferometry systems. Reasons for focussing new NASA programs on the Moon include public interest, Moon-based astronomy, renewed lunar exploration, lunar resources (especially helium-3), technological stimulus, accessibility of the Moon (compared to any planet), and dispersal of the human species to counter predictable natural catastrophes, asteroidal or cometary impacts in particular. The proposed Lunar Limb Observatory would be located in the crater Riccioli, with auxiliary robotic telescopes in M. Smythii and at the North and South Poles. The first phase of the program, after site certification, would be a series of 5 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to Riccioli (or Grimaldi if Riccioli proves unsuitable), emplacing robotic telescopes and carrying out surface exploration. The next phase would be 7 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to M. Smythii (2 missions), the South Pole (3 missions), and the North Pole (2 missions), emplacing robotic telescopes to provide continuous all-sky coverage. Lunar base establishment would begin with two unmanned Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur missions to Riccioli, for shelter emplacement, followed by the first manned return, also using the Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur mode. The main LLO at Riccioli would then be permanently or periodically inhabited, for surface exploration, telerobotic rover and telescope operation and maintenance, and support of Earth-based student projects. The LLO would evolve into a permanent human settlement, serving, among other functions, as a test area and staging base for the exploration, settlement, and terraforming of Mars.

Lowman, Paul. D., Jr.

1996-01-01

5

Armstrong City: A Permanent Settlement for Exo-Planetary Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of a permanent placement lunar base is the next fundamental step in an international program to explore and settle other planets within our solar system. While technical, operational, managerial and long-term issues must be considered, the establishment of a lunar facility can serve the preliminary needs of manned civilization in space. Numerous issues become apparent in the consideration of the activation of a lunar base. Specific and realistic determinations must be made about various types of interests in addition to the general conjectures given above. These activities include: - Spacecraft landings and vehicle systems - Crew selection, supplies and habitability - Power production and distribution - Risk management - Science and lunar activities - Base planning and configurations - Integrated operations and maintenance - Management. The development and activation of a lunar colony will require careful consideration to the future of space activities and operations in near Earth space. A lunar city, which we call Armstrong city, is defined by its own unique natural environment, available technology, realistic objectives, and common sense. Armstrong City, a preliminary first lunar base, will most probably be serving as an extended "division" of Earth's space exploration offices. The reasons are very simple and practical. -First, the costs of maintaining a permanent space facility will be lower in the long run than the costs of a series of short duration, rotating manned bases, -Second, studies in long-term space habitation can effectively be carried out in relative safety, -Third, the initial tasks which need to be done will define and establish methodologies and issues for development of future extraterrestrial base concepts, and -Fourth, the complexities of the initial facilities necessary to sustain the citizens can be tempered through developing local resources and reproducible research. In order to bring about development of Armstrong City, four things are necessary: resources, power, labour, and planning. 1.The lunar surface has an abundance of available resources for exploitation. Lava tubes can provide safe havens, the soil has a wealth of usable minerals, and the natural environment provides an unhindered scientific platform. 2.Power development, production and management will provide a novel sideline to the operation of Armstrong City. The ability to develop and operate solar collection systems as well as functional fusion plants will enhance the power capabilities of Earth itself, 3.Labour at Armstrong City will be demanding. This is going to be akin to developing and maintaining an off-shore oil platform completely on-site, and 4.Both on-site and Earth-based planning can be integrated dependent on mission operational needs.and thus will not be too expensive.

Greenspon, J.

6

Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models.

Litton, C. E.

1997-01-01

7

Possible Applications of Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies at Lunar Settlements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most ambitious goal of the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar system. Today, however, missions would have to bring all of the propellant, air, food, water, habitable volumes and shielding needed to sustain settlers beyond Earth. That is why resources for propellants, life support and construction of support systems and habitats must be found in space and utilized if humans hope to ever explore and colonize the solar system. The life support, fuel production and material processing systems currently proposed for spaceflight are essentially disconnected. Only traditional crop production has been proposed as a segment for bioregenerative life support systems, although the efficiency of higher plants for air regeneration is generally low. Thus, the investigation of air bioregeneration techniques based on the activity of photosynthetic organisms with higher rates of CO2 scrubbing and O2 release is very timely and important. Future systems for organic waste utilization in space may also benefit from the use of specific microorganisms. This janitorial job is efficiently carried out by microbes on Earth, which drive and connect different elemental cycles. It is likely that environmental control and life support systems based on bioregeneration will be capable of converting both organic and inorganic components of the waste at lunar settlements into edible biomass. The most challenging technologies for future lunar settlements are the extraction of elements (e.g. Fe, O, Si, etc) from local rocks for industrial feedstocks and the production of propellants. While such extraction can be accomplished by purely inorganic processes, the high energy requirements of such processes motivates the search for alternative technologies with lower energy requirements and appropriate efficiency. Well-developed terrestrial industrial biotechnologies for metals extraction and conversion could therefore be the prototypes for extraterrestrial biometallurgy.

McKay, David S.; Allen, Carl; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Brown, I.; Sarkisova, S.; Garrison, D.

2007-01-01

8

Three Alternatives for the Acquisition of an Initial Lunar Installation: Lunar Laboratory, Temporary Lunar Base, Permanent Lunar Base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploration of the Moon began with the APOLLO Program in 1969. The first phase ended in 1972 with the 6th landing of a two man crew. An attempt of President George H. Bush in 1989 to revive this program failed due to drastic changes in the geopolitical environment prevaling in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. However, the exploration and utilization of lunar resources is likely to continue. This will be possible as soon as the state of the planet permits an adequate priority for this enterprise, provided that viable plans are available to enter the next phase of lunar exploration. This paper presents three such program options: A Permanent Lunar Base, a Temporary Lunar Base, and a Temporary Lunar Laboratory , the latter solely for research purposes. These programs have an optional life cycle of 30 or 10 years and a crew of 50 to 100 people, respectively. Life cycle program costs of the se Lunar installation options range between 25 and 50 B, and can double if they are including the cost of the logistic system. However, average annual program cost do not exceed 3 B, a level that indicates that programs of this type and size are affordable.

Koelle, H. H.

9

Strategies for a permanent lunar base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three objectives are stated for activities at a proposed manned lunar base. One objective is scientific investigation of the moon and its environment and the application of special properties of the moon to research problems. Another objective would be to produce the capability of using the materials of the moon for beneficial purposes throughout the earth-moon system. The third objective is to conduct research and development leading to a self-sufficient and self-supporting lunar base, the first extraterrestrial human colony. The potential benefits to earth deriving from these moon-based activities, such as technology development and realization, as well as growing industrialization of near-earth space, are addressed.

Duke, Michael B.; Mendell, Wendell W.; Roberts, Barney B.

1989-01-01

10

The design of a permanent lunar research station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advancement of the United States' efforts in space exploration and research requires the establishment of a permanent manned lunar research station. This paper explores the possible design of such a facility. The use of a thin hedratecture dome covering a lunar depression is used to shield three multipurpose buildings and one command and control facility. Provisions for STS shuttle landings and take-off is also explored. The multipurpose buildings are designed using steel framing and cladding. The entire facility, capable of housing a team of thirty, could be transported by one shuttle. The buildings would arrive ready for erection within the completed dome. Steel was selected due to the low cost, high strength to weight ratio, long term durability, ready availability, quality control, and in-place availability of preengineering and fabrication. With the successful installation of the first facility, standardization would lower the already attractive cost for future projects. Facilities of this type could be erected quickly and inexpensively anywhere on the lunar surface.

Thomas, James R.

11

Permanent lunar surface magnetism and its deflection of the solar wind.  

PubMed

Magnetic compressions intermittently observed outside the lunar wake in the solar wind may be limb shocks caused by the presence of local regions of permanent magnetism on the lunar limb. Observable compression would be due to regions of length scale (radius) at least as great as several tens of kilometers and field strength greater, similar 10 gammas. Thousands of such regions might exist on the lunar surface. The steady magnetic field measured at the Apollo 12 site probably has length scale less, similar 10 kilometers and probably does not produce an observable limb shock. PMID:17780967

Barnes, A; Cassen, P; Mihalov, J D; Eviatar, A

1971-05-14

12

Direct Solar Wind Proton Access into Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent analyses of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) data have suggested that high abundances of hydrogen exist within cold traps at the lunar poles, and it has often been assumed that hydrogen-bearing volatiles sequestered in permanent shadow are topographically shielded from sputtering by solar wind protons. However, recent simulation results are presented showing that solar wind protons clearly access the floor of an idealized, shadowed lunar crater through a combination of thermal and ambipolar processes, in effect creating a plasma "miniwake". These simulations are the first to model the mini-wake environment in two spatial dimensions with a self-consistent lunar surface-plasma interaction. Progress is reported on constraining the nonzero particle fluxes and energies incident on kilometer-scale shadowed topography, such as a small crater embedded within a larger one. The importance of direct solar wind proton bombardment is discussed within the context of understanding the stability and inventory of hydrogen-bearing volatiles in shadow at the lunar poles. The support of the National Lunar Science institute, the DREAM institute, LPROPS, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center administered by ORAU are gratefully acknowledged.

Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

2011-01-01

13

Anticipated Electrical Environment Within Permanently Shadowed Lunar Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shadowed locations ncar the lunar poles arc almost certainly electrically complex regions. At these locations near the terminator, the local solar wind flows nearly tangential to the surface and interacts with large-scale topographic features such as mountains and deep large craters, In this work, we study the solar wind orographic effects from topographic obstructions along a rough lunar surface, On the leeward side of large obstructions, plasma voids are formed in the solar wind because of the absorption of plasma on the upstream surface of these obstacles, Solar wind plasma expands into such voids) producing an ambipolar potential that diverts ion flow into the void region. A surface potential is established on these leeward surfaces in order to balance the currents from the expansion-limited electron and ion populations, Wc find that there arc regions ncar the leeward wall of the craters and leeward mountain faces where solar wind ions cannot access the surface, leaving an electron-rich plasma previously identified as an "electron cloud." In this case, some new current is required to complete the closure for current balance at the surface, and we propose herein that lofted negatively charged dust is one possible (nonunique) compensating current source. Given models for both ambipolar and surface plasma processes, we consider the electrical environment around the large topographic features of the south pole (including Shoemaker crater and the highly varied terrain near Nobile crater), as derived from Goldstone radar data, We also apply our model to moving and stationary objects of differing compositions located on the surface and consider the impact of the deflected ion flow on possible hydrogen resources within the craters

Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Collier, M. R.; Vondrak, R. R.

2010-01-01

14

LRO Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP): Exploration of Permanently Shadowed Regions and the Lunar Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LRO/LAMP is a UV spectrograph designed to address how water is formed on the moon, transported through the lunar atmosphere, and deposited in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). Its main objectives are to 1) identify exposed water frost in PSRs, 2) characterize landforms and albedos in PSRs, 3) demonstrate the feasibility of using natural starlight and sky-glow illumination for future lunar surface mission applications, and 4) to assay the lunar atmosphere and its variability. The LAMP spectrograph will accomplish the first three objectives by measuring interplanetary HI Ly? sky-glow and FUV starlight reflected from the PSRs. Both of these light sources provide fairly uniform, but faint, illumination (e.g., the reflected Ly? signal is expected to be ~10~R). Thanks to LAMP's sensitivity, however, by the end of the nominal 1-year mission the SNR for a Ly? albedo map will be >100/km2 in the polar regions, allowing the characterization of subtle compositional and structural features. Dayside and nightside lunar surface reflectance measurements of other regions are also planned to measure variations in the illumination sources for improved accuracy. The production and transport of Lunar atmosphere constituents H and Ar will be investigated by observation of their resonantly scattered FUV emissions. The detection and discovery of other constituent emissions is also expected. LAMP albedo maps of PSR landforms and potential surface water ice will be used to identify landing sites for future scientific exploration of these regions and investigation of the intriguing processes that occur within them.

Retherford, K. D.; Stern, S. A.; Black, R. K.; Slater, D. C.; Gladstone, G. R.; Feldman, P. D.; Crider, D. H.; Parker, J. W.; Dirks, G. J.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Sykes, H. A.; Davis, M. W.; Stack, J. A.; Case, T. R.; McCullough, L. D.; de Los Santos, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Andrews, P. M.

2006-12-01

15

Testing Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results from LRO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use measurements from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) collimated sensors during more than one year of the mapping phase of NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission to make estimates of the epithermal neutron flux within known large Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). These are compared with the local neutron background measured outside PSRs in sunlit regions. Individual and collective analyses of PSR properties have been performed. Only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the south and Rozhdestvensky U in the north, have been found to manifest significant neutron suppression. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, only a few percent, if at all. Some even display an excess of neutron emission in comparison to the sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only the group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 square kilometers, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, approx. 2%, with low statistical confidence. An approx. 2% suppression corresponds to approx. 125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous H distribution in depth in the regolith. This means that all PSRs, except those in Shoemaker, Cabeus and Rozhdestvensky U craters, do not contain any significant amount of hydrogen in comparison with sunlit areas around them at the same latitude.

Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Mazarico, E.; Milikh, G.; Neumann, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Smith, D. E.; Starr, R. D.; Zuber, M. T.

2012-01-01

16

Human safety in the lunar environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Any attempt to establish a continuously staffed base or permanent settlement on the Moon must safely meet the challenges posed by the Moon's surface environment. This environment is drastically different from the Earth's, and radiation and meteoroids are significant hazards to human safety. These dangers may be mitigated through the use of underground habitats, the piling up of lunar materials as shielding, and the use of teleoperated devices for surface operations. The lunar environment is detailed along with concepts for survival.

Lewis, Robert H.

1992-01-01

17

Magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface and the interpretation of permanent remanence in lunar surface samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface is presented. It was found that there is a distinct correlation between natural remanence (NRM), saturation magnetization, and the hysteresis ratios for the rock samples. The hysteresis classification is able to explain some aspects of time dependent magnetization in the lunar samples and relates the initial susceptibility to NRM, viscous remanence, and to other aspects of magnetization in lunar samples. It is also considered that since up to 60% of the iron in the lunar soil may be super paramagnetic at 400 K, and only 10% at 100 K, the 50% which becomes ferromagnetic over the cycle has the characteristics of thermoremanence and may provide for an enhancement in measurable field on the dark side during a subsatellite magnetometer circuit.

Wasilewski, P.

1972-01-01

18

Design of an unmanned lunar cargo lander that reconfigures into a shelter for a habitation module or disassembles into parts useful to a permanent manned lunar base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA plans to establish a permanent manned lunar base by the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is extremely expensive to transport material from earth to the moon. Therefore, expense would be reduced if the vehicle that lands cargo on the moon could itself meet some of the material needs of establishing the lunar base. The design of a multi-functional lander that is entirely useful to the base after landing is described. Alternate designs of the overall lander configuration and possible uses of the lander and its components after landing are contained. The design solution is a lander employing the Saddlebagged Fuel Tank Configuration. After landing, its structure will be converted into a habitation module shelter that supports a protective layer of regolith. The fuel tanks will be cleaned and used as storage tanks for the lunar base. The engines and instrumentation will be saved as stock parts. Recommendations for further research and technology development to enhance future lander designs are given.

Davanay, Lisa; Garner, Brian; Rigol, Jason

1989-01-01

19

Evolving concepts of lunar architecture: The potential of subselene development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In view of the superior environmental and operational conditions that are thought to exist in lava tubes, popular visions of permanent settlements built upon the lunar surface may prove to be entirely romantic. The factors that will ultimately come together to determine the design of a lunar base are complex and interrelated, and they call for a radical architectural solution. Whether lunar surface-deployed superstructures can answer these issues is called into question. One particularly troublesome concern in any lunar base design is the need for vast amounts of space, and the ability of man-made structures to provide such volumes in a reliable pressurized habitat is doubtful. An examination of several key environmental design issues suggests that the alternative mode of subselene development may offer the best opportunity for an enduring and humane settlement.

Daga, Andrew W.; Daga, Meryl A.; Wendel, Wendel R.

1992-01-01

20

Testing of Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results for about Three Years of Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: More than 50 years ago, it was sug-gested that some areas near the lunar poles are suffi-ciently cold to trap and preserve for a very long time (~Gy) hydrogen bearing volatiles, either primordial or produced at the Moon via solar wind interactions or brought to the Moon as water ice by comets and mete-oroids [1,2]. The results of observations made by radar onboard the Clementine spacecraft and by neutron (LPNS) and gamma-ray (LPGRS) spectrometers onboard the Lunar Prospector mission have been inter-preted as an enhancement of hydrogen abundance in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) [3]. Unfortu-nately, the spatial resolution of these instruments were much broader than the size of any largest PSRs [4] requiring model dependent data deconvolution to res-lve signal from PSRs itself. Data Analysis: We would like to present updated results of analysis of Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) data for about three years of lunar mapping. Data measured by collimated LEND detectors allows one to look at neutron flux distribution at Moon poles with much better spatial resolution then was achieved at previous space missions. Using the LEND data we had tested the hypothesis that all PSRs are contain a large amount of water ice permafrost and test for hydrogen presents in regolith of regions outside of PSRs. Discussion: Both analyses of individual PSRs and studies of groups of PSRs have shown that these spots of extreme cold at lunar poles are not associated with a strong effect of epithermal neutron flux suppression [5]. We found only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the South and Rozhdestvensky U in the North, which manifest significant neutron suppression, from -5.5% to -14.9%. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, no more than few percentages, if at all. Some PSRs even display excess of neutron emis-sion in respect to sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 km2, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, ~2%, with low statistical confidence. A ~2% suppression corresponds to ~125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous Hydrogen distribution in depth in the regolith [6]. References: [1] Arnold, J. R. (1979) JGR, 84, 5659-5668. [2] Watson, K., Murray B. C. and Brown H. (1961) JGR, 66, 3033-3045. [3] Feldman W. C. et al. (2001) JGR, 106, 23231-23252. [4] Maurice S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04, 40 PP. [5] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483. [6] Sanin A.B. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H26

Sanin, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. R.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Starr, R. D.

2012-12-01

21

Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

Fletcher, David

2002-01-01

22

New Concepts for Permanently Manned Lunar Bases, Report of the Lunar Base Design Workshop, held in Noordwijk, The Netherlands from 10-21 June 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents some of the results of the Lunar Base Design Workshop, held in Noordwijk, The Netherlands from 10-21 June 2002. Six groups designed six different lunar bases according to six different scenario's. The main findings have to do with the horizontal and vertical movement in 1/6G in shirt sleeve environment. Different concepts for interaction and ``contact'' with the green inside the base. Another topic was the use of water ice which can be used in several forms. Organic growth using small elements to create a larger space in the desired shapes was important for several reasons. Man and its activities were the central spine in this design workshop. The results are useful together with the already existing more engineering oriented design studies for the next steps in lunar base development.

Imhof, Barbara; Mohanty, Susmita; Rombaut, Hans Jurgen; van Susante, Paul J.; Volp, Jim

2003-01-01

23

Location selection and layout for LB10, a lunar base at the Lunar North Pole with a liquid mirror observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the site selection process and urban planning of a Lunar Base for a crew of 10 (LB10), with an infrared astronomical telescope, based on the concept of the Lunar LIquid Mirror Telescope. LB10 is a base designated for permanent human presence on the Moon. The base architecture is based on utilization of inflatable, rigid and regolith structures for different purposes. The location for the settlement is identified through a detailed analysis of surface conditions and terrain parameters around the Lunar North and South Poles. A number of selection criteria were defined regarding construction, astronomical observations, landing and illumination conditions. The location suggested for the settlement is in the vicinity of the North Pole, utilizing the geographical morphology of the area. The base habitat is on a highly illuminated and relatively flat plateau. The observatory in the vicinity of the base, approximately 3.5 kilometers from the Lunar North Pole, inside a crater to shield it from Sunlight. An illustration of the final form of the habitat is also depicted, inspired by the baroque architectural form.

Detsis, Emmanouil; Doule, Ondrej; Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

2013-04-01

24

The Initial Nine Space Settlements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

2003-01-01

25

Lunar laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

1986-01-01

26

Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

2010-12-01

27

Lunar and Planetary Bases, Habitats, and Colonies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special bibliography includes the design and construction of lunar and Mars bases, habitats, and settlements; construction materials and equipment; life support systems; base operations and logistics; thermal management and power systems; and robotic systems.

2004-01-01

28

Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). We will focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation, but not immediately autonomous. It will prepare the next permanent lunar base by assessing its technologies, and give scientific results about the environment. The autonomy will be gained in the evolution of the base, and added equipment. A lunar outpost in a polar region would allow missions longer than 14 days, and a frequent addition of equipments. Moreover, a polar outpost will get both advantages of far-side for simulating direct or indirect communications to Earth and dark-side for observations. The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the outpost into a autonomous base. The South Pole, by its position on the edge of the South Pole Aitken (SPA) Basin, will allow different fast new data in analysis mantle samples, easily reachable due to the crater morphology. These samples will constrain the putative Late Heavy Bombarment (LHB). After a robotic sample return mission, a human presence will allow deeper research through well chosen geological samples [6]. In this modular concept, we consider various infrastructure elements: core habitat, EVA, crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. Many of these elements have already been studied in space agencies' architecture proposals, with the tech-nological possibilities of industrial partners (lunar landers, lunar orbiter, rovers …). A deeper reflection will be therefore done about the core habitat and the laboratory equipment, proposing scientific priority experiments. Each element will be added in a range considering their priority to life support in duration [7]. Considering surface operations, protocols will be specified in the use of certain elements. After a reflexion on the different dependancies and priorities between these modules, a demonstration can assess the reliability of the concept and develo

Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

2009-04-01

29

A lunar venture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the Earth's space station is in its final stages of design, the dream of a permanent manned space facility is now a reality. Despite this monumental achievement, however, man's quest to extend human habitation further out into space is far from being realized. The next logical step in space exploration must be the construction of a permanent lunar base. This lunar infrastucture can, in turn, be used as a staging ground for further exploration of the remote regions of the solar system. As outlined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the lunar base program consists of three exploratory and implementation phases. In response to the technological and facility requirements of Phase 1 and 2 of this program, the Aerospace Vehicle Design Program of the University of Virgina (UVA) is proud to present a preliminary design for such a lunar infrastructure. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the mission requirements as well as the design criteria for space vehicles and facilities. The UVA Lunar Venture is a dual system that consists of a lunar space station and a fleet of lunar landers/transporters. With such a design, it is demonstrated that all initial exploratory and construction requirements for the lunar base can be efficiently satisfied. Additionally, the need for such a dual system is justified both from a logistic and economic standpoint.

Lee, Joo Ahn; Trinh, Lu X.

1989-01-01

30

Lunar portable magnetometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Apollo 16 lunar portable magnetometer (LPM) experiment is to measure the permanent magnetic field at different geological sites on the lunar surface. The LPM field measurements are a vector sum of the steady remanent field from the lunar crust and of the time-varying ambient fields. The remanent magnetic fields measured in the Descartes region are the largest extraterrestrial fields yet measured in situ. These measurements show for the first time that the Descartes highlands have a stronger remanent magnetization than do the mare regions of the previous Apollo landing sites. The experimental technique used in the LPM experiment is described and the preliminary results obtained are discussed.

Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Sonett, C. P.; Dubois, R. L.; Simmons, G.

1972-01-01

31

Lunar base agriculture: Soils for plant growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work provides information on research and experimentation concerning various aspects of food production in space and particularly on the moon. Options for human settlement of the moon and Mars and strategies for a lunar base are discussed. The lunar environment, including the mineralogical and chemical properties of lunar regolith are investigated and chemical and physical considerations for a lunar-derived soil are considered. It is noted that biological considerations for such a soil include controlled-environment crop production, both hydroponic and lunar regolith-based; microorganisms and the growth of higher plants in lunar-derived soils; and the role of microbes to condition lunar regolith for plant cultivation. Current research in the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) project is presented in detail and future research areas, such as the growth of higher research plants in CELSS are considered. Optimum plant and microbiological considerations for lunar derived soils are examined.

Ming, Douglas W. (editor); Henninger, Donald L. (editor)

1989-01-01

32

Remote Sensing Assessment of Lunar Resources: We Know Where to Go to Find What We Need  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of space resources is necessary to not only foster the growth of human activities in space, but is essential to the President s vision of a "sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond." The distribution of resources will shape planning permanent settlements by affecting decisions about where to locate a settlement. Mapping the location of such resources, however, is not the limiting factor in selecting a site for a lunar base. It is indecision about which resources to use that leaves the location uncertain. A wealth of remotely sensed data exists that can be used to identify targets for future detailed exploration. Thus, the future of space resource utilization pre-dominantly rests upon developing a strategy for resource exploration and efficient methods of extraction.

Gillis, J. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Lucey, P. G.

2004-01-01

33

What the moon offers mankind - A review of the lunar initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is thought likely that extension of civilization beyond earth may include a permanent settlement on the moon. An analysis of the American civilian space program shows that the required technology for establishing a base on the moon will exist before the end of this century. A manned lunar base is discussed in terms of three distinct functions. The first is related to the scientific investigation of the moon and the application of special properties of the moon to research problems. In connection with the second, attention is given to the development of the capability to utilize the materials of the moon for beneficial purposes throughout the earth-moon system. The last involves research and development leading to a self-sufficient and self-supporting lunar base.

Nozette, S.; Duke, M.; Mendell, W.

1984-10-01

34

What the moon offers mankind - A review of the lunar initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is thought likely that extension of civilization beyond earth may include a permanent settlement on the moon. An analysis of the American civilian space program shows that the required technology for establishing a base on the moon will exist before the end of this century. A manned lunar base is discussed in terms of three distinct functions. The first is related to the scientific investigation of the moon and the application of special properties of the moon to research problems. In connection with the second, attention is given to the development of the capability to utilize the materials of the moon for beneficial purposes throughout the earth-moon system. The last involves research and development leading to a self-sufficient and self-supporting lunar base.

Nozette, S.; Duke, M.; Mendell, W.

1984-01-01

35

Martian settlement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rationale for a manned Mars mission and the establishment of a base is divided into three areas: science, resource utilization, and strategic issues. The effects of a Mars mission on the objectives of near-term NASA programs, and the applications of these programs to a Mars mission are examined. The use of extraterrestrial resources to supply space settlements and thereby reduce transportation costs is studied; the development of systems for extraterrestrial materials processing will need to be researched. The possibility of a joint U.S./Soviet Mars mission is discussed by the symposium participants.

Roberts, Barney B.

1987-01-01

36

Lunar Analog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

Cromwell, Ronita L.

2009-01-01

37

Scleractinian settlement patterns to natural cleared reef substrata and artificial settlement panels on an Indonesian coral reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recruitment is a key factor driving the population dynamics of scleractinian corals, but despite its importance, we still have a poor understanding of recruitment processes in the Coral triangle region, which contains the most biodiverse marine ecosystems in the world. This study aimed to compare settlement rates to artificial settlement panels with cleared areas of natural reef in order to assess whether panels are a suitable indicator of natural coral settlement rates. We recorded coral settlement rates to panels made of two different materials (concrete and terracotta), attached to the reef at two different orientations (vertical and horizontal), and compared these settlement rates to those on cleared areas of natural reef positioned on vertical reef walls, over a 12 month period. We examined settlement rates at four sites in the Wakatobi National Marine Park, south-east Sulawesi, Indonesia; two reefs were light-limited, highly sedimented sites with low coral cover (<10%) and two had moderate coral cover (approx. 40%) and lower sedimentation rates. Panels were directly attached to the reef at 6-7 m depth. The number of coral spat per tile ranged from 0 to 34 and no significant differences were reported between the settlement rates to cleared natural reef areas and settlement panels. Significantly higher numbers of spat settled on the cryptic (back) side of the panels, while no significant difference was found between settlement rates to the different panel materials, or between the different orientations or any combination of these two factors. There is, however, a significant difference in the settlement rates between sites, for both settlement panels and permanent cleared areas, with higher settlement rates at the sites with higher live coral cover. We conclude that both concrete and terracotta panels yield similar settlement rates, and orientation makes no difference to settlement rates when panels are directly attached to the reef. Our results demonstrate that artificial substrata provide comparable settlement rate data to natural substrata and therefore are suitable for monitoring coral settlement rates in the future.

Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Costales-Carrera, Alba; Zeljkovic, Stephen; Smith, David J.; Bell, James J.

2011-05-01

38

Lunar architecture and urbanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

Sherwood, Brent

1992-01-01

39

Lunar Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

Edmunson, Jennifer

2010-01-01

40

Settlement of the moon and ventures beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of a permanent base on the moon following the establishment of the Space Station is proposed. The characteristics of the moon which make it advantageous for exploration and as a base are described. Consideration is given to lunar resources, the solar flare problem, and the cost of developing a moon base.

Keaton, Paul W.

1987-01-01

41

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only by starlight; Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), which will investigate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on tissue-equivalent plastics as a constraint on models of biological response to background space radiation. The technology demonstration is an advanced radar (mini-RF) that will demonstrate X- and S-band radar imaging and interferometry using a light-weight synthetic aperture radar.

Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

2007-08-01

42

A lunar space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

1989-01-01

43

Lunar History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

Edmunson, Jennifer E.

2009-01-01

44

Lunar Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the programs and missions that are being planned to enhance our knowledge of the moon. (1) Lunar Precursor Robotics Program (LPRP): the goal of which is to undertake robotic lunar exploration missions that will return data to advance our knowledge of the lunar environment and allow United States (US) exploration architecture objectives to be accomplished earlier and with less cost through application of robotic systems. LPRP will also reduce risk to crew and maximize crew efficiency by accomplishing tasks through precursor robotic missions, and by providing assistance to human explorers on the Moon. The missions under this program ae: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Lunar Mapping Project. (2) The Altair Project, the goal of which is to land a crew of 4 to and from the surface of the moon. The vehicle, the 3 design reference missions (DRMs) and a Draft Lunar Landing schedule are briefly reviewed. (3) Lunar Science Program (LSP) which describes two different lunar missions: (1) Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), and (2) International Lunar Network (ILN).

Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.

2008-01-01

45

Various problems in lunar habitat construction scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many papers describing the lunar base construction have been published previously. Lunar base has been considered to be a useful facility to conduct future scientific programs and to get new nuclear energy resource, namely 3He, for defending the environmental collapse on Earth and also to develop lunar resources such as oxygen and nitrogen for extending human activities in space more economically. The scale of the lunar base and the construction methods adopted are determined by the scenario of a lunar utilization program but constrained by the availability of the established space transportation technologies. As indicated in the scenarios described in papers regarding lunar base construction, the first steps of lunar missions are the investigation of lunar itself for conducting scientific research and for surveying the lunar base construction sites, the second steps are the outpost construction for conducting man-tended missions, for more precise scientific research and studying the lunar base construction methods, and third steps are the construction of a permanent base and the expansion of this lunar base for exploiting lunar resources. The missions within the first and second steps are all possible using the ferry (OTV) similar to the service and command modules of Apollo Spacecraft because all necessary weights to be landed on the lunar surface for these missions seem to be under the equivalent weight of the Apollo Lunar Lander. On the other hand, the permanent facilities constructed on the lunar surface in the third step requires larger quantities of construction materials to be transported from Earth, and a new ferry (advanced OTV) having higher transportation ability, at least above 6 times, compared with Apollo Service and Command Modules, are to be developed. The largest problems in the permament lunar base construction are related to the food production facilities, 30-40 m 2 plant cultivation area per person are required for providing the nutrition requirement and the necessary electric power per person for producing high energy foods, such as wheat, rice and potato, are now estimated ranging from 30 to 40 kW. The extension program of crew numbers under the limitation of usable transportation capability anticipated at present and the construction scenarios, including the numbers of facilities to be constructed every year, are to be determined based upon the requirements of plant cultivation area and of electric power for producing necessary and sufficient foods in order to accelerate the feasibility studies of each subsystem to be installed in the permanent lunar base in future.

Nitta, Keiji; Ohtsubo, Koji; Oguchi, Mitsuo; Ohya, Haruhiko; Kanbe, Seiichiro; Ashida, Akira; Sano, Kenichi

1991-10-01

46

Lunar studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical research, concerning lunar surface processes and the nature, origin and derivation of the lunar surface cover, conducted during the period of February 1, 1971 through January 31, 1976 is presented. The principle research involved were: (1) electrostatic dust motion and transport process; (2) seismology properties of fine rock powders in lunar conditions; (3) surface processes that darken the lunar soil and affect the surface chemical properties of the soil grains; (4) laser simulation of micrometeorite impacts (estimation of the erosion rate caused by the microemeteorite flux); (5) the exposure history of the lunar regolith; and (6) destruction of amino acids by exposure to a simulation of the solar wind at the lunar surface. Research papers are presented which cover these general topics.

Gold, T.

1979-01-01

47

Lunar Prospector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists at the 30th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held March 15-19, 1999 in Houston, Texas, have presented support for the theory that the "bulk of the Moon was ripped away from the early Earth when an object the size of Mars collided with the Earth." Analysis of data collected from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Lunar Prospector spacecraft has supported this theory. This site provides information on the Lunar Prospector Project.

48

Lunar Prospector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides information about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Lunar Prospector mission. The mission, which concluded in 1999 when the spacecraft was purposely crashed into the lunar surface, was the first NASA mission to the moon in 25 years. A set of links accesses an overview of the project, results of the various instrument surveys, a history of lunar exploration, and some aspects of lunar science. Educational materials include a teachers' guide, lesson plans, activities, a model of the spacecraft, and others. A glossary and links to additional information on the moon are also provided.

49

Lunar horticulture.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

Walkinshaw, C. H.

1971-01-01

50

Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae to settle at unfavourable times, with potential consequences for larval survival and population replenishment.

Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

2012-03-01

51

NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

2007-01-01

52

Lunar Riometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

2011-12-01

53

Lunar cement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

Agosto, William N.

1992-01-01

54

15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

2011-01-01

55

15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

2013-01-01

56

15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.  

...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

2014-01-01

57

15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

2010-01-01

58

15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...19 Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the...applicable law. (b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into settlement...

2012-01-01

59

Microwave Extraction of Water from Lunar Regolith Simulant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly a decade ago the DOD Clementine lunar orbital mission obtained data indicating that the permanently shaded regions at the lunar poles may have permanently frozen water in the lunar soil. Currently NASA's Robotic Lunar Exploration Program, RLEP-2, is planned to land at the lunar pole to determine if water is present. The detection and extraction of water from the permanently frozen permafrost is an important goal for NASA. Extraction of water from lunar permafrost has a high priority in the In-Situ Resource Utilization, ISRU, community for human life support and as a fuel. The use of microwave processing would permit the extraction of water without the need to dig, drill, or excavate the lunar surface. Microwave heating of regolith is potentially faster and more efficient than any other heating methods due to the very low thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith. Also, microwaves can penetrate into the soil permitting water removal from deep below the lunar surface. A cryogenic vacuum test facility was developed for evaluating the use of microwave heating and water extraction from a lunar regolith permafrost simulant. Water is obtained in a cryogenic cold trap even with soil conditions below 0 C. The results of microwave extraction of water experiments will be presented.

Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

2007-01-01

60

Advanced technology lunar telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of telescope pointing system designed specifically for space and lunar applications will be discussed, based upon a prototype advanced technology telescope under investigation. The focus here will be the system of hybrid superconductor magnetic bearings (HSMB) used to provide isolation support and steering functions. HSMB's are combinations of high temperature superconductors, permanent magnets, and coils, being passive (requiring no power), noncontact, and essentially frictionless. These also are well suited to long-term unattended operation in the space environment. The characteristics of these subsystems, their expected behavior under space vacuum, and thermal and radiation environments are discussed.

Wilson, Thomas L.; Chu, Wei-Kan; Chen, Peter C.

1994-01-01

61

A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on each piloted round trip mission. As the initial lunar outposts grow to centralized bases and settlements with a substantial permanent human presence, a LANTR-powered shuttle capable of 36 to 24 hour 'one-way' trip times to the moon and back becomes possible with initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) requirements of approximately 160 to 240 metric tons, respectively.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

1994-01-01

62

Lunar magnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

1984-01-01

63

Lunar beneficiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural concentrations of industrially valuable minerals are far less likely to be found on the Moon than on the Earth. But that is all the more reason for devising beneficiation processes to concentrate and extract the useful mineral components in lunar rocks and soils. As an example of a useful mineral that can be beneficiated, it has been estimated that ilmenite abundance accounts for 15 and 20 percent of the volume of the Apollo 11 and 17 basalts and 2 and 5 percent by volume in the Apollo 11 and 17 soils. Reduction of lunar ilmenite with hydrogen imported from Earth appears to one of the more practical schemes for obtaining lunar oxygen. While the reported concentrations are significant, a more highly concentrated ilmenite extract would improve the efficiency of the reduction process. The topics covered include electrostatic concentration, magnetic concentration, lunar soil sizing, and electrical sizing.

Agosto, William N.

1992-01-01

64

ISA accelerometer and Lunar science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one--dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in--orbit and on--ground, with the same configuration. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of the missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the respective experiments.

Iafolla, V.; Carmisciano, C.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Magnafico, C.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Nozzoli, S.; Ungaro, D.; Argada, S.

2012-04-01

65

Permanent cosmetics.  

PubMed

Plastic surgery practices have become more accepting of the implantation of permanent cosmetics over the last few years. Many plastic surgery practices have added the implantation of permanent cosmetics into their offered services. Many clients who would not have considered having permanent cosmetics implanted because of having to go to a tattoo parlor are now having the procedures performed. The most popular procedures being performed are the implantation of permanent eyeliner followed by eyebrows and lip liner. Other implantations of permanent cosmetics are the full-lip applications, eye shadow application, cheek blush, and a beauty mark implantation. Micro pigmentation can be used for nipple coloration following reconstruction or camouflaging skin pigmentation problems due to trauma, birthmarks, cancer, etc. This article focuses on the use of micro pigmentation for the use of permanent cosmetics (WebMD, 2009). PMID:22929199

Wetzel, Christine L

2012-01-01

66

Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Science Payload Measurement Results of South Pole Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission is a lunar impactor targeted at a permanently shadowed region near the lunar south-pole. It will raise and observe an ejecta cloud of regolith and possibly ice and\\/or water vapor. LCROSS was co-manifested with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) on an Atlas V rocket and launched June 18, 2009. The mission

K. Ennico; A. Colaprete; M. Shirley; D. H. Wooden; K. Galal

2009-01-01

67

32 CFR 536.63 - Settlement agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unconditional settlement. The settlement agreement must be unconditional. The settlement agreement represents a meeting of the minds. Any changes to the agreement must be agreed upon by all parties. The return of a proffered settlement agreement with...

2010-07-01

68

ISA accelerometer and Lunar science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of the Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments: in fact a wide variety of them has been proposed to be conducted on the lunar surface. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its design it works on-ground with the same configuration developed for in-orbit applications. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been the subject of preliminary studies and has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. ISA-S (ISA-Seismometer) has a very high sensitivity, which has already been demonstrated with long time periods of usage on Earth. It features also a wide bandwidth, extended towards the low frequencies. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of landing missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the systems.

Iafolla, Valerio; Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David; Santoli, Francesco; Lefevre, Carlo; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Nozzoli, Sergio; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Milyukov, Vadim

69

Lunar anorthosites.  

PubMed

Sixty-one of 1676 lunar rock fragments examined were found to be anorthosites, markedly different in composition, color, and specific gravity from mare basalts and soil breccias. Compositional similiarity to Tycho ejecta analyzed by Surveyor 7 suggests that the anorthosites are samples of highlands material, thrown to Tranquillity Base by cratering events. A lunar structural model is proposed in which a 25-kilometer anorthosite crust, produced by magmatic fractionation, floats on denser gabbro. Where early major impacts punched through the crust, basaltic lava welled up to equilibrium surface levels and solidified (maria). Mascons are discussed in this context. PMID:17781512

Wood, J A; Dickey, J S; Marvin, U B; Powell, B N

1970-01-30

70

Lunar cement and lunar concrete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

Lin, T. D.

1991-01-01

71

Lunar philosophers.  

PubMed

A close associate of the Lunar Society, Joseph Wright of Derby painted several industrial and scientific scenes. This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) shows how two of his works - featuring an orrery and an alchemist - reveal the ideas and aspirations of the provincial philosophers who made up the Society. PMID:17336378

Fara, Patricia

2007-03-01

72

Lunar Seismology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes major findings from the passive seismic experiment on the Moon with the Apollo seismic network illustrated in a map. Concludes that human beings may have discovered something very basic about the physics of planetary interiors because of the affirmation of the presence of a warm'' lunar interior. (CC)

Latham, Gary V.

1973-01-01

73

Lunar Biospheres  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the conditions for a sustainable biosphere. Learners will build a biosphere that is a balanced, self-enclosed living system able to run efficiently over a long period of time. This activity is in Unit 3 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

74

Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a gene bank in the lunar polar craters provides a permanent solution to the menace of endangered species and the failure of the prevailing strategies to protect them. This is one vital, technologically viable yet cost effective option.

Swain, R. K.

2014-10-01

75

Designers of Human Settlements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

Cliff, Ursula

1976-01-01

76

SETTLEMENT POINTS United States  

E-print Network

SETTLEMENT POINTS ! ! ( ( United States GRUMPv1 A t l a n t i c O c e a n Copyright 2009 Network (CIESIN), Columbia University, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the World Bank, and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project

Columbia University

77

Lunar Missions and Datasets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

Cohen, Barbara A.

2009-01-01

78

Lunar Base Sitting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

1993-01-01

79

Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Definition Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic and human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in-situ measurements. Here we present results from the concept and design phase A - a study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic Lunar Dust Analyser, LPM - Langmuir Probe and Magnetometer, LRU - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae and LEIA - Lunar Electron and Ion Analyser. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations. Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package CAD Model

Laifr, J.; Auster, U.; Bale, S. D.; Delory, G. T.; Devoto, P.; Farrell, W. M.; Glassmeier, K.; Guicking, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Hellinger, P.; Hercik, D.; Horanyi, M.; Kataria, D.; Kozacek, Z.; Mazelle, C. X.; Omura, Y.; Owen, C. J.; Pavelka, R.; Plaschke, F.; Rucker, H. O.; Saito, Y.; Sternovsky, Z.; Stverak, S.; Travnicek, P. M.; Turin, P.; Vana, P.

2012-12-01

80

Concepts for manned lunar habitats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design philosophy that will guide the design of early lunar habitats will be based on a compromise between the desired capabilities of the base and the economics of its development and implantation. Preferred design will be simple, make use of existing technologies, require the least amount of lunar surface preparation, and minimize crew activity. Three concepts for an initial habitat supporting a crew of four for 28 to 30 days are proposed. Two of these are based on using Space Station Freedom structural elements modified for use in a lunar-gravity environment. A third concept is proposed that is based on an earlier technology based on expandable modules. The expandable modules offer significant advantages in launch mass and packaged volume reductions. It appears feasible to design a transport spacecraft lander that, once landed, can serve as a habitat and a stand-off for supporting a regolith environmental shield. A permanent lunar base habitat supporting a crew of twelve for an indefinite period can be evolved by using multiple initial habitats. There appears to be no compelling need for an entirely different structure of larger volume and increased complexity of implantation.

Hypes, W. D.; Butterfield, A. J.; King, C. B.; Qualls, G. D.; Davis, W. T.; Gould, M. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Simonsen, L. C.

1991-01-01

81

Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

1984-01-01

82

Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

Lin, Yunlong

83

Design of a lunar transportation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are also outlined.

Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

1989-01-01

84

Integrating the European Securities Settlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-border securities settlement in Europe is still said to be highly inefficient. One main reason can be seen in technical\\u000a barriers between the different domestic settlement systems. Beside efforts to implement industry-specific communication standards\\u000a an integration of the different settlement systems is necessary. The CSD-link model, the hub and spokes model, and the European\\u000a CSD model aim to integrate

Torsten Schaper

2009-01-01

85

Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

2013-01-01

86

Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry  

SciTech Connect

Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

2001-01-15

87

Lunar lander conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design is presented of a Lunar Lander, which can be the primary vehicle to transport the equipment necessary to establish a surface lunar base, the crew that will man the base, and the raw materials which the Lunar Station will process. A Lunar Lander will be needed to operate in the regime between the lunar surface and low lunar orbit (LLO), up to 200 km. This lander is intended for the establishment and operation of a manned surface base on the moon and for the support of the Lunar Space Station. The lander will be able to fulfill the requirements of 3 basic missions: A mission dedicated to delivering maximum payload for setting up the initial lunar base; Multiple missions between LLO and lunar surface dedicated to crew rotation; and Multiple missions dedicated to cargo shipments within the regime of lunar surface and LLO. A complete set of structural specifications is given.

Lee, Joo Ahn; Carini, John; Choi, Andrew; Dillman, Robert; Griffin, Sean J.; Hanneman, Susan; Mamplata, Caesar; Stanton, Edward

1989-01-01

88

Lunar sulfur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

Kuck, David L.

1991-01-01

89

Lunar surface vehicle model competition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During Fall and Winter quarters, Georgia Tech's School of Mechanical Engineering students designed machines and devices related to Lunar Base construction tasks. These include joint projects with Textile Engineering students. Topics studied included lunar environment simulator via drop tower technology, lunar rated fasteners, lunar habitat shelter, design of a lunar surface trenching machine, lunar support system, lunar worksite illumination (daytime), lunar regolith bagging system, sunlight diffusing tent for lunar worksite, service apparatus for lunar launch vehicles, lunar communication/power cables and teleoperated deployment machine, lunar regolith bag collection and emplacement device, soil stabilization mat for lunar launch/landing site, lunar rated fastening systems for robotic implementation, lunar surface cable/conduit and automated deployment system, lunar regolith bagging system, and lunar rated fasteners and fastening systems. A special topics team of five Spring quarter students designed and constructed a remotely controlled crane implement for the SKITTER model.

1990-01-01

90

Lunar base activities and the lunar environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moon is an attractive site for astronomical observatories and other facilities because of the absence of a substantial lunar atmosphere and the stability of the lunar surface. The present lunar atmosphere is sufficiently transparent that there is no significant image distortion due to absorption or refraction. This thin atmosphere results from a combination of small sources and prompt losses. The major source that has been identified is the solar wind, whose total mass input into the lunar atmosphere is approximately 50 gm/sec. The major components of the solar wind are light elements (H and He) that promptly escape from the lunar surface by exospheric evaporation (Jeans' escape). The principal atmospheric loss mechanism for heavier gases is photoionization within a period of weeks to months, followed by immediate loss to the solar wind. Lunar base activities will modify the lunar atmosphere if gas is released at a larger rate than that now occurring naturally. Possible gas sources are rocket exhaust, processing of lunar materials, venting of pressurized volumes, and astronaut life support systems. For even modest lunar base activity, such sources will substantially exceed natural sources, although effects are expected to be localized and transient. The Apollo database serves as a useful reference for both measurements of the natural lunar environment and its modification by lunar base activities.

Vondrak, Richard R.

1992-01-01

91

Design of a lunar transportation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The establishment of lunar bases is the next logical step in the exploration of space. Permanent lunar bases will support scientific investigation, the industrialization of space, and the development of self-sufficiency on the Moon. Scientific investigation and research and development would lead to applications utilizing lunar material resources. By utilizing these resources, the industrialization of space can become a reality. The above two factors coupled with the development of key and enabling technologies would lead to achievement of self-sufficiency of the lunar base. Attention was focused on specific design(s) to be pursued during subsequent stages in advanced courses. Some of the objectives in the project included: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from earth, or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetically levitated, or superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e. high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, zero wind forces, and lower gravity, etc.

1988-01-01

92

A lunar construction shack vehicle: Final design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lunar construction shack vehicle is a critical component in most of the plans proposed for the construction of a permanent base on the moon. The Selene Engineering Company (SEC) has developed a concept for this vehicle which is both innovative and practical. The design makes use of the most advanced technology available to meet the goals for a safe, versatile and durable habitat that will serve as a starting point for the initial phase of the construction of a permanent lunar base. This document outlines SEC's proposed design for a lander vehicle which will be fully self-sufficient and will provide for all necessary life support, including consumables and radiation protection, needed by the construction crew until they can complete the assembly of a more permanent habitat. Since it is highly likely that it will take more than one crew to complete the construction of a permanent lunar base, the design emphasis is on systems which can be easily maintained and resupplied and which will take a minimum of start up preparation by succeeding crews.

1988-01-01

93

Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Definition Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. Here we present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver & electric field antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Flux-gate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

Pavelka, R.; Hellinger, P.; Auster, H.; Bale, S.; Delory, G. T.; Devoto, P.; Farrell, W. M.; Glassmeier, K.; Guicking, L.; Halekas, J. S.; Hercik, D.; Horanyi, M.; Kataria, D.; Kozacek, Z.; Mazelle, C. X.; Owen, C. J.; Plaschke, F.; Rucker, H. O.; Sternovsky, Z.; Stverak, S.; Travnicek, P. M.; Vana, P.

2011-12-01

94

Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package for Lunar Lander - Denition Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight/shadow transitions. A detail understanding of these phenomena and their dependence on external in uences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. We present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientic objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver and electric eld antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Flux-gate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

Travnicek, P. M.

2012-04-01

95

Magnetostatic potential theory and the lunar magnetic dipole field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar magnetic dipole moment is discussed. It is proposed that if a primordial core magnetic field existed, it would give rise to a present day nonzero external dipole magnetic field. This conclusion is based on the assumption that the lunar mantle is at least slightly ferromagnetic, and thus would maintain a permanent magnetization after the disappearance of the core magnetic field. Using a simple mathematical model of the moon, calculations are performed which support this hypothesis.

Goldstein, M. L.

1975-01-01

96

Lunar orbiting prospector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

1988-01-01

97

A bootstrap lunar base: Preliminary design review 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bootstrap lunar base is the gateway to manned solar system exploration and requires new ideas and new designs on the cutting edge of technology. A preliminary design for a Bootstrap Lunar Base, the second provided by this contractor, is presented. An overview of the work completed is discussed as well as the technical, management, and cost strategies to complete the program requirements. The lunar base design stresses the transforming capabilities of its lander vehicles to aid in base construction. The design also emphasizes modularity and expandability in the base configuration to support the long-term goals of scientific research and profitable lunar resource exploitation. To successfully construct, develop, and inhabit a permanent lunar base, however, several technological advancements must first be realized. Some of these technological advancements are also discussed.

1987-01-01

98

Lunar Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone has gazed at the Moon but why does it not always look the same to us? Sometimes it is a big, bright, circle, but, other times, it is only a tiny sliver. Students create Moon Logs to record and sketch how the Moon looks each night in the sky. With these first-hand observations, they are ready to figure out how the continuously changing relative positions of the Moon, Earth and Sun result in the different shapes and sizes. These different appearances of the Moonâits phasesâchange periodically over the course of the 28-day lunar month. A lesson demonstration using a golf ball, softball and basketball, along with a flashlight, serves as a model to aid in comprehension. Then, in the associated activity, student pairs use Styrofoam balls and lamps to act it out, reproducing the Moon phases.

Engineering K-Phd Program

99

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

2010-01-01

100

Genesis lunar outpost: An evolutionary lunar habitat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Students at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Department of Agriculture undertook a series of studies of lunar habitats during the 1989 to 1990 academic year. Undergraduate students from architecture and mechanical and structural engineering with backgrounds in interior design, biology and construction technology were involved in a seminar in the fall semester followed by a design studio in the spring. The studies resulted in three design alternatives for lunar habitation and an integrated design for an early stage lunar outpost.

Moore, Gary T. (compiler); Baschiera, Dino; Fieber, Joe; Moths, Janis

1990-01-01

101

Bank for International Settlements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS), a creation of the Hague Conference of 1930, is "a[n international] central banking institution" whose aim is "to promote the co-operation of central banks and to provide additional facilities for international financial operations." Its web site provides a detailed profile of BIS, along with its basic texts and charters. However, the power of the site is its publication section, a small but growing list of full text publications (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only), highlighted by the quarterly International Banking and Financial Market Developments, a "commentary on recent developments in international banking, securities and global derivatives markets based on partial information available for the [most recent quarter] and on more detailed banking data for [the previous quarter]." The site also contains BIS Review, "a collection of important articles and speeches by senior central bankers."

1997-01-01

102

Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

2010-01-01

103

Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

1982-01-01

104

First Lunar Outpost support study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) is the first manned step in the accomplishment of the Space Exploration Initiative, the Vice President's directive to NASA on the 20th anniversary of the Apollo moon landing. FLO's broad objectives are the establishment of a permanent human presence on the moon, supporting the utilization of extraterrestrial resources in a long-term, sustained program. The primary objective is to emplace and validate the first elements of a man tended outpost on the lunar surface to provide the basis for: (1) establishing, maintaining and expanding human activities and influence across the surface; (2) establishing, maintaining and enhancing human safety and productivity; (3) accommodating space transportation operations to and from the surface; (4) accommodating production of scientific information; (5) exploiting in-situ resources. Secondary objectives are: (1) to conduct local, small scale science (including life science); (2) In-situ resource utilization (ISRU) demonstrations; (3) engineering and operations tests; (4) to characterize the local environment; and (5) to explore locally. The current work is part of ongoing research at the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture supporting NASA's First Lunar Outpost initiative. Research at SICSA supporting the First Lunar Outpost initiative has been funded through the Space Exploration Initiatives office at Johnson Space Center. The objectives of the current study are to further develop a module concept from an evaluation of volumetric and programmatic requirements, and pursue a high fidelity design of this concept, with the intention of providing a high fidelity design mockup to research planetary design issues and evaluate future design concepts.

Bartz, Christopher; Cook, John; Rusingizandekwe, Jean-Luc

1993-01-01

105

15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

2010-01-01

106

15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

2011-01-01

107

15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

2012-01-01

108

15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

2013-01-01

109

15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.  

... (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting...b) Settlements following issuance of a NOVA. The parties may enter into...

2014-01-01

110

Design of a lunar surface structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next step for manned exploration and settlement is a return to the Moon. In such a return, the most challenging task is the construction of structures for habitation, considering the Moon's hostile environment. Therefore the question is: What is the best way to erect habitable structures on the lunar surface? Given the cost associated with bringing material to the Moon, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is viewed by most as the basis for a successful manned exploration and settlement of the Solar system. Along these lines, we propose an advanced concept where the use of freeform fabrication technologies by autonomous mini-robots can form the basis for habitable lunar structures. Also, locally-available magnesium is proposed as the structural material. While it is one of the most pervasive metals in the regolith, magnesium has been only suggested only briefly as a viable option in the past. Therefore, a study has been conducted on magnesium and its alloys, taking into account the availability of the alloying elements on the Moon. An igloo-shaped magnesium structure, covered by sandbags of regolith shielding and supported on a sintered regolith foundation, is considered as a potential design of a lunar base, as well as the test bed for the proposed vision. Three studies are carried out: First a static analysis is conducted which proves the feasibility of the proposed material and method. Second, a thermal analysis is carried out to study the effect of the regolith shielding as well as the sensitivity of such designs to measurement uncertainties of regolith and sintered thermal properties. The lunar thermal environment is modeled for a potential site at 88º latitude in the lunar South Pole Region. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties are in an acceptable range where a three-meter thick shield is considered. Also, the required capacity of a thermal rejection system is estimated, choosing the thermal loads to be those of the Space Station modules. In the third study, a seismic model based on best available data has been developed and applied to our typical structure to assess the vulnerability of designs that ignore seismicity. Using random vibration and modal superposition methods, the structural response to a lunar seismic event of 7 Richter magnitude indicates that the seismic risk is very low. However, it must be considered for certain types of structural designs.

Mottaghi, Sohrob

111

Solar lunar power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1994-01-01

112

Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

2009-01-01

113

Lunar sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flameless atomic abosrption, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, ferromagnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to investigate the evolution of the lunar regolith, the transport of volatile trace metals, and the surface composition of lunar samples. The development of a model for lunar volcanic eruptions is also discussed.

Housley, R. M.

1978-01-01

114

Micrometeoroids and lunar rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of present concepts of the lunar micrometeoroid flux as deduced from microcrater observations on lunar rocks and available laboratory simulations with smooth glassy surfaces. Results examined include factors governing microcrater morphology, size frequency distribution, and correlation of lunar rock surface exposure ages with absolute crater number densities.

Hoerz, F.; Morrison, D. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Hartung, J. B.; Gault, D. E.; Vedder, J. F.

1974-01-01

115

Russian Lunar Space Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russia had a great number of “firsts” in Lunar Studies (first soft landing, first pictures of the dark side of the moon, first sample return, first rover). Now after a long break the focus of Russian Space Program is again aimed to the lunar science investigations. These investigations have two aims: 1) to get answers to a principal questions of lunar formation and evolution, search for volatiles and regions with subsurface lunar permafrost, studies of lunar dust, electrostatic fields and magnetic anomalies. 2) Preparation to Lunar Exploration stage and search for most promising sites for future lunar habitable scientific stations. First stage of Russian Lunar program during this decade of 2 Lunar includes launches Landers and one Lunar orbiter, discussed in a preceding talks. Further steps during the next decade are related, first of all, with the cryogenic lunar sample return from a certain locations, hear South (or North ) poles, which according to the analysis of orbital observations are enriched by the subsurface water ice inclusions. Next steps, which are planned now are transitional to the exploration stage: delivery of a “ heavy rover“ to the specific site (thoroughly investigated during previous stages), accomplishment of technological experiments on the mitigation of lunar dust and space radiation hazards, simple initial experiments on radioastronomy and cosmic ray studies. It is a long and complicated path to go and quite naturally Russia considers that all important steps on this way will be done in international partnership.

Zelenyi, Lev; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Khartov, Victor V.; Dolgopolov, Vladimir; Mitrofanov, Igor; Martunov, M.; Lukianchikov, A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav

116

Design of a lunar oxygen production plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

1990-12-01

117

Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications  

SciTech Connect

The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

1984-01-01

118

Design of a lunar oxygen production plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

1990-01-01

119

Lunar Dust-Tolerant Electrical Connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrical connector was developed that is tolerant of the presence of lunar dust. Novel features of the connector include the use of a permeable membrane to act both as a dust barrier and as a wiper to limit the amount of dust that makes its way into the internal chamber of the connector. The development focused on the Constellation lunar extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit s portable life support system (PLSS) battery recharge connector; however, continued research is applying this technology to other lunar surface systems such as lunar rover subsystems and cryogenic fluid transfer connections for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) applications. Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. In addition to posing contamination and health risks for human explorers, the interlocking, angular nature of lunar dust and its broad grain size distribution make it particularly harmful to mechanisms with which it may come into contact. All Apollo lunar missions experienced some degree of equipment failure because of dust, and it appears that dust accumulation on exposed material is unavoidable and difficult to reverse. Both human EVA and ISRU activities are on the mission horizon and are paramount to the establishment of a permanent human base on the Moon. Reusable and dust-tolerant connection mechanisms are a critical component for mission success. The need for dust-tolerant solutions is also seen in utility work and repair, mass transit applications, construction, mining, arctic and marine environments, diving (search and rescue), and various operations in deserts, where dust or sand clogging and coating different mechanisms and connections may render them difficult to operate or entirely inoperable.

Herman, Jason; Sadick, Shazad; Roberts, Dustyn

2010-01-01

120

A quasi-economic role for lunar science  

SciTech Connect

In broad economic terms, the development of lunar products will begin with a sequence of technology, production, and delivery demonstrations which will have to precede the emergence of markets. Economically viable products will tend to be those for which the sum of production and transport costs are lower for lunar suppliers than for terrestrial suppliers. As long as lunar production costs exceed terrestrial production costs -- as will be the case for most lunar products until such time as lunar development has reached a mature stage -- the most viable industries will be those producing low-tech products for lunar markets. The scale of initial lunar markets will depend on the size of a lunar base and/or its rate of growth. For a given level of public support, maximum base size can be achieved through the conduct, at the base, of a vigorous program of scientific and engineering research making use of as much local production and as many permanently-resident support staff as feasible. 5 refs.

Jones, E.M.

1989-01-01

121

Ground Cracking and Differential Settlement  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Ground cracking and differential settlement dueg to liquefaction of beach and Salinas River deposits damaged approach and abutment of bridge linking Moss Landing spit to the mainland, near Moss Landing Marine Laboratory....

2009-01-26

122

Moon Lunar Orbiter - Lunar Orbiter III  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hidden or dark side of the Moon was taken by Lunar Orbiter III During its mission to photograph potential lunar-landing sites for Apollo missions. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 94), by James Schultz.

1967-01-01

123

Applicability of the beamed power concept to lunar rovers, construction, mining, explorers and other mobile equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the technical issues dealing with the feasibility of high power (10 Kw to 100 Kw) mobile manned equipment for settlement, exploration and exploitation of Lunar resources are addressed. Short range mining/construction equipment, a moderate range (50 Km) exploration vehicle, and an unlimited range explorer are discussed.

Christian, Jose L., Jr.

1989-01-01

124

Lunar and Planetary Science XIX Nineteenth Lunar and Planetary  

E-print Network

\\ '7 Lunar and Planetary Science XIX Nineteenth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference PRESS NINETEENTH LUNAR AND PLANETARY SCIENCE CONFERENCE March 14-18. 1988 Compiled by the Lunar and Planetary .....................................................................................................................................................(617) 692-4764 iii #12;PREFACE The Program Committee for the Nineteenth Lunar and Planetary Science

Rathbun, Julie A.

125

The ISA accelerometer and Lunar science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many missions, performed, ongoing or foreseen. The reasons for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to its current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data for testing gravitation theories. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments: in fact a wide variety of them has been proposed to be conducted on the lunar surface. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one-dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in-orbit and on-ground, with the same configuration. It can therefore be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. This second option in particular has been the subject of preliminary studies and has been proposed as a candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. ISA-S (ISA-Seismometer) has a very high sensitivity, which has already been demonstrated with long time periods of usage on Earth. After a description of the instrument, its use in the context of landing missions will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on its integration with the other components of the systems.

Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Massimo Lucchesi, David; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Milyukov, Vadim; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Santoli, Francesco

2014-05-01

126

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Fire, Ice, and Regolith" included the following:Compositional and Structural Study of the Aristarchus Plateau from Integrated UV-VIS-NIR Spectral Data; Clementine 2.7-?m Data: Mapping the Mare and Searching for Water; On the Search for Water at the Lunar Poles: Results of Forward Modeling of Permanently Shaded Areas and Lunar Prospector Measurements; Searching the Moon for Aluminous Mare Basalts Using Compositional Remote-Sensing Constraints I: Finding the Regions of Interest; Semi-automated Extraction of Contours from Lunar Topographic Maps; Basalts in Mare Humorum and S.E. Procellarum; The Hansteen and Helmet Volcanic Dome Regions on the Moon: Stratigraphy and Ages; Derivation of Elemental Abundance Maps at 15-km Spatial Resolution from the Merging of Clementine Optical and Lunar Prospector Geochemical Data; Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of the Balmer Region of the Moon; Lava Flows in Mare Nubium and Mare Cognitum: A Geological History Based on Analysis of Multispectral Data; Development of Ground-based Lunar VIS/NEAR IR Spectral Imager; A BRDF Measurement Apparatus for Lab-based Samples; A New Source of High Resolution Lunar Images: Amateur Astronomers! ; Leakage of Gamma Rays and Neutrons from Thick Targets Bombarded by Energetic Protons; Progress on Reviving Lunar Orbiter: Scanning, Archiving, and Cartographic Processing at USGS; Modeling Lateral and Vertical Mixing by Impact Cratering with Applications for the Moon; Optical Maturity Study of Stuart#s Crater Candidate Impact; Evidence for Three Basins Beneath Oceanus Procellarum; and Ellipses of the South Pole-Aitken Basin: Implications for Basin Formation.

2004-01-01

127

The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the extraction of volatiles and determine the volatile inventory of the moon with a view for future In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Surface samples will be collected by a robotic arm with the possibility of a rover to collect more distant samples. The concentration, chemical and accurate isotopic ratios (D/H, 12C/13C, 15N/14N, 18O/16O and noble gases) of liberated volatiles will be determined, possibly using similar technology to the Philae comet lander of the Rosetta mission [6]. An additional aim is the monitoring of the chemical and isotopic composition of the tenuous lunar atmosphere [7] which will become contaminated by active human exploration. The lunar atmosphere will provide information on the processes involved in forming lunar volatiles and their concentration mechanisms. Modelling the effects of contamination from the Lander is an essential part of this study so that these can be recognized and minimized.

Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

2011-10-01

128

LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS  

E-print Network

LUNAR SOIL SIMULATION and TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS by W. David Carrier, III Lunar Geotechnical.0 RECOMMENDED LUNAR SOIL TRAFFICABILITY PARAMETERS Table 9.14 in the Lunar Sourcebook (Carrier et al. 1991, p. 529) lists the current recommended lunar soil trafficability parameters: bc = 0.017 N/cm2 bN = 35° K

Rathbun, Julie A.

129

Lunar base surface mission operations. Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose was to perform an analysis of the surface operations associated with a human-tended lunar base. Specifically, the study defined surface elements and developed mission manifests for a selected base scenario, determined the nature of surface operations associated with this scenario, generated a preliminary crew extravehicular and intravehicular activity (EVA/IVA) time resource schedule for conducting the missions, and proposed concepts for utilizing remotely operated equipment to perform repetitious or hazardous surface tasks. The operations analysis was performed on a 6 year period of human-tended lunar base operation prior to permanent occupancy. The baseline scenario was derived from a modified version of the civil needs database (CNDB) scenario. This scenario emphasizes achievement of a limited set of science and exploration objectives while emplacing the minimum habitability elements required for a permanent base.

1987-01-01

130

Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In polar regions of the Moon, there are areas within craters that are permanently shadowed from solar illumination, which can reach temperatures of 100K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding

R. E. Ryan; R. C. McKellip; D. P. Brannon; L. W. Underwood; K. J. Russell

2007-01-01

131

Lunar Crater Mini-Wakes: Structure, Variability, and Volatiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within a permanently shadowed lunar crater the horizontal flow of solar wind is obstructed by upstream topography, forming a regional plasma mini-wake. In the present work kinetic simulations are utilized to investigate how the most prominent structural aspects of a crater mini-wake are modulated during passage of a solar storm. In addition, the simulated particle fluxes are coupled into an equivalent-circuit model of a roving astronaut,. including triboelectric charging due to frictional contact with the lunar regolith, to characterize charging of the astronaut suit during the various stages of the storm. In some cases, triboelectric charging of the astronaut suit becomes effectively perpetual, representing a critical engineering concern for roving within shadowed lunar regions. Finally, the present results suggest that wake structure plays a critical role in modulating the spatial distribution of volatiles at the lunar poles.

Zimmerman, Michael I.; Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

2012-01-01

132

Power requirements for the first lunar outpost (FLO)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Exploration Program Office is currently developing a preliminary reference mission description that lays the framework from which the nation can return to the Moon by the end of the decade. The First Lunar Outpost is the initial phase of establishing a permanent presence on the Moon and the next step of sending humans to Mars. Many systems required for missions to Mars will be verified on the Moon, while still accomplishing valuable lunar science and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Some of FLO's major accomplishments will be long duration habitation, extended surface roving (both piloted and teleoperated) and a suite of science experiments, including lunar resources extraction. Of equal challenge will be to provide long life, reliable power sources to meet the needs of a lunar mission.

Cataldo, Robert L.; Bozek, John M.

1993-01-01

133

Orbital studies of lunar magnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

1982-01-01

134

Lunar Prospector Extended Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning, and actual results of the the Lunar Prospector extended mission including maneuver design, eccentricity & argument of perigee evolution, and lunar potential modeling.

Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

1999-01-01

135

Lunar Prospector Extended Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and actual results of the Lunar Prospector extended mission including maneuver design, eccentricity & argument of perigee evolution, and lunar potential modeling.

Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

1999-01-01

136

A lunar polar expedition.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews issues related to a five-person expedition to the lunar north pole which primarily addresses site selection and the requirements for transportation, power, and life support. A one-year stay on the lunar surface is proposed based on available technology, and proposals are detailed for incorporating flight-proven systems, abort or rescue options, and the use of the base as the nucleus for subsequent operations. Specific details are given regarding lunar orbital data, the characteristics of the proposed base, power and consumables requirements, and equipment such as two-person lunar roving vehicles and space suits. During the expedition: (1) water is recycled; (2) Autolanders are used to deliver equipment; (3) two rovers are included in the mass budget; (4) the lunar surface is studied in detail. A polar lunar-base site offers the advantages of unobstructed astronomy, enhanced heat rejection, and the potential for reuse.

Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Thomas

137

Lunar Dust, Plasma, Waves and Fields Exploration Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust, the charged lunar surface, and the ambient plasma form a closely coupled system. The lunar surface is permanently under the influence of charging effects such as UV radiation or energetic solar wind and magnetospheric particles. The surface charging effects result in strong local electric fields which in turn may lead to mobilization and transport of charged dust particles. Furthermore, the environment can become even more complex in the presence of local crustal magnetic anomalies or due to sunlight shadow transitions. A detail under-standing of these phenomena and their dependence on external influences is a key point for future robotic/human lunar exploration and requires an appropriately tuned instrumentation for in situ measurements. Here we present preliminary results from the concept and design phase A study of the Lunar Dust Environment and Plasma Package (L-DEPP), which has been proposed as one of model instrument payloads for the planned Lunar Lander mission of the European Space Agency. Focus is held on scientific objectives and return of the mission with respect to environmental and mission technology constraints and requirements. L-DEPP is proposed to consist of the following instruments: ELDA - Electrostatic lunar dust analyser, LP - Langmuir probe, RADIO - Broadband radio receiver and electric field antennae, LEIA - Lunar electron and ion analyser, and MAG - Fluxgate magnetometer. In addition to the dust and plasma measurements the RADIO experiment will provide a site survey testing for future radio astronomy observations.

Travnicek, P. M.

2012-09-01

138

Roadmap for Future Lunar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss strategies for future lunar exploration. This includes open science questions about comparative planetology, the origin of the Earth --Moon system, the early evolution of life, the planetary environment and the existence of in-situ resources necessary to support human presence. We discuss areas of instrumentation: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. We discuss technologies in robotic exploration: Mecha-electronics-sensors; Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots. We compare Moon-Mars system aspects related to In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructure, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. Finally, we discuss possible roadmaps and synergies for Moon-Mars exploration, starting with the missions for the coming decade, and building effectively on joint technology developments.

Foing, B. H.; International Lunar Exploration Working Group

139

Lunar Land Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about lunar and terrestrial stratigraphy. Learners will design a development on the Moon that is suitable, feasible, and beneficial and present proposals for developments on the Moon in a competition for approval from a student-staffed Lunar Council. This activity is in Unit 3 of the "Exploring the Moon" teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

140

24 CFR 200.1525 - Settlement agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TO FHA PROGRAMS Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP): MAP Lender Quality Assurance Enforcement § 200.1525 Settlement...authorized, may negotiate a settlement agreement with a MAP lender before or after the issuance of a warning...

2010-04-01

141

Current NASA lunar base concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology has completed a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define a point design for an evolving lunar base that supports substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. This study addressed the following: systems level design; element requirements and conceptual design; assessments of precursor and technology needs; and operations concepts. The central base is assumed to be located equatorially on the lunar nearside north of the crater Moltke in Mare Tranquilliatis. The study considers an aggressive case with three main phases. The initial Man-Tended Phase established basic enabling facilities that include a modular habitat that periodically houses a crew of four. During the Experimental Phase, the base becomes permanently manned with the construction of a larger habitat that provides augmented workshop and laboratory volumes and housing for crew. The Operational Phase expands base capabilities to a substantially mature level while reducing reliance on Earth. The analysis classifies base characteristics into several major functional areas: Human Systems; Assembly and Construction; Energy Management; Launch and Landing; Surface Transportation; In-Situ Resources Utilization; User Accommodations; and Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management. Results of various NASA-sponsored studies were synthesized to meet requirements. The system level architecture was determined, the physical layout was developed from a set of proximity criteria and related functions, and the evlotuionary path of the base was analyzed. Conclusions include a summary of technology needs, design drivers, high leverage items, and important issues.

Roberts, Barney B.; Connolly, John F.

1990-01-01

142

Lunar Prospecting Using Thermal Wadis and Compact Rovers. Part A; Infrastructure for Surviving the Lunar Night  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent missions have confirmed the existence of water and other volatiles on the Moon, both in permanently-shadowed craters and elsewhere. Non-volatile lunar resources may represent significant additional value as infrastructure or manufacturing feedstock. Characterization of lunar resources in terms of abundance concentrations, distribution, and recoverability is limited to in-situ Apollo samples and the expanding remote-sensing database. This paper introduces an approach to lunar resource prospecting supported by a simple lunar surface infrastructure based on the Thermal Wadi concept of thermal energy storage and using compact rovers equipped with appropriate prospecting sensors and demonstration resource extraction capabilities. Thermal Wadis are engineered sources of heat and power based on the storage and retrieval of solar-thermal energy in modified lunar regolith. Because Thermal Wadis keep compact prospecting rovers warm during periods of lunar darkness, the rovers are able to survive months to years on the lunar surface rather than just weeks without being required to carry the burdensome capability to do so. The resulting lower-cost, long-lived rovers represent a potential paradigm breakthrough in extra-terrestrial prospecting productivity and will enable the production of detailed resource maps. Integrating resource processing and other technology demonstrations that are based on the content of the resource maps will inform engineering economic studies that can define the true resource potential of the Moon. Once this resource potential is understood quantitatively, humans might return to the Moon with an economically sound objective including where to go, what to do upon arrival, and what to bring along.

Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Suzuki, Nantel H.

2012-01-01

143

Involvement of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC) in species recognition at settlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cuticular glycoprotein known as the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC) induces gregarious settlement in the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Here the ability of B. amphitrite cyprids to discriminate among the SIPCs of three related Balanidae, B. improvisus, Megabalanus rosa and Elminius modestus is examined. Using a laboratory settlement assay, the effective surface-adsorbed concentration of B. amphitrite SIPC that achieved 50% settlement

Catherine Dreanno; Richard R. Kirby; Anthony S. Clare

2007-01-01

144

Space Math: Lunar Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This booklet includes 17 problems relating to the Moon and its exploration. Images from NASA are analyzed to determine image scales and the physical sizes of various crates and features. The probability of meteor impacts near a lunar colony are calculated, and the horizon distance is determined using simple geometry. Also covered are: determining the mass of the Moon, a simple model for the lunar interior, heat flow rates, extracting oxygen from lunar rock, and lunar transits and eclipses. (8.5 x11, 28 pages, 11 color images, PDF file)

Odenwald, Sten

2008-01-01

145

Lunar Dust 101  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Largely due to rock and soil samples returned during the Apollo program, much has been learned about the composition and properties of lunar regolith. Although, for the most part, the mineral composition resembles terrestrial minerals, the characteristics of the lunar environment have led to very different weathering processes. These result in substantial differences in the particle shapes, particle size distributions, and surface chemistry. These differences lead to non-intuitive adhesion, abrasion, and possible health properties that will pose challenges to future lunar missions. An overview of lunar dust composition and properties will be given with a particular emphasis on possible health effects.

Gaier, James R.

2008-01-01

146

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic contributions to lunar science. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was enthusiastically positive. 2012 was the third and final year for the LWEs in the current funding cycle. They will continue in a modified version at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, where the LRO Project Office and Education and Public Outreach Team are based. We will present evaluation results from our external evaluator, and share lessons learned from this workshop series. The LWEs can serve as a model for others interested in incorporating scientist and engineer involvement, data from planetary missions, and data-based activities into a thematic professional development experience for science educators. For more information about the LWEs, please visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

2012-12-01

147

Overview of lunar-based astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The opportunities along with the advantages and disadvantages of the Moon for astronomical observatories are carefully and methodically considered. Taking a relatively unbiased approach, it was concluded that lunar observatories will clearly be a major factor in the future of astronomy in the next century. He concludes that ground based work will continue because of its accessibility and that Earth orbital work will remain useful, primarily for convenience of access in constructing and operating very large space systems. Deep space studies will feature not only probes but extensive systems for extremely long baseline studies at wavelengths from gamma rays through visible and IR out to radio is also a conclusion drawn, along with the consideration that lunar astronomy will have found important permanent applications along lines such as are discussed at the present symposium and others quite unsuspected today.

Smith, Harlan J.

1988-01-01

148

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin egresses lunar module on lunar surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed egressing the lunar module during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

1969-01-01

149

Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples.

Kirch, P.V.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Chadwick, O.A.; Vitousek, P.M.; Sherrod, D.R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L.; Sharp, W.D.

2004-01-01

150

Lunar radar backscatter studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

Thompson, T. W.

1979-01-01

151

Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to

Shawn Knutson; Nancy Holloway

2010-01-01

152

A baseline lunar mine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

Gertsch, Richard E.

1992-01-01

153

Lunar Soil Particle Separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

Berggren, Mark

2010-01-01

154

Proposed lunar missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three lunar missions are proposed: a 65 kg Artemis payload with an in-situ materials utilization (ISMU) pilot plant; a 65 kg Artemis payload with a lunar resource prospector; and a 200 kg Artemis payload with an integrated oxygen production plant. All material is presented in viewgraph format.

Schooley, Larry

1992-01-01

155

Lunar Roving Vehicle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will construct a model of a lunar roving vehicle. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

156

The Lunar Disk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about the kinds of rocks on the Moon. Learners will carefully look at, describe, and learn about the origins of the six lunar samples contained in the disk. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

157

Thermoluminescence of lunar samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Appreciable natural thermoluminescence with glow curve peaks at about 350 degrees centigrade for lunar fines and breccias and above 400 degrees centigrade for crystalline rocks has been recognized in lunar samples. Plagioclase has been identified as the principal carrier of thermoluminescence, and the difference in peak temperatures indicates compositional or structural differences between the feldspars of the different rock types. The present thermoluminescence in the lunar samples is probably the result of a dynamic equilibrium between acquisition from radiation and loss in the lunar thermal environment. A progressive change in the glow curves of core samples with depth below the surface suggests the use of thermoluminescence disequilibrium to detect surfaces buried by recent surface activity, and it also indicates that the lunar diurnal temperature variation penetrates to at least 10.5 centimeters.

Dalrymple, G.B.; Doell, R.R.

1970-01-01

158

Lunar Balance and Locomotion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

Paloski, William H.

2008-01-01

159

Integration of Lunar Polar Remote-Sensing Data Sets: Evidence for Ice at the Lunar South Pole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to investigate the feasibility of ice deposits at the lunar south pole, we have integrated all relevant lunar polar data sets. These include illumination data, Arecibo ground-based monostatic radar data, newly processed Clementine bistatic radar data, and Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer measurements. The possibility that the lunar poles harbor ice deposits has important implications not only as a natural resource for future human lunar activity but also as a record of inner solar system volatiles (e.g., comets and asteroids) over the past billion years or more. We find that the epithermal neutron flux anomalies, measured by Lunar Prospector, are coincident with permanently shadowed regions at the lunar south pole, particularly those associated with Shackleton crater. Furthermore, these areas also correlate with the beta=0 circular polarization ratio (CPR) enhancements revealed by new processing of Clementine bistatic radar echoes, which in turn are colocated with areas of anomalous high CPR observed by Arecibo Observatory on the lower, Sun-shadowed wall of Shackleton crater. Estimates of the extent of high CPR from Arecibo Observatory and Clementine bistatic radar data independently suggest that approximately 10 square kilometers of ice may be present on the inner Earth-facing wall of Shackleton crater. None of the experiments that obtained the data presented here were ideally suited for definitively identifying ice in lunar polar regions. By assessing the relative merits of all available data, we find that it is plausible that ice does occur in cold traps at the lunar south pole and that future missions with instruments specifically designed to investigate these anomalies are worthy.

Nozette, Stewart; Spudis, Paul D.; Robinson, Mark S.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Lichtenberg, Chris; Bonner, Robert

2001-01-01

160

Lunar Resource Assessment: Strategies for Surface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Use of the indigenous resources of space to support long-term human presence is an essential element of the settlement of other planetary bodies. We are in a very early stage of understanding exactly how and under what circumstances space resources will become important. The materials and processes to recover them that we now think are critical may not ultimately be the raison d'etre for a resource utilization program. However, the need for strategic thinking proceeds in parallel with efforts to implement such plans and it is not too soon to begin thinking how we could and should use the abundant resources of materials and energy available from the Moon. The following commodities from the Moon are discussed: (1) bulk regolith, for shielding and construction on the lunar surface (ultimately for export to human-tended stations in Earth-Moon space), and (2) oxygen and hydrogen, for propellant and life support.

Spudis, Paul D.

1992-01-01

161

Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study  

SciTech Connect

Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology needs in all areas to support the development, deployment, operation and disposal of the unit.

Determan, William; Frye, Patrick [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard [Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne Inc., P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, CA 91309 (United States); Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben [Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc., 10707 Gilroy Rd, Hunt Valley, MD 21031 (United States)

2006-01-20

162

Lunar base thermoelectric power station study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology needs in all areas to support the development, deployment, operation and disposal of the unit.

Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

2006-01-01

163

A Common Lunar Lander (CLL) for the Space Exploration Initiative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Artemis project, a plan to establish a permanent base on the Moon. Information includes a summary of past and future events, the program rationale, a summary of potential payloads, the physical characteristics of experiments, sketches of equipment, design study objectives, and details of such payloads as the Geophysical Station Network, teleoperated rovers, astronomical telescopes, a Moon-Earth radio interferometer, very low frequency radio antennas, the Lunar Polar Crater Telescope, Lunar Resource Utilization Experiments, and biological experiments.

Bailey, Stephen

1991-01-01

164

Lunar base launch and landing facilities conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to perform a first look at the requirements for launch and landing facilities for early lunar bases and to prepared conceptual designs for some of these facilities. The emphasis of the study is on the facilities needed from the first manned landing until permanent occupancy, the Phase 2 lunar base. Factors including surface characteristics, navigation system, engine blast effects, and expected surface operations are used to develop landing pad designs, and definitions fo various other elements of the launch and landing facilities. Finally, the dependence of the use of these elements and the evolution of the facilities are established.

Phillips, Paul G.; Simonds, Charles H.; Stump, William R.

1992-01-01

165

In-situ resource utilization in the design of advanced lunar facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resource utilization will play an important role in the establishment and support of a permanently manned lunar base. At the University of Houston - College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, a study team recently investigated the potential use of lunar in-situ materials in the design of lunar facilities. The team identified seven potential lunar construction materials; concrete, sulfur concrete, cast basalt, sintered basalt, glass, fiberglass, and metals. Analysis and evaluation of these materials with respect to their physical properties, processes, energy requirements, resource efficiency, and overall advantages and disadvantages lead to the selection of basalt materials as the more likely construction material for initial use on a lunar base. Basalt materials can be formed out of in-situ lunar regolith, with minor material beneficiation, by a simple process of heating and controlled cooling. The team then conceptualized a construction system that combines lunar regolith sintering and casting to make pressurized structures out of lunar resources. The design uses a machine that simultaneously excavates and sinters the lunar regolith to create a cylindrical hole, which is then enclosed with cast basalt slabs, allowing the volume to be pressurized for use as a living or work environment. Cylinder depths of up to 4 to 6 m in the lunar mare or 10 to 12 m in the lunar highlands are possible. Advantages of this construction system include maximum resource utilization, relatively large habitable volumes, interior flexibility, and minimal construction equipment needs. Conclusions of this study indicate that there is significant potential for the use of basalt, a lunar resource derived construction material, as a low cost alternative to Earth-based materials. It remains to be determined when in lunar base phasing this construction method should be implemented.

1990-01-01

166

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Results and Future Plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is poised to take advantage of recent extraordinary discoveries on the Moon to advance lunar and planetary science with new, targeted investigations that focus on geologically recent and even contemporaneous changes on the Moon. We will present recent results for the mission and describe plans for a second two-year extension of the science mission. LRO has been in orbit for nearly 5 years. In that time it has been a witness to, and participant in, a remarkable era of lunar science where a paradigm shift is taking place from the view of the Moon as a static planet to one with many active processes. As we approach the end of the first extended mission, we review here the major results from the LRO. Examples include: enabled the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measured of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the Cabeus PSR; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

Keller, John; Petro, Noah; McLanahan, Timothy; Vondrak, Richard; Garvin, James

2014-05-01

167

The lunar environment as a fractional-gravity biological laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quarter of a century ago men stepped upon the lunar surface and established the possibility of human expansion beyond Earth. When humans return to the moon to occupy it with greater permanency, an applied lunar biological laboratory would provide a means of conducting experiments on the long-term effects of fractional gravity in animals and plants and provide necessary data to enhance the health, safety and well-being of lunar workers and inhabitants. In-depth studies can go beyond zero-g observations, on-orbit centrifuge studies, and ground-based research providing important insight into continuous 1/6- g effects on biological systems. Studies concentrating on development, gravity sensing, and adaptation/readaptation would provide preliminary data on whether long-term fractional gravity is detrimental or compromising to fundamental biological function. Food production research in 1/6- g would provide important information for on site application to improve the yield and quality of food (animal and plant) produced in the unique lunar environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some examples of the major gravitational biology areas that could be studied on the moon and applied to lunar population needs utilizing lunar biological facilities and continuous fractional gravity.

Garshnek, V.

168

Lunar transportation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

1993-01-01

169

Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

1992-01-01

170

The Lunar Regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thick layer of regolith, fragmental and unconsolidated rock material, covers the entire lunar surface. This layer is the result of the continuous impact of meteoroids large and small and the steady bombardment of charged particles from the sun and stars. The regolith is generally about 4-5 m thick in mare regions and 10-15 m in highland areas (McKay et al., 1991) and contains all sizes of material from large boulders to sub-micron dust particles. Below the regolith is a region of large blocks of material, large-scale ejecta and brecciated bedrock, often referred to as the "megaregolith". Lunar soil is a term often used interchangeably with regolith, however, soil is defined as the subcentimeter fraction of the regolith (in practice though, soil generally refers to the submillimeter fraction of the regolith). Lunar dust has been defined in many ways by different researchers, but generally refers to only the very finest fractions of the soil, less than approx.10 or 20 microns. Lunar soil can be a misleading term, as lunar "soil" bears little in common with terrestrial soils. Lunar soil contains no organic matter and is not formed through biologic or chemical means as terrestrial soils are, but strictly through mechanical comminution from meteoroids and interaction with the solar wind and other energetic particles. Lunar soils are also not exposed to the wind and water that shapes the Earth. As a consequence, in contrast to terrestrial soils, lunar soils are not sorted in any way, by size, shape, or chemistry. Finally, without wind and water to wear down the edges, lunar soil grains tend to be sharp with fresh fractured surfaces.

Noble, Sarah

2009-01-01

171

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Rocks from Outer Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics were discussed: Mineralogy and Petrology of Unbrecciated Lunar Basaltic Meteorite LAP 02205; LAP02205 Lunar Meteorite: Lunar Mare Basalt with Similarities to the Apollo 12 Ilmenite Basalt; Mineral Chemistry of LaPaz Ice Field 02205 - A New Lunar Basalt; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite LAP 02205, a New Low-Ti Basalt Possibly Launch Paired with NWA 032; KREEP-rich Basaltic Magmatism: Diversity of Composition and Consistency of Age; Mineralogy of Yamato 983885 Lunar Polymict Breccia with Alkali-rich and Mg-rich Rocks; Ar-Ar Studies of Dhofar Clast-rich Feldspathic Highland Meteorites: 025, 026, 280, 303; Can Granulite Metamorphic Conditions Reset 40Ar-39Ar Ages in Lunar Rocks? [#1009] A Ferroan Gabbronorite Clast in Lunar Meteorite ALHA81005: Major and Trace Element Composition, and Origin; Petrography of Lunar Meteorite PCA02007, a New Feldspathic Regolith Breccia; and Troilite Formed by Sulfurization: A Crystal Structure of Synthetic Analogue

2004-01-01

172

Lunar regolith bagging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design of a lunar regolith bag and bagging system is described. The bags of regolith are to be used for construction applications on the lunar surface. The machine is designed to be used in conjunction with the lunar SKITTER currently under development. The bags for this system are 1 cu ft volume and are made from a fiberglass composite weave. The machinery is constructed mostly from a boron/aluminum composite. The machine can fill 120 bags per hour and work for 8 hours a day. The man hours to machine hours ratio to operate the machine is .5/8.

Cannon, Reuben; Henninger, Scott; Levandoski, Mark; Perkins, Jim; Pitchon, Jack; Swats, Robin; Wessels, Roger

1990-01-01

173

Common lunar lander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report focuses on the reference lander design developed at the Johnson Space Center, describing a small lunar soft lander with the capability to soft land about 64 kilograms of payload at any lunar latitude and longitude. The Artemis lander is a sun-pointing, three-axis vehicle that contributes to the translunar injection burn and performs the lunar orbit insertion, deorbit, descent and landing maneuvers with a single liquid bipropellant lander stage. Attention is given to mission profile and performance, the guidance, navigation and control subsystem, the propulsion subsystem, and the flight data subsystem.

Bailey, S.; Stecklein, J.; Chen, H.; Culpepper, W.; Hyatt, C. D.; Kluksdahl, E.; Pelischek, T.; Pruett, D.; Rickman, S.; Wagner, L.

1992-01-01

174

Technology needs for lunar and Mars space transfer systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of appropriate space transportation technologies and operating modes is discussed with respect to both lunar and Mars missions. Three levels of activity are set forth to examine the sensitivity of transportation preferences including 'minimum,' 'full science,' and 'industrialization and settlement' categories. High-thrust-profile missions for lunar and Mars transportation are considered in terms of their relative advantages, and transportation options are defined in terms of propulsion and braking technologies. Costs and life-cycle cost estimates are prepared for the transportation preferences by using a parametric cost model, and a return-on-investment summary is given. Major technological needs for the programs are listed and include storable propulsion systems; cryogenic engines and fluids management; aerobraking; and nuclear thermal, nuclear electric, electric, and solar electric propulsion technologies.

Woodcock, Gordon R.; Cothran, Bradley C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Mcghee, Jerry

1991-01-01

175

A taxonomy for the evolution of human settlements on the moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed structure is described for partnerships with shared interests and investments to develop the technology and approach for evolutionary surface systems for the moon and Mars. Five models are presented for cooperation with specific references to the technical evolutionary path of the surface systems. The models encompass the standard customer/provider relationship, a concept for exclusive government use, a joint venture with a government-sponsored non-SEI market, a technology joint-development approach, and a redundancy model to insure competitive pricing. The models emphasize the nonaerospace components of the settlement technologies and the decentralized nature of surface systems that make the project suitable for private industrial development by several companies. It is concluded that the taxonomy be considered when examining collaborative opportunities for lunar and Martian settlement.

Roberts, Barney B.; Mandell, Humboldt C.

1991-01-01

176

29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Inform the administrative law judge that agreement cannot...therefor, the administrative law judge, within thirty...1) Settlement judge procedure; purpose. This paragraph...retired administrative law judge who convenes...inappropriate. (5) General powers of the settlement...

2010-07-01

177

The Lunar Dust Pendulum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

2011-01-01

178

Lunar outpost agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a CELSS for a lunar outpost is discussed. It is estimated that a lunar outpost life support system with a crew of four that produces food would break even in terms of mass and cost to deliver the system to the lunar surface after 2.5 years when compared to the cost of resupply from earth. A brief review is made of research on life support systems and NASA projects for evaluating CELSS components. The use of on-site materials for propellants, construction materials, and agriculture is evaluated, and the use of microbes for waste decomposition and stabilization of ecological balance is touched upon. Areas for further investigation include the behavior of organisms in microgravity, genetic alteration, gas exchange capabilities of organisms, integration of biological and physicochemical components, and automation. The development stages leading to lunar deployment are outlined.

Hossner, Lloyd R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henninger, Donald L.; Allen, Earl R.

1991-01-01

179

Space Math: Lunar Cratering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the formation of craters on the lunar surface using real world imaging data and mathematical reasoning. Students make observations and inferences about the time that impact craters were formed using probability and percentages.

Space Math @ NASA

2012-07-14

180

Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

Geotimes, 1980

1980-01-01

181

Lunar sample contracts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.

Walker, R. M.

1974-01-01

182

An Unusual Lunar Halo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a photograph of an unusual combination of lunar halos: the 22-degree refraction halo, the circumscribed halo, and a reflection halo. Deduces the form and orientations of the ice crystals responsible for the observed halo features. (MLH)

Cardon, Bartley L.

1977-01-01

183

Lunar Prospector: overview.  

PubMed

Lunar Prospector is providing a global map of the composition of the moon and analyzing the moon's gravity and magnetic fields. It has been in a polar orbit around the moon since 16 January 1998. Neutron flux data show that there is abundant H, and hence probably abundant water ice, in the lunar polar regions. Gamma-ray and neutron data reveal the distribution of Fe, Ti, and other major and trace elements on the moon. The data delineate the global distributions of a key trace element-rich component of lunar materials called KREEP and of the major rock types. Magnetic mapping shows that the lunar magnetic fields are strong antipodal to Mare Imbrium and Mare Serenitatis and has discovered the smallest known magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock complex in the solar system. Gravity mapping has delineated seven new gravity anomalies and shown that the moon has a small Fe-rich core of about 300 km radius. PMID:9727967

Binder, A B

1998-09-01

184

Lunar Prospector: overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar Prospector is providing a global map of the composition of the moon and analyzing the moon's gravity and magnetic fields. It has been in a polar orbit around the moon since 16 January 1998. Neutron flux data show that there is abundant H, and hence probably abundant water ice, in the lunar polar regions. Gamma-ray and neutron data reveal the distribution of Fe, Ti, and other major and trace elements on the moon. The data delineate the global distributions of a key trace element-rich component of lunar materials called KREEP and of the major rock types. Magnetic mapping shows that the lunar magnetic fields are strong antipodal to Mare Imbrium and Mare Serenitatis and has discovered the smallest known magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock complex in the solar system. Gravity mapping has delineated seven new gravity anomalies and shown that the moon has a small Fe-rich core of about 300 km radius.

Binder, A. B.

1998-01-01

185

Insolation Effects on Lunar Hydrogen: Observation from the LRO LEND and LOLA Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H) Largely, this was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, recent discoveries indicate that the H picture may be more complex than thc PSR hypothesis suggests. Observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detect (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) indicate some H concentrations lie outside PSR. Similarly, observations from Chandraayan-l's M3 and Deep Impact's EPOXI near infra-red observations indicate diurnal cycling of volatile H in lower latitudes. These results suggest other geophysical phenomena may also play a role in the Lunar Hydrogen budget. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies

McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Droege, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Livak, M. M.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Namkung, M.; Nandikotkur, G.; Neumann, G.; Smith, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A. G.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.; Zuber, M. T.

2011-01-01

186

Lunar Sulfur Capture System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) protects in situ resource utilization (ISRU) hardware from corrosion, and reduces contaminant levels in water condensed for electrolysis. The LSCS uses a lunar soil sorbent to trap over 98 percent of sulfur gases and about two-thirds of halide gases evolved during hydrogen reduction of lunar soils. LSCS soil sorbent is based on lunar minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that trap sulfur and halide gas contaminants in a fixed-bed reactor held at temperatures between 250 and 400 C, allowing moisture produced during reduction to pass through in vapor phase. Small amounts of Earth-based polishing sorbents consisting of zinc oxide and sodium aluminate are used to reduce contaminant concentrations to one ppm or less. The preferred LSCS configuration employs lunar soil beneficiation to boost concentrations of reactive sorbent minerals. Lunar soils contain sulfur in concentrations of about 0.1 percent, and halogen compounds including chlorine and fluorine in concentrations of about 0.01 percent. These contaminants are released as gases such as H2S, COS, CS2,HCl, and HF during thermal ISRU processing with hydrogen or other reducing gases. Removal of contaminant gases is required during ISRU processing to prevent hardware corrosion, electrolyzer damage, and catalyst poisoning. The use of Earth-supplied, single-use consumables to entirely remove contaminants at the levels existing in lunar soils would make many ISRU processes unattractive due to the large mass of consumables relative to the mass of oxygen produced. The LSCS concept of using a primary sorbent prepared from lunar soil was identified as a method by which the majority of contaminants could be removed from process gas streams, thereby substantially reducing the required mass of Earth-supplied consumables. The LSCS takes advantage of minerals containing iron and calcium compounds that are present in lunar soil to trap sulfur and halide gases in a fixedbed reactor downstream of an in-ISRU process such as hydrogen reduction. The lunar-soil-sorbent trap is held at a temperature significantly lower than the operating temperature of the hydrogen reduction or other ISRU process in order to maximize capture of contaminants, but is held at a high enough temperature to allow moisture to pass through without condensing. The lunar soil benefits from physical beneficiation to remove ultrafine particles (to reduce pressure drop through a fixed bed reactor) and to upgrade concentrations of iron and/or calcium compounds (to improve reactivity with gaseous contaminants).

Berggren, Mark; Zubrin, Robert; Bostwick-White, Emily

2013-01-01

187

The lunar interior.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For materials thought to be important in the lunar interior, compressional velocities are estimated and compared with lunar seismic data. The results obtained support the conclusion that the moon is an extremely well differentiated body. This is consistent with thermal history calculations which suggest that the moon was close to or in excess of melting (solidus) temperatures throughout most of its volume early in its history.

Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

1972-01-01

188

Lunar Commercialization Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

Martin, Gary L.

2008-01-01

189

Lunar sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the lunar regolith under solar wind and micrometeorite bombardment is discussed as well as the size distribution of ultrafine iron in lunar soil. The most important characteristics of complex graphite, sulfide, arsenide, palladium, and platinum mineralization in a pegmatoid pyroxenite of the Stillwater Complex in Montana are examined. Oblique reflected light micrographs and backscattered electron SEM images of the graphite associations are included.

Housley, R. M.

1983-01-01

190

Lunar Lander Exhibit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Lunar Lander exhibit is located at the Mississippi I-10 Welcome Center in Hancock County, Miss., just west of Bay St. Louis and 45 miles east of New Orleans on I-10 at Exit 2. The exhibit features a 30-foot-tall replica of a Lunar Lander used as a trainer by the Apollo 13 astronauts. Apollo 13 astronaut and Mississippi native Fred Haise left space-boot prints and signature in concrete at the base of the exhibit.

2000-01-01

191

Design and logistics of integrated spacecraft/lander lunar habitat concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated spacecraft/lander combinations have been designed to provide a support structure for thermal and galactic radiation shielding for three initial lunar habitat concepts. Integrating the support structure with the habitat reduces the logistics requirements for the implantation of the initial base. The designs are simple, make use of existing technologies, and minimize the amount of lunar surface preparation and crew activity. The design facilitates continued use of all elements in the development of a permanent lunar base and precludes the need for an entirely different structure of larger volume and increased complexity of implantation. This design philosophy, coupled with the reduced logistics, increases overall cost effectiveness.

Hypes, Warren D.; Wright, Robert L.; Gould, Marston J.; Lovelace, U. M.

1991-01-01

192

Research Spotlight: Map of lunar hydrogen points to large amounts of water ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 2009, NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission smashed into a crater on the Moon and confirmed previous studies that suggested that water ice existed on the Moon. To learn more about lunar water, scientists are examining the abundance and distribution of hydrogen. Hydrogen has been detected near the lunar poles, but scientists have not been certain whether this hydrogen is the form of water ice or in other compounds such as molecular hydrogen. If hydrogen exists in a volatile compound such as water, it would remain stable only in cold, permanently shaded regions such as deep craters.

Ofori, Leslie; Tretkoff, Ernie

2010-12-01

193

Restoration and PDS Archive of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2008, scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory (under the auspices of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate or ARES) began work on a 4-year project to digitize the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs. These rock samples together with lunar regolith and core samples were collected as part of the lander missions for Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17. The original film negatives are stored at JSC under cryogenic conditions. This effort is data restoration in the truest sense. The images represent the only record available to scientists which allows them to view the rock samples when making a sample request. As the negatives are being scanned, they are also being formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) archive. The ARES group is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving.

Garcia, P. A.; Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Runco, S. K.; LaBasse, D.; Gaddis, L. R.

2011-01-01

194

Mobile lunar base project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explorer must possess maximal mobility on the Moon if he is to discover natural anomalies most interesting for investigation. The same problem arises in the case of utilization of lunar natural resources. Moreover, according to lunar ecology requirements we should not destroy lunar surface layers over a wide area. For mining processes, many small plots should be chosen far away from each other. The concept of a mobile lunar manned base is proposed. The base structure consists of three vertical cylindrical modules placed into triangular (top view) girder construction. Each module is 5 meters in diameter with a height of 7 meters. The space around the cylinders is filled by a one meter protective layer of lunar soil. The ends of three vertical tube-type supports are put on the separate chassis. Total volume of living and working space is about 350 cubic meters. These modules are sized for a crew of nine. The velocity of the mobile lunar base is about 8 km per hour on a horizontal surface.

Kozlov, I. A.; Shevchenko, V. V.

1995-01-01

195

Lunar preform manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

1992-01-01

196

Lunar atmospheric composition experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moosn were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

Hoffman, J. H.

1975-01-01

197

Robotic Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes current Lunar Exploration plans and objectives. It begins with specific statements from the President s vision for U.S. Space Exploration which pertain to robotic lunar missions. An outline of missions objectives is provided, along with a high-level schedule of events through the year 2025. Focus is then given to the Lunar Robotic and Precursor Program (LPRP) to describe objectives and goals. Recent developments in the Program are explained - specifically, the renaming of the RLEP program to "LPRP" and the movement of the program office to MSFC. A brief summary of the synergy expected between the robotic and crewed missions, with the LSAM descent stage Project is given. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, with its co-manifested Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), is then described with an overview of the payloads and mission objectives. Finally, information is given about the expected future of the LPRP program and Exploration and the development of a compressive Lunar Exploration Architecture.

Echols, Raymond

2006-01-01

198

Lunar preform manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

199

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed include: Automation Recognition oF Crater-Like Structures in Terrestrial and Plantary Images; Condensation from Cluster-IDP Enriched Vapor Inside the Snow Line: Implications for Mercury, Asteroids, and Enstatite Chondrites; Tomographic Location of Potential Melt-Bearing Phenocrysts in Lunar Glass Spherules; Source and Evolution of Vapor Due to Impacts into Layered Carbonates and Silicates; Noble Gases and I-Xe Ages of the Zag Meteorite; The MArs Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) for the 209 Mars Science Laboratory; The Sedimentary Rocks of Meridiani Planum, in Context; Three-System Isotopic of Lunar Norite 78238: Rb-Sr Results; Constraints on the Role of Curium-247 as a Source of Fission Xenon in the Early Solar System; New Features in the ADS Abstract Service; Cassini RADAR's First Look at Titan; Volcanism and Volatile Recycling on Venus from Lithospheric Delamination; The Fate of Water in the Martian Magma Ocean and the Formation of an Early Atmosphere; Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer Water-Equivalent Hydrogen: Comparison with Glacial; Landforms on Tharsis; Using Models of Permanent Shadow to Constrain Lunar Polar Water Ice Abundances; Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method; Petrological and Geochemical Consideration on the Tuserkanite Meteorite; and Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

2005-01-01

200

'No Finer School Than a Settlement': The Development of the Educational Settlement Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the establishment of British educational settlements, how they differed from better known social settlements, and how emphasis on education and non-residence set them apart from older institutions. Discusses the relationship of educational settlements among existing adult education facilities and Quaker colleges. (KDR)

Freeman, Mark

2002-01-01

201

The science of the lunar poles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct imaging of interiors of polar shadowed craters has been accomplished by many instruments from the ultraviolet to the radar. Imaging radars on Chandrayaan-1 and LRO have identified anomalous craters that may contain rich water ice deposits. Neutron spectrometers on Lunar Prospector and LRO directly detected hydrogen enhancements at both poles. Spectacularly, the LCROSS impact experiment detected a wide range of volatile elements and species at Cabeus crater in the lunar south polar region. While these measurements have catapulted polar science forward, much remains to be understood about the polar system, both from analysis of the current data, and new missions planned and in development. The general state of the lunar atmosphere is planned to be addressed by the UV and neutral mass spectrometers carried by the planned NASA LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere And Dust Environment Explorer) spacecraft creating an important baseline. But more data is necessary, from an in situ direct assay of polar volatiles to measurements of species and fluxes into and out of the cold traps over lengthy timescales.

Lucey, P. G.

2011-12-01

202

24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500...SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

2012-04-01

203

24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500...SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

2013-04-01

204

24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500...SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

2014-04-01

205

24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 3500...SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

2011-04-01

206

32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-07-01 true Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454 Section...Improvements § 644.454 Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements...in lieu of performance of actual restoration work by the...

2012-07-01

207

32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.  

...2013-07-01 true Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454 Section...Improvements § 644.454 Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements...in lieu of performance of actual restoration work by the...

2014-07-01

208

32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454 Section...Improvements § 644.454 Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements...in lieu of performance of actual restoration work by the...

2013-07-01

209

32 CFR 644.454 - Negotiating restoration settlements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Negotiating restoration settlements. 644.454 Section...Improvements § 644.454 Negotiating restoration settlements. Negotiated settlements...in lieu of performance of actual restoration work by the...

2011-07-01

210

31 CFR 50.85 - Amendment related to settlement approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...settlement approval. 50.85 Section 50.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Federal Cause of Action; Approval of Settlements § 50.85 Amendment related to settlement...

2013-07-01

211

Catalog of lunar mission data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several series of spacecraft were developed, designed, built and launched to determine different characteristics of the lunar surface and environment for a manned landing. Both unmanned and manned spacecrafts, spacecraft equipment and lunar missions are documented.

Mantel, E. J. (editor); Miller, E. R. (editor)

1977-01-01

212

Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

2002-01-01

213

Advanced and Intelligent Robotics for Lunar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future unmanned (and later again, manned) missions to the Moon will require several critical technologies from the realm of space robotics, that is electromechanical systems with several degrees of freedom and a limited amount of on-board autonomy. Prime examples of relevance for lunar missions are roving vehicles, manipulator arms and sample acquisition systems. This paper gives an overview of applicable technologies and their readiness that have been studied for lunar landing mission opportunities during this decade. Rovers that have been suggested for Europe's Euromoon lander initiative of the late 1990's were tethered short-range vehicles of less than 5 kg mass for deployment of geochemical instruments and so-called `Regional Rovers' of masses between 10 and 30 kg that on lunar Mare-like terrain could cover several 100 m range during mission durations of 5 to 10 Earth days and which would not be able to survive the lunar night. If deployed at high latitude regions, the Regional Rovers were conceived to be able to spend short times (several h) in shaded areas for measurements there. Development of both the tethered and the regional class has been funded by ESA and is still on-going. A much larger rover of the 300-500 kg class modeled after the Russian-French IARES prototype was proposed for the European LEDA lander scenario and could offer superior range capability and nighttime survival if nuclear power or at least a nuclear heat source were used. The Japanese Selene-B mission is planning to deploy a surface rover of the regional rover class of several 10's of kg mass. Sampling devices for lunar landing missions, generally also part of robotics technologies, are gaining renewed interest, in the context of lunar sample return missions (e.g. SPA-SR) but also for possible missions to elucidate the nature of the anomalous hydrogen concentrations in permanently shaded craters in the polar regions into which short-lived landers could be deployed which are tasked to perform subsurface regolith sampling and in-situ analyses of the regolith. Candidate sampling systems are soil core drills and self-penetrating Moles based on the Beagle 2 sampling Mole system.

Richter, L.

214

Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

González-García, A. César

215

PEACEFUL METHODS OF DISPUTE SETTLEMENT: LITIGATION & ARBITRATION  

E-print Network

such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) may be published. But not every intergovernmental organization's dispute[1] PEACEFUL METHODS OF DISPUTE SETTLEMENT: LITIGATION & ARBITRATION 1. INTRODUCTION 1 types of international peaceful means of dispute settlement because students may run across them

Papautsky, Ian

216

7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement...obligation to pay such amount to any party. (b) With respect to honey that is delivered from other than an approved warehouse,...

2010-01-01

217

Space Plasmas and Lunar Electrodynamics  

E-print Network

and anthropogenic turbulence, studies of electrodynamic properties of the lunar environment, extremely long baseline, MARCH 23, 2005 #12;LOIS Lunar wake plasma WIND satellite results · Lunar wake electron density 104 m-3 at the edges · A host of so far unexplained emissions observed #12;LOIS Electromagnetic turbulence

218

The Lunar Mass Spectrometer experiment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The features of the Lunar Mass Spectrometer (LMS), the purpose of which will be to determine the global distributions and the diurnal variations of the lunar atmosphere from the lunar surface, are outlined. Particular attention is given to its configuration, design, and latest engineering refinements. A brief description is also given of the experiment operation and data return.

Ormsby, R. D.; Dehaven, C. E., Jr.

1971-01-01

219

Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL and USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single, common, intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. LMMP will provide such products as DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data.

Noble, Sarah K.; French, Raymond; Nall,Mark; Muery, Kimberly

2009-01-01

220

Oscillating Permanent Magnets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several ways to partially levitate permanent magnets. Computes field line geometries and oscillation frequencies. Provides several diagrams illustrating the mechanism of the oscillation. (YP)

Michaelis, M. M.; Haines, C. M.

1989-01-01

221

Carbon Reduction of Lunar Regolith for Oxygen Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of extraterrestrial resources will become a key element in the exploration of the Moon and Mars. The ability to locally make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents will significantly reduce mission cost by reducing launch mass, and reduce risk through reduced dependence on Earth-supplied materials. The presence of water/hydrogen on the Moon will significantly impact the design of space exploration hardware and systems, but the form and concentration of these resources are unknown. The goal of the first robotic lunar lander mission in 2009/2010 will likely be to determine what is in the permanently shadowed craters of the lunar poles. To meet this goal, the NASA/JSC-led RESOLVE project will develop and integrate an experiment package that can perform the following objectives: (1) obtain ``ground truth'' data for resources at lunar pole; (2) obtain bulk and fine-grained regolith characteristic and environment data; (3) extract and collect volatiles from regolith; (4) produce oxygen from regolith; and (5) perform a hydrogen/water resource processing demonstration after it has been evolved and collected. ORBITEC, an industry partner in the RESOLVE project, is developing a small chemical reactor that will produce oxygen from the lunar regolith using the carbothermal reduction process. The carbothermal reduction process uses a carbonaceous source (such as methane gas) at high temperatures (~1625 °C) to reduce ilmenite and silicates present in the lunar regolith.

Gustafson, Robert J.; Rice, Eric E.; White, Brant C.

2005-02-01

222

SILVER: Surface Imaging for Lunar Volatiles, Resources, and Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Surface Imaging for Lunar Volatiles, Exploration, and Resources (SILVER) instrument is a proposed imaging investigation for the 2008 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. SILVER and its experienced Measurement Team will prepare for and support future lunar human exploration activities, especially landing site identification and certification on the basis of potential resources. SILVER combines a high-resolution pushbroom visible imaging channel (SILVER-HR) and a wide-field-of-view (45 deg) framing imaging channel (SILVER-WF). SILVER-HR will obtain a single-detector 6 km imaging swath of 12,228 pixels at 0.5 m/pixel to image greater than 100 sq km target areas from 50 km altitude, imaging greater than 15% the lunar surface during a 1 year nominal mission. SILVER-HR has excellent stray-light rejection and its imaging detector has selectable time delay integration (TDI) with up to 128 stages for extreme low-light sensitivity, permitting direct imaging of permanently shadowed polar regions in scattered sunlight or earthshine. SILVER-WF will obtain geodetic framing images in a 2048 x 2048 format at 20m/pixel, with 60% along-track overlap stereo for imaging context and for derivation of a global digital elevation model of meter-scale lunar topography.

Pappalardo, R. T.; Cobabe-Ammann, E.; Cook, A. C.; Greeley, R.; Gulick, V. C.; McClintock, W. E.; Moore, J. M.; Stern, S. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; McClelland, M.

2004-01-01

223

Feasibility and Definition of a Lunar Polar Volatiles Prospecting Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission has provided evidence for significant amounts of cold trapped volatiles in Cabeus crater near the Moon's south pole. Moreover, LRO/Diviner measurements of extremely cold lunar polar surface temperatures imply that volatiles can be stable outside or areas of strict permanent shadows. These discoveries suggest that orbital neutron spectrometer data point to extensive deposits at both lunar poles. The physical state, composition and distribution of these volatiles are key scientific issues that relate to source and emplacement mechanisms. These issues are also important for enabling lunar in situ resource utilization (ISRU). An assessment of the feasibility of cold-trapped volatile ISRU requires a priori information regarding the location, form, quantity, and potential for extraction of available resources. A robotic mission to a mostly shadowed but briefly .unlit location with suitable environmental conditions (e.g. short periods of oblique sunlight and subsurface cryogenic temperatures which permit volatile trapping) can help answer these scientific and exploration questions. Key parameters must be defined in order to identify suitable landing sites, plan surface operations, and achieve mission success. To address this need, we have conducted an initial study for a lunar polar volatile prospecting mission, assuming the use of a solar-powered robotic lander and rover. Here we present the mission concept, goals and objectives, and landing site selection analysis for a short-duration, landed, solar-powered mission to a potential hydrogen volatile-rich site.

Heldmann, Jennifer; Elphic, Richard; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry; Pedersen, Liam; Beyer, Ross; Cockrell, James

2012-01-01

224

Fast Ray Tracing of Lunar Digital Elevation Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ray-tracing (RT) of Lunar Digital Elevation Models (DEM)'s is performed to virtually derive the degree of radiation incident to terrain as a function of time, orbital and ephemeris constraints [I- 4]. This process is an integral modeling process in lunar polar research and exploration due to the present paucity of terrain information at the poles and mission planning activities for the anticipated spring 2009 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). As part of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) preparations RI methods are used to estimate the critical conditions presented by the combined effects of high latitude, terrain and the moons low obliquity [5-7]. These factors yield low incident solar illumination and subsequently extreme thermal, and radiation conditions. The presented research uses RT methods both for radiation transport modeling in space and regolith related research as well as to derive permanently shadowed regions (PSR)'s in high latitude topographic minima, e.g craters. These regions are of scientific and human exploration interest due to the near constant low temperatures in PSRs, inferred to be < 100 K. Hydrogen is thought to have accumulated in PSR's through the combined effects of periodic cometary bombardment and/or solar wind processes, and the extreme cold which minimizes hydrogen sublimation [8-9]. RT methods are also of use in surface position optimization for future illumination dependent on surface resources e.g. power and communications equipment.

McClanahan, Timothy P.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Mitrofanov, I.

2009-01-01

225

Lunar preform manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5k W, the proposed machine will run continuously, unmanned in fourteen day cycles, matching the length of moon days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris; Dorrity, J. Lewis

1992-01-01

226

Lunar preform manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5k W, the proposed machine will run continuously, unmanned in fourteen day cycles, matching the length of moon days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris; Dorrity, J. Lewis

227

Lunar Resources: A Review  

E-print Network

There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which I find to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industr...

Crawford, Ian A

2014-01-01

228

Lunar Simulation in the Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Dust Adhesion Bell Jar has been assembled at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide a high fidelity lunar simulation facility to test the interactions of lunar dust and lunar dust simulant with candidate aerospace materials and coatings. It has a sophisticated design which enables it to treat dust in a way that will remove adsorbed gases and create a chemically reactive surface. It can simulate the vacuum, thermal, and radiation environments of the Moon, including proximate areas of illuminated heat and extremely cold shadow. It is expected to be a valuable tool in the development of dust repellant and cleaning technologies for lunar surface systems.

Gaier, James R.; Sechkar, Edward A.

2007-01-01

229

Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

230

The Lunar Thermal Ice Pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical considerations and recent observations indicate the lunar polar regions harbor deposits of water ice in extremely cold regions. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial match to permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that ice is not simply trapped by low temperature but another mechanism plays a role in concentrating H2O. Under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H2O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated to be mean surface temperatures below 105 K and peak surface temperatures higher than 130 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps, roughly defined by peak temperatures <120 K. Temperatures were obtained by analyzing the LRO Diviner measurements and geographic regions of positive pumping differential are identified. These extend the ice distribution beyond traditional cold traps. At latitudes poleward of 85 degrees equator-facing slopes have a positive pumping differential because at this latitude their aspect allows larger temperature oscillations while remaining on average cold. At lower polar latitudes, down to about 70 degrees, pole-facing slopes have positive pumping differential, because here the slope aspect allows the surface to remain cooler than average.

Aharonson, O.; Schorghofer, N.

2013-12-01

231

Simulation of lunar carbon chemistry. II - Lunar winds contribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation experiments, computations, and analysis of glassy agglutinates show that a directly condensed lunar wind vapor phase is strongly depleted in carbon and sulfur compounds and may recrystallize rapidly in the lunar thermal cycle and separate from host crystals. Factors preventing identification of low-energy species implanted from the lunar atmosphere are discussed. Computational results indicate that the implanted lunar winds carbon originates both from the vapor phases injected into the lunar atmosphere during thermal metamorphism of mature lunar soil grains and from direct volatization of impacting micrometeorites. It is suggested that microglass splashes and tiny crystalline grains possibly attached to the surface of coarser grains do not affect the characteristics of solar wind carbon chemistry in the lunar soil.

Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Burlingame, A. L.; Wszolek, P. C.

1974-01-01

232

Lunar lander conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is a first look at the problems of building a lunar lander to support a small lunar surface base. A series of trade studies was performed to define the lander. The initial trades concerned choosing number of stages, payload mass, parking orbit altitude, and propellant type. Other important trades and issues included plane change capability, propellant loading and maintenance location, and reusability considerations. Given a rough baseline, the systems were then reviewed. A conceptual design was then produced. The process was carried through only one iteration. Many more iterations are needed. A transportation system using reusable, aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) is assumed. These OTV's are assumed to be based and maintained at a low Earth orbit (LEO) space station, optimized for transportation functions. Single- and two-stage OTV stacks are considered. The OTV's make the translunar injection (TLI), lunar orbit insertion (LOI), and trans-Earth injection (TEI) burns, as well as midcourse and perigee raise maneuvers.

Stecklein, J. M.; Petro, A. J.; Stump, W. R.; Adorjan, A. S.; Chambers, T. V.; Donofrio, M.; Hirasaki, J. K.; Morris, O. G.; Nudd, G.; Rawlings, R. P.

1992-01-01

233

The Lunar Dust Pendulum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

2011-01-01

234

Lunar Sample Compendium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

Meyer, C.

2009-01-01

235

A lunar polar expedition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

1992-01-01

236

Lunar and Planetary Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), located in the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), concentrates on research dealing with the current state, evolution, and formation of the solar system. At the website, users can find a technical report about the Forum on the Impact Cratering Process, a summary of the Oxygen in the Solar System Initiative, and other resources regarding the Institute's research foci. Visitors can view the educational Digital Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon. The site offers materials on upcoming meetings, a schedule of the seminar series, and many of the Institute's publications. Teachers and students should check out the Education link where they can find fun activities and fascinating images about the evolution of the solar system, lunar phases, seasons, and much more.

237

Concrete lunar base investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar base subjected to 1-atm internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design (1) during construction, (2) under pressurization, and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the airtightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the Moon.

Lin, T. D.; Senseny, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry D.; Lindbergh, Charles

1992-01-01

238

Evolution and logistics of an early lunar base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planned construction of a permanently manned space station in low earth orbit has reopened the discussion about the establishment of a manned lunar base within the next 25 years for exploration of the Moon and space. Several studies demonstrate that a lunar base very modest in size may cost 50 to 90 billion spread over 25 years which would fit into the expected NASA budget for this period. Having these cost in mind the authors present a concept having a greater effectiveness based on the following operational characteristics: (1) The development of a low cost heavy-lift launch vehicle for cargo transportation and propellant supply reduces the specific transportation cost by one order of magnitude compared to the existing Space Shuttle system. (2) Orbital transfer vehicles with LOX/LH2 technology should be preferred over advanced propulsion systems because of proved technology and cost reduction by utilization of lunar produced LOX. (3) The evolution of the lunar base towards a lunar colony and manufacturing facility could only be initiated by a powerful transportation system allowing for cost-effective space construction projects and manned spaceflight to other planets. The lunar base program of this paper is based on a schedule considering a 8 years development, 5 years lunar base assembly and 20 years operational phase during which the lunar crew will increase from 60 to 180 people. Launch rates will be 10 shuttle launches and 10 HLLV launches p.a. at the average. Development costs of the transportation and lunar base system will amount to 29 billion. Adding hardware and operational costs for lunar base assembly results in the acquisition cost of 49 billion. Total life cycle costs are estimated to be in the order of 101 billion considering a 20 years operational phase which will cost 2.6 billion p.a. at the average. For the 2508 man-years spent in lunosphere the relative cost will be 40.2 million per man-year of which space transportation will cost $25.0 million per man-year.

Johenning, B.; Koelle, H. H.

239

Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In polar regions of the Moon, there are areas within craters that are permanently shadowed from solar illumination, which can reach temperatures of 100K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding 50K in many cases. Temperatures observed in theses regions suggest that they could enable equivalent liquid nitrogen cryogenic functions. These permanently shaded polar craters also offer unprecedented high vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their current state could support cryogenic applications. The unique conditions at the lunar poles, besides ice stores, harbor an environment that provides an opportunity to reduce the power, weight and total mass that needs to be carried from the Earth to the moon for lunar exploration and research. Reducing the heat flux of geothermal, black body radiation can have significant impacts on the achievable temperature. With a few man-made augmentations, permanently shaded craters located near the lunar poles achieve temperatures even lower than those that naturally exist there. Our analysis reveals that lightweight thermal shielding, within shaded craters, could create an environment several Kelvin above absolute zero. The temperature ranges of naturally shaded craters and thermally augmented ones could enable the long-term storage of most gases, low temperature superconductors for large magnetic fields, devices and advanced high speed computing instruments. Augmenting thermal conditions in these craters could then be used as a basis for the development of an advanced thermal management architecture that would support a wide variety of cryogenically based applications. Lunar exploration and habitation capabilities would significantly benefit if permanently shaded craters, augmented with thermal shielding, were to be used to facilitate the operation of near absolute zero instruments, including wide variety of cryogenically based propulsion, energy, communication, sensing and computing devices. Potentially, the required burden of carrying massive life-supporting components from the Earth to the moon for lunar exploration and research could be reduced.

Ryan, R. E.; McKellip, R. C.; Brannon, D. P.; Underwood, L. W.; Russell, K. J.

2007-12-01

240

Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In polar regions of the Moon, some areas within craters are permanently shadowed from solar illumination and can reach temperatures of 100 K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding 50 K in many cases. Observed temperatures suggest that these regions could enable equivalent liquid nitrogen cryogenic functions. These permanently shaded polar craters also offer unprecedented high-vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their current state could support cryogenic applications. Besides ice stores, the unique conditions at the lunar poles harbor an environment that provides an opportunity to reduce the power, weight, and total mass that needs to be carried from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research. Reducing the heat flux of geothermal, black body radiation can have significant impacts on the achievable temperature. With a few manmade augmentations, permanently shaded craters located near the lunar poles achieve temperatures even lower than those that naturally exist. Our analysis reveals that lightweight thermal shielding within shaded craters could create an environment several Kelvin above absolute zero. The temperature ranges of both naturally shaded and thermally augmented craters could enable the long-term storage of most gases, low-temperature superconductors for large magnetic fields, devices and advanced high-speed computing instruments. Augmenting thermal conditions in these craters could then be used as a basis for the development of an advanced thermal management architecture that would support a wide variety of cryogenically based applications. Lunar exploration and habitation capabilities would significantly benefit if permanently shaded craters, augmented with thermal shielding, were used to facilitate the operation of near absolute zero instruments, including a wide variety of cryogenically based propulsion, energy, communication, sensing, and computing devices. The required burden of carrying massive life-supporting components from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research potentially could be reduced.

Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney; Brannon, David P.; Underwood, Lauren; Russell, Kristen J.

2007-01-01

241

The Lunar Configurable Array Telescope (LCAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The desire for a much larger space telescope than HST by astronomers is clearly demonstrated by the attendance at this Workshop. The reality is that a much larger space telescope than the HST collides with cost scaling reality. Coupled with this reality is the fact that any multi-billion dollar science project must have broad-based support from the science community and solid political support at both Presidential and Congressional levels. The HST successor is certainly in the same multi-billion dollar class as the Super Collider of the physics community, a project that has finally achieved the broad support base necessary for funding to follow. Advocacy of a bigger HST on the general grounds that 'bigger is better' will not be sufficient. A new concept needs to be developed that clearly diverges from scaling up of a traditional HST-type space telescope. With these realities in mind we have a few comments regarding the nature of a possible space telescope that may depart from what the organizers of this Workshop had in mind. The national goal declared by the President is Space Station, the Moon and Mars, in that order. Space Station is a potential location where a large system could be assembled prior to being sent into a high orbit. It is not a desirable environment for a large space telescope. Mars is not relevant as an observatory site. The Moon is very relevant for reasons we will address. Our comments are based on the premise of a permanent Lunar Outpost. One of the main arguments for a lunar telescope is a degree of permanency, that is, as long as a Lunar Outpost is maintained. In contrast, the relatively short lifetime of an orbiting telescope is a disadvantage, especially as a cost penalty. Access to a telescope in a 100,000 km orbit for refurbishment and resupply is a major problem with no solution in the present NASA planning. A telescope in conjunction with a Lunar Outpost means the possibility for continual upgrading or modifying the telescope to meet changing science objectives. The two main technical disadvantages of the Moon are: 1) its gravity field; and 2) direct Sun and Earth light. The gravity term is manageable. It also appears to be feasible to shield the telescope from direct sun and Earth light and from scattering from nearby lunar terrain. Thermal disturbances to the telescope also appear to be manageable by proper shielding, enabling the telescope to become as cold as if it were at a lunar pole crater. If these conditions are met, the telescope could be at a logistically convenient location near the Lunar Outpost. We want to address a concept that is significantly different from those presented in the preliminary communications from Garth Illingworth in order to help fill in the matrix of possibilities. This option, moreover, is of special interest to JPL and could be an area where JPL can contribute in future studies.

Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

1989-01-01

242

Lunar soil properties and soil mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study to identify and define recognizable fabrics in lunar soil in order to determine the history of the lunar regolith in different locations is reported. The fabric of simulated lunar soil, and lunar soil samples are discussed along with the behavior of simulated lunar soil under dynamic and static loading. The planned research is also included.

Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Hovland, H. J.

1972-01-01

243

Counting Lunar Phase Cycles in Mesoamerica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though ancient Mesoamericans did not develop formal lunar calendars, they nevertheless timed diverse agricultural activities with the lunar phases. Only the Classic Period Maya created a complex system of recording the lunar cycles, called the Lunar Series, attached to various mythological or historical narratives. It is probable that the structure of the Lunar Series was used to make eclipse predictions.

Iwaniszewski, Stanis?aw

244

Regional policy for rural settlements in Bulgaria.  

PubMed

Government policies concerning rural settlement and rural-urban migration in Bulgaria since 1944 are evaluated and described. The author observes that during this period, "Bulgaria...has undergone rapid urbanization.... The marked destructive processes in the rural settlement network since 1944, mainly due to the ageing of the rural population and its migration to the cities, have necessitated the implementation of an active regional policy in rural regions. A 'policy of key settlements' and 'a policy of key regions' were developed in recent years [to encourage rural development]." PMID:12317807

Tsekov, N

1992-01-01

245

Settlement escrows: an experimental study of a bilateral bargaining game  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a bargaining experiment. We follow the pre-trial bargaining model of Gertner and Miller (1995) under uncertainty and examine the effect of a litigation institution, called a settlement escrow, and uncertainty on the timing and quality of settlement outcomes. Our findings indicate that settlement rates are significantly higher when a settlement escrow is added to

Linda Babcock; Claudia M. Landeo

2004-01-01

246

LUNARS - Lunar Unique Netted Advanced Radar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar-based multi-frequency and multi-polarisation netted radio and radar facilities and observation clusters in space will be helpful to find solutions to problems in space physics and to detect long-term environmental changes and will bring new observation data of the early stage of Universe. The Moon offers an excellent platform to located the radio waves instruments for monitoring the electromagnetic emissions in near Earth environment. The innovative new radio measurements on board of satellite and the new type LOFAR-LOIS radio diagnostics, comprising wide band, and vector sensing radio receivers with full three-dimensional polarization coverage located on the Moon's surface can improve our knowledge about fundamental properties of turbulent plasma. The priority for future science experiments on the Moon is to construct low-frequency radio astronomy telescope. To understand the properties of the solar terrestrial environment and to develop a quantitative model of the near Earth environment and to monitoring the low-frequency emission of Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn and to characterize the properties of the lunar environment with respect to noise background, dielectric properties of the moon surface, and to monitoring cosmic radio sources at wavelengths not accessible from Earth it necessary to design and build new generation multi-point and multi-type sensor diagnostics.

Rothkaehl, H.; Thide, B.; Baan, W.; Falcke, H.

2009-04-01

247

External Resource: Lunar Landing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This AP Physics problem set presents learners/students with background information regarding lunar landings and the necessary information to apply equations of motion and force. Landing safely and learning to live on the Moon will give NASA a head start i

1900-01-01

248

Pressurized lunar rover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pressurized lunar rover (PLR) consists of a 7 m long, 3 m diameter cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, directional lighting, cameras, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The PLR shell is constructed of a layered carbon-fiber\\/foam composite. The

Kenneth Creel; Jeffrey Frampton; David Honaker; Kerry McClure; Mazyar Zeinali

1992-01-01

249

Investigations of lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the particle track work, a series of dating techniques for learning about the surface history of soil and rock samples was developed. The surface behavior and history of diverse lunar rocks and soils, erosion rates, and deposition rates were studied, along with incident heavy cosmic ray spectrum.

Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.

1973-01-01

250

Lunar construction utility vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar construction utility vehicle (LCUV) is an all-purpose construction vehicle which will aid in the robotic assembly of a lunar outpost. The LCUV will have the following capabilities: (1) must be self supporting including repairs; (2) must offload itself from a lunar lander; (3) must be telerobotic and semi-autonomous; (4) must be able to transport one space station common module; (5) must allow for man-rated operation; and (6) must be able to move lunar regolith for site preparation. This study recommends the use of an elastic tracked vehicle. Detailed material analyses of most of the LCUV components were accomplished. The body frame, made of pinned truss elements, was stress analyzed using NASTRAN. A track connection system was developed; however, kinematic and stress analyses are still required. This design recommends the use of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for power. Thermal control has proven to be a problem which may be the most challenging technically. A tentative solution has been proposed which utilizes an onboard and towable radiator. Detailed study of the heat dissipation requirements is needed to finalize radiator sizing. Preliminary work on a man-rated cabin has begun; however, this is not required during the first mission phase of the LCUV. Finally, still in the conceptual phases, are the communication, navigation and mechanical arm systems.

1989-01-01

251

Lunar sample analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wide variety of lunar sample and meteorite studies were performed. Abstracts of the most recent reports are also attached. Experimental techniques employed have included scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, atomic absorption analysis and a variety of simulation studies.

Housley, R. M.

1986-01-01

252

Recent lunar magnetism  

E-print Network

The magnetization of young lunar samples (<1.5 Ga) is a mystery because common sources of magnetic fields (e.g. core dynamo and long-lived impact plasma fields) have not been present within the last 1.5 Ga. To better ...

Buz, Jennifer

2011-01-01

253

Lunar Phases Planisphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

Shawl, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

254

Lunar Lab Activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photograph, technicians are transferring mice from a support germ free isolator, through a hypochlorite dunk tank, into the class III cabinetry in the Germ-free and Conventional Animal Laboratories of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, building 37, of the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas. This laboratory was part of the overall physical, chemical, and biological test program of the Apollo 11 returned lunar samples. Aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module (LM) pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. In 2 1/2 hours, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis.

1969-01-01

255

A Lunar Chronology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods used in determination of absolute isotopic ages for the returned lunar material, including the uranium-lead, rubidium-strontium, and argon 40-argon 39 ratio methods. Indicates that there would exist a basin-forming bombardment period for the Moon extending over at least 300 million years. (CC)

Schaeffer, Oliver A.

1973-01-01

256

Concept for a radioisotope powered dual mode lunar rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over three decades ago, the Apollo missions manifestly demonstrated the value of a lunar rover to expand the exploration activities of lunar astronauts. The stated plan of the new Vision for Space Exploration to establish a permanent presence on the moon in the next decades gives new impetus to providing long range roving and exploration capability in support of the siting, construction, and maintenance of future human bases. The incorporation of radioisotope power systems and telerobotic capability in the design has the potential to significantly expand the capability of such a rover, allowing continuous operation during the full lunar day/night cycle, as well as enabling exploration in permanently shadowed regions that may be of interest to humans for the resources they may hold. This paper describes a concept that builds on earlier studies originated in the Apollo program for a Dual Mode (crewed and telerobotic) Lunar Roving Vehicle (DMLRV). The goal of this vehicle would be to provide a multipurpose infrastructure element and remote science platform for the exploration of the moon. The DMLRV would be essential for extending the productivity of human exploration crews, and would provide a unique capability for diverse long-range, long-duration science exploration between human visits. With minimal reconfiguration this vehicle could also provide the basic platform to support a range of site survey and preparation activities in anticipation of the establishment of a permanent human presence on the moon. A conceptual design is presented for the DMLRV, including discussion of mission architecture, vehicle performance, representative science payload accommodation, and equipment and crew radiation considerations.

Elliott, John O.; Schriener, Timothy M.; Coste, Keith

2006-01-01

257

Indigenous lunar construction materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary design of the lunar shelter showed us that joining is a critical technology needed for building a structure from large segments. The problem of joining is important to the design of any structure that is not completely prefabricated. It is especially important when the structure is subjected to tensile loading by an internal pressure. For a lunar shelter constructed from large segments the joints between these large segments must be strong, and they must permit automated construction. With a cast basalt building material which is brittle, there is the additional problem of connecting the joint with the material and avoiding stress concentration that would cause failure. Thus, a well-defined project which we intend to pursue during this coming year is the design of joints for cast basalt structural elements.

Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

1991-01-01

258

Extended duration lunar lander  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selenium Technologies has been conducting preliminary design work on a manned lunar lander for use in NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) program. The resulting lander is designed to carry a crew of four astronauts to a prepositioned habitat on the lunar surface, remain on the lunar surface for up to 45 days while the crew is living in the habitat, then return the crew to earth via direct reentry and land recovery. Should the need arise, the crew can manually guide the lander to a safe lunar landing site, and live in the lander for up to ten days on the surface. Also, an abort to earth is available during any segment of the mission. The main propulsion system consists of a cluster of four modified Pratt and Whitney RL10 rocket engines that use liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX). Four engines are used to provide redundancy and a satisfactory engine out capability. Differences between the new propulsion system and the original system include slightly smaller engine size and lower thrust per engine, although specific impulse remains the same despite the smaller size. Concerns over nozzle ground clearance and engine reliability, as well as more information from Pratt and Whitney, brought about this change. The power system consists of a combination of regenerative fuel cells and solar arrays. While the lander is in flight to or from the moon, or during the lunar night, fuel cells provide all electrical power. During the lunar day, solar arrays are deployed to provide electrical power for the lander as well as electrolyzers, which separate some water back into hydrogen and oxygen for later use by the fuel cells. Total storage requirements for oxygen, hydrogen, and water are 61 kg, 551 kg, and 360 kg, respectively. The lander is a stage-and-a-half design with descent propellant, cargo, and landing gear contained in the descent stage, and the main propulsion system, ascent propellant, and crew module contained in the ascent stage. The primary structure for both stages is a truss, to which all tanks and components are attached. The crew module is a conical shape similar to that of the Apollo Command Module, but significantly larger with a height and maximum diameter of six meters.

Babic, Nikola; Carter, Matt; Cosper, Donna; Garza, David; Gonzalez, Eloy; Goodine, David; Hirst, Edward; Li, Ray; Lindsey, Martin; Ng, Tony

1993-05-01

259

Lunar Dust: Characterization and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar dust is a ubiquitous phenomenon which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. Near term plans to revisit the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond, places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it's potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. The same hold true for assessing the risk it may pose for toxicological health problems if inhaled. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program's Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. This work further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it's characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost. The paper also presents a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware.

Hyatt. Mark J.; Feighery, John

2007-01-01

260

37 CFR 41.205 - Settlement agreements.  

...PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Patent Interferences § 41.205 Settlement agreements...contemplation of the termination of an interference must be filed prior to the termination of the interference between the parties to the...

2014-07-01

261

7 CFR 981.18 - Settlement weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions...Settlement weight means the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds received for his own account by any handler, less...

2010-01-01

262

Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed  

SciTech Connect

Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S. [IIT Roorkee, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-11-15

263

Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluorescence and EPR can be used to measure the reactivity of lunar soil. Lunar soil is highly activated by grinding. Reactivity is dependent upon soil maturity and locale. Maturity is based on the amount of nanophase iron (np-Fe) in a soil relative to the total iron (FeO). Lunar soil activity ia a direct function of the amount of np-Fe present. Reactive soil can be "deactivated" by humid atmosphere.

Wallace, W. T.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Taylor, L. A.

2010-01-01

264

What Lunar Meteorites Tell Us About the Lunar Highlands Crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first meteorite to be found1 that was eventually (1984) recognized to have originated from the Moon is Yamato 791197. The find date, November 20, 1979, was four days after the end of the first Conference on the Lunar Highland Crust. Since then, >75 other lunar meteorites have been found, and these meteorites provide information about the lunar highlands that was not known from studies of the Apollo and Luna samples

Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.

2012-01-01

265

Carbothermal Reduction of Lunar Materials for Oxygen Production on the Moon: Reduction of Lunar Simulants with Methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of extraterrestrial resources will become a key element in space exploration and colonization of the Moon and Mars in the 21st century. Indeed, the development and operation of in-situ manufacturing plants are required to enable the establishment of permanent lunar and Martian bases. Oxygen manufacture for life support and propulsion will be the most important manufacturing process for the first of these plants. The Carbothermal Reduction Process for the manufacture of oxygen from lunar materials has three essential steps: the reduction of ferrous oxide and metallic silicates with methane to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen; the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen to form methane and water; and the electrolysis of water to form oxygen and hydrogen. This closed cyclic process does not depend upon the presence of water or water precursors in the lunar materials. It produces oxygen from silicates regardless of their precise composition and fine structure. In accord with the Statement of Work of Contract NAS 9-19080, Carbothermal Reduction of Lunar Materials for Oxygen Production on the Moon, ORBITEC has placed emphasis on the following issues to gain a better understanding of the Carbothermal Reduction Reaction of lunar regolith and to develop a low-risk, light-weight design for a lunar lander experiment: (1) highly efficient, i.e., greater than 95%, reduction of the lunar simulants with methane; (2) determination of conditions, particularly temperatures, required for initial and complete reduction of the lunar simulants; (3) identification of the products formed, gases and solids; (4) determination of solid product properties; (5) determination of reaction rates and mechanisms; and (6) demonstration of container materials. The most important of these issues were: (1) efficient reduction of the lunar simulants, i.e., JSC-1 and MLS-1A, with methane; (2) identification of the products formed , i.e., carbon monoxide, metals, e.g., iron and silicon, and slags, e.g., complex silicates; and (3) delivery of methane to the surface of the molten simulants without premature pyrolysis of the methane. The results of this empirical research are reported in this paper.

Rosenberg, S. D.; Musbah, O.; Rice, E. E.

1996-03-01

266

Carbothermal Reduction of Lunar Materials for Oxygen Production on the Moon: Reduction of Lunar Simulants with Carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of extraterrestrial resources will become a key element in space exploration and colonization of the Moon and Mars in the 21st century. Indeed, the development and operation of in-situ manufacturing plants are required to enable the establishment of permanent lunar and Martian bases. Oxygen manufacture for life support and propulsion will be the most important manufacturing process for the first of these plants. The Carbothermal Reduction Process for the manufacture of oxygen from lunar materials has three essential steps: the reduction of ferrous oxide and metallic silicates with methane to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen; the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen to form methane and water; and the electrolysis of water to form oxygen and hydrogen. This closed cyclic process does not depend upon the presence of water or water precursors in the lunar materials. It produces oxygen from silicates regardless of their precise composition and fine structure. In accord with the Statement of Work of Contract NAS 9-19080, Carbothermal Reduction of Lunar Materials for Oxygen Production on the Moon, ORBITEC has placed emphasis on the following issues to gain a better understanding of the Carbothermal Reduction Reaction of lunar regolith and to develop a low-risk, light-weight design for a lunar lander experiment: (1) reduction of lunar simulants with carbon (or equivalent); (2) determination of conditions, particularly temperatures, required for initial and complete reduction of lunar simulants by the carbon-containing reducing agents; (3) identification of the products formed, gases and solids; (4) determination of solid product properties; (5) determination of reaction rates and mechanisms; (6) selection and demonstration of container materials; and (7) selection and demonstration of heating methods. The most important of these issues were: (1) reduction of lunar simulants, i.e., JSC-1, MLS-1A, Ilmenite, and Gruenerite, with carbon, i.e., graphite; (2) identification of the products formed , i.e., carbon monoxide, metals, e.g., iron and silicon, and slags, e.g., complex silicates; (3) selection and demonstration of container materials, e.g., stabilized zirconia and yttria; and (4) selection and demonstration of heating methods. The results of this empirical research are reported in this paper.

Rosenberg, S. D.; Musbah, O.; Rice, E. E.

1996-03-01

267

Do Cues Matter? Highly Inductive Settlement Cues Don't Ensure High Post-Settlement Survival in Sea Urchin Aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (<2%) and poor post-settlement survival (<1% of settled urchins). In laboratory trials, settlement was high and unaffected by temperatures between 24 and 30°C, but significantly decreased at 33°C. Development of spines, however, was significantly affected by temperatures over 29°C. Mirroring this result, post-settlement survival was optimal between 24–28°C. In laboratory assays, the macroalgae Sargassum linearifolium and Corallina officinalis, and seawater conditioned with these algae, induced significantly higher settlement (>90%) than a natural biofilm (?25%). The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%). Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture. PMID:22162755

Mos, Benjamin; Cowden, Kenneth L.; Nielsen, Shaun J.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.

2011-01-01

268

Lunar crane system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many lunar construction scenarios, mechanical cranes in some form will be indispensible in moving large masses around with various degrees of fine positioning. While thorough experience exists in the use of terrestrial cranes new thinking is required about the design of cranes to be used in extraterrestrial construction. The primary driving force for this new thinking is the need to automate the crane system so that space cranes can be operated as telerobotic machines with a large number of automatic capabilities. This is true because in extraterrestrial construction human resources will need to be critically rationed. The design problems of mechanisms and control systems for a lunar crane must deal with at least two areas of performance. First, the automated crane must be capable of maneuvering a large mass, so that when the mass arrives at the target position there are only small vibrations. Secondly, any residue vibrations must be automatically damped out and a fine positioning must be achieved. For extraterrestrial use there are additional challenges to a crane design - for example, to design a crane system so that it can be transformed for other construction uses. This initial project in crane design does not address such additional issues, although they may be the subject of future CSC research. To date the Center has designed and analyzed many mechanisms. The fundamental problem of trade-offs between passively stabilizing the load and actively controlling the load by actuators was extensively studied. The capability of 3D dynamics modeling now exists for such studies. A scaled model of a lunar crane was set up and it has been most fruitful in providing basic understanding of lunar cranes. Due to an interesting scaling match-up, this scaled model exhibits the load vibration frequencies one would expect in the real lunar case. Using the analytical results achieved to date, a laboratory crane system is now being developed as a test bed for verifying a wide variety of mechanisms and control designs. Future development will be aimed at making the crane system a telerobotic test bed into which external sensors such as computer vision systems, and other small robotic devices such as CSC lunar rovers, will be integrated.

Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

1991-01-01

269

Lunar Gene Bank For Endangered Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. The gene pools of many human ethnic groups are also threatened. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. Against such indispensable losses scientists are starting cryopreservation of germplasms by creation of gene banks. I propose to construct a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions [4].

Swain, R.; Behera, D.; Sahoo, P. K.; Swain, S. K.; Sasmal, A.

2012-09-01

270

Lunar cold traps and their influence on argon-40  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In polar areas of the moon the maximum temperatures reached in some permanently shaded areas are well below the temperature required to retain water ice for billions of years, and cold enough to hold other volatiles for shorter periods. Aside from water, the most significant lunar volatiles are the radiogenic gases, of which argon-40 is the most easily detected, both in situ and as retrapped ions in rocks returned from the surface on the moon. Argon-40 escapes from the moon at a surprisingly high rate that is between 3% and 6% of its total production. Its brief lifetime in the lunar exosphere is marked by numerous adsorption/desorption events. Collisions with the lunar surface in cold, permanently shaded areas lead to long term storage, forming reservoirs of trapped gas that may be disturbed occasionally to produce sudden increases in atmospheric argon. It is postulated that this may explain at least part of the time variations in Apollo 17 mass spectrometer measurements of argon that were previously attributed to internal processes associated with the release of radiogenic gases from the moon.

Hodges, R. R., Jr.

1980-01-01

271

Age of a lunar anorthosite.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crystallization age of an Apollo 15 anorthosite rock, 15415,9, returned from the lunar highlands has been measured to be 4.09 (plus or minus 0.19) b.y. The primitive lunar crust must have been formed in the first 300 to 400 m.y. The results give some credence to the hypothesis that the primitive lunar surface was molten and large-scale fractional crystallization occurred in the early history of the moon.

Husain, L.; Schaeffer, O. A.; Sutter, J. F.

1972-01-01

272

Age of a lunar anorthosite.  

PubMed

The crystallization age of an Apollo 15 anorthosite rock, 15415,9, returned from the lunar highlands has been measured to be (4.09 +/- 0.19) x 10(9) years. The primitive lunar crust must have been formed in the first 300 to 400 x 10(6) years. The results give some credence to the hypothesis that the primitive lunar surface was molten and large-scale fractional crystallization occurred in the early history of the moon. PMID:17731365

Husain, L; Schaeffer, O A; Sutter, J F

1972-01-28

273

Lunar ion flux and energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of the lunar ionosphere and resulting flux of lunar ions to the lunar surface are reviewed. In the Lunar rest frame, ions formed from the neutral lunar atmosphere are accelerated by the interplanetary electric and magnetic fields. The trajectories of heavier ions are primarily along the electric field; the ion flux is in a direction perpendicular to the solar wind flow, correlated to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, and impacts the surface with energies of tens of electron volts to a few keV. Thus we predict a relatively energetic (compared to thermal energies), highly directional, lunar ion flux but with the possibility that light ions such as hydrogen can execute orbits that return them to portions of the lunar surface not directly exposed to the solar wind. The effects of surface electric and magnetic fields are discussed, as is the ion energy spectrum. We calculate the trapping of atmospheric ions which impact the surface and from this the density of neutral Ar 40 in the lunar atmosphere. We show that using the acceleration model, the lunar atmosphere total neutral number density can be calculated from ion detector data.

Manka, R. H.; Michel, F. C.

1973-01-01

274

Microwave and optical lunar transponders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific areas which used data from the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment, collected from measurements to the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 and Lunakhod 2, include lunar science (i.e., studies of variations in the lunar angular orientation from that for uniform rotation, lunar tidal displacements, and the lunar mass distribution), geodynamics, astrometry, and gravitational physics. This paper argues that the placement of microwave and optical transponders on the moon would improve the accuracy of laser range measurements by nearly two orders of magnitude and would simplify the measurements. The K-band microwave transponders would be operated at the lunar base and at two remote sites on the moon surface, yielding much improved lunar libration and tidal displacement measurements. A two-wavelength laser transponder also would be operated at the lunar base, allowing accurate tropospheric propagation corrections to be made. This would introduce major improvements in measurements of the lunar orbit and of the earth's rotation, and in tests of general relativity.

Bender, P. L.; Faller, J. E.; Hall, J. L.; Degnan, J. J.; Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.; King, R. W.; Macknik, L. O.; O'Gara, D.

1990-01-01

275

Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter observations for lunar base site selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the critical datasets for optimal selection of future lunar landing sites is local- to regional-scale topography. Lunar base site selection will require such data for both engineering and scientific operations purposes. The Lunar Geoscience Orbiter or Lunar Observer is the ideal precursory science mission from which to obtain this required information. We suggest that a simple laser altimeter instrument could be employed to measure local-scale slopes, heights, and depths of lunar surface features important to lunar base planning and design. For this reason, we have designed and are currently constructing a breadboard of a Lunar Observer Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument capable of acquiring contiguous-footprint topographic profiles with both 30-m and 300-m along-track resolution. This instrument meets all the severe weight, power, size, and data rate limitations imposed by Observer-class spacecraft. In addition, LOLA would be capable of measuring the within-footprint vertical roughness of the lunar surface, and the 1.06-micron relative surface reflectivity at normal incidence. We have used airborne laser altimeter data for a few representative lunar analog landforms to simulate and analyze LOLA performance in a 100-km lunar orbit. We demonstrate that this system in its highest resolution mode (30-m diameter footprints) would quantify the topography of all but the very smallest lunar landforms. At its global mapping resolution (300-m diameter footprints), LOLA would establish the topographic context for lunar landing site selection by providing the basis for constructing a 1-2 km spatial resolution global, geodetic topographic grid that would contain a high density of observations (e.g., approximately 1000 observations per each 1 deg by 1 deg cell at the lunar equator). The high spatial and vertical resolution measurements made with a LOLA-class instrument on a precursory Lunar Observer would be highly synergistic with high-resolution imaging datasets, and will allow for direct quantification of critical slopes, heights, and depths of features visible in images of potential lunar base sites.

Garvin, James B.; Bufton, Jack L.

1992-01-01

276

Adhesion of Lunar Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

Walton, Otis R.

2007-04-01

277

Lunar surface magnetometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 15 lunar-surface magnetometer (LSM) is one of a network of magnetometers that have been deployed on the moon to study intrinsic remanent magnetic fields and global magnetic response of the moon to large-scale solar and terrestrial magnetic fields. From these field measurements, properties of the lunar interior such as magnetic permeability, electrical conductivity, and temperature can be calculated. In addition, correlation with solar-wind-spectrometer data allows study of the the solar-wind plasma interaction with the moon and, in turn, investigation of the resulting absorption of gases and accretion of an ionosphere. These physical parameters and processes determined from magnetometer measurements must be accounted for by comprehensive theories of origin and evolution of the moon and solar system.

Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Sonett, C. P.

1972-01-01

278

Lunar asymmetry and palaeomagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is proposed for the early lunar evolution which accounts for the compositional asymmetry between the nearside and farside of the moon and the natural remanent magnetism of lunar rocks. According to the model, the preferred gravitational energy state consisted of an asymmetric accumulation of a liquid iron alloy (Fe-Ni and a small amount of sulfur) which displaces upwards the cold primordial undifferentiated core. The resulting depth asymmetry of the outer partially molten zone leads eventually to the subcrustal accumulation of light magnesium-rich pyroxenes and olivine, preferentially in one hemisphere, sufficient to explain the offset and also indirectly providing a possible explanation for the nearside concentration of KREEP and mass basalt. Slow downward migration of iron releases gravitational energy sufficient for convection and dynamo generation in an iron layer for about a billion years.

Stevenson, D. J.

1980-10-01

279

Lunar Core and Tides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

2004-01-01

280

Lunar hand tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

1987-01-01

281

Lunar material transport vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

1988-01-01

282

Lunar regolith densification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core tube samples of the lunar regolith obtained during the Apollo missions showed a rapid increase in the density of the regolith with depth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the possible cause of this phenomenon, including the densification of the loose regolith material by repeated shaking from the seismic tremors which have been found to occur at regular monthly intervals when the moon and earth are closest to one another. A test bed was designed to study regolith densification. This test bed uses Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS) to conduct shaking experiments in the geotechnical centrifuge with an inflight shake table system. By reproducing realistic in-situ regolith properties, the experiment also serves to test penetrator concepts. The shake table system was designed and used for simulation experiments to study effects of earthquakes on terrestrial soil structures. It is mounted on a 15 g-ton geotechnical centrifuge in which the self-weight induced stresses are replicated by testing an n-th scale model in a gravity field which is n times larger than Earth's gravity. A similar concept applies when dealing with lunar prototypes, where the gravity ratio required for proper simulation of lunar gravity effects is that between the centrifugal acceleration and the lunar gravity. Records of lunar seismic tremors, or moonquakes, were obtained. While these records are being prepared for use as the input data to drive the shake table system, records from the El Centro earthquake of 1940 are being used to perform preliminary tests, using a soil container which was previously used for earthquake studies. This container has a laminar construction, with the layers free to slide on each other, so that the soil motion during the simulated earthquake will not be constrained by the otherwise rigid boundaries. The soil model is prepared by pluviating the MLS from a hopper into the laminar container to a depth of 6 in. The container is mounted on the shake table and the centrifuge is operated to generate an acceleration of 10 times Earth's gravity or 60 times the lunar gravity, thus simulating a lunar regolith thickness of 30 ft. The shake table is then operated using the scaled 'moonquake' as the input motion. One or more model moonquakes are used in each experiment, after which the soil is analyzed for its density profile with depth. This is accomplished by removing from the soil bed a column of soil contained within a thin rubber sleeve which has been previously embedded vertically in the soil during pluviation. This column of soil is transferred to a gamma ray device, in which the gamma ray transmission transversely through the soil is measured and compared with standard calibration samples. In this manner, the density profile can be determined.

Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein

1991-11-01

283

Adhesion of Lunar Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

Walton, Otis R.

2007-01-01

284

Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently being developed in a collaborative effort between Langley Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. The screens typically consist of spiral shaped conductive traces patterned on high dielectric substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, polyimide film, etc.). Two broad categories of substrate materials are being investigated for the screens. One category consists of transparent substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, sapphire, etc.), and the other non-transparent sub-strates (Kapton, polyimide films, metals, etc.). The transparent screens utilize patterns made from indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive material, on clear substrates while the non-transparent screens use copper patterns on a transluscent or opaque substrates. Further, the screen is coated with a high dielectric polyimide cover layer to protect the screen pattern. One promising cover layer material that is currently being investigated is Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI), a NASA LaRC developed polyimide. Lastly, a top-coat of hard, inorganic material is evaporated onto the cover layer for protection from scratches due to abrasive nature of the dust. Of note, several top-coat materials are under investigation and include: aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, and zinc sulfide. The electrostatic dust mitigation screens function when a high voltage (700V or greater) is applied to the screen electrodes, thus creating an electromagnetic wave across the surface of the screen that repels the dust. Lunar dust typically contains a high positive charge; therefore, the screens are charged with a higher positive charge that effectively repels dust from the surface (i.e. like charges repel, unlike charges attract). It is anticipated that full development and maturation of this technology will enable humans to sustain a long term presence on the moon, and other planets where dust may have negative implications.

Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

285

Investigations of lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigations were directed at determining the radiation history and surface chronology of lunar materials using the etched particle track technique. The major lunar materials studied are the igneous rocks and double core from Apollo 12, the breccia and soil samples from Apollo 14, and the core samples from Luna 16. In the course of this work two new and potentially important observations were made: (1) Cosmic ray-induced spallation-recoil tracks were identified. The density of such tracks, when compared with the density of tracks induced by a known flux of accelerator protons, yields the time of exposure of a sample within the top meter or two of moon's surface. (2) Natural, fine scale plastic deformation was found to have fragmented pre-existing charged particle tracks, allowing the dating of the mechanical event causing the deformation.

Comstock, G. M.; Fvwaraye, A. O.; Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.

1972-01-01

286

Lunar concrete for construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

1988-01-01

287

Lunar concrete for construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feasibility of using concrete for lunar base construction was discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Our experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the Moon are provided in this paper, along with specific conclusions from the existing database.

Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

1992-01-01

288

First lunar outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health maintenance, waste management, EVA operations facilities, and safe havens.

Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

1992-01-01

289

Uses of lunar sulfur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical, and biochemical properties. Although known abundances on the Moon are limited (approximately 0.1 percent in mare soils), sulfur is relatively extractable by heating. Coproduction of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich mare soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10 percent of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource.

Vaniman, D.; Pettit, D.; Heiken, G.

1992-01-01

290

Lunar seismic data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific data transmitted continuously from all ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) stations on the Moon and recorded on instrumentation tapes at receiving stations distributed around the Earth were processed. The processing produced sets of computer-compatible digital tapes, from which various other data sets convenient for analysis were generated. The seismograms were read, various types of seismic events were classified; the detected events were cataloged.

Nakamura, Y.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.

1982-01-01

291

Lunar Phases Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NAAP Lunar Phases Lab demonstrates how the earth-sun-moon geometry gives rise to the phases of the moon as seen from earth. A distant view of an observer looking down on earth as well as a perspective of an observer looking into the sky are used in the the simulator. This lab provides resources which include demonstration guides, in-class worksheets, technical documents and assessment pre- and post- tests.

292

The lunar interior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compressional velocities are estimated for materials in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change in composition to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Calcium and aluminum are probably important components of the upper mantle and are deficient in the lower mantle. Much of the moon may have accreted from material similar in composition to eucrites. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel, and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite. The thickness of the layer is of the order of 50 km. Cosmic abundances can be maintained if the lower mantle is ferromagnesium silicate with minimal amounts of calcium and aluminum. Achondrites such as eucrites and howardites have more of the required characteristics of the lunar interior than carbonaceous chondrites. A density inversion in the moon is a strong possibility.

Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

1972-01-01

293

Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

2008-01-01

294

Lunar radiation environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of moon’s radiation environment, its implications for human exploration, and its interaction with lunar regolith.

Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

295

Lunar resources - Toward living off the lunar land  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of possibilities for the exploitation of lunar materials already proven to exist by Apollo experience. It is noted that lunar soils contain various materials required for life support, construction, and transportation, but that the high cost of lifting material from the earth's surface suggests that, in the near term, lunar material should be considered for use both on the moon and in LEO. Lunar water production, farming, propellant production, and the production of glass, iron, aluminum, and silicon to be used in lunar construction are discussed. The role of solar power and the possibility of electrolysis of molten silicate as a means of producing oxygen and metals for use on the moon and in near-earth space are examined. The benefits of immediate investment in developmental technology (given extensive project lead times) are stressed.

Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.

1989-01-01

296

Rationale for a hyperbaric treatment capability at a Lunar Station.  

PubMed

Missions to establish a permanent presence on the Moon will include a significant amount of extravehicular activity (EVA), which carries the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Factors which will influence that risk include: cabin and space suit pressure environments, frequency of an activity level during EVA, and the possibility of a loss-of-pressure mishap. These factors were considered for Space Station Freedom (SSF), resulting in the decision to include a hyperbaric airlock capable of treating DCS. Using concepts from operational medicine, the need for such a capability is determined by its influence on mission risk. In comparison to SSF, a Lunar Station will have gravity, a higher EVA rate, physically more DCS provocative EVA, and little, if any, capacity for medical evacuation. Therefore, unless Lunar mission planners can provide pressure environments that offer near zero risk of DCS for nominal operations, a hyperbaric treatment capability should be included. PMID:8447809

Dowell, G L

1993-03-01

297

A surface systems architecture for an evolutionary lunar base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Office of Exploration has completed a Systems Engineering and Integration effort to define a point design for an evolving lunar base that supports substantial science, exploration, and resource production objectives. This study addressed systems level design; element requirements and conceptual designs; assessments of precursor and technology needs, and operations concepts. The central base is assumed to be located equatorially on the lunar nearside north of the crater Moltke in Mare Tranquillitatis. The study considers an aggressive case with three main phases. The initial Man-Tended Phase establishes basic enabling facilities that include a modular habitat that periodically houses a crew of four. During the Experimental Phase the base becomes permanently manned with the construction of a larger habitat that provides augmented workshop and laboratory volumes and housing for crew. The Operational Phase expands base capabilities to a substantially mature level while reducing reliance on earth.

Roberts, Barney B.; Pieniazek, Lester A.

1990-01-01

298

An evolution strategy for lunar nuclear surface power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production and transmission of electric power for a permanently inhabited lunar base poses a significant challenge which can best be met through an evolution strategy. Nuclear systems offer the best opportunity for evolution in terms of both life and performance. Applicable nuclear power technology options include isotope systems (either radioisotope thermoelectric generators or dynamic isotope power systems) and reactor systems with either static (thermoelectric or thermionic) or dynamic (Brayton, Stirling, Rankine) conversion. A power system integration approach that takes evolution into account would benefit by reduced development and operations cost, progressive flight experience, and simplified logistics, and would permit unrestrained base expansion. For the purposes of defining a nuclear power system evolution strategy, the lunar base development shall consist of four phases: precursor, emplacement, consolidation, and operations.

Mason, Lee S.

1992-02-01

299

An evolution strategy for lunar nuclear surface power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production and transmission of electric power for a permanently inhabited lunar base poses a significant challenge which can best be met through an evolution strategy. Nuclear systems offer the best opportunity for evolution in terms of both life and performance. Applicable nuclear power technology options include isotope systems (either radioisotope thermoelectric generators or dynamic isotope power systems) and reactor systems with either static (thermoelectric or thermionic) or dynamic (Brayton, Stirling, Rankine) conversion. A power system integration approach that takes evolution into account would benefit by reduced development and operations cost, progressive flight experience, and simplified logistics, and would permit unrestrained base expansion. For the purposes of defining a nuclear power system evolution strategy, the lunar base development shall consist of four phases: precursor, emplacement, consolidation, and operations.

Mason, Lee S.

1992-01-01

300

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was implemented to facilitate scientific and engineering-driven mapping of the lunar surface at new spatial scales and with new remote sensing methods, identify safe landing sites, search for in situ resources, and measure the space radiation environment. After its successful launch on June 18,2009, the LRO spacecraft and instruments were activated and calibrated in an eccentric polar lunar orbit until September 15, when LRO was moved to a circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 50 km. LRO will operate for at least one year to support the goals of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and for at least two years of extended operations for additional lunar science measurements supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). LRO carries six instruments with associated science and exploration investigations, and a telecommunications/radar technology demonstration. The LRO instruments are: Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE), Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). The technology demonstration is a compact, dual-frequency, hybrid polarity synthetic aperture radar instrument (Mini-RF). LRO observations also support the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), the lunar impact mission that was co-manifested with LRO on the Atlas V (401) launch vehicle. This paper describes the LRO objectives and measurements that support exploration of the Moon and that address the science objectives outlined by the National Academy of Science's report on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SCEM). We also describe data accessibility by the science and exploration community.

Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John; Chin, Gordon; Garvin, James

2010-01-01

301

Human Exploration and Settlement of the Moon Using LUNOX-Augmented NTR Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An innovative trimodal nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) concept is described which combines conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR, Brayton cycle power generation and supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) technologies. Known as the liquid oxygen (LOX) augmented NTR (LANTR), this concept utilizes the large divergent section of the NTR nozzle as an 'afterburner' into which LOX is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the LANTR's choked sonic throat--'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-hydrogen mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR can operate over a wide range of thrust and specific impulse (Isp) values while the reactor core power level remains relatively constant. As the MR varies from zero to seven, the thrust-to-weight ratio for a 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR increases by approximately 440%--from 3 to 13--while the Isp decreases by only approximately 45%--from 940 to 515 seconds. This thrust augmentation feature of the LANTR means that 'big engine' performance can be obtained using smaller more affordable, easier to test NTR engines. 'Reoxidizing' the bipropellant LANTR system in low lunar orbit (LLO) with high density 'lunar-derived' LOX (LUNOX) enables a reusable, reduced size and mass lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which can be deployed and resupplied using two 66 t-class Shuttle-derived launch vehicles. The reusable LANTR can also transport 200 to 300% more payload on each piloted round trip mission than an expendable 'all LH2' NTR system. As initial outposts grow to eventual lunar settlements and LUNOX production capacity increases, the LANTR concept can also enable a rapid 'commuter' shuttle capable of 36 to 24 hour 'one way' trips to the Moon and back with reasonable size vehicles and initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) requirements.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.

1995-01-01

302

Lunar Surface Morphology and Composition using Chandrayaan-1 TMC and Hyper-Spectral Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data provided by instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 has been extensively used to pursue questions related to lunar science and to understand lunar evolution and lunar resources. Significant contributions to newer aspects of lunar geosciences have been addressed by the use of data provided by Chandrayaan-1 TMC and Hyperspectral instruments. Large number of lunar science studies in particular to study the morphology, surface age determination and composition of the Moon have resulted in better understanding of lunar evolutionary processes. Three instruments of Chandrayaan-1, Hyperspectral Imager (HYSI) of ISRO, Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) of NASA/JPL and SIR-2 of placecountry-regionGermany have provided new data on lunar surface composition by measuring lunar surface reflectance in an extended range of 0.4 to 3.0 mm of electromagnetic spectrum. Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) provided high resolution stereoscopic images of Moon surface at 5m spatial resolution for photo-geological mapping and three dimensional visualization. Compositional mapping of the Moon surfaces based on spectroscopy has been carried out using remotely acquired reflectance spectra from HySI, Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and SIR-2 spectrometers. Towards the generation of science data, spectral lunar surface radiance data was converted to obtain surface reflectance in sixty four bands of HySI imager in the spectral region of 0.4 to 0.95 mm and corrections to photometric effects were done to normalized the lunar reflectance to a common viewing geometry. HySI reflectance data was used to map various lithological units of the Mare Moscoviense on the far side of the Moon. Five major compositional units of highland basin soils, ancient mature mare, highland contaminated mare, buried lava flows with low Ca-pyroxene and young mare units were identified. The central park of Tycho crater was studied in detail by using TMC, HySI and M3 data. Newer aspects about its morphology and composition have been reported by using these data sets. Compositionally, M3 data suggested that the lava ponds and channels on the summit of the central peak are dominated by high-Ca pyroxene rich rocks with sparse distribution of olivine. These new findings suggest that Tycho's central peak has undergone multiphase post-impact volcanic events. A new Lunar mineral Mg-Spinel was discovered at the central placePlaceTypepeak of PlaceNameCrater Theophilus on the near side of the Moon. These newly identified Mg-Spinel rich rock types are defined by their strong 2-? m absorption and lack of 1-? m absorptions in spectral reflectance response. High spatial resolution TMC data had been used extensively for studying the morphology of impact craters and to understand the impact cratering mechanism over lunar highlands and mare basatls. TMC data was used to study lunar morphological features such as lava tubes, sinous rilles, volcanic domes etc. Lunar surface is known to have presence of sinous rilles, which are believed to be collapsed lave tubes. A Lunar volcanic tube (figure 4) around ˜4 km length was identified as a potential source of future human settlement on the Moon using TMC images and digital elevation data in the Oceanus Procellarum region of the Moon. TMC data have also been used for absolute dating of lunar surface by employing. Studies have also been done to study the lunar non-mare volcanism around domes and few such domes were identified in the Mare Procellarum region of the Moon.

Chauhan, Prakash; Ajai, A.; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

2012-07-01

303

Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

1971-01-01

304

PROCEEDINGS OF LUNAR AND PLANETARY ,  

E-print Network

of the details can be seen by which an' impact crater might be distinguished from a solitary maar volcanic crater been adduced for the impact origin of lunar craters is thus insufficient. Many lunar craters are larger of high-explosive craters and impact craters. Because a large amount of gas is produced, the cratering

Rathbun, Julie A.

305

Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) has been created to manage the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling products that support the Constellation Program (CxP) and other lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test and operations associated with lunar sortie missions, crewed and robotic operations on the surface, and the establishment of a lunar outpost. The information provided through LMMP will assist CxP in: planning tasks in the areas of landing site evaluation and selection, design and placement of landers and other stationary assets, design of rovers and other mobile assets, developing terrain-relative navigation (TRN) capabilities, and assessment and planning of science traverses. The project draws on expertise from several NASA and non-NASA organizations (MSFC, ARC, GSFC, JPL, CRREL US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, and the USGS). LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1), as available and appropriate, to meet Constellation s data needs. LMMP will provide access to this data through a single intuitive and easy to use NASA portal that transparently accesses appropriately sanctioned portions of the widely dispersed and distributed collections of lunar data, products and tools. Two visualization systems are being developed, a web-based system called Lunar Mapper, and a desktop client, ILIADS, which will be downloadable from the LMMP portal. LMMP will provide such products as local and regional imagery and DEMs, hazard assessment maps, lighting and gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and to ensure the highest quality data products. While Constellation is our primary customer, LMMP is striving to be as useful as possible to the lunar science community, the lunar commercial community, the lunar education and public outreach (E/PO) community, and anyone else interested in accessing or utilizing lunar data. A beta version of the portal and visualization systems is expected to be released in late 2009, with a version 1 release planned for early 2011.

Noble, Sarah K.; French, R. A.; Nall, M. E.; Muery, K. G.

2009-01-01

306

Habitat configuration and availability influences the settlement of temperate reef fishes (Tripterygiidae)  

E-print Network

Habitat configuration and availability influences the settlement of temperate reef fishes Habitat availability Habitat configuration Settlement Tripterygiidae To survive, most benthic marine organisms must find suitable settlement habitat. For reef fishes, settlement hab- itat is often structurally

Shima, Jeff

307

Organics in APOLLO Lunar Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of many unknowns prior to the Apollo landings concerned the possibility of life, its remains, or its organic precursors on the surface of the Moon. While the existence of lunar organisms was considered highly unlikely, a program of biological quarantine and testing for the astronauts, the Apollo Command Modules, and the lunar rock and soil samples, was instituted in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). No conclusive evidence of lunar organisms, was detected and the quarantine program was ended after Apollo 14. Analyses for organic compounds were also con-ducted. Considerable effort was expended, during lunar surface operations and in the LRL, to minimize and quantify organic contamination. Post-Apollo curatorial operations and cleaning minimize contamination from particulates, oxygen, and water but no longer specifically address organic contamination. The organic compounds measured in Apollo samples are generally consistent with known sources of contamination.

Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

2007-01-01

308

NASA Planetary Astronomy Lunar Atmospheric Imaging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authors have conducted a program of research focused on studies of the lunar atmosphere. Also present preliminary results of an ongoing effort to determine the degree that metal abundances in the lunar atmosphere are stoichiometric, that is, reflective of the lunar surface composition. We make the first-ever mid-ultraviolet spectroscopic search for emission from the lunar atmosphere. Bibtex entry for this

S. Alan Stern

1996-01-01

309

Invited Review Lunar meteorites from Oman  

E-print Network

Invited Review Lunar meteorites from Oman Randy L. KOROTEV Department of Earth and Planetary­Sixty named lunar meteorite stones representing about 24 falls have been found in Oman. In an area of 10.7 · 103 km2 in southern Oman, lunar meteorite areal densities average 1 g km)2 . All lunar meteorites from

310

NASA Planetary Astronomy Lunar Atmospheric Imaging Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Authors have conducted a program of research focused on studies of the lunar atmosphere. Also present preliminary results of an ongoing effort to determine the degree that metal abundances in the lunar atmosphere are stoichiometric, that is, reflective of the lunar surface composition. We make the first-ever mid-ultraviolet spectroscopic search for emission from the lunar atmosphere.

Stern, S. Alan

1996-01-01

311

RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE NEED FOR RESOURCES: When mankind returns to the moon, there will be an aspect of the architecture that will totally change how we explore the solar system. We will take the first steps towards breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables by extracting resources from planetary bodies. Our first efforts in this area, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), will be to extract the abundant oxygen found in the lunar regolith. But the "holy grail" of lunar ISRU will be finding an exploitable source of lunar hydrogen. If we can find a source of extractable hydrogen, it would provide a foundation for true independence from Earth. With in-situ hydrogen (or water) and oxygen we can produce many of the major consumables needed to operate a lunar outpost. We would have water to drink, oxygen to breath, as well as rocket propellants and fuel cell reagents to enable extended access and operations on the moon. These items make up a huge percentage of the mass launched from the Earth. Producing them in-situ would significantly reduce the cost of operating a lunar outpost while increasing payload availability for science. PROSPECTING: The Lunar Prospector found evidence of elevated hydrogen at the lunar poles, and measurements made at these locations from the Clementine mission bistatic radar have been interpreted as correlating to water/ice concentrations. At the South Pole, there is reasonably strong correlation between the elevated areas of hydrogen and permanently shadowed craters. However, there is considerable debate on the form and concentration of this hydrogen since the orbiting satellites had limited resolution and their data can be interpreted in different ways. The varying interpretations are based on differing opinions and theories of lunar environment, evolution, and cometary bombardment within the lunar Science community. The only way to truly answer this question from both a Science and resource availability perspective is to go to the lunar poles and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of interstellar volatiles from cold molecular clouds. These sources leave distinctive s

Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

2007-08-01

312

P olya's Permanent Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A square real matrix is sign-nonsingular if it is forced to be nonsingular by its pattern of zero, negative, and positive entries. We give structural characterizations of sign-nonsingular matrices, digraphs with no even length dicycles, and square non- negative real matrices whose permanent and determinant are equal. The structural characterizations, which are topological in nature, imply polynomial algorithms.

William McCuaig

313

Advances in Lunar Science and Observational Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar science is currently undergoing a renaissance as our understanding of our Moon continues to evolve given new data from multiple lunar mission and new analyses. This talk will overview NASA's recent and future lunar missions to explain the scientific questions addressed by missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (Grail), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), and the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The talk will also overview opportunities for participatory exploration whereby professional and amateur astronomers are encouraged to participate in lunar exploration in conjunction with NASA.

Heldmann, Jennifer

2012-01-01

314

12 CFR 344.7 - Settlement of securities transactions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Settlement of securities transactions. 344.7 Section 344...RECORDKEEPING AND CONFIRMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITIES TRANSACTIONS § 344.7 Settlement of securities transactions. (a) A bank...

2013-01-01

315

12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024...ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

2013-01-01

316

12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.  

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2014-01-01

317

12 CFR 1024.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reproduction of settlement statements. 1024...ACT (REGULATION X) § 1024.9 Reproduction of settlement statements. (a) Permissible...sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must...

2012-01-01

318

12 CFR 1209.20 - Opportunity for informal settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 1209.20 Section 1209...Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND...Procedure § 1209.20 Opportunity for informal settlement. Any respondent may,...

2012-01-01

319

12 CFR 1209.20 - Opportunity for informal settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 1209.20 Section 1209...Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND...Procedure § 1209.20 Opportunity for informal settlement. Any respondent may,...

2013-01-01

320

12 CFR 1209.20 - Opportunity for informal settlement.  

...2014-01-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 1209.20 Section 1209...Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND...Procedure § 1209.20 Opportunity for informal settlement. Any respondent may,...

2014-01-01

321

15 CFR 2006.6 - Formal dispute settlement.  

...UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED § 2006.6 Formal dispute settlement. If the...whichever is earlier, the Trade Representative shall institute the formal dispute settlement proceedings...provided for in the trade...

2014-01-01

322

15 CFR 2006.6 - Formal dispute settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED § 2006.6 Formal dispute settlement. If the...whichever is earlier, the Trade Representative shall institute the formal dispute settlement proceedings...provided for in the trade...

2011-01-01

323

15 CFR 2006.6 - Formal dispute settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED § 2006.6 Formal dispute settlement. If the...whichever is earlier, the Trade Representative shall institute the formal dispute settlement proceedings...provided for in the trade...

2013-01-01

324

15 CFR 2006.6 - Formal dispute settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...UNDER SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED § 2006.6 Formal dispute settlement. If the...whichever is earlier, the Trade Representative shall institute the formal dispute settlement proceedings...provided for in the trade...

2012-01-01

325

20 CFR 355.46 - Compromise or settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Compromise or settlement. 355.46 Section 355.46 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties...

2010-04-01

326

15 CFR 2006.6 - Formal dispute settlement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Formal dispute settlement. 2006.6 Section 2006.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...SECTION 301 OF THE TRADE ACT OF 1974, AS AMENDED § 2006.6 Formal dispute settlement. If the...

2010-01-01

327

SETTLEMENT AND COVER SUBSIDENCE OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerical models using equations for linearly elastic deformation were developed to predict the maximum expected amount of settlement and cover subsidence and potential cracking of the cover by differential settlement in uniformly, horizontally layered hazardous waste landfills. ...

328

Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

2012-01-01

329

Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

2008-01-01

330

Lunar Daylight Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

Griffin, Brand Norman

2010-01-01

331

A Blueprint of an International Lunar Robotic Village  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human civilization is destined to look, find and develop a second habitable destination in our Solar System, besides Earth: Moon and Mars are the two most likely and credible places based on proximity, available local resources and economics Recent international missions have brought back valuable information on both Moon and Mars. The vision is: A permanent presence on the Moon using advanced robotic systems as precursors to the future human settlement of the Moon is possible in the near-term. An international effort should be initiated to create a permanent robotic village to demonstrate and validate advanced technologies and systems across international boundaries, conduct broad science, explore new regions of the Moon and Mars, develop infrastructure, human habitats and shelters, facilitate development of commerce and stimulate public involvement and education.

Alkalai, Leon

2012-01-01

332

Press abstracts of the 21st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Program Committee for the Twenty-fisrt Lunar and Planetary Science Conference has chosen these contributions as having the greatest potential interest for the general public. The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. More technical abstracts will be found in Lunar and Planetary Science XXI. Representative titles are: Ancient Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions on Mars: Global Model and Geological Evidence; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Ordinary Chondrites and Their Chondrules; Exposure Ages and Collisional History of L-Chondrite Parent Bodies; Models of Solar-Powered Geysers on Triton; and Search for Life: A Science Rationale for a Permanent Base on Mars.

1990-01-01

333

Test Results from a Simulated High Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was modified to simulate high voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high frequency AC power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

2008-01-01

334

Test Results From a Simulated High-Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was modified to simulate high-voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high-frequency ac power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

2008-01-01

335

RESOLVE: An International Mission to Search for Volatiles at the Lunar Poles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous studies have shown that the use of space resources to manufacture propellant and consumables can significantly reduce the launch mass of space exploration beyond earth orbit. Even the Moon, which has no atmosphere, is ricb in resources that can theoretically be harvested. A series of lunar missions over the last 20 years has shown an unexpected resource on the Moon. There is evidence that water ice and other volatiles useful for the production of propellants are located at the lunar poles, though most of it is located within permanently shadowed craters where accessing these resources is challenging.

Larson, William E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Picard, Martin

2013-01-01

336

Lunar Phases Interactive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts the moon's rotation around the Earth and the corresponding view from a single point on the Earth as time elapses. The representation has 4 animated components: 1) A view of rotating earth and moon, shown from above 2) A clock face showing the passage of time 3) An view from Earth of the of sky, sun and moon and changing to indicate day and night views 4) A 28-day calendar The four components interactively depict lunar phases over 28 day cycle.

337

Lunar Phases: Addressing Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise was designed to address student misconceptions about why the Moon exhibits phases. Using a sketchbook, digital camera, or flex cam, a student sits at the center of a darkened room illuminated by a single light source in a stationary position. Stools are set up surrounding the student in the center and other students take those positions, always keeping their faces toward the center. The center student sketches or take pictures of the faces at each of the positions. Substituting a sphere (such as a ball) for the students' faces provides an even more vivid illustration of the shadowing of the sphere and connects directly to the rationale for lunar phases.

Childs, Philip

338

Precambrian Lunar Volcanic Protolife  

PubMed Central

Five representative terrestrial analogs of lunar craters are detailed relevant to Precambrian fumarolic activity. Fumarolic fluids contain the ingredients for protolife. Energy sources to derive formaldehyde, amino acids and related compounds could be by flow charging, charge separation and volcanic shock. With no photodecomposition in shadow, most fumarolic fluids at 40 K would persist over geologically long time periods. Relatively abundant tungsten would permit creation of critical enzymes, Fischer-Tropsch reactions could form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soluble volcanic polyphosphates would enable assembly of nucleic acids. Fumarolic stimuli factors are described. Orbital and lander sensors specific to protolife exploration including combined Raman/laser-induced breakdown spectrocsopy are evaluated. PMID:19582224

Green, Jack

2009-01-01

339

Developing technologies for lunar-based astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prospects for lunar-based astronomy and the development of the required technologies are briefly reviewed. A systematic approach to lunar-based astronomy includes a progression in capability from small automated telescopes to the 16-meter reflector on the moon. A next step beyond the 16-meter reflector will be a Lunar Optical/Ultraviolet/Infrared Synthesis Array. Intermediate steps are represented by the Lunar Transit Telescope and the Lunar Cluster Telescope Experiment. Priorities for the required technology development are identified.

Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Wetzel, John P.

1992-01-01

340

Lunar Crustal History from Isotopic Studies of Lunar Anorthosites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of approx.3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. [1]. We will present recent chronological studies of anorthosites [2] that are relevant both to the LMO hypothesis and also to the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Old (approx.4.4 Ga) Sm-Nd ages have been determined for some Apollo 16 anorthosites, and primitive initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios have been measured for several, but well-defined Rb-Sr ages concordant with the Sm-Nd ages have not been determined until now. Lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater, has concordant Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages of 4.47+/-0.07 Ga and 4.49+/-0.07 Ga, respectively. Initial Nd-143/Nd-144 determined from the Sm-Nd isochron corresponds to E(sub Nd,CHUR) = 0.3+/-0.5 compared to a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir, or E(sub Nd,HEDPB) = -0.6+/-0.5 compared to the initial Nd-143/Nd-144 of the HED Parent Body [3]. Lunar anorthosites tend to have E(sub Nd) > 0 when compared to CHUR, apparently inconsistent with derivation from a single lunar magma ocean. Although E(sub Nd) < 0 for some anorthosites, if lunar initial Nd-143/Nd-144 is taken equal to HEDR for the HED parent body [3], enough variability remains among the anorthosite data alone to suggest that lunar anorthosites do not derive from a single source, i.e., they are not all products of the LMO. An anorthositic clast from desert meteorite Dhofar 908 has an Ar-39-Ar-40 age of 4.42+/-0.04 Ga, the same as the 4.36-4.41+/-0.035 Ga Ar-39-Ar-40 age of anorthositic clast Y-86032,116 in Antarctic meteorite Yamato- 86032 [3,4]. Conclusions: (i) Lunar anorthosites come from diverse sources. Orbital geochemical studies confirm variability in lunar crustal composition [1, 5]. We suggest that the variability extends to anorthosites alone as shown by the Sm-Nd data (Fig. 2) and the existence of magnesian anorthosites (MAN, [6]) and "An93 anorthosites" [3,4]. (ii) Anorthositic clasts in lunar meteorites retain "high" Ar-Ar ages compared to Apollo anorthosites. This is perhaps a hint that "cataclysmic" impacts were on average less energetic in the mostly farside source regions of these meteorites than on the lunar nearside.

Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Bogard, D. D.; Yamaguchi, A.

2010-01-01

341

Extraction of Water from Polar Lunar Permafrost with Microwaves - Dielectric Property Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 10 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. The dielectric properties of lunar soil will determine the hardware requirements for extraction processes. Microwave frequency dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured.

Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

2009-01-01

342

28 CFR Appendix to Part 14 - Delegations of Settlement Authority  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...settlement of federal tort claims, if the...novel question of law or of policy, he...settlement of federal tort claims, if the amount...novel question of law or of policy, he...settlement of federal tort claims if the amount...novel question of law or of policy,...

2010-07-01

343

Estimation of the components of municipal solid waste settlement.  

PubMed

Estimation of the municipal solid waste settlements and the contribution of each of the components are essential in the estimation of the volume of the waste that can be accommodated in a landfill and increase the post-usage of the landfill. This article describes an experimental methodology for estimating and separating primary settlement, settlement owing to creep and biodegradation-induced settlement. The primary settlement and secondary settlement have been estimated and separated based on 100% pore pressure dissipation time and the coefficient of consolidation. Mechanical creep and biodegradation settlements were estimated and separated based on the observed time required for landfill gas production. The results of a series of laboratory triaxial tests, creep tests and anaerobic reactor cell setups were conducted to describe the components of settlement. All the tests were conducted on municipal solid waste (compost reject) samples. It was observed that biodegradation accounted to more than 40% of the total settlement, whereas mechanical creep contributed more than 20% towards the total settlement. The essential model parameters, such as the compression ratio (Cc'), rate of mechanical creep (c), coefficient of mechanical creep (b), rate of biodegradation (d) and the total strain owing to biodegradation (EDG ), are useful parameters in the estimation of total settlements as well as components of settlement in landfill. PMID:25428429

Sivakumar Babu, Gl; Lakshmikanthan, P

2015-01-01

344

Marie Russo: An Oral History of the Italian Settlement House  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Settlement House Movement in the United States was a response by progressive reformers to meet the needs of urban poor and immigrant families in the early years of the 20th century. Some settlements were outreach services of churches. There are limited accounts of the experiences of the individuals who used the settlement houses. This study…

Beard, Kathryn H.

2010-01-01

345

Lunar cartographic dossier, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dossier is designed to provide an up to date summary of the extent and quality of cartographic information as well as describing materials available to support lunar scientific investigation and study. It covers the specific photographic, selenodetic and cartographic data considered to be of continuing significance to users of lunar cartographic information. Historical background data is included. Descriptive and evaluative information is presented concerning lunar maps, photomaps and photo mosaics. Discussion comprises identification of series or individual sheet characteristics, control basis, source materials and compilation methodology used. The global, regional and local selenodetic control are described which were produced for lunar feature location in support of lunar mapping or positional study. Further discussion covers the fundamental basis for each control system, number of points produced, techniques employed and evaluated accuracy. Although lunar photography is an informational source rather than a cartographic product, a photography section was included to facilitate correlation to the mapping and control works described. Description of lunar photographic systems, photography and photo support data are presented from a cartographic-photogrammetric viewpoint with commentary on cartographic applications.

Schimerman, L. A. (editor)

1975-01-01

346

Earth Above the Lunar Horizon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 8 served as the first manned lunar orbit mission, and the first manned flight of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle. Lift off occurred on December 21, 1968, carrying a three man crew consisting of astronauts Frank Borman, commander; William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; and James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot. The three safely returned to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. This photograph of Earth above the lunar horizon is one of many taken by the crew. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

1969-01-01

347

[Problems of the mutual relationship between basic settlement units and settlements].  

PubMed

Some problems concerning the changing definitions of settlements in the Czech part of Czechoslovakia over time are considered. The problems such changes pose for longitudinal demographic analysis are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12342320

Hamerska, H

1989-01-01

348

Lunar base heat pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

1994-01-01

349

Lunar deep drill apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

Harvey, Jill (editor)

1989-01-01

350

Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double Ackermann steering. The primary power of 8 kW is supplied by a dynamic isotope system using a closed Brayton cycle with a xenon-hydrogen mixture as the working fluid. A sodium-sulfur battery serves as the secondary power source. Excess heat produced by the primary power system and other rover systems is rejected by radiators located on the top of the rear cylinder. The total mass of the PLR 2 is 7015 kg. Simplicity and low total weight have been the driving principles behind the design of PLR 1. The overall configuration consists of a 7-m-long, 3-m-diameter cylindrical main vehicle and a two-wheeled trailer. The cylinder of the main body is capped by eight-section, faceted, semi-hemispherical ends. The trailer contains the RTG power source and is not pressurized. The shell of the main body is constructed of a layered carbon fiber/foam/Kevlar sandwich structure. Included in the shell is a layer of water for radiation protection. The layer of water extends from the front of the rover over the crew compartment and creates a safe haven for the crew during a solar flare-up. The carbon fiber provides the majority of the strength and stiffness and the Kevlar provides protection from micrometeoroids. The Kevlar is covered with a gold foil and multi-layer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation degradation and heat transfer through the wall. A thin thermoplastic layer seals the fiber and provides additional strength.

Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; Mcclure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

1992-01-01

351

Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double Ackermann steering. The primary power of 8 kW is supplied by a dynamic isotope system using a closed Brayton cycle with a xenon-hydrogen mixture as the working fluid.

352

A NOVEL SENSOR FOR MONITORING SETTLEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we describe a new concept for a sensor using fully distributed sensing along optical fibres designed especially for monitoring lateral movements in embankments and settlement areas, and deformations of excavation walls and tunnels. The sensor design includes four components: mass block housing, middle cylinder, connector housing, optical fibers and mass-block. The block housing is to hold the

Pingyu Zhu; Hongyang Zeng; Guilin Jiang; Yang Zhou

353

Vulnerability of coastal urban settlements in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the issue of vulnerability of coastal urban settlements in Jamaica in the context of rapid urbanization, poverty and institutional incapacity. It also aims to provide a case study that demonstrates the precarious situation faced by the most vulnerable coastal urban communities in Jamaica. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review preceded in-depth but informal interviews

Amani Ishemo

2009-01-01

354

International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial-like lava flow geology adds to Mauna Kea / Moon similarities. Operating amidst the extinct volcano's fine grain lava and dust particles offers experience for major challenges posed by silicon-edged, powdery, deep and abundant lunar regolith. Power stations for lunar observatories, both robotic and low cost at first, are an immediate enabling necessity and will serve as a commercial-industrial driver for a wide range of lunar base technologies. Both microwave rectenna-transmitters and radio-optical telescopes, maybe 1-meter diameter, can be designed using the same, new ultra-lightweight materials. Five of the world's six major spacefaring powers - America, Russia, Japan, China and India, are located around Hawaii in the Pacific / Asia area. With Europe, which has many resources in the Pacific hemisphere including Arianespace offices in Tokyo and Singapore, they have 55-60% of the global population. New international business partnerships such as Sea Launch in the mid-Pacific, and national ventures like China's Hainan spaceport, Japan's Kiribati shuttle landing site, Australia and Indonesia's emerging launch sites, and Russia's Ekranoplane sea launcher / lander - all combine with still more and advancing technologies to provide the central Pacific a globally representative, state-of-the-art and profitable access to space in this new century. The astronomer / engineers tasked with operation of the lunar observatory / power station will be the first to voyage from Hawaii to the Moon, before this decade is out. Their scientific and technical training at the world's leading astronomical complex on the lunar-like landscape of Mauna Kea may be enhanced with the learning and transmission of local cultures. Following the astronomer / engineers, tourism and travel in the commercially and technologically dynamic Pacific hemisphere will open the new ocean of space to public access in the 21st century like they opened the old ocean of sea and air to Hawaii in the 20th - with Hawaii becoming the place to go to honeymoon, and to go to the Moon. A world apart, Hawaii, with its

Durst, S.

355

Lunar resource surveys from orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical composition of lunar soil and rocks is known now for nine surface sites, by analysis of returned samples. Three classes of silicate material, mare basalt, KREEP, and highland material (sometimes called ANT) have been identified as major components. Gamma-ray and X-ray instruments have mapped the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks for major elements, K, and Th. It is hoped that the Lunar Polar Orbiter will carry instruments capable of producing a chemical map of the entire moon. The most exciting possibility is that ice may exist in shadowed regions near the lunar pole.

Arnold, J. R.

1977-01-01

356

Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

2012-01-01

357

Lunar surface operations. Volume 4: Lunar rover trailer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the project was to design a lunar rover trailer for exploration missions. The trailer was designed to carry cargo such as lunar geological samples, mining equipment and personnel. It is designed to operate in both day and night lunar environments. It is also designed to operate with a maximum load of 7000 kilograms. The trailer has a ground clearance of 1.0 meters and can travel over obstacles 0.75 meters high at an incline of 45 degrees. It can be transported to the moon fully assembled using any heavy lift vehicle with a storage compartment diameter of 5.0 meters. The trailer has been designed to meet or exceed the performance of any perceivable lunar vehicle.

Shields, William; Feteih, Salah; Hollis, Patrick

1993-01-01

358

Lunar igneous rocks and the nature of the lunar interior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar igneous rocks are interpreted, which can give useful information about mineral assemblages and mineral chemistry as a function of depth in the lunar interior. Terra rocks, though intensely brecciated, reveal, in their chemistry, evidence for a magmatic history. Partial melting of feldspathic lunar crustal material occurred in the interval 4.6 to 3.9 gy. Melting of ilmenite-bearing cumulates at depths near 100 km produced parent magmas for Apollo 11 and 17 titaniferous mare basalts in the interval 3.8 to 3.6 gy. Melting of ilmenite-free olivine pyroxenites at depths greater than 200 km produced low-titanium mare basalts in the interval 3.4 to 3.1 gy. No younger igneous rocks have yet been recognized among the lunar samples and present-day melting seems to be limited to depths greater than 1000 km.

Hays, J. F.; Walker, D.

1974-01-01

359

Implications of Lunar Prospector Data for Lunar Geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research is sumamrized in the following areas: The Asymmetric Thermal Evolution of the Moon; Magma Transport Process on the Moon;The Composition and Origin of the Deep Lunar Crust;The Redistribution of Thorium on the Moon's Surface.

Zuber, Maria

2003-01-01

360

Permanent magnet design methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design techniques developed for the exploitation of high energy magnetically rigid materials such as Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B have resulted in a revolution in kind rather than in degree in the design of a variety of electron guidance structures for ballistic and aerospace applications. Salient examples are listed. Several prototype models were developed. These structures are discussed in some detail: permanent magnet solenoids, transverse field sources, periodic structures, and very high field structures.

Leupold, Herbert A.

1991-01-01

361

Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and South polar regions that satisfy the stated goals. Lunar titanium: Objectives of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbital (LRO) mission are to find potential safe landing sites and locate potential resources. New imaging from NASA' LRO has shown the Moon has areas that are rich in titanium ore. Some lunar rocks have ten times as much titanium ore as rocks on Earth. The titanium deposits were observed with the help of visible and ultraviolet imaging. The researchers scanned the lunar surface, collecting roughly 4,000 images, and compared the brightness in the range of wavelengths from ultraviolet to visible light. The scientists then cross-referenced their findings with lunar samples that were brought back to Earth from NASA's Apollo flights and the Russian Luna missions. The abundance of titanium has puzzled researchers. While rocks on Earth contain around one percent titanium at most, the lunar rocks ranged from one percent all the way up to ten percent. Researchers still don't why the titanium levels are higher on the moon, but do believe it gives insight into the conditions of the Moon shortly after it formed. The titanium seems to be found primarily in the mineral ilmenite, a compound containing iron, titanium, and oxygen. Lunar rare earth elements: The Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) dominates the nearside of the Moon. "KREEP" is an acronym for lunar rocks that are high in potassium (K), rare earth elements (REE), and phosphorous (P). The PKT is a mixture of assorted rocks, including most of the mare basalts on the Moon, and is characterized by high Th (about 5 parts per million on average). This region has also been called the "high-Th Oval Region". PKT occupies about 16% of the lunar surface.

Shevchenko, Vladislav

362

CIS-lunar space infrastructure lunar technologies: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technologies necessary for the creation of a cis-Lunar infrastructure, namely: (1) automation and robotics; (2) life support systems; (3) fluid management; (4) propulsion; and (5) rotating technologies, are explored. The technological focal point is on the development of automated and robotic systems for the implementation of a Lunar Oasis produced by Automation and Robotics (LOAR). Under direction from the NASA Office of Exploration, automation and robotics were extensively utilized as an initiating stage in the return to the Moon. A pair of autonomous rovers, modular in design and built from interchangeable and specialized components, is proposed. Utilizing a buddy system, these rovers will be able to support each other and to enhance their individual capabilities. One rover primarily explores and maps while the second rover tests the feasibility of various materials-processing techniques. The automated missions emphasize availability and potential uses of Lunar resources, and the deployment and operations of the LOAR program. An experimental bio-volume is put into place as the precursor to a Lunar environmentally controlled life support system. The bio-volume will determine the reproduction, growth and production characteristics of various life forms housed on the Lunar surface. Physicochemical regenerative technologies and stored resources will be used to buffer biological disturbances of the bio-volume environment. The in situ Lunar resources will be both tested and used within this bio-volume. Second phase development on the Lunar surface calls for manned operations. Repairs and re-configuration of the initial framework will ensue. An autonomously-initiated manned Lunar oasis can become an essential component of the United States space program.

Faller, W.; Hoehn, A.; Johnson, S.; Moos, P.; Wiltberger, N.

1989-01-01

363

Recent Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September, 2012. The LRO mission has been extended for two years under SMD. The extended mission focuses on a new set of goals related to understanding the geologic history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution Of the Solar System. Here we will review the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for the extended science phase out to 2014. Results from the LRO mission include but are not limited to the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the day and night time temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs, evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon, and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions as the poles. The objectives for the second and extended science phases of the mission under SMD include: 1) understanding the bombardment history of the Moon, 2) interpreting Lunar geologic processes, 3) mapping the global Lunar regolith, 4) identifying volatiles on the Moon, and 5) measuring the Lunar atmosphere and radiation environment.

Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Garvin, James B.; Rice, James W.

2012-01-01

364

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

2011-12-01

365

An explanation of bright areas inside Shackleton Crater at the Lunar South Pole other than water-ice deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

water molecules of cometary and/or solar wind origin migrated to and accumulated in cold permanently shadowed areas at the lunar poles has long been debated from the perspective of scientific interest and expectations for future utilization. Recently, high reflectance condition was observed inside the lunar South Pole Shackleton Crater for the 1064.4 nm of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the high reflectance was explained to perhaps be due to a surface frost layer in excess of 20% water-ice. Here we investigate the crater with the Selenological Engineering Explorer Multi-band imager that has nine bands in the visible to near-infrared range, including a 1050 nm band (62 m/pixel resolution). Part of the illuminated inner wall of Shackleton Crater exhibits high reflectance at 1050 nm but also exhibits the diagnostic 1250 nm spectral absorption, a signature that is consistent with naturally bright purest anorthosite.

Haruyama, Junichi; Yamamoto, Satoru; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Ohtake, Makiko; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

2013-08-01

366

Lunar Magmatic Volatiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples returned from the Apollo Missions prompted a variety of experimental investigations (e.g., [1-4]) which form the basis of our current understanding of lunar compositional evolution. The observed low abundances of solidus temperature-suppressing volatiles justified volatile-free experiments. However, the low-pressure nature of the samples makes it unlikely that volatiles were retained during magma ascent and eruption. In an effort to re-assess the lunar mantle volatile budget, we are focusing on the mineral apatite because of its incorporation of F, Cl, and OH as essential structural constituents and its greater ability to retain such volatiles relative to melt. Apatite grains analyzed from magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7111, 14161,7269 and 14161,7264), KREEPy impact melt rocks associated with magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks (14161,7233; 14161,7110; 14161,7062; 12033,634-25; SaU 169-4), and mare basalts (79195; 12037,224; 74246; 12023,147,1; 10084; LAP 02205; LAP 03632; NWA 2977) by electron microprobe using the technique of [5,6] show two distinct compositional groups. Apatite from the mare basalts analyzed are primarily mixtures of fluor- "missing component" (OH?) apatite with low Cl abundance, while that from the magnesian- and alkali-suite rocks are fluor-chlor mixtures. Apatite/basaltic melt partition coefficients for F, Cl, and H2O from the data of [7] provide first estimates of magmatic volatile abundances in lunar magmas. They suggest that magmatic water may have been more abundant than F and Cl at the stage of apatite crystallization in mare basalts. In contrast, at this stage, the magmas that produced the Mg-and alkali suite minerals were F- and Cl-dominated. These results have wide-reaching implications regarding the chemical and physical evolution of the Moon and therefore, the next generation of experimental investigations. [1] Walker et al. 1973 EPSL 20, 325-336. [2] Walker et al. 1975 GCA 39, 1219-1235. [3] Longhi 1992 GCA 69, 1275-1286. [4] Longhi 2003 JGR 108, E8, doi:10.1029/2002JE001941. [5] Stormer et al. 1993 Am Min 78, 641. [6] McCubbin et al. 20081st NLSI Conference. [7] Mathez and Webster 2005 GCA 69, 1275-1286.

Nekvasil, H.; McCubbin, F. M.; Lindsley, D. H.

2009-05-01

367

NASA Lunar Regolith Simulant Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar regolith simulant production is absolutely critical to returning man to the Moon. Regolith simulant is used to test hardware exposed to the lunar surface environment, simulate health risks to astronauts, practice in situ resource utilization (ISRU) techniques, and evaluate dust mitigation strategies. Lunar regolith simulant design, production process, and management is a cooperative venture between members of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The MSFC simulant team is a satellite of the Dust group based at Glenn Research Center. The goals of the cooperative group are to (1) reproduce characteristics of lunar regolith using simulants, (2) produce simulants as cheaply as possible, (3) produce simulants in the amount needed, and (4) produce simulants to meet users? schedules.

Edmunson, J.; Betts, W.; Rickman, D.; McLemore, C.; Fikes, J.; Stoeser, D.; Wilson, S.; Schrader, C.

2010-01-01

368

GENESIS 2: Advanced lunar outpost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced, second-generation lunar habitats for astronauts and mission specialists working on the Moon are investigated. The work was based on design constraints set forth in previous publications. Design recommendations are based on environmental response to the lunar environment, habitability, safety, near-term technology, replaceability and modularity, and suitability for NASA lunar research missions in the early 21st century. Scientists, engineers, and architects from NASA/JSC, Wisconsin aeronautical industry, and area universities gave technical input and offered critiques at design reviews throughout the process. The recommended design uses a lunar lava tube, with construction using a combination of Space Station Freedom-derived modules and lightweight Kevlar-laminate inflatables. The outpost includes research laboratories and biotron, crew quarters and support facility, mission control, health maintenance facility, and related areas for functional and psychological requirements. Furniture, specialized equipment, and lighting are included in the design analysis.

Moore, Gary T.

1991-01-01

369

Lunar Exploration. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers information about lunar exploration, the telescope, and space travel. Suggests that landing on the moon and returning to Earth is one of the most significant technological accomplishments. Includes a student quiz, outcomes, and references. (JOW)

Ritz, John M.

1995-01-01

370

Lunar site characterization and mining  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar mining requirements do not appear to be excessively demanding in terms of volume of material processed. It seems clear, however, that the labor-intensive practices that characterize terrestrial mining will not suffice at the low-gravity, hard-vacuum, and inaccessible sites on the Moon. New research efforts are needed in three important areas: (1) to develop high-speed, high-resolution through-rock vision systems that will permit more detailed and efficient mine site investigation and characterization; (2) to investigate the impact of lunar conditions on our ability to convert conventional mining and exploration equipment to lunar prototypes; and (3) to develop telerobotic or fully robotic mining systems for operations on the Moon and other bodies in the inner solar system. Other aspects of lunar site characterization and mining are discussed.

Glass, Charles E.

1992-01-01

371

The enigma of lunar magnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

Hood, L. L.

1981-01-01

372

Solar and Lunar Eclipse Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Solar and Lunar Eclipse model simulates the occurrences of solar and lunar eclipses. Moon's orbital inclination of 5.145 degrees with respect to the ecliptic (the Earth-Sun orbital plane) is what is responsible for solar and lunar eclipses not occurring every month. In addition, the orbital plane of Moon precesses every 8.85 years, the so-called precession of the apsides. The inclination and the motion of Moon and Earth are depicted (the size of Sun, Earth, and Moon and the size of Moon's orbit are not shown to scale). The illuminated sides of Earth and Moon and the regions of possible eclipses (in yellow and green) are also depicted. In the Ecliptic View, the motion of Sun and Moon across the sky (+/- 7 degrees from the ecliptic) are shown. Moon's phase is shown and solar and lunar eclipses can occur on the ecliptic when Earth, Sun, and Moon line up properly.

Belloni, Mario; Timberlake, Todd

2009-11-13

373

Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

Lord, W. P.

1971-01-01

374

KPNO LUNAR OCCULTATION SUMMARY. III  

SciTech Connect

The results for 251 lunar occultation events recorded at Kitt Peak National Observatory are presented, including 20 observations of known or suspected double stars and five measurements of stars with resolved angular diameters.

Schmidtke, P. C. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Africano, J. L., E-mail: paul.schmidtke@asu.ed [Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2011-01-15

375

Lunar Base 2015 Stage 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a design study for a modular Lunar Base built of at least six cylindrical modules. For launching an ARIANE-Rocket with a payload of 12ton can be used.To land the modules on the moon the author has designed a Teleoperated Rocket Crane, which is assembled in the Lunar Orbit. The modules are made of aluminium sheets, using a

Werner Grandl

2007-01-01

376

Acoustic Simulation of Lunar Echoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear modeling techniques were used in an attempt to model acoustically the lunar surface and other rough surfaces on a set of 16.7-cm-diameter spun-aluminum spheres. Some of the large-scale lunar surface roughness features were approximately modeled using reduced wavelength scale, and the small-scale roughness was modeled by random-sized sand particles on one sphere. To investigate which type of surface roughness

S. I-IA

1965-01-01

377

Cislunar space infrastructure: Lunar technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuing its emphasis on the creation of a cisluar infrastructure as an appropriate and cost-effective method of space exploration and development, the University of Colorado explores the technologies necessary for the creation of such an infrastructure, namely (1) automation and robotics; (2) life support systems; (3) fluid management; (4) propulsion; and (5) rotating technologes. The technological focal point is on the development of automated and robotic systems for the implementation of a Lunar Oasis produced by automation and robotics (LOARS). Under direction from the NASA Office of Exploration, automation and robotics have been extensively utilized as an initiating stage in the return to the Moon. A pair of autonomous rovers, modular in design and built from interchangeable and specialized components, is proposed. Utilizing a 'buddy system', these rovers will be able to support each other and to enhance their individual capabilities. One rover primarily explores and maps while the second rover tests the feasibility of various materials-processing techniques. The automated missions emphasize availability and potential uses of lunar resources and the deployment and operations of the LOAR program. An experimental bio-volume is put into place as the precursor to a Lunar Environmentally Controlled Life Support System. The bio-volume will determine the reproduction, growth and production characteristics of various life forms housed on the lunar surface. Physiochemical regenerative technologies and stored resources will be used to buffer biological disturbances of the bio-volume environment. The in situ lunar resources will be both tested and used within this bio-volume. Second phase development on the lunar surface calls for manned operations. Repairs and reconfiguration of the initial framework will ensue. An autonomously initiated, manned Lunar Oasis can become an essential component of the United States space program. The Lunar Oasis will provide support to science, technology, and commerce. It will enable more cost-effective space exploration to the planets and beyond.

Faller, W.; Hoehn, A.; Johnson, S.; Moos, P.; Wiltberger, N.

1989-01-01

378

The lunar dynamo.  

PubMed

The inductive generation of magnetic fields in fluid planetary interiors is known as the dynamo process. Although the Moon today has no global magnetic field, it has been known since the Apollo era that the lunar rocks and crust are magnetized. Until recently, it was unclear whether this magnetization was the product of a core dynamo or fields generated externally to the Moon. New laboratory and spacecraft measurements strongly indicate that much of this magnetization is the product of an ancient core dynamo. The dynamo field persisted from at least 4.25 to 3.56 billion years ago (Ga), with an intensity reaching that of the present Earth. The field then declined by at least an order of magnitude by ?3.3 Ga. The mechanisms for sustaining such an intense and long-lived dynamo are uncertain but may include mechanical stirring by the mantle and core crystallization. PMID:25477467

Weiss, Benjamin P; Tikoo, Sonia M

2014-12-01

379

Lunar Surface Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the latter half of the 1980's, three concepts for low frequency arrays on the Moon were independently studied for NASA, leading to two workshops in 1990. Perhaps not surprisingly, when one considers the constraints, the concepts were all quite similar. Each consisted of tens to hundreds of dipoles deployed over tens of kilometers. Each element had asuperheterodyne receiver, a digitizer, and a data transmitter and antenna mast. Each team envisioned that the array would start small and grow with time. The main technical challenges were those of deploying the array on the Moon, and of correlating the data on the Moon or returning all the raw data to Earth. We review three lunar low-frequency array concepts and note possible alternative approaches to some of the concept features.

Kuiper, T. B. H.; Jones, D.

380

The lunar dynamo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inductive generation of magnetic fields in fluid planetary interiors is known as the dynamo process. Although the Moon today has no global magnetic field, it has been known since the Apollo era that the lunar rocks and crust are magnetized. Until recently, it was unclear whether this magnetization was the product of a core dynamo or fields generated externally to the Moon. New laboratory and spacecraft measurements strongly indicate that much of this magnetization is the product of an ancient core dynamo. The dynamo field persisted from at least 4.25 to 3.56 billion years ago (Ga), with an intensity reaching that of the present Earth. The field then declined by at least an order of magnitude by ?3.3 Ga. The mechanisms for sustaining such an intense and long-lived dynamo are uncertain but may include mechanical stirring by the mantle and core crystallization.

Weiss, Benjamin P.; Tikoo, Sonia M.

2014-12-01

381

Early lunar magnetism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

1976-01-01

382

Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Table-top views of some of the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment equipment. Included are the Geophone Module and Cable Reels of the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (S-203), a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. After it is triggered, the experiment will settle down into a passive listening mode, detecting Moonquakes, meteorite impacts and the thump caused by the Lunar Module ascent stage impact (37259); The remote antenna for the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (S-203) (37260).

1972-01-01

383

Creation of an artificial lunar atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the tenuous nature of the lunar atmosphere is maintained by rapid loss of gases released at the lunar surface. The loss of gases from the lunar atmosphere in the case of a greatly increased atmospheric density is investigated. It is found that in the case of such an increase in the density of the lunar atmosphere, a point can be reached where loss occurs so slowly that it is negligible over human time scales. In the event an artificial lunar atmosphere were to be created, gases can be obtained by heating or vaporization of the lunar soil. This could be done with the aid of nuclear devices.

Vondrak, R. R.

1974-01-01

384

Solar Wind Access to Lunar Polar Craters: Feedback Between Surface Charging and Plasma Expansion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the plasma environment within permanently shadowed lunar craters is critical to understanding local processes such as surface charging, electrostatic dust transport, volatile sequestration, and space weathering. In order to investigate the nature of this plasma environment, the first two-dimensional kinetic simulations of solar wind expansion into a lunar crater with a self-consistent plasma-surface interaction have been undertaken. The present results reveal how the plasma expansion into a crater couples with the electrically-charged lunar surface to produce a quasi-steady wake structure. In particular, there is a negative feedback between surface charging and ambipolar wake potential that allows an equilibrium to be achieved, with secondary electron emission strongly moderating the process. A range of secondary electron yields is explored, and two distinct limits are highlighted in which either surface charging or ambipoiar expansion is responsible for determining the overall wake structure.

Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Jackson, T. L.

2011-01-01

385

Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

2009-01-01

386

Lifetimes of lunar satellite orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Exploration Initiative has generated a renewed interest in lunar mission planning. The lunar missions currently under study, unlike the Apollo missions, involve long stay times. Several lunar gravity models have been formulated, but mission planners do not have enough confidence in the proposed models to conduct detailed studies of missions with long stay times. In this report, a particular lunar gravitational model, the Ferrari 5 x 5 model, was chosen to determine the lifetimes for 100-km and 300-km perilune altitude, near-circular parking orbits. The need to analyze orbital lifetimes for a large number of initial orbital parameters was the motivation for the formulation of a simplified gravitational model from the original model. Using this model, orbital lifetimes were found to be heavily dependent on the initial conditions of the nearly circular orbits, particularly the initial inclination and argument of perilune. This selected model yielded lifetime predictions of less than 40 days for some orbits, and other orbits had lifetimes exceeding a year. Although inconsistencies and limitations are inherent in all existing lunar gravity models, primarily because of a lack of information about the far side of the moon, the methods presented in this analysis are suitable for incorporating the moon's nonspherical gravitational effects on the preliminary design level for future lunar mission planning.

Meyer, Kurt W.; Buglia, James J.; Desai, Prasun N.

1994-01-01

387

Magnetization of the Lunar Crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic fields measured by the satellite Lunar Prospector show large scale features resulting from remanently magnetized crust. Vector data synthesized at satellite altitude from a spherical harmonic model of the lunar crustal field, and the radial component of the magnetometer data, have been used to produce spatially continuous global magnetization models for the lunar crust. The magnetization is expressed in terms of localized basis functions, with a magnetization solution selected having the smallest root-mean square magnetization for a given fit to the data, controlled by a damping parameter. Suites of magnetization models for layers with thicknesses between 10 and 50 km are able to reproduce much of the input data, with global misfits of less than 0.5 nT (within the uncertainties of the data), and some surface field estimates. The magnetization distributions show robust magnitudes for a range of model thicknesses and damping parameters, however the magnetization direction is unconstrained. These global models suggest that magnetized sources of the lunar crust can be represented by a 30 km thick magnetized layer. Average magnetization values in magnetized regions are 30-40 mA/m, similar to the measured magnetizations of the Apollo samples and significantly weaker than crustal magnetizations for Mars and the Earth. These are the first global magnetization models for the Moon, providing lower bounds on the magnitude of lunar crustal magnetization in the absence of multiple sample returns, and can be used to predict the crustal contribution to the lunar magnetic field at a particular location.

Carley, R. A.; Whaler, K. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Halekas, J. S.

2012-01-01

388

Cryogenic, polar lunar observatories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a geological vein, it is noted that some permanently shadowed regions on the Moon could provide natural passive cooling environments for astronomical detectors. A telescope located in one of the low, dark, polar regions could operate with only passive cooling at 40 K or perhaps lower, depending on how well it could be insulated from the ground and surrounded by radiation shields to block heat and light from any nearby warm or illuminated objects.

Burke, J. D.

1988-01-01

389

Regolith Sintering: A Solution to Lunar Dust Mitigation?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prospect for a human outpost or permanent lunar base conducting exploration science on the Moon has been discussed in a number of different venues [1-4]. Of all the technological difficulties that confront observatory science on the Moon, dust mitigation remains a serious issue that is either discussed candidly or is oversimplified. In view of the fact that fundamental physics and astronomy research continues to be proposed for a lunar base, the problem of lunar dust must be confronted. In particular, the recent suggestion to place a 20-meter liquid mirror telescope (LMT) on the Moon because "the Moon and liquid mirrors were made for each other" [5-6] shows that the technical readiness level for any new vision of returning to the Moon with such grand-scale ideas is immature. Dust mitigation needs to be addressed, and we present a conceptual strategy for providing a clean area for observational science on a return-to-flight basis using existing technology rather than an evolutionary one that remains undeveloped. Under certain assumptions and caveats, we believe it addresses the problem.

Wilson, T. L.; Wilson, K. B.

2005-01-01

390

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 14  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Destruction of Presolar Silicates by Aqueous Alteration Observed in Murchison CM2 Chondrite. Generation of Chondrule Forming Shock Waves in Solar Nebula by X-Ray Flares. TEM and NanoSIMS Study of Hydrated/Anhydrous Phase Mixed IDPs: Cometary or Asteroidal Origin? Inflight Calibration of Asteroid Multiband Imaging Camera Onboard Hayabusa: Preliminary Results. Corundum and Corundum-Hibonite Grains Discovered by Cathodoluminescence in the Matrix of Acfer 094 Meteorite. Spatial Extent of a Deep Moonquake Nest A Preliminary Report of Reexamination. Modal Abundances of Carbon in Ureilites: Implications for the Petrogenesis of Ureilites. Trapped Noble Gas Components and Exposure History of the Enstatite Chondrite ALH84206. Deep-seated Crustal Material in Dhofar Lunar Meteorites: Evidence from Pyroxene Chemistry. Numerical Investigations of Kuiper Belt Binaries. Dust Devils on Mars: Effects of Surface Roughness on Particle Threshold. Hecates Tholus, Mars: Nighttime Aeolian Activity Suggested by Thermal Images and Mesoscale Atmospheric Model Simulations. Are the Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts Really Impact Melts? Garnet in the Lunar Mantle: Further Evidence from Volcanic Glass Beads. The Earth/Mars Dichotomy in Mg/Si and Al/Si Ratios: Is It Real? Dissecting the Polar Asymmetry in the Non-Condensable Gas Enhancement on Mars: A Numerical Modeling Study. Cassini VIMS Preliminary Exploration of Titan s Surface Hemispheric Albedo Dichotomy. An Improved Instrument for Investigating Planetary Regolith Microstructure. Isotopic Composition of Oxygen in Lunar Zircons Preliminary Design of Visualization Tool for Hayabusa Operation. Size and Shape Distributions of Chondrules and Metal Grains Revealed by X-Ray Computed Tomography Data. Properties of Permanently Shadowed Regolith. Landslides in Interior Layered Deposits, Valles Marineris, Mars: Effects of Water and Ground Shaking on Slope Stability. Mars: Recent and Episodic Volcanic, Hydrothermal, and Glacial Activity Revealed by Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). The Cratering Record of the Saturnian Satellites Phoebe, Tethys, Dione and Iapetus in Comparison: First Results from Analysis of the Cassini ISS Imaging Data. Joint Crossover Solutions of Altimetry and Image Data on 433 Eros. The Martian Soil as a Geochemical Sink for.

2005-01-01

391

A permanent settlement on Mars : the first cut in the land of a new frontier  

E-print Network

Humans have been fascinated with the planet Mars for thousands of years. Only in the last half a century has it been possible to contemplate sending people to our celestial neighbor. Since then, a rich discourse has evolved ...

Petrov, Georgi Ivanov, 1977-

2004-01-01

392

Permanent Turbidity-Standards  

PubMed Central

Permanent turbidity reference standards suitable for measurement of microbial suspensions were prepared by suspending finely divided titanium dioxide in aryl sulfonamide-formaldehyde or methylstyrene resins. Turbidities of these standards, adjusted to a useful range for microbiological and immunological studies, were compared with other reference standards in use today. Tube holders for a Coleman Photonephelometer and a Nepho-Colorimeter were modified to eliminate the water well and to allow use of optically standardized 10-, 16-, or 18-mm test tubes. The standards and the tube holders have been used satisfactorily for more than 12 years. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6077410

Roessler, William G.; Brewer, Carl R.

1967-01-01

393

Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

2009-01-01

394

Lunar surface vehicle evolution - FY89-90 NASA studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A return to the moon in the first decade of the next century, as called for by President Bush in his July 20, 1989 speech, will challenge the talents of the engineers and designers faced for the first time with the task of designing elements and systems for a 'permanent' extraterrestrial outpost. The set of surface vehicles for such a permanent outpost will require not only rovers for crew and science package transport, but autonomous rovers for site surveying and remote science, construction vehicles for outpost set-up and mining vehicles for using the resources of the moon to benefit the outpost. Studies conducted in FY 1989, including those supporting NASA's 90-day Study activity, and others continuing throughout FY 1990 are defining the lunar surface vehicle set in increasing detail. This paper describes recent work performed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Johnson Space Center, as well as by other supporting NASA installations in the definition of the lunar vehicle set. Classification of vehicle functions and mission requirements are first examined, and vehicle characteristics and reference designs are synthesized. The paper concludes with a discussion of current work and future goals.

Connolly, John F.; Pivirotto, Donna

1990-01-01

395

Design of a lunar propellant processing facility. NASA/USRA advanced program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mankind's exploration of space will eventually lead to the establishment of a permanent human presence on the Moon. Essential to the economic viability of such an undertaking will be prudent utilization of indigenous lunar resources. The design of a lunar propellant processing system is presented. The system elements include facilities for ore processing, ice transportation, water splitting, propellant storage, personnel and materials transportation, human habitation, power generation, and communications. The design scenario postulates that ice is present in the lunar polar regions, and that an initial lunar outpost was established. Mining, ore processing, and water transportation operations are located in the polar regions. Water processing and propellant storage facilities are positioned near the equator. A general description of design operations is outlined below. Regolith containing the ice is mined from permanently-shaded polar craters. Water is separated from the ore using a microwave processing technique, and refrozen into projectiles for launch to the equatorial site via railgun. A mass-catching device retrieves the ice. This ice is processed using fractional distillation to remove impurities, and the purified liquid water is fed to an electrolytic cell that splits the water into vaporous hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen and oxygen are condensed and stored separately in a tank farm. Electric power for all operations is supplied by SP-100 nuclear reactors. Transportation of materials and personnel is accomplished primarily using chemical rockets. Modular living habitats are used which provide flexibility for the placement and number of personnel. A communications system consisting of lunar surface terminals, a lunar relay satellite, and terrestrial surface stations provides capabilities for continuous Moon-Moon and Moon-Earth transmissions of voice, picture, and data.

Batra, Rajesh; Bell, Jason; Campbell, J. Matt; Cash, Tom; Collins, John; Dailey, Brian; France, Angelique; Gareau, Will; Gleckler, Mark; Hamilton, Charles

1993-01-01

396

The roles and functions of a lunar base Nuclear Technology Center  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the roles and functions of a special Nuclear Technology Center which is developed as an integral part of a permanent lunar base. Numerous contemporary studies clearly point out that nuclear energy technology will play a major role in any successful lunar/Mars initiative program and in the overall establishment of humanity's solar system civilization. The key role of nuclear energy in the providing power has been recognized. A Nuclear Technology Center developed as part of of a permanent lunar base can also help bring about many other nuclear technology applications, such as producing radioisotopes for self-illumination, food preservation, waste sterilization, and medical treatment; providing thermal energy for mining, materials processing and agricultural; and as a source of emergency habitat power. Designing such a center will involve the deployment, operation, servicing and waste product management and disposal of megawatt class reactor power plants. This challenge must be met with a minimum of direct human support at the facility. Furthermore, to support the timely, efficient integration of this Nuclear Technology Center in the evolving lunar base infrastructure, an analog of such a facility will be needed here on Earth. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Buden, D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Angelo, J.A. Jr. (Science Applications International Corp., Melbourne, FL (United States))

1991-01-01

397

Plasma Wake Simulations and Object Charging in a Shadowed Lunar Crater During a Solar Storm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within a permanently shadowed lunar crater the horizontal flow of solar wind is obstructed by upstream topography, forming a plasma wake that electrostatically diverts ions toward the crater floor and generates a surface potential that can reach kilovolts. In the present work kinetic plasma simulations are employed to investigate the morphology of a lunar crater wake during passage of a solar storm. Results are cast in terms of leading dimensionless ratios including the ion Mach number, ratio of crater depth to plasma Debye length, peak secondary electron yield, and electron temperature vs. electron impact energy at peak secondary yield. This small set of ratios allows generalization to a much wider range of scenarios. The kinetic simulation results are fed forward into an equivalent-circuit model of a roving astronaut. In very low-plasma-current environments triboelectric charging of the astronaut suit becomes effectively perpetual, representing a critical engineering concern for roving within shadowed lunar regions. Finally, simulated ion fluxes are used to explore sputtering and implantation processes within an idealized crater. It is suggested that the physics of plasma mini-wakes formed in the vicinity of permanently shadowed topography may play a critical role in modulating the enigmatic spatial distribution of volatiles at the lunar poles.

Zimmerman, Michael I.; Jackson, T. L.; Farrell, W. W.; Stubbs, T. J.

2012-01-01

398

The roles and functions of a lunar base Nuclear Technology Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the roles and functions of a special Nuclear Technology Center which is developed as an integral part of a permanent lunar base. Numerous contemporary studies clearly point out that nuclear energy technology will play a major role in any successful lunar/Mars initiative program and in the overall establishment of humanity's solar system civilization. The key role of nuclear energy in the providing power has been recognized. A Nuclear Technology Center developed as part of a permanent lunar base can also help bring about many other nuclear technology applications, such as producing radioisotopes for self-illumination, food preservation, waste sterilization, and medical treatment; providing thermal energy for mining, materials processing and agricultural; and as a source of emergency habitat power. Designing such a center will involve the deployment, operation, servicing and waste product management and disposal of megawatt class reactor power plants. This challenge must be met with a minimum of direct human support at the facility. Furthermore, to support the timely, efficient integration of this Nuclear Technology Center in the evolving lunar base infrastructure, an analog of such a facility will be needed here on Earth.

Buden, D.; Angelo, J. A., Jr.

399

Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further exhibits are planned. One proposal is to develop a teacher-training program to acquaint teachers with the Lunar Quest program and to provide resources.

Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

2010-12-01

400

Monitoring systems for evaluation of terrestrial contamination in a lunar sample transfer facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar sample transfer facility used consists of two tandem glove boxes and an entrance vacuum antechamber. Monitoring systems were used to evaluate the contamination levels of water, permanent gases, and lower volatility organic compounds in the glove box atmosphere. The experimental procedures are considered, taking into account the glove box atmosphere, aspects of volatile gas analysis, and lower volatility organic contaminants. The value of high resolution mass spectrometry in the monitoring scheme is illustrated with the aid of an example.

Wszolek, P. C.; Holland, P. T.; Mcfadden, W. H.; Burlingame, A. L.; Wilder, J. T.; Simoneit, B. R.

1973-01-01

401

Tobacco Companies, State Attorneys Reach Settlement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the November 16, 1998 $206 billion settlement reached between tobacco industry leaders and eight US states. The twelve resources discussed provide press releases, opinion, and background information on the economics of tobacco production and consumption in the US. Following increasing pressure from anti-tobacco activists at the state level, Philip Morris Incorporated, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, and the Lorillard Tobacco Company settled pending lawsuits with New York, California, and Wisconsin, among other states. The agreement requires the companies to pay the potential medical costs of sick smokers based on a formula that factors state-by-state population, tobacco use, and previous Medicaid cost. The agreement also provides for a $1.5 billion anti-smoking campaign fund and bans billboard and transit ads in addition to "branded" merchandising -- the sale and distribution of items bearing tobacco brands' names or logos. Although these provisions give anti-smoking organizations much needed funding for educational resources, critics fear that the settlement protects the tobacco industry more than it hinders it. According to Gary Black, an analyst at Sanford C. Bernstein & Co., the settlement "removes the remaining threat of bankruptcy from the stocks and reduces the litigation discount that has plagued tobacco companies since 1994." With little risk of future lawsuits according to Black, "we're back to business as usual."

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

402

A small scale lunar launcher for early lunar material utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for the launching of lunar derived oxygen or raw materials into low lunar orbit or to L2 for transfer to low earth orbit is presented. The system described is a greatly simplified version of the conventional and sophisticated approach suggested by O'Neill using mass drivers with recirculating buckets. An electromagnetic accelerator is located on the lunar surface which launches 125 kg 'smart' containers of liquid oxygen or raw materials into a transfer orbit. Upon reaching apolune a kick motor is fired to circularize the orbit at 100 km altitude or L2. These containers are collected and their payloads transferred to a tanker OTV. The empty containers then have their kick motors refurbished and then are returned to the launcher site on the lunar surface for reuse. Initial launch capability is designed for about 500T of liquid oxygen delivered to low earth orbit per year with upgrading to higher levels, delivery of lunar soil for shielding, or raw materials for processing given the demand.

Snow, W. R.; Kubby, J. A.; Dunbar, R. S.

1981-01-01

403

Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific and administrative activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute are summarized. Recent research relating to geophysics, planetary geology, the origin of the Earth and Moon, the lunar surface, Mars, meteorites, and image processing techniques is discussed.

Burke, K.

1984-01-01

404

A COMPENDIUM OF LUNAR SURFACE EXPERIMENTS  

E-print Network

A COMPENDIUM OF LUNAR SURFACE EXPERIMENTS PICTORIAL DESCRIPTIONS APOlLO J-1 MISSION MAY 15, 1970 J HOLES FOR HEAT PROBES WITH APOLLO LUNAR SURFACE DRILL SUNSHIELD ELECTRONICS PACKAGE PICTORIAL PORTRAYAL

Rathbun, Julie A.

405

Lunar Phases and Crisis Center Telephone Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls.

James E. Wilson II; Jerome J. Tobacyk

1990-01-01

406

Lunar Science Conference, 5th, Houston, Tex., March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings. Volume 1 - Mineralogy and petrology. Volume 2 Chemical and isotope analyses. Organic chemistry. Volume 3 - Physical properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous studies on the properties of the moon based on Apollo findings and samples are presented. Topics treated include ages of the lunar nearside light plains and maria, orange material in the Sulpicius Gallus formation at the southwestern edge of Mare Serenitatis, impact-induced fractionation in the lunar highlands, igneous rocks from Apollo 16 rake samples, experimental liquid line of descent and liquid immiscibility for basalt 70017, ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples, grain size and the evolution of lunar soils, chemical composition of rocks and soils at Taurus-Littrow, the geochemical evolution of the moon, U-Th-Pb systematics of some Apollo 17 lunar samples and implications for a lunar basin excavation chronology, volatile-element systematics and green glass in Apollo 15 lunar soils, solar wind nitrogen and indigenous nitrogen in Apollo 17 lunar samples, lunar trapped xenon, solar flare and lunar surface process characterization at the Apollo 17 site, and the permanent and induced magnetic dipole moment of the moon. Individual items are announced in this issue.

Gose, W. A.

1974-01-01

407

Actividad en la superficie lunar: fenómenos lunares transitorios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los fenómenos lunares transitorios que se presentan en la superficie de la Luna son raros, poco frecuentes y de corta duración, lo que origina que exista poca información al respecto. Esto hace evidente la importancia de estudiarlos con detalle. Han sido registrados como nubes muy brillantes a base de gases residuales de la pasada actividad geológica lunar, de diferentes colores (amarillas, anaranjadas, rojas), de acuerdo con el tiempo de duración cambian su color, con tamaños de pocos kilómetros hasta de centenares de kilómetros. Por lo general, se presentan en ciertos lugares, como cráteres (Aristarco, Plato, Kepler, etc.), y en los bordes de los mares lunares (mar de la Fecundidad, zona de los montes Alpes, etc.).Variando su tiempo de exposición puede ser de unos pocos segundos hasta un poco más de una hora.

Roa, A. F. C.

408

First Lunar Outpost Conceptual Surface Mission  

E-print Network

activities (EVA) are included. OVERVIEW The FLO surface mission consists of four crew members living and consists of a habitation module, an airlock, a photovoltaic array/regenerative fuel cell (PVA/RFC) power OUT LIMITED EVA OPERATIONS 0 LIGHTING ADEQUATE FOR LUNAR EVAs LUNAR NOON LUNAR SUNRISE LIGHTING

Rathbun, Julie A.

409

Commercial Lunar Transportation Study Market Assessment Summary  

E-print Network

1 Commercial Lunar Transportation Study Market Assessment Summary FOR RELEASE September 2010 This work has been performed under NASA Contract NNH06CC38B Futron Corporation #12;2 LUNAR TRANSPORTATION for NASA to demonstrate how a hypothetical new company entering the lunar transportation market

Waliser, Duane E.

410

A seismic risk for the lunar base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shallow moonquakes, which were discovered during observations following the Apollo lunar landing missions, may pose a threat to lunar surface operations. The nature of these moonquakes is similar to that of intraplate earthquakes, which include infrequent but destructive events. Therefore, there is a need for detailed study to assess the possible seismic risk before establishing a lunar base.

Oberst, Juergen; Nakamura, Yosio

1992-01-01

411

Lunar surface: Dust dynamics and regolith mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lunar surface is characterized by a collisionally evolved regolith resulting from meteoroid bombardment. This lunar soil consists of highly angular particles in a broad, approximately power law size distribution, with impact-generated glasses. The regolith becomes densified and difficult to excavate when subjected to lunar quakes or, eventually, manned and unmanned activity on the surface. Solar radiation and the solar

J. E. Colwell; S. Batiste; M. Horányi; S. Robertson; S. Sture

2007-01-01

412

NASA Contractor Re Lunar Dust T  

E-print Network

NASA Contractor Re ?' //! // /z / - r i i I Lunar Dust T Potential Inte Power System and With .ents(.ru.:, Technol -_'.;y) t_ 2 [., C$CL 03 ;_, ,_I/VI , ;.-L] _ #12;!: #12;NASA Contractor Report 4404 Lunar Dust ...................................................................................... 1 Properties of Lunar Dust

Rathbun, Julie A.

413

Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA's and NLSI's objective

A. J. Shaner; S. S. Shipp; J. S. Allen; D. A. Kring

2010-01-01

414

The reuse of logistics carriers for the first lunar outpost alternative habitat study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Systems Definition Branch deals with preliminary concepts/designs of various projects currently in progress at NASA. One of these projects is called the First Lunar Outpost. The First Lunar Outpost (FLO) is a proposed permanent lunar base to be located on the moon. In order to better understand the Lunar Habitat, a detailed analysis of the lunar environment as well as conceptual studies of the physical living arrangements for the support crew is necessary. The habitat will be inhabited for a period of 45 days followed by a six month dormant period. Requirements for the habitat include radiation protection, a safe haven for occasional solar flare storms, an airlock module and consumables to support a crew of 4 with a schedule of 34 extra vehicular activities. Consumables in order to sustain a crew of four for 45 days ranges from 430 kg of food to only 15 kg for personal hygiene items. These consumables must be brought to the moon with every mission. They are transported on logistics carriers. The logistics carrier must be pressurized in order to successfully transport the consumables. Refrigeration along with other types of thermal control and variation in pressure are defined by the list of necessary consumables. The objective of the proposed work was to collaborate the Habitat Team with their study on Logistic Carriers as possible alternatives for additional habitable volume. Options for possible reuses was also determined. From this analysis, a recommended design is proposed.

Vargas, Carolina

1992-01-01

415

LETS: Lunar Environments Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Effects Branch (EM50) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a unique capability within the agency, namely the Lunar Environment Test System (LETS). LETS is a cryo-pumped vacuum chamber facility capable of high vacuum (10-7 Torr). LETS is a cylindrical chamber, 30 in. (0.8 m) diameter by 48 in. (1.2 m) long thermally controlled vacuum system. The chamber is equipped with a full array of radiation sources including vacuum ultraviolet, electron, and proton radiation. The unique feature of LETS is that it contains a large lunar simulant bed (18 in. x 40 in. x 6 in.) holding 75 kg of JSC-1a simulant while operating at a vacuum of 10-7 Torr. This facility allows three applications: 1) to study the charging, levitation and migration of dust particles, 2) to simulate the radiation environment on the lunar surface, and 3) to electrically charge the lunar simulant enhancing the attraction and adhesion of dust particles to test articles more closely simulating the lunar surface dust environment. LETS has numerous diagnostic instruments including TREK electrostatic probes, residual gas analyzer (RGA), temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalance (TQCM), and particle imaging velocimeter (PIV). Finally, LETS uses continuous Labview data acquisition for computer monitoring and system control.

Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd; Craven, Paul; Norwood, Joey

2008-01-01

416

Lunar transit telescope lander design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

Omar, Husam A.

1991-01-01

417

Lunar transit telescope lander design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Program Development group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been involved in studying the feasibility of placing a 16 meter telescope on the lunar surface to scan the skies using visible/ Ultraviolet/ Infrared light frequencies. The precursor telescope is now called the TRANSIT LUNAR TELESCOPE (LTT). The Program Development Group at Marshall Space Flight Center has been given the task of developing the basic concepts and providing a feasibility study on building such a telescope. The telescope should be simple with minimum weight and volume to fit into one of the available launch vehicles. The preliminary launch date is set for 2005. A study was done to determine the launch vehicle to be used to deliver the telescope to the lunar surface. The TITAN IV/Centaur system was chosen. The engineering challenge was to design the largest possible telescope to fit into the TITAN IV/Centaur launch system. The telescope will be comprised of the primary, secondary and tertiary mirrors and their supporting system in addition to the lander that will land the telescope on the lunar surface and will also serve as the telescope's base. The lunar lander should be designed integrally with the telescope in order to minimize its weight, thus allowing more weight for the telescope and its support components. The objective of this study were to design a lander that meets all the constraints of the launching system. The basic constraints of the TITAN IV/Centaur system are given.

Omar, Husam A.

1992-01-01

418

Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.  

PubMed

This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency. PMID:16846117

Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

2006-01-01

419

Water in lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two lines of evidence, suggest independently that materials which formed the Moon were not anhydrous: 1. Meteorites, our only sample of extraterrestrial material, contain water in varying amounts. Chondrites average about 0.25% water by weight. Carbonaceous chondrites, however, contain up to 20% water; and, although much of this water may be adsorbed atmospheric and surface water, the abundance of silicate hydrates in these objects indicates that considerable water existed in these meteorites before Earth impact. 2. The gas emission from Alphonsus observed by Kosyrev indicates that volatiles are diffusing out of the Moon. The observed emission was a C, band. Analyses of presumably juvenile gases reaching the Earth's surface show that water generally composes 95% or more of the gas. By analogy, it is suggested that water must be reaching the lunar surface. Consequently, it is reasonable to conclude that water existed in the materials which formed the Moon as well as those which formed the Earth or meteorites (or their source object). An estimate of the water content of the primordial Earth is 0.03%.

Speed, R. C.

1963-01-01

420

Similarities to Lunar Highlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After passing Mercury the first time and making a trip around the Sun, Mariner 10 again flew by Mercury on September 21 at 1:59 PMPDT. This encounter brought the spacecraft in front of Mercury in the southern hemisphere.

Much of Mercury looks like the lunar highlands, a scene carved by billions of years of impact craters. This image (FDS 166724)was taken when Mariner 10 was near its closest approach to the planet during the second encounter, about 50,000 km. This image is found near the center of the area not imaged during the first encounter.

The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

1974-01-01

421

Constellation Architecture Team-Lunar: Lunar Habitat Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will describe lunar habitat concepts that were defined as part of the Constellation Architecture Team-Lunar (CxAT-Lunar) in support of the Vision for Space Exploration. There are many challenges to designing lunar habitats such as mission objectives, launch packaging, lander capability, and risks. Surface habitats are required in support of sustaining human life to meet the mission objectives of lunar exploration, operations, and sustainability. Lunar surface operations consist of crew operations, mission operations, EVA operations, science operations, and logistics operations. Habitats are crewed pressurized vessels that include surface mission operations, science laboratories, living support capabilities, EVA support, logistics, and maintenance facilities. The challenge is to deliver, unload, and deploy self-contained habitats and laboratories to the lunar surface. The CxAT-Lunar surface campaign analysis focused on three primary trade sets of analysis. Trade set one (TS1) investigated sustaining a crew of four for six months with full outpost capability and the ability to perform long surface mission excursions using large mobility systems. Two basic habitat concepts of a hard metallic horizontal cylinder and a larger inflatable torus concept were investigated as options in response to the surface exploration architecture campaign analysis. Figure 1 and 2 depicts the notional outpost configurations for this trade set. Trade set two (TS2) investigated a mobile architecture approach with the campaign focused on early exploration using two small pressurized rovers and a mobile logistics support capability. This exploration concept will not be described in this paper. Trade set three (TS3) investigated delivery of a "core' habitation capability in support of an early outpost that would mature into the TS1 full outpost capability. Three core habitat concepts were defined for this campaign analysis. One with a four port core habitat, another with a 2 port core habitat, and the third investigated leveraging commonality of the lander ascent module and airlock pressure vessel hard shell. The paper will describe an overview of the various habitat concepts and their functionality. The Crew Operations area includes basic crew accommodations such as sleeping, eating, hygiene and stowage. The EVA Operations area includes additional EVA capability beyond the suit-port airlock function such as redundant airlock(s), suit maintenance, spares stowage, and suit stowage. The Logistics Operations area includes the enhanced accommodations for 180 days such as closed loop life support systems hardware, consumable stowage, spares stowage, interconnection to the other Hab units, and a common interface mechanism for future growth and mating to a pressurized rover. The Mission & Science Operations area includes enhanced outpost autonomy such as an IVA glove box, life support, and medical operations.

Toups, Larry; Kennedy, Kriss J.

2008-01-01

422

The Lunar Roving Vehicle: Historical perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA proceeds with its studies, planning, and technology efforts in preparing for the early twenty-first century, it seems appropriate to reexamine past programs for potential applicability in meeting future national space science and exploration goals and objectives. Both the National Commission on Space (NCOS) study and NASA's 'Sally Ride study' suggest future programs involving returning to the Moon and establishing man's permanent presence there, and/or visiting the planet Mars in both the unmanned and manned mode. Regardless of when and which of these new bold initiatives is selected as our next national space goal, implementing these potentially new national thrusts in space will undoubtedly require the use of both manned and remotely controlled roving vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to raise the consciousness level of the current space exploration planners to what, in the early 1970s, was a highly successful roving vehicle. During the Apollo program the vehicle known as the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was designed for carrying two astronauts, their tools, and the equipment needed for rudimentary exploration of the Moon. This paper contains a discussion of the vehicle, its characteristics, and its use on the Moon. Conceivably, the LRV has the potential to meet some future requirements, either with relatively low cost modifications or via an evolutionary route. This aspect, however, is left to those who would choose to further study these options.

Morea, Saverio F.

1992-01-01

423

Determination of temperature variation on lunar surface and subsurface for habitat analysis and design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ambient environmental factors present on the lunar surface pose some of the most difficult challenges for the success of a long-term human settlement on the Moon. Aside from the dangerous radiation levels and hypervelocity micrometeoroid impacts, the equatorial temperature on the surface of the Moon can range from 102.4 K to 387.1 K. These extremes pose a variety of complications like thermal expansion and contraction, which can, in turn, alter the static, dynamic, and frequency response of a structure. This paper first presents the analytical study of the surface and subsurface thermal/heat flow environments of a potential habitat site located at the Equator of the Moon using a general equation that was developed based on the thermodynamic principle of heat flow to determine the temperature variation/gradient with time as well as depth. This method was then applied, with appropriate modifications, to determine the temperature variation with time and through depth of a 1-m thick regolith shielding layer surrounding a lunar structure. The solution to the general equation was determined through the use of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique of numerical integration. The analysis results showed that the outermost layer of regolith fluff has very strong insulating capabilities causing the temperature to drop 132.3 K from the maximum daytime magnitude of 387.1 K within the first 30 cm at which point it then remains constant with increasing depth. At night, the temperature increases from the minimum magnitude of 102.4 K to 254.8 K within the outermost 30 cm. When considering a layer of regolith shielding atop a lunar habitat, the added albedo radiation input from the adjacent lunar surface to the structure increased the maximum daytime surface temperature to 457 K (about 70 K higher than the lunar surface temperature) and displayed a drop of 138 K within the first 30 cm depth of regolith cover. The minimum temperature at night increased 80.3 K over the surface temperature to reach 182.7 K while displaying an increase of 137.2 K through the outermost 30 cm. In general, throughout the lunar cycle, it was observed that at a fixed point in time, as the depth within the regolith increases, the temperature variation throughout the lunar cycle decreases and the temperature ultimately remains constant beyond a certain depth (observed to be approximately 30 cm). The framework of this study, which was completed considering a habitat at the lunar equator, can also be used at different locations of the Moon to study their adequacy for long-term colonization missions.

Malla, Ramesh B.; Brown, Kevin M.

2015-02-01

424

Lunar liquid oxygen production facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of oxygen beyond Earth's gravity well has been shown to be an economic asset for interplanetary travel using chemical combustion propulsion. Requirements for lunar liquid oxygen (LLOX) are presented that support Earth/Moon - Mars transportation. A phased build up of lunar based infrastructure is presented that utilizes advanced lunar regolith processing technology. A magma electrolysis design concept is described. The phased base layout is presented and the final operations plan is shown. The ISMU zone shown consists of all elements required to process regolith into LLOX including mining, screening, processing, byproduct processing, liquifying and storage. Basing plan elements are described and their delivery requirements are shown. Masses for the concepts are discussed and total deliverables are listed. Power requirements and generation plans are described.

Pulley, John; Goodman, Chava; Tanner, Al

425

Lunar gravity - A harmonic analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sixteenth-degree and sixteenth-order spherical harmonic lunar gravity field has been derived from the long-term Keplerian variations in the orbits of the Apollo subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter 5. This model resolves the major mascon gravity anomalies of the lunar near side and is in very good agreement with line-of-sight acceleration results. The far-side map shows the major ringed basins to be strong localized negative anomalies located in broad regions of positive gravity which correspond closely to the highlands. The rms pressure levels calculated from equivalent-surface height variations show that the moon and earth support nearly equal pressures, whereas Mars is appreciably stronger. The moon appears to support larger loads than earth owing to its weaker central gravity field and perhaps a colder upper lithosphere. Significant differences between the low-degree gravity and topography spectra indicate that the longer-wavelength topographic features are isostatically compensated.

Ferrari, A. J.

1977-01-01

426

Lunar exploration for resource utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strategy for developing resources on the Moon depends on the stage of space industrialization. A case is made for first developing the resources needed to provide simple materials required in large quantities for space operations. Propellants, shielding, and structural materials fall into this category. As the enterprise grows, it will be feasible to develop additional sources - those more difficult to obtain or required in smaller quantities. Thus, the first materials processing on the Moon will probably take the abundant lunar regolith, extract from it major mineral or glass species, and do relatively simple chemical processing. We need to conduct a lunar remote sensing mission to determine the global distribution of features, geophysical properties, and composition of the Moon, information which will serve as the basis for detailed models of and engineering decisions about a lunar mine.

Duke, Michael B.

1992-01-01

427

Lunar Eclipse Observer Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Byron W. Soulsby, an amateur research astronomer who operates the Calwell Lunar Observatory in Canberra, Australia, this site is designed for anyone with an interest in lunar eclipses, from serious researchers