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Sample records for persian gulf suffield

  1. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  2. Academics in the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The job market on North American campuses may be heading for the deep freeze, but hundreds of positions are opening up in the Persian Gulf as American universities scramble to set down roots in those petrodollar-rich states. The combination of money and opportunity on offer may seem hard to resist. But academics who trade the rich intellectual…

  3. Kuwait Oil Fires, Persian Gulf, Qatar Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view up the Persian Gulf from the Qatar Peninsula into southern Iraq (25.5N, 51.0E) shows an excursion of the smoke plumes from the Kuwait oil fires set during the short Persian Gulf War. Smoke from the fires north of Kuwait City, extends across the Persian Gulf while a larger smoke plume from the southern fires heads into southern Saudi Arabia before beginning to spread out and become more diffuse.

  4. Phytoplankton bloom in Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a large amount of sediment clearly visible in the true-color image of the Persian Gulf, acquired on November 1, 2001, by MODIS. Carried by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (at center), the sediment-laden waters appear light brown where they enter the northern end of the Persian Gulf and then gradually dissipate into turquoise swirls as they drift southward. The nutrients these sediments carry are helping to support a phytoplankton bloom in the region, which adds some darker green hues in the rich kaleidoscope of colors on the surface (see the high resolution image). The confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers marks the southernmost boundary between Iran (upper right) and Iraq (upper left). South of Iraq are the countries of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The red dots indicate the probable locations of fires burning at oil refineries. Thin black plumes of smoke can be seen streaming away from several of these.

  5. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  6. Persian Gulf: their oil, our need

    SciTech Connect

    Brossard, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    The degree of reliance of the US on Persian Gulf petroleum as well as problems facing Persian Gulf nations are addressed in this report. While US dependency on oil imports from Saudi Arabia is down, Japan and other western allies are very dependent on Saudi oil. The consequences of being deprived of Persian Gulf oil are described. The status and implications of the Iran-Iraq war are discussed in detail. The Arab countries in the region fear attacks on their oil fields by enemies and have developed a regional point defense strategy involving Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. OPEC's role in the area is described. The possibility of US intervention if needed to keep the Strait of Hormuz open and to protect the Gulf states from violence is also addressed. (DMC)

  7. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-10

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

  8. Sediment Sources in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoutian, Mehrab

    2014-05-01

    Sediment Constituent Analysis is an effective tool for identifying sediment sources. Based on several sediment samples taken from different sites all over the Iranian coastlines, we have been able to show that an important portion of sediment on the beaches in the Persian Gulf is bio-clastic; that is, biologically created from the coral environment as well as other marine habitats. Unlike mineral (clastic) sediments, carbonate sediments are born not made. Furthermore, carbonate sand constituents are generally less durable than their quartz and mineral counterparts, and break down relatively quickly. Therefore, destruction of reefs and degradation of marine habitat are certain to reduce the sand supply to the shoreline in the Persian Gulf that is necessary to maintain beaches. Carbonate sands are also found on the coastline of the Oman Sea. One of the striking things about the sediments along the coastline of Iran is the high percentage of carbonate material. Molluscan debris is common, even ubiquitous. This reflects the populations living in the offshore waters. Some molluscs thrive in high-energy sandy environments, others like finer sediments. Some live at the surface, while some burrow down as much as a half-metre. A great deal of information can be gained from the study of the species of mollusk and their distribution in the sediments. This paper introduces a few case studies done in different parts of the Persian Gulf by using this method as a general assessment toolbox.

  9. Oil Production Capacity Expansion Costs for the Persian Gulf

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    Provides estimates of development and operating costs for various size fields in countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. In addition, a forecast of the required reserve development and associated costs to meet the expected demand through the year 2010 is presented.

  10. Paraoxonase in Persian Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Hotopf, Matthew; Mackness, Michael Ian; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Collier, David A; Curtis, Charles; David, Anthony; Durrington, Paul; Hull, Lisa; Ismail, Khalida; Peakman, Mark; Unwin, Catherine; Wessely, Simon; Mackness, Bharti

    2003-07-01

    Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is responsible for the metabolism of organophosphates in serum, and PON1 activity is a major determinant of their toxicity in humans. There have been reports linking lowered PON1 activity to physical symptoms after deployment to the Persian Gulf War (PGW) of 1990 to 1991. Therefore, the object of this study was to determine (1) whether PON1 activity was decreased among symptomatic PGW veterans compared with asymptomatic PGW veterans and (2) to determine whether PGW veterans as a whole had lower PON1 activity compared with other military control groups. This was a case control study nested in occupational cohort study of military personnel. Four groups of military personnel were identified from a large epidemiological study of health effects of deployment to the PGW and Bosnia: (1) symptomatic PGW veterans, n = 115; (2) healthy PGW veterans, n = 95; (3) symptomatic Bosnia peacekeeping veterans, n = 52; and (4) symptomatic nondeployed military controls, n = 85. The main outcome measures were PON1 activity and genotype for PON1-55 and -192. We found significant differences in PON1 activity among these four groups, and although the two Gulf groups did not differ in PON1 activity, those deployed to the Gulf had significantly lower PON1 activity compared with the non-PGW groups (median difference = 70.9; 95% CI: 20.2, 121.5, P = 0.012). These differences were not explained by a range of potential confounders, or differences in PON1 coding region polymorphisms. PON1 activity is reduced in PGW veterans compared with military control groups. The effect is independent of ill health in PGW veterans. PMID:12855907

  11. Gulf Cooperation Council: search for security in the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Kechichian, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study purports to analyze the conservative Arab monarchies' search for regional security in the Persian Gulf. It speculates on the GCC's future prospects as a vehicle of cooperation in the field of security. Threats to the member states of the GCC stem from the policies pursued by revolutionary Iran, Israel, the Soviet Union and its proxies, and a regime in Iraq. The proposition is developed that these sources of threat present an overwhelming challenge to the security and stability of GCC states. Second, it examines the capabilities of the GCC member states for coping with threats. Conceived broadly, both military and non-military capabilities are examined. Security relations of the GCC states with external powers as a means of enhancing their abilities to cope more effectively with both internal and external threats are examined. Particular attention is devoted to the domestic consequences of these special relations. Third, it discusses the GCC's reactions to perceived regional threats. These include the Iran-Iraq War, the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Soviet threat, and potential political sources of dissidence in member states. It is argued that although GCC states have adopted a number of joint policies, they did not respond to or initiate action on either the Iranian Revolution, the Palestine conflict, the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, the Gulf war or the recent Israeli invasion of Lebanon.

  12. Protecting steel in concrete in the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Matta, Z.G. )

    1994-06-01

    The climate and geomorphology of the Persian Gulf make it one of the world's most severe environments for reinforced concrete. The concrete mix ingredients are usually contaminated with chloride, and the environment around reinforced concrete structures also contains salts, both under- and above-ground. Prevailing high temperatures also promote rapid rates of corrosion. Fusion-bonded epoxy-coated rebar, polyvinyl butyral-based coated rebar, calcium nitrile corrosion-inhibiting admixture, and microsilica are reviewed as corrosion prevention measures for steel in concrete for Persian Gulf service. Detrimental effects and user-friendliness are discussed.

  13. Oil slicks off the coast of Qatar, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A detailed view the port facility of Musay'id on the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf (25.0N, 52.5E). Part of a large oil spill seen as a dark toned mass in the water, covering much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf, has moved offshore in this scene. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment commonly occur in oil tanker operations.

  14. Failure of George Mason University's Persian Gulf Campus Sparks Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Late last month, when George Mason University's campus in the Persian Gulf emirate of Ras al Khaymah became the first American educational venture in the region to collapse, its administrators immediately blamed the international economic meltdown. In a region whose higher-education scene is quickly gaining a reputation for being as hazardous as…

  15. U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf: New Beginnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husbands, Jo

    For 40 years the primary objectives of U.S. policy in the Persian Gulf have been to assure access by the industrialized nations to the region's oil and to prevent those resources from falling under the control of the Soviet Union or any other hostile power. The recent events in Iran, the Iran-Iraq War and its aftermath, the maneuvering of a…

  16. How Selected High School Newspapers Covered the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jane W.; Maronn, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the many ways in which high school newspapers covered the Persian Gulf War, ranging from a serious analysis to satire in the form of a Cliff Notes summary. Compares two editorials from "The Little Hawk" (Iowa City, Iowa), one supporting the war and the other against. (PA)

  17. Three-dimensional flushing times of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrinasab, Masoud; Kämpf, Jochen

    2004-12-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is employed in a fully prognostic mode to derive flushing times of the Persian Gulf-an evaporation-driven inverse estuary that is governed by import of surface water from the adjacent ocean and export of saline bottom gulf water through the Strait of Hormuz. During spring and summer, a cyclonic overturning circulation establishes along the full length of the Gulf. During autumn and winter, this circulation breaks up into mesoscale eddies, laterally stirring most of the Gulf's surface waters. As a result of this, 95% flushing times of surface waters are shortest (1-3 yr, increasing with distance from the Strait) along the Iranian coast, but are much longer (>5 yr) along the coasts of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Owing to density stratification introduced by the surface inflow of ocean water, flushing times of bottom waters are ~6 yr in most parts of the Gulf.

  18. Ranking of Stress in Military Personnel in Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad Marzabadi, Es.; Tarkhorani, H.

    In respect of the geographic features of the Persian Gulf (warmth, humidity) and the sensitivity of the region we performed this study to determine the stress of the personnel that works there. This is a cross sectional-descriptive study. The samples of this study are 766 personnel in Persian Gulf. The sampling method was clustering. The instruments of the study were stress self made questionnaire and the Holmes and Rahe questionnaire. The mean score of samples in stress was 204. While the accepted score of Holmes and Rahe questionnaire is 100. Also 34% of samples had scores higher than 250 and 38% had scores from 100 to 250. The mean score of samples was at least double than normal range and in respect to predict of questionnaire norm the persons that have scores between 100-250, have 50% more vulnerability to Psycho-Physiological disorders.

  19. Madonnas, Whores, and the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Maria F.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reactions and attitudes of students in a women's studies course during the Gulf War. Contends that the imagery of war as a sexual, phallic event was a major topic of class discussion. Presents excerpts from teacher and student conversations. (CFR)

  20. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf...

  1. Late Quaternary sea-level changes of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen W.; Bateman, Mark D.; Larkin, Nigel R.; Rye, Philip; Stewart, John R.

    2015-07-01

    Late Quaternary reflooding of the Persian Gulf climaxed with the mid-Holocene highstand previously variously dated between 6 and 3.4 ka. Examination of the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context of a mid-Holocene whale beaching allows us to accurately constrain the timing of the transgressive, highstand and regressive phases of the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand in the Persian Gulf. Mid-Holocene transgression of the Gulf surpassed today's sea level by 7100-6890 cal yr BP, attaining a highstand of > 1 m above current sea level shortly after 5290-4570 cal yr BP before falling back to current levels by 1440-1170 cal yr BP. The cetacean beached into an intertidal hardground pond during the transgressive phase (5300-4960 cal yr BP) with continued transgression interring the skeleton in shallow-subtidal sediments. Subsequent relative sea-level fall produced a forced regression with consequent progradation of the coastal system. These new ages refine previously reported timings for the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand published for other regions. By so doing, they allow us to constrain the timing of this correlatable global eustatic event more accurately.

  2. Arms and oil: US military strategy and the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    McNaugher, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the oil-rich Persian Gulf, a region crucial to the world's security and economic health, the United States confronts major challenges to its military and diplomatic skills. The Iranian revolution, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and unpredictable turbulence have contributed to declining US influence in the area. In the United States, military questions about force size and strategy have sparked controversy over the proper US role in the Gulf. In this book Thomas L. McNaugher offers a military strategy for the Gulf that seeks to balance the risks of overinvolvement against the risks of neglect. The author, a research associate in the Brookings Foreign Policy Studies program, believes that the United States must cultivate the traditional security mechanisms of the states on the Arabian Peninsula, and he encourages cooperation with allies like Great Britain and France that historically have been involved in Gulf security. He argues that the United States should focus on protecting the Gulf states from external attack and on deterring further Soviet encroachment in the region, leaving internal security largely to the states themselves. 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Persian Gulf and the national interest. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.P.

    1982-02-01

    With gasoline lines a fading memory, it is easy for Americans to misinterpret the energy crisis as overinflated, and even easier to underestimate the importance of the Persian Gulf. Yet, it was just two years ago that former President Carter designated the Persian Gulf as a region of vital national interest. His purpose, in what came to be known as the Carter Doctrine, was to help ensure the steady flow of petroleum to the world market. President Reagan has subsequently confirmed that policy by increasing the U.S. military presence in the Inidan Ocean, strengthening the Rapid Deployment Force (RDF), and selling AWACS and other advanced military equipment to Saudi Arabia. What seemed to be a sensible policy direction with the turmoil in Iran, skyrocketing oil prices, and the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, has come under increasing criticism in the light of today's plentiful supplies of oil. A growing chorus of optimists argues that reliance on the unfettered market will give us a future of abundant energy and freedom from dependence on oil imports.

  4. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  5. Persian Gulf response to a wintertime shamal wind event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoppil, Prasad G.; Hogan, Patrick J.

    2010-08-01

    The results from a˜1 km resolution HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), forced by 1/2° Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) atmospheric data, were used in order to study the dynamic response of the Persian Gulf to wintertime shamal forcing. Shamal winds are strong northwesterly winds that occur in the Persian Gulf area behind southeast moving cold fronts. The period from 20 November to 5 December 2004 included a well defined shamal event that lasted 4-5 days. In addition to strong winds (16 m s -1) the winter shamal also brought cold dry air ( Ta=20 °C, qa=10 g kg -1) which led to a net heat loss in excess of 1000 W m -2 by increasing the latent heat flux. This resulted in SST cooling of up to 10 °C most notably in the northern and shallower shelf regions. A sensitivity experiment with a constant specific humidity of qa=15 g kg -1 confirmed that about 38% of net heat loss was due to the air-sea humidity differences. The time integral of SST cooling closely followed the air-sea heat loss, indicating an approximate one-dimensional vertical heat balance. It was found that the shamal induced convective vertical mixing provided a direct mechanism for the erosion of stratification and deepening of the mixed layer by 30 m. The strong wind not only strengthened the circulation in the entire Persian Gulf but also established a northwestward flowing Iranian Coastal Current (ICC, 25-30 cm s -1) from the Strait of Hormuz to about 52°E, where it veered offshore. The strongest negative sea level of 25-40 cm was generated in the northernmost portion of the Gulf while the wind setup against the coast of the United Arab Emirates established a positive sea level of 15-30 cm. The transport through the Strait of Hormuz at 56.2°E indicated an enhanced outflow of 0.25 Sv (Sv≡10 6 m 3 s -1) during 24 November followed by an equivalent inflow on the next day.

  6. STS-35 Earth observation of the Persian Gulf area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of the Persian Gulf area. Major cities and oilfields of the countries of Saudi Arabia (foreground), Iraq (top left), Iran (top center and top right), Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and a portion of the United Arab Emirates are visible in this scene. The cities are the large whitish areas of city lights. Flares characteristic of the Mid-East oil field practices are visible both onshore and offshore throughout the scene. Major cities identifiable are in Iraq - Baghdad, Basra, and Faw; in Qatar - Ab Dawhah; in Kuwait - Kuwait City; in Saudi Arabia - Riyadh, Al Jubayl, Dharan, Al Huf, Ad Dilam and Al Hariq; and Bahrain and its associated causeway to the mainland.

  7. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Rachal, R E; Huguley, J W

    1992-05-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future. PMID:1495114

  8. 77 FR 64597 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... gastrointestinal illness in Persian Gulf Veterans was caused by the presence of bacteria in the intestines and whether eradication of these bacteria reduces symptoms of chronic diarrhea. Affected Public:...

  9. 78 FR 6404 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... gastrointestinal illness in Persian Gulf Veterans was caused by ] the presence of bacteria in the intestines and whether eradication of these bacteria reduces symptoms of chronic diarrhea. An agency may not conduct...

  10. Analgesic effect of Persian Gulf Conus textile venom

    PubMed Central

    Tabaraki, Nasim; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Moradi, Ali Mashinchian; Vosughi, Gholamhossein; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Cone snails are estimated to consist of up to 700 species. The venom of these snails has yielded a rich source of novel peptides. This study was aimed to study the analgesic effect of Persian Gulf Conus textile and its comparison with morphine in mouse model. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected in Larak Island. The venom ducts were Isolated and kept on ice then homogenized. The mixture centrifuged at 10000 × g for 20 min. Supernatant was considered as extracted venom. The protein profile of venom determined using 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Venom was administered intraperitoneally (IP) to evaluate the LD50 in Swiss albino mice. Different concentrations of Conus textile venom were injected intrathecally to mice to evaluate their analgesic effect in comparison to morphine. Injection was carried out between the L5 and L6 vertebrae. Differences between groups in the first and second phase were tested with Two-Way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: SDS-PAGE indicated 12 bands ranged between 6 and 180 KDa. Finally, ten ng of Conus crude venom showed the best analgesic activity in formalin test. No death observed up to 100 mg/kg. Analgesic activity of crude venom was more significant (P<0.05) in acute pain than inflammatory pain. The analgesic effect of 10 ng Conus venom was the same as morphine for reduction of inflammatory pain (P=0.27). Conclusion: The venom of Persian Gulf Conus textile contains an analgesic component for reliving of acute pain which can lead to find an analgesic drug. PMID:25729549

  11. The Role of the Persian Gulf in Shaping Southwest Asian Surface Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Summer surface climate of the Persian Gulf region is characterized by hot and humid conditions. Despite such conditions - which in other regions tends to trigger moist convection - typically this region experiences clear sky conditions and very little rainfall in the summer. In this study, we customize the MIT Regional Climate Model specifically for the Southwest Asia region and apply it at a 25-km grid spacing using reanalysis boundary conditions for present-day climate (1975-2005). Specific customizations include accurate representations of surface albedo and emissivity as well as mineral dust processes, all of which improve model bias. To assess the role of the Persian Gulf in shaping the region's climate, a 30-year experiment is performed without the Persian Gulf characterized. Results suggest that observed conditions over the Persian Gulf are due to a combination of physical processes involving adiabatic and diabatic descent. First, virtually clear sky conditions, due to subsidence during summer associated with the rising air motion over the monsoon region to the east, suppress upward motion and deep convection and increase incoming solar radiation. Second, the low surface albedo of the Persian Gulf results in enhanced absorption of solar radiation and total heat flux. Third, high evaporation rates increase water vapor, and therefore trap heat at the surface via the greenhouse effect for water vapor. Fourth, the relatively shallow boundary layer over the Persian Gulf concentrates water vapor and heat close to the surface. These combined factors maximize the total flux of heat in the boundary layer and hence moist static energy over the Persian Gulf.

  12. Corrosion of reinforced concrete in the Persian Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Novokshchenov, V.

    1995-01-01

    The Kuwait liquefied gas/sulfur (LGS) plant is located on a small island in the southern part of the Persian Gulf. The plant was built in phases between 1973 and 1977. Designed to manufacture liquefied natural and petroleum gas and to extract sulfur, the LGS plant consists of two similar process unit trains served by a common boiler and utility plant. The major reinforced-concrete structures at the plant include the cooling water outfall, the cooling water intake, the operations building, structures supporting elevated pipe and equipment, boiler stack foundations, bridge over the flume, the loading jetty, sulfur plant structures, substations, and storage tank foundations. The first signs of distress in the plant structures were reported in 1980: cracking, spalling, and delamination of concrete cover and corrosion of reinforcing steel. In some cases, deterioration had progressed to the extent that safety and life expectancy of the structures were at risk. Subsequently, several investigations were conducted on various structures from 1980 to 1987 to identify the causes of the deterioration. The principal cause of the deterioration was corrosion of reinforcing steel caused by the presence of chlorides; marine salts were the main source. Construction-related contributing factors included insufficient concrete cover, use of sulfate-resistant (ASTM Type V) portland cement, and an elevated water-to-cement ratio.

  13. Coral reef recovery in Florida and the Persian Gulf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, Eugene A.

    1976-01-01

    Long-term observations and study of coral reef destruction by hurricanes in the Florida Keys show, surprisingly, that although corals are devastated on a grand scale during storms, recovery is rapid. Recovery occurs because of the widespread scattering of live fragments, many of which become growth sites of new colonies. Reef recovery from death by chilling in the Persian Gulf was well under way when last observed, but it is not yet known if the recovery rate was as rapid as recovery from the storm destruction in Florida. Recovery from death by chilling requires settlement of transported coral larvae and a substrate suitable for larval attachment. Such resettlement is subject to the effects of currents, predators, pollution, and competition for substrate. A growth rate of 10 cm per year combined with geometrical progression of branch formation accounts for rapid recovery. Although calculated coral proliferation seems unusually high, it has been confirmed by serial underwater photographs spanning ten years. More precise measurements of growth and branching are needed, along with growth data for other common reef-building corals. Such data would be useful for predicting standing crop of a restocked or transplanted reef.

  14. Simulation of oil pollution in the Persian Gulf near Assaluyeh oil terminal.

    PubMed

    Faghihifard, M; Badri, M A

    2016-04-15

    Numerical simulation of oil slick movement with respect to tidal factors and wind effects was performed in order to counteract oil pollution in the Persian Gulf. First, a flow model was invoked with respect to water level fluctuations. The main tidal constituents were applied to the model using the initial conditions of water level variations in the Hormuz Strait near the Hangam Island. The movement of oil pollution was determined due to wind, tide and temperature effects and confirmed by applying a verified field results. Simulations were focused near an important terminal in the Persian Gulf, Assaluyeh Port. The results were led to preparing a risk-taking map in a parallel research for the Persian Gulf. PMID:26906497

  15. Coral reproduction in the world's warmest reefs: southern Persian Gulf (Dubai, United Arab Emirates)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, A. G.; Baird, A. H.; Cavalcante, G. H.

    2011-06-01

    Despite extensive research on coral reproduction from numerous geographic locations, there remains limited knowledge within the Persian Gulf. Given that corals in the Persian Gulf exist in one of the most stressful environments for reef corals, with annual variations in sea surface temperature (SST) of 12°C and maximum summer mean SSTs of 36°C, understanding coral reproductive biology in the Gulf may provide clues as to how corals may cope with global warming. In this study, we examined six locally common coral species on two shallow reef sites in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), in 2008 and 2009 to investigate the patterns of reproduction, in particular the timing and synchrony of spawning. In total, 71% colonies in April 2008 and 63% colonies in April 2009 contained mature oocytes. However, the presence of mature gametes in May indicated that spawning was potentially split between April and May in all species. These results demonstrate that coral reproduction patterns within this region are highly seasonal and that multi-species spawning synchrony is highly probable. Acropora downingi, Cyphastrea microphthalma and Platygyra daedalea were all hermaphroditic broadcast spawners with a single annual gametogenic cycle. Furthermore, fecundity and mature oocyte sizes were comparable to those in other regions. We conclude that the reproductive biology of corals in the southern Persian Gulf is similar to other regions, indicating that these species have adapted to the extreme environmental conditions in the southern Persian Gulf.

  16. Parhyale darvishi, a new widely distributed amphipod species, in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Hyalidae).

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Farzaneh; Maghsoudlou, Abdolvahab

    2016-01-01

    Parhyale darvishi sp. nov., is described. The new species is characterized by a naked posterior margin on the propodus of pereopods 5-7, a special arrangement of robust setae on the first male gnathopod and a lack of dense fine setae on the second antennae. Parhyale darvishi sp. nov. is distributed from the western coasts of the Persian Gulf to the eastern coasts of Gulf of Oman. PMID:27395677

  17. Observations of Strong Surface Radar Ducts over the Persian Gulf.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Ian M.; Goroch, Andreas K.; Rogers, David P.

    1999-09-01

    Ducting of microwave radiation is a common phenomenon over the oceans. The height and strength of the duct are controlling factors for radar propagation and must be determined accurately to assess propagation ranges. A surface evaporation duct commonly forms due to the large gradient in specific humidity just above the sea surface; a deeper surface-based or elevated duct frequently is associated with the sudden change in temperature and humidity across the boundary layer inversion.In April 1996 the U.K. Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules research aircraft took part in the U.S. Navy Ship Antisubmarine Warfare Readiness/Effectiveness Measuring exercise (SHAREM-115) in the Persian Gulf by providing meteorological support and making measurements for the study of electromagnetic and electro-optical propagation. The boundary layer structure over the Gulf is influenced strongly by the surrounding desert landmass. Warm dry air flows from the desert over the cooler waters of the Gulf. Heat loss to the surface results in the formation of a stable internal boundary layer. The layer evolves continuously along wind, eventually forming a new marine atmospheric boundary layer. The stable stratification suppresses vertical mixing, trapping moisture within the layer and leading to an increase in refractive index and the formation of a strong boundary layer duct. A surface evaporation duct coexists with the boundary layer duct.In this paper the authors present aircraft- and ship-based observations of both the surface evaporation and boundary layer ducts. A series of sawtooth aircraft profiles map the boundary layer structure and provide spatially distributed estimates of the duct depth. The boundary layer duct is found to have considerable spatial variability in both depth and strength, and to evolve along wind over distances significant to naval operations (100 km). The depth of the evaporation duct is derived from a bulk parameterization based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory

  18. Mortality among US veterans of the Persian Gulf War: 7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Bullman, T A

    2001-09-01

    To assess the long-term health consequences of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the authors compared cause-specific mortality rates of 621,902 Gulf War veterans with those of 746,248 non-Gulf veterans, by gender, with adjustment for age, race, marital status, branch of service, and type of unit. Vital status follow-up began with the date of exit from the Persian Gulf theater (Gulf veterans) or May 1, 1991 (control veterans). Follow-up for both groups ended on the date of death or December 31, 1997, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the multivariate analysis. For Gulf veterans, mortality risk was also assessed relative to the likelihood of exposure to nerve gas at Khamisiyah, Iraq. Among Gulf veterans, the significant excess of deaths due to motor vehicle accidents that was observed during the earlier postwar years had decreased steadily to levels found in non-Gulf veterans. The risk of death from natural causes remained lower among Gulf veterans compared with non-Gulf veterans. This was mainly accounted for by the relatively higher number of deaths related to human immunodeficiency virus infection among non-Gulf veterans. There was no statistically significant difference in cause-specific mortality among Gulf veterans relative to potential nerve gas exposure. The risk of death for both Gulf veterans and non-Gulf veterans stayed less than half of that expected in their civilian counterparts. The authors conclude that the excess risk of mortality from motor vehicle accidents that was associated with Gulf War service has dissipated after 7 years of follow-up. PMID:11532780

  19. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restoration of... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). (a) Restoration of contributions when no entitlement is charged. If the provisions of §...

  20. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restoration of... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). (a) Restoration of contributions when no entitlement is charged. If the provisions of §...

  1. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Restoration of... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). (a) Restoration of contributions when no entitlement is charged. If the provisions of §...

  2. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Restoration of... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). (a) Restoration of contributions when no entitlement is charged. If the provisions of §...

  3. Sand Trap: The Military and the Media during the Persian Gulf War. Symposium Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Steven L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Five articles discuss the military-media relationship during the Persian Gulf War. Highlights include the development and implementation of the Pentagon's press policy; concerns of the media and military public affairs officers; first person accounts by journalists and a public affairs officer; and First Amendment principles. (29 references) (LRW)

  4. Eddy-topography interactions and the fate of the Persian Gulf Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vic, C.; Roullet, G.; Capet, X.; Carton, X.; Molemaker, M. J.; Gula, J.

    2015-10-01

    The Persian Gulf feeds a warm and salty outflow in the Gulf of Oman (northern Arabian Sea). The salt climatological distribution is relatively smooth in the Gulf of Oman, and the signature of a slope current carrying salty waters is difficult to distinguish hundreds of kilometers past the Strait of Hormuz, in contrast to other outflows of the world ocean. This study focuses on the mechanisms involved in the spreading of Persian Gulf Water (PGW) in the Gulf of Oman, using a regional primitive equation numerical simulation. The authors show that the dispersion of PGW occurs through a regime that is distinct from, for example, the one responsible for the Mediterranean outflow dispersion. The background mesoscale eddy field is energetic and participates actively to the spreading of PGW. Remotely formed eddies propagate into the Gulf of Oman and interact with the topography, leading to submesoscales formation and PGW shedding. Eddy-topography interactions are isolated in idealized simulations and reveal the formation of intense frictional boundary layers, generating submesoscale coherent vortices (SCVs). Interactions take place at depths encompassing the PGW depth, thus SCVs trap PGW and contribute to its redistribution from the boundaries to the interior of the Gulf of Oman. The overall efficiency of these processes is confirmed by a strong contribution of eddy salt fluxes in the interior of the basin, and is quantified using particle statistics. It is found to be a highly dispersive regime, with an approximated eddy diffusivity of ˜1700 m2 s-1.

  5. Generation of Wind Waves in the Persian Gulf: A Numerical Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Y.; Kaihatu, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Persian Gulf is a long shallow basin located between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Wind-wave generation processes in the region are often affected by the shamal, a strong wind caused by the passage of cold fronts over the mountains of Turkey and Kurdistan. This can set up sudden energetic wind seas, hampering marine traffic. It is not immediately clear whether present wind-wave models can predict this intense, short-term growth and evolution under these conditions. Furthermore, few wave measurements or models studies have been performed in this area. In advance of a wind-wave generation experiment to be conducted off the Qatar coast, we performed a climatological study of the wind wave environment in the Persian Gulf. Using the SWAN wave model as a baseline of the state of the art, five years (2004-2008)of wind field model hindcasts from COAMPS are used as forcing.To investigate the sensitivity of the results to bathymetry, the climatological analysis was run twice more, with refraction or wave breaking deactivated, in turn. The results do not show significant differences with and without refraction, which implies the wind-wave process in Persian Gulf is less dominated by the variation of bathymetry. However the results show that a large amount of wave is dissipated by wave breaking. Wide, flat and shallow bathymetry in Persian Gulf results in a long-fetch scenario, particularly for waves arriving from the northwest. It implies that long period wind-generated waves can be fully generated in this region. Wave height is therefore fully grown by the long-fetch condition, so as to lead in higher possibility of wave breaking and energy dissipation.

  6. Utilization of occupational therapy in combat stress control during the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, P D; Sinnott, M W; Laedtke, M E; McPhee, S D

    1993-06-01

    This article chronicles the deployment and subsequent utilization of occupational therapy personnel in support of combat stress control operations during the Persian Gulf War. It presents a discussion of occupational therapy's military history, evolving doctrine, and selected training experiences which led to the attachment of occupational therapy personnel to the 528th Medical Detachment (Psychiatric OM Team). A description of roles, functions, methods of operation, and lessons learned help to clarify the direction of occupational therapy in its future wartime mission. PMID:8361595

  7. Subjective cognitive complaints, affective distress, and objective cognitive performance in Persian Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Binder, L M; Storzbach, D; Anger, W K; Campbell, K A; Rohlman, D S; of the Portland Environmental, O M; Center, H R

    1999-08-01

    We examined subjective cognitive complaints, affective distress, and cognitive performance in Persian Gulf veterans who reported illness and cognitive complaints. We predicted a stronger relationship between subjective cognitive complaints and affective distress than between subjective cognitive complaints and objective cognitive performance. This prediction was confirmed in a sample of 100 veterans. The results suggest that cognitive impairment should not be diagnosed in this population without objective confirmation with cognitive testing. PMID:14590580

  8. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment. PMID:26581816

  9. Variation in the size structure of corals is related to environmental extremes in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Pratchett, Morgan S; Baird, Andrew H; Riegl, Bernhard; Heron, Scott F; Feary, David A

    2013-03-01

    The size structure of coral populations is the culmination of key demographic events, including recruitment, mortality and growth, thereby providing important insights to recent ecological dynamics. Importantly, the size structure of corals reflects both intrinsic (inherent life-history characteristics) and extrinsic (enhanced mortality due to chronic or acute disturbances) forcing on local populations, enabling post-hoc assessment of spatial and taxonomic differences in susceptibility to disturbance. This study examined the size structure of four locally abundant corals (Acropora downingi, Favia pallida, Platygyra daedalea, and massive Porites spp.) in two regions of the Persian Gulf: the southern Gulf (Dubai and Abu Dhabi) and eastern Gulf (western Musandam). Significant and consistent differences were apparent in mean colony sizes and size-distributions between regions. All corals in the southern Gulf were significantly smaller, and their size structure positively skewed and relatively more leptokurtic (i.e., peaky) compared to corals in the eastern Gulf. Sea surface temperatures, salinity, and the recent frequency of mass bleaching are all higher, in the southern Gulf, suggesting higher mortality rates and/or slower growth in these populations. Differences in size structure between locations were more pronounced than differences between species at each location, suggesting that extreme differences in environmental conditions and disturbance events have a greater influence on population dynamics in the Gulf than inherent differences in their life-history characteristics. PMID:23245870

  10. Evaluation of ecotourism potential in the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Jafar; Danehkar, Afshin; Sharifipour, Rozita

    2008-08-01

    This research has identified areas located in the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf in the south of Iran, as strategic and ecological sites, based on tourism potential assessing criteria. To this end coastal limits were identified by satellite imagery in terms of shorelines and the maximum extent of water approach into the land and taking into consideration the characteristics of the nearby coastal villages. The studied region was then compared to similar international criteria and experiences. The original criteria were then divided into three main and four sub criteria. The Kangan region was found to have a potential for tourism industry according to the mentioned criteria. Naiband Gulf with a score of 20 was ranked first followed by Asalouyeh with a score of 18 and finally Taheri and Kangan Ports with scores of 16 and 15, respectively. With a high tourism industry potential in the studied region the necessity of ecotourism quality enhancement and environmental management planning for the northern shoreline of the Persian Gulf becomes of vital importance.

  11. Infection of Anisakids Larvae in Long Tail Tuna (Thunnus tonggol) In North Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, A; Sabokroo, H; Ranjbar- Bahadori, SH

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper was to study the prevalence and intensity of Anisakids larvae in the long tail tuna fish captured from Iranian shores of Persian Gulf. Methods Different organs including skin, abdominal cavity, stomach and intestinal contents, stomach sub serous tissues, liver, spleen, gonads and 20 grams of muscles of 100 long tail tuna fish (Thannus tonggol) caught from waters of the north parts of Persian Gulf were searched for anisakid nematodes larvae. Twenty grams of around the body cavity muscles were digested in artificial gastric juice. Different organs and digested muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of anisakids larvae. The collected larvae were preserved in 70% alcohol containing 5% glycerin, and cleared in lactophenol for identification. Results Our findings revealed that 89% of fish harbored 3rd stage larvae of Anisakis sp. of which 2% were infected with both Anisakis and Raphidascaris. All inspected organs except that of skin were found to be infected, while stomach sub serous tissues were the most infected organ (80%) followed by abdominal cavity (10%), liver (4%), testicle (3%), stomach contents and spleen (2%) and intestinal contents (1%). Intestine and abdominal cavity were the organs harbored Raphidascaris sp. Digested muscles were free of parasite. Mean intensity was low for both species and ranged between 1.5 for Raphidascaris sp. and 3.67 for Anisaki sp. Conclusion Anisakids larvae especially Anisakis are very prevalent in some fish including tunas of Persian Gulf, and consumption of infected fish if it is not properly cooked may lead to human anisakiasis. PMID:22347303

  12. Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: evidence from a population-based study. Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center.

    PubMed

    Anger, W K; Storzbach, D; Binder, L M; Campbell, K A; Rohlman, D S; McCauley, L; Kovera, C A; Davis, K L

    1999-03-01

    Reports of low-concentration nerve gas exposures during the Persian Gulf War have spurred concern about possible health consequences and refocused interest on the symptoms reported by many returning military veterans. The Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center is studying veterans from the Northwest USA who report persistent, unexplained "Persian Gulf" symptoms (cases) or who do not report those symptoms (controls). Of the first 101 veterans studied, cases differed substantially from controls on a broad range of psychological tests indicative of increased distress. A subgroup of cases was identified with objective deficits on neurobehavioral tests of memory, attention, and response speed. PMID:10217920

  13. Enrichment and identification of naphthalene-degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Boroujeni, Negar Amini

    2016-06-15

    Naphthalene is a ubiquitous pollutant of the marine environment, and naphthalene biodegradation has been receiving constant scientific consideration. For cleanup of aromatic contaminated sites, bioremediation methods are considered as economical and safe approaches for the marine environment. The aims of this research are isolation and characterization of naphthalene-degrading bacteria from some marine samples of the Persian Gulf. Fifty four naphthalene-degrading bacteria were isolated from marine samples (sediment and seawater) that are enriched in ONR7a medium with naphthalene as the only carbon source. Some screening tests such as growth at high concentration of naphthalene, bioemulsifier production and surface hydrophobicity were done to select the best and prevalent strains for naphthalene degradation. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA shows that these isolated strains belong to these genera: Shewanella, Salegentibacter, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Oceanicola, Idiomarina and Thalassospira. These strains can degrade half of the percentage of naphthalene in 10days of incubation. This research is the first report on isolation of these genera from the Persian Gulf as naphthalene-degrader. PMID:27114087

  14. Mesoscale eddies and submesoscale structures of Persian Gulf Water off the Omani coast in Spring 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, P.; Carton, X.; Louazel, S.; Boutin, G.

    2015-11-01

    The Persian Gulf produces a high salinity water (Persian Gulf Water, PGW hereafter) flowing into the Sea of Oman, in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Past the Strait of Hormuz, the PGW cascades down the continental slope and spreads in the Sea of Oman under the influence of the energetic mesoscale eddies with different thermohaline signatures and pathways depending of the season. In spring 2011, the Phys-Indien experiment was carried out in the Arabian Sea an in the Sea of Oman. This study uses the results from the measurements to characterize the water masses, their thermohaline and dynamical signatures. During the spring intermonsoon, an anticyclonic eddy is often observed at the mouth of the Sea of Oman. This structure was present in 2011 and created a front between the eastern and western part of the basin. As well two energetic gyres were present along the Omani coast in the Arabian Sea. At their peripheries, injections of fresh and cold water are found in relation with the stirring of the eddies. The PGW observed below or between these eddies have a different dilution depending of the position and formation periods of the gyres. Furthermore, in the western Sea of Oman, the PGW is fragmented in filaments and submesoscale eddies. As well, recirculation of the PGW is observed, thus having the presence of salty nearby patches with two densities. Offshore, in the Arabian Sea, a submesoscale lens was recorded. The different mechanisms leading to its formation and presence are assessed here.

  15. Mercury and arsenic in green tiger shrimp from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Raissy, Mehdi; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Nadeali, Vahid; Ansari, Mahsa; Shakerian, Amir

    2014-04-01

    Mercury and arsenic pollution has been recognized as a potential environmental and public health problem for over 40 years. The major source of exposure to mercury and arsenic for humans is the ingestion of sea food. Concentrations of mercury and arsenic in the muscle samples of green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) from the Persian Gulf were determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of metals in muscle samples were 49-115 µg kg(-1) for mercury, 115-131 µg kg(-1)for arsenic, with means of 82.7 and 251.6 µg kg(-1), respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference of mercury and arsenic concentration in shrimp muscles between selected stations (Bushehr, Khuzestan, and Hormozgan provinces). No significant difference was found among heavy metal contents of male and female shrimps. The results of this study indicate that the green tiger shrimp from the Persian Gulf have concentrations well below the maximum permissible levels for mercury (500 µg kg(-1)) and arsenic (6000 µg kg(-1)), according to international standards, with no health risk of consumers. PMID:22782706

  16. A significant look at the effects of Persian Gulf environmental conditions on sound scattering based on small perturbation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadimi, Parviz; Bolghasi, Alireza; Feizi Chekab, Mohammad A.; Zamanian, Rahim

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to investigate sound scattering from the sea surface, by Kuo's small perturbation method (SPM), in the Persian Gulf's environmental conditions. Accordingly, the SPM method is reviewed, then it is demonstrated how it can accurately model sound scattering from the sea surface. Since in Kuo's approach, the effects of surface roughness and sub-surface bubble plumes on incident sounds can be studied separately, it is possible to investigate the importance of each mechanism in various scattering regimes. To conduct this study, wind and wave information reported by Arzanah station as well as some numerical atmospheric models for the Persian Gulf are presented and applied to examine sound scattering from the sea surface in the Persian Gulf region. Plots of scattering strength by Kuo's SPM method versus grazing angle for various frequencies, wave heights, and wind speeds are presented. The calculated scattering strength by the SPM method for various frequencies and wind speeds are compared against the results of critical sea tests 7 (CST-7). The favorable agreement achieved for sound scattering in the Persian Gulf region is indicative of the fact that the SPM method can, quite accurately indeed, model, and predict sound scattering from the sea surface.

  17. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

  18. Health consequences of the first Persian Gulf War on French troops.

    PubMed

    Salamon, R; Verret, C; Jutand, M A; Bégassat, M; Laoudj, F; Conso, F; Brochard, P

    2006-04-01

    Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War Veterans (PGWV) have been undertaken. These studies have concluded that there has been an increased mortality due to external causes, no excess of recognized diseases, and no effect on PGWV children. When compared with the non-deployed, PGWV have reported a higher frequency of infertility as well as different symptoms, but a specific Gulf War syndrome was not identified. In October 2000, the French government asked an independent working group to analyse the scientific literature on PGWV health. The group concluded that an exhaustive study of French PGWV was to be undertaken. The objectives of this study were to describe the exposures of PGWV in the operations theatre, to report on the symptoms and diseases that occurred in PGWV and their children during and after the military campaign, and to explore the possibility of a Gulf War syndrome. This exhaustive cross-sectional study, which included all civilians and troops who served in the Gulf from August 1990 to July 1991, began in January 2002. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaires. A standardized clinical evaluation was performed by 27 clinics of occupational diseases and nine military hospitals. Symptoms and diseases which appeared after the campaign are described. To date, among 20,261 PGWV, 5,666 participated in the study (28%). The most frequent symptoms described since the return from the Gulf were headaches (83%), neurological or psychological symptoms, and back pain. Apart from well-known symptoms associations (respiratory, neurocognitive, psychological and musculo-skeletal syndromes), no other cluster was highlighted by our analysis. PMID:16434429

  19. The Department of Defense's Persian Gulf War registry year 2000: an examination of veterans' health status.

    PubMed

    Stuart, John A; Murray, Kelly M; Ursano, Robert J; Wright, Kathleen M

    2002-02-01

    This study examined the health status of 46,633 Persian Gulf War theater veterans who received full clinical evaluations in the Department of Defense's Gulf War Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program (CCEP) as of spring 2000. Clinical data analyzed included demographic information, 15 health symptoms, 19 wartime exposures, and primary and secondary physician-determined medical diagnoses based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, criteria. Findings and discussions are arrayed, by gender, with comparative 1996 data from the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Examination Registry Program. Many veterans reported fewer physical symptoms now than during the time of the Gulf War. Many endorsed symptoms of joint pain, fatigue, weight change, and sleep disturbances. Most reported exposure to diesel fuel and the nerve agent antidote pyridostigmine bromide; far fewer female veterans reported combat involvement. The most frequent primary or secondary diagnosed medical conditions were musculoskeletal/connective tissue diseases, ill-defined conditions, and mental disorders. Female veterans were diagnosed more frequently with mental disorders. Symptom endorsement and diagnosis rates between the CCEP and the Department of Veterans Affairs registry were not dissimilar. Overall, the self-reported general health of veterans with symptoms was much poorer (females had higher rates of "fair to poor" health than males) than that of veterans with no reported symptoms. PMID:11873533

  20. Energy investment advisory series No. 3: Investment opportunities in the Persian Gulf energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hadgen, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Sometimes the greatest investment opportunities are in those areas where the least progress seems to be taking place. This report describes energy-based developments taking place in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The 8 Gulf states are building their nations; each has large minority groups and swelling populations; their economies are built on one product (hydrocarbons). Large expatriate populations, being integrated into local societies and economies, have led to hostility and guarded access to contacts with the outside world. Gulf nations cannot benefit from any oil price rise as they did in the past, as their populations have grown too rapidly. Policies change daily and can be changed back to original ones as well as into new ones. Since the oil and gas industries are the primary source of government revenue, oil and gas are likely to remain longest under government control. A breakdown of energy-base investment potentials in the Middle East is tabulated: upstream oil, refining, domestic oil marketing, upstream gas, LNG, electricity, petrochemical.

  1. Application of baited remote underwater video stations to assess benthic coverage in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Ghazilou, Amir; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Gladstone, William

    2016-04-30

    A baited remote underwater video station (BRUVS) is generally considered an appropriate sampling tool for fish. The applicability of BRUVS to determine the substrate coverage was assessed by comparing stills from BRUVS videos to traditional point intercept transect (PIT) data to estimate percentage cover (PC) of different benthic substrate categories. Mean PCs of hard corals, rock, sand, and coral growth forms yielded statistically identical values with the two survey methods, while PCs of motile epibenthic invertebrates were underestimated by BRUVS in areas of both high and moderate relief. Yet, multivariate analyses revealed that the two methods yield similar substrate assemblage in an area of moderate relief. Results of our study suggest that the BRUVS can be effectively used to quantify both the presence/absence of a basic set of benthic habitat characteristics and diversity of coral growth forms on coral reefs in the Persian Gulf. PMID:26422123

  2. Phylogeny of Symbiodinium populations in zoantharians of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Noori Koupaei, Atoosa; Dehghani, Hamed; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Mashini, Amirhossein Gheitanchi

    2016-04-30

    Zoantharians of the Persian Gulf (PG) experience periods of anomalous high temperature, irradiance and desiccation. Their survival largely relies on the symbiotic relationship with single celled dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. However, the phylogeny of symbionts of zoantharians has not been investigated in the region. In this study, the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) was used to recognize in hospite populations of Symbiodinium in Palythoa aff. mutuki, Palythoa tuberculosa and Zoanthus sansibaricus colonies from Hengam, Kish, Larak, and Qeshm Islands, in the PG. The results showed subclade D1-4 and a variant of A1, were the most prevalent subclades of Symbiodinium. Predominance of stress tolerant subclade D1-4 and putatively radiation tolerant variant of A1 of Symbiodinium in zoantharian species might suggest an adaptation strategy to the extreme physical environment of the PG. PMID:26948294

  3. Observations and trends of emissions from gas flaring in the Persian Gulf region using OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, H.; Soltanieh, M.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Gas flaring associated with oil production is common where there is no local market for natural gas (mostly methane) and emits large amount of air pollutants and greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. OMI NO2, SO2 and Aerosol Index (AI) observations from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed, and successfully characterize emissions from major flaring sources in the Persian Gulf region. The SO2/NO2 ratio can distinguish flaring regions with relatively high SO2 component, from urban and industrial areas, where domestic heating, internal combustion of motor vehicles and power generation with a relatively high NO2 component dominate. Concentrations of these gases over facilities for production and export of oil reflect the economic recession of 2008/9 and reduced oil exports due to sanctions imposed in 2012. A nearby site involved primarily in copper smelting show no such trend. These temporal trends are being analyzed to improve emissions estimates.

  4. Data of heavy metals biosorption onto Sargassum oligocystum collected from the northern coast of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Delshab, Sedigheh; Kouhgardi, Esmaeil; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    This data article presents a simple method for providing a biosorbent from Sargassum oligocystum harvested from the northern coast of Persian Gulf, Bushehr, Iran. The characterization data of Sargassum oligocystum biochar (SOB) were analyzed using various instrumental techniques (FTIR and XPS). The kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics data of Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) ions onto SOB were presented. The maximum biosorption capacity of SOB to uptake Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) ions from aqueous solution was obtained 60.25, 153.85, and 45.25 mg/g, respectively. The experimental data showed that biochar prepared from Sargassum oligocystum is an efficient and promising biosorbent for the treatment of heavy metals-bearing wastewaters. PMID:27331094

  5. Coral reef fish assemblages along a disturbance gradient in the northern Persian Gulf: A seasonal perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghazilou, Amir; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Gladstone, William

    2016-04-30

    Seasonal dynamics of coral reef fish assemblages were assessed along a gradient of potential anthropogenic disturbance in the Northern Persian Gulf. Overall, the attributes of coral reef fish assemblages showed seasonality at two different levels: seasonal changes irrespective of the magnitude of disturbance level (e.g. species richness), and seasonal changes in response to disturbance level (e.g. total abundance and assemblage composition). The examined parameters mostly belonged to the second group, but the interpretation of the relationship between patterns of seasonal changes and the disturbance level was not straightforward. The abundance of carnivorous fishes did not vary among seasons. SIMPER identified the family Nemipteridae as the major contributor to the observed spatiotemporal variations in the composition of coral reef fish assemblages in the study area. PMID:26507514

  6. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the coastline and mangroves of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi-Nozar, Seyedeh Laili; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Ismail, Wan Ruslan; Mortazawi, Mohammad Seddiq; Salimizadeh, Maryam; Momeni, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-15

    To provide baseline information for the marine ecosystem of Hormozgan province, the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated in 52 stations involved in the mangrove and coastline ecosystem. Coastline sampling sites included areas facing harbor, river, domestic and industrial discharge. Sediment samples were analyzed based on ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variations ranging from non-detectable (ND) to 1.71 and from 0.2 to 0.63μg/g dry weight for coastline and mangrove sediments, respectively. The detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than guideline values for ecological risk. Furthermore, the minimum environmental risk was confirmed by background levels for the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and detected values for reference areas. The results were regarded as background data in the studied area, and, considering the rapid expansion of activities related to the petroleum industry in Hormozgan province, the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended. PMID:25843439

  7. The impact of the Persian Gulf crisis on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, L.; Poyer, D.; Teotia, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of the Kingdom of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered first immediate and then fluctuating world petroleum prices. Increases in petroleum prices and in U.S. petroleum imports resulted in increases in the petroleum prices paid by U.S. residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. The result was an immediate price shock that reverberated throughout the U.S. economy. The differential impact of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raised immediate, significant, and potentially long-term research, policy, and management issues for a variety of federal, state, and local government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Among these issues are (1) the measurement of variations in the impact of petroleum price changes on poor, nonpoor, minority, and majority households; (2) how to use the existing policy resources and policy innovation to mitigate regressive impacts of petroleum price increases on lower-income households; and (3) how to pursue such policy mitigation through government agencies severely circumscribed by tax and expenditure limitations. Few models attempt to assess household energy consumption and energy expenditure under various alternative price scenarios and with respect to the inclusion of differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. This paper provides a preliminary analysis of the nature and extent of potential impacts of petroleum price changes attributable to the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath on majority, black, and Hispanic households and on overlapping poor and nonpoor households. At the time this was written, the Persian Gulf War had concluded with Iraq`s total surrender to all of the resolutions and demands of the United Nations and United States.

  8. Mesoscale eddies and submesoscale structures of Persian Gulf Water off the Omani coast in spring 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, Pierre; Carton, Xavier; Louazel, Stephanie; Boutin, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    The Persian Gulf produces high-salinity water (Persian Gulf Water, PGW hereafter), which flows into the Sea of Oman via the Strait of Hormuz. Beyond the Strait of Hormuz, the PGW cascades down the continental slope and spreads in the Sea of Oman under the influence of the energetic mesoscale eddies. The PGW outflow has different thermohaline characteristics and pathways, depending on the season. In spring 2011, the Phys-Indien experiment was carried out in the Arabian Sea and in the Sea of Oman. The Phys-Indien 2011 measurements, as well as satellite observations, are used here to characterize the circulation induced by the eddy field and its impact on the PGW pathway and evolution. During the spring intermonsoon, an anticyclonic eddy is often observed at the mouth of the Sea of Oman. It creates a front between the eastern and western parts of the basin. This structure was observed in 2011 during the Phys-Indien experiment. Two energetic eddies were also present along the southern Omani coast in the Arabian Sea. At their peripheries, ribbons of freshwater and cold water were found due to the stirring created by the eddies. The PGW characteristics are strongly influenced by these eddies. In the western Sea of Oman, in 2011, the PGW was fragmented into filaments and submesoscale eddies. It also recirculated locally, thus creating salty layers with different densities. In the Arabian Sea, a highly saline submesoscale lens was recorded offshore. Its characteristics are analyzed here and possible origins are proposed. The recurrence of such lenses in the Arabian Sea is also briefly examined.

  9. Photosynthetic response of Persian Gulf acroporid corals to summer versus winter temperature deviations

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Mehdinia, Ali; Shirvani, Arash; Kayal, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    With on-going climate change, coral susceptibility to thermal stress constitutes a central concern in reefconservation. In the Persian Gulf, coral reefs are confronted with a high seasonal variability in water temperature, and both hot and cold extremes have been associated with episodes of coral bleaching and mortality. Using physiological performance as a measure of coral health, we investigated the thermal susceptibility of the common acroporid, Acropora downingi, near Hengam Island where the temperature oscillates seasonally in the range 20.2–34.2 °C. In a series of two short-term experiments comparing coral response in summer versus winter conditions, we exposed corals during each season (1) to the corresponding seasonal average and extreme temperature levels in a static thermal environment, and (2) to a progressive temperature deviation from the annual mean toward the corresponding extreme seasonal value and beyond in a dynamic thermal environment. We monitored four indictors of coral physiological performance: net photosynthesis (Pn), dark respiration (R), autotrophic capability (Pn/R), and survival. Corals exposed to warming during summer showed a decrease in net photosynthesis and ultimately died, while corals exposed to cooling during winter were not affected in their photosynthetic performance and survival. Coral autotrophic capability Pn/R was lower at the warmer thermal level within eachseason, and during summer compared to winter. Corals exposed to the maximum temperature of summer displayed Pn/R < 1, inferring that photosynthetic performance could not support basal metabolic needs under this environment. Our results suggest that the autotrophic performance of the Persian Gulf A. downingi is sensitive to the extreme temperatures endured in summer, and therefore its populations may be impacted by future increases in water temperature. PMID:26157627

  10. First time isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus in Persian Gulf, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Yashgin; Bahador, Nima; Baseri-Salehi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is a marine pathogenic bacterium which causes disease in marine animals and human. This bacterium mostly found in coastal shallow seawater. So, the aim of this study was isolation and characterization of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from edible fish of Persian Gulf, Bandar Abbas. Material and Methods: Totally 100 fish from different species were evaluated and out of that 5 different types of fish with external symptoms including: Caranx sexfasciatus, Lethrinus olivaceus, Scomberoid tol, Auxis thazard and Liza macrolepis, were collected from Bandar Abbas local fish market in September 2013. The samples were cultured on Marin Agar 2216 and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile salts Sucrose Agar media and incubated at 25°C for 48 hrs. Then the isolates were characterized using biochemical (API 20 NE system) and molecular techniques. In addition, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of poly β hydroxy butyrate and hemolysis activity of isolates were evaluated. Results and Conclusion: Entirely, 30 Gram negative bacterial colonies were isolated from the selected fish. Among the isolates, two suspected colonies were identified as Photobacterium damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus with API 20NE biochemical test. This results confirmed by 16s rRNA sequencing method. Both isolates showed α hemolytic with existence of β hydroxyl butyrate. Furthermore, the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Conclusion: Overall, the study indicated first time isolation of this bacterium from one type of fish caught from Persian Gulf, which warns us to pay more attention to fishery in this geographical area. PMID:26668707

  11. Photosynthetic response of Persian Gulf acroporid corals to summer versus winter temperature deviations.

    PubMed

    Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Saleh, Abolfazl; Mehdinia, Ali; Shirvani, Arash; Kayal, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    With on-going climate change, coral susceptibility to thermal stress constitutes a central concern in reefconservation. In the Persian Gulf, coral reefs are confronted with a high seasonal variability in water temperature, and both hot and cold extremes have been associated with episodes of coral bleaching and mortality. Using physiological performance as a measure of coral health, we investigated the thermal susceptibility of the common acroporid, Acropora downingi, near Hengam Island where the temperature oscillates seasonally in the range 20.2-34.2 °C. In a series of two short-term experiments comparing coral response in summer versus winter conditions, we exposed corals during each season (1) to the corresponding seasonal average and extreme temperature levels in a static thermal environment, and (2) to a progressive temperature deviation from the annual mean toward the corresponding extreme seasonal value and beyond in a dynamic thermal environment. We monitored four indictors of coral physiological performance: net photosynthesis (Pn), dark respiration (R), autotrophic capability (Pn/R), and survival. Corals exposed to warming during summer showed a decrease in net photosynthesis and ultimately died, while corals exposed to cooling during winter were not affected in their photosynthetic performance and survival. Coral autotrophic capability Pn/R was lower at the warmer thermal level within eachseason, and during summer compared to winter. Corals exposed to the maximum temperature of summer displayed Pn/R < 1, inferring that photosynthetic performance could not support basal metabolic needs under this environment. Our results suggest that the autotrophic performance of the Persian Gulf A. downingi is sensitive to the extreme temperatures endured in summer, and therefore its populations may be impacted by future increases in water temperature. PMID:26157627

  12. Sediment transport and morphodynamic changes in Ziarat Estuary and Mond River Delta, the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi Arab, Azadeh; Haghshenas, S. Abbas; Samsami, Farzin

    2014-05-01

    The Mond River, which is considered as one of the Major Iranian rivers discharging in to the Persian Gulf, is bounded within the region from 51°10' to 54°28' E and 27°20' to 29°51' N, flowing in two provinces of Fars and Boushehr. The latest part of the river is completely meandered and the river mouth has been migrating twice during the past 50 years. Total sediment discharge of the river is estimated as 12 million cubic meter per year. Analysis of meandering river phenomenon and river mouth migration as well as evolution of the down-stream sand spits has long been one of the challenges in hydrodynamic discussions. This natural process usually takes place in rivers to provide energy equilibrium and its integration with human desires has posed as a management issue. The sediment discharging to the Persian Gulf plays an essential role in formation of Mond River Delta as well as a set of sand spits formed in downstream of the river mouth. The morpho-dynamic of entire environment of the Mond River - Mond Delta highly affects marine environment in the surrounding area. The present study offers the results of a numerical and field investigation of various features of river-delta interaction on Ziarat Estuary and the Mond Delta area. A numerical model has been utilized to investigate cases of flow and sediment transport behaviour in the coastal Mond area and future migration patterns of the River Mouth is estimated. Sediment sources and relevant contributions in morphodynamic changes of the sand spits are widely investigated through sediment constituent analysis. The results of the numerical model are compared with field observations and comprehensive GIS based analysis of historic shoreline changes from aerial photos and satellite imagery. It is concluded that the model achievements are capable to predict the observed phenomena. Management guidelines and suggestions are deducted and drawn from the calibration and verification of the results with field observations

  13. A model of the general circulation in the Persian Gulf and in the Strait of Hormuz: Intraseasonal to interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pous, Stéphane; Lazure, Pascal; Carton, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies modeling the circulation and thermohaline structure in the Persian Gulf have suggested that interannual variability and vertical mixing processes could explain the model biases when compared to the few observations available. Here, a realistic, interannual, high-resolution model of the Persian Gulf is presented, validated against observations and then used to describe the intraseasonal to interannual variability in the circulation, water mass formation and exchange through the Strait of Hormuz. Sensitivity experiments to model settings, in particular vertical mixing parameterizations, have been performed in order to have the best comparison with all available observations. Main circulation and water mass characteristics correspond well to observations and previous modeling studies on the seasonal timescale. A barotropic cyclonic gyre dominates the general circulation in the Gulf from April to July then breaks down into smaller features as wind intensifies and stratification decreases due to winter cooling. Dense salty water is formed in the northwest part of the Gulf and in the southern banks, but the latter reaches the Strait of Hormuz from November to April only. While temperature fluctuations are mostly seasonal, salinity has substantial fluctuations on the interannual timescale that cannot be directly related to atmospheric fluxes because of the importance of the exchanges at Hormuz for the salt budget within the Gulf. This advocates the use of atmospheric conditions including interannual variations when running models of the Persian Gulf. On the other hand, the interannual variations in the net transport at Hormuz directly follow variations in the evaporation minus precipitation over the Gulf. Thermohaline structure and circulation also vary on intraseasonal timescale, induced by the high-frequency tidal and atmospheric forcings. Finally, some biases remain in the simulations presented here, mostly due to the lack of observations of the

  14. Two new species of Palapedia Ng, 1993 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura,
    Xanthidae) from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Palapedia Ng, 1993, are described based on material collected from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf during the present study, from Bahrain by the 1937/38 Danish Expedition, and from the Saudi Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf by Michael Apel in 1992-1995. Palapedia persica n. sp. is distinguishable from its congeners by having distinctly large denticles on the upper margin of the palm and fingers of the chelae and anterior margin of the ambulatory dactyli, and by the markedly sickle-shaped dactylus of the ambulatory legs. Palapedia apeli n. sp. is similar to P. valentini Ng, 1993, and P. nitida (Stimpson, 1858), by having relatively smooth appendages. PMID:26250272

  15. Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.

    PubMed

    Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards. PMID:25029962

  16. Methods of monitoring the Persian Gulf oil spill using digital and hardcopy multiband data. Technical report, January-July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, R.S.; Satterwhite, M.B.; Davis, D.A.; Anderson, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    A quick response demonstration was performed during the Persian Gulf War that showed a capability to monitor the path of oil dumped into the bay near Kuwait City using commercial satellite imagery. Both manual and semi-automated methods of image analysis were performed on AVHRR and Landsat TM imagery. Estimates of the oil area coverage were obtained using conventional classification methods. A hardcopy generation and reproduction capability was also demonstrated.

  17. Strategic plan for the Persian Gulf region: Options for deterring and/or defeating an emerging threat. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, M.W.

    1992-12-17

    The Persian Gulf region is, in all likelihood, going to remain crucial to American interests through the next several decades. The world depends on the petroleum reserves of the Gulf region to fuel its economic engine. The recent history of the region has been rife with conflict, and the U.S. has had to intervene militarily on several occasions to ensure its vital interests were protected. This thesis examines the strategic circumstances in the Gulf region and ways in which American political, diplomatic, and military policy can help shape the environment to conform to its interests. Several scenarios are developed which attempt to forecast the results of different environments on regional stability. The thesis reaches the conclusion that the United States must take a proactive role if its short- and long-term interests are to be protected. The short-term goal of U.S. policy must be to maintain a balance of power and regional correlation of forces which serves to deter any would-be aggressor nations. In the long run, the United States must seek a comprehensive regional peace. Various methods of achieving these goals are examined....Persian Gulf, Arms Proliferation, Strategic Planning, Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC, Regional Deterrence, Middle East, Arms Control, Scenario Development, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Regional Security Strategy.

  18. Mercury accumulation in fish species from the Persian Gulf and in human hair from fishermen.

    PubMed

    Agah, Homira; Leermakers, Martine; Gao, Yue; Fatemi, S M R; Katal, M Mohseni; Baeyens, Willy; Elskens, Marc

    2010-10-01

    Total and methylmercury concentrations were assessed in muscle and liver of 141 fish samples from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. All fish samples belonged to five different species: grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker, and silver pomfret. In addition, Hg and methylmercury were analyzed in scalp hair of 19 fishermen living in the same coastal stations of the Persian Gulf and consuming several fish meals a week. Total mercury concentrations in fish muscle and liver ranged from 0.01 to 1.35 microg g(-1) w.w. and from 0.02 to 1.30 microg g(-1) w.w., respectively. In fish muscle, 3% of the Hg concentrations were higher than 0.5 microg g(-1) w.w., which corresponds to the maximum acceptable WHO level, while 9% were in the range of polluted fish (between 0.3 and 0.5 microg g(-1) w.w.). The highest mercury concentrations in fish muscle were observed in flathead fish at Abadan (average of 0.68 microg g(-1) w.w.). Methylmercury fractions in fish muscle and liver amount to 34-99% (median 64%) and 24-70% (median 43%), respectively. The mean total Hg concentration in the fishermen's scalp hair amounted to 2.9 +/- 2.2 microg g(-1), with 68% in the form of methylmercury. Ninety-five percent of the Hg levels in the fishermen's hair were below 10 microg g(-1), which is the WHO warning limit. In addition, relationships between the mercury levels in hair, on the one hand, and exposure-related factors such as Hg levels in specific fish species, regional differences, and number of fish meals, on the other hand, are discussed. It appears that a significant correlation for example exists between Hg levels human hair and fish muscle or human hair and age and that mean mercury levels in fish muscle and human hair decreased from western (Abadan) to eastern (Abbas port) coastal sites. PMID:19760084

  19. Mercury contamination in some marine biota species from Khuzestan shore, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Parsa, Yaghoob; Saadatmand, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    In this study, concentrations of mercury (Hg) were analyzed in some marine biota species (fish, shrimp, and crab) from Khuzestan shore, north part of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The results indicated that concentrations of Hg in the fish and crustacean were different among the species and tissues. Liver in fish and hepatopancreas in crustacean exhibited higher Hg concentration than the other tissues. The highest concentration of Hg was detected in Acanthopagrus latus liver (1.37 µg/g), followed by Labeo rohita (0.87 µg/g), Johnius belangerii (0.79 µg/g), and Barbus grypus (0.69 µg/g), respectively. Also the highest Hg concentrations were detected in shrimp species, Penaeus semisulcatus hepatopancreas (0.95 µg/g), followed by blue crab Portunus pelagicus (0.76 µg/g) and Metapenaues affinis (0.64 µg/g), respectively. The comparison indicated that benthic species were more contaminated than were other pelagic species. The results indicated that highest concentrations of Hg between different stations were detected in Musa estuary. The Hg concentration in all species were low than standards, expect in A. latus and P. semisulcatus collected from Musa estuary (S4). The variation in Hg levels among the species is likely to have resulted from metal bioavailability, changes in tissue composition, habitat,s and locations. PMID:25500758

  20. ESR dating of raised coral reefs from Kish Island, Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusser, F.; Radtke, U.; Fontugne, M.; Haghipour, A.; Hilgers, A.; Kasper, H. U.; Nazari, H.; Pirazzoli, P. A.

    2003-05-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of raised coral reefs from Kish Island, Persian Gulf, Iran, was used for the calculation of uplift rates. From the methodological point of view, it has been demonstrated that concentrations of uranium, as needed for the calculation of dose rates, determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses were significantly lower than the results of inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry and are probably systematically underestimated. The ESR ages for the corals show no increase with elevation as was expected due to field observations. This apparent discrepancy is explained by the dicyclic nature of the palaeo-reef. Average uplift rates for Kish Island are between ˜0.13 and ˜0.24 mm a -1. This is consistent with previous estimates based on 230Th/ 234U dating of raised marine deposits from the nearby Iranian mainland and Qeshm Island, Strait of Hormuz, but contrary to results based on 14C dating that predicted uplift rates as high as 3 mm a -1 in that area. It is once more demonstrated that 14C dates >20 ka from this context often have to be interpreted as minimum ages.

  1. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. PMID:26917092

  2. Assessment of health risk from heavy metal contamination of shellfish from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Raissy, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the risk of consumption of shrimp and lobster contaminated with mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead from the Persian Gulf. The concentrations of mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium in shrimp was 62.5, 178.2, 325.2, and 193.5 μg kg(-1) and in lobsters was 53.2, 103.9, 640.6, and 163.1 μg kg(-1), respectively. The maximum daily consumption of shrimp and lobster was calculated to estimate health risks associated with their consumption. The results showed that the maximum allowable consumption of shrimp and lobster was 18-140 g/day for mercury, 33-214 g/day for arsenic, 59-454 g/day for cadmium, and 72-916 g/day for lead. The concentration of metals was within recommended limits for human consumption with the exception of lead, which was found to be above acceptable levels and represents a health risk. PMID:26703978

  3. Tidal asymmetry in a tidal creek with mixed mainly semidiurnal tide, Bushehr Port, Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Taleb; Chegini, Vahid; Sadrinasab, Masoud; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa; Yari, Sadegh

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the tidal asymmetry imposed by both the interaction of principal tides and the higher harmonics generated by distortions within a tidal creek network with mixed mainly semidiurnal tide in the Bushehr Port, Persian Gulf. Since velocity and water-level imposed by principal triad tides K1-O1-M2 are in quadrature, duration asymmetries during a tidal period in this short, shallow inverse estuary should be manifest as skewed velocities. The principal tides produce periodic asymmetries including a strong ebb-dominance and a weak flood-dominance condition during spring and neap tides respectively. The higher harmonics induced by nonlinearities engender a flood-dominance condition where the convergence effects are higher than frictional effects, and an ebbdominance condition where intertidal storage are extended. Since the triad K1-O1-M2 driven asymmetry is not overcome by higher harmonics close to the mouth, the periodic asymmetry dominates within the creek in which higher harmonics reinforce the weak flood-dominance (strong ebb-dominance) condition in the convergent channel (divergent area). Also, the maximum flood and the maximum ebb from all harmonic constituents occurred close to high water slack time during both spring and neap tides in this short creek. Since occational wetting of intertidal areas happened close to the high water (HW) time during spring tide, the water level flooded slowly close to the HW time of the spring tide.

  4. Isolation of moderately halophilic pseudoalteromonas producing extracellular hydrolytic enzymes from persian gulf.

    PubMed

    Ardakani, M Roayaie; Poshtkouhian, A; Amoozegar, M A; Zolgharnein, H

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as amylases, proteases, lipases and DNases have quite diverse potential usages in different areas such as food industry, biomedical sciences and chemical industries, also it would be of great importance to have available enzymes showing optimal activities at different values of salt concentrations and temperature. Halophiles are the most likely source of such enzymes, because not only their enzymes are salt-tolerant, but many are also thermotolerant. The purpose of this study was isolation of hydrolytic extracellular enzyme producing halophilic bacteria from water and sediment of the Persian Gulf. Isolated bacteria from water and sediment were inoculated in media with concentration of 0-20% NaCl to determine the optimum salt concentration for growth, isolates were also inoculated in 4 types of solid medium containing substrates of 3 extracellular hydrolytic enzymes including amylase, Protease and Lipase, to determine the quantitative detection of enzyme production, selected strains after more accurate physiological and biochemical studies were identified regarding phylogeny and molecular characteristics using 16S rRNA technique. Isolated enzyme producing bacteria belong to Pseudoalteromonas genera. PMID:23450116

  5. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-09-15

    Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. PMID:25037876

  6. Reproductive biology of largescale tonguesole Cynoglossus arel in coastal waters of Bandar Abbas, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, H; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H; Engelhard, G H; Mekhanik Babaei, M

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the reproductive cycle of largescale tonguesole Cynoglossus arel, a commercially valuable flatfish species, in coastal waters of Bandar Abbas, along the south coast of Iran in the Persian Gulf. From October 2009 to September 2010, 905 fish were collected in monthly samples, and their length, weight, sex, gonad weight, and maturity status recorded. These data revealed that ovary weight in females is low from July to September, then increases to a peak in February followed by a decrease, indicating that the peak spawning season is from February to March with some spawning lasting until June. Males showed a corresponding seasonal pattern in testis weight, although with much less pronounced seasonal differences than gonad weight in females. Five maturity classes were described based on ovarian and testicular histology, corresponding with macroscopic analysis of gonads. The spawning season in C. arel is prolonged, similar to several other tropical flatfish species, and larger adult females tended to have an even more prolonged spawning period than smaller, presumably younger adult females. Combined, our results indicated that C. arel is a winter-to-spring batch spawner with an asynchronous type of ovarian development. PMID:25592859

  7. Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers in the flatfish Euryglossa orientalis from the northwestern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Savari, Ahmad; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Rezaie, Anahita; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-05-01

    Most of the chemicals in the petrochemical sewages cause oxidative stress in marine organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) as biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver histopathological alterations were investigated in the current study to evaluate the toxic effects of petrochemical pollutions in flatfish, Euryglossa orientalis The enzymatic and histopathological changes were assessed in the liver of E. orientalis from Khowr-e Jafari (one of the creeks from Khowr-e Musa estuary) and Sajafi harbor as polluted and clean areas, respectively. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in response to aquatic pollutions of Khowr-e Jafari. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorized using standard methods. The results of histopathological examinations showed more lesion scores in the fish from Khowr-e Jafari. Various histopathological changes including hepatocyte degeneration, inflammatory lesions, peliosis hepatis and pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, and increase in the number of pigmented macrophage aggregates were observed in the fish from polluted site. It is suggested that activities of CAT and SOD along with semi-quantitative histopathologic analysis of E. orientalis can be used for biomonitoring programs in Persian Gulf. PMID:24334611

  8. Assessment of coral health in the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourandeh, Mehdi Bolouki; Nabavi, S. Mohammad Bagher; Sinaei, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In this study, Zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a concentration, and mitotic index (MI) were measured in the coral Porites compressa obtained from coastal areas of the Persian Gulf in early February to September 2008. During the summer, zooxanthellae density declined by approximately 30% compared to the winter peak (3,607,849 ± 229,894, n = 15) and reached a minimum of 2,536,732 ± 169,776, n = 15. The highest value of chlorophyll a (0.828 ± 0.043 μg/cm2) was recorded in the south while the lowest (0.604 ± 0.048 μg/cm2) was measured in the north sampling site at the cold season. There was a higher level of MI in the warm season followed by cold > and temperate seasons. The MI were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the warm and cold seasons in comparison with the temperate season. Differences in response may be attributed to the drastic seasonal temperature changes. However, the significant decline found in the north sampling site indicates that anthropogenic stressors may adversely affect coral P. compressa. These results imply that there were negative impacts on coral P. compressa in our study site.

  9. Heavy metals' concentration in sediment, shrimp and two fish species from the northwest Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Monikh, Fazel Abdolahpur; Maryamabadi, Ammar; Savari, Ahmad; Ghanemi, Kamal

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) were measured in hepatopancreas and muscle of a commercial shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis), in the muscle, liver and gills of two fish species (Thryssa vitrirostris and Johnius belangerii) and in the sediment samples taken from the mouth of the Arvand river, Meleh estuary and Musa estuary in the northeast Persian Gulf. Concentration of heavy metals varied depending on different tissues, species and sampling sites. Liver of fish and hepatopancreas of shrimp exhibited higher metals' concentration than the other tissues. Generally, in the mouth of the Arvand river, the highest concentration of metals was found in benthic species; while in the mouth of Musa estuary, the highest level of the metals was found in pelagic fish species. Bioaccumulation factors were observed to follow the order: J. belangerii-liver-Cd > T. vitrirostris-liver-Pb > M. affinis-hepatopancreas-Zn >M. affinis-hepatopancreas-Cu >M. affinis- hepatopancreas-Ni. The analysed heavy metals were found in sediment samples at mean concentration in the sediment quality guideline proposed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Regional Organization for the Protection of The Marine Environment (ROPME), except for Ni concentration in some cases. PMID:23406960

  10. Investigation and validation of MODIS SST in the northern Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanea, Mohsen; Moradi, Masoud; Kabiri, Keivan; Mehdinia, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Validation of satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) is necessary since satellite minus buoy SST (= bias) relies on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions and time periods. This research validates MODIS (Terra and Aqua) satellite daytime SST with buoy SST at the northern Persian Gulf. Sixteen dates during June 2011 to June 2015 were selected for validation. The buoy-satellite matchups were gained within one image pixel (1 km at nadir) and ±6 h in time. For most matchups, time interval was ±3 h. Effects of total column water vapor, aerosol optical depth, wind speed, glint, and satellite zenith angle on bias are then investigated. These parameters are classified based on root mean square (RMS) difference between satellite and buoy SST. Final results represent a near-perfect R2 (>0.989) for both satellites. The bias was 0.07 ± 0.53 °C and -0.06 ± 0.44 °C for MODIS-Aqua and -Terra, respectively.

  11. Assessment of survival, mortality and recovery of coral reefs of East Kish Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Jami, M J; Salehduost, A; Negarestan, H

    2010-10-15

    Coral reefs are specialized communities that develop clear, well-lit tropical and subtropical water; they provide shelter and canopy for great variety of organisms, living in mean temperature of 20 degrees C. Coral Bleaching and mortality have been associated with elevated seawater temperature. The aim of the study was to investigate coral bleaching and evaluate health condition of the corals. Distribution of coral reefs around Kish Island was determined by the Timed Swim (TS) technique. This survey carried out in 2 times (May and October, 2009) in 2 depths of 3-5 m and 6-10 m. Two Divers swam in constant speed for a set amount of time in three dive sites. The timed swim survey around the Kish Island showed that the most healthy live hard coral assemblages were found in the site called Persian Gulf seaport, whereas the greatest percentage of bleached corals were located in Jurassic Park station, located at the southeast of the Island. Branching corals (Acropora sp.) were bleached among all 3 stations and no sign of recovery could be detected. In Big coral site suitable substrate for accumulation of living organisms including Echinometra mathaie (sea urchin) existed due to presence of great amount of algae on dead corals and rocks. Based on the observation, it seems that the cause of reef destruction in Kish Island fall in to two categories, natural and human impacts. PMID:21319458

  12. Numerical model of circulation and residence times in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donncha, Fearghal; Ragnoli, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed, marginal sea that is exposed to arid, subtropical climate. As a consequence of the extreme climate, evaporation is greater than freshwater inflow resulting in a net loss of water and associated, reverse flow, estuarine circulation as the highly saline waters exit the basin through the Straits of Hormuz, into the Gulf of Oman. Because of their consistent direction, these density currents are central in the distribution and removal of pollutants from the gulf. Tidal forcing impacts circulation in the region, particularly on smaller scales of length and time. Wind forcing can be significant, particularly the Shamal weather phenomenon; wind that sets in with great abruptness and force, and is related to synoptic weather systems to the Northwest. Output from high resolution (~1km) numerical simulations, using NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean), provide insight into the physical oceanography of the region. The model was forced by 0.75° European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric data and tidal constituents extracted from the Oregon State University Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS/TPXO). Model results permit a detailed examination of the three primary forcing processes, namely: tidal forces, wind forces, and density differences. To assess fundamental model performance, results are compared with two historical observation datasets: (1) a comprehensive dataset of velocity and CTD measurements collected by Reynolds (1993) and (2) time series measurements recorded in the Strait of Hormuz from December 1996 to March 1998 by Johns et al. (2003). Model results exhibit close agreement to field values validating the model for a more detailed analysis of circulations patterns within the gulf. To better elucidate the dominant forcing processes, classical tidal analysis decomposed the flow currents by fitting the flow profile to a finite set of sinusoids at specific frequencies related to astronomical

  13. Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: additional evidence from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, D; Rohlman, D S; Anger, W K; Binder, L M; Campbell, K A

    2001-01-01

    Reports of low-concentration nerve gas exposures during the Gulf War (GW) have spurred concern about possible health consequences and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. The Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center is studying veterans from the northwest United States who report persistent, unexplained "Gulf War" symptoms (cases) and those who do not report those symptoms (controls). An epidemiological survey focused on exposures and symptoms was mailed to a random sample of GW veterans from Oregon and southwestern Washington. Volunteers recruited from survey respondents agreed to undergo a thorough medical examination and psychological and neurobehavioral assessment. Persistent symptoms with no medical explanation associated with Persian Gulf service (e.g., fatigue, muscle pain, memory deficits) beginning during or after the war qualified respondents as cases. The 239 cases with unexplained symptoms and the 112 controls without symptoms were administered a computerized assessment battery of 12 psychosocial and 6 neurobehavioral tests. Replicating and extending previous interim findings, a subgroup of veterans emerged from the initial analysis in the form of extreme outliers which produced a visually and quantitatively obvious bimodal distribution. This led, as it had previously, to analyses of the outliers as a separate group (labeled "slow ODTP"), which confirmed the initial findings of neurobehavioral differences between the outliers and the other cases and controls and provided more convincing evidence that the majority of cases who report neurobehavioral symptoms have no objective evidence of neurobehavioral deficits. However, the larger group of symptomatic veterans do have highly significant and compelling evidence of psychological distress based on scores from 11 separate psychological tests. Whereas the cases differed from the controls by poorer neurobehavioral test performance, extraction of the slow ODTP participants (almost all cases

  14. Effect of subseabed salt domes on Tidal Residual currents in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Backhaus, Jan; Dehghani, Ali; Huebner, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Geological studies in the Persian Gulf (PG) have revealed the existence of subseabed salt-domes. With suitable filtering of a high-resolution PG seabed topography, it is seen that the domes leave their signature in the seabed, i.e., numerous hills and valleys with amplitudes of several tens of meters and radii from a few up to tens of kilometers. It was suspected that the "shark skin" of the PG seabed may affect the tidal residual flow. The interaction of tidal dynamics and these obstacles was investigated in a nonlinear hydrodynamic numerical tidal model of the PG. The model was first used to characterize flow patterns of residual currents generated by a tidal wave passing over symmetric, elongated and tilted obstacles. Thereafter it was applied to the entire PG. The model was forced at its open boundary by the four dominant tidal constituents residing in the PG. Each tidal constituent was simulated separately. Results, i.e., tidal residual currents in the PG, as depicted by Lagrangian trajectories reveal a stationary flow that is very rich in eddies. Each eddy can be identified with a topographic obstacle. This confirms that the tidal residual flow field is strongly influenced by the nonlinear interaction of the tidal wave with the bottom relief which, in turn, is deformed by salt-domes beneath the seabed. Different areas of maximum residual current velocities are identified for major tidal constituents. The pattern of trajectories indicates the presence of two main cyclonic gyres and several adjacent gyres rotating in opposite directions and a strong coastal current in the northern PG.

  15. Fidelity of life and death molluscan assemblages from carbonate tidal flats in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.; Albano, Paolo G.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Piller, Werner E.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Live-dead (LD) studies aim to help understand how faithfully fossil assemblages can be used to quantitatively infer the structure of the original living communities that generated them. To this purpose, LD comparisons have been conducted in different terrestrial and aquatic environments to assess how environment-specific differences in quality and intensity of taphonomic factors affect LD fidelity. In sub-tropical and tropical settings, most LD studies have focused on hard substrates or seagrass bottoms. Here we present results on molluscan assemblages from soft carbonate sediments in tidal flats of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf (Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province). We analyzed a total of 7193 mollusks collected from six sites comprising time-averaged death assemblages (DAs) and snapshot living assemblages (LAs). All analyses were performed at site and at habitat scales after correcting for sample-size differences. We found a good match in proportional abundance and a notable mismatch in species composition. In fact, species richness in DAs is 6 times larger than in LAs at site scale, and 4 times at habitat scale. Additionally, we found a good fidelity of evenness, and rank abundance of feeding guilds. Other studies have shown that molluscan DAs from subtidal carbonate environments can display lower time-averaging than those from siliciclastic environments due to high rates of shell loss to bioerosion and dissolution. For our case study of tidal flat carbonate settings, we interpret that despite temporal autocorrelation (good fidelity of proportional abundance), substantial differences in species richness and composition can be explained by early cementation, lateral mixing, intense bioturbation and moderate sedimentation rates. Our results suggest that tidal flat carbonate environments can potentially lead to a wider window of time-averaging in comparison with subtidal carbonate settings.

  16. Evolution and timing of salt diapirism in the Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Cesare; Chiariotti, Luca; Bresciani, Ilenia; Cattaneo, Luciano; Toscani, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The Iranian sector of the Persian Gulf is affected by more than 30 large diapiric structures triggered by the mobilization of the Infracambrian Hormuz Complex, an evaporite-rich unit that overlies Precambrian basement at the base of the sedimentary succession. Nineteen non-piercing diapirs, without any appreciable salt intrusion into the upper succession, were studied in detail and retro-deformed by the decompaction and unfolding of 13 seismic horizons that were identified by the interpretation of a dense grid of 2D seismic lines and calibrated by well data. Salt uplift had begun by the Early Palaeozoic and persists to the present day, with major pulses of intensity during the Middle Triassic, Cenomanian, Late Oligocene, and post-Middle Miocene. The structural reconstructions and the analysis of the progressive deformation of the study diapirs do not show any link between diapiric uplift and local tectonic structures, and no clear correlation with the regional geodynamic events acting at the boundary of the Arabian plate. On the contrary, the salt uplift seems strongly influenced by the differential rate of sedimentation that affected the whole study basin (more than 40,000 km2), with a coefficient of correlation between the salt uplift rate and the differential rate of sedimentation (expressed by the standard deviation of the sedimentation rate calculated over the entire basin) of 0.95. This downbuilding mechanism of diapiric growth is apparently induced by differential sedimentation over long distances (several tens of kilometers), showing that the flow of salt affected the whole basin and not just the areas around the single diapiric structures.

  17. Mean trophic level of coastal fisheries landings in the Persian Gulf (Hormuzgan Province), 2002-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, Marzieh; Mashjoor, Sakineh; Kamrani, Ehsan

    2016-06-01

    Fishing activities can alter the structure of marine food webs by the selective removal of some species. The changes in the marine food webs of the Hormuzgan waters of the Persian Gulf, Iran were assessed, based on estimates of the mean trophic index (MTI) and Fishing in Balance index (FiB), and on landing profile of the exploited marine community (49 species) during the period, 2002-2011. The total landings (Y t) (R=0.88, P<0.001) increased gradually while the Y t of carnivores has slightly declined, and the Y t of herbivores, detritivores and omnivores has increased. Consequently, the MTI significantly decreased (R =-0.69, P<0.05) at a rate of 0.11 during this decade. The MTI showed a decreasing trend, which indicates exploitation of marine resources. The FiB index also showed a downward trend and negative values from 2002 to 2009, which may be associated with unbalanced structure in the fisheries, but an upward trend from 2009 to 2011. The time variation of the landing profile showed two periods with significant diff erences in their species composition (R=0.88; P =0.005), and based on analysis of similarity, species have been identified as discriminator species, namely Thunnus albacores and Benthosema pterotum. Results indicate that changes in MTI reflected changes in the Hormuzgan landing structure. The examination of the MTI, FBI, and landing profile (LP) temporal pattern suggests that the status of fishery resources in Hormuzgan inshore waters is overexploited, and provides evidence of the probability that a fishing down process is occurring in this area, and that this trend may continue in the long-term. Therefore, environmental fisheries management and conservation programs should be prioritized for these valuable resources.

  18. Visitor impact on rocky shore communities of Qeshm Island, the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Pour, Fatemeh Aghajan; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Abtahi, Behrooz

    2013-02-01

    The influence of visitors on macroinvertebrates of rocky intertidal shores was investigated in southern coasts of the Qeshm Island, the Persian Gulf, Iran. Qeshm Island located at the Strait of Hormuz, with an area of 1,491 km(2), is the largest island in the region. This island consists of a number of important natural habitat types including creeks, mangroves, corals, and sandy, muddy, and rocky shores that accommodate diverse marine flora and fauna communities. Two rocky shores were selected at the touristic beaches being visited regularly, and further two control locations selected at pristine shores. Intertidal macroinvertebrates were collected from six microhabitats including rock platforms, cobbles, boulders, crevices, sea walls, and rock pools during two different periods representing high and low tourist seasons. Species richness, density, and assemblage structure in heavily visited shores were compared with that of control locations. Striped barnacles (Balanus amphitrite) were present on platforms of all locations, thus the changes in their size were used as the obvious contrast associated with visitor's impact. A total of 70 macroinvertebrate species from 11 phyla were recorded. Significant differences were detected in taxonomic richness, density, and assemblage structure of macroinvertebrates between heavily visited and pristine shores, suggesting that macroinvertebrates were adversely affected by visitors' impact at heavily visited shores. The test of changes in species richness, density, and assemblage structure from high to low seasons yielded mixed results. The significant changes in density and assemblage structure from high to low seasons were only observed in one heavily visited shore. A significant reduction in size of striped barnacles was observed only in one heavily visited shore. The opportunistic or fugitive species (e.g., small macroalgae and barnacles) were dominant macroinvertebrates on heavily visited shores indicating early succession

  19. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Isolated From Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    PubMed Central

    Adibpour, Neda; Nasr, Farhad; Nematpour, Fatemeh; Shakouri, Arash; Ameri, Abdolghani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance toward a number of conventional antibiotics has triggered the search for antimicrobial agents from a variety of sources including the marine environment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Holothuria leucospilota from Qeshm and Kharg Islands against some selected bacteria and fungi. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, sea cucumbers from two coastal cities of Persian Gulf were collected in March and May 2011 and identified by the scale method according to the food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of the body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid, methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts of the body wall were evaluated by the spot test. In addition, their antifungal activity was assessed by the broth dilution method. Results: The displayed effect was microbiostatic at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 µg/mL rather than microbicidal. The highest activity of hydroalcoholic extracts was exhibited by body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. brasilensis. However, none of the methanol, chloroform and n-haxane extracts showed appreciable effects against Shigella dysenteriae, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans. Moreover, cuvierian organs did not possess any antifungal potential. Conclusions: Our data indicated that water-methanol extracts from the body wall of H. leucospilota possess antibacterial and antifungal activity. However, additional and in-depth studies are required to isolate and identify the active component(s). PMID:25147657

  20. Geochemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of selected metals in the surface sediments of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Khazaali, Aida; Molamohyeddin, Neda; Afkhami, Majid; Nourbakhsh, Shahram; Dehghani, Mohsen; Aghaei, Sina; Firouzbakht, Mohammad

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to geochemical speciation of metals in the surface sediments of the northern Persian Gulf. Metal contents in the sediment were observed in the order: Al>Fe>Cr>Ni>V>Zn>Cu>Co>As>Pb>Cd. The results of sequential extraction procedure revealed that all metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. Among the metals, Cu and As exhibited higher bioavailability. The risk assessment code (RAC) indicated that Cu, As and Cd had medium environmental risk at some sampling sites. Based on enrichment factor (EF), Cd and As had moderate to significant enrichment. PMID:27210564

  1. Spatio-temporal variability of SST and Chlorophyll-a from MODIS data in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Masoud; Kabiri, Keivan

    2015-09-15

    Spatio-temporal variability of SST and Chl-a evaluated using MODIS products from 2002 to 2013 in the Persian Gulf. Wavelet Transform was utilized to analyze the spatio-temporal stability and abnormality of MODIS SST and Chl-a. The stationary level of SST decreases from west to the east during summer to early autumn, and increases from late autumn to spring. The stationary level of Chl-a is higher in the coastal areas, while its average ranged from 0.1 to 0.5mgm(-3). No meaningful major oscillating period observed in the abnormal variability of SST and Chl-a. The winter and summer peaks of SST and Chl-a were observed in the central parts and north-west regions. The timing of maximum SST was observed in August, which is not correlated with Chl-a maxima. The variability of SST and Chl-a in the whole Persian Gulf is seasonal, and related to river outflows, water circulation and climate regimes. PMID:26187398

  2. Study the symbiotic crude oil-degrading bacteria in the mussel Mactra stultorum collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2016-04-15

    Symbiotic associations are complex partnerships that can lead to new metabolic capabilities and the establishment of novel organisms. The diversity of these associations is very broad and there are still many mysteries about the origin and the exact relationship between the organisms that are involved in a symbiosis. The aim of the present study is to find symbiotic crude-oil degrading bacteria in the mussels that collected from the Persian Gulf. Fifteen crude-oil degrading bacteria were isolated from Mactra stultorum mussel that collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth rate on crude oil five strains were selected from 15 isolated strains for more study. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Alcanivorax dieselolei strain BHA25, Idiomarina baltica strain BHA28, A. dieselolei strain BHA30, Alcanivorax sp. strain BHA32 and Vibrio azureus strain BHA36. Analysis of remaining of crude oil by Gas Chromatography (GC) confirmed that these strains can degrade: 64%, 63%, 71%, 58% and 75% of crude oil respectively. PMID:26922360

  3. Microphytobenthos sustain intertidal fish production in the Persian Gulf (Northern Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahraki, Maryam; Krumme, Uwe; Rixen, Tim

    2014-05-01

    In order to better understand the role of mangroves for fish production, we assessed the relative importance of potential food sources to fish diet in the mangrove-lined and un-vegetated intertidal creeks of Qeshm Island at the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf, Northern Indian Ocean (26° N). The most abundant feeding guilds, stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic ratios of food sources and fishes as well as nutrient concentrations were determined in both sites. Detritivores were the most abundant feeding guild in both the mangrove and un-vegetated sites (41% and 81% relative abundance, respectively), followed by zooplanktivores (32%; 8%) and macrobenthivores (18%; 7%). At both sites, organic matter formed by mangrove trees contributed only up to 20% to the fish diet whereas organic carbon produced by microphytobenthos and plankton played a major role in the diet of the dominant fish species. Compared to the mangrove-lined creek, the pelagic and benthic food webs of the un-vegetated creeks were enriched in the heavier 13C and lighter 14N indicating an enhanced proportion of organic matter originally produced by benthic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria within food web of the un-vegetated creeks. The dominant role of cyanobacteria was also reflected in the nutrient concentrations. Relatively high nitrate and low phosphate concentrations showed the preferential capturing of phosphates that is leached from the sediments by the cyanobacteria mats leading to phosphate-limiting conditions in the un-vegetated intertidal creeks. Higher phosphate and lower nitrate concentrations suggest in turn that nitrate is, as in many other ecosystems, the factor limiting productivity of the pelagic food web in the mangrove-lined creek. Since the species richness in mangrove creeks was higher than in un-vegetated site, it is furthermore assumed that mangrove trees play an indirect role in the food web by providing a more heterogeneous substrate for associated biota, besides

  4. The environmental impacts of oil platforms in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf: the conservation paleobiology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Kaufman, Darrell; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Persian (Arabian) Gulf is a semi-enclosed basin that currently hosts the highest concentration of infrastructures for oil and gas extraction in the world. Moreover, major oil spills have occurred here due to accidents and conflicts. The disjunction between recent environmental monitoring programmes and industry-scale oil exploration and extraction dating back to the mid-20th century means a lack of data on pre-impact ecosystem conditions. This shortcoming hampers quantifying disturbance and ecosystem shifts and calls for novel approaches to reconstruct baselines. Conservation palaeobiology is such a new research field. It uses the accumulations of hard skeletal parts left by organisms in the sediments after death (e.g., mollusk shells) to gain information on past community states. These so-called "death assemblages" contain skeletons produced over tens to thousands of years and change very slowly in comparison to living assemblages. Accordingly, under anthropogenic pressures, living assemblages change their structure and composition faster than their corresponding death assemblages. This increases the differences between the two beyond those caused by purely natural processes. When coupled with dating of dead shells (using radiocarbon calibrated amino acid racemization), such live-dead comparisons help assess the magnitude and timing of environmental impacts and ecosystem change when baseline data are not available. We applied these approaches to two major oil platforms off the United Arab Emirates coastline. We found a mismatch between living and death assemblages, with death assemblages dominated by a single bivalve species, the semelid Ervilia purpurea. However, the frequency distributions of post-mortem shell ages of this bivalve show that the mismatch can be mainly attributed to natural extreme demographic fluctuations in its population. We conclude that, at the field scale, decadal and century-level changes in the molluscan community composition were weak

  5. Tidal flat molluscan life and death assemblages from the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.; Albano, Paolo G.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Piller, Werner E.; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The comparison of life assemblages (LAs) and death assemblages (DAs) of marine invertebrate fauna is of great importance to analyze how accurately fossil assemblages provide information on the original living communities. Furthermore, since death assemblages are originated by accumulation and preservation of dead shells subjected to time averaging, they can also be used to describe the biodiversity of an area with less sampling effort than that required in surveys focused exclusively on LAs. The current note presents an overview of our study on molluscan LAs and DAs from the Persian Gulf, a shallow sea situated in the northwestern part of the tropical Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province. The study of a subtropical fauna is especially interesting, because most of the research on this subject has been conducted in temperate regions. In particular, our samples were retrieved from tidal flat settings, which undergo high temporal variations as regards salinity, oxygen content and temperature. Samples were collected from two localities in Dubai. Seven samples were taken from stations which cover different sub-environments: upper intertidal (close to the algal mat zone), tidal flat in the proximity of a major channel, tidal channel, outer tidal flat, "beachrock" surface in the upper intertidal, and a tidal flat close to Avicennia shrubs (mangrove). Environmental parameters such as salinity, pH, and temperature of air and water, have been recorded. The samples consist of bulks of the uppermost 1-3 cm of sediment at the interface with sea water to avoid subfossil material as far as possible. The shell fraction > 1 mm has been sorted and segregated into morphospecies, and identified to species level whenever possible. Over 1000 specimens have been counted per sample. We found, as in many other studies that most of the specimens belong to the DA. In this sample, however, there is still a good match between the DA and the LA. The most important taxa are the gastropods

  6. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG. PMID:25989370

  7. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG. PMID:25989370

  8. Feasibility Study of LANDSAT-8 Imagery for Retrieving Sea Surface Temperature (case Study Persian Gulf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, F.; Hasanlou, M.

    2016-06-01

    previous Landsat sensors. Third, TIRS is one of the best space born and high spatial resolution with 30 m. in this regards, Landsat-8 can use the Split-Window (SW) algorithm for retrieving SST dataset. Although several SWs have been developed to use with other sensors, some adaptations are required in order to implement them for the TIRS spectral bands. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a SW, adapted for use with Landsat-8 TIRS data, along with its accuracy assessment. In this research, that has been done for modelling SST using thermal Landsat 8-imagery of the Persian Gulf. Therefore, by incorporating contemporary in situ data and SST map estimated from other sensors like MODIS, we examine our proposed method with coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) on check point to model SST retrieval for Landsat-8 imagery. Extracted results for implementing different SW's clearly shows superiority of utilized method by R2 = 0.95 and RMSE = 0.24.

  9. Source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples from the northern part of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Roozbeh; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Faghiri, Iraj; Abedi, Ehsan; Fakhri, Ali; Azimi, Ali; Zahed, Mohammad Ali

    2014-11-01

    Samples of surface sediments from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf were examined to determine the levels and sources of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples were collected from 30 sampling sites and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 93 to 4,077 ng g(-1) dry weight. The PAH composition from 30 sampling sites was dominated by four-ring PAH compounds. Molecular indices based on the ratios of PAH concentrations were used to differentiate PAHs from pyrolitic to petrogenic and mixed origins. The results suggested that the main sources of PAHs in sediments from the studied region were mixed pyrolitic and petrogenic. Furthermore, benthic organisms in most of the investigated areas were not at ecotoxicological risk, according to the results from the effects range low (ERL)/effects range median (ERM) techniques suggested by the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). PMID:25023748

  10. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-08-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. PMID:27193506

  11. Mercury pollution in three species of waders from Shadegan wetlands at the head of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Bahramifar, Nader

    2010-03-01

    Persian Gulf supports diverse ecosystems and biota in need of remediation and protection, and metal data from this region is needed. Mercury (Hg) in tissues of three waders (Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantous, Red-wattled Plover Hoplopterus indicus, and White-tailed Plover Vanellus leucurus) from Shadegan Wetlands is reported. Black-winged Stilt had higher Hg in feather (6.6 +/- 0.6 microg/g dry weight), liver (3.5 +/- 1 microg/g dry weight), kidney (4.5 +/- 0.8 microg/g dry weight) and muscle (1.2 +/- 0.2 microg/g dry weight) (not statistically significant). Differences in Hg among waders could have resulted from diverse feeding habitats and dissimilar foraging sites. PMID:20098979

  12. Developing a bioindicator in the northwestern Persian Gulf, Iran: trace elements in bird eggs and in coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Nastaran; Riyahi-Bakhtiari, Alireza; Sobhanardakani, Soheil; Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Burger, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    Levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and vanadium (V) were evaluated in coastal sediments, egg contents, and eggshells of crab plover (Dromas ardeola), bridled tern (Sterna anaethetus), lesser crested tern (S. bengalensis), and western reef heron (Egretta gularis) breeding in the northwestern Persian Gulf. Levels of Cd, Pb, Ni, V, and Se were greater in eggs of terns than in eggs of crab plover, perhaps due to the higher trophic level of terns. Levels of all elements were lower than known effects levels for birds. However, levels of Se in eggs were greater than those known to cause toxic effects in birds. Eggs of terns are ideal for monitoring metal contaminants on the breeding grounds because the bioaccumulation ratios (egg/sediment) of some metals (As, Co, Se) in the eggs of terns are significantly greater compared with those of crab plovers. PMID:25330737

  13. Isolation of a potent antibiotic producer bacterium, especially against MRSA, from northern region of the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Darabpour, Esmaeil; Ardakani, Mohammad Roayaei; Motamedi, Hossein; Ronagh, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, emergence and prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strain have become a great global concern in 21st century, so, it is necessary to discover new antibiotics against this pathogen. The aim of this study was isolation and evaluation marine bacteria from the Persian Gulf in order to finding antibiotic compounds against some pathogenic bacteria. For this purpose, water and sediment samples were collected from the Persian Gulf during March to October 2009. The antibacterial activity of the isolated bacteria was assessed using disc diffusion method. The Growth Curve Interference (GCI) parameter against MRSA was determined for the high potential antibiotic producing strain. The most important factors affecting fermentation conditions in antibiotic production were also optimized. Definite identification of intended isolate was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Altogether, 51 bacterial colony was isolated and among them only 3 bacterium showed antibacterial activity. Pseudoalteromonaspiscicida PG-01 isolated from a sediment sample was chosen as the best antibiotic producing strain. This strain was effective against all tested Gram-positive bacteria, had good anti-MRSA activity and also GCI value against MRSA was two times lower than MIC value. Among the optimized fermentation parameters, carbon and nitrogen sources play major role in efficacy of optimized antibiotic production. Ultrastructural study on the effect of intended antibiotic compounds on MRSA using TEM revealed that the target site for this compound is cell wall. Considering the antibacterial effect of PG-01 strain especially against MRSA, intended antibiotic compounds can gives hope for treatment of diseases caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. PMID:22642595

  14. Elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Nabipour, Iraj; Vahdat, Katayoun; Jafari, Seyed Mojtaba; Beigi, Saeideh; Assadi, Majid; Azizi, Fatemeh; Sanjdideh, Zahra

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that low-grade systemic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, limited information is available about the relationship of diabetes mellitus and inflammation in Asia. We examined the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and diabetes in a general Iranian population. In an ancillary study to the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study, a cohort study of men and women aged > or = 25 years, a random sample of 1754 (49.2 percent males, 50.8 percent females) subjects were evaluated. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated serum CRP was defined as more than 3.0 mg/l. The diabetes classification was based on the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. A total of 8.6 percent of the subjects (8.0 percent of males & 9.1 percent of females; p>0.05) had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Geometric mean of CRP was 1.94 mg/l (3.80 SD) in the studied population. The subjects with diabetes had a higher geometric mean of CRP levels than the subjects with no diabetes [3.67 (SD 3.71) versus 1.85 (3.83) respectively; p<0.0001)]. In multiple logistic regression analysis, diabetes showed a significant age-adjusted association with elevated CRP levels [Odds Ratio = 2.03, Confidence Interval (1.38-2.98); p<0.0001] after adjusting for sex, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol blood pressure, smoking and body mass index. In conclusion, beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors, elevated CRP is significantly correlated with diabetes in general population of the northern Persian Gulf. Further insight into the specific effects of proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins will be essential for the development of new preventive strategies for diabetes mellitus. PMID:18493107

  15. 75 FR 13051 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... warrant a presumption of service connection for any disease discussed in that report. See 66 FR 35702... discussed in that report. 72 FR 48734 (2007). The NAS issued an update on sarin in a report titled ``Gulf... from sarin. 73 FR 42411 (2008). The NAS issued its third report, titled ``Gulf War and Health, Volume...

  16. Two-way multi-band optical/IR transmission measurements in the Persian Gulf coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Fritz, Peter J.

    2005-10-01

    The atmospheric conditions in the Persian Gulf region are significantly different from other places in the world. The particle size distribution may vary daily and during the day. The aerosols can contribute to the amount of rainfall over land, important for the nations around the Gulf. In 2004 NASNGSFC and NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) introduced a proposal to improve the modelling of aerosol transport for the Persian Gulf area. The proposal included a measurement campaign in the UAE (United Arabian Emirates), held in the summer/fall of 2004, sponsored by the DWRS (Department of Water Resources Studies) in Abu Dhabi: UAEz (Unified Aerosol Experiment in the UAE). In this campaign NASA installed a number of multi-spectral sun-photometers at various locations in the UAE (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). NRL installed ground based and airborne particle samplers. In addition, TNO (the Netherlands) installed its multi-band opticaUIR transmissometer, in order to collect horizontal, path-integrated transmission data. This device provides additional information on the scattering behaviour of the aerosols compared to the other instruments, which either integrate scattering over the full vertical path (the NASA sun-photometers, providing the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)) or sample the particles in-situ (the NRL particle samplers, providing size distribution and composition). This paper deals with our transmission measurement set-up, which was located in a coastal area near Abu Dhabi. This location allowed the investigation of the local variability of the atmospheric conditions: from desert dust to pollution, such as fossil fuel and biomass burning, depending on the wind direction. For logistic reasons a set-up was chosen with a retro-reflector. This choice implies consequences for the calibration procedure and measurement accuracy, which are discussed in detail. Also the effects of path-inhomogeneity and scintillation for such a two-way set-up are considered. Results are

  17. Baseline of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediment and sea cucumbers (Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus hermanni) in the northern parts of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Khazaali, Aida; Kunzmann, Andreas; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Baniamam, Mehrnaz

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the surface sediments and in the sea cucumbers (Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus hermanni) from around six Islands in the northern parts of Persian Gulf. The ranges of the average concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments, H. leucospilota and S. hermanni were 10.33-186.16ngg(-1) dw, 12.49-505.44ngg(-1) dw and 8.08-389.39ngg(-1) dw, respectively. The spatial distribution of PAHs reveals that pollutant concentration is relatively higher at the western parts of Persian Gulf. International sedimentary quality guidelines (TEL-PEL) indicated a low probability of harmful effects to benthic organisms. PAH source identification showed that the PAHs in the sediments come from pyrogenic and mixed origin. PMID:27216041

  18. Bioaccumulation and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the sediments and mullet Liza klunzingeri in the northern part of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Afkhami, Majid; Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Chambari, Shahrokh; Aghaei, Sina; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan; Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Lagzaee, Farahnaz; Baniamam, Mehrnaz

    2015-05-15

    The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) were investigated in the sediments and in the mullet Liza klunzingeri from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. The levels of Cu, Zn and Pb in the sediment varied significantly among the sampling sites (P<0.05). Sediments from the northern part of the Persian Gulf had serious ecological risk when considering PER. The ranges of the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tissue of L. klunzingeri were 10.00-16.66 mg/kg, 18.75-32.50 mg/kg, 3.25-14.16 mg/kg and 0.37-3.33 mg/kg, respectively. The health risk analysis of individual heavy metals in the fish tissue indicated dangerous levels of Pb and Cd for the general population at some sampling sites. PMID:25796542

  19. Two squat lobster species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from the Persian Gulf, with description of a new species of Raymunida Macpherson & Machordom, 2000.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Masayuki; Safaie, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Galathea ternatensis De Man, 1902 and Raymunida iranica n. sp., are reported from the Iranian coast as the first records of squat lobster species from the Persian Gulf. The new species morphologically resembles R. cagnetei Macpherson & Machordom, 2000, but is unique in the genus in having a small spine near the base of each supraocular spine and a spine ventral to the second branchial marginal spine of the carapace. PMID:25283407

  20. Ocean Color Retrieval Using LANDSAT-8 Imagery in Coastal Case 2 Waters (case Study Persian and Oman Gulf)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, N.; Hasanlou, M.; Saadatseresht, M.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean color (OC) monitoring using satellite imageries provides an appropriate tool for a better understanding of marine processes and changes in the coastal environment. Radiance measurements in the range of visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum provides information of ocean color that is associated with the water constituents. This measurements are used to monitor the level of biological activity and the presence of particles in the water. Ocean features such as the concentration of chlorophyll, suspended sediment concentration and sea surface temperature have a significant impact on the dynamics of the ocean. The concentration of chlorophyll (chla), active pigments of phytoplankton photosynthesis, as a key indicator applied for assessment of water quality and biochemistry. Experimental algorithms chla related to internal communication various optical components in the water that may be change in space and time in the water with different optical characteristics. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed for one area may not work for other places and each region according to its specific characteristics needs that determined by an algorithm may be appropriate to local. We have tried treatment several algorithms for determination of chlorophyll, including experimental algorithms with a simple band ratio of blue-green band (i.e. OCx) and algorithms includes two bands ratio with variable 𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)/𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1), the three bands ratio with variable [𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)-1]×𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ3) and four bands ratio with variable [𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)-1]/[𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ4)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ3)-1] that desired wavelength (i.e. λ1, λ2, λ3 and λ4) in the range of red and near-infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are in the region of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea look

  1. Tsunamigenic seismic sources characterization in the Zagros fold and thrust belt. Implications for tsunami threat in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Gómez, José A.; Martínez Parro, Laura; Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; González, Mauricio; Al-Yahyai, Sultan; Martínez, Jara; Méndez, Fernando; Rueda, Ana; Medina, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Although in the recent history of the Persian Gulf there is no register of relevant tsunamis, there are some historical events that could have generated destructive tsunamis and where historical descriptions of flooding are present. In 978, 1008 and 1871 destructive earthquakes occurred in the northern area of the Persian Gulf. These events where greatly felt by the population, killing hundreds of people, and generating flooding according to descriptions. One problem regarding the historical register is the scarce population in the area of the Zagros coast. In the present, the seismic activity of the area is very high, occurring frequently earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6, specially at the southeastern edge of the Zagros. The active Zagros fold-thrust belt lies on the northeastern margin of the Arabian plate, on Precambrian (Pan African) basement. This is a young (Pliocene) fold-thrust belt currently undergoing 10±4 mm yr-1 shortening and thickening as a result of collision of the Arabian and central Iranian plates. As part of the Alpine-Himalayan mountain chain, extends for more than 1500 km in a NW-SE direction from eastern Turkey to the Minab-Zendan-Palami fault system in southern Iran. This belt results from the closure of the Neo-Tethyan ocean due to a northeast-dipping subduction below the Iranian microcontinent. The subsequent collision beginning in the Neogene between the Arabian Plate and the Iranian Block. The orientation of the fold-and-thrust belt changes along the Zagros Zone from NW-SE strikes towards the northwest, to E-W strikes towards the east, in the Strait of Hormuz. The north-south plate convergence is accommodated in the NW of the Zagros by a combination of NW-SE-trending folds and thrusts, and right-lateral motion along NNW-SSE strike-slip faults. This style of strain partitioning is not present in the east of the Zagros, where east-west-oriented thrusts and folds take up the shortening. We used the tectonic mapping of Berberian (1995

  2. Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, Sabine M.; Albano, Paolo G.; Bentlage, Rudolf; Drummond, Hannah; García-Ramos, Diego A.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf Sabine Maria Handler1, Paolo G. Albano1, Rudolf Bentlage2, Hannah Drummond2, D.A. García-Ramos1, Martin Zuschin1 1 Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Austria 2 St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 13617, USA Trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey are arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. Drill holes, especially those attributed to naticid and muricid gastropods, are unambiguous marks of predation and allow discriminating between successful and unsuccessful predation attempts (complete and incomplete holes, respectively). Latitude and water depth influence drilling frequency. We inspected death assemblages of an intertidal flat and of two subtidal (water depth between 6 and 20 m) sandy sites in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, to determine the patterns of predation on shelled molluscs along the depth gradient. The study is based on ~7,000 and ~60,000 shells from the intertidal and subtidal, respectively. Drilling Frequency (DF, the number of drilled individuals), Incomplete Drilling Frequency (IDF, number of incomplete drill holes), and Prey Effectiveness (ratio between the number of incomplete drill holes and the total number of drilling attempts) were used as metrics of drilling intensity. We observed major differences between the intertidal and subtidal study areas. Drilling frequencies were generally remarkably low and intertidal flats showed a much lower drilling frequency than the subtidal (1.4% and 6.7%, respectively). In the subtidal, we observed significant differences of drilling intensity among bivalve species and between the two sites. However, predation metrics did not correlate with environmental factors such as substrate type and depth, nor with species life

  3. Symbiodinium thermophilum sp. nov., a thermotolerant symbiotic alga prevalent in corals of the world's hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hume, B C C; D'Angelo, C; Smith, E G; Stevens, J R; Burt, J; Wiedenmann, J

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are in rapid decline on a global scale due to human activities and a changing climate. Shallow water reefs depend on the obligatory symbiosis between the habitat forming coral host and its algal symbiont from the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). This association is highly sensitive to thermal perturbations and temperatures as little as 1°C above the average summer maxima can cause the breakdown of this symbiosis, termed coral bleaching. Predicting the capacity of corals to survive the expected increase in seawater temperatures depends strongly on our understanding of the thermal tolerance of the symbiotic algae. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analysis of four genetic markers to describe Symbiodinium thermophilum, sp. nov. from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, a thermally tolerant coral symbiont. Phylogenetic inference using the non-coding region of the chloroplast psbA gene resolves S. thermophilum as a monophyletic lineage with large genetic distances from any other ITS2 C3 type found outside the Gulf. Through the characterisation of Symbiodinium associations of 6 species (5 genera) of Gulf corals, we demonstrate that S. thermophilum is the prevalent symbiont all year round in the world's hottest sea, the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. PMID:25720577

  4. Symbiodinium thermophilum sp. nov., a thermotolerant symbiotic alga prevalent in corals of the world's hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Hume, B. C. C.; D'Angelo, C.; Smith, E. G.; Stevens, J. R.; Burt, J.; Wiedenmann, J.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are in rapid decline on a global scale due to human activities and a changing climate. Shallow water reefs depend on the obligatory symbiosis between the habitat forming coral host and its algal symbiont from the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). This association is highly sensitive to thermal perturbations and temperatures as little as 1°C above the average summer maxima can cause the breakdown of this symbiosis, termed coral bleaching. Predicting the capacity of corals to survive the expected increase in seawater temperatures depends strongly on our understanding of the thermal tolerance of the symbiotic algae. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analysis of four genetic markers to describe Symbiodinium thermophilum, sp. nov. from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, a thermally tolerant coral symbiont. Phylogenetic inference using the non-coding region of the chloroplast psbA gene resolves S. thermophilum as a monophyletic lineage with large genetic distances from any other ITS2 C3 type found outside the Gulf. Through the characterisation of Symbiodinium associations of 6 species (5 genera) of Gulf corals, we demonstrate that S. thermophilum is the prevalent symbiont all year round in the world's hottest sea, the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. PMID:25720577

  5. A New Landscape: Opportunities and Pitfalls for Universities Expanding in the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiConsiglio, John

    2009-01-01

    Dozens of universities--primarily from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia--are eyeing the Gulf region as a largely untapped reservoir of academic potential and economic opportunity. During the last few years, UAE states like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Qatar, and Ras al Khaymah have spent billions to entice top universities. And many colleges…

  6. Reactions of American Minority and Nonminority Students to the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yueh Ting

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that little attention has been paid to the effects of a subgroup's status on its attitudes toward war and peace. Reports on a study of 151 college students on their patriotism and nationalism during the Gulf War. Finds minority students were more supportive of a peaceful solution to the crisis. (CFR)

  7. Structural violence and the state: HIV and labour migration from Pakistan to the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the biopolitics of HIV and labour migration from Pakistan (a country classified by UNAIDS as at 'high risk' of a generalised epidemic) to the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The remittances by the labour migrants in the Gulf are an invaluable source of foreign exchange for Pakistan and a large number of households are entirely dependent upon them. At the same time, the National AIDS Control Programme regards Gulf migrants as a key risk factor for an HIV epidemic. The majority of HIV positive people in clinics comprise Gulf returnee migrants and their family members. This paper suggests that in the process of migrating, prospective migrants are subjected to structural violence that increases their HIV vulnerabilities. In this process, they are subjected to regimes of medical inspection, reduced to their certifiable labour power, inscribed with nationalist ideologies identifying HIV as a disease that strikes 'the other', and exposed to exploitation that increases their vulnerabilities. After migration, they are made to undergo compulsory periodic medical examinations in the GCC and, if found to be HIV positive, they are forcibly deported without papers, proper diagnosis or healthcare - only to return as 'failed subjects'. Taking a disaggregated view of the state, the paper argues that, in order to be effective, debates on structural violence and the HIV epidemic must make explicit the role of the state in producing migrants' vulnerabilities. PMID:23978158

  8. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Flavonoid Contents of some Edible Green Seaweeds from Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Farasat, Massoumeh; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan-Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Ulva species (Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh, Ulva linza Linnaeus, Ulva flexuosa Wulfen and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus) grown at different parts of northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran. The seaweeds were collected from Dayyer, Taheri and Northern Ouli coasts in April 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay and was performed in a microplate reader. All species exhibited a DPPH radical scavenging activity, and among the species, Ulva clathrata demonstrated greater antioxidant potential with a low IC50 (0.881 mg mL-1) in comparison with those of the other species. Also the highest phenolic content (5.080 mg GAE g-1) and flavonoid content (33.094 mg RE g-1) were observed in U.clathrata. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed positive correlations with the DPPH radical scavenging activity (p < 0.01) and negative correlations with IC50 (p < 0.01).The results suggest that these edible green seaweeds possess antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements ,cosmetics or food industries. PMID:24734068

  9. First Report of Anterior Pallial Tentacles in Solen dactylus (Bivalvia: Solenidae) from the Northern Persian Gulf, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Hanieh; Costello, Mark J.; von Cosel, Rudo

    2013-01-01

    Solenidae are deep burrowing bivalves inhabiting intertidal and shallow sub-tidal soft bottom sediments mostly in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Solen dactylus has a restricted distribution within the Indian Ocean. Solen dactylus is frequently found on the sandy-muddy coast of the northern Persian Gulf, Iran. Specimens of S. dactylus were collected since 2006 from Bandar Abbas to study their biology and ecology. During these studies, an unexpected pair of anterior pallial tentacles at the dorsal end of the anterior pallial crest of the mantle was found. In the tentacles, two kinds of epithelial cells (pyramidal and vacuolated) and fibres (radial and longitudinal), and a branch of the pallial nerve located in the centre of a haemocoel, were determined. A possible coherence of a furrow parallel to the anterior shell margin with the presence of anterior pallial tentacles is discussed. All species with long anterior pallial tentacles have anterior shell furrows. Anterior pallial tentacles were found in 10 species of Solenidae from Asia to the Middle East and Europe. The function of the tentacles is unknown. However, more species need to be examined for anterior pallial tentacles and anterior shell furrows to determine if they reflect a common evolutionary history or ecology. PMID:23691053

  10. Mesoscale variability in the Arabian Sea from HYCOM model results and observations: impact on the Persian Gulf Water path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hégaret, P.; Duarte, R.; Carton, X.; Vic, C.; Ciani, D.; Baraille, R.; Corréard, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyze this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses), in situ observations (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM - Generalized Digital Environmental mode - climatology), satellite altimetry (from AVISO) and a regional simulation with a primitive equation model (HYCOM - the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model). The model and observations display comparable variability, and the model is then used to analyze the three-dimensional structure of eddies and water masses with higher temporal and spatial resolutions than the available observations. The mesoscale features are highly seasonal, with the formation of coastal currents, destabilizing into eddies, or the radiation of Rossby waves from the Indian coast. The mesoscale eddies have a deep dynamical influence and strongly drive the water masses at depth. In particular, in the Sea of Oman, the Persian Gulf Water presents several offshore ejection sites and a complex recirculation, depending on the mesoscale eddies. The associated mechanisms range from coastal ejection via dipoles, alongshore pulses due to a cyclonic eddy, to the formation of lee eddies downstream of Ra's Al Hamra. This water mass is also captured inside the eddies via several mechanisms, keeping high thermohaline characteristics in the Arabian Sea. The variations of the outflow characteristics near the Strait of Hormuz are compared with variations downstream.

  11. Stress and coping in male and female health care providers during the Persian Gulf War: the USNS Comfort hospital ship.

    PubMed

    Slusarcick, A L; Ursano, R J; Fullerton, C S; Dinneen, M P

    1999-03-01

    The development of the USNS Comfort hospital ship during the Persian Gulf War provided an opportunity to examine the relationship of gender to stress and coping in health care providers exposed to wartime stressors. Just before the outbreak of Operation Desert Storm, medical personnel (N = 250) rated the stressfulness of current wartime experiences and the helpfulness of stress-reducing resources onboard ship in a combat theater. The responses of men and women were compared; to identify the dimensions of these responses, a principal factor analysis (orthogonal rotation) was performed. Generally, men and women ranked stressors and stress reducers similarly; women scored higher on the stress ratings. Two factors, similar for men and women, were identified in the stress ratings: fear of injury and trauma-related work demands. The dimensions of the stress reducers, however, were different for men and women. The findings support retrospective studies and suggest that different mechanisms of stress reduction may be operative even though men and women are performing the same activity. PMID:10091488

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Holothuria scabra from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, F; Ehsanpor, M; Afkhami, M; Mokhlesi, A; Khazaali, A; Montazeri, S

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds of the gonad, respiration tree, and body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra collected from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf were extracted using ethyl acetate, methanol and water-methanol mixtures. Extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The activity was determined using the disc diffusion test. Cytotoxic activities of the extracts were determined by brine shrimp lethality assay. Results showed the existence of an antifungal activity of all extracts against A. niger with MIC ranging from 3 to 9μg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was found in respiration tree (methanol) with an inhibition zone of about 50mm against A. niger at 18μg/mL extract concentration. Cytotoxic activity was obtained for methanolic extracts only. Methanol extract of the gonads showed the highest cytotoxic effect (LC50=50.5μg/mL) continuing with RT methanol extract (LC50=70μg/mL). PMID:24054089

  13. Accumulation of trace metals in the muscle and liver tissues of five fish species from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Agah, Homira; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Fatemi, S Mohamad Rez; Baeyens, Willy

    2009-10-01

    In this study, concentrations of 16 elements were quantified in muscles and livers of 141 fishes belonging to five commercially species. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker and silver pomfret fish species were obtained from Abadan, Deylam, Bushehr-Nirogah, Dayyer port, Lengeh port and Abbas port in Hormozgan, Bushehr and Khozesran provinces at the Iranian waters of the Persian Gulf. The contents of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Tl, V and Zn in fish muscles and livers were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS), after digestion in a CEM (Mars 5) microwave oven using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Our results indicated that almost all metals were more accumulated in younger flathead, greasy grouper and tiger-tooth fishes. Contrary to the other fish species, grunt seems to stronger accumulating elements in the older fishes. Strong and positive correlations were observed in three or more of the fish species between V, Al, Fe, Tl, Co and Pb. The results confirmed that fish muscle and liver tissues appeared to be good bio-indicators for identification of coastal areas exposed to metallic contaminants. The results also showed that the element levels in the muscles of all fishes in our study were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health, except for arsenic. PMID:18850288

  14. Anthropogenic effects on marine mollusks diversity and abundance; mangrove mollusks along an environmental gradient at Teyab, Persian gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarmanesh, H.; Javanshir, A.

    2009-04-01

    Management of coastal environments requires understanding of ecological relationships among different habitats and their biotas.. The mollusk diversity and density and sedimentological properties of mangrove (Avicennia marina) stands of two different seasons in Teyab have been compared. Pollutant area and cleaner area showed clear separation on the basis of environmental characteristics and benthic mollusks. Numbers of mollusks taxa were generally larger at cleaner sites, and numbers of individuals of several taxa were also larger at other sites. The total number of individuals was not different between the two seasons, largely due to the presence of large numbers of the Mud-living gastropod Cerithium cingulata at the pollutant sites. Differences in the Mollusks were coincident with differences in the nature of the sediment. Sediments in cleaner stands were more compacted and contained lesser organic matter and leaf litter.Analysis of sediment chemistry suggested that mangrove sediment in the Cleaner sites were able to take up more N and P than those in the other sites. Key Words: Sustainable development, Impact, Gastropods, Bivalves, Persian Gulf

  15. Assessing the trace metal pollution in the sediments of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, via a novel pollution index.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, A R; Karbassi, A R; Fakhraee, M

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were collected from the Petrochemical Special Economic Zone of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, and analyzed for possible trace metal contamination by means of a chemical partitioning method. The heavy metal contents in the sediments follow the order of Al > Sr > Mn > Zn > Ni > Ba > Cr > Cu > As > Co. The degree of sediment contamination was evaluated using pollution load index (PLI), modified degree of contamination (mC d), geo-accumulation index (I geo), and enrichment factor (EF). All these indices compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale. In a specific area with high geological background like Mahshahr Bay, such a comparison may lead to erroneous conclusions. Due to the remarkable contribution of lithogenous fraction, as the natural component, to the bulk concentration of trace metals in the sediments of such an area, assessment of chemical hazard to the surrounding aquatic environment should not be carried out through traditional approaches. In the present study, anthropogenic portion of the metals was determined through one-step chemical sequential extraction and lithogenous portion substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new pollution index (RIAquatic). PLI, mC d, and I geo revealed overall low values, but EF, pollution index (I POLL), and newly developed pollution index were relatively high for all samples. PMID:26342477

  16. The effect of economic sanctions on the mortality of Iraqi children prior to the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed Central

    Daponte, B O; Garfield, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of sanctions on mortality among Iraqi children. METHODS: The effects of economic sanctions on health are not well known. Past studies on the effect of economic sanctions on mortality have suffered from unreliable data sources and the collinearity of sanctions with other negative economic events. We overcame these weaknesses by using individual child records from a retrospective survey of mothers conducted after the 1991 Persian Gulf War to examine the effect of sanctions on mortality among Iraqi children. Multivariate proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the effect of economic sanctions prior to war (from August through December 1990). RESULTS: We found that after controlling for child and maternal characteristics, when economic sanctions were entered into the proportional hazards equation, the risk of dying increased dramatically. This increase was highly significant statistically. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative application of robust epidemiologic research tools can contribute to assessments of health and well-being even under the methodological and practical constraints of comprehensive economic sanctions, but more research is needed. PMID:10754968

  17. The first report on some toxic effects of green scat, Scatophagus argus an Iranian Persian Gulf venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Seyedeh Maryam; Jamili, Shahla; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang; Ardakani, Esmat Mirabzadeh; Fatemi, Mohamad Reza; Shahbazzadeh, Fahimeh; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2013-05-01

    Green scat namely as Scatophagus argus is a venomous aquarium fish belonging to Scatophagidae family. It can induce painful wounds in injured hand with partial paralysis to whom that touch the spines. Dorsal and ventral rough spines contain cells that produce venom with toxic activities. According to unpublished data collected from local hospitals in southern coastal region of Iran, S. argus is reported as a venomous fish. Envenomation induces clinical symptoms such as local pain, partial paralysis, erythema and itching. In the present study green scat (spotted scat) was collected from Persian Gulf coastal waters. SDS-PAGE indicated 12 distinct bands in the venom ranged between 7 and 250 kDa. The crude venom had hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes (1%) with an LC100 (Lytic Concentration) of about 1.7 μg. The crude venom can release 813 μg protein from 0.5% casein. Phospholipase C activity was recorded at 3.125 μg of total venom. Our findings showed that the edematic activity remained over 24 h after injection. The results demonstrated that crude venom extracted from Iranian coastal border has different toxic and enzymatic activities. This study is pending to further investigation on animal model regarding protein purification and in vivo studies. PMID:23416797

  18. Drug use treatment and harm reduction programs in Iran: A unique model of health in the most populated Persian Gulf country.

    PubMed

    Alam-Mehrjerdi, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Higgs, Peter; Dolan, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Because of the proximity of Persian Iran to Afghanistan, the main opium producer in the world, drug use especially opium use has a long history in Iran. Opium and its residues are the traditional drugs while heroin, heroin Kerack, norgesic, temgesic, and methamphetamine use and injection have emerged more recently. In recent decades, heroin smoking and injection have presented challenges to the Persian health policy makers to accept and develop the internationally-approved programs of drug use treatment and harm reduction. The current paper summarizes the overall picture of main drugs used and the history of establishing the nationwide movement of drug use treatment and harm reduction programs after the 1979 revolution until the end of 2014. The paper concludes that Persian Iran has a well-developed healthcare system in the provision of drug use treatment and harm reduction programs in the south-west of Asia especially the Persian Gulf region. These therapeutic and harm reduction-related programs are required to be strengthened by opium supply reduction and eradicating drug production in Afghanistan. The provision of prevention programs, drug education via mass-media, employment and inexpensive leisure activities are required in Iran. In addition, conducting household surveys of the prevalence of drug use and evaluating the clinical effectiveness and treatment outcomes of the provided drug treatment and harm reduction programs are required. National and regional collaborations are rigorously suggested to manage supply reduction along the borders and implement demand reduction inside the borders. PMID:26168763

  19. Evaluation of wet bulb globe temperature index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions in the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Habibolah; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Jafari, Mohammad J.; Maracy, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Heat exposure among construction workers in the Persian Gulf region is a serious hazard for health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) Index for estimation of heat strain in hot/humid conditions by the use of Physiological Strain Index (PSI) as the gold standard. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 71 workers of two Petrochemical Companies in South of Iran in 2010 summer. The WBGT index, heart rate, and aural temperature were measured by Heat Stress Monitor (Casella Microtherm WBGT), Heart Rate Monitor (Polar RS100), and Personal Heat Strain Monitor (Questemp II), respectively. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: The mean (SD) of WBGT values was 33.1 (2.7). The WBGT values exceed from American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) standard (30°C) in 96% work stations, whereas the PSI values were more than 5.0 (moderate strain) in 11% of workstations. The correlation between WBGT and PSI values was 0.61 (P = 0.001). When WBGT values were less and more than 34°C, the mean of PSI was 2.6 (low strain) and 5.2 (moderate strain), respectively. Conclusion: In the Persian Gulf weather, especially hot and humid in the summer months, due to the WBGT values exceeding 30°C (in 96% of cases) and weak correlation between WBGT and PSI, the work/rest cycles of WBGT Index is not suitable for heat stress management. Therefore, in Persian Gulf weather, heat stress evaluation based on physiologic variables may have higher validity than WBGT index. PMID:23853626

  20. The first report on coagulation and phospholipase A2 activities of Persian Gulf lionfish, Pterois russelli, an Iranian venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2016-04-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belonging to scorpionidae family. Regarding to high significance value for tracing potential therapeutic molecules and special agents from venomous marine creatures, the present study was aimed to characterization of the Persian Gulf lionfish venom. Proteolytic, phospholipase, hemolytic, coagulation, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were determined for extracted venom. The LD50 of P. russelli venom was determined by intravenous injection in white Balb/c mice. Phospholipase A2 activity was recorded at 20 μg of total venom. Coagulation activity on human plasma was shown by Prothrombin Time (PT) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays and coagulation visualized after 7 and 14 s respectively for 60 μg of crude venom. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of major and minor protein bands between 6 and 205 kDa. Different amounts of crude venom ranged from 1.87 to 30 μg showed proteolytic activity on casein. The highest edematic activity was detected at 20 μg. Our findings showed that the edematic activity was dose dependent and persisted for 48 h after injection. The crude venom did not induce dermonecrotic activity on rabbit skin and showed no hemolytic activity on human, mouse and rabbit erythrocytes. This is the first report for phospholipase A2 and coagulation activity in venomous fish and venomous marine animals respectively. Proteolytic activity of P. russelli venom is in accordance with the other genara of scorpionidae family. According to venom activity on intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, lionfish venom would be contained an interesting pharmaceutical agent. This study is pending to further characterization of phospholipase A2, coagulation, and protease activities and also in vivo activity on animal model of surface and internal bleeding. PMID:26853495

  1. Rapid late Pleistocene/Holocene uplift and coastal evolution of the southern Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren W.; Bailey, Richard M.; Hampton, Brian A.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Lu, Zhong; Clark, David W.; James, Rhodri H. R.; Al Ramadan, Khalid

    2012-03-01

    The coastline along the southern Arabian Gulf between Al Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dubai, UAE, appears to have risen at least 125 m in the last 18,000 years. Dating and topographic surveying of paleo-dunes (43-53 ka), paleo-marine terraces (17-30 ka), and paleo-marine shorelines (3.3-5.5 ka) document a rapid, > 1 mm/a subsidence, followed by a 6 mm/a uplift that is decreasing with time. The mechanism causing this movement remains elusive but may be related to the translation of the coastal area through the backbasin to forebulge hinge line movement of the Arabian plate or, alternatively, by movement of the underlying Infracambrian-age Hormuz salt in response to sea-level changes associated with continental glaciation. Independent of the mechanism, rapid and episodic uplift may impact the design of engineering projects such as nuclear power plants, airports, and artificial islands as well as the interpretation of sedimentation and archeology of the area.

  2. The impact of rising energy prices on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns: The Persian Gulf crisis as a case example

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, L.J. ); Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. . Energy Systems Div.)

    1992-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered immediate increases in world oil prices. Increases in world petroleum prices and in US petroleum imports resulted in higher petroleum prices for US customers. In this report, the effects of the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath are used to demonstrate the potential impacts of petroleum price changes on majority, black, and Hispanic households, as well as on poor and nonpoor households. The analysis is done by using the Minority Energy Assessment Model developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The differential impacts of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raise significant issues for a variety of government agencies, including DOE. Although the Persian Gulf crisis is now over and world oil prices have returned to their prewar levels, the differential impacts of rising energy prices on poor and minority households as a result of any future crisis in the world oil market remains a significant long-term issue.

  3. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    PubMed

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to brown seaweeds. The fatty acid composition of various seaweed lipids varied considerably with 51.9-67.4% of saturates, 22.0-32.9% of monoenes and 9.2-19.1% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). E. intestinalis contained the highest total n-3 PUFA content with the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. Persian Gulf seaweeds contained higher concentrations of all the minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran. PMID:24293698

  4. Histological characterization of the special venom secretory cells in the stinger of rays in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Hadi; Sajjadi, Mir Masoud; Parto, Paria; Rajaian, Hamid; Mokhlesi, Amin

    2010-06-01

    Rays are common elasmobranches in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea that may have one or more mineralized serrated stingers on the whip-like tail. The stingers are covered by epidermal cells among which some can produce venom. When these animals are dorsally touched, the stinger can be introduced into the aggressor by a whip reflex mechanism of the tail when the pectoral fins are touched, causing severe mechanical injuries and inoculating the venom. The exact localization of the venom secretory cells in the stinger of different species is controversial, but it is known that the cells are preferentially located in the ventro-lateral grooves in marine stingrays. A comparative morphological characterization of the stinger epidermal tissue of different ray species in the northern part of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea was carried out in this study. EDTA was used for decalcification of stings and conventional histological processes were subsequently employed. The results indicated that structure of dermis and epidermis layers of stings in all species are similar to the structure of corresponding layers in other parts of fish's body. The results of the present study have shown that all examined species of Dasyatidae family, but not Myliobatidae and Gymnuridae families, had venom secretory cells. Distribution of venom secretory cells varies in each species and is often located around or inside the stinger ventro-lateral grooves. These differences among the stingers of various species may explain the envenomation severity in these species. PMID:20080118

  5. Psychiatric medevacs during a 6-month aircraft carrier battle group deployment to the Persian Gulf: a Navy Force Health Protection preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Koffman, Robert L; Arita, Anthony A

    2003-01-01

    When a U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier battle group deploys overseas, the aircraft carrier's medical department is responsible for the medical needs of over 12,000 personnel with their indigenous developmental, stress, family, alcohol, drug, and interpersonal and intrapersonal relationship difficulties. This article reviews the effectiveness of having a U.S. Navy clinical psychologist and a psychiatric technician onboard the USS Carl Vinson, the flag ship of Vinson's battle group, during this battle group's 1998/1999 Persian Gulf deployment (i.e., Western Pacific Deployment). Importantly, these two individuals reported to the USS Vinson as permanent members of the ship's company. The clinical psychologist logged 448 individual outpatient-care consults and 79 individual consults with sailors who had a history of overusing or abusing alcohol. Additionally, nine sailors with acute disabling psychiatric diagnoses were hospitalized on the ship's medical ward, and four sailors were medically evacuated (medevaced), by fixed wing aircraft, from USS Vinson to a Navy Hospital in the United States for definitive evaluation, treatment, and disposition. These four medevacs were less than the number of medevacs from two previous Aircraft Carrier Battle Group Persian Gulf deployments. Importantly, these two previous WESTPAC deployments were made without having a clinical psychologist as a full-time member of the respective aircraft carrier's medical department. Providing clinical psychology/mental health services at the "tip of the spear" is an effective, beneficial, and cost-saving landmark improvement in providing quality medical care to the fleet. PMID:12546245

  6. Project swiftsure final report: Destruction of chemical agent waste at Defence Research Establishment Suffield. Suffield special publication No. 170

    SciTech Connect

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Swiftsure was a project to destroy old chemical warfare agent waste at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield Experimental Proving Ground. This report begins with an overview of the project and the consultation process, and describes the project planning and development process, the methods used to destroy the nerve agents, the contracting of a waste incinerator, the environmental protection plan, incinerator installation and testing, waste preparation and incineration operations, final waste product disposal and the environmental monitoring program. Appendices include details on the properties of the agents destroyed, sampling and analysis methods, and air quality monitoring specifications.

  7. Improved gravity anomaly fields from retracked multimission satellite radar altimetry observations over the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaki, M.; Forootan, E.; Sharifi, M. A.; Awange, J.; Kuhn, M.

    2015-09-01

    Satellite radar altimetry observations are used to derive short wavelength gravity anomaly fields over the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea, where in situ and ship-borne gravity measurements have limited spatial coverage. In this study the retracking algorithm `Extrema Retracking' (ExtR) was employed to improve sea surface height (SSH) measurements that are highly biased in the study regions due to land contaminations in the footprints of the satellite altimetry observations. ExtR was applied to the waveforms sampled by the five satellite radar altimetry missions: TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, JASON-2, GFO and ERS-1. Along-track slopes have been estimated from the improved SSH measurements and used in an iterative process to estimate deflections of the vertical, and subsequently, the desired gravity anomalies. The main steps of the gravity anomaly computations involve estimating improved SSH using the ExtR technique, computing deflections of the vertical from interpolated SSHs on a regular grid using a biharmonic spline interpolation and finally estimating gridded gravity anomalies. A remove-compute-restore algorithm, based on the fast Fourier transform, has been applied to convert deflections of the vertical into gravity anomalies. Finally, spline interpolation has been used to estimate regular gravity anomaly grids over the two study regions. Results were evaluated by comparing the estimated altimetry-derived gravity anomalies (with and without implementing the ExtR algorithm) with ship-borne free air gravity anomaly observations, and free air gravity anomalies from the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008). The comparison indicates a range of 3-5 mGal in the residuals, which were computed by taking the differences between the retracked altimetry-derived gravity anomaly and the ship-borne data. The comparison of retracked data with ship-borne data indicates a range in the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between approximately 1.8 and 4.4 mGal and a bias between 0

  8. Environmental and sequence stratigraphic implications of anhydrite textures: A case from the Lower Triassic of the Central Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleali, M.; Rahimpour-Bonab, H.; Moussavi-Harami, R.; Jahani, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Lower Triassic Kangan Formation in the Persian Gulf (South Pars Gas Field) and its adjacent areas are composed of carbonate-evaporite sequences. These sediments were deposited in a shallow marine homoclinal ramp. Study of the anhydrite-bearing intervals shows various structures and textures. The anhydrite structures are mainly bedded, massive, chicken-wire and nodular type and the main textures are felted, sparse crystal, needle shape, lath shape, equant and fibrous. Pervasive and poikilotopic cement together with replacement and porphyroblastic gypsum are accounted as the most common diagenetic features in anhydrite. Evaluation of anhydrite occurrences and features support both primary and secondary formations. The nodular to chicken-wire anhydrite formed under synsedimentary sabkha conditions, whereas anhydrite cements occurred during the late stages of diagenesis (shallow burial stage). Massive to bedded anhydrite could have been formed under subaqueous conditions or originated by coalescing and continued growth of anhydrite nodules in the sabkha zone. Anhydrite fabrics impose a significant control on the reservoir quality of the Kangan carbonates at the South Pars Gas Field. Thick massive and bedded anhydrite could have been formed as an intraformational seals and anhydrite cements occluded pore spaces and reduced the poroperm values. The sequence stratigraphic analysis revealed two depositional sequences in the studied intervals, which are composed of TST and HST. Investigation of anhydrite throughout depositional sequences indicates a change in the content and style of anhydrite texture. Anhydrite content (volume) decreases upward through transgressive system tract (sea-level rise) whereas, it enhances during highstand system tract (sea-level fall). Pervasive and poikilotopic anhydrite cements together with replacement by anhydrite are prevalent features during transgressive and early highstand system tract. At the late HST, with a progradational stacking

  9. Assessing the magnitude of recent compositional changes in marine ecosystems: a conservation paleobiology case study from the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Nearly every modern marine ecosystem has experienced major changes due to anthropogenic stressors such as habitat modification, pollution, overexploitation and climate change. However, our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics in a historical time-frame (decades to few centuries) is restricted by the lack of direct, recorded human observations: properly designed ecological surveys have been conducted for comparatively short durations in the last few decades only, and in merely a few localities, poorly representative of large-scale phenomena. A unique but under-exploited source of information is hidden in death assemblages (DAs), the taxonomically identifiable, dead or discarded organic remains in a seabed. Due to the slow degradation of hard skeletal parts such as shells in the sea, DAs represent archives that accumulate information on species composition and community states over time and are inert to recent changes. Assessing the degree in compositional and ecological similarity between living (LAs) and death assemblages can be used to reconstruct the degree of recent community disturbances. Previous studies have shown that live-dead (LD) agreement tends to be poorer in anthropogenically disturbed settings, because LAs respond faster than DAs to pressures, thus increasing the LD disagreement in composition. As a complementary approach, age dating of shells (using radiocarbon calibrated amino acid racemization) allows identifying the timing of ecosystem change. These approaches help recognize community shifts in time, overcoming the lack of direct observation. As a case study, we present the results of applying these techniques to the impacts of oil platforms on the benthic assemblages in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. This semi-enclosed basin originated 12,500 years ago and currently hosts the highest concentration of infrastructures for oil and gas extraction in the world. Moreover, it has been affected by major oil spills. Contaminants show a weak gradient within each

  10. Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.

    2016-07-01

    The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of ~0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the ~0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

  11. H.R. 821--Persian Gulf Conflict Education Equity Act and H.R. 1108. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Training and Employment of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

    This document contains oral and written testimony concerning two bills being considered by a U.S. House of Representatives subcommittee to rectify educational and life-disruption problems created by the activation of 200,000 reservists for the Persian Gulf conflict and the transfers of many active military personnel. The texts of the two bills,…

  12. Selective Toxicity of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria parva) and Sponge (Haliclona oculata) Methanolic Extracts on Liver Mitochondria Isolated from an Animal Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. Materials and Methods: To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Results: Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is

  13. Structural evolution of the Namakdan salt diapir in the Zagros fold-thrust belt: The Persian Gulf, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpasandzadeh, Majid; Hashemifar, Ghasem; Shafiei Bafti, Amir

    2016-04-01

    Intersalt and host roch structures of the the Namakdan diapir were studied and compared with available 14C and OSL dated sediments to determine the structural evolution and uplift pattern of the diapir. The Namakdan salt diapir is situated on Qeshm Island in the east of the Zagros fold-thrust belt of Iran, north of the Persian Gulf. This nearly circular diapir with ~ 7 km diameter penetrates the crest of Salkh anticline and is embedded by steep-dip bedding of the Miocene Mishan and Aghajari Formations, which demonstrates the concentric internal structure of the diapir. The intraformational unconformities of country rocks were developed due to the Zagros shortening and salt diapirism, which demonstrate their syn-tectonic sedimentation. In addition, the dip of these unconfromities and also bedding of the country rocks decrease upward. The Namakdan diapir is partly covered by gypsum/anhydrite residuals, dolomite, marine limestone, and tilted marine terraces. The salt belong to the Hormuz Complex, consisted of predominantly halite, gypsum, anhydrite, dolomite, shale, sandstone, and volcanic-volanoclastic blocks, which was deposited in the Late Proterozoic-Middle Cambrian evaporitic rift basins. The Hormuz Complex is not only the cause of many salt diapir oil/gas fields but is also considered to have been a major source rock for generation of younger reservoirs. Thus, the salt diapirs of the Zagros play an important role in generation of the oil/gas reservoirs in this strategic area, so determination of structural style and evolution of the salt diapirs are vital in oil/gas exploration and development. The upright folds are developed in the salt beds due to upward movement and minor extrusion of the salt rocks due to its low viscosity. The dip of country rock beds increase toward to the diapir rim, so that the beds shows a vertical and even overturned attitude in vicinity of the diapir. Differential uplift pattern of the diapir was deduced in rim-to-center profiles by

  14. Investigation the Behavior of Modis Ocean Color Products Under the 2008 Red Tide in the Eastern Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanea, M.; Moradi, M.; Kabiri, K.

    2015-12-01

    Biophysical properties of water undergo serious variations under red tide (RT) outbreak. During RT conditions, algal blooms spread out in the estuarine, marine and fresh waters due to different triggering factors such as nutrient loading, marine currents, and monsoonal winds. The Persian Gulf (PG) was a talent region subjected to different RTs in recent decade. A massive RT started from the Strait of Hormuz in October 2008 and extended towards the northern parts of the PG covering more than 1200 km of coastlines. The bloom of microorganism C. Polykrikoides was the main specie that generated large fish mortalities, and hampered marine industries, and water desalination appliances. Ocean color satellite data have many advantages to monitor and alarm RT occurrences, such as wide and continuous extent, short time of imagery, high accessibility, and appropriate estimation of ocean color parameters. Since 1999, MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor has estimated satellite derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH), and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm (kd490). It provides a capability to study the behavior of these parameters during RT and normal conditions. This study monitors variations in satellite derived Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 under both RT and normal conditions of the PG between 2002 and 2008. Up to now, daily and monthly variations in these products were no synchronously investigated under RT conditions in the PG. In doing so, the MODIS L1B products were provided from NASA data archive. They were corrected for Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption, and atmospheric interference in turbid coastal waters, and then converted to level 2 data. In addition, Enhanced Red Green Blue (ERGB) image was used to illustrate better water variations. ERGB image was built with three normalized leaving water radiance between 443 to 560nm. All the above data processes were applied by SeaDAS 7 software

  15. Heavy metal accumulation in tissues of two sea cucumbers, Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra in the northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Afkhami, Majid; Mohammadizadeh, Flora; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan

    2016-02-15

    The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn andPb) were investigated in the sediments and the two species of sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra) from northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. The levels of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment varied significantly among sampling sites (p<0.05). The highest levels of Zn and Pb in H. leucospilota were recorded in body wall whereas the highest contents of Zn and Pb in H. scabra were measured in respiratory tree organ, respectively. Cu and Cd were the most abundant elements in gonads of H. leucospilota while highest levels of Cd and Cu in H. scabra were measured in the gonad and derm, respectively. Cu and Zn concentrations were below permissible limits for human consumption while Cd and Pb were above permissible limits for human consumption. PMID:26769107

  16. Mud volcanoes and evaporite seismites in a tidal flat of northern Kuwait—implications for fluid flow in sabkhas of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duane, Michael J.; Reinink-Smith, Linda; Eastoe, Christopher; Al-Mishwat, Ali T.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the first interpretative field map and stable isotope geochemistry of an exhumed Miocene inlier with conical mud volcanoes in a Persian (Arabian) Gulf salt flat (sabkha). In Kuwait, the siliciclastic low-heat flow margin of the northern gulf sector produced sedimentary conditions with numerous multilayered, unstable density gradients that were highly susceptible to recording liquefaction effects. The geotechnical characteristics of the sabkhas and the effects of local seismic activity resulted in ideal conditions in marginal sediments of Kuwait Bay, well suited for the development of deformation features. Three-dimensional, pseudo-biohermal exposures exhibit ellipsoidal pillows with craters separated by fluidized channels of chaotic orientation. The size and morphology of these structures together with co-genetic mud volcanoes are strongly influenced by sedimentary factors such as density gradients and tectonic events such as localized seismic activity, which caused mixing of fluids. Diapirs emerged concurrently with syn-sedimentary deformation, and the mud injection responded to episodic seismic activity. Interpretation based on previously published reflux models such as evaporative pumping and seawater flooding of coastal sabkhas is not applicable in this case. Rather, a model of focused ascent of brine initiated by episodic seismicity is proposed. Swarms of mud volcanoes represent new abiotic sedimentary features in sabkhas, but the per-ascensum nature of the fluid offers some comparisons to siliceous hot-water vents in south-eastern Brazil.

  17. Developing of Regional Tectonic Stress Map for Two Oil Fields in Western part of Persian Gulf, Acquisition and Preparation of the General Structure of Stress Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghi, A.; Heidbach, O.; Kharrat, R.; Asef, M.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, application of stress field data in petroleum industry has significantly increased. Field stress databases are prerequisite data to study reservoir compaction and deformations, wellbore stability, reservoir stimulation, CO2 sequestration and the like. This has convinced petroleum industries and many sponsors to allocate investment for acquiring accurate stress field data and developing stress maps. In southern part of Iran, large scale sedimentation from different geological periods and intense tectonic activities create huge petroleum fields. Persian Gulf located in south to south-west of Iran, contains a great number of the most giant offshore oil and gas reservoirs in the world. The objective of this research is development of a regional tectonic stress map for two fields in western part of the Persian Gulf. For this purpose, standard stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanism solutions, well-bore breakouts and drilling-induced fractures, in-situ stress measurements (LOT, hydraulic fracturing), young geologic data (fault-slip analysis) and core tests (ASR, DSCA, Petal Centerline Fractures) were used to collect and rearrange field stress data. The data are quality ranked according to World Stress Map quality ranking scheme 2008 based on their standard deviation and a tectonic regime is assigned where possible. In these fields some stress indicators like hydraulic fracturing and core tests was not employed before. Primary stress data gathered from focal mechanism confirmed a TF regime in the area mainly with the quality C. WSM database only provides around 14 SH measurement from the northern border of our area. All these data gathered from FMS with quality C. In our study we will add several new stress measurements from other standard stress indicators including LOT, well-bore breakout, drilling induced fractures and core tests with higher quality than C. Almost SH orientation varied between 0 to 90°N based on primary information. On the

  18. Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Garra mondica, new species, from the Mond River drainage in Iran is distinguished from its congeners by having 7½ branched dorsal-fin rays; the breast, belly and back in front of the dorsal-fin origin naked and 9+8 branched caudal-fin rays. Garra mondica is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin, except an unidentified species from the Kol River, by having two fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. The identity of G. gymnothorax, a nominal species from the Karun River drainage, and G. crenulata, a nominal species from Central Iran, are discussed. Garra populations examined from the Karun have a unique mtDNA COI barcode sequence, but their diagnostic characters are not consistent with the description and syntypes of G. gymnothorax. G. crenulata is considered as a synonym of G. rufa. Two populations of Garra from the Kol River have a sequence of the COI barcode region very similar to G. mondica, but cannot be identified as G. mondica and their identity cannot be resolved here. PMID:26624737

  19. Assessment of degradation in coral reef communities using multi-temporal QuickBird imagery in Kish Island, the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiri, Keivan

    Differential image processing analysis were utilized to detect changes occurred in the significant coral reef communities located around the Kish Island in the northern side of the Persian Gulf. In this regard, multi-temporal bands of two QuickBird images (for years 2005 and 2008) were applied to implement change detection analysis. The methodology conducted in this research was based on integration of class-wised and pixel-wised change detection methodologies to highlight the variations in situation of corals. Moreover, some historical field observations from the study area were employed to fulfill required image classifications, as well as for assessment and validation of the obtained results. The results demonstrated that most of coral reefs of the study area were under stress between 2005 and 2008. Furthermore, field observations proved that most of these stresses come from the bleaching happened in August 2007, which caused a massive degradation and mass moralities in coral reef communities. Finally, it is resulted that multi-temporal/multi-spectral high resolution satellite imagery is beneficial to utilize for investigation of degradation in the coral reefs, particularly for inaccessible islands and in absence of field observations.

  20. Application of wavelet transform for evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs: example from Iranian oil fields in the north of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatinejad, M. R.; Hassani, H.

    2013-04-01

    The Persian Gulf and its surrounding area are some of the biggest basins and have a very important role in producing huge amounts of hydrocarbon, and this potential was evaluated in order to explore the target for geoscientists and petroleum engineers. Wavelet transform is a useful and applicable technique to reveal frequency contents of various signals in different branches of science and especially in petroleum studies. We applied two major capacities of continuous mode of wavelet transform in seismic investigations. These investigations were operated to detect reservoir geological structures and some anomalies related to hydrocarbon to develop and explore new petroleum reservoirs in at least 4 oilfields in the southwest of Iran. It had been observed that continuous wavelet transform results show some discontinuities in the location of faults and are able to display them more clearly than other seismic methods. Moreover, continuous wavelet transform, utilizing Morlet wavelet, displays low-frequency shadows on 4 different iso-frequency vertical sections to identify reservoirs containing gas. By comparing these different figures, the presence of low-frequency shadows under the reservoir could be seen and we can relate these variations from anomalies at different frequencies as an indicator of the presence of hydrocarbons in the target reservoir.

  1. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), mercury, methyl mercury, and arsenic in blue crab Portunus segnis from Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Ghaeni, Mansoreh; Pour, Nasrin Adami; Hosseini, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), mercury (Hg), methyl mercury (MMHg), and arsenic (As) in the hepatopancreas and muscle of blue swimming crab Portunus segnis from Bushehr shore, north Part of Persian Gulf, were investigated. In addition, the relationships between crab size (carapace width) and PCBs, PAH, Hg, MMHg, and As levels in tissues were investigated by linear regression analysis. There were significant correlation between pollutants levels and crab size which were positive. The pollutants' concentrations were highest in hepatopancreas whereas lowest in the muscle of all crab species. The mean concentrations were 0.51 ng g(-1)PCB 16, 0.64 ng g(-1) PCB 99, 1.2 μg g(-1) Hg, 0.81 μg g(-1) MMHg, and 0.14 μg g(-1) As. Also, mean concentrations of different PAHs were 0.31 ng g(-1) Acenaphthylene, 0.51 ng g(-1) Acenaphthene, and 0.71 ng g(-1) Anthracene. Comparison between male and female indicated that the average PCBs, PAH, Hg, MMHg, and As concentrations in tissues of male crab were found to be significantly higher than those found in the female crab. PMID:25877642

  2. Evaluation of the Global Tidal Models versus Satellite Altimetry and Local Tide gauge data, a Case Study in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiamehr, R.; Daddowlat, H. R.; Sadatipour, S. M. T.; Abrehdary, M.

    2012-04-01

    Due to vast extend of the oceans, satellite altimetry is known as the most suitable tool for monitoring of sea level. During recent years, many global models have been proposed using satellite altimetry for ocean tide estimation. These models are widely used in many different fields such as marine geodesy, geophysics, as well as oceanography. Due to the variety of existing models quantitative evaluation of them, as well as their accuracy is important for practical local applications. This article introduces the most recent global tidal models offered by major oceanographic research centers and evaluates them in the study area. The results revealed that using high resolution Topex-Poseidon data in solution increase the accuracy of these models. Also, certain methods such as Harmonic or the Cross-Over analysis considerably increase accuracy of the models. The main aim of the present study is to achieve the scientific and analytical principals in order to select the best model for mean sea level calculation among the existing models. The global tidal models evaluated in the research are FES2004 model with 1.8 by 1.8, NOA99b and GOT00.2 with 0.5 by 0.5 degree gridding size. These models evaluated versus 4 tide gauges based on the 4 parameters fitting model. Using the idea of correction surface indicated that the 4 parameter model could be useful for eliminating of possible datum shift and systematic errors in global models. Final results disclosed that GOT00.2 is the most suitable global model for the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea with variance factor of 2.3.

  3. AATSR Single View Satellite Aerosol Retrievals Over the Persian Gulf During the 2004 United Arabic Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    During the months of August and September 2004 the United Arabic Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) mission took place in the marine and desert region of the United Arabic Emirates. One of the primary goals of the mission was to evaluate and improve scientific based satellite aerosol and ocean retrieval products. Important aspect was the calibration and validation of remote sensing systems in order to gain more insight in space-based retrievals over this part of the region. This paper contributes to part of the space-based mission objectives and governs the retrieval of atmospheric aerosol properties over water through data from the AATSR instrument on board the European ENVISAT satellite. At TNO Defence, Security and Safety the retrieval of aerosol properties from AATSR is performed by means of the dual view algorithm for application over land and the single view algorithm for application over ocean. Both algorithms have been merged into a fast and efficient algorithm that allows for near real-time processing and which is suitable for semi-operational use. Data from retrievals over water have been compared with ground-truth measurements from the AERONET sun photometers present for the three water sites in the Persian Gulf during the campaign. The properties retrieved are a) aerosol optical depth for the visible wavelengths of AATSR and b) the Ångström wavelength coefficient α as an indicator for the size distribution. Different aerosol types have been pre-modeled by means of AERONET phase function information, and saved as look-up tables for the retrieval procedure. By comparing the satellite retrieved information with the ground-truth data for each of the modeled aerosol type more insight in the retrieval procedure and in the aerosol make-up in this region is obtained.

  4. Evaluation of lymphoid tissue structure in Sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Yellowfin Seabream (Acanthopagus latus) affected by environmental contaminants in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Rezvan; Salamat, Negin; Movahedinia, Abdolali

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to analyze structures of lymphatic tissues in two commercial fish species, e.g. Sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and Yellowfin Seabream (Acanthopagus latus), collected from five stations with varying levels of pollution in the Musa Creek near the Persian Gulf, e.g. Petro-chemical, Gaafari, Majidieh, Ghazaleh and Zangi Stations. Samples from Genaveh Station located outside Musa Creek were collected as controls. To correlate findings of changes in the studied tissues with local pollution status, levels of Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd were measured in sediments and water at each station. Fish were caught from the sampling stations; the spleen and head kidney were collected and sections prepared to permit histologic evaluation. The results indicated that, in both species, the most common changes were observed in fish collected near the Petrochemical station and included an increase in melano-macrophage aggregates, hemorrhage and damaged/dead red blood cells in the spleen; in the head kidney, the major findings were melano-macrophage aggregation, hemorrhage and lifting of the tubular basement membrane. No pathological alternations were noted in the spleen and head kidney of fish from the Zangi station. Samples of A. latus collected from Gaafari station and of E. orientalis from Majidieh station also had pathological changes. No significant differences were found in the tissue structures of fish recovered from the Zangi and Genaveh control stations. The concentrations for nearly all of the studied metals in sediment and water samples collected from the different stations followed the pattern: Petrochemical station ≈ Majidieh ≈ Gaafari > Ghazaleh > Zangi Stations. From the data, it was concluded that changes in lymphoid tissues of the fish studied here "correlated" with geographical conditions and sources of pollution at the different test stations. What these changes mean to the long-term health of both species remains to be determined in

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal sea water, the surface sediment and Mudskipper Boleophthalmus dussumieri from coastal areas of the Persian Gulf: source investigation, composition pattern and spatial distribution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Persian Gulf is an exposed and stressed area as a result of oil pollution and other fossil fuels containing PAHs. The susceptibility of using mudskippers to monitor marine pollution, like PAHs, points to the fact that mudskippers are able to accumulate and record the PAHs presented in the coastal environments. Methods Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in the coastal waters, the sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) along the coast of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentrations were measured with HPLC method. Results Total PAH concentrations in the sea water, the sediments, the liver and the gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 μg/l, 113.50-3384.34 ng g-1 (d w), 3.99-46.64 ng g-1 (d w) and 3.11-17.76 ng g-1 (d w), respectively. PAHs distribution patterns in the sediment and the liver tissue samples were dominated by three-and four-ring structures whereas two-and three-rings were dominated in the water and the gill. Conclusions This finding revealed a negative eco-risk effects occasionally occur in this area. The higher presence of low condensate ring structures reflected a predominant origin of petrogenic and some cases of pyrolitic sources. PMID:24612928

  6. Microphytobenthos sustain fish food webs in intertidal arid habitats: A comparison between mangrove-lined and un-vegetated creeks in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahraki, M.; Fry, B.; Krumme, U.; Rixen, T.

    2014-08-01

    The dietary importance of mangroves for fish production often seems to be minor. However, robust comparisons of fish food webs at mangrove vs. non-mangrove sites are largely lacking. We analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values of dominant fishes (in terms of abundance) and their potential food sources in summer and winter from arid mangrove-lined and un-vegetated intertidal creeks in Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf, Northern Indian Ocean (26.8°N, 55.75°E). Detritivores Liza klunzingeri (47%) and Anodontostoma chacunda (34%) dominated the abundance at the un-vegetated site; at the mangrove site L. klunzingeri (41%) also dominated, while the zooplanktivores Leiognathus daura (18%), Thryssa vitrirostris (8%) and macrobenthivores Pentaprion longimanus (10%), Acanthopagrus latus (4%) also contributed. There was high dietary reliance by fish on food items associated with non-mangrove sources as indicated by 2 source mixing models. Mangrove-derived organic matter contributed a maximum of 36% to the fish tissue whereas organic matter produced by microphytobenthos and plankton played a major role in the diet of the most abundant fish species with contributions of 64-100%. Two trophic pathways, a pelagic pathway and a benthic pathway, were present in the fish food webs at both sites. The pelagic and benthic food sources of the un-vegetated site were 13C-enriched, consistent with stronger contributions of abundant benthic cyanobacteria found within that food web. Spatial δ13C variation of microphytobenthos and plankton was also reflected in the δ13C values of the feeding guilds and some fish species, suggesting that fish were relatively resident at each site. The isotope values of most food sources and fish did not differ significantly between seasons. Overall, regardless of habitat type and season, microphytobenthos and plankton largely sustained fishes in this region while mangroves, where present, were of minor importance. Our results suggest both

  7. Conceptualization of a fresh groundwater lens influenced by climate change: A modeling study of an arid-region island in the Persian Gulf, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Davood; Ketabchi, Hamed; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the fresh groundwater lens (FGL) behavior and potential threat of climatic-induced seawater intrusion (SWI) are significant for the future water resources management of many small islands. In this paper, the FGL of Kish Island, an arid-region case in the Persian Gulf, Iran, is modeled using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations. These simulations are based on the application of SUTRA, a density-dependent groundwater numerical model. Also, the numerical model parameters are calibrated using PEST, an automated parameter estimation code. Firstly a detailed conceptualization of the FGL model is completed to understand the sensitivity of the FGL to some particular aspects of the model prior to analysis of climate change simulations. For these investigations, the FGL system is defined based on Kish Island system to accomplish the integrated comparison of features of a conceptual model that are representative of real-world systems. This is the first study which adopts such an approach. The comparison of cross-sectional simulations suggests that the two-layer properties of the Kish Island aquifer have a significant influence on the FGL while the impacts of lateral-boundary irregularities are negligible. The impacts of sea-level rise (SLR), associated land-surface inundation (LSI), and variations in recharge rate on the FGL salinization of Kish Island are investigated numerically. Variations of SLR value (1-4 m) and net recharge rate (17-24 mm/year) are considered to cover a possible range of climatic scenarios in this arid-region island. The 2D and 3D simulation results demonstrate that LSI caused by SLR and recharge rate variation impacts are more important factors in the FGL in comparison to estimated SLR impacts without LSI. It is also shown that climate change impacts on the FGL are long-term to reach a new FGL equilibrium in the case of Kish Island's aquifer system. The comparative analysis of 2D and 3D results shows that three

  8. Palaeoecology of well-preserved coral communities in a siliciclastic environment from the Late Pleistocene (MIS 7), Kish Island, Persian Gulf (Iran): the development of low-relief reef frameworks (biostromes) in increasingly restricted environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossadegh, Zahra Karimi; Parker, Justin; Gischler, Eberhard; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Blakeway, David; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2013-03-01

    Major changes in community structure and depositional relief of high-latitude coral communities in the southern Persian Gulf between marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 and the present day suggest that the area has become increasingly restricted. Corals and bivalves from outcrops on Kish Island, Iran, were identified in order to interpret the Late Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental setting. U/Th disequilibrium dating was used to constrain the ages of the stratigraphic units. During MIS 7, two coral-bearing sequences were deposited on what is now Kish Island. The lower sequence is dated as MIS 7.5 and changes laterally from an assemblage dominated by Cyphastrea sp. and Platygyra daedalea in the west to one characterized by branching Montipora in the east. By contrast, the upper sequence, dated as MIS 7.1, transitions from an assemblage dominated by platy Montipora in the west to a diverse assemblage of Platygyra and other faviids in the east. The assemblages of both sequences are within a marl matrix and bounded by thin lithified mollusc-rich layers. Corals and bivalves indicate that the sequences were deposited on gentle slopes in sheltered environments less than 20 m deep. The MIS 7 deposits may be classified as coral carpets or biostromes that developed a low-relief framework. During MIS 5, coral communities were no longer framework building and are now limited to an Acropora-rich layer of coral rubble that covers large parts of the island, and two small incipient reefs with sparse faviids. Similarities between the MIS 5 and modern nearshore coral communities suggest that the environmental conditions during MIS 5 were comparable to those of today. The late Pleistocene coral carpets and non-framework coral communities of the southern Persian Gulf may serve as models for coral biostromes in the fossil record, which formed under restricted environmental conditions such as elevated terrigenous input, high turbidity, and strong seasonal changes in temperature and/or salinity.

  9. Insertion in Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  10. Gulf Arabic: Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This Gulf Arabic text is designed for those who want to acquire a conversational tool beyond the basic level; it is also of interest to Arabists, anthropologists, and Arabic dialectologists. The language in this text is used in informal situations by the indigenous populations of the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. The text contains 21 lessons…

  11. Defence Research and Development Canada: Suffield research on nuclear methods for detection of buried bulk explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2011-06-01

    Defence R&D Canada - Suffield has conducted research and development on nuclear methods for detection of bulk explosives since 1994. Initial efforts were directed at confirmation of the presence of bulk explosives in land mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In close collaboration with a few key Canadian companies, methods suitable for vehicle-mounted or fixed position applications and those suitable for person- or small robotportable roles have been studied. Vehicle-mounted systems mainly employ detection of characteristic radiation, whereas person-portable systems use imaging of back scattered radiation intensity distributions. Two key design tenets have been reduction of personnel shielding by the use of teleoperation and custom design of sensors to address the particular problem, rather than adapting an existing sensor to a problem. This is shown in a number of recent research examples. Among vehicle-mounted systems, recent research to improve the thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensors, which were put into service with the Canadian Forces in 2002, are discussed. Research on fast neutron analysis (FNA) and associated particle imaging (API), which can augment or replace TNA, depending on the application, are described. Monoenergetic gamma ray induced photoneutron spectroscopy is a novel method which has a number of potential advantages and disadvantages over TNA and FNA. Sources, detectors and geometries have been identified and modelling studies have suggested feasibility. Among person-portable systems, research on neutron backscatter imaging and X-ray coded aperture backscatter imaging are discussed.

  12. Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from the cowtail stingray Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) in the Persian Gulf, with a key to the species of Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994.

    PubMed

    Haseli, Mohammad; Palm, Harry W

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the genus Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994 is described from Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) in the Persian Gulf. Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. is allocated to the genus Dollfusiella based on the possession of two bothria, prebulbar organs, a heteroacanthous typical armature with tightly spaced rows of hollow hooks, a basal swelling and a characteristic basal armature without prominent macrohooks. The presence of an enlarged external seminal vesicle in Dollfusiella qeshmiensis n. sp. distinguishes this species from D. michiae (Southwell, 1929), D. bareldsi (Beveridge, 1990), D. owensi (Beveridge, 1990), D. geraschmidti (Dollfus, 1974), D. angustiformis Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013, D. hemispinosa Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013, D. spinosa Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2013 and D. taminii Menoret & Ivanov, 2014. The new species is distinguished from the remaining species within the genus by a combination of the following morphological features: the number of testes per segment, the number of testis columns and the number of homeomorphous hooks per half spiral row in the metabasal region. In the most recent taxonomic key to the species of Dollfusiella, the presence or absence of enlarged, microscopically visible spinitriches on the scolex was used as the first distinguishing character dividing the congeners into two groups. Since the existence of visible microtriches on the scolex peduncle of D. vooremi (São Clemente & Gomes, 1989), a species so far grouped among the species lacking visible microtriches on the scolex, has been recently demonstrated, and given the fact that the presence of microscopically visible microtriches on the scolex is variable in some eutetrarhynchid species, a new key to the species of Dollfusiella is provided in which the spinitriches have been given less priority. PMID:26358075

  13. Pattern of mercury accumulation in different tissues of migratory and resident birds: Western reef heron (Egretta gularis) and Siberian gull (Larus heuglini) in Hara International Wetland-Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Yousef; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The Hara Mangrove Forest of the Persian Gulf is undergoing increasing pollution from industrial, municipal, and petroleum sources; however, little research in ecotoxicology has been carried out in this ecosystem. In the present study, mercury distribution and accumulation were investigated in muscle, liver, kidney, and feather of the resident Western reef heron (n = 15) and the migratory Siberian gull (n = 15). We also evaluated the relation between Hg concentrations, sex, and age (juvenile vs. adult). Results showed that the highest concentrations of Hg were recorded in the feather (35 ± 0.14-3.0 ± 0.27 mg kg(-1) dw) and at 3.7-, 1.6-, and 1.3-fold in muscle, kidney, and liver, respectively. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of migratory birds were two times higher than in resident birds; geographical differences and feeding habits were used to explain these variations. We found a weak relationship between Hg concentrations in feathers and internal tissues (r ≤ 0.50); conversely, liver presented strong positive correlations with other soft tissues, especially kidney (p > 0.05; r = 0.82). Results showed that sex and age have no significant effects on T-Hg accumulation in these birds (p > 0.05; r < -0.01). Based on these findings, Hg concentrations were low in both species. Therefore, Hg contamination of this aquatic ecosystem is not a threat. Accordingly, we recommend the use of the Western reef heron as a bioindicator of mercury pollution in this region. PMID:25492705

  14. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  15. Estimate of the time zero lung burden of depleted uranium in Persian Gulf War veterans by the 24-hour urinary excretion and exponential decay analysis.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf; Horan, Patricia; Dietz, Leonard A; Zimmerman, Isaac

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of depleted uranium (DU) in the respiratory system of Allied Forces Gulf War Veterans. Mass spectrometry (thermal ionization mass spectrometry) analysis of 24-hour urinary excretion of DU isotopes in five positive (238U/235U > 191.00) and six negative (238U/235U > 138.25) veterans was utilized in the mathematical estimation of the pulmonary burden at the time of exposure. A minimum value for the biological half-life of ceramic DU oxide in the lungs was derived from the Battelle report of the minimum dissolution half-time in simulated interstitial lung fluid corresponding to 3.85 years. The average DU concentration was 3.27 x 10(-5) mg per 24 hours in DU-positive veterans and 1.46 x 10(-8) mg in DU-negative veterans. The estimated lung burden was 0.34 mg in the DU-positive and 0.00015 mg in the DU-negative veterans. Our results provide evidence that the pulmonary concentration of DU at time zero can be quantitated as late as 9 years after inhalational exposure. PMID:12943033

  16. Gulf cooperation council: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.

    1985-01-01

    Few other regions in the world have as much strategic, economic, and political significance for the Western world as does the Persian Gulf. Oil and economics are only two factors. Geopolitics and strategic location are also critical.

  17. Emergency planning for the Persian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1980-06-01

    This was a talk given by Edward Teller for the LAMPF Users Group, Inc. The subjects discussed included: the SALT Treaty, military strengths of the USSR and USA, civil defense preparedness, the present Iranian-Afghanistan situations, and the possibility that the USSR will gain control of the mid-east oil industry. He suggested the following possibilities in preparing for the latter situation: the synthesis of oil from wood; the use of Alaskan coal by coal-slurry transport; the use of metha-coal; the use of in-situ coal gasification; the use of wind power; and the use of nuclear power. Several innovations currently underway in the state of Washington under the direction of Governor Dixie Lee Ray are pointed out. (DC)

  18. Academic Building Boom Transforms the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Zvika

    2008-01-01

    As the small states that line the Arabian Peninsula spend their billions of petrodollars picking up luxury hotels, first-class airlines, and high-tech weaponry, three of the emirates--Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Qatar--have been engaged in a high-stakes game of one-upmanship involving universities, American universities in particular. Recent reports…

  19. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

  20. Ophthalmology in Persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that ophthalmology is one of the foremost branches of medicine, conceptualization of the structure and function of the eye barely advanced in ancient Western civilizations. At the early recovery of Persian civilization (9th century AD) after the extinction of the Sassanid Empire (7th century AD), translations of Greek medical textbooks played an important role in the development of medicine and the emergence of great Persian physicians such as Rhazes, Avicenna and others. Rhazes was a leading Persian physician whose medical teachings have as yet not been thoroughly explored. In addition to numerous books and articles in various fields, he authored a great medical Encyclopedia (al-Hawi al-Kabir) in 25 volumes. In this article, we are going to compare Rhazes’ particular viewpoints about ophthalmology with those of other famous Persian physicians and some recent essays and textbooks. For this purpose we reviewed Rhazes’ second volume of al-Hawi that is dedicated exclusively to ophthalmology and contains some major topics of ophthalmology including anatomy, physiology, pathology, diseases, disorders and treatments. Important themes were carefully extracted and compared with the tenets of modern ophthalmology. After collating Rhazes’ viewpoints with the latest findings in this field, it was concluded that he had brilliantly written about the signs and symptoms, etiology and treatment of many eye disorders more than a thousand years ago. The amazing point is that there was no accurate equipment at the time to help him in his investigations. This study proved that Rhazes’ theories conform to recent knowledge about ophthalmology in many aspects, and could therefore be the subject of further investigations. PMID:26587199

  1. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted. PMID:9267398

  2. An American Honors Program in the Arab Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yyelland, Byrad

    2012-01-01

    The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…

  3. The unstable Gulf, Threats from within

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Martin offers an analysis of disputes along the borders of countries in the Persian Gulf region and a description of the religious, ethnic, and ideological tensions among the peoples. The pros and cons of various options for protecting American interests are outlined. The discussion covers Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, North and South Yemen, Oman, Soudi Arabia, U.A.E., Bahrain, and Qatar.

  4. Recognizing emotional speech in Persian: a validated database of Persian emotional speech (Persian ESD).

    PubMed

    Keshtiari, Niloofar; Kuhlmann, Michael; Eslami, Moharram; Klann-Delius, Gisela

    2015-03-01

    Research on emotional speech often requires valid stimuli for assessing perceived emotion through prosody and lexical content. To date, no comprehensive emotional speech database for Persian is officially available. The present article reports the process of designing, compiling, and evaluating a comprehensive emotional speech database for colloquial Persian. The database contains a set of 90 validated novel Persian sentences classified in five basic emotional categories (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness), as well as a neutral category. These sentences were validated in two experiments by a group of 1,126 native Persian speakers. The sentences were articulated by two native Persian speakers (one male, one female) in three conditions: (1) congruent (emotional lexical content articulated in a congruent emotional voice), (2) incongruent (neutral sentences articulated in an emotional voice), and (3) baseline (all emotional and neutral sentences articulated in neutral voice). The speech materials comprise about 470 sentences. The validity of the database was evaluated by a group of 34 native speakers in a perception test. Utterances recognized better than five times chance performance (71.4 %) were regarded as valid portrayals of the target emotions. Acoustic analysis of the valid emotional utterances revealed differences in pitch, intensity, and duration, attributes that may help listeners to correctly classify the intended emotion. The database is designed to be used as a reliable material source (for both text and speech) in future cross-cultural or cross-linguistic studies of emotional speech, and it is available for academic research purposes free of charge. To access the database, please contact the first author. PMID:24853832

  5. Data on heavy metals and selected anions in the Persian popular herbal distillates.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina; Soleimani, Farshid; Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we determined the concentration levels of heavy metals including Pb, Co, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Cu as well as selected anions including [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in the most used and popular herbal distillates in Iran. It is well known that heavy metals may pose a serious health hazard due to their bioaccumulation throughout the trophic chain ("Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran" (Dobaradaran et al., 2013) [1]; "Comparative investigation of heavy metal, trace, and macro element contents in commercially valuable fish species harvested off from the Persian Gulf" (Abadi et al., 2015) [2]) as well as some other environmental pollutions, "Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity" (Arfaeinia et al., 2016) [3]. The concentration levels of heavy metals and anions in herbal distillates samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, Varian AA240, Australia) and a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK) respectively. PMID:27274526

  6. The New Unabridged English-Persian Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryanpur, Abbas; Saleh, Jahan Shah

    This five-volume English-Persian dictionary is based on Webster's International Dictionary (1960 and 1961) and The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1959); it attempts to provide Persian equivalents of all the words of Oxford and all the key-words of Webster. Pronunciation keys for the English phonetic transcription and for the difficult Persian…

  7. Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…

  8. Ancient Persian Skywatching and Calendars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.

  9. OPEC's Dr. Subroto examines the market after Gulf war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on a relatively strong oil market emerging from the Persian Gulf war according to an Opec spokesperson. Opec is expected to remain a viable force, perhaps more cohesive than before, no matter what happens to Kuwait and Iraq.

  10. An Academic Building Boom Transforms the Persian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Zvika

    2008-01-01

    As the small states that line the Arabian Peninsula spend billions of petrodollars picking up luxury hotels, satellite television stations, first-class airlines, and high-tech weaponry, three of the emirates (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Qatar) are engaged in a high-stakes game of one-upmanship involving universities, American universities in particular.…

  11. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of selected persian gulf algae.

    PubMed

    Namvar, F; Baharara, J; Mahdi, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of red (Gracillaria corticata), green (Ulva fasciata) and brown (Sargassum ilicifolium) seaweeds alcoholic extract, against five important human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, HepG2, and HT-29) proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were evaluated. The reducing activity and total polyphenol content were also investigated. MTT assay was used for cytotoxicity test. Morphological alterations were examined using phase contrast, fluorescent and electron microscopy. All the extracts were antiproliferative against all the cancer cell lines, dose-dependently, with G. corticata methanol extract (GCME) having the greatest inhibition activity against MCF-7 cell line. The percentage of apoptosis increased from 18 to 78 %. The cell cycle analysis also showed that GCME can induce apoptosis which confirm by TEM. Algal extract reducing activities were as follows: G. corticata > S. ilicifolium > U. fasciata. The GCME is a good source of potential complementary and alternative functional food for prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:24478544

  12. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication. PMID:26956354

  13. Contrastive Analysis of Sentence Patterns in English and Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajizadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Complements, adjuncts and predicator are the three main elements of the clause structure. This paper primarily aims at presenting a general classification of clause structure in Persian. In this context, transitive and intransitive structures in Modern Persian are also analyzed. In this research, five canonical Persian constructions are identified…

  14. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE. PMID:26506023

  15. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  16. Compound Verbs in Persian: An Euphemistic Phraseology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    An analysis of the compound verb system of Persian marks constructions euphemistically by producing an indirect order effect and by alternating different compound and simple forms that bear the same denotation but are governed by a rigorous code of ethics. What really carries the semantic reference in these cases is the process of construing…

  17. Science and Society in Persian Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Reza

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical events that have influenced the development of science in Iran. Describes the major movements and personages of the Persian Islamic state. Also explores the impact of the religious, social, political, and intellectual forces on the image of science and its role in Iranian society. (ML)

  18. English as a Medium of Instruction in the Gulf: When Students and Teachers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belhiah, Hassan; Elhami, Maha

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, with special focus on the situation in the United Arab Emirates. The study, undertaken at six universities located in major cities of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Al Ain, Sharjah, Ajman, and Ras Al Khaimah, examines students' and teachers'…

  19. Adolescents' Response to Unconventional War Threat Prior to the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingman, Avigdor; Goldstein, Zehava

    1994-01-01

    Examined Israeli adolescents' responses to impending unconventional warfare by administering Nuclear Threat Index to 269 junior high school students 2 months prior to Persian Gulf War. Younger adolescents and females reported more activity, pessimistic thoughts, and concerns than older adolescents and males, respectively; and "internal" females…

  20. Health services use among Gulf War veterans and Gulf War era nondeployed veterans: a large population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Helmer, Drew A; Flanagan, Mindy E; Woolson, Robert F; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2007-12-01

    We sought to analyze the self-reported hospitalization, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits of Persian Gulf War (deployed; n=1896) and Persian Gulf War-era (nondeployed; n=1799) military personnel 5 years postconflict to determine whether these groups had different rates of health care use. Compared with personnel who had not been deployed, personnel who had been deployed were more likely to have visited an emergency department (25% vs 21%; odds ratio [OR]=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 1.51]). Among these groups, the National Guard and Reserve personnel were more likely to have been hospitalized than were the regular military personnel (OR= 1.65; 95% CI=1.21, 2.26). PMID:17971549

  1. Veterans worry that unexplained medical problems a legacy of service during Gulf War.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A

    1995-01-01

    Some Canadians who served in the military in the Persian Gulf 4 years ago complain of a range of symptoms commonly described as Gulf War syndrome. Although the syndrome is not recognized as a clinical entity, symptoms include fatigue, lack of sleep, depression, cognitive problems, rashes, bone aches, lassitude, lack of motivation, forgetfulness, mood changes irritability and diarrhea. The medical branch of the Department of National Defence has established programs to inform, guide diagnosis and reach out to symptomatic veterans of the Persian Gulf conflict. Civilian physicians who provide similar care to military personnel who participated in the conflict are invited to call the medical branch (613 996-3752) for further information. Images p945-a PMID:7697587

  2. Western economies and the Gulf war

    SciTech Connect

    Rowen, H.S.

    1980-12-01

    A prolonged Iran/Iraq war could mean economic and even political-military disaster for western countries dependent on Persian Gulf oil. The percentage of gross national product loss that the US, western Europe, and Japan would suffer is estimated for three levels of interruption and illustrates how global effects can be felt even when direct imports are not involved. Although the US has few options for projecting power into the Gulf region, a long-run expansion of military capability is essential. The economic damage of continued disruptions can be eased by using more coal, nuclear power, and natural gas even if it means removing some environmental and economic barriers. A combination of financial incentives and additions to the strategic oil and gas storage would help, but important change will come from a reappraisal of our military position. (DCK)

  3. Contrastive Studies--Persian-English. Specialised Bibliography C14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography list 9 books and articles and 8 theses dealing with Persian-English contrastive studies. The entries range in date from 1951 to 1971 with the majority published since 1965. The theses were prepared mostly in Persian or American universities, and the articles appeared in well-known American pedagogical language journals.…

  4. The Development of the Causative Construction in Persian Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family, Neiloufar; Allen, Shanley E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of systematic patterns and exceptions in different languages can be readily examined using the causative construction. Persian allows four types of causative structures, including one productive multiword structure (i.e. the light verb construction). In this study, we examine the development of all four structures in Persian child…

  5. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  6. Persian Native Speakers Reading Persian and English Texts: Their Strategic Behavior to Overcome Syntactic and Semantic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimorad, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discover semantic and syntactic problems Persian native speakers might have while reading English and Persian texts and different strategies they use to overcome those problems. To this end, a convenient sample of 40 intermediate students studying English Literature at Shiraz University was selected. Twenty of them were asked…

  7. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M

    2006-10-01

    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings. PMID:16651017

  8. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Jutand, Mathe-Aline; De Vigan, Catherine; Bégassat, Marion; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Brochard, Patrick; Salamon, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs) have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW) and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5%) and urinary system malformations (0.3%). Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence). Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children. PMID:18442369

  9. Practical astronomy in Indo-Persian sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, S. M. R.

    In the classical survey of zij literature (by E. Kennedy, 1956), out of 220 listed zijes only three zijes compiled in India are mentioned. They are: Zij-i Jami', ca 1461/62 (Kennedy serial No. X220); Zij-i Shahjahani, ca 1610 (X204); Zij-i Muhammad Shahi, ca 1730 (X203). However, since that classical survey, a number of Indian zijes have been found to be extant. They are: Zij-i Nasiri (ca 1260), Zij-i Nizami (ca 1780), Zij-i Hindi (1805), Zij-i 'Alami (ca 1808), Zij-i Ashki (1816), Zij-i Safdari (1819), Zij-i Sulayman Jahi (1830) and Zij-i Bahadur Khani (1838). It is well known that a zij comprises astronomical-mathematical and also astrological tables for use in practical or observational astronomy. From the standpoint of applied astronomy, it consists of particularly eclipse tables, visibility tables - for lunar crescent, apparitions and disappearances of planets - geographical and star tables. Evidently, this tabulated material can be used for the studies in applied astronomy. Besides zijes, we find also other classes of literature in which are treated the observations of comets, fireballs and meteorites. They are treatises on atmospheric phenomena (Athar-i 'Ulawi), chronicles and histories of Medieval India in Persian. For instance, we have histories by Abul Fadl and 'Arif Qandhari (16-17th c.), al-Husayni (18th c.), to name just a few. In this paper, we describe briefly the above-mentioned Indo-Persian sources, list the various celestial phenomena along with their short account as given in these sources, particularly in the Indian zijes. Finally, we make some remarks about their use in applied astronomy.

  10. Space View of the 1991 Gulf War Kuwaiti Oil Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.

    2014-12-01

    During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.

  11. Biggest oil spill tackled in gulf amid war, soft market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-04

    Industry is scrambling to cope with history's biggest oil spill against the backdrop of a Persian Gulf war and a softening oil market. U.S. and Saudi Arabian officials accused Iraq of unleashing an oil spill of about 11 million bbl into the Persian Gulf off Kuwait last week by releasing crude from the giant Sea Island tanker loading terminal at Mina al Ahmadi. Smart bombs delivered by U.S. aircraft hit two onshore tank farm manifold stations, cutting off the terminal's source of oil flow Jan. 26. A small volume of oil was still leaking from 13 mile feeder pipelines to the terminal at presstime. Press reports quoted U.S. military and Saudi officials as estimating the slick at 35 miles long and 10 miles wide but breaking up in some areas late last week. Meantime, Iraq reportedly opened the valves at its Mina al Bakr marine terminal at Fao to spill crude into the northern gulf. BBC reported significant volumes of crude in the water off Fao 24 hr after the terminal valves were opened. Mina al Bakr is a considerably smaller terminal than Sea Island, suggesting that the resulting flow of oil would be smaller than that at Sea Island.

  12. Foreign worker dependence in the Gulf, and the international oil companies: 1910-50.

    PubMed

    Seccombe, I J; Lawless, R I

    1986-01-01

    "This article demonstrates that foreign worker dependence in the [Persian] Gulf dates from the establishment of the oil industry in the early twentieth century. The composition of labor inflows [was] mainly determined by political and strategic, rather than commercial, concerns. Contrasting patterns of labor force composition evolved between those areas under British control, which imported labor from the Indian sub-continent, and the independent Saudi Arabia where labor was drawn from more diverse sources including the Italian settlers in Eritrea." PMID:12268138

  13. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; “as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided” Methods: We carried out a review of Avicenna’s Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. Results: The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called ‘Manafe al-Aghziyeh’, in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. Conclusion: There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies. PMID:27516666

  14. Developing the Persian version of the homophone meaning generation test

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimipour, Mona; Motamed, Mohammad Reza; Ashayeri, Hassan; Modarresi, Yahya; Kamali, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Finding the right word is a necessity in communication, and its evaluation has always been a challenging clinical issue, suggesting the need for valid and reliable measurements. The Homophone Meaning Generation Test (HMGT) can measure the ability to switch between verbal concepts, which is required in word retrieval. The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate the Persian version of the HMGT. Methods: The first phase involved the adaptation of the HMGT to the Persian language. The second phase concerned the psychometric testing. The word-finding performance was assessed in 90 Persian-speaking healthy individuals (20-50 year old; 45 males and 45 females) through three naming tasks: Semantic Fluency, Phonemic Fluency, and Homophone Meaning Generation Test. The participants had no history of neurological or psychiatric diseases, alcohol abuse, severe depression, or history of speech, language, or learning problems. Results: The internal consistency coefficient was larger than 0.8 for all the items with a total Cronbach’s alpha of 0.80. Interrater and intrarater reliability were also excellent. The validity of all items was above 0.77, and the content validity index (0.99) was appropriate. The Persian HMGT had strong convergent validity with semantic and phonemic switching and adequate divergent validity with semantic and phonemic clustering. Conclusion: The Persian version of the Homophone Meaning Generation Test is an appropriate, valid, and reliable test to evaluate the ability to switch between verbal concepts in the assessment of word-finding performance. PMID:27390705

  15. Pollutants from the Gulf War serve as water mass tracer in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plähn, Olaf; Rhein, Monika; Fine, Rana A.; Sullivan, Kevin F.

    In 1995, concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbon compound CFC-12 in the outflow water from the Persian Gulf were 8-40 fold higher than normally caused by air-sea gas exchange. At that time, the anomaly was restricted to the Gulf of Oman north of 20°N, while in 1998 the signal had spread southwestward to 12°N. The sources of this CFC-12 input of about 6400 kg are most likely the fire extinguishers and solvents used during and after the Gulf War in 1991. This CFC-12 signal is a new feature of the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) which can be used to track and quantify the spreading and dilution of PGW in the northern Indian Ocean. The contaminated PGW spreads southward with a mean velocity of 0.02-0.025 m s-1. At 20°N, the anomaly is diluted by a factor of more than two, and east of the island Socotra by a factor of four. A mean transport of less than 0.5·106 m³ s-1 is calculated for PGW assuming a mean dilution rate of 30% from the source signal in the Gulf of Oman to the western Arabian Sea.

  16. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Bauman, Andrew G; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A; Anderson, Donald M; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M; Jones, David A; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2013-07-30

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  17. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with chronic fatigue syndrome in veterans with Gulf War unexplained illnesses.

    PubMed

    Binder, L M; Storzbach, D; Campbell, K A; Rohlman, D S; Anger, W K

    2001-11-01

    Gulf War unexplained illnesses (GWUI) are a heterogeneous collection of symptoms of unknown origin known to be more common among veterans of the Gulf War than among nonveterans. In the present study we focused on one of these unexplained illnesses. We tested the hypothesis that in a sample of Persian Gulf War veterans chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) was associated with cognitive deficits on computerized cognitive testing after controlling for the effects of premorbid cognitive differences. We obtained Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) data acquired around the date of induction into the military on 94 veterans of the Gulf War, 32 with CFS and 62 healthy controls. Controls performed better than participants diagnosed with CFS on the AFQT. Cognitive deficits were associated with CFS on 3 of 8 variables after the effect of premorbid AFQT scores was removed with ANCOVA. PMID:11771626

  18. Validation of a Persian version of the OIDP index

    PubMed Central

    Dorri, Mojtaba; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    Background Measuring the impacts of oral conditions on quality of life is an important part of oral health needs assessment. For this purpose a variety of oral health-related quality of life instruments have been developed. To use a scale in a new context or with a different groups of people, it is necessary to re-establish its psychometric properties. The objectives of this study are to develop and test the reliability and validity of the Persian version of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) index. Methods The Persian version of OIDP index was developed through a linguistic translation exercise. The psychometric properties of the Persian version of OIDP were evaluated in terms of face, content, construct and criterion validity in addition to internal and test-retest reliability. A convenience sample of 285 working adults aged 20–50 living in Mashad was recruited (91% response rate) to evaluate the Persian version. Results The Persian version of OIDP had excellent validity and reliability charactersitics. Weighted Kappa was 0.91. Cronbachs alpha coefficient was 0.79. The index showed significant associations with self-rated oral and general health status, as well as perceived dental treatment needs, satisfaction with mouth and prevalence of pain in mouth (P < 0.001). 64.9% of subjects had an oral impact on their daily performances. The most prevalent performance affected was eating, followed by major work or role and sleeping. Conclusion The Persian version of OIDP index is a valid and reliable measure for use in 20 to 50 year old working Iranians. PMID:17257407

  19. Persian At-Risk Women and Barriers to Receiving HIV Services in Drug Treatment: First Report From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mercedeh; Moradi, Afsaneh; Noori, Roya; Aryanfard, Sepideh; Rafiey, Hassan; Naranjiha, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Background As the most populated Persian Gulf country, in Iran, engagement with drug injection and unsafe sex are the main routes of HIV transmission among some drug-dependent women. Objectives The current study explored the barriers that a group of drug-dependent women reported in accessing and adhering to HIV services in drug use treatment. Patients and Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 Persian women at five outpatient drug treatment centers between January and December 2011. Five focus group interviews were conducted with ten key informants (KI). The interviews made use of a semi-structured interview guide, which facilitated discussion regarding the barriers. The interview transcripts were analyzed thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results The interview accounts highlighted a number of barriers, including stigmatization, a considerable lack of knowledge about free HIV centers in the community, previous traumatic events, misconceptions about the quality of HIV services, and a poor supportive referral system among drug treatment and HIV centers. Conclusions The findings highlight a need for removing stigma and providing high quality women-only HIV services. Increasing trust and knowledge of available HIV services are needed for this group of women. Increasing staff knowledge is a priority. An integrated supportive network among drug treatment and HIV centers is suggested in Iran. PMID:27622170

  20. Principles of nutrition in Islamic and traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zare, Manijhe

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition has a crucial role in maintaining body health. Eating and drinking has a special place in Islamic doctrine and traditional Persian medicine. Traditional Persian medicine is a holistic medicine and provides great attention to the spiritual aspects of life as well as somatic aspects to maintain human health. In this view, people are not going to eat and drink for pleasure but to maintain a good life and physical health, due to daily tasks, as well as observing moral aspects of a human life and spiritual satisfaction. PMID:25027179

  1. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     View Larger ... highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The ... date:  Oct 15, 2001 Images:  Gulf Coast location:  United States Gulf of ...

  2. An Investigation into the Prehistory of the Persian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fekri-Ershad, J.; Mehrabi, F.

    2006-01-01

    Persian Languages is one of the widespread branches of Indo-European languages that for long have comprised several important languages. The importance of these languages which lies in the strength of Median, Achamenian, Parthian, and Sasanid Empires during different eras caused a number of researchers to increase their studies about these…

  3. Persian Basic Course: Volume I, Lesson 1-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The first of 10 volumes of a basic course in Persian is presented that is designed for use in the Defense Language Institute's intensive programs. The course, employing the audiolingual methodology, is designed to train native English speakers to level three proficiency in comprehension and speaking and level two proficiency in reading and writing…

  4. A SHORT SKETCH OF THE GRAMMAR OF PERSIAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RASTORGUEVA, V.S.

    THIS GRAMMATICAL SKETCH IS A RUSSIAN-TO-ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE APPENDIX TO B.V. MILLER'S "PERSIDSKO-RUSSKIJ SLOVAR," MOSCOW, 1953. THE FIRST SECTION PRESENTS A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE SOUND AND WRITING SYSTEMS OF MODERN PERSIAN, THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF IRAN. FOLLOWING SECTIONS DEAL WITH THE PARTS OF SPEECH AND SIMPLE, COMPOUND, AND…

  5. A Contrastive Analysis of the American and Persian Newspaper Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homayounzadeh, Maryam; Mehrpour, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Based on the principles of critical discourse analysis this contrastive study sought to investigate the effect of culture on the journalistic style and the strategies used to report news in the American and Persian newspaper editorials. To this end, articles were selected from the New York Times, the Washington Post, Kayhan and Ettelaat,…

  6. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  7. Persian version of frontal assessment battery: Correlations with formal measures of executive functioning and providing normative data for Persian population

    PubMed Central

    Asaadi, Sina; Ashrafi, Farzad; Omidbeigi, Mahmoud; Nasiri, Zahra; Pakdaman, Hossein; Amini-Harandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) mainly involves executive function (EF). The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is an efficient tool for the assessment of EFs. The aims of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of FAB and assess its correlation with formal measures of EFs to provide normative data for the Persian version of FAB in patients with PD. Methods: The study recruited 149 healthy participants and 49 patients with idiopathic PD. In PD patients, FAB results were compared to their performance on EF tests. Reliability analysis involved test-retest reliability and internal consistency, whereas validity analysis involved convergent validity approach. FAB scores compared in normal controls and in PD patients matched for age, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Results: In PD patients, FAB scores were significantly decreased compared to normal controls, and correlated with Stroop test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In healthy subjects, FAB scores varied according to the age, education, and MMSE. In the FAB subtest analysis, the performances of PD patients were worse than the healthy participants on similarities, fluency tasks, and Luria’s motor series. Conclusion: Persian version of FAB could be used as a reliable scale for the assessment of frontal lobe functions in Iranian patients with PD. Furthermore, normative data provided for the Persian version of this test improve the accuracy and confidence in the clinical application of the FAB. PMID:27141272

  8. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  9. Migrant workers: victims of war in Gulf.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The Persian Gulf War forced millions of migrant workers in the region to return home, causing hardship not only on the workers but also on their home countries. Prior to the war, the region's oil wealth had attracted migrants from around the world. By 1990, some 3 million resided in Iraq and Kuwait alone. Many more worked in other Gulf countries. But only 2 months after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, over 2 million workers had fled the region or had been returned home. Yemenis and Egyptians alone accounted for 750,000 and 1/2 million workers, respectively. There were also an estimated 600,000 Asians. Although many of the migrants were unskilled laborers, many also were skilled laborers and professionals. Jordanians and Palestinians made up much of the Kuwaiti civil service. As the war unfolded, it became clear that the migrant workers lacked any of the legal rights and protection granted to other citizens. Many workers were not allowed to return home because of their importance to the economy. Others, like some 35,000 Sri Lankan housemaids in Kuwait, were stranded in the war zone, lacking the money and means to return home. In most cases, the workers also suffered from frozen bank accounts, unpaid wages and benefits, and property loss. Their return home also created problems for their countries. Jordan's population increased by 10% in 1990 due to the returning population. Yemen's unemployment increased from 10% to 25%. As a result of the Gulf war experience, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, which must now be ratified by 20 nations before implementation begins. PMID:12285238

  10. Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS): a Study on Persian Language Websites

    PubMed Central

    BIGDELI, Imanollah; CORAZZA, Ornella; ASLANPOUR, Zoe; SCHIFANO, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Background During the past few years, there has been an increasing recognition that Internet is playing a significant role in the synthesis, the distribution and the consumption of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS).The aim of this study was to assess the online availability of NPS in Persian language websites. Methods: The Google search engine was used to carry out an accurate qualitative assessment of information available on NPS in a sample of 104 websites. Results: The monitoring has led to the identification of 14 NPS including herbal, synthetic, pharmaceutical and combination drugs that have been sold online. Conclusion: The availability of online marketing of NPS in Persian language websites may constitute a public health challenge at least across three Farsi-speaking countries in the Middle East. Hence, descriptions of this phenomenon are valuable to clinicians and health professional in this region. Further international collaborative efforts may be able to tackle the growth and expansion of regular offer of NPS. PMID:23802109

  11. Pruritus Treatment in Viewpoints of Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jazani, Arezoo Moini; Azgomi, Ramin Nasimi Doost; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pruritus is an unpleasant feeling that can cause the desire of scratching in a person and can be the symptoms of systemic, infectious, and neurological diseases. Pruritus is the most common clinical manifestation of skin diseases. Pruritus prevalence is 8-38% in the general population. Causes and treatments of pruritus have been described by traditional Persian medicine scientists. The aim of this study was to derive general principles of the proposed treatment to reduce or relieve pruritus. Methods: This descriptive study, review traditional medicine books including Al canon fil tibb, Al-Hawi, Makhzan ul-adviyyah, Al-Abniyah an-Haghyegh el-adviyah, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Exir-e-Azam. The above-mentioned documents were derived and classified by keywords such as pruritus, hakka, jarab and sherry. Results: In traditional Persian medicine, there are different causes for pruritus such as accumulation of vapors or acute humors in subcutaneous tissue or weakness of expulsive (Dafi’a) faculty and its treatment is based on removing the causes. Proper nutrition, bathing, and removing pathogenic humors are involved in the treatment. According to this study, some plants such as Cassia fistula, Purslane, Violets, Fumaria, Barley, Coriander, Rose and Terminalia chebula are anti-itching. Conclusion: Proper nutrition is the most important point in health and treatment of humors production with appropriate quality and quantity. Pruritus can be treated by lifestyle modification and using medicinal plants. It could be concluded that traditional Persian medicine therapies can be effective in the treatment of pruritus with mild side effects. By further investigation and research, we can reach more effective treatment methods in the field of traditional Persian medicine along with other new medical therapies. PMID:26722146

  12. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. The mineral industries of the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf countries. International review

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, B.; Antonides, L.E.; Morgan, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The document contains commodity reviews (metals, mineral fuels, industrial minerals where applicable) for the following countries: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, People's Democratic Republic of Yeman, and Yeman Arab Republic.

  13. Recognizing the Challenges of Ambient Air Monitoring in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, T. G.; Nicodemus, M. A.; Howard, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to better estimate environmental exposure, the U.S. Army Public Health Command has been operating an ambient air monitoring station in Shuaiba Port, Kuwait since 2002. The focus has primarily been on monitoring criteria pollutants at a busy sea port where local industry (oil refineries, cement plant, petrochemical production, etc.) heavily impacts air quality. To compound the issues associated with day to day monitoring at a busy sea port, the region often experiences sand storms and temperatures up to 60°C. Average daily particulate matter concentrations at Shuaiba Port are an order of magnitude higher than similar industrial areas in the U.S. On days when sand storms occur ambient PM concentrations can be two or three orders higher than average daily U.S. concentrations. For example, 24-hour average PM10 concentrations from 2004-2010 for the month of June were 395 μg/m3. During sand storms, 24-hour average concentrations can reach as high as 4,000 μg/m3. This poster presents 2004-2010 particulate matter data collected at Shuaiba Port, Kuwait and outlines logistical and environmental challenges associated with air monitoring in the region.

  14. 38 CFR 3.317 - Compensation for certain disabilities occurring in Persian Gulf veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... symptoms. (8) Signs or symptoms involving the respiratory system (upper or lower). (9) Sleep disturbances... Diseases A B Disease Brucellosis • Arthritis. • Cardiovascular, nervous, and respiratory system infections... genitourinary system. • Sensorineural hearing loss. • Spondylitis. • Uveitis. Campylobacter jejuni •...

  15. Internal bioerosion in dead and live hard corals in intertidal zone of Hormuz Island (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad Ali; Seyfabadi, Jafar; Shokri, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-30

    Internal macrobioeroders and their erosion rate in three live and dead coral genera (Favia, Platygyra and Porites) from the intertidal zone of the Hormuz Island were studied by collecting five live and five dead colonies from each genus, from which 4 mm cross-sections were cut and photographed. Photos were analyzed using the Coral Point Count with Excel extensions. Totally, 9 taxa were identified: four bivalve species, one sponge, three polychaetes, and one barnacle. Bioerosion rate did not significantly differ among the three live corals, but among the dead ones only Porites was significantly more eroded than Favia. Sponge had the highest role in the erosion of the dead Platygyra, while barnacles were the most effective eroding organism in the live Platygyra. Polychaetes, followed by bivalves, were the most destructive bioeroders on the dead and live Porites. Further, none of the bioeroding organisms had selectively chosen either the dead or live Favia. PMID:26654335

  16. Using histopathological changes as a biomarker to trace contamination loading of Musa Creeks (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Salamat, Negin; Soleimani, Zahra; Safahieh, Alireza; Savari, Ahmad; Ronagh, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-08-01

    Gill histological changes were used as a biomarker to evaluate the health of yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus (A. latus), collected from different sites in Musa Creeks including: (A) Petrochemical, (B) Jaafari, (C) Ghazaleh, (D) Majidieh, and (E) Zangi creeks. Also Genaveh with relatively clean water was selected as reference. The gills of 60 A. latus were fixed in Bouin's solution for 12 hr, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. Five micrometer thick sections were stained in H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff for microscopic examination. Also, the presence of gill histological alterations was assessed by the histopathologic alteration index (HAI). The gill morphological abnormalities include mucus secretion increase, debris, blood plaque, and shortening of filaments. The gill pathological changes included lamellar cells hyperplasia, aneurysm, lamellar fusion, and epithelial lifting. The HAI means were varied from moderate to severe in sites A and B, thus these sites are considered as being of low quality. Some severe pathological alterations were observed in site D, but their distribution was lower than sites A and B. The least HAI means of sites C and E demonstrated their good environmental quality. The results suggest that there is close relation between amounts of pathological alterations and environmental contamination. PMID:23242578

  17. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of some Sargassum species from Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Mehdinezhad, Negin; Ghannadi, Alireza; Yegdaneh, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sea algae are widely consumed in the world. There are several seaweeds including brown algae which are authorized for human consumption. These plants contain important phytochemical constituents and have various potential biological activities. The present study investigated the presence of phytochemical constituents and total phenolic quantity of the seaweeds Sargassum angustifolium, Sargassum oligocystum and Sargassum boveanum. Cytotoxicity of seaweeds was tested against HT-29, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Antioxidant potential of these 3 Sargassum species was also analyzed. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazil. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant compounds in these Sargassum species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. Sargassum angustifolium had the highest content of total phenolics (0.061 mg/g) and showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.231). Cytotoxic results showed that all species could inhibit cell growth effectively, especially MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 67.3, 56.9, 60.4 for S. oligocystum, S. angustifolium and S. boveanum respectively). Considerable phytochemicals and moderate cytotoxic activity of S. angustifolium, S. oligocystum and S. boveanum make them appropriate candidate for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles. PMID:27499794

  18. 75 FR 70162 - Presumptive Service Connection for Diseases Associated With Persian Gulf War Service: Functional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... 75 FR 61995. FGIDs are medically unexplained chronic multisymptom illnesses within the meaning of the... gastrointestinal (GI) disease. FGIDs, such as IBS or functional dyspepsia, are syndromes characterized by recurrent... expressly identify FGIDs as a type of medically unexplained chronic multisymptom illness within the scope...

  19. 38 CFR 3.317 - Compensation for certain disabilities occurring in Persian Gulf veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disorders is made in accordance with established medical principles, which generally require symptom onset... Salmonella. (vii) Shigella. (viii) Visceral leishmaniasis. (ix) West Nile virus. (3) The diseases listed in... severe forms of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis and active tuberculosis. Nontyphoid...

  20. Helium-3 on the Moon for Fusion Energy: the Persian Gulf of the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    1999-09-01

    At the present and anticipated usage rates of energy in the world, the reserves of oil and natural gas will be exhausted by the mid-21st century, with coal reserves lasting up to 50 years more. But there is 10 times more 3He fusion energy on the Moon than in all these Earthly reserves. The potential use of D-3He fusion for energy generation requires a ready supply of 3He, and there is a distinct paucity of this fuel on Earth. However, compared to the Earth, the Moon is a virtual "oasis with springs of solar-wind helium." Conservative estimates of the helium contents of the regolith on a Moon-wide basis are 3.7 ppb (6.7 mg/m3) of 3He for the highland areas and 7.8 ppb (14 mg/m3) for the maria. At the 1998 energy consumption rate and a 50% mining recovery rate, there is sufficient 3He in the upper 3 meters of only the maria of the Moon to supply the entire energy needs of the Earth for over a thousand years. The potential for greatly enhanced supplies of 3He at the lunar poles may make the utilization of this energy-generation process even more attractive.

  1. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of some Sargassum species from Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mehdinezhad, Negin; Ghannadi, Alireza; Yegdaneh, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sea algae are widely consumed in the world. There are several seaweeds including brown algae which are authorized for human consumption. These plants contain important phytochemical constituents and have various potential biological activities. The present study investigated the presence of phytochemical constituents and total phenolic quantity of the seaweeds Sargassum angustifolium, Sargassum oligocystum and Sargassum boveanum. Cytotoxicity of seaweeds was tested against HT-29, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Antioxidant potential of these 3 Sargassum species was also analyzed. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazil. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant compounds in these Sargassum species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. Sargassum angustifolium had the highest content of total phenolics (0.061 mg/g) and showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.231). Cytotoxic results showed that all species could inhibit cell growth effectively, especially MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 67.3, 56.9, 60.4 for S. oligocystum, S. angustifolium and S. boveanum respectively). Considerable phytochemicals and moderate cytotoxic activity of S. angustifolium, S. oligocystum and S. boveanum make them appropriate candidate for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles. PMID:27499794

  2. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of Haliclona sp. from the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, M; Alidoust Salimi, M; Alidoust Salimi, P; Motallebi, A; Tamadoni Jahromi, S; Ahmadzadeh, O

    2014-09-01

    In this study, antifungal and antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of Haliclona sp. were assessed (in vitro). The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spizizenii. The antifungal activity of the extracts was determined by using a broth microdilution test against clinical fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Our results showed diethyl ether extract of Haliclona sp. was active on Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, methanol extract in comparison with diethyl ether extract had better activity against C. albicans (MIC: 0.75 mg/mL, MFC: 1.5mg/mL) and A. fumigatus (MIC: 2mg/mL, MFC: 3mg/mL). Aqueous extract had neither antifungal nor antibacterial activities. Based our results, Haliclona sp. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic and antifungal. PMID:24934592

  3. F-16 pilot experience with combat ejections during the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Williams, C S

    1993-09-01

    Most experience with ejections from modern fighter aircraft has occurred outside of true combat operations. During Operation Desert Storm, the 401st Fighter Wing, Torrejon Air Base, Spain, lost four F-16C aircraft while on combat missions, with all four pilots ejecting safely. Since the circumstances of a combat vs. peacetime ejection are likely different and many combat mishaps and ejections cannot be extensively investigated (three out of these four), a questionnaire was developed to recall and review pilot ejection experiences. Questions ranged from recalling the parameters of egress to conscious recollections of the event and assessment of how well the system worked. Each of the four ejections occurred under different parameters, and no one suffered significant injury. Two of the ejections occurred at high altitude, previously rare in the F-16. This was one of the first times that experience was obtained with the F-16's ACES-II egress system under combat operations and, in the experience of these four pilots, the system was life-saving in combat. Finally, the overall ejection survival rate for U.S. Air Force fighter/attack combat ejections during Operation Desert Storm was similar to the peacetime rate. It is the author's hypothesis that the reason for this may correlate with a quicker, more predetermined decision to eject from an aircraft disabled by combat fire. PMID:8216147

  4. 75 FR 61356 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 59968), an amendment to 38 CFR 3.317 to implement a decision of the... of that document, VA inadvertently omitted a comma following the word ``etiology'' in the first... Sec. 3.317(a)(2)(ii), we inadvertently omitted a comma following the word ``etiology.''...

  5. Combining biological and geomorphological data to introduce biotopes of Bushehr Province, the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Aghajanpour, Fatemeh; Savari, Ahmad; Danehkar, Afshin; Chegini, Vahid

    2015-12-01

    Identification and classification of intertidal areas provides the basic knowledge needed for studies of biogeography, macro-ecology, and faunal populations, as well as for conservation planning and managing human activities in coastal areas. In this research, the eastern coast of Bushehr Province was classified using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). Seven substrate subgroups, five geoform types in unconsolidated mineral substrate, five micro-habitats in rock substrate, and nine biotic groups were identified in study stations. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordinations and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) showed that macroinvertebrate species composition differed significantly among different geoform types (habitat types). Eight biotopes are introduced for the eastern coast of Bushehr Province based on observational and statistical methods. The results presented here show that identifying intertidal biotopes using CMECS is an appropriate method both for classifying the southern coastal areas of Iran and for integrating biotic and abiotic components. PMID:26559554

  6. 75 FR 59968 - Presumptions of Service Connection for Persian Gulf Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... published a proposal in the Federal Register (75 FR 13051) to implement a decision of the Secretary of..., 1991); 60 FR 6665 (Feb. 3, 1995); Executive Order 13239 (Dec. 12, 2001). Turkey was not included in... discussed in that report. See 66 FR 35702 (2001). One commenter suggested that the presumptive period in...

  7. Taxonomy and structure of Persian personality-descriptive trait terms.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mohammad N; De Raad, Boele; Farzad, Valiolla; Fotoohie, Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    We described the development of a taxonomy of Persian personality-descriptive terms in two studies. In Study 1, judges scanned Persian dictionaries and several Persian novels for person-descriptive terms. The resulting set of person-descriptive terms was classified into different categories of description, including the category of dispositional trait-descriptive adjectives. Of the 544 most familiar traits, 126 traits were selected to collect self-ratings. In Study 2, self-ratings were provided by 2400 students. Ratings were factor analysed (Principal Components Analysis) followed by Varimax rotation. Factor structures with two to six factors were discussed. The two-factor structure and the three-factor structure confirm the Big Two and the Big Three, respectively. Of the structures with five and six factors, the five-factor structure appears to be the more appropriate choice, with the factors labelled Morality, Positive versus Negative Emotionality, Achievement, Thoughtfulness and Affection. Gender differences were measured on both the five-factor structure and the six-factor structure. The discussion section emphasised both cross-cultural commonalities and cultural deviations in reference to the Big Five. PMID:25534020

  8. Functional dyspepsia: A new approach from traditional Persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pasalar, Mehdi; Nimrouzi, Majid; Choopani, Rasool; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD) defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes), Canon of medicine (by Avicenna), ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani), Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi), and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan). Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID), Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease. PMID:27222829

  9. Acne Etiology and Treatments in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shirbeigi, Leila; Oveidzadeh, Laleh; Jafari, Zahra; Fard, Monireh Sadat Motahari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is based on humors theory. Temperament or mizaj is the result of a combination of four fundamental humors called blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Like any other diseases, acne is the result of humoral imbalance. Acne is a highly prevalent dermatological problem, which has both physical and psychological effects on patients. The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of acne formation and natural remedies from the perspective of Persian scientists. Methods: The etiology and treatment of acne were collected and analyzed from selected TPM medical textbooks. Some selected plants in these books were assessed in tabular format and their anti-acne activities were compared with modern medicine’s databases. Results: In the acne treatment, considering six essential schemes for health, diet and herbal remedies as well as manipulation are recommended. Although the mentioned herbs in acne treatment have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects; however, some have special proven effects on the acne formation process. There is also a strong relationship between the digestive system and skin. This paper was rendered to show ancient Persian scholar’s viewpoints on acne and its treatment. Conclusion: Some reported remedies might be beneficial towards further studies on acne treatment. PMID:26722141

  10. Toxoplasmosis May Lead to Road Kills of Persian Leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Golestan National Park, Iran.

    PubMed

    Namroodi, Somayeh; Gholami, Alireza; Shariat-Bahadori, Ehsan

    2016-04-28

    Three Persian leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) that died from car accidents in Golestan National Park, Iran, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii and rabies virus infection. Acute T. gondii infection was diagnosed in two Persian leopards; no rabies virus was detected. Acute toxoplasmosis may be a factor in Persian leopard road kills. PMID:26981691