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Persistent Organochlorine Compounds and Birth Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To determine whether weight at birth is related to prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds.METHODS: Birth weight was obtained for 197 singleton infants drawn from the general population born in two cities in Ukraine in 1993 to 1994. Concentrations of seven organochlorine pesticides (p,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDE, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide) and 11 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners measured in maternal

Beth C Gladen; Zoreslava A Shkiryak-Nyzhnyk; Nataliya Chyslovska; Tamara D Zadorozhnaja; Ruth E Little



Risk Assessment and Management of Contamination of Eels (Anguilla Spp.) By Persistent Xenobiotic Organochlorine Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaimination of anguillid eels by organochlorine pesticides and PCBs is reviewed using a risk assessment-management approach. Quantitative structure-activity relationships, biomonitoring of body residues and field and laboratory studies demonstrate hazards and risks of persistence; organic carbon binding, sediment transport and sinks; volatility, aerial transport and deposition; hydrophobicity\\/lipophilicity, bioaccumulation, bioconcentration and dietary biomangification. Risks of acute narcotic toxicity are generally lower

Brian Knights



Persistent Organochlorine Compounds in Human Breast Milk from Mothers Living in Penang and Kedah, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins\\/dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk samples collected in 2003 from primipara mothers living in Penang, Malaysia. OCs were detected in all the samples analyzed with DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and PCBs as the major contaminants followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB),

Agus Sudaryanto; Tatsuya Kunisue; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mami Niida; Hatijah Hashim



Persistent Organochlorine Residues in Marine and Freshwater Fish in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT compounds (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexanes) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in 27 species of marine and freshwater fish collected from Cambodia. DDT and its derivatives were the predominantly detected compounds in both marine and freshwater fish. PCBs were the second highest followed by HCHs, CHLs

Haruhiko Nakata; Shinsuke Tanabe; Touch Seang Tana



Organochlorine compounds in aquatic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body burdens of five organochlorine compounds were determined in several marine fishes and invertebrates from two localities in Norway. DDE, PCBs, and pentachlorobenzene showed uniform levels, especially on a fat weight basis, while hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene were detected at various levels in the different species.

J. E. Bjerk; E. M. Brevik



Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments from Chinese river\\/estuary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine compounds were analyzed in surficial sediment samples from seven large Chinese river\\/estuary systems. The reported concentrations of organochlorine compounds in sediments collected from Zhujiang, Minjiang and Jiulongjiang were also presented for comparison. Concentrations of HCH were low in most sediments except the Zhujiang River, where the concentrations were one order of magnitude higher than for the other rivers.

Ying Wu; Jing Zhang; Qing Zhou



Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003.  


Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 were analysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl tricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs and DDT (including metabolites) were by far the most abundant OC groups, with median concentrations of 55 and 40 microg/g lw, respectively. The concentrations were high in an Arctic context, but similar to previously reported levels from Alaska and Norway and slightly lower than concentrations measured in eggs from industrialised regions. Geographical differences may be of importance, considering the migration of peregrine falcons and their prey. SigmaHCH and HCB had median concentrations of 0.39 and 0.17 microg/g lw, respectively. On average, DDE accounted for 97% of SigmaDDT, but was below critical levels for eggshell thinning. All compound groups showed a weak decreasing trend over the study period, which was statistically significant for HCB and close to being significant for SigmaHCH. The weak decrease of SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT is different from other time trend studies from Greenland, usually showing a more pronounced decrease in the beginning of the study period, followed by a certain stabilisation in recent years. PMID:18823663

Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Møller, Søren; Falk, Knud; Sørensen, Peter B



Epidemiological evidence on reproductive effects of persistent organochlorines in humans.  


Organochlorines are widespread pollutants in humans. Concern about adverse reproductive effects of these compounds arises from accidental exposure of humans and experimental studies. Recently, this issue has been addressed by a number of studies of exposed populations and hospital-based case-referent studies. These studies indicate that high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may adversely affect semen quality and cause testicular cancer in males, induce menstrual cycle abnormalities and spontaneous abortions in females, and cause prolonged waiting time pregnancy, reduced birth weight, skewed sex ratio, and altered age of sexual development. However, most effects have been demonstrated at exposure levels above the present day exposure level in European and North American populations. Due to inherent methodological problems in several of the available studies, additional research is needed to fully elucidate the possible adverse effects of organochlorines on human reproductive health. PMID:15336708

Toft, Gunnar; Hagmar, Lars; Giwercman, Alexander; Bonde, Jens Peter



Risk to breeding success of fish-eating Ardeids due to persistent organic contaminants in Hong Kong: evidence from organochlorine compounds in eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs of two Ardeid species, the Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), were collected from two egretries located in the New Territories of Hong Kong with one located near the internationally acclaimed wetland reserve, the Mai Po Marshes, and the other in a remote site (A Chau). The eggs were analysed for organochlorine (OC) compounds

D. W Connell; C. N Fung; T. B Minh; S Tanabe; P. K. S Lam; B. S. F Wong; M. H. W Lam; L. C Wong; R. S. S Wu; B. J Richardson



Organochlorinated compounds in Caspian Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several organochlorinated contaminants, including numerous pesticides, were determined in coastal sediments from the Caspian Sea. The most important contaminants were p,p?-DDT (up to 7400 pgg?1) and its breakdown products, p,p?-DDD (up to 3400 pgg?1) and p,p?-DDE (up to 1300 pgg?1). Although the contamination was most severe in Azerbaijan, the sediment concentrations and percentage distribution of the three DDT-related compounds indicated

Stephen de Mora; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Mohammad Reza Sheikholeslami; Chantal Cattini; Imma Tolosa



Temporal Trends of Persistent Organochlorine Contamination in Russia: A Case Study of Baikal and Caspian Seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) contamination in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea, concentrations of persistent\\u000a OCs, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordane compounds\\u000a (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), in the blubber of female seals were determined. Collections were made in 1992, 1993, 1995\\u000a and 1998. DDT concentrations in Baikal

Shinsuke Tanabe; Satoko Niimi; Tu Binh Minh; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Evgeny A. Petrov



Persistent organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and whole blood  

SciTech Connect

Since organochlorine pesticides were introduced for plant protection and sanitation, they have been of great benefit in the control of pest populations and in combating the spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, they accumulate in the environment and this has resulted in a ban on their use. Nevertheless, they are still widely used in tropical countries as the insecticides of choice. An analytical procedure was elaborated to find out the extent of contamination of the human body by persistent residues of organochlorine pesticides and to determine the gradient between adipose tissue and biological fluids, which correlates with bioaccumulation and dissipation processes. The method has two important advantages: it is a simple, low-cost semi-micro, and it makes it possible to determine free and bound pesticides.

Waliszewski, S.M. (Univ. of Veracruz, (Mexico)); Szymczynski, G.A. (Medical Academy, Bydgoszcz (Poland))



Persistent organochlorinated pesticides and mechanisms of their toxicity.  


Persistent organic pollutants comprised of organic chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and organochlorinated pesticides which have many characteristics in common. Once released in the environment they resist physical, biological, chemical and photochemical breakdown processes and thus persist in the environment. They are subject to long transboundary air pollution transport. They accumulate in the food chain due to their lipophilicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnification properties. Human exposure occurs through inhalation of air, ingestion of food and skin contact. Because most of them bioaccumulate and remain preferentially in fat, their long-term effects are still a matter of public health concern. They are condemned for health adverse effects such as cancer, reproductive defects, neurobehavioral abnormalities, endocrine and immunological toxicity. These effects can be elicited via a number of mechanisms among others include disruption of endocrine system, oxidation stress and epigenetic. However most of the mechanisms are not clear thus a number of studies are ongoing trying to elucidate them. In this review, the underlying possible mechanisms of action and their possible roles in adverse developmental and reproductive processes are discussed and where possible a linkage is made to some existing epidemiological data. Both genomic and nongenomic pathways are used to describe these effects. Understanding of these mechanisms will enable development of strategies to protect the public by reducing these adverse effects. This review is limited to persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) and endosulfan. PMID:23219589

Mrema, Ezra J; Rubino, Federico M; Brambilla, Gabri; Moretto, Angelo; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Colosio, Claudio



Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), such aspolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its major metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p' -DDE) have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in recent epidemiological studies. We have analysed 2,2',4,4',5,5' -hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and p,p'-DDE in 544 serum-samples from Swedish women with a median age of 50 years. The participants were

Anna Rignell-Hydbom; Lars Rylander; Lars Hagmar




Microsoft Academic Search

Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides (chlordane-related compounds ( SCHL), DDT-related compounds (SDDT), hexachlorocyclohexanes (SHCH), tris(p-chloro-phenyl)methane, hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, diel- drin) were determined in fat of Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) and in fat and eggs of blackfooted albatross (Diomedea nigripes) from the central north Pacific Ocean. The HCH isomers and chlordane- and DDT-related compounds were also determined in eggs of

Derek C. G. Muir; Paul D. Jones; Heidi Karlsson; Krystina Koczansky; Gary A. Stern; Kurunthachalam Kannan; James P. Ludwig; Hamish Reid; Chris J. R. Robertson; John P. Giesy



A Survey of Extractable Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Chinese Commercial Yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen Chinese commercial brands of yogurt were collected from supermarkets from December 2002 to April 2003, for characterization of organochlorine pesti- cides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Be- sides monitoring OCP and PCB by gas chromatography, the levels of extractable persistent organochlorine (EPOCl; i.e., sulfuric acid-resistant EPOCl) were also determined by instrumental neutron activation analy- sis. The results indicated that

H. Zhang; Z. F. Chai; H. B. Sun; J. L. Zhang



Organochlorine compounds in ice melt water from Italian Alpine rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine chemicals (OCs) (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and hexachlorobenzene) were measured in ice melt water from five glaciers in the Italian Alps. Even though the data collected may not be sufficient for a precise description of persistent organic pollutant release patterns from glacier melting, they have, however, highlighted the potential for surface water contamination. Concentrations were of the same order of magnitude

Sara Villa; Christian Negrelli; Antonio Finizio; Onelio Flora; Marco Vighi



Enterohepatic circulation of organochlorine compounds: a site for nutritional intervention.  


Organochlorine compounds enter the body primarily as components of the diet. Their removal from the body is via excretion into the feces. There is evidence that many people are in a positive balance, with the rate of intake of organochlorines exceeding that of their excretion. A desirable nutritional approach to this problem would both reduce dietary intake and increase fecal excretion. Nonabsorbable dietary lipids reduce the absorption of dietary organochlorines and also increase the rate of their fecal excretion. Organochlorine compounds that are stored in the body enter the intestine both in bile and through a poorly understood nonbiliary mechanism. Part of the amount that enters the intestine is excreted, and part is reabsorbed in an enterohepatic circulation. There is evidence that an increase in excretion can be achieved by interference with the enterohepatic circulation of organochlorine compounds and their metabolites. Data from animals and humans show that the presence of nonabsorbed lipid in the intestine can increase the rate of excretion in a clinically significant manner. PMID:17296488

Jandacek, Ronald J; Tso, Patrick



Heavy metal and organochlorine compound concentrations in tissues of raccoons from east-central Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and related compounds and heavy metals are persistent contaminants in the environment. Bioconcentration and biomagnification are well reported for organochlorine compounds. These compounds have a great potential for causing wildlife mortality or serious behavioral, reproductive, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects, along with specific organ toxicity. The pervasive nature of toxic substances in the environment necessitates some knowledge for potential exposure of wildlife species. Without baseline values of contaminant loads for selected indicator species it is impossible to determine when abnormal or pathological conditions exist in wild populations. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline values for selected environmental contaminants in the raccoon (Procyon lotor), a potential indicator species for wildlife and to see if heavy metal accumulation was related to age or sex.

Herbert, G.B.; Peterle, T.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))



Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which

Santi Mañosa; Rafael Mateo; Cristina Freixa; Raimon Guitart



No evidence for congenital malformations or prenatal death in infants born to women with a high dietary intake of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess whether a high dietary intake of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea, contaminated\\u000a with persistent organochlorine compounds, might increase the risk for congenital malformations and perinatal death. Methods: A cohort of fishermen's wives from the Swedish east coast (at the Baltic Sea) were linked to the Swedish Medical Birth Register

L. Rylander; L. Hagmar



Changing patterns of cow's milk contamination with organochlorine compounds in Israel (1976–1986)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution with organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCGs) has decreased due to restriction and\\/or banning of these compounds. However, several recent reports indicate that pollution with OCIs and PCBs still does exist, and may be of public and environmental health significance even in developed countries. Cow's milk is one of the most important media where organochlorine compound (OCC)

Anatol Pines; Similica Cucos; Ora Grafstein; Curt Lemesch



Epidemiological analysis of persistent organochlorine contaminants in cetaceans.  


Information is provided to test the hypothesis that organochlorines introduced into the environment since the early 1940s could threaten the reproductive potential of baleen whales and other cetaceans. Comparisons are made using data on the role of organochlorines in a model system, the Great Lakes region of North America, and in model animals, including humans, pinnipeds, and other wildlife. DDT and PCB are used as model organochlorines with the caveat that there may be thousands of other chemicals in the environment also involved. Improved sensitivity in analytical quantification of synthetic chemicals in biological tissue has been accompanied by an increase in knowledge about biochemical processes that control development and function. The effects described in this review are the result of disrupted gene expression, not damage to the gene. The mechanisms of action of the organochlorines reveal their ability to affect developing organisms at very low concentrations during critical life stages: embryonic, fetal, and early postnatal. Exposure during early development can disrupt the organization of the endocrine, reproductive, immune and nervous systems, effecting irreversible damage that may not be expressed until the individuals reach adulthood. The recent discovery that human sperm count is declining worldwide at a rate of 1 x 10(6) sperm/(mL.yr) suggests common exposure to estrogen-like chemicals during prenatal and early postnatal development. This raises concern for other top predator species that also share the same exposure. Periods of intense feeding followed by long periods of fasting are common among species of baleen whales. This unique strategy places the embryonic and nursing calves in vulnerable positions, because under both situations maternal blood levels are elevated as a result of absorption from food intake or as a result of mobilization as fat is metabolized. Estimates of Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) based on the occurrence of four PCB congeners (118, 183, 153, 180) in sigma PCB reported in whales are highest for St. Lawrence belugas and Faroe Island long-finned pilot whales. This conservative approach reveals that some whale species are within the range of enzyme-induced TEQs at which effects have been associated with adverse health effects in other aquatic species. The epidemiological approach was used for analysis because it was developed to handle multiple exposure scenarios in which direct causal links are virtually impossible to isolate. The analysis includes the tenets of timeorder, strength of association, specificity of cause and effect, consistency, coherence, and predictive performance. PMID:8714222

Colborn, T; Smolen, M J



Organochlorines and dioxin-like compounds in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong mariculture zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-like compounds were measured in green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, collected from seven mariculture zones in Hong Kong between September and October in 2002 in order to evaluate the status, spatial distribution and potential sources of pollution in these areas. Concentrations ranged from 300 to 4400ng\\/g lipid weight

M. K. So; X. Zhang; J. P. Giesy; C. N. Fung; H. W. Fong; J. Zheng; M. J. Kramer; H. Yoo; P. K. S. Lam



Organochlorines and dioxin-like compounds in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong mariculture zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-like compounds were measured in green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, collected from seven mariculture zones in Hong Kong between September and October in 2002 in order to evaluate the status, spatial distribution and potential sources of pollution in these areas. Concentrations ranged from 300 to 4400 ng\\/g lipid

X. Zhang; J. P. Giesy; C. N. Fung; H. W. Fong; J. Zheng; M. J. Kramer; H. Yoo; P. K. S. Lam



Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds during pregnancy and the newborn  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of organochlorine compounds as insecticides during the past few decades has led to their ubiqitous presence in the environment. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced for use as coolant and insulator fluids for transformers and capacitors, as heat transfer fluids and as fire retardants for wood products; heavy industrial usage has led to widespread contamination of the environment with the PCBs. Organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and PCBs are highly lipid soluble and are resistant to environmental degradation. In human beings these compounds are stored in adipose tissue and are resistant to metabolism. These substances are present in women and the fetus is exposed during utero development by transplacental transfer. Relatively high serum levels of OCIs and PCBs have been found in women with premature delivery. Also, DDT and PCB residue levels were higher in California sea lions which gave birth prematurely than in those with full-term pups. OCIs may disturb the hormonal balance of pregnancy and perhaps precipitate labor. Some DDT analogs are reported to have estrogenic effects and PCBs were also estrogenically active. Limited data exist on the levels and kinetics of OCIs and PCBs during pregnancy and in newborns.

Roncevic, N.; Pavkov, S.; Galetin-Smith, R.; Vukavic, T.; Vojinovic, M.; Djordjevic, M.



Concentration and fate of persistent organochlorine pesticides in estuarine sediments using headspace solid-phase microextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration and fate of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in estuarine surface sediments in Erh-jen and Lan-yang rivers, Taiwan were investigated using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSSPME) method to evaluate the possible pollution potential and guideline for OCP concentrations in Taiwan. The HSSPME method exhibits a good analytical performance with low detection limits for OCP determination in sediment. In addition, results

Sue-min Chang; Ruey-an Doong



Specific Accumulation and Elimination Kinetics of Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and Other Persistent Organochlorines in Humans from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined human adipose tissue, liver, and bile from humans in Japan to understand the cont- amination status, specific accumulation, and elimination of two newly identified environmental contaminants, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCP- MOH), and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs). TCPMe and TCPMOH concentrations

Tu Binh Minh; Mafumi Watanabe; Shinsuke Tanabe; Taketo Yamada; Jun-ichi Hata; Shaw Watanabe



Distribution of persistent organochlorine chemical residues in blood plasma of three species of vultures from India.  


The presence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in blood plasma of white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, and griffon vulture Gyps fulvus collected from Ahmedabad, India. All the samples had varying levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences among species were detected for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), ?HCH, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). The mean concentration of ?HCH, ?DDT, and ?PCBs among plasma ranged from 43.7 to 136, 8.8 to 64.8, and 226 to 585 ng/ml, respectively. Among the various OCPs analyzed, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected most frequently. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides detected were lower than the other organochlorine residues. The levels of pesticides measured in plasma samples of three species of vulture were comparable to the results documented for a number of avian species and were lower than those reported to have deleterious effects on survival or reproduction of birds. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected, continuous monitoring of breeding colonies is recommended. This study is also the first account of a comprehensive analysis of toxicants present in blood plasma of vulture species in India. The values reported in this study can serve as guidelines for future research in general as well as control values during the analysis of samples obtained from birds in the event of suspected organochlorine poisoning. PMID:20221793

Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian; Jayanthi, Palanisamy



Chlorobenzenes, chlorinated pesticides, coplanar chlorobiphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in Greenland biota.  


This paper summarises the levels and composition of chlorobenzenes, chlorinated pesticides, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the chlorinated compounds octachlorostyrene (OCS), hexachlorocyclobutadiene (HCBD) and pentachloro-anisole (PCA) in biota from the terrestrial, freshwater and marine environment of Greenland. The data were obtained during the second phase of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). Of the chlorobenzenes, hexachlorobenzene was the main constituent detected in almost all samples. The chlorobenzenes accumulate in the marine food web in a similar manner to the better-studied persistent organic pollutants, with maximum concentrations in beluga, minke whale and narwhal. However, concentrations in ringed seals and kittiwakes were lower than in marine fish, contradicting biomagnification. Of the organochlorine pesticides, the drin pesticides (aldrin, endrin, dieldrin) and heptachlor had increasing concentrations along the food chain, whilst biomagnification was less pronounced for endosulfan, methoxychlor and mirex. Endosulfan and methoxychlor are pesticides still in use and considered less persistent than other organochlorine pesticides. Their occurrence in Arctic biota is of particular concern, also given the high acute toxicity of endosulfan to fish. Chlorobenzene and pesticide concentrations tended to be lower in the Greenland samples than in the same animals from the Canadian Arctic, whilst their concentrations were similar to samples from Svalbard and Iceland. However, temporal trends might overlap the geographical differences. Coplanar chlorobiphenyls (CBs) were found in all samples analysed, with the maximum concentrations found in marine mammals such as beluga and narwhal. Biota from the terrestrial environment appeared to be less contaminated. The main contributor on a TEQ basis was CB126. OCS, HCBD and PCA were detected in biota from Greenland, although at very low concentrations. OCS seems to have the widest occurrence and the highest potential for biomagnification of the three compounds analysed. PMID:15325147

Vorkamp, Katrin; Riget, Frank; Glasius, Marianne; Pécseli, Maria; Lebeuf, Michel; Muir, Derek



Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides in 2007 Chinese total diet study.  


Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was assessed for Chinese populations, using the total diet study (TDS) approach in 2007. Multistage random cluster sampling method was used in this study. 108 composite samples, representative of foods "as consumed" by the Chinese were analyzed for residues of OCPs by a multi-residue method. The result showed that hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and heptachlor could be detected in, respectively 84%, 39%, 37%, 13% and 5% of all samples. Concentrations of DDT in all samples ranged from undetectable levels to 72.2 ?g/kg. Others were minor components in the OCPs profile. The residual levels of OCPs were significantly below the Extraneous Maximum Residue Limits (EMRLs). Based on the 2000 nationwide food consumption survey, the average dietary exposure of the Chinese to DDT, HCH, HCB, CHLs, and heptachlor was estimated to be 0.016, 0.002, 0.009, 0.006, and 0.001 ?g/kg body weight per day respectively, showing a significant decrease trend compared with the past. The major food groups contributing to dietary OCPs were aquatic foods, meats, and cereals. The average and high end estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for the Chinese were both lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) suggested by authorities indicating low health risk of OCPs dietary exposure among Chinese adults at present. However, the risk of carcinogenicity of the OCPs should be concerned with if the carcinogenicity effects from the exposures to these OCPs were considered. PMID:21715010

Zhou, Pingping; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Guohua; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Qing; Fan, Sai; Yang, Xin; Li, Xiaowei; Wu, Yongning



Engineering bacteria for bioremediation of persistent organochlorine pesticide lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane).  


Strategies were designed for bioremediation of the highly persistent toxic pesticide ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) or lindane from the environment. Lindane caused the loss of stress-protective chaperone GroEL, and inhibited photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen-fixation in Anabaena, resulting in growth arrest. To alleviate lindane toxicity, the linA2 gene, encoding HCH dehydrochlorinase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis B90, was knocked-in at an innocuous locus in Anabaena genome and over-expressed from an eco-friendly light-inducible PpsbA1 promoter. The recombinant Anabaena degraded >98% of 10ppm lindane within 6-10days. A LinA2 overexpressing Escherichia coli strain could degrade 10ppm of all the isomers of lindane within 1h and displayed a visual degradation zone on a newly designed histochemical plate containing 50mg lindane within 12h. The study demonstrates (a) bioremediation of traces of lindane prevalent in paddy fields, using bioengineered photoautotrophic Anabaena, and, (b) biodegradation of huge stockpiles of lindane, by employing recombinant live/dead E. coli. PMID:24135568

Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar



Melting glaciers: a major source of persistent organochlorines to subalpine Bow Lake in Banff National Park, Canada.  


Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. They are known to concentrate in cold environments as a result of progressive evaporation from warm regions, and condensation in colder regions. In this study we show that melting glaciers supply 50 to 97% of the organochlorine inputs to a subalpine lake in Alberta, Canada, while contributing 73% of input water. Tritium analyses indicated that during the mid- to late summer warm period, at least 10% of the glacial melt originated from ice that was deposited in 1950-1970, when it was more contaminated with organochlorines. This finding suggests that climate warming may cause melting glaciers to become increasing sources of contaminants to freshwaters. Organochlorines from glacial streams were largely in dissolved form because the organic-poor glacial clays had a limited sorption capacity for the more hydrophobic chemicals. PMID:11795215

Blais, J M; Schindler, D W; Muir, D C; Sharp, M; Donald, D; Lafrenière, M; Braekevelt, E; Strachan, W M



Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds and neuropsychological development up to two years of life.  


Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (pp'DDE) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic environmental pollutants with potential neurotoxic effects. Despite a growing body of studies investigating the health effects associated with these compounds, their specific effects on early neuropsychological development remain unclear. We investigated such neuropsychological effects in a population-based birth cohort based in three regions in Spain (Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia) derived from the INMA [Environment and Childhood] Project. The main analyses in this report were based on 1391 mother-child pairs with complete information on maternal levels of organochlorine compounds and child neuropsychological assessment (Bayley Scales of Infant Development) at age 14 months. We found that prenatal PCB exposure, particularly to congeners 138 and 153, resulted in impairment of psychomotor development (coefficient=-1.24, 95% confidence interval=-2.41, -0.07), but found no evidence for effects on cognitive development. Prenatal exposure to pp'DDE or HCB was not associated with early neuropsychological development. The negative effects of exposure to PCBs on early psychomotor development suggest that the potential neurotoxic effects of these compounds may be evident even at low doses. PMID:22575806

Forns, Joan; Lertxundi, Nerea; Aranbarri, Aritz; Murcia, Mario; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Grellier, James; Lertxundi, Aitana; Julvez, Jordi; Fano, Eduardo; Goñi, Fernando; Grimalt, Joan O; Ballester, Ferran; Sunyer, Jordi; Ibarluzea, Jesus



Emissions of Some Organochlorine Compounds in Experimental Aluminum Degassing with Hexachloroethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degassing agents based on hexachloroethane (HCE) are used to remove hydrogen gas from molten aluminum, particularly in foundries and remelting plants. Previously considered fairly innocuous, recent studies of the emissions from this process have shown high yields of some toxic organochlorine compounds. To determine a wider spectrum of such compounds, a series of experimental degassings was carried out in a

Håkan B. Westberg; Anders I. Seldén; Tom Bellander



Fertility in four regions spanning large contrasts in serum levels of widespread persistent organochlorines: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may interfere with reproductive function but direct evidence in humans is very limited. METHODS: Fertility was examined in four regions with contrasting blood levels of POPs. Pregnant women and their partners in Warsaw (Poland), Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Greenland were consecutively enrolled during antenatal visits. Swedish fishermen and their spouses were recruited separately and independently of

Gunnar Toft; Anna Axmon; Aleksander Giwercman; Ane Marie Thulstrup; Anna Rignell-Hydbom; Henning Sloth Pedersen; Jan K Ludwicki; Valentina Zvyezday; Andery Zinchuk; Marcello Spano; Gian Carlo Manicardi; Eva C Bonefeld-Jørgensen; Lars Hagmar; Jens Peter Bonde



Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p?- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants.

Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Papke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda



Organochlorine and organobromine compounds in a benthic fish (Solea solea) from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia): implications for human exposure.  


Information on the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish from Tunisia is scarce. In this study, thirty one persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (dichlorodihenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in solea solea muscle, from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia) and from the Mediterranean Sea (reference area) (northern Mediterranean). In the Bizerte Lagoon, contaminant concentrations generally followed this order: PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>MeO-PBDEs>HCB>HCHs; while in the Mediterranean Sea, pollutant concentration followed this order: MeO-PBDEs>PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>HCB>HCHs. Mean levels of organochlorine compounds were 1018 and 380 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw) in fish from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Mean concentrations of organobromine compounds were 279 and 301 ng g(-1) lw in sole from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Organohalogen concentrations in fish from Bizerte Lagoon were similar or slightly lower than those reported for other marine fish species from other locations around the world. PCB, HCH, HCB and PBDE levels were negatively correlated with lipid content, while no such correlation was seen for DDTs. Assessment based on several available guidelines suggested an insignificant human health risk for dietary intake of HCB, lindane and PBDEs associated with consumption of sole. However, the estimated lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to DDTs and PCBs is a potential concern. PMID:23219662

Ben Ameur, Walid; El Megdiche, Yassine; Eljarrat, Ethel; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Badreddine, Barhoumi; Souad, Trabelsi; Bèchir, Hammami; Barceló, Damia; Driss, Mohamed Ridha



Contamination by organochlorine compounds in sturgeons from Caspian Sea during 2001 and 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the five species of sturgeons collected from coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran during 2001 and 2002 to understand their status of contamination and accumulation features. Among OCs examined, concentrations of DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were predominant in all the sturgeon samples with concentrations ranging from 73 to

Natsuko Kajiwara; Daisuke Ueno; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mohammad Pourkazemi; David G. Aubrey



Levels of organochlorine compounds, including PCDDS and PCDFS, in the blubber of cetaceans from the west coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine compounds (PCDD, PCDF, PCB and organochlorine pesticides) were determined in cetaceans collected from the west coast of North America between 1986 and 1989. The samples included gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), killer whale (Orcinus orca), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) collected in British Columbia, and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

W. M. Jarman; R. J. Norstrom; D. C. G. Muir; B. Rosenberg; M. Simon; R. W. Baird



Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.  

PubMed Central

The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards.

Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter



Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal ( Phoca caspica ) from the Caspian Sea, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes\\u000a (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean\\u000a values of 19 and 1.3 ?g\\/g on wet-weight

M. Watanabe; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; M. Amano; N. Miyazaki; E. A. Petrov; S. L. Khuraskin



Organochlorine compound accumulation in delphinids from Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazilian coast.  


The present study investigated organochlorine compound levels (PCBs, DDTs and HCB) in blubber samples of six delphinid species from Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazilian coast. The species analyzed inhabit the continental shelf (one killer whale, one false killer whale, two bottlenose dolphins, three rough-toothed dolphins, and four long-beaked common dolphins) and open ocean (four Fraser's dolphins). PCBs represented the greatest proportion of the sum of all measured organochlorines (from 0.60 to 257.2 ?g g(-1) lw), followed by DDTs (from 0.15 to 125.6 ?g g(-1) lw), and, at last, HCB (from

organochlorine levels in delphinids from southeastern Brazilian coast are comparable to those reported in cetaceans from highly industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Organochlorine accumulation patterns among delphinids from Rio de Janeiro State were related to habitat use. PMID:22771469

Lailson-Brito, José; Dorneles, Paulo R; Azevedo-Silva, Cláudio E; Bisi, Tatiana L; Vidal, Lara G; Legat, Leticiaá N; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Torres, João Paulo M; Malm, Olaf



Association of Thyroid Hormone Concentrations with Levels of Organochlorine Compounds in Cord Blood of Neonates  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones are important regulators of brain development. During critical periods of development, even transient disorders in thyroid hormone availability may lead to profound neurologic impairment. Animal experiments have shown that certain environmental pollutants, including heavy metals and organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, can interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. Whether these contaminants can affect circulating levels of thyroid hormones in humans is unclear, however, because the results of available studies are inconsistent. Objectives The aim of the present study is to examine the possible relationships between concentrations of environmental pollutants and thyroid hormone levels in human umbilical cord blood. Methods We measured concentrations of environmental pollutants [including selected PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, hexachlorobenzene, p,p?-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), cadmium, lead] and thyroid hormones in the cord blood of 198 neonates. Results A statistically significant inverse relationship between concentrations of organochlorine compounds and levels of both free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4), but not thyroid-stimulating hormone, was observed. We found no association between concentrations of heavy metals and thyroid hormone levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that environmental chemicals may affect the thyroid system of human neonates. Although the differences in fT3 and fT4 levels associated with the organochlorine compounds were within the normal range, the observed interferences may still have detrimental effects on the neurologic development of the individual children, given the importance of thyroid hormones in brain development.

Maervoet, Johan; Vermeir, Griet; Covaci, Adrian; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Schepens, Paul; Viaene, Maria K.



Seasonal variation of persistent organochlorine insecticide residues in Vellar River waters in Tamil Nadu, South India.  


Water samples collected from Vellar river and Pichavaran mangroves at Porto Novo (11 degrees 29' N, 79 degrees 46' E), Tamil Nadu State, South India, from December 1987 to January 1989 were analyzed to determine the seasonal variation of the levels of organochlorine insecticides such as HCH (BHC) and DDT. Both these insecticides showed higher levels from October to February, although this trend was more pronounced in HCH than DDT, reflecting the application of technical HCH largely and probably small quantities of DDT during the flowering season of rice. The alpha-HCH was detected as a dominant isomer for all seasons monitored followed by beta-HCH. Among DDT compounds, p,p'-DDT was the highest in river water except in the dry season when p,p'-DDD showed a higher percentage. On the other hand, in mangroves p,p'-DDE was highest during the wet season and p,p'-DDD during the dry season. Air-water partitioning data of HCH isomers and DDT compounds in Vellar river revealed that these chemicals tend to be in the water phase. These observations may aid in understanding the role of a tropical paddy area on the behavior and fate of man-made chemicals in view of worldwide contamination. PMID:15092202

Ramesh, A; Tanabe, S; Iwata, H; Tatsukawa, R; Subramanian, A N; Mohan, D; Venugopalan, V K



Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a variety of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs and metabolites. The geometric mean, on a wet mass basis, of ??PCBs (sum of 29 congeners and congener groups) were 732??282 ng/g (1 S.D.) in seals and 3395??1442 ng/g in polar bears. The geometric mean of ??DDTs, ??HCHs (??-, ??- and ??- HCH) and HCB concentrations (wet mass basis) in seals and bears were 562??261 ng/g vs. 74.8??39 ng/g, 380??213 ng/g vs. 515 ng/g, and 17.4??10.1 ng/g vs. 183??153 ng/g, respectively. The geometric mean sum of chlordane (??chlordane, sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide) and dieldrin concentrations in ringed seals and polar bears were 753??617 ng/g vs. 720??315 ng/g and 38.6??22.8 ng/g vs. 130??65 ng/g, respectively. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (polar bear/ringed seal POP concentrations) were lower in the animals sampled near Barrow, Alaska than in those from locations in the Canadian Arctic. This suggests that polar bears are also preying on marine mammals from lower trophic levels than the ringed seals with correspondingly lower organochlorine levels, such as bowhead whale carcasses. PCB congener patterns in the samples demonstrated the metabolism of certain PCB congeners in the polar bear relative to the ringed seal in agreement with previous studies. Regional comparisons of animals collected in Alaska and Arctic Canada are presented. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

Kucklick, J. R.; Struntz, W. D. J; Becker, P. R.; York, G. W.; O'Hara, T. M.; Bohonowych, J. E.



Spatial differences in persistent organochlorine pollutant concentrations between the Bering and Chukchi Seas (1993).  


During August-September 1993, a joint Russian-United States expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas took place. Surface water samples were collected from 21 sites and separated into dissolved (duplicates) and suspended solids; 19 sediment and 6 air samples were also collected. These samples were analysed for 19 organochlorine pesticides, 11 chlorobenzenes and 113 PCB congeners. The report provides data on selected compounds which occured in > or = 75% of the water samples. Highest water concentrations were observed for HCH in open waters north and south of the Bering Strait, both regions being similar (alpha-HCH; 2.2 ng/L and lindane: 0.35 ng/L). Air levels observed were also constant (alpha-HCH; 0.041 ng/m3, lindane: 0.0093 ng/m3). Suspended solids and air particulares contributed little to the concentrations in their respective media, an observation common to all analytes except for the PCBs and the DDT residues. The sum of PCB concentrations in water were higher in the Bering Sea area compared to the Chukchi Sea (1.0 vrs 0.67 ng/L) and lower for air (0.46 vrs 0.23 ng/m3). Sum of DDT in water was higher in the Bering Sea than in the Chukchi Sea (0.23 vrs 0.15 ng/L) while in sediments and air, the Bering Sea concentrations were lower (0.95 vrs 1.6 ng/g and 36 vrs 56 pg/m3, respectively). Other organochlorine compounds for which data are presented include: pp'-DDE, pp'-DDT, dieldrin, HCB, 3 chlorobenzenes and 3 PCB congeners. Fluxes of all these chemicals through the Berin Strait are estimated; they ranged from 57 t/a (alpha-HCH) through 26 t/a (for sum of PCBs) to 0.2 t/a (pp'-DDE, dieldrin and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene). Fugacity ratios for the HCHs and PCBs indicate the alpha-HCH is degassing in both the Bering and Chukchi Seas and that the gamma-isomer is degassing in the Bering Sea and is close to equilibrium (weakly absorbing) in the Chuchi Sea; the sum of PCBs are strongly absorbing in both areas. PMID:11601531

Strachan, W M; Burniston, D A; Williamson, M; Bohdanowicz, H


Organochlorine Compounds in the Plasma of Peregrine Falcons and Gyrfalcons Nesting in Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine compounds in the blood plasma of after-second-year female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were determined from samples collected from southern Greenland in 1985 and western Greenland from 1983 to 1989, and from adult and nestling gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) from western Greenland in 1989 and 1990. Samples were taken during nesting. Levels of p,p'-DDE (DDE) in peregrine plasma were




Relationships between occupational history and serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds in exocrine pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious studies investigating associations between occupational history and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC) did not use biomarkers of exposure. The only two studies that measured internal concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in EPC did not analyse their relationship with occupation.ObjectiveTo analyse the relationship between occupational history and blood concentrations of seven OCs in patients with EPC.MethodsIncident cases of EPC

Magda Bosch de Basea; Miquel Porta; Joan Alguacil; Elisa Puigdomènech; Magda Gasull; José A Garrido; Tomàs López




Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Turtle\\/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chro-

Erin L. Pulster; Kelly L. Smalling; Eric Zolman; Lori Schwacke; Keith A. Maruya



Vertical distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) caused from organochlorine pesticides in a sediment core taken from Ariake bay, Japan.  


Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDTs) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor, chlordane compounds (CHLs), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), were analyzed in sediment cores collected from Ariake Bay, Japan. Although Chikugo River has the largest flow in Ariake Bay, the total concentration of POPs in surface sediment was found in St.3, mouth of the Yabe River, where that level was two times higher than St.1, mouth of the Chikugo River. It could be assumed that the potential source of POPs contamination is relatively close to this study area. Relatively high residue levels of HCB, HCHs and DDTs in sediment core were found during the period from 1967 to 1970. In this layer, the HCB concentration investigated in sediment cores of Ariake Bay was maximum, 2.6 ng g(-1) dry weight and higher than that of Tokyo Bay and subsequently detected in deeper sediment cores. The ratio of (DDD+DDE)/SigmaDDTs was high in top sediments (0-2 cm). Although there was a concentration of DDTs in the top sediment, it was noticed that DDT emission did not cause direct input of DDT recently. The HCHs determined in upper sediment cores might be originated from long-range accumulation in environment after dispersing of technical-grade HCH. Moreover, the CHLs, dieldrin and heptachlor concentrations were detected and recently increased in sediment core. POPs in sediment cores of Ariake Bay based on the possibility of PCP contamination during the early 1960s were reflected. PMID:17109925

Kim, Yun-Seok; Eun, Heesoo; Katase, Takao; Fujiwara, Hideshi



Hydrophobic organochlorine compounds sequestered in submersed aquatic macrophytes ( Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) Royle) from the tidal Potomac River (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminants to be sequestered in submersed aquatic vegetation was evaluated by determining the concentrations of cis- and trans-chlordane, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feral aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) collected from the tidal Potomac River. Similarities in mean dry-weight concentrations of the identified organochlorine compounds in H. verticillata and surrounding alluvial sediments indicated

Jessica A. Hopple; Gregory D. Foster



Organochlorine compounds in mussels cultured in the Ría of Vigo: accumulation and origin.  


This paper analyzes the influence of mussel physiological conditions on bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants. A direct relationship between reproductive stage, lipid content and accumulation of PCBs, DDTs and HCHs was observed. The organochlorine compounds accumulated by mussels cultured in the Ría of Vigo show levels below the limits set by the European legislation for human consumption, ranging between 12.50-58, 2.21-10.80 and 0.50-2.69 ?g kg(-1) dry weight for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs, respectively. Other organochlorine pesticides normally present in estuarine areas, such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, chlordane and nonachlor were not detected. The proportion of PCBs, between 2 and 7 times higher than OCPs, indicates a pollution of predominantly industrial origin in the sampling area. Several molecular indices were used to identify the source of accumulated OCPs by Mytilus, showing recent inputs of technical DDT, mainly in summer-autumn, and continued discharges of lindane. On the other hand, other pesticides containing DDT impurities, such as dicofol, can contribute to DDT pollution in the Ría of Vigo. Multivariate analysis suggests the usefulness of including physiological parameters such as the gonad condition index and lipid content of sentinel organisms in environmental biomonitoring of lipophilic pollutants, as well as in the determination of their origin. PMID:22391050

Suárez, Pilar; Ruiz, Yolanda; Alonso, Ana; San Juan, Fuencisla



Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers.  


Neutral organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were analyzed by GC-MS technique in 183 human milk samples obtained in 1984-1985 from 165 women living in different parts of Finland. The effect of the donors' age, body mass, place of residence, number of children, dietary habits, smoking habits, occupational history, and weight loss on the organochlorine content of human milk were studied. Of all the milk samples analyzed, p,p'-DDE concentrations were above the detection limit in 99.5%, p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT in 57.9%, isomers of HCH in 30.0%, cis-chlordane in 4.9%, oxychlordane in 3.3%, trans-nonachlor in 6.0%, heptachlor in 12.0%, and heptachlor epoxide in 6.6%. Mirex was not found in any of the milk samples, whereas the signals of chlorinated terpenes (toxaphenes) were detected but could not be quantitatively determined. The mean fat adjusted residue levels above the detection limit in Finnish human milk samples of primipara mothers were 0.66 ppm for total DDT compounds, 0.08 ppm for HCB, 0.93 ppm for PCBs, 0.41 ppm for chlordane compounds, 0.20 ppm for isomers of HCH, and 0.10 ppm for heptachlor epoxide. The geometric means were 0.46, 0.06, 0.57, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.01 ppm, respectively. The age of the mothers positively correlated with the DDE concentrations in human milk. The residues of OC compounds in human milk did not differ in women living in plywood industry regions, those actually working in the industry, and other mothers. Small differences were detected in the levels of organochlorine compounds in different parts of Finland. No relation was found between the OC content and the fish consumption, smoking habits, weight loss, or social group of the donors. PMID:3418740

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H; Pyysalo, H; Antervo, K



Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers  

SciTech Connect

Neutral organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were analyzed by GC-MS technique in 183 human milk samples obtained in 1984-1985 from 165 women living in different parts of Finland. The effect of the donors' age, body mass, place of residence, number of children, dietary habits, smoking habits, occupational history, and weight loss on the organochlorine content of human milk were studied. Of all the milk samples analyzed, p,p'-DDE concentrations were above the detection limit in 99.5%, p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT in 57.9%, isomers of HCH in 30.0%, cis-chlordane in 4.9%, oxychlordane in 3.3%, trans-nonachlor in 6.0%, heptachlor in 12.0%, and heptachlor epoxide in 6.6%. Mirex was not found in any of the milk samples, whereas the signals of chlorinated terpenes (toxaphenes) were detected but could not be quantitatively determined. The mean fat adjusted residue levels above the detection limit in Finnish human milk samples of primipara mothers were 0.66 ppm for total DDT compounds, 0.08 ppm for HCB, 0.93 ppm for PCBs, 0.41 ppm for chlordane compounds, 0.20 ppm for isomers of HCH, and 0.10 ppm for heptachlor epoxide. The geometric means were 0.46, 0.06, 0.57, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.01 ppm, respectively. The age of the mothers positively correlated with the DDE concentrations in human milk. The residues of OC compounds in human milk did not differ in women living in plywood industry regions, those actually working in the industry, and other mothers. Small differences were detected in the levels of organochlorine compounds in different parts of Finland. No relation was found between the OC content and the fish consumption, smoking habits, weight loss, or social group of the donors.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Pyysalo, H.; Antervo, K.



Analytical methods for the determination of organochlorine compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the isolation of chlorinated phenols, benzenes and insecticides from water, soil and vegetable samples. A review of the current procedures is presented. Solid-phase extraction on Empore extraction discs was experimentally evaluated for isolation of the compounds from surface and ground waters. For the isolation of chlorophenols from soil and vegetable samples, a method of simultaneous steam

Marta Veningerová; Viktor Prachar; Jana Kova?i?ová; Ján Uhnák



Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds and neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to some organochlorine compounds (OCs) may adversely affect thyroid function and may, therefore, impair neurodevelopment. The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship of cord serum levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4?-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4?-DDE), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), four individual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), and their sum, with

Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa; Esther Vizcaino; Mario Murcia; Virginia Fuentes; Ana-Maria Garcia; Marisa Rebagliato; Joan O Grimalt; Ferran Ballester



Accumulation pattern of persistent organochlorine pesticides in liver tissues of various species of birds from India.  


As part of a large study on assessing the impact of environmental contaminants in Indian avifauna, the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in liver tissues of 16 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007 was quantified. The higher concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides were detected in livers of shikra Accipiter badius (3.43 ± 0.99 ?g/g wet wt) and the lower levels in white ibis Pseudibis papillosa (0.02 ± 0.01 ?g/g wet wt). Marked differences in the concentrations of total OCPs occurred among species (p < 0.05). Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than the concentrations reported for various species of birds in India. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides in birds was, in general, in the order HCH > DDT > heptachlor epoxide > dieldrin. Among various pesticides analyzed, p,p'-DDE and ?-HCH contributed maximum towards the total OCPs and study indicates the continuous use of lindane and DDT for agriculture and public health purpose, respectively. Although no serious threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected in the present study species, continued monitoring is recommended. PMID:23054790

Dhananjayan, Venugopal



Organochlorine Pesticide Compounds in Organisms from the Bay of Bengal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton and bottom-feeding fish (four species) from the coastal Bay of Bengal were analysed for residues of DDT, DDD, DDE and aldrin. Concentrations of t-DDT (DDT+DDD+DDE) ranging from 1·31 to 115·90 ng g -1 wet weight in different fish tissues and 4·00 to 1587·76 ng g -1 wet weight in zooplankton were found. Aldrin levels were of the order of 0·32-4·23 ng g -1 in the fish tissues and 'not detected' to 0·78 ng g -1 in zooplankton. The concentration levels are discussed in relation to the distribution of the compounds in different fish tissues, differences in the proportion of DDT and its metabolites DDE and DDD in the various organisms and the possible influence of suspended particulate matter on the availability of DDT residues to organisms in the water column.

Shailaja, M. S.; Singbal, S. Y. S.



Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet.  


Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn. PMID:12547524

Mañosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon



Organochlorine compounds in pine needles: Methods and trends  

SciTech Connect

During April 1989, needles from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees were collected from a network of stations in West Germany, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Samples from selected stations were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers ([alpha]-HCH and [gamma]-HCH [lindane]), DDT, and DDE. Accumulation of the investigated compounds was observed in up to four needle-year classes. [gamma]-HCH decreased from south to north; the pattern for [alpha]-HCH was uniform; DDT/DDE also decreased from south to north. HCB was uniform throughout the sample area, and PCP was high in northern Sweden. Interpretation of trends was not altered by expressing concentrations on a fresh- or dry-weight basis or on a surface-area basis. The range of concentration variation for equivalent samples was 2 to 49% relative standard deviation; averages were 20 to 23%. There were no differences among trees facing the sample open direction; among different directions, trees open to the south collected more DDT, but this was not the case with other substances. There were no differences between trees of different ages. Samples at 4 to 5 m had lower contaminant levels than from 1.5 m.

Strachan, W.M.J. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Centre for Inland Waters); Eriksson, G.; Jensen, S. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberg Lab.); Kylin, H. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberg Lab. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)



Hydrophobic organochlorine compounds sequestered in submersed aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) Royle) from the tidal Potomac River (USA).  


The potential for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminants to be sequestered in submersed aquatic vegetation was evaluated by determining the concentrations of cis- and trans-chlordane, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feral aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) collected from the tidal Potomac River. Similarities in mean dry-weight concentrations of the identified organochlorine compounds in H. verticillata and surrounding alluvial sediments indicated that the extent of sequestration in H. verticillata was of the same magnitude as sorption of these compounds to river sediments, but some qualitative differences in PCB congener profiles existed. The results imply that to some degree H. verticillata can influence downstream fluxes of organic contaminants in fluvial transport in the Potomac River, and, furthermore, identify this species as a viable candidate organism for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminant biomonitoring in the Chesapeake Bay estuary. PMID:15093515

Hopple, J A; Foster, G D



A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Relation to Risk of Type 1 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe incidence of type 1 diabetes in Europe is increasing at a rate of about 3% per year and there is also an increasing incidence throughout the world. Type 1 diabetes is a complex disease caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) have been suggested as a triggering factor for developing childhood type 1 diabetes. The

Anna Rignell-Hydbom; Maria Elfving; Sten A. Ivarsson; Christian Lindh; Bo A. G. Jönsson; Per Olofsson; Lars Rylander; Baohong Zhang



Instrumental and Bioanalytical Measures of Persistent Organochlorines in Blue Mussel ( Mytilus edulis ) from Korean Coastal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) collected from 34 locations along the south and east coast of Korea were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and\\u000a organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Maximum concentrations of PCBs and total OC pesticides were 98.5 and 20.5 ng\\/g, wet weight,\\u000a respectively. Extracts were fractionated by Florisil chromatography and each fraction was screened for dioxin-like activity\\u000a in vitro, using recombinant

D. L. Villeneuve; K. Kannan; W. Y. Hu; J. P. Giesy; S.-G. Kang; K.-J. Song; C.-H. Koh



The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic

Chung-Jung Tsai; Mei-Lien Chen; Keng-Fu Chang; Fu-Kuei Chang; I-Fang Mao



Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)  

SciTech Connect

The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

Jacobs, Miriam N. [Molecular Toxicology Group, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Nolan, Gail T. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom); Hood, Steven R. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom)



Food chain enrichment of organochlorine compounds and mercury in clean and polluted lakes of Finland  

SciTech Connect

Lakes polluted by pulp mill and urban wastes including chlorobleaching of pulp, semipolluted lakes and reference lakes in nearly natural condition in Central Finland were studied for contents of mercury, methyl mercury and organochlorine compounds in sediment, plankton, roach and pike. Chlorobleaching has caused a 30-fold concentration of Hg in botton sediment related to that of the purest reference lake. This was not reflected to the mercury levels in fish which were highest at one natural condition (humic) lake and rather high also at semipolluted lake Paeijaenne. Mercury in fish was shown to be mostly methylated but not completely and its time trends could be estimated. Chloroform did not show, but carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene and chlorinated cymenes showed significant bioaccumulation in fish. Using fat basis attenuated the power of estimation of food chain enrichment by a three trophic level model for lipohilic biocides and a strong proof was obtained for the enrichment of hexachlorobenzene.

Paasivirta, J.; Saerkkae, J.; Surma-Aho, K.; Humppi, T.; Koukkanen, T.; Marttinen, M.



Contamination by organochlorine compounds in sturgeons from Caspian Sea during 2001 and 2002.  


Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the five species of sturgeons collected from coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran during 2001 and 2002 to understand their status of contamination and accumulation features. Among OCs examined, concentrations of DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were predominant in all the sturgeon samples with concentrations ranging from 73 to 31,000 ng/g on lipid weight basis, followed by PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, HCB, dieldrin, TCPMOH, and heptachlor epoxide in order. The concentrations of OCs in beluga (Huso huso) were the highest among all the five species. When comparing residue levels among same species, OC residues were highest in sturgeons from Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan and lowest in Turkmenistan. However, the concentrations of HCHs, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide in sturgeons showed less geographical variability. PMID:12787582

Kajiwara, Natsuko; Ueno, Daisuke; Monirith, In; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Aubrey, David G



Cancer Mortality in Workers Exposed to Organochlorine Compounds in the Pulp and Paper Industry: An International Collaborative Study  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate cancer mortality in pulp and paper industry workers exposed to chlorinated organic compounds. We assembled a multinational cohort of workers employed between 1920 and 1996 in 11 countries. Exposure to both volatile and nonvolatile organochlorine compounds was estimated at the department level using an exposure matrix. We conducted a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on age and calendar-period–specific national mortality rates and a Poisson regression analysis. The study population consisted of 60,468 workers. Workers exposed to volatile organochlorines experienced a deficit of all-cause [SMR = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89–0.93] and all-cancer (SMR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89–0.97) mortality, with no evidence of increased risks for any cancer of a priori interest. There was a weak, but statistically significant, trend of increasing risk of all-cancer mortality with increasing weighted cumulative exposure. A similar deficit in all-cause (SMR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91–0.96) and all-cancer (SMR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89–1.00) mortality was observed in those exposed to non-volatile organochlorines. No excess risk was observed in cancers of a priori interest, although mortality from Hodgkin disease was elevated (SMR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.02–2.82). In this study we found little evidence that exposure to organochlorines at the levels experienced in the pulp and paper industry is associated with an increased risk of cancer, apart from a weak but significant association between all-cancer mortality and weighted cumulative volatile organochlorine exposure.

McLean, David; Pearce, Neil; Langseth, Hilde; Jappinen, Paavo; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Persson, Bodil; Wild, Pascal; Kishi, Reiko; Lynge, Elsebeth; Henneberger, Paul; Sala, Maria; Teschke, Kay; Kauppinen, Timo; Colin, Didier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Boffetta, Paolo



Recalcitrant organochlorine compounds in captive bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus): Biomagnification or bioaccumulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine residues were measured in the diet, blood, faeces and exhaled air of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to evaluate the absorption efficiency from food and the eliminatory potential via faeces and exhaled air. Differences between air-breathing and water-breathing animals feeding on similar prey are briefly discussed. It is concluded that high concentrations of recalcitrant organochlorines currently found in marine

L. Marsili; C. Gaggi; A. Bortolotto; L. Stanzani; A. Franchi; A. Renzoni; E. Bacci



Distribution of persistent organochlorine pesticides in tissue/organ of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Guanting Reservoir, China.  


The concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tissues and organs of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Guanting Reservoir were investigated to evaluate the pollution potential and distribution of OCPs. A total of 16 OCPs were measured and the concentrations were in the range of 1.61-69.01 ng/g wet weight (ww) for total OCPs, 0.16-0.75 ng/g ww for. HCB, 0.75-26.80 ng/g ww for sigmaHCH (sum of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH) and 0.68-35.94 ng/g ww for sigmaDDT( sum of p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT). The mean concentrations of total OCPs, HCB, sigmaHCH, and sigmaDDT were 18.04, 0.96, 7.14 and 9.28 ng/g ww, respectively. Among the organochlorine pesticides, beta-HCH and p, p'-DDE were the most dominant compounds in tissue and organ with the average concentrations of 4.42 and 8.14 ng/g, respectively. The results obtained in this study show that the levels of 16 OCP residues found in silver carps are low and pose no threat to human health and wildlife fed upon them on the basis of existing related quality guidelines. However, recent input of lindane and DDT might still exist in the area investigated and further investigation should be carried on. PMID:16312991

Sun, Yang-zhao; Wang, Xue-tong; Li, Xing-hong; Xu, Xiao-bai



Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the lower Snake River Basin. Whole-body composite samples of suckers and carp from seven sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds; liver samples were analyzed for trace elements. Fillets from selected sportfish were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Bed-sediment samples from three sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Twelve different organochlorine compounds were detected in 14 fish-tissue samples. All fish-tissue samples contained DDT or its metabolites. Concentrations of total DDT ranged from 11 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in fillets of yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 3,633 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Total DDT concentrations in whole-body samples of sucker and carp from the Snake River at C.J. Strike Reservoir, Snake River at Swan Falls, Snake River at Nyssa, and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded criteria established for the protection of fish-eating wildlife. Total PCB concentrations in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River also exceeded fish-eating wildlife criteria. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in whole-body samples, in general, were larger than concentrations in sportfish fillets. However, concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in fillets of channel catfish from the Snake River at Nyssa and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River, and concentrations of total DDT in fillets of smallmouth bass and white crappie from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded a cancer risk screening value of 10-6 established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment were smaller than concentrations in fish tissue. Concentrations of p,p'DDE, the only compound detected in all three bed-sediment samples, ranged from 1.1 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in C.J. Strike Reservoir to 11 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Data from this study, compared with data collected in the upper Snake River Basin from 1992 to 1994, indicates that, in general, organochlorine concentrations in fish tissue and bed sediment increased from the headwaters of the Snake River in Wyoming downstream to Brownlee Reservoir. The largest trace-element concentrations in fish tissue were in liver samples from carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and suckers from the Boise River near Twin Springs. Concentrations of most trace elements were larger in livers than in the sport- fish fillets. However, mercury concentrations were generally larger in the sportfish fillets; they ranged from 0.08 microgram per gram wet weight in yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 0.32 microgram per gram wet weight in channel catfish from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. None of the trace-element concentrations in fillets exceeded median international standards or U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels. Large trace-element concentrations in the upper Snake River Basin were reported in liver samples from suckers from headwater streams, probably a result of historical mining and weathering of metal-rich rocks. Concentrations of most trace elements in the bed-sediment samples were largest in Brownlee Reservoir at Mountain Man Lodge. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc in bed sediment from the Mountain Man Lodge site exceeded either the threshold effect level or probable effect level established by the Canadian Government for the protection of benthic life. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and nickel concentrations in bed sediment from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and chromium, copper, and nickel in bed sediment from C.J. Strike Reservoir also exceeded the threshold effect level.

Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.



Spatial distribution of persistent organochlorines in ringed seal (Phoca hispida) blubber.  


Blubber samples, taken through the entire blubber column, were collected from three different anatomical locations on ringed seals (Phoca hispida). The outer and inner layers of these samples were analysed for concentrations of sigma PCBs (sum of the analysed congeners, polychlorinated biphenyls) and p,p'-DDE (4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene). No significant differences were found in blubber thickness or in per cent extractable lipid when comparing age- and sex-groups, or in extractable lipid content when comparing anatomical locations of the blubber or blubber depth. No significant differences were found between the three different anatomical locations with respect to the concentrations of sigma PCBs or p,p'-DDE. However, the concentrations of both sigma PCB and p,p'-DDE were significantly higher in the outer blubber layer compared to the inner. Higher levels of both sigma PCB and p,p'-DDE were found in males compared to females and juveniles in both the inner and outer parts of the blubber column. The most commonly used blubber sampling devices are biopsy tools that penetrate only the outer layer of the blubber. Analyses of such samples will not reflect the real body burden of organochlorines. Standard methods for sampling blubber of marine mammals should be developed so that comparative studies and longitudinal monitoring programs of pollutants in marine mammals can be conducted in a meaningful way. PMID:11285731

Severinsen, T; Skaare, J U; Lydersen, C



Mechanistical studies of the inhibition of intercellular communication by organochlorine compounds.  


Many hydrocarbons are environmental pollutants that, due to their lipophilicity and chemical stability, accumulate in biological systems including milk and body fat. A number of investigations have demonstrated that many organochlorine compounds can act as tumour promoters in vivo and inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication between cells in culture. In the present study we have investigated the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), different polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated paraffins and the pesticide endosulfan. Using techniques of scrape loading dye/transfer and Western blot analysis the function, expression and phosphorylation of different connexins in vitro and in vivo were studied. The results show a good correlation between the ability to act as a tumour promoter and to interfere with gap junctional intercellular communication. All tested compounds inhibited the intercellular communication in a liver derived cell line (IAR 20). However, the results show that the time to inhibition varies between the different agents. Endosulfan and chlorinated paraffins inhibit the communication within one hour, whereas dioxin like substances need to expose the cells for 48 hours before the communication is affected. PMID:8678790

Wärngárd, L; Bager, Y; Kato, Y; Kenne, K; Ahlborg, U G



Assessment of bioaccumulated metal and organochlorine compounds in relation to physiological biomarkers in Kootenai River white sturgeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study used biomarker research in order to determine potential physiological effects of bioaccumulated metal and organochlorine compounds in juvenile and adult Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Wild adult and hatchery-reared and released juvenile sturgeon were captured using hook and line, small-mesh multi-filament gillnets, setlines and angling gear. Biomarker parameters that were assessed include whole-body tissue residues, acetylcho-

G. O. Kruse; D. L. Scarnecchia



Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in biota from the marine environment of East Greenland.  


Ten black guillemot eggs, 19 ringed seals, 20 shorthorn sculpins and 20 Arctic chars were collected around Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund, Central East Greenland) in summer 2001 and analysed for 11 brominated diphenyl ether congeners (BDEs) and organochlorine compounds. Congeners BDE85 and BDE183 were not detected in any sample. SigmaBDE was highest in black guillemot eggs, with a median value of 80 ng/g lipid weight. This was approximately three times higher than that found for black guillemot eggs from West Greenland, thus supporting the spatial trend observed for organochlorines in Greenland. The median SigmaBDE concentration in ringed seal blubber was 36 ng/g lipid weight. This was clearly higher than SigmaBDE concentrations in ringed seal from the Canadian Arctic, but slightly lower than those found in ringed seals from Svalbard collected in 1981 and approximately 10 times lower than levels in seals from the Baltic Sea. Adult ringed seals had significantly higher SigmaBDE concentrations than animals less than 5 years old. Shorthorn sculpin liver and Arctic char muscle had similar concentrations of SigmaBDE, both with a median value of 7-10 ng/g lipid weight. The levels in shorthorn sculpin were similar to those reported from a previous study in Southwest Greenland. SigmaBDE levels correlated with PCB, DDT and chlordane-concentrations in the same samples, indicating similar mechanisms of uptake, bioaccumulation and biomagnification. The summed chlorobiphenyl concentrations in the same samples exceeded the SigmaBDE concentrations by a factor of approximately 15-30. The BDE congener patterns in black guillemot eggs and ringed seals were investigated using compound ratios and multivariate data analysis. The intraspecies variance was relatively small for black guillemot eggs and larger for ringed seals. Ringed seals had higher relative levels of the lower BDE congeners, e.g. BDE28 and BDE47 than black guillemots. The reasons for these different accumulation patterns are largely unknown and may reflect species-related differences in pollutant exposure, bioavailablity and metabolism. PMID:15325146

Vorkamp, Katrin; Christensen, Jan H; Riget, Frank



Possible effects of persistent organochlorinated pollutants cocktail on thyroid hormone levels and pituitary-thyroid interrelations.  


In polluted district of Michalovce in East Slovakia (POLL) and two districts with background pollution (BCGR) 2046 adults (834 males and 1212 females aged 20-75 years) were examined. Serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOab) were estimated by electrochemiluminiscent assay and also these of 15 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane were measured by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition, also dioxins, furans, coplanar- and mono-ortho-PCBs as well as selected hydroxylated and methylsulphonated PCBs and DDE metabolites were measured by appropriate methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry principle. In POLL significantly higher levels of all organochlorines were found than these in BCGR. When pooled values from both areas were stratified in terms of PCBs level and treated as continuous variables, positive association of PCBs with FT4 and TT3 was found, the latter two being also mutually associated. However, within the category of PCBs level <530 ng/glipid (n=232) the association between PCBs and both the FT4 (p<0.09) and TT3 (p<0.03) was negative and any association of these was not found within the category of PCBs level of 531-1000 ng/g (n=691). In contrast, in the category of 531-2000 ng/g (n=1307) positive association appeared between PCBs and FT4 (p<0.001) as well as TT3 (p<0.05). Highly significant association of PCBs with FT4 (p<0.001) was further found in the categories with PCBs level of 1001-101414 ng/g (n=1307) and 2001-101414 (n=1123), while significant association with TT3 was observed only in the category of 531-2000 ng/g. Such findings suggest possible threshold level in positive effect of PCBs on FT4 and TT3 level which seems to be individual and located somewhere around the PCBs level of 1000 ng/g. However, highly significant negative association of both FT4 and TT3 with TSH was found in each of above indicated PCBs categories. Considerable difference in FT4 and TT3 level between large groups of subjects with the same range of PCBs level was also found suggesting different individual susceptibility to the effects of organochlorines. Among a total of 26 cases from POLL with very low TSH level (<0.5 mU l(-1)) 13 cases showed very high level of PCBs, FT4 and TT3, thus supporting a hypothesis on a novel sporadic form of high PCBs related peripheral subclinical hyperthyroidism possibly resulting from the long-term disruption of equilibrium between bound and free thyroxine in plasma by high PCBs level followed by a striking inhibition of TSH release from the pituitary. PMID:17692893

Langer, Pavel; Kocan, Anton; Tajtáková, Mária; Rádiková, Zofia; Petrík, Ján; Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Imrich, Richard; Hucková, Miloslava; Chovancová, Jana; Drobná, Beáta; Jursa, Stanislav; Bergman, Aake; Athanasiadou, Maria; Hovander, Lotta; Gasperíková, Daniela; Trnovec, Tomás; Seböková, Elena; Klimes, Iwar



Structural diversity of organochlorine compounds in groundwater affected by an industrial point source.  


Groundwater samples contaminated by an industrial point source were analysed in order to reveal the structural diversity of halogenated organic contaminants. Particular focus was laid on the metabolites and derivatives related to the pesticides DDT (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichlorethane) and lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane). Additionally, a wide range of chlorinated and brominated xenobiotics were identified. These results represent a high degree of contamination with organochlorine compounds illustrating a considerable structural diversity in groundwater in the vicinity of the industrial plant. The polar DDT-metabolite DDA (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)acetic acid), which has been neglected in water studies widely, represents the main DDT metabolite analysed in the water samples. Besides DDA, some unknown substances with structural relation to DDA and DDT were detected and identified, in detail 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid N-methyl amide (DDAMA) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid n-butyl ester (DDABE). As an overall implication of this study it has to be demanded that analysis of industrially affected ground waters have to be based on screening analysis for a comprehensive view on the state of pollution. PMID:20810145

Frische, Kerstin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Ricking, Mathias



Levels of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic compounds in harp seal beaters ( Phoca groenlandica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, chlorobiphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in blubber, liver, kidney and muscle of five male and five female, 8-month-old harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). Levels of organochlorine contaminants were lowest in muscle, nearly 100 times higher in blubber and intermediate in kidney and liver. Only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran was detected in all liver and blubber samples (0.45

V Zitko; G Stenson; J Hellou



Organochlorine compound residues in human milk in the United Kingdom 1989-1991.  


1. The concentrations of some organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls have been determined in 193 samples of human milk collected between July 1989 and July 1991. 2. Comparison of the results with those from previous studies in 1979-80, and earlier, shows a continuing decline in residue levels except for polychlorobiphenyls. 3. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls in human milk samples from residents in the United Kingdom compare favourably with data obtained in other countries. PMID:7612309

Dwarka, S; Harrison, D J; Hoodless, R A; Lawn, R E; Merson, G H



Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals ( Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were determined in the blubber and liver of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) found stranded on the coast of the Caspian Sea during an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2000. Among organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 470 ?g\\/g on a lipid-weight basis.

N. Kajiwara; S. Niimi; M. Watanabe; Y. Ito; S. Takahashi; S. Tanabe; L. S. Khuraskin; N. Miyazaki



Extraction and distribution of organochlorine compounds in eastern Lake Erie and Niagara River water  

SciTech Connect

A chromic acid digestion extraction technique was compared to conventional solvent extraction for recovery of a series of organochlorine compounds (chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, DDE, mirex and photomirex) from centrifuged water collected at two sites along the Niagara River, between 1/22/86 and 1/7/87. The sampling sites were located near the river's inlet at Fort Erie, Ontario and close to the river's outlet to Lake Ontario at Niagara-on-the-Lake Ontario. The digestion technique was more efficient than conventional solvent extraction. Relative recovery (undigested/digested) decreased exponentially with increasing log K[sub ow]. This implies that digestion-extraction recovers both the fraction dissolved and the fraction bound to dissolved organic matter (DOM), while conventional solvent extraction only recovers the dissolved fraction. As the time compounds equilibrated with the DOM increased, the extraction efficiencies by conventional extraction decreased while the efficiencies by digestion extraction remained 100%. Results obtained with the digestion technique were also more reproducible than those with conventional solvent extraction. the relative recoveries also varied between the two sites. Using conventional solvent extraction PCB concentrations appeared to decrease by about 13% along the length of the river while with digestion extraction the PCBs increased by approximately 33%. To study the homogeneity of water in the eastern basin of Lake Erie, uncentrifuged water samples collected from the inlet of the Niagara River at Fort Erie, Ontario, were compared to samples collected from Lake Erie at Sturgeon Point, New York for the period from 7/24/86 to 1/24/87. The average concentrations of four PCB congeners, total organic carbon, turbidity and conductance were similar at the two sampling sites. The average p,p[prime]-DDE concentration was 0.53 ng/L at Fort Erie but only 0.28 ng/L at Sturgeon Point.

Driscoll, M.S.



Persistent organochlorines in Steller sea lion ( Eumetopias jubatus) from the bulk of Alaska and the Bering Sea, 1976–1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the blubber and liver of Steller sea lion collected from the bulk of Alaska and the Russian Bering Sea. PCBs were the predominant organochlorines in the blubber, ranging in concentration from 5.7 to 41 ?g g?1 (lipid weight) in males and from 0.57 to 16 ?g g?1 in females. Concentrations of

J. S. Lee; S. Tanabe; H. Umino; R. Tatsukawa; T. R. Loughlin; D. C. Calkins



A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p?-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias.

Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jonsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars



Toxicological effects of gestational and lactational exposure to a mixture of persistent organochlorines in rats: systemic effects.  


A large multi-disciplinary study was conducted to investigate the systemic, neurodevelopmental, neurochemical, endocrine, and molecular pathological effects of a mixture of reconstituted persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) based on the blood profiles of Canadians residing in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence region. This report outlines the overall study design and describes the systemic effects in rat offspring perinatally exposed to the POP mixture. Maternal rats were administered orally 0, 0.013, 0.13, 1.3, or 13 mg/kg bw/day of the mixture from gestational day (GD) 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Positive and negative controls were given Aroclor 1254 (15 mg/kg bw/day) and corn oil (vehicle), respectively. The rat pups were reared, culled to 8 per litter, and killed on postnatal days 35, 70, and 350, at which time tissues were collected for analysis. Exposure to high doses of the mixture elicited clinical, biochemical, and pathological changes and high mortality rates in rat offspring. Aroclor 1254 produced similar effects but a lower mortality than was seen in POP mixture groups. Biochemical changes consisted of increased liver microsomal activities and elevated serum cholesterol. Hepatomegaly was observed in the highest dose group of the mixture and in the positive control. Liver, thymus, and spleen were the target organs of action. Microscopic changes in the liver consisted of vacuolation and hypertrophy, and those in the thymus were characterized by reduced cortical and medullary volume. The spleen showed a treatment-related reduction in lymphocyte density and lymphoid areas. This study demonstrates that exposure to the POP mixture up to 13 mg/kg/day perinatally produced growth suppression, elevated serum cholesterol, increased liver microsomal enzyme activities, and immunopathological changes in the thymus and spleen, and lethality. Most of the effects were seen at dose levels much higher than expected human exposure. PMID:16177236

Chu, Ih; Bowers, Wayne J; Caldwell, Don; Nakai, Jamie; Pulido, Olga; Yagminas, Al; Wade, Michael G; Moir, David; Gill, Santokh; Mueller, Rudi



Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)



Prenatal Organochlorine Compound Exposure, Rapid Weight Gain, and Overweight in Infancy  

PubMed Central

Background Although it has been hypothesized that fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may increase obesity risk, empirical data are limited, and it is uncertain how early in life any effects may begin. Objectives We explored whether prenatal exposure to several organochlorine compounds (OCs) is associated with rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and body mass index (BMI) later in infancy. Methods Data come from the INMA (Infancia y Medio-Ambiente) Child and Environment birth cohort in Spain, which recruited 657 women in early pregnancy. Rapid growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight-for-age z-scores > 0.67, and elevated BMI at 14 months, as a z-score ? the 85th percentile. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk of rapid growth or elevated BMI associated with 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene, ?-hexachlorohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls in first-trimester maternal serum. Results After multivariable adjustment including other OCs, DDE exposure above the first quartile was associated with doubling of the risk of rapid growth among children of normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but not overweight, mothers. DDE was also associated with elevated BMI at 14 months (relative risk per unit increase in log DDE = 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.03). Other OCs were not associated with rapid growth or elevated BMI after adjustment. Conclusions In this study we found prenatal DDE exposure to be associated with rapid weight gain in the first 6 months and elevated BMI later in infancy, among infants of normal-weight mothers. More research exploring the potential role of chemical exposures in early-onset obesity is needed.

Mendez, Michelle A.; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Guxens, Monica; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis; Goni, Fernando; Fochs, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi



Potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption in humans: interaction of organochlorine compounds with thyroid receptor, transthyretin, and thyroid-binding globulin.  

PubMed Central

Organochlorine compounds, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alter serum thyroid hormone levels in humans. Hydroxylated organochlorines have relatively high affinities for the serum transport protein transthyretin, but the ability of these compounds to interact with the human thyroid receptor is unknown. Using a baculovirus expression system in insect cells (Sf9 cells), we produced recombinant human thyroid receptor ss (hTRss). In competitive binding experiments, the recombinant receptor had the expected relative affinity for thyroid hormones and their analogs. In competitive inhibition experiments with PCBs, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and several organochlorine herbicides, only the OH-PCBs competed for binding. The affinity of hTRss for OH-PCBs was 10,000-fold lower (Ki = 20-50 microM) than its affinity for thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine, T3; Ki = 10 nM). Because their relative affinity for the receptor was low, we tested the ability of OH-PCBs to interact with the serum transport proteins--transthyretin and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). With the exception of one compound, the OH-PCBs had the same affinity (Ki = 10-80 nM) for transthyretin as thyroid hormone (thyroxine; T4). Only two of the OH-PCBs bound TBG (Ki = 3-7 microM), but with a 100-fold lower affinity than T4. Hydroxylated PCBs have relatively low affinities for the human thyroid receptor in vitro, but they have a thyroid hormonelike affinity for the serum transport protein transthyretin. Based on these results, OH-PCBs in vivo are more likely to compete for binding to serum transport proteins than for binding to the thyroid receptor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Cheek, A O; Kow, K; Chen, J; McLachlan, J A



Recalcitrant organochlorine compounds in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): biomagnification or bioaccumulation?  


Organochlorine residues were measured in the diet, blood, faeces and exhaled air of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to evaluate the absorption efficiency from food and the eliminatory potential via faeces and exhaled air. Differences between air-breathing and water-breathing animals feeding on similar prey are briefly discussed. It is concluded that high concentrations of recalcitrant organochlorines currently found in marine mammals feeding on fish are essentially due to the lack of branchial elimination and not to their predator status. PMID:7583024

Marsili, L; Gaggi, C; Bortolotto, A; Stanzani, L; Franchi, A; Renzoni, A; Bacci, E



Influence of tumor stage, symptoms, and time of blood draw on serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds in exocrine pancreatic cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Knowledge is scant on the relationships between pathophysiologic processes common during cancer progression and changes in\\u000a blood concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To analyze the influence of tumor stage, cancer symptoms, and time of blood extraction on serum concentrations of OCs in exocrine\\u000a pancreatic cancer (EPC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects were 144 incident cases of EPC prospectively recruited in eastern Spain. Blood was

Miquel Porta; José Pumarega; Tomàs López; Manuel Jariod; Esther Marco; Joan O. Grimalt



Toxicokinetics of dioxins and other organochlorine compounds in Japanese people: association with hepatic CYP1A2 expression levels.  


Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the liver and adipose tissue of Japanese cadavers were measured, and their toxicokinetics were examined in association with hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A protein expression levels. Total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 66±74 and 65±57 pg/g lipid weight (mean±S.D.) in the liver and adipose tissue, respectively. Total PCBs (sum of 62 congeners targeted), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) were detected at concentrations over 1 ?g/g lipid in both tissues of some specimens. For most of the dioxin-like congeners, total PCBs, p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane, ?- and ?-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), age-dependent increases in concentrations were found in the adipose tissue of males. No such age-dependent trend was observed in the liver, suggesting that there are different mechanisms underlying the hepatic concentrations of OCs. Immunoblot analyses indicated detectable expression of hepatic CYP1A2 protein, whereas no CYP1A1 protein was detected. The CYP1A2 expression levels were positively correlated with concentrations (on wet weight basis) of 2,3,4,7,8-P?CDF, the dominant TEQ-contributed congeners in the liver, indicating the induction of this CYP. Hepatic CYP1A2 protein levels were strongly correlated with the liver to adipose concentration (L/A) ratios of PCDD/F congeners with more than 5 chlorine atoms. Together with higher concentrations of the congeners in the liver than in the adipose tissue, the observation on L/A ratios of highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs suggests that induced hepatic CYP1A2 protein is involved in their sequestration in this human population, as observed in model animals (rodents). Nonetheless, the magnitude of hepatic sequestration (L/A ratio) of PCDD/Fs in this human population was lower than in other mammals and birds, reported previously. This study emphasizes the fact that toxicokinetics of some OCs can be affected at least partly by CYP1A2 protein levels in humans. For the extrapolation of their toxicokinetics from model animals to humans, knowledge on the induction and sequestration potencies of CYP1A is necessary. PMID:23333656

Watanabe, Michio X; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Ueda, Norifumi; Nose, Masato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato



Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and ancillary data for the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit, 1992-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements were assayed in fish tissue collected from the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins Study Unit, 1992-94. These data were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the study unit. Ancillary data included are land-use categories by percentage of the sampling-site basins and the size, gender, and age of the individual fish collected for this study. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine compounds in composited whole fish samples were measured at 32 sites, and concentrations of 22 trace elements in composited fish liver samples were measured at 14 of the 32 sites. Most frequently detected organochlorines were DDT related compounds at 31 sites, total PCBs at 28 sites, and chlordane related compounds at 25 sites. Concentrations of total PCBs in fish tissue were generally higher at the large river sites than at the smaller tributary sites. Concentrations of chlordane-related compounds in fish tissue were higher at sites from more urbanized basins than at sites from predominately agriculture and forested basins. Concentrations of the DDT related compounds were undifferentiated among sites comprising different land uses. Trace elements detected at all 14 sites included boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc. Trace elements detected at 10 or more sites included arsenic, mercury, silver, strontium, and vanadium. Antimony, beryllium, and uranium were not detected at any site.

Coles, J. F.



Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Liver of Birds of Different Trophic Levels from Coastal Areas of Campania, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver samples of 12 species of birds of different trophic levels, collected during the period 1998–2000 from coastal areas of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocycloexane (?-HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the seven PCB “target” congeners, IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and

B. Naso; D. Perrone; M. C. Ferrante; A. Zaccaroni; A. Lucisano



Structural diversity of organochlorine compounds in groundwater affected by an industrial point source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater samples contaminated by an industrial point source were analysed in order to reveal the structural diversity of halogenated organic contaminants. Particular focus was laid on the metabolites and derivatives related to the pesticides DDT (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichlorethane) and lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane). Additionally, a wide range of chlorinated and brominated xenobiotics were identified. These results represent a high degree of contamination with organochlorine

Kerstin Frische; Jan Schwarzbauer; Mathias Ricking



Determination of some organochlorine compounds in herbal colouring agent henna (Lawsonia inermis) and in tea (Thea sinensis).  


Henna (Lawsonia inermis) has been used for centuries as a herbal hair and skin dye, but very little is known about its additives and contaminants that could adversely affect human health. An analytical method was developed to determine organochlorine compounds in henna, as they are still widely used in the areas where henna is grown. Samples were sonicated with n-hexane, extracts cleansed on Florisil sorbent and analysed using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The overall recoveries were 17-33 % with the extraction RSD 5-21%, while the levels of lindane (gamma-HCH), p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE in henna samples were 7-157 microg kg(-1). The same procedure was successfully applied to analyse black tea samples for the same compounds, and which showed lower contamination. PMID:15969202

Prosen, Helena; Antoni?, Jan; Klobcar, Andrej



The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants.  


Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), odor levels and critical odorants. Ten large recycling plants were selected for analysis of odor concentration (OC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PAHs inside and outside the plants using olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, respectively. The olfactometric results showed that the melting processes used for treating polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste significantly produced malodor, and the odor levels at downwind boundaries were 100-229 OC, which all exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. Toluene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl methacrylate and acrolein accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. Sixteen organochlorinated compounds were measured in the ambient air emitted from the PVC plastic waste recycling plant and total concentrations were 245-553 microg m(-3); most were vinyl chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene. Concentrations of PAHs inside the PE/PP plant were 8.97-252.16 ng m(-3), in which the maximum level were 20-fold higher than the levels detected from boundaries. Most of these recycling plants simply used filter to treat the melting fumes, and this could not efficiently eliminate the gaseous compounds and malodor. Improved exhaust air pollution control were strongly recommended in these industries. PMID:19091382

Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Chang, Keng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Mao, I-Fang



Evaluation of organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and their main prey (Columba livia) inhabiting central Spain.  


The population of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus sbs. brookei) inhabiting the Regional Park of southeastern Madrid (RPSM), Spain, has experienced an increase of unsuccessful pairs (from 15% among a total of 20 pairs in 1995 to 55% among a total of 18 pairs in 2001). Traditionally, this area has been known to be contaminated with organochlorine compounds and toxic metals, which are known to be deleterious to the reproductive system of birds. During the breeding seasons of 2000 and 2001, contaminant residues were measured in unhatched eggs of peregrine falcons and liver of their main prey, to determine if they could be affecting the survival of the population. The most abundant contaminants were ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (ortho-PCBs), ranging from 202.56 to 3,335.16 ng/g (wet wt) in falcon eggs and from 10.25 to 53.51 ng/g (wet wt) in pigeon livers. In all samples, the 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected, although these levels never exceeded 20 pg/g (wet wt). The major contributor to total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) were non-ortho-PCBs. Organochlorine levels found in this study may contribute to the entire suite of stressors that are negatively affecting the peregrine population. PMID:16152983

Merino, Rubén; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña



Prediction of biomagnification factors for some organochlorine compounds using linear free energy relationship parameters and artificial neural networks.  


Multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANNs) as feature mapping techniques were used for the prediction of the biomagnification factor (BMF) of some organochlorine pollutants. As independent variables, or compound descriptors, the Abraham descriptors often employed in linear free energy relationships were used. Much better results were obtained from the nonlinear ANN model than from multiple linear regression. The average absolute error, average relative error and root mean square error in the calculation of log (BMF) by the ANN model were 0.055, 0.051 and 0.097 for the training set and 0.11, 0.086 and 0.175 for the internal validation set, respectively. The degree of importance of each descriptor was evaluated by carrying out a sensitivity analysis approach for the nonlinear model. The results obtained reveal that the order of importance is the pollutant volume, the pollutant dipolarity/polarizability and the pollutant excess molar refraction. In order to examine the credibility of the obtained ANN model the leave-many-out cross-validation test was applied which gave Q(2)= 0.827 and SPRESS = 0.15. Also the Y-scrambling procedure was applied to the ANN model in order to examine the effect of chance correlations. The results obtained reveal that it is possible to predict the BMFs of organochlorine pollutants using a nonlinear ANN model with Abraham descriptors as inputs. PMID:19916109

Fatemi, M H; Abraham, M H; Haghdadi, M



Photochemical molecular storage of Cl2, HCl, and COCl2: synthesis of organochlorine compounds, salts, ureas, and polycarbonate with photodecomposed chloroform.  


Chloroform is available as not only an organic solvent but also photochemical molecular storage for synthetically important chemicals such as Cl(2), HCl, and COCl(2). We have succeeded in synthesizing organochlorine compounds, hydrochloric salt of amines, ureas, organic carbonates, and polycarbonate in practical high yields with photodecomposed chloroform. PMID:22690917

Kuwahara, Yuki; Zhang, Ailing; Soma, Haruka; Tsuda, Akihiko




Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported that wild eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses contained higher body burdens of organochlorine (OC) compounds than those without the lesion. This lesion in captive chelonians is associated with turtles that are fed diets deficient in vitamin A. To examine the pathophysiology of this lesion and evaluate the relationship between OC burdens and vitamin

Karl R. Kroenlein; Jonathan M. Sleeman; Priscilla H. Joyner; Justin D. Brown; Mark Griffin; Geoffrey Saunders; Stephen A. Smith



Distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in maternal and foetal tissues: Data from an Italian polluted urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate both levels and distributions of organochlorine pollutants in placenta and other maternal–foetal tissues, from women resident in an Italian highly industrialized urban area with demonstrated PCB pollution.To this end, 30 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), p,p?-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p?-DDT), p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in placenta, both maternal and cord blood serum and adipose tissue

Roberto Bergonzi; Cristina Specchia; Mariadaniela Dinolfo; Cesare Tomasi; Giuseppe De Palma; Tiziana Frusca; Pietro Apostoli



Integrated biological and chemical analysis of organochlorine compound pollution and of its biological effects in a riverine system downstream the discharge point.  


Pollution in riverine systems, along with its biological effects, may propagate downstream even at considerable distances. We analyzed the organochlorine compound (OC) pollution in a section of the low Ebro River (Northeast Spain) downstream a long-operating chlor-alkali plant. Maximal levels of OCs and of their associated dioxin-like biological activity occurred in residue samples from the plant, and persisted in river sediments some 40km downstream (Xerta site). Biological analysis at multiple organization levels in local carp (Cyprinus carpio, EROD, Cyp1A mRNA expression in the liver, hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and micronuclei index in peripheral blood) showed a similar pattern, with a maximal impact in Ascó, few kilometers downstream the plant, and a clear reduction at Xerta. This combination of chemical, molecular, cellular and physiological data allowed the precise assessment of the negative impact of the chlor-alkali plant on the quality of river sediments and on fish, and suggests that sediments may be a reservoir for toxic substances even in dynamic environments like rivers. PMID:20800876

Olivares, Alba; Quirós, Laia; Pelayo, Sergi; Navarro, Anna; Bosch, Carme; Grimalt, Joan O; Fabregat, Maria Del Carme; Faria, Melisa; Benejam, Lluis; Benito, Josep; Solé, Montserrat; Barata, Carlos; Piña, Benjamin



The roles of food and water in the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in high mountain lake fish.  


An integrated study encompassing the distribution of organochlorine compounds (OC) in water, food web (chironomids, terrestrial insects, cladocerans, mollusks, and cyanobacteria), and fish (brown trout) from a high mountain lake (Redon, Pyrenees) is reported. OC distributions in these compartments have been determined to assess theirtransport routes into fish. Food diets have been estimated by analysis of fish stomach content and food web stable isotopes (delta13C and delta15N). OCs with octanol--water partition coefficient (Kow) higher than 10(6) showed lower concentrations in food than expected from theoretical octanol--water partition, indicating thatthe distribution of these compounds does not reach equilibrium within the life span of the food web organisms (ca. 1 year). On the other hand, the degree of biomagnification in fish increased with Kow, except in the case of the largest compound analyzed (seven chlorine substituents, PCB #180). OC exchange at fish gill and gut has been evaluated using a fugacity model based on the water, food, and fish concentrations. All compounds exhibited a net gill loss and a net gut uptake. A pseudostationary state was only achieved for compounds with log(Kow) < 6. Calculation of fish average residence times for the compounds in apparent steady state gave values of days to a few weeks for HCHs, 1 year for HCB and 4,4'-DDE, and 2-3 years for 4,4'-DDT and PCB#28 and PCB#52. Residence times longer than one decade were found for the more chlorinated PCB. PMID:15382852

Catalan, Jordi; Ventura, Marc; Vives, Ingrid; Grimalt, Joan O



Human health risk assessment of environmental exposure to organochlorine compounds in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River, Spain.  


In this study, the environmental impact and human health risks associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) through soils and tap water in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River, Spain, were investigated. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, as well as DDT and derivates, were determined. Relatively low levels of these pollutants were observed, with mean concentrations ranging between 0.51-315.8 lg/kg and 0.05-74.6 ng/L in soil and tap water, respectively. These values are similar to those found in a number of recent surveys over the world. In spite of the presence of a chlor-alkali plant located upstream the Ebro River, which could mean a potential source of pollution, the current levels of OCs should not mean significant additional health risks for the local population. PMID:19771382

Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Bosch, Carme; Lourencetti, Carolina; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Domingo, José L



Organochlorines in crocodile eggs from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive use of persistent organochlorine chemicals (OCs), both in agriculture and industry, has lead to widespread pollution of the environment, and residues of for instance DDT and PCBs are found at all levels of the food chain. Most industrialized countries have imposed restrictions on their use and disposal. In most developing countries, however, persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are still

J. U. Skaare; K. Ingebrigtsen; A. Aulie; T. I. Kanui



Organochlorine compounds and stable isotopes indicate bottlenose dolphin subpopulation structure around the Iberian Peninsula.  


Isotopic signatures and organochlorine pollutant loads of organisms reflect the characteristics of the waters in which they live and feed. To investigate population structure of bottlenose dolphins around the Iberian Peninsula we determined delta(13)C and delta(15)N in the skin and organochlorine (OC) levels in the blubber of stranded bottlenose dolphins inhabiting the Mediterranean (Catalonia, Valencia and Balearic Islands) and adjacent Atlantic waters (Huelva and Portugal). OC levels were high in all regions, reflecting the predatory habits of the species, its coastal distribution and the existence of intense agricultural and industrial activity throughout the region. PCB congeners showed a gradient from the relatively more chlorinated forms to those that are less so, and followed a northeast to northwest direction across the Iberian Peninsula. This suggests that PCB inputs are more recent in the temperate latitudes of the eastern Atlantic Ocean than in the western Mediterranean Sea. Comparatively, OC ratios and isotopic signatures proved to be more efficient ways of discriminating groups than did raw OC concentrations. Significant differences in delta(13)C and in PCB congener profiles indicate that dolphins from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean do not intermingle. In addition, the two Atlantic groups differed in delta(15)N signature, tDDT concentration, DDT/PCB ratio and the PCB congener profile, which also suggests some degree of isolation between them. In the Mediterranean, dolphins from Catalonia and Valencia were indistinguishable, suggesting a common distribution area. However, dolphins from the Balearic Islands differed from those of the Peninsula in their DDT/PCB ratio and from all the other sample groups in their PCB congener profiles, which supports the hypothesis that the deep waters between the Islands and the Peninsula represent an effective barrier for the species. PMID:16445982

Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Sequeira, M; Fernandez, G; Alis, S



Chapter 12 Persistent Toxic Substances in the Philippine Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the studies on persistent toxic substances (PTS) in the Philippines environment. Many of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including pesticides and industrial chemicals, which were either banned or restricted for use in most northern industrialized countries, are still in use in some developing countries. This review focuses on organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as

Maricar S. Prudente; Govindan Malarvannan; Shinsuke Tanabe



Poly(phthalazine ether sulfone ketone) as novel stationary phase for stir bar sorptive extraction of organochlorine compounds and organophosphorus pesticides.  


A novel poly(phthalazine ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK) film prepared by immersion precipitation technique was coated on stir bars for sorptive extraction. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the coating has a denser porous surface (about 1 microm in thickness) with a sponge-like sublayer, and the thickness of the coating was 250 microm. The PPESK coated stir bar has high thermostability (290 degrees C) and long lifetime (50 times). The extraction properties of this stir bar were evaluated for the extraction of both polar and semi-polar analytes, including organochlorine compounds and organophosphorus pesticides. The PPESK stir bar was proved to show higher affinity towards polar compounds than that of PDMS coated stir bar and higher sample load compared with corresponding PPESK fiber. It was applied to the determination of organochlorine compounds in seawater samples and organophosphorus pesticides in juices by gas chromatographic analysis. The effect of sample matrix was evaluated at optimized condition of extraction temperature, extraction time and salt concentration. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.05-2.53 ng L(-1) for organochlorine compounds in seawater samples using electron capture detector (ECD), with precisions of less than 11% RSD. Limits of detection for organophosphorus pesticides were in the range of 0.17-2.25 ng L(-1) and 2.47-10.3 ng L(-1) in grape and peach juice, respectively, using thermionic specified detector (TSD), with precisions of less than 12% RSD and 20% RSD, respectively. PMID:18037430

Guan, Wenna; Wang, Yanjuan; Xu, Feng; Guan, Yafeng



Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.  


Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78.6 +/- 32.4 microg/g lipid) and toxaphene (11.7 +/- 9.3 microg/g lipid) were significantly higher in dolphins sampled in the TBRE than in dolphins stranded near Savannah (GA, USA) 80 to 100 km to the north. Levels of OCPs were several-fold lower than levels of PCBs; moreover, PCBs comprised 81 and 67% of the total POP burden in TBRE and non-TBRE dolphins, respectively. Analyses with GC-ECNI-MS revealed that 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a), a major component in technical toxaphene and a major residue congener in local estuarine fish species, was the most abundant chlorobornane in both sets of blubber samples. Mean total POP concentrations (sum of PCBs, OCPs, and toxaphene) approached 100 microg/g lipid for the TBRE animals, well above published total PCB thresholds at which immunosuppresion and/or reproductive anomalies are thought to occur. These results indicate extended utilization of the highly contaminated TBRE as habitat for a group of coastal estuarine dolphins, and they further suggest that these animals may be at risk because of elevated POP concentrations. PMID:19203137

Pulster, Erin L; Smalling, Kelly L; Zolman, Eric; Schwacke, Lori; Maruya, Keith A



Organochlorine residues in bird species collected dead in Ontario 1972-1988  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine residues have been reported in many species of birds found dead or shot around the Great Lakes Basin. Raptors and fish-eating birds have had very high residues in the past while terrestrial seed- and insect-eaters have had relatively low residues. Most of the organochlorine insecticides like DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, endrin and heptachlor have been removed from field use, and controls have been placed on the dispersal of organochlorine industrial chemicals like mirex and PCB. These substances are very persistent. The major sources of contamination now are environmental residues picked up by birds in their normal feeding. These compounds bioaccumulate in bird species, and the highest residues accumulate at the top of the food chain. This paper is a compilation of data obtained from dead birds collected in the Great Lakes Basin over the last 16 years and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants.

Frank, R.; Braun, H.E. (Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Guelph, Ontario (Canada))



Factors influencing the persistence of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil from the region around the Hongze Lake, China.  


Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) was examined in surface soils from paddy, upland and wetland fields in the region around the Hongze Lake in 2009, and some factors influencing residual levels of OCPs in soils were analyzed. DDTs and HCHs were the predominant contaminants in soils. The residual levels of OCPs in cultivated soils were significantly higher than those of corresponding counterparts in wetland soils. It indicated the agricultural usage amount of OCPs principally accounted for the presence of their residues in soil. Among these organochlorines and their metabolites detected in the soil samples, ?-HCH and p, p'-DDE were the two dominant substances of HCHs and DDTs, respectively. The ratio of w(DDT)/w(DDD+DDE) and the ratio ?-HCH/?-HCH also suggested residual HCHs and DDTs in soil resulted from technical HCH (no elimination of Lindane) and DDT applied in this region in the past and there has been no recent input. The analysis of linear correlation indicated that soil pH and TOC influenced the residues of ?-HCH and ?-HCH, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed the contents of OCPs in soils probably were related to their usage amount in the past and octanol-water coefficient (Kow). Compared with the corresponding data from other places and the protection guidelines of Netherlands, US EPA and China, the region around the Hongze Lake may be generally categorized as a slightly polluted area and it is suitable for agriculture production. PMID:23178885

Gao, Jun; Zhou, Haifeng; Pan, Guoqing; Wang, Jizhong; Chen, Boqing



Bioaccumulation and enantiomeric profiling of organochlorine pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters.  


Concentrations and enantiomeric profiles for a range of organochlorine compounds are reported in blubber samples from a number of individual killer whales (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters. Elevated contaminant levels and enriched isotopic ratios were determined in one individual whale sampled in the Scottish Western Isles compared to the others suggesting marine mammal based dietary influences. The potential application of isotopic ratios to model contaminant uptake, enantioselective enrichment and accumulation is demonstrated. Data are presented which provide information on enantioselective enrichment factors (EFs) for o,p'-DDT, alpha-HCH and toxaphene congeners CHB26 and CHB 50. This dataset further improves the current database on reported levels of a number of contaminants and provides additional background information on potential metabolic processes in killer whales from British and Irish waters. PMID:17854842

McHugh, Brendan; Law, Robin J; Allchin, Colin R; Rogan, Emer; Murphy, Sinead; Foley, M Barry; Glynn, Denise; McGovern, Evin



Endocrine Disruption Induced by Organochlorines (OCs): Field Studies And Experimental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-range transport of persistent organic compounds by air and ocean currents from industrialized areas resulted in high levels of these pollutants in food webs in the Svalbard area. With the aim to test if organochlorine (OC) exposure in free-living polar bears from Svalbard affected their plasma steroid hormone concentrations, it was found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were associated with increased

Erik Ropstad; Irma C. Oskam; Jan L. Lyche; Hans J. Larsen; Elisabeth Lie; Marte Haave; Ellen Dahl; Richard Wiger; Janneche Utne Skaare



Alternative tissue analysis method developed for organochlorine contaminants in aquatic organisms  

SciTech Connect

The exposure of aquatic life to organochlorine contaminants has been investigated during the past two decades because of human and ecosystem health concerns related to the bioaccumulation of hazardous, lipophilic substances. The toxic effects of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known, and recent evidence also suggests that low level exposure to lipophilic organochlorines may interfere with normal development during sensitive early life history stages. As the use of lipophilic organochlorines, such as DDT, in third world countries continues and with the purported global cycling and food chain accumulation of persistent organochlorines, the occurrence of these compounds in aquatic organisms is a critical global environmental issue. An understanding of the fate of organochlorines in the environmental clearly remains an extremely important subject related to water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently gained congressional approval in the United States to track nation wide trends in water quality through the establishment of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Among the goals defined by NAWQA, aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, and plants, collected from major drainage basins will be analyzed for, along with other contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine insecticides, and chlorobenzenes. The purpose of this report is to present quality assurance data obtained from the development of a PCB, chlorobenzene, and organochlorine insecticide tissue analysis method in support of NAWQA and other large-scale water quality programs conducted through our laboratory. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Shan, T.H.; Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))



Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.



Organochlorine compounds in human breast fat from deceased with and without breast cancer and in a biopsy material from newly diagnosed patients undergoing breast surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have related the incidence of mammary cancer to the dietary intake of fat and\\/or meat. Since organochlorine compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDT (and its metabolite DDE)) are accumulated in the adipose tissue it was tempting to suggest a relationship between levels of PCB and DDT (i.e., DDT + DDE) in breast fat tissue and the occurrence

M. Unger; H. Kiaer; M. Blichert-Toft; J. Olsen; J. Clausen



Detection limits of organochlorine pesticides and related compounds in blood serum  

SciTech Connect

Determinations of organochlorine pesticides and similar chemical residues in blood serum have often reported detection limits of 1 ng/mL. When a study group has incurred body burdens lower than this, underestimates and misclassifications of exposure may occur because persons with pesticide residue concentration below the limit of detection are usually treated as zeros.' Thus in order to more accurately assess exposures in such populations, analysis of adipose tissue has been done. Recently, with TCDD, use of a sufficient volume of serum, as much as 0.5 L, in conjunction with appropriate analytical techniques has been shown to achieve detection limits necessary for epidemiological assessments, i.e., comparable to analysis of adipose tissue. In a population-based study involving children in which the authors were involved, it was not feasible to obtain specimens of either adipose or a large volume of serum. There was no compelling health motivation for such measures, nor did they wish to impair participation rates. Therefore, they chose to optimize the existing serum analysis, in order to achieve a detection limit low enough to assess reasonably the anticipated exposures.

Wolff, M.S.; Rivera, M.; Baker, D.B. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))



Risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and prediagnostic serum organochlorines: beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane/heptachlor-related compounds, dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene.  

PubMed Central

Increases in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) incidence and mortality rates during the past few decades remain largely unexplained. Studies suggest that organochlorine pesticides may contribute to an increased risk of NHL. In 1974, serum samples were obtained from 25,802 participants in the Campaign Against Cancer and Stroke in Washington County, Maryland (USA), and cryopreserved for future study. We measured prediagnostic levels of chlordane, lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, transnonachlor, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene in serum samples of 74 cases of NHL and 147 matched controls. Previously, we found an association between NHL and serum levels of total PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), but not DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and related compounds. In this instance, there was no evidence of an association between NHL risk and serum levels of any of the individual lipid- and recovery-corrected organochlorines that we evaluated, nor of the summed chlordane-related compounds (transnonachlor, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane). These findings do not support the hypothesis that the organochlorine compounds included in this study are strongly linked to the development of NHL. The possibility of a weak association cannot be excluded by these data.

Cantor, Kenneth P; Strickland, Paul T; Brock, John W; Bush, David; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Needham, Larry L; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Comstock, George W; Rothman, Nathaniel



Persistent organochlorine pollutants in liver of birds of different trophic levels from coastal areas of Campania, Italy.  


Liver samples of 12 species of birds of different trophic levels, collected during the period 1998-2000 from coastal areas of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), gamma-hexachlorocycloexane (gamma-HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the seven PCB "target" congeners, IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. p,p'-DDE was present in all the samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from 4 to 4504 ng/g wet wt, which were much higher than those found for HCB, dieldrin, and p,p'-DDD. The concentrations of the others OCs were below the detection limit in all the samples. PCBs were found in all the bird species at levels ranging between 6 and 8431 ng/g wet wt. The hepta-, hexa-, and penta-chlorinated congeners 180, 153, 138, and 118 were predominant since, in almost all the species, they contributed to more than 98% of the total seven determined PCBs. No significant differences in mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides are detected between single species or between species grouped according to their feeding habits (p > 0.05). However, p,p'-DDE levels were higher in carnivorous species than in omnivorous and insectivorous ones (carnivorous > omnivorous > insectivorous). Concentrations of total PCBs were significantly higher in omnivorous birds than in carnivorous (p < 0.01) and insectivorous ones (p < 0.001), whereas carnivorous birds exhibited significantly higher total PCB levels than insectivorous ones (p < 0.01). Marked differences in total PCB concentrations were found also between single species (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Levels of OCs and PCBs were generally below the thresholds known to affect reproduction, however, mean hepatic concentrations of total PCBs in the yellow-legged herring gull (Larus cachinnans), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), and kestrel (Falcus tinnunculus) were far higher than those estimated to elicit immunosuppressive effects and possibly increase susceptibility to parasitoses. PMID:14674594

Naso, B; Perrone, D; Ferrante, M C; Zaccaroni, A; Lucisano, A



Declining bioavailability and inappropriate estimation of risk of persistent compounds  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) assimilated decreasing amounts of atrazine, phenanthrene, and naphthalene that had been incubated for increasing periods of time in sterile soil. The amount of atrazine and phenanthrene removed from soil by mild extractants also decreased with time. The declines in bioavailability of the three compounds to earthworms and of naphthalene to bacteria were not reflected by analysis involving vigorous methods of solvent extraction; similar results for bioavailability of phenanthrene and 4-nitrophenol to bacteria were obtained in a previous study conducted at this laboratory. The authors suggest that regulations based on vigorous extractions for the analyses of persistent organic pollutants in soil do not appropriately estimate exposure or risk to susceptible populations.

Kelsey, J.W.; Alexander, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)



Current-Use Pesticides and Organochlorine Compounds in Precipitation and Lake Sediment from Two High-Elevation National Parks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western U.S. to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, only chlordane, HCB, and two PCB congeners were detected. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ?g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ?g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ?g/m2 for dacthal of which over 85% occurred during summer. DDE and DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in lake sediments. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been in decline since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11-1.2 ?g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in lake sediments.

Mast, M. A.; Foreman, W. T.



Organochlorine compounds in human breast fat from deceased with and without breast cancer and in a biopsy material from newly diagnosed patients undergoing breast surgery  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological studies have related the incidence of mammary cancer to the dietary intake of fat and/or meat. Since organochlorine compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDT (and its metabolite DDE)) are accumulated in the adipose tissue it was tempting to suggest a relationship between levels of PCB and DDT (i.e., DDT + DDE) in breast fat tissue and the occurrence of mammary cancer. To elucidate this theory, the organochlorine levels of 14 breast fat tissue samples from breast cancer patients and similar samples from 18 decreased mammary cancer patient were compared to that of 21 similar samples from noncancer patients and finally to adipose tissue samples from 35 non-cancer autopsy specimens. No significant differences were traced. Thus it seems that the accumulation of PCB and DDT measured in breast fat tissue do not relate to the occurrence of mammary cancer.

Unger, M.; Kiaer, H.; Blichert-Toft, M.; Olsen, J.; Clausen, J.



Brain Organochlorines and Lewy Pathology: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although organochlorines have been reported more frequently in Parkinson’s disease (PD) brains than controls, the association with brain Lewy pathology is unknown. Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) participants, exposed to organochlorines from a variety of sources during mid-life, represent a population well suited to determine the relationship of brain organochlorines with Lewy pathology in decedents from the longitudinal HAAS. Methods Study design included the measurement of 21 organochlorine levels in frozen occipital lobe samples from HAAS decedents. Alpha-synuclein immunostaining performed on 225 brains was used to identify Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Results With the potential for spurious associations to appear between Lewy pathology and 17 organochlorine compounds found to be present in at least one brain, initial assessments identified heptachlor epoxide isomer b, methoxychlor, and benzene hexachloride b as being most important. Prevalence of Lewy pathology was 75% (6/8) among brains with any 2 of the 3 compounds, 48.8% (79/162) among those with 1, and 32.7% (18/55) for those with neither (P=0.007 test for trend). While findings persisted after removing cases with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, and when adjustments were made for age at death, body mass index, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and coffee intake (p=0.013), results were insignificant when correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions While consistent with earlier accounts of an association between organochlorines and clinical PD, associations with Lewy pathology warrant further study.

Ross, G. Webster; Duda, John E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Pellizzari, Edo; Petrovitch, Helen; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Noorigian, Joseph V.; Masaki, Kamal; Launer, Lenore; White, Lon R.



Interspecific comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organochlorines bioaccumulation in bivalves from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.  


The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized in cockle, oyster and noble pen shell from nine areas in the Mar Menor lagoon with different hydrodynamic and pollutant sources. Biota, sediment and water samples were simultaneously collected in the spring and autumn of 2010. Considering all bivalve samples, PAH concentrations ranged from 8.98 to 370?g·kg(-1) d.w., those of PCBs from 0.15 to 42.36?g·kg(-1) d.w. and those of DDXs from below detection limit to 240.6?g·kg(-1) d.w., where p,p'-DDE was the main fraction. The bioaccumulation of PAHs was similar for cockle, oyster and noble pen shell, being higher close to ports and wastewater effluents. However, DDX and PCB bioaccumulations in oyster and noble pen shell were significantly higher than in cockle in spring (p=0.02). The first organic pollutant bioaccumulation data for noble pen shell were obtained in this study, showing a preferential accumulation of pyrene. The increase of PAH bioaccumulation in autumn, as compared to spring, was low, due to high water temperatures during the summer, which favoured PAH dissipation processes. No significant seasonal variations were detected for OCPs and PCBs, except in some specific areas. The PAH, PCB and OCP levels detected in these bivalves were lower than OSPAR/MED POL environmental assessment criteria, except for p,p'-DDE in bivalves sited close to El Albujón watercourse mouth. PMID:23872249

León, Víctor M; Moreno-González, Rubén; González, Emilia; Martínez, Fulgencio; García, Víctor; Campillo, Juan A



Influence of altitude and age in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in fish from high mountain lakes.  


The analysis of hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, polychlorobiphenyls, and DDTs in muscle of fish from high mountain lakes shows that a proportion of their concentration variance depends on fish age and lake altitude. Interestingly, the magnitude of this share corresponds linearly with the log-transformed vapor pressure (Vp) of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Thus, the distributions of OC with Vp < 10(-2.5) Pa are mostly determined by these two variables. Altitude gradients mainly respond to temperature differences, involving concentration increases of 25-150 times between 8.7 and -2.3 degrees C. The age effect encompasses concentration increments of 2.4-7.8 for average lake differences between 2 and 13 yr. However, both effects are independent since no correlation between fish age and lake altitude is observed. Fish liver concentrations exhibit the same pattern, but the correlations are only significantfor age, suggesting thatthe temperature trend is more related to long-term accumulation than episodic intake. The temperature effect is independent from compound origin. In addition, the sites situated at highest altitude, those most distant from possible ground pollution sources, are the most polluted. The results can be explained by condensation effects such as those described for the latitudinal trends that support the global distillation theory. However, in the high altitude lakes a temperature-dependent amplification mechanism, probably related to low metabolism and respiration at lowtemperatures, enhances OC accumulation in fish beyond the increases predicted from theoretical condensation and solubilization enthalpies. The observed temperature dependence suggests that a general remobilization of OC accumulated in high mountain areas could take place as a consequence of the general warming of these areas anticipated in the climatic change studies. PMID:14968852

Vives, Ingrid; Grimalt, Joan O; Catalan, Jordi; Rosseland, Björn O; Battarbee, Rick W



Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in sea turtles from Japan.  


Three species of sea turtles (green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles) stranded along the coasts or caught (by-catch) around Ishigaki Island and Kochi, Japan were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for six organohalogen compounds viz., PBDEs, PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. The present study is the first and foremost to report the occurrence of organohalogen compounds in the sea turtles from Japan. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and CHLs were the highest in all the turtle samples. PBDEs were ubiquitously present in all the turtle species. Comparing with the other two species, concentrations of organohalogens in green turtle were relatively low and decreasing trend in the concentrations were noted with increasing carapace length. Concentrations of OCs in sea turtles from the coasts of Ishigaki Island and Kochi were relatively low as compared to those from other locations in the world. PMID:21377171

Malarvannan, Govindan; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sudaryanto, Agus; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masaru; Yasumura, Shigeki; Tanabe, Shinsuke



Persistence of biologically active compounds in aquatic systems: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Waters collected from two study sites were tested for persistence of biologically active compounds as the waters percolated through experimental media. At the first site, the Paraho Lysimeter in Anvil Points, Colorado, two leachate samples (early and late flow in Spring 1983) were collected from each of four piles of processed oil shale overlain by different thicknesses of soil. Although water quality differed among samples, six of eight lysimeter leachates tested were acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, and five were acutely toxic to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Water collected from a modified in situ (MIS) retort was percolated through columns containing three different types of soil. Raw leachate from the MIS spent shale was acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The toxicity of samples from nine pore volumes of retort water percolating through a column containing a sandy soil increased with successive pore volumes, but leachate toxicity never equaled the toxicity of the retort water. In contrast, the first pore volumes of retort water or reconstituted water leached through a sandy loam soil were more toxic than the retort water; however, the second pore volumes of leachates were not toxic. First pore volume leachates of retort water percolating through a sandy clay loam soil were much less toxic than the retort water; second pore volume leachates were not toxic.

Boelter, A.M.; Fernandez, J.D.; Meyer, J.S.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.



Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland.  


Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticides and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured in tissue lipid extracts by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Mean concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, 2, 2'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane in adipose tissue samples from Greenlanders were 3-34-fold higher than those measured using the same analytical method in samples from Canadians in Quebec City, Quebec. Brain lipids contained lower concentrations of all organochlorines than lipids extracted from other tissues. Organochlorine residue levels in lipid extracts from liver, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples were similar, with the exception of ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, which reached a greater concentration in liver lipids than in lipids from both adipose tissues (4-fold; p < 0. 05). Comparisons with available international data on adipose tissue levels reveal that the organochlorine body burden in the Inuit population of Greenland is presently among the highest resulting from environmental exposure. PMID:10504150

Dewailly, E; Mulvad, G; Pedersen, H S; Ayotte, P; Demers, A; Weber, J P; Hansen, J C



Degradation of Organochlorine Compounds Using Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) Nano Particles Impregnated in Hydrophobic Modified Bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The degradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) adsorbed on hydrophobic modified bentonite was investigated. The degradation occurred\\u000a via reduction of iron particles with zero valence (ZVI) incorporated in hydrophobic surface of bentonite. We compared two\\u000a different systems, one containing ZVI and another without ZVI. The degradation of PCE was accompanied by decreasing concentrations\\u000a of PCE and the increase of resulting compounds such

Sandro Froehner; M. Maceno; E. C. Luz; K. S. Machado; F. Falcão


Comparison of the residue levels of some organochlorine compounds in breast milk of the general and indigenous Canadian populations  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have shown polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organochlorine resides to be present in mothers' milk of the general Canadian population, but there has been little work done with respect to Canada's native population. A small survey was therefore undertaken to determine organochlorine resides in breast milk of Canadian Indian and Inuit mothers as a follow-up to the recent national survey of the general population. Analyses were conducted for 14 individual isomers of PCBs, photomirex, four hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, oxychlordane, ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-chlordane, trans-nonaclor, four analogs of DDT and vie isomers of chlorobenzenes. The results were compared to those of the national survey.

Davies, D.; Mes, J.



A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Relation to Risk of Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Europe is increasing at a rate of about 3% per year and there is also an increasing incidence throughout the world. Type 1 diabetes is a complex disease caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) have been suggested as a triggering factor for developing childhood type 1 diabetes. The aim of this case-control study was to assess possible impacts of in utero exposure to POPs on type 1 diabetes. Methodology/ Principal Findings The study was performed as a case-control study within a biobank in Malmö, a city located in the Southern part of Sweden. The study included 150 cases (children who had their diagnosis mostly before 18 years of age) and 150 controls, matched for gender and day of birth. 2,2?,4,4?,5,5?-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) and the major DDT metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p?-DDE) were used as a biomarkers for POP exposure. When comparing the quartile with the highest maternal serum concentrations of PCB-153 with the other quartiles, an odds ratio (OR) of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42, 1.27) was obtained. Similar results was obtained for p,p?-DDE (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.29, 1.08). Conclusions The hypothesis that in utero exposure to POPs will trigger the risk for developing type 1 diabetes was not supported by the results. The risk estimates did, although not statistically significant, go in the opposite direction. However, it is not reasonable to believe that exposure to POPs should protect against type 1 diabetes.

Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Elfving, Maria; Ivarsson, Sten A.; Lindh, Christian; Jonsson, Bo A. G.; Olofsson, Per; Rylander, Lars



Immune cell counts and risks of respiratory infections among infants exposed pre- and postnatally to organochlorine compounds: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Early-life chemical exposure may influence immune system development, subsequently affecting child health. We investigated immunomodulatory potentials of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-DDE in infants. Methods Prenatal exposure to PCBs and p,p'-DDE was estimated from maternal serum concentrations during pregnancy. Postnatal exposure was calculated from concentrations of the compounds in mother's milk, total number of nursing days, and percentage of full nursing each week during the 3 month nursing period. Number and types of infections among infants were registered by the mothers (N = 190). White blood cell counts (N = 86) and lymphocyte subsets (N = 52) were analyzed in a subgroup of infants at 3 months of age. Results Infants with the highest prenatal exposure to PCB congeners CB-28, CB-52 and CB-101 had an increased risk of respiratory infection during the study period. In contrast, the infection odds ratios (ORs) were highest among infants with the lowest prenatal mono-ortho PCB (CB-105, CB-118, CB-156, CB-167) and di-ortho PCB (CB-138, CB-153, CB-180) exposure, and postnatal mono- and di-ortho PCB, and p,p'-DDE exposure. Similar results were found for pre- and postnatal CB-153 exposure, a good marker for total PCB exposure. Altogether, a negative relationship was indicated between infections and total organochlorine compound exposure during the whole pre- and postnatal period. Prenatal exposure to CB-28, CB-52 and CB-101 was positively associated with numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes in infants 3 months after delivery. Prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE was negatively associated with the percentage of eosinophils. No significant associations were found between PCB and p,p'-DDE exposure and numbers/percentages of lymphocyte subsets, after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion This hypothesis generating study suggests that background exposure to PCBs and p,p'-DDE early in life modulate immune system development. Strong correlations between mono- and di-ortho PCBs, and p,p'-DDE exposures make it difficult to identify the most important contributor to the suggested immunomodulation, and to separate effects due to pre- and postnatal exposure. The suggested PCB and p,p'-DDE modulation of infection risks may have consequences for the health development during childhood, since respiratory infections early in life may be risk factors for asthma and middle ear infections.

Glynn, Anders; Thuvander, Ann; Aune, Marie; Johannisson, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Ronquist, Gunnar; Cnattingius, Sven



Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway  

SciTech Connect

Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes.

Chan, Tom S. [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada)], E-mail:; Wilson, John X. [Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, 14214 (United States); Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada); Poon, Raymond [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); O'Brien, Peter J. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3M2 (Canada)



Survey of Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants (PCDD, PCDF, and PCB) in Fish Collected from the Polish Baltic Fishing Areas  

PubMed Central

Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, and ndl-PCBs were determined in five species of edible fish from the Baltic Sea (ICES 24–27): salmon (Salmo salar), Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus), sea trout (Salmo trutta m.trutta), and cod (Gadus morhua callarias). Marker PCBs were the dominant compounds (0.07–60.84?ng/g? w.w.), followed by dl-PCBs (0.64–6.07?pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and PCDD/PCDFs (0.22–5.67?pg WHO-TEQ w.w). The concentration levels of contaminants varied between species. Salmon possessed the highest concentrations (up to 14.11 ± 2.36?pg WHO-TEQ/g? w.w.) and cod the lowest ones (0.84 ± 0.14?pg WHO-TEQ/g? w.w.). Congener profile in the fish tested had similar pattern. The largest contribution to the dioxin toxicity was caused successively by PCB 126, 118, 156, furans (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF), and two dioxins: 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although the dietary consumption of fish from southwest region of the Baltic Sea did not represent a risk for human health (because of very low consumption of marine fish), the excessive eating of some of them may be of significance importance for health of various subgroups of consumers (fishermen).

Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Maszewski, Sebastian; Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Goraj, Lukasz



Toxaphene and other organochlorine compounds in air and water at Resolute Bay, N.W.T., Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorinated bornanes (CHBs, e.g. toxaphene) and other organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in air and surface water at Resolute Bay, N.W.T., during August 1992 to determine summertime levels in the Arctic and the net direction of air-sea gas exchange. Mean concentrations in air (pg\\/m3) were: hexachlorocyclohexanes (?-HCH + ?-HCH) = 124, CHBs = 6.9, endosulfan I = 4.0, chlordanes +

Terry F. Bidleman; Renee L. Falconer; Michael D. Walla



Fate and assessment of persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment from Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine compounds were analyzed in surface water, porewater and surficial sediment samples from Minjiang River Estuary, which is the first large river in Fujian Province, Southeast of China. The total concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides were 214.4–1819, 4541–13699 ng\\/l, 28.79–52.07 ng\\/g in surface water, porewater and sediments (dry weight) respectively, and those of 21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the

Z. L. Zhang; H. S. Hong; J. L. Zhou; J. Huang; G. Yu



Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Behaviors Associated With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorines are environmentally persistent contaminants that readily cross the placenta, posing a potential risk to the developing fetus. Evidence for neurodevelopmental effects at low levels of these compounds is growing, though few studies have focused on behavioral outcomes. The authors investigated the association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p#-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p#-DDE) levels and behav- iors associated with attention deficit

Sharon K. Sagiv; Sally W. Thurston; David C. Bellinger; Paige E. Tolbert; Larisa M. Altshul; Susan A. Korrick



Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs in a Southern Atlantic Coastal Lagoon Watershed, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

There recently have been increasing interest in South America on organic pollutants from the coastal marine environment. This\\u000a study intended to seek out the occurrence and distribution of persistent organochlorine compounds in the Mar Chiquita coastal\\u000a lagoon watershed. The levels were measured in sediments and associated crabs. Though a significant number of PCBs (mainly\\u000a penta- and hexachlorinated congeners) were detected,

M. L. Menone; J. E. Aizpún de Moreno; V. J. Moreno; A. L. Lanfranchi; T. L. Metcalfe; C. D. Metcalfe



Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants and Enantiomeric Signatures of Chiral Pollutants in Ringed Seals ( Phoca hispida ) Collected on the East and West Side of the Northwater Polynya, Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the influence of diet and age on organochlorine contaminant (OC) concentrations in two closely related ringed seal\\u000a (Phoca hispida) populations enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of chiral contaminants and stable isotopes of nitrogen (?15N) and carbon (?13C) were measured along with OCs in ringed seals collected from the east and west side of the Northwater Polynya. Seals from\\u000a these two

A. T. Fisk; M. Holst; K. A. Hobson; J. Duffe; J. Moisey; R. J. Norstrom



Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in Euphausia superba and unhatched eggs of Pygoscelis genus penguins from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica) and estimation of biomagnification factors.  


Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides are compounds that do not occur naturally in the environment and are not easily degraded by chemical or microbiological action. In the present work, those compounds were analysed in unhatched penguin eggs and whole krill collected in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica in the austral summers of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The compounds found in higher levels (in a wet weight basis) were, in most of the egg samples, the PCBs (2.53-78.7 ng g(-1)), DDTs (2.07-38.0 ng g(-1)) and HCB (4.99-39.1 ng g(-1)) and after Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, the occurrence seemed to be species-specific for the Pygoscelis genus. In all of the cases, the levels found were not higher than the ones in Arctic birds in a similar trophic level. The krill samples analysis allowed estimating the biomagnification factors (which resulted in up to 363 for HCB, one order of magnitude higher than DDTs and chlordanes and two orders of magnitude higher than the other groups) of the compounds found in eggs, whose only source of contamination is the female-offspring transfer. PMID:19917513

Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela



Inability to induce tympanic squamous metaplasia using organochlorine compounds in vitamin A-deficient red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).  


Previously, we reported that wild eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses contained higher body burdens of organochlorine (OC) compounds than those without the lesion. This lesion in captive chelonians is associated with turtles that are fed diets deficient in vitamin A. To examine the pathophysiology of this lesion and evaluate the relationship between OC burdens and vitamin A metabolism, we maintained red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) under different conditions of OC exposure and dietary vitamin A concentrations from August 2005 to February 2006. Dietary vitamin A concentration (0 or 5 international units/g in the diet) and OC exposure (no OC compound or the mixture of 2 mg/kg chlordane, 0.25 mg/kg aroclor, and 1 mg/kg lindane) did not affect histologic score based on degree of squamous metaplasia of the tympanic epithelium or levels of plasma or liver vitamin A among the study groups. The results of this study suggest that 6 mo of exposure to the selected OC compounds, or similar duration of reduced dietary vitamin A concentrations do not influence the formation of squamous metaplasia and aural abscesses in red-eared sliders. Further studies are required to determine whether the duration of the experiment was insufficient, the OC compounds selected were inappropriate, the dosing was incorrect, and whether there are other unknown mechanisms causing the reported association between OC exposure and aural abscesses seen in eastern box turtles. PMID:18689652

Kroenlein, Karl R; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Holladay, Steven D; Joyner, Priscilla H; Brown, Justin D; Griffin, Mark; Saunders, Geoffrey; Smith, Stephen A



Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. (National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))



Microemulsion-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.  


Soil contaminated by organic pollutants, especially chlorinated aromatic compounds such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane), is an environmental concern because of the strong sorption of organochlorine pesticide onto the soil matrix and persistence in the environment. The remediation of organochlorine pesticide contaminated soils through microemulsion is an innovative technology to expedite this process. The remediation efficiency was evaluated by batch experiments through studying the desorption of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (y-HCH) and sorption of microemulsion composed of Triton X-100, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in the soil-surfactant-water suspension system. The reduction of desorption efficiency caused by the sorption loss of microemulsion components onto the soil could be corrected by the appropriate adjustment of C/S (Cosurfactant/Surfactant) and O/S (Oil/Surfactant) ratio. The C/S and O/S ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 were suitable to desorb DDT and gamma-HCH from the studied soils because of the lower sorption of Triton X-100 onto the soil. Inorganic salts added in microemulsion increased the pesticides desorption efficiency of pesticides and calcium chloride has a stronger ability to enhance the desorption of DDT than sodium chloride. From the remediation perspective, the balance of surfactant or cosurfactant sorbed to soil and desorption efficiency should be taken into consideration to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides. PMID:22439580

Zhang, Yanlin; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhao, Zhenyong; Selvam, Ammaiyappan



Air monitoring in the Arctic: Results for selected persistent organic pollutants for 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic is generally considered to be a pristine environment and has few direct inputs of organochlorine compounds (OCs), including pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In spite of this, airborne concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are comparable to those in more populated and industrialized regions of North America and Europe. Atmospheric transport and condensation of

Phil Fellin; D. Dougherty; L. A. Barrie; Desiree Toom; Derek Muir; Norbert Grift; Lylie Lockhart; Brian Billeck



Organochlorine formation in magnesium electrowinning cells.  


The formation of organochlorines during the electrolytic production of magnesium was investigated using a laboratory-scale electrolytic cell having a graphite anode, a liquid aluminium alloy cathode, and a molten chloride electrolyte. The cell was operated at current densities ranging from 3000 to 10,000 A m(-2) and at temperatures ranging from 660 degrees C to 750 degrees C. Organochlorines were adsorbed from the cell off-gases onto silica gel, extracted with hexane, and determined by gas chromatography. All compounds identified were fully chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, the major components being hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachloroethylene, and octachlorostyrene. The total amount of organochlorines per tonne of magnesium produced decreased with electrolysis time and with current density and increased with operating temperature; it was also dependent on the type of graphite employed. The output of organochlorines varied from 5 to 20 g t(-1) of magnesium. PMID:11297394

Deutscher, R L; Cathro, K J



Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend < 0.0001). Serum organochlorine concentrations were highly reliable over the course of several months, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.86 to 0.98. Finally, there was evidence for a declining trend in organochlorine concentrations between samples collected between years 1994–1998 and those collected in 1999–2003. Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid), as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of ART outcomes in relation to organochlorine exposure.



Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility.  


Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. PMID:18851891

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J; Orazio, Carl E; Schmitt, Christopher J; Tillitt, Donald E




EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....


Organochlorine compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment from Baiyangdian Lake, North China: concentrations, sources profiles and potential risk.  


Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in nineteen surface sediment samples collected from Baiyangdian Lake and its inflowing river (Fuhe River) in North China. Total concentrations of OCPs, PCBs and PAHs in sediments ranged from 5.4 to 707.6 ng/g, 2.3 to 197.8 ng/g, and 101.3 to 6360.5 ng/g, respectively. The levels of contaminants in Fuhe River were significantly higher than those in Baiyandian Lake. For hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenytrichloroethanes (DDTs), alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDT were predominant isomers; while for PCBs, PCB 28/31, PCB 40/103, PCB 60, PCB 101, and PCB 118 were predominant congeners. Possible sources derived from historical usage for OCPs and incomplete combustion fuel, wood, and coal and exhaustion of boats or cars for PAHs. Risk assessment of sediment indicated that sediments in Fuhe River were likely to pose potential biological adverse impact. PMID:20397403

Hu, Guocheng; Luo, Xiaojun; Li, Fengchao; Dai, Jiayin; Guo, Jianyang; Chen, Shejun; Hong, Cao; Mai, Bixian; Xu, Muqi



Evaluation of organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) in two raptor species inhabiting a Mediterranean island in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Species that are at high levels of the food web have often been used as bioindicators to evaluate the presence of persistent\\u000a contaminants in ecosystems. Most of these species are long-lived, so pollutant burdens may be integrated in some complex way\\u000a over time. This makes them particularly sensitive to deleterious effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Birds have\\u000a been suggested

Begoña Jiménez; Rubén Merino; Esteban Abad; Josep Rivera; Kees Olie



Persistent Organochlorines and Organophosphorus Compounds and Heavy Elements in Common Whale ( Balaenoptera physalus) from the Western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 1998, a female specimen of common whale (Balaenoptera physalus) appeared dead in the western Mediterranean coast of Valencia (Spain). Analyses of whale tissues (blubber, liver and kidney) were carried out in order to elucidate the contamination pattern present in the whale, as indicator of the contaminants present in its habitat from the Mauretanian coast to Ligurian Sea, sited

F Hernández; R Serrano; A. F Roig-Navarro; Y Mart??nez-Bravo; F. J López



Distribution and behaviour of persistent organochlorine insecticides in paddy soil and sediments in the tropical environment: a case study in South India.  


Paddy soil and sediment samples collected from the Vellar River watershed, Tamil Nadu state, South India from December, 1987 to January, 1989 were analysed to understand the comprehensive behaviour of organochlorine insecticides (HCH and DDT) in the tropical environment. HCH (BHC) showed higher levels in soil during wet season, reflecting the application of technical HCH largely during the flowering season of rice. On the other hand, DDT residues were low and did not show a significant seasonal trend in soil or sediment, indicating small quantities of DDT utilized at present for agricultural purposes in India. When compared to soil, the residue levels in sediments are low and the seasonal variation is less pronounced. This indicates that in tropical watersheds, the relative flux of residues into the aquatic environment is smaller than the amount volatilized to the atmosphere. PMID:15092057

Ramesh, A; Tanabe, S; Murase, H; Subramanian, A N; Tatsukawa, R



Modeling the overall persistence and environmental mobility of sulfur-containing polychlorinated organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Experimental data on partition coefficients and environmental half-lives of sulfur analogs of polychlorinated organic compounds\\u000a are scarce. Consequently, little is known about their overall persistence and long-range transport potential, which are the\\u000a most vital measures in the environmental exposure assessment. We performed Multimedia Modeling of environmental fate and transport\\u000a to complement this paucity of scientific data. The

Aleksandra Mostr?g; Tomasz Puzyn; Maciej Haranczyk



Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters.  


In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude. PMID:19596160

Kirchner, M; Faus-Kessler, T; Jakobi, G; Levy, W; Henkelmann, B; Bernhöft, S; Kotalik, J; Zsolnay, A; Bassan, R; Belis, C; Kräuchi, N; Moche, W; Simoncic, P; Uhl, M; Weiss, P; Schramm, K-W



Effects of organochlorine compounds on cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in an immortal sea turtle cell line.  


Many classes of environmental contaminants affect the reproductive function of animals through interactions with the endocrine system. The primary components affected by endocrine active compounds (EACs) are the steroid receptors and the enzymes responsible for steroidogenesis. This study sought to develop an in vitro model for assessing EAC effects in sea turtles by examining their ability to alter cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) activity. Aromatase is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. This enzyme is critical in the sexual differentiation of reptiles which demonstrate temperature-dependent sex determination. An immortal testis cell line GST-TS from a green sea turtle was grown in culture at 30 degrees C in RPMI 1640 media. The cells were exposed to three known aromatase inducers; dexamethasone (Dex), 8Br-cyclic AMP, or human chronic gonadotropin (HCG) and one aromatase inhibitor 4-androstenol-dione (4-OHA). In addition, the GST-TS cells were exposed to 0.1-30 microM atrazine and 3-100 microM 4,4'-DDE. The inducing compounds that have been shown to increase aromatase activity in other systems failed to induce aromatase activity in the GST-TS cells, yet exposure to the inhibiting compound, 4-OHA, did result in a significant reduction. Atrazine (0.1, 1.0 and 10 microM) significantly induced aromatase activity following a 24 h exposure, and 4,4'-DDE inhibited the activity but only at cytotoxic concentrations (100 microM). Based on these results, this in vitro model can be useful in examining the endocrine effects of EACs in sea turtles. PMID:15178053

Keller, Jennifer M; McClellan-Green, Patricia


Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. (Agricultural Univ., Warsaw (Poland)); Ludwicki, J. (National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))



Influence of diet and other factors on the levels of organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue in Finland  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and five human adipose tissue samples were recovered during surgical operations of postmortem examinations of patients experiencing death due to traumatic injury. The sample donors were between the ages of 2 mo and 91 yr. Samples were analyzed by GLC-MS techniques for polychlorobiophenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) compounds, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and chlorinated phenols. Special attention was paid to the concentration of heptachlor epoxide, a metabolite of heptachlor, commonly used as an insecticide in the Finnish plywood industry. The mean concentrations of PCB, DDTs, HCB, and chlordanes were 0.26, 0.33, 0.02, and 0.007 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively, while the mean concentration of heptachlor epoxide was 2.3 The geometric means were 0.20, 0.28, 0.018, 0.0055, and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of PCB and DDT compounds in Finnish human adipose tissue has rapidly decreased during the last 10 years. The average concentrations were higher in south Finland than those in north Finland, and the results clearly indicate the prominent influence of fish meals and the age of sample donors on the pollutant concentrations in adipose tissue. The results were further analyzed and discussed with respect to sex, smoking habits, and number of childbirths of the sample donors. 44 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Pyysalo, H.; Moilanen, R.



Occurrence of PCBs, Organochlorine Insecticides, tris (4-Chlorophenyl)methane, and tris (4-Chlorophenyl)methanol in Human Breast Milk Collected from Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study determined the concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) in human breast milk from Cambodia. DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and TCPMe were detected in almost all the human breast milk samples analyzed, and the concentrations

Tatsuya Kunisue; Masayuki Someya; Mafumi Watanabe; Touch Seang Tana; Shinsuke Tanabe



Biomarker responses in European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) exposed to persistent organic pollutants. A field study in the Vaccarès lagoon (Camargue, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening of relevant biomarkers was carried out in order to evaluate metabolic and cellular damages in European eels exposed to a non-point source contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine compounds (OC) in a protected area, the Nature Reserve of Camargue (France). Investigations were focused on metabolic responses including detoxification mechanisms (biotransformation,

Astrid Buet; Damien Banas; Yan Vollaire; Eric Coulet; Hélène Roche



Environmental Indicator: Persistent Chemicals in Wildlife in British Columbia Primary Indicator: Concentration of DDE and PCBs in Great Blue Heron eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection and Use of Indicator: The concentration of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Great Blue Heron eggs is a state or condition indicator. It shows the presence of persistent contaminants in the environment and the effects of these long-lived organochlorines. These compounds have a high fat solubility and accumulate in the tissues of some animals (bioaccumulation). As a


[Detection of potentially carcinogenic compounds persisting in atmospheric air and having high priority for hygienic regulation].  


The algorithm for the choice of potentially carcinogenic compounds (PCS) among emitted into air and results of the study, undertaken for realization of this algorithm are presented. The investigation was carried out in Magnitogorsk - Russian town of black metallurgy - in frames of the other study, aimed to evaluation of the influence of atmospheric pollution on children's health and genomic instability. The 11 PCS for further profound study of biological activity were selected out of more than 300 PCS, persisting in the air. The carcinogenic activity for 6 compounds out of these 11 ones was already have been found out before, that testifies correctness of the created approach and its adequacy for detection PCS in atmospheric air. PMID:23457990

Ingel', F I; Legostaeva, T B; Antipanova, N A; Krivtsova, E K; Iurtseva, N A


A new threat to public health: organochlorines and food.  


Ambient levels of persistent toxic chemicals, chemicals that persist for decades in the environment, have reached levels high enough to affect the health of children. The organochlorines (PCBs, DDT and the dioxin family) accumulate in human adipose tissue. Pregnant women pass the contamination to their fetuses. The developing nervous system is the most vulnerable. Neurobehavioral deficits, including short-term memory loss, are detected in children born to mothers at the high end of the distribution curve of organochlorines. Humans are not alone in their susceptibility to these subtle effects. Wildlife exposed to the same spectrum of organochlorines as humans suffer a variety of behavioral changes. Rats and Rhesus monkeys fed diets containing the organochlorines under laboratory conditions exhibit behavioral changes that persist into adulthood. For humans, food provides 80 percent of organochlorine contamination. Meat, fish, dairy and commercial fruit are the main sources. A vegetarian diet including unsprayed fruit minimizes contamination. The ultimate solution to this public health problem is elimination of the organochlorines from the environment. PMID:1603449

Hall, R H



Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in ivory gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004.  


The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs. This study also provides the first account of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in ivory gulls. The most quantitatively abundant legacy organochlorines found in the ivory gull eggs were p,p'-DDE, SigmaPCB and oxychlordane. Concentrations of the organochlorines analyzed either decreased or showed little change between 1976 and 2004. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD in ivory gull eggs were greater than SigmaPCDF, and the non-ortho PCBs (primarily PCB-126) contributed the largest fraction to the total TEQ value in all years sampled. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and SigmaTEQ decreased from 1976 to 2004. In contrast, concentrations of the PBDEs steadily increased between 1976 and 2004 driven primarily by increases in BDE-47. Although concentrations of the persistent chlorinated compounds (i.e. organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs) reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for eggs of wild birds, we cannot rule out the possibility of synergistic/additive, sublethal effects. Very few studies have been carried out to evaluate the exposure-effect relationship of the persistent brominated compounds in avian species. Given the scarcity of information on toxicity threshold levels for PBBs and PBDEs in avian species, coupled with the trend toward increasing concentrations in ivory gulls, continued monitoring and further toxicological studies of these compounds are warranted. PMID:17412396

Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Grant Gilchrist, H; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken G



Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters  

SciTech Connect

The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.



Organochlorine pesticide residues in fish from Lake Naivasha and Tana River, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides such as DDT, dieldrin and lindane are pesticides used in agriculture and public health. The chemicals persist in the environment and accumulate in fatty tissues of living organisms. Toxicity of organochlorines in nontarget organisms is mainly due to chronic exposure to sublethal doses of the chemicals. Some of the documented detrimental effects of the pesticides in these organisms

J. C. Mugachia; L. Kanja; F. Gitau



Toxicities of “excessively” chlorinated organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now recognized that chlorine can combine with a large variety of organics present in waste waters to form stable organochlorinated compounds (JOLLEY 1973). Moreover, the possible entry of these stable organochlorines into supplies of drinking water has prompted the monitoring of these compounds in many localities (EPA 1974, HARRIS 1974). JOLLEY (1973) identified seventeen stable organochlorine compounds in

Bernice M. Katz; Glenn M. Cohen



Environmental occurrence of Q1, a C9H3C17N2 compound, that has been identified as a natural bioaccumulative organochlorine.  


Environmental appearance of Q1, a natural heptachloro compound with the molecular formula C9H3C17N2, was studied in samples from different sites all over the world. Q1 was expected to have a bipyrrole backbone, similar to other compounds ascribed to natural sources. A method for isolation of Q1 was developed by combination of adsorption chromatography on silica and normal phase HPLC with an amino phase. UV-detection of Q1 supports the aromatic character of the compound. The high levels detected in samples of marine mammals and birds suggested that Q1 is both a persistent and a bioaccumulative contaminant. This was underscored by calculated logK(ow) in the range of other lipophilic organohalogens. In accordance with earlier studies, highest Ql concentrations were found in the Southern Hemisphere, but with a highly selective GC/ECNI-MS-SIM method, detection of Q1 was also achieved in many samples from the Northern Hemisphere. In addition to marine mammals and birds. Q1 was also detected in fish from the Mediterranean Sea and the Antarctic. Traces were also detected in SRM 1588 certified cod liver oil, but Q1 was not detected in fish from Hong Kong and Lake Baikal. PMID:12002479

Vettery, Walter



Treatment of persistent organic compounds by integrated advanced oxidation processes and sequential batch reactor.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of improvement in the biodegradability of persistent organic compounds by pre-oxidation by using Sequential Batch Reactors (SBRs). Dichlorodiethyl ether (DCDE), a non-biodegradable compound, was used as a test chemical. Ozonation, Fenton reagent and ultra-violet light coupled with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H(2)O(2)) were used for oxidation of DCDE at levels of 50-100%. Pre-oxidized DCDE solutions were then subjected to SBR studies using activated sludge to determine the rate and extent of biodegradation of oxidation by-products. The results indicated that the biodegradability of pre-oxidized DCDE increased drastically, reaching an average of 90% for all three oxidation methods versus zero for non-oxidized DCDE. It was concluded that the results of SBR experiments may be better indicators of biodegradability of chemically-oxidized wastewaters due to significant acclimation of microorganisms in SBRs, which cannot be observed in conventional respirometric laboratory studies. PMID:19427015

Christensen, Alex; Gurol, Mirat D; Garoma, Temesgen



Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soils from South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples were collected from rice growing and industrial areas in South Korea and analysed for organochlorine pesticide content using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The soils were monitored for the presence of 18 organochlorine pesticides. The main pesticides found were ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin. The range of concentrations, for each compound, was respectively, 0.17–0.94, 0.77–2.97,

Jong-Hun Kim; Alistair Smith




EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....


Baseline occurrence of organochlorine pesticides and other xenobiotics in the marine environment: Caribbean and Pacific collections.  


This ongoing survey reports the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea surface slicks collected on a global circumnavigation. Hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds such as POPs are known to accumulate on the sea surface in slicks at concentrations many fold greater than the underlying water column, raising concerns about the ecological impacts due to the high biological activity associated with this zone. Six different categories of POPs were reported: chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane related compounds, organochlorine pesticides and other cyclodiene pesticides, DDTs and metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations ranged from <1ngL(-1) to 18.45?gL(-1). Ranking analysis indicates an independence of detected concentrations for each class of compounds and their geographical locations. Although concentrations observed were normally low and below commonly accepted toxic levels to animals and humans, they fall within the effective range of concentrations of many hormones and neurotransmitters, thus could potentially act as endocrine disrupters. PMID:23597795

Menzies, Robert; Soares Quinete, Natalia; Gardinali, Piero; Seba, Douglas



Formation of organochlorine by-products in bleached laundry.  


Laundering fabrics with chlorine bleach plays a role in health and hygiene as well as aesthetics. However, laundry bleaching may create chlorinated by-products with potentially adverse human health effects. Studies have shown that toxic chlorinated gases are produced in the headspace of washing machines when hypochlorite-containing bleach is used. Laundry bleaching has also been implicated in contributing dissolved organochlorine to municipal wastewater. However, there have been no reports of organochlorines produced and retained in fabric as a result of laundry bleaching. We have used a chlorine-specific X-ray spectroscopic analysis to demonstrate the formation of organochlorine by-products in cotton fabrics laundered with chlorine bleach under typical household conditions. Organochlorine formation increases at higher wash temperature. At least two pools of organochlorine are produced in bleached fabric: a labile fraction that diminishes over several months of storage time as well as a more stable fraction that persists after more than 1 year. Our results also suggest that residual hypochlorite remains in fabric after laundering with bleach, presenting the possibility of direct and sustained dermal contact with reactive chlorine. This study provides a first step toward identifying a new risk factor for elevated organochlorine body burdens in humans. PMID:23261123

Leri, Alessandra C; Anthony, Laura N



Blast from the past: melting glaciers as a relevant source for persistent organic pollutants.  


In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may represent a secondary source of persistent organic chemicals is investigated. To this end, a dated sediment core from a glacier-fed lake (Lake Oberaar, Switzerland) was analyzed for a wide range of persistent organic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, and synthetic musk fragrances. Input fluxes of all organochlorines increased in the 1950s, peaked in the 1960s-1970s, and decreased again to low levels in the 1980s-1990s. This observation reflects the emission history of these compounds and technical improvements and regulations leading to reduced emissions some decades ago. The input of synthetic musks remained at a high level in the 1950s-1990s, which is consistent with their relatively constant production throughout the second half of the 20th century. Since the late 1990s, input of all compound classes into the high-Alpine Lake Oberaar has increased sharply. Currently, input fluxes of organochlorines are similar to or even higher than in the 1960s-1970s. This second peak supports the hypothesis that there is a relevant release of persistent organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive glacier melting predicted for the future, our study indicates the potential for dire environmental impacts due to pollutants delivered into pristine mountainous areas. PMID:19924940

Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad



Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark); Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard [Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark); Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark)], E-mail:



Effects of Parental and Dietary Organochlorines on Survival and Body Burdens of Striped Bass Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of striped bass Morone saxatilis eggs from several parental sources differed in their concentrations of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), DDTs, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and chlordanes. Survival of both starved and fed larvae was inversely related to concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in these eggs. Changes in body burdens of these organochlorine compounds were calculated among larvae fed Artemia nauplii containing distinctive organochlorine

Deborah T. Westin; Charles E. Olney; Bruce A. Rogers



Associations between Weight Loss-Induced Changes in Plasma Organochlorine Concentrations, Serum T3 Concentration, and Resting Metabolic Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds are released from body fat into the bloodstream during weight loss. Because these compounds may impair thyroid status, which is implicated in the control of resting metabolic rate (RMR), the aim of this study was to determine if the augmentation in plasma organochlorine concentrations might be associated with the decrease in serum T3 concentration and RMR observed in

Catherine Pelletier; Eric Doucet; Pascal Imbeault; Angelo Tremblay



Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic.  


Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C(11)-C(15) PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. ?TEQ was comprised mainly of ?TEQ(PCDF). Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds. PMID:20863605

Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G



Dissipation of some organochlorine insecticides in cropped and uncropped soil.  


Dissipation of four organochlorine insecticides, viz. aldrin, HCH, chlordane and heptachlor was studied in a sandy loam soil with and without crops during a period of 10 cropping seasons. Dissipation of all chemicals followed first-order kinetics (r(2)=0.537 - 0.976) with almost similar persistence in cropped and uncropped soils for all the insecticides. The average half-lives, (t(1/2) values) for total residues of aldrin, HCH, chlordane, and heptachlor in cropped treatments were 80.7, 58.8, 93.2, and 110 days. Their respective values in fallow plots were 78.4, 83.8, 154, and 116 days. None of the parent compounds or their isomers could be detected below the 20 cm depth at the termination of the experiment. Highest residue concentrations were observed in the surface 10 cm layer in fallow plots, but in the deeper (10-20 cm) layer in cropped plots. Analysis of plants and grains showed significant residues of all the chemicals. Degradation of these compounds in cropped and uncropped plots is discussed with regard to their volatilization, microbial degradation, leaching, and plant uptake. PMID:15092134

Singh, G; Kathpal, T S; Spencer, W F; Dhankar, J S



Chlorinated and brominated persistent organic compounds in biological samples from the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven selected biological samples representing different ecosystems, trophic levels, and areas mainly in Sweden have been analyzed for 31 halogenated organic compounds or compound groups. The multiresidue analytical method provides a good opportunity to compare the concentrations of the different compounds in the investigated samples. By the use of ratios of these concentrations, comparisons can be done between species and

Bo Jansson; Renate Andersson; Lillemor Asplund; K. Litzen; Kerstin Nylund; U. Sellstroem; Ulla-Britt Uvemo; Cajsa Wahlberg; Ulla Wideqvist; T. Odsjoe; Mats Olsson



Arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines.  


Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides through traditional food resources was examined for Arctic Indigenous women living in two cultural and environmental areas of the Canadian Arctic--one community representing Baffin Island Inuit in eastern Arctic and two communities representing Sahtú Dene/Métis in western Arctic. Polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene, chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin were determined in local food resources as normally prepared and eaten. Quantified dietary recalls taken seasonally reflected normal consumption patterns of these food resources by women in three age groups: 20-40 y, 41-60 y and > or = 61 y. There was wide variation of intake of all organochlorine contaminants in both areas and among age groups for the Sahtú. Fifty percent of the intake recalls collected from the Baffin Inuit exceeded the acceptable daily intake for chlordane-related compounds and toxaphene, and a substantial percentage of the intake records for dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls exceeded the acceptable or tolerable daily intake levels. Primary contributing foods to organochlorine contaminants intake for the Baffin Inuit were meat and blubber of ringed seal, blubber of walrus and mattak and blubber of narwal. Important foods contributing organochlorine contaminant to the Sahtú Dene/Métis were caribou, whitefish, inconnu, trout and duck. The superior nutritional benefits and potential health risks of traditional food items are reviewed, as are implications for monitoring organochlorine contaminant contents of food, clinical symptoms and food use. PMID:7562084

Kuhnlein, H V; Receveur, O; Muir, D C; Chan, H M; Soueida, R



Body Burdens of Brominated Flame Retardants and Other Persistent Organohalogenated Compounds and their Descriptors in U.S. Girls  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in U.S. populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally-active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-to-8 years old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 36 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breastfeeding in adjusted models. Results Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9–855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breastfed, whose mothers were younger, or whose caregivers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and ?118. Conclusions Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.

Windham, Gayle C.; Pinney, Susan M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Lum, Raymond; Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L.; Biro, Frank M.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.



A Clinical Trial of Kampo Formulae for the Treatment of Symptoms of Yusho, a Poisoning Caused by Dioxins and Related Organochlorine Compounds  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) on the symptoms of Yusho. Yusho is a mass food poisoning that was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with dioxins and related organochlorines in 1968. Patients with Yusho suffer from skin symptoms (acneform eruptions, liability to suppuration and pigmentation), respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration of sputum), neurological symptoms (numbness and paresthesia of extremities), arthralgia and general fatigue, and no effective treatment has yet been developed. In this clinical trial, four Kampo formulae (Bakumondo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosha-jinki-gan and Hochu-ekki-to) were administered to four representative Yusho symptoms (respiratory, skin, neurological symptoms and general fatigue), respectively. Twenty-seven Yusho patients were enrolled and two formulae were administered to each patient for half-a-year each. The effectiveness of Kampo formulae was estimated by changes in the intensity of symptoms measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 100 mm recorded at baseline and after administration of each formula. The influence of Kampo formulae on patients' quality of life (QOL) was also assessed by the SF-36 (NBS). Twenty-five patients completed the treatment. Bakumondo-to significantly improved respiratory symptoms as well as patients' QOL in the context of vitality, compared with other formulae. In contrast, Hochu-ekki-to impaired patients' QOL in the context of physical functioning and vitality, compared with other formulae. This study demonstrated for the first time that a Kampo formula Bakumondo-to is useful for treating respiratory symptoms caused by dioxins.

Uchi, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Mitoma, Chikage; Shibata, Satoko; Hamada, Naoki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kajiwara, Junboku; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Furue, Masutaka



A clinical trial of kampo formulae for the treatment of symptoms of yusho, a poisoning caused by dioxins and related organochlorine compounds.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) on the symptoms of Yusho. Yusho is a mass food poisoning that was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with dioxins and related organochlorines in 1968. Patients with Yusho suffer from skin symptoms (acneform eruptions, liability to suppuration and pigmentation), respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration of sputum), neurological symptoms (numbness and paresthesia of extremities), arthralgia and general fatigue, and no effective treatment has yet been developed. In this clinical trial, four Kampo formulae (Bakumondo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosha-jinki-gan and Hochu-ekki-to) were administered to four representative Yusho symptoms (respiratory, skin, neurological symptoms and general fatigue), respectively. Twenty-seven Yusho patients were enrolled and two formulae were administered to each patient for half-a-year each. The effectiveness of Kampo formulae was estimated by changes in the intensity of symptoms measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 100 mm recorded at baseline and after administration of each formula. The influence of Kampo formulae on patients' quality of life (QOL) was also assessed by the SF-36 (NBS). Twenty-five patients completed the treatment. Bakumondo-to significantly improved respiratory symptoms as well as patients' QOL in the context of vitality, compared with other formulae. In contrast, Hochu-ekki-to impaired patients' QOL in the context of physical functioning and vitality, compared with other formulae. This study demonstrated for the first time that a Kampo formula Bakumondo-to is useful for treating respiratory symptoms caused by dioxins. PMID:19996156

Uchi, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Mitoma, Chikage; Shibata, Satoko; Hamada, Naoki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kajiwara, Junboku; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Furue, Masutaka



Environmental and biological monitoring of persistent fluorinated compounds in Japan and their toxicities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) comprise a class of per- and poly-fluorinated compounds\\u000a that have been detected in the environment as well as in humans. The aim of this review is to summarize several monitoring\\u000a studies in Japan and characterize the toxicokinetics of these compounds. We found that the levels of contamination by these\\u000a compounds had unique patterns

Kouji H. Harada; Akio Koizumi



Organochlorine pollution in tropical rivers (Guadeloupe): role of ecological factors in food web bioaccumulation.  


Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon were measured in a tropical freshwater ecosystem to evaluate the contamination level of biota and examine the bioaccumulation patterns of pollutants through the food web. Chemical analyses showed a general and heavy contamination of the entire food web. They revealed the strong accumulation of pollutants by juveniles of diadromous fishes and shrimps, as they re-enter the river. The role of ecological factors in the bioaccumulation of pesticides was evaluated. Whereas the most persistent pollutants (chlordecone and monohydro-chlordecone) were related to the organisms diet and habitat, bioaccumulation of ?-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. The biomagnification potential of chlordecone through the food chain has been demonstrated. It highlighted the importance of trophic transfer in this compound bioaccumulation process. In contrast, bioconcentration by passive diffusion from water seemed to be the main exposure route of biota to ?-HCH. PMID:21440344

Coat, Sophie; Monti, Dominique; Legendre, Pierre; Bouchon, Claude; Massat, Félix; Lepoint, Gilles



Organochlorine residues in booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) eggs from southeastern Spain.  


Most organochlorine (OC) use has been banned in Spain, but these compounds are persistent and may still adversely affect predatory birds. Data generally are lacking, however. Residues of hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 22 failed eggs of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from southeastern Spain; both species are declining in this region. Hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDE, and sum PCB congener concentrations were significantly higher in booted eagle than in goshawk eggs, and an inverse relationship was found between shell thickness and DDE concentrations in booted eagles. Organochlorides may have been associated with the failure of some booted eagle eggs, but concentrations in booted eagle and goshawk eggs decreased over the period during which populations have dwindled. Thus, although OCs may be a contributory factor, they are unlikely to be the primary cause of the recent population declines in southeastern Spain. PMID:17941741

Martinez-Lopez, Emma; Maria-Mojica, Pedro; Martinez, Jose E; Calvo, Jose F; Wright, Julian; Shore, Richard F; Romero, Diego; Garcia-Fernandez, Antonio J



Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. (National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))



Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Behaviors Associated With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in School-Aged Children  

PubMed Central

Organochlorines are environmentally persistent contaminants that readily cross the placenta, posing a potential risk to the developing fetus. Evidence for neurodevelopmental effects at low levels of these compounds is growing, though few studies have focused on behavioral outcomes. The authors investigated the association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) levels and behaviors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), measured with the Conners’ Rating Scale for Teachers (CRS-T), in a cohort of 607 children aged 7–11 years (median age, 8.2 years) born in 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford, Massachusetts. The median umbilical cord serum level of the sum of 4 prevalent PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180) was 0.19 ng/g serum (range, 0.01–4.41 ng/g serum). The authors found higher risk for ADHD-like behaviors assessed with the CRS-T at higher levels of PCBs and p,p?-DDE. For example, the authors found higher risk of atypical behavior on the Conners’ ADHD Index for the highest quartile of the sum of 4 PCB congeners versus the lowest quartile (risk ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.92) and a similar relation for p,p?-DDE. These results support an association between low-level prenatal organochlorine exposure and ADHD-like behaviors in childhood.

Sagiv, Sharon K.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bellinger, David C.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.



Chlorinated and brominated persistent organic compounds in biological samples from the environment  

SciTech Connect

Eleven selected biological samples representing different ecosystems, trophic levels, and areas mainly in Sweden have been analyzed for 31 halogenated organic compounds or compound groups. The multiresidue analytical method provides a good opportunity to compare the concentrations of the different compounds in the investigated samples. By the use of ratios of these concentrations, comparisons can be done between species and areas. An attempt to describe an environmental distribution profile is demonstrated for some of the compounds using the concentration ratio between these compounds and 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153). Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were found in all samples and in some of them at higher concentrations than the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ratio of CP to PCB 153 is higher in the investigated terrestrial species than in the aquatic, which is not the case for the other compounds. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were also found in all but one sample. The concentrations were highest in industrialized areas but were also present in samples from background areas. Seven major cogeners of PCBs were determined; the sum ranged from 50 to 200,000 ng/g lw in the investigated samples. Three coplanar PCB congeners were also analyzed as well as polychlorinated naphthalenes, which were found at levels between 0.038 and 50 ng/g lw. The latter two groups do not seem to biomagnify in the foot chain of herring to grey seal to the same extent as the major PCB compounds. Pentachlorobenzene was found in only three of the samples, whereas hexachlorobenzene was present in all samples.

Jansson, B.; Andersson, R.; Asplund, L.; Litzen, K.; Nylund, K.; Sellstroem, U.; Uvemo, U.; Wahlberg, C.; Wideqvist, U. (Stockholm Univ., Solna (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research); Odsjoe, T.; Olsson, M. (Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden). Section for Vertebrate Zoology)



Environmental occurrence of Q1, a C 9H 3Cl 7N 2 compound, that has been identified as a natural bioaccumulative organochlorine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental appearance of Q1, a natural heptachloro compound with the molecular formula C9H3Cl7N2, was studied in samples from different sites all over the world. Q1 was expected to have a bipyrrole backbone, similar to other compounds ascribed to natural sources. A method for isolation of Q1 was developed by combination of adsorption chromatography on silica and normal phase HPLC with

Walter Vetter



Organic Contaminants in Canadian Municipal Sewage Sludge. Part II. Persistent Chlorinated Compounds and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five sewage sludge samples collected across Canada were analyzed for 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 17 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven selected chlorinated compounds. Samples were prepared by accelerated solvent extraction and standard column cleanup procedures using silica gel and Florisil. Gas chromatography with electron-capture detection was used for the determination of PCBs. Gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry with elec-

Jagmohan Kohli; Hing-Biu Lee; Thomas E. Peart


Organochlorine compounds in liver and concentrations of vitellogenin and 17beta-estradiol in plasma of sea bass fed with a commercial or with a natural diet.  


Results from previous experiments directed to determine the effect of different nutritional factors or the effect of xenobiotics on hormonal control of reproduction, lead to the hypothesis that hormonal perturbations repeatedly observed in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) broodstock feeding commercial diets could have been caused by the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, such as dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the diet. To evaluate this hypothesis, dioxins and related compounds were analysed in liver of female sea bass fed with a commercial or with a natural diet consisting of trash fish (bogue, Boops boops), and concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) were determined in plasma obtained previously in monthly samplings of these animals. As observed in other experiments, females fed with a commercial diet exhibited lower VTG and higher E2 plasma levels than females fed with the natural diet. In liver, sea bass fed with the commercial diet exhibited a profile clearly dominated by high-chlorinated dioxins while in fish fed with the natural diet this profile was dominated by low chlorinated furans. However, typical AhR ligands, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin showed no differences between groups or, as is the case of planar PCBs, showed higher concentrations in the liver of fish fed with the natural diet. These results do not permit to explain the observed hormonal alterations by a possible antiestrogenic effect caused by dioxins and related compounds. PMID:16213605

Navas, J M; Merino, R; Jiménez, B; Rivera, J; Abad, E; Zanuy, S; Carrillo, M



Organochlorines, including chlordane compounds and their metabolites, in peregrine-falcon, prairie-falcon, and clapper-rail eggs from the USA.  


Four compounds present in technical chlordane (trans- and cis-nonachlor, and tentatively MC-2 and MC-5) and three metabolites of chlordane (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, and U-4) were identified by GC/MS in peregrine-falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum) eggs. Levels of Heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were quantified by GC/ECD in peregrine-falcon eggs from the US east coast, Colorado, and California; and in prairie-falcon (Falco mexicanus) and light-footed-clapper-rail (Rallus longirostris levipes) eggs from California. The eggs were collected between 1986 and 1989. Oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were detected in every egg analyzed. Heptachlor, trans-, and cis-chlordane were either not detected, or present at low levels in the eggs. The highest Sigmachlordane levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a geometric mean (geom. mean) concentrations of 1800 microg/kg (ppb); the lowest levels of Sigmachlordane were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 120 microg/kg (geom. mean). Of the technical chlordane compounds measured, MC-2 bioaccumulated to the greatest degree. SigmaDDT levels in the falcons ranged from 11 000 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the Colorado samples to 8800 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the East Coast and California peregrines. SigmaDDT levels in the rail eggs were 3000 microg/kg (geom. mean). The highest SigmaPCB levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a concentration of 14 000 microg/kg (geom. mean); the lowest levels of SigmaPCB were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 350 microg/kg (geom. mean). PMID:15091821

Jarman, W M; Norstrom, R J; Simon, M; Burns, S A; Bacon, C A; Simoneit, B R



Atmospheric transport of organochlorines in the North Atlantic gyre  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) circulating over the North Atlantic were measured during 1977-78 at Barbados and during the 1977 summer at the southern tip of Newfoundland. Total organochlorines were collected using a glass fiber filter backed up by a polyurethane foam trap, and were analyzed by electron capture gas chromatography on packed and glass capillary columns. Filter-retained organochlorines were < 10% of the total. Compounds identified at both locations were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a-and y-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), high and low molecular weight PCB, cis-and trans-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, and dieldrin. A clear gas chromatography (gc) pattern for polychloroterpenes (toxaphene) was obtained in Newfoundland. Several Barbados samples had a GC pattern suggestive of polychloroterpenes, but the match with a toxaphene standard was not considered good enough for quantitation. Quantitative values could not be obtained for HCB, HCH, or low molecular weight PCB because of poor collection efficiency by polyurethane foam at the high air volumes samples (1200-3500 m/sup 3/). Collection efficiency tests in Columbia, SC indicated that the other organochlorines were effectively retained. Pesticide concentrations measured from shipboard on a cruise across the trades region agreed well with those from the land-based stations, indicating that our measurements were representative of North Atlantic background levels. Estimates of organochlorine residence times in the North Atlantic troposphere ranged from 45-70 days, based on Junge's (1974) relationship between residence time and concentration variability.

Bidleman, t.F.; Christensen, E.J.; Billings, W.N.; Leonard, R.



Selective Killing of Bacterial Persisters by a Single Chemical Compound without Affecting Normal Antibiotic-Sensitive Cells?†  

PubMed Central

We show that 3-[4-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]piperidin-4-yl biphenyl-4-carboxylate (C10), screened out of a chemical library, selectively kills bacterial persisters that tolerate antibiotic treatment but does not affect normal antibiotic-sensitive cells. C10 led persisters to antibiotic-induced cell death by causing reversion of persisters to antibiotic-sensitive cells. This work is the first demonstration in which the eradication of bacterial persisters is based on single-chemical supplementation. The chemical should be versatile in elucidating the mechanism of persistence.

Kim, Jun-Seob; Heo, Paul; Yang, Tae-Jun; Lee, Ki-Sing; Cho, Da-Hyeong; Kim, Bum Tae; Suh, Ji-Hee; Lim, Hee-Jong; Shin, Dongwoo; Kim, Sung-Koo; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk



Organochlorine Concentrations in Bonnethead Sharks ( Sphyrna tiburo ) from Four Florida Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their persistence in aquatic environments and ability to impair reproduction and other critical physiological processes, organochlorine (OC) contaminants pose significant health risks to marine organisms. Despite such concerns, few studies have investigated levels of OC exposure in sharks, which are fish particularly threatened by anthropogenic pollution because of their tendency to bioaccumulate and biomagnify environmental contaminants. The present

J. Gelsleichter; C. A. Manire; N. J. Szabo; E. Cortés; J. Carlson; L. Lombardi-Carlson



Organochlorine contaminants in the Great Lakes: The risks are real and demand action  

SciTech Connect

This article supports the conclusions of the report of the International Joint Commission which includes a strategy for the virtual elimination of 11 persistent toxic substances from the Great Lakes. The author presents evidence of toxicity of organochlorine contaminants and strongly advocates a phase-out approach of certain chlorine-based industrial processes. 16 refs., 2 figs.

Eder, T.; Schmidt, W. [Great Lakes Natural Resource Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)



Size-related bioaccumulation and between-year variation of organochlorines in ice-associated amphipods from the Arctic Ocean.  


Organochlorines are found even in organisms living in remote areas such as the Arctic marginal ice zone. Organochlorine concentrations in ice-associated (sympagic) amphipods are related to their diet. Therefore, the size-dependent diet shift of Gamunarus wilkitzkii may influence its organochlorine content. In this preliminary study, the organochlorine concentrations in two size classes (small < or = 29 mm and large >29 mm) of G. wilkitzkii were analysed. The concentrations of more lipophilic compounds [e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were lower in the small than the large size class, whereas concentrations of less lipophilic compounds [e.g. hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs)] did not differ by size class. Since contamination transport by the atmosphere, ocean currents and sea ice may vary, the organochlorine burden in sympagic organisms may also vary. There are no data available on temporal variation of organochlorine burden in Arctic sympagic fauna. Therefore, we compared organochlorine concentrations in sympagic amphipods (G. wilkitzkii, Apherusa glacialis and Onisimus spp.) between 1998 and 1999. Organochlorine concentrations in all amphipods were low in both years, with sum organochlorines from 50.7 to 621.9 ngg(-1) lipid weight. The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes, DDTs and PCBs were higher in 1999 than 1998, whereas the HCH concentrations were lower in 1999 than 1998. The organochlorine concentrations differed between the taxa in both years in a similar increasing manner from A. glacialis to both G. wilkitzkii and Onisimus spp In studies of bioaccumulation relative to body size and temporal variation, a thorough interpretation requires samples from several size classes and years. Nevertheless, the present data provide new knowledge on contaminants in Arctic invertebrates where data are scarce. PMID:12002465

Borgå, Katrine; Gulliksen, Bjørn; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Skaare, Janneche Utne



Evidence of natural organochlorine formation in peat bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat samples from four ombrotrophic and two minerotrophic peat bogs in New Brunswick, Canada, have been analyzed for polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD\\/DF's) as well as other organochlorine compounds. Data from each bog show occasional low levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra-through octachloro dioxins and furans. Mono-through trichlorodioxins and furans have also been identified.A consistent pattern was observed among the TCDD's and

Peter J. Silk; Greg C. Lonergan; Todd L. Arsenault; C. David Boyle



Passive air sampling of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides across Europe.  


This study presents concurrently sampled ambient air data for a range of persistent organic pollutants at the continental scale. This was achieved using a passive air sampling system, deploying polyurethane foam disks, which was prepared in one laboratory, sealed to prevent contamination, sent out by courier to volunteers participating in different countries, exposed for 6 weeks, collected, resealed, and returned to the laboratory for analysis. Europe was the study area--a region with a history of extensive POPs usage and emission and with marked national differences in population density, the degree of urbanization and industrial/agricultural development. Samplers were deployed at remote/rural/urban locations in 22 countries and analyzed for PCBs, a range of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, ppDDT, ppDDE), and PBDEs. Calculated air concentrations were in line with those obtained by conventional active air sampling techniques. The geographical pattern of all compounds reflected suspected regional emission patterns and highlighted localized hotspots. PCB and PBDE levels varied by over 2 orders of magnitude; the highest values were detected in areas of high usage and were linked to urbanized areas. HCB was relatively uniformly distributed, reflecting its persistence and high degree of mixing in air. Higher gamma-HCH, ppDDT, and ppDDE levels generally occurred in South and East Europe. PMID:14740714

Jaward, Foday M; Farrar, Nick J; Harner, Tom; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C



Interseasonal variation in blood concentrations of organochlorines in great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus).  


In two subsequent breeding seasons (2001 and 2002), we measured 12 organochlorines (OCs), including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), oxychlordane, and eight polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), in the blood of the same 25 great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus). The wet-weight concentrations of different OCs in the blood decreased between 45 and 60% from 2001 to 2002. The main reasons for this were lower blood-lipid concentrations and higher body condition in 2002 compared to 2001. The differences in blood lipids and body condition probably resulted from changes in the availability of different prey types between the years. Despite the variation in the blood concentrations of OCs, there was a high predictability of the relative relationship among individuals between the years, especially for the most-persistent compounds (persistent PCBs, oxychlordane, and DDE); that is, individuals with high levels in 2001 still had relatively high levels compared to other individuals in 2002. This suggests that a concentration obtained from a single blood sample is a relatively reliable measurement of OC burdens for individual great black-backed gulls compared to other individuals, independent of changes in mean OC levels within the population. However, by including information about the nutritional status of individuals, more precise interference from samples in different years and locations may be made. Moreover, the great seasonal variation in OC levels within individuals may have implications for how OC monitoring should be conducted in gull populations. PMID:16050599

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Berg, Vidar; Tveraa, Torkild



Levels of organochlorine insecticides in human blood from Ahmedabad (rural), India  

SciTech Connect

Assessments of human exposure to persistent organochlorine insecticides (OCI) through biological monitoring offers a profound criteria to evaluate the magnitude of potential health risk, if any, due to use of these chemicals. Residues of these chemicals especially DDT and HCH have been identified and reviewed in man and his environment from different parts of the world however, by comparison very high levels of DDT and its metabolites have been reported in human body fat, blood and milk samples in India. Since there is a definite relationship between the amount of DDT and its residues in blood and those present in human fat depot, blood can be easily be used for assessing the total body burden of persistent OCI in various populations. In view of fragmentary reports on the levels of DDT and HCH in human blood samples from India which categorically pertain to the general population of urban areas like Delhi and Lucknow. The authors attempted to provide a database on residues of DDT and HCH including other cyclodiene compounds, e.g. heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, oxygchlordane, HCB and dieldrin in blood samples collected from general population of Ahmedabad (rural) area.

Bhatnagar, V.K.; Patel, J.S.; Variya, M.R.; Venkaiah, K.; Shah, M.P.; Kashyap, S.K. (National Inst. of Occupational Health, Gujarat (India))



Accumulation levels of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue and blood  

SciTech Connect

Because of their persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, the use of organochlorine pesticides, technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and pp{prime}-DDT, has been prohibited since 1971 in Japan. Furthermore, chlordane which had been applied for termite control has the potential for bioaccumulation and the use of it has been also prohibited since 1986. These chemicals can enter human body through a food chain or by inhalation of vapors. However, few data on chlordane residue in human adipose tissue are available in Japan. The aims of the present study were to assess the levels of organo-chlorine chemicals in adipose tissue and blood of Japanese and to examine the relationship between them.

Sasaki, Kumiko; Ishizaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuharu; Uchiyama, Mitsuru (National Inst. of Hygenic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan))



Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in anhingas and waders  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residues of organochlorine compounds occur commonly in environmental samples and have been associated with adverse effects in numerous avian species. The affected species are usually terminal consumers, generally those feeding on aquatic organisms (primarily fish) or birds. Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus , and certain herons are among the species that have exhibited shell thinning in some regions. In 1972, we began a study to determine: (1) geographic differences in the occurrence of environmental pollutants in Anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and waders in the eastern United States; (2) differences in environmental pollutant levels among those species nesting at the same localities; and (3) whether eggshell thickness had changed since the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides began in the mid-1940's.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.



A comparative study on the uptake and translocation of organochlorines by Phragmites australis.  


Organochlorines (OCs) are persistent chemicals found in various environmental compartments. The differences in the uptake of (14)C-labeled 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?HCH) by Phragmites australis were investigated under hydroponic conditions. The first step in sorption appears to be correlated with the hydrophobic nature of the compounds, since log-linear correlations were obtained between root concentration factor and partition coefficient (LogK(ow)). After 7 days of exposure, plant uptake of DCB, TCB, ?HCH was significant with bioconcentration factors reaching 14, 19 and 15, respectively. Afterwards, uptake and translocation were seen to be more complex, with a loss of the simple relationship between uptake and LogK(ow). Linear correlations between the bioconcentration/translocation factors and the physico-chemical properties of OCs were shown, demonstrating that translocation from roots to shoots increases with solubility and volatility of the OCs. This suggests that OC-translocation inside plants might result from the combination of two processes, xylem sap flow and vapor fluxes. (14)C-phytovolatilization was measured and was correlated with the volatility of the compounds; the more volatile OCs being most the likely to be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces (p=0.0008). Thus, OC-uptake/translocation appears to proceed at a rate that depends mostly on the OCs hydrophobicity, solubility and volatility. PMID:23246941

San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick; Raveton, Muriel



Derivation of a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) related to the maximum contaminant level goal for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent water soluble compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water soluble compounds persistent in humans and the environment pose a challenge for estimating safe levels in tap water. A viable approach to estimate a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to its extensive relevant information from human and laboratory animal studies. PFOA has been identified at 3.5?g\\/L (mean) in tap water in proximity to

Robert G. Tardiff; M. Leigh Carson; Lisa M. Sweeney; Christopher R. Kirman; Yu-Mei Tan; Melvin Andersen; Christopher Bevan; Michael L. Gargas



Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.  


A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 ?g kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 ?g kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 ?g kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants. PMID:23998305

Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J



Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota.  


Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient>5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination. PMID:14972581

Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Plötz, Joachim



Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring gulls and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring gulls. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring gulls, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring gulls. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants.

Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P



Occurrence of PAHs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the Tonghui River of Beijing, China.  


Tonghui River, a typical river in Beijing, People's Republic of China, was studied for its water and sediment quality, by determining the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 18 organochlorine pesticides in water and sediment samples. Total PAHs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides concentrations in water varied from 192.5 to 2651 ng/l, 31.58-344.9 ng/l and 134.9-3788 ng/l, respectively. The total PAHs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides concentrations in surficial sediments were 127-928 ng/g, 0.78-8.47 ng/g and 1.79-13.98 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The results showed that the concentration of these selected organic pollutants in sediment was higher than those in surface water. It may be due to the fact that organic hydrophobic pollutants tend to stay in the sediments. The PAHs were dominated by 2-, 3-ring components in water samples and by 3- and 4-ring compounds in sediment. For organochlorines, alpha-HCH, delta-HCH, Heptachlor, Endosulfan II, DDT are the major organochlorine pesticides in water while Heptachlor, Dieldrin and DDE composed of 95% of total organochlorine pesticides in sediment. For HCHs (HCHs=alpha-HCH+beta-HCH+gamma-HCH+delta-HCH), the predominance of alpha-HCH of total HCHs were clearly observed in water and sediment. PCB18, PCB31 and PCB52 were predominant in water, on average these compounds collectively accounted for 67% of total PCBs. But in sediment, the predominant compounds were PCB28, PCB31 and PCB153, which accounted for 71% of total PCBs in sediment. The levels of micro pollutants in our study areas were compared with other studies. PMID:15158038

Zhang, Zulin; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Hong, Huasheng



Organochlorines in the Vaccarès Lagoon trophic web (Biosphere Reserve of Camargue, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a decade (1996–2006), ecotoxicological studies were carried out in biota of the Vaccarès Lagoon (Biosphere Reserve in Rhone Delta, France). A multicontamination was shown at all levels of the trophic web due to a direct bioconcentration of chemical from the medium combined with a food transfer. Here, the pollutants investigated were organochlorines, among which many compounds banned or in

H. Roche; Y. Vollaire; A. Persic; A. Buet; C. Oliveira-Ribeiro; E. Coulet; D. Banas; F. Ramade



Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are one of the flame retardants widely used in plastics, textiles, electronic appliances, and electrical household appliances. In this study, PBDEs and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the archived samples from the Environmental Specimen Bank for Global Monitoring (es-BANK) at Ehime University. The blubber of cetaceans found stranded along the coasts of Japan, Hong Kong,

Natsuko Kajiwara; Satoko Kamikawa; Karri Ramu; Daisuke Ueno; Tadasu K. Yamada; Annamalai Subramanian; Paul K. S. Lam; Thomas A. Jefferson; Maricar Prudente; Kyu-Hyuck Chung; Shinsuke Tanabe




Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of fish and sea mammals can be an important source of exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) and heavy metals in populations relying on seafood for subsistence. Exposure to these substances, especially during the prenatal period, has been shown to induce immunotoxic effects in mammals. Immunological status was assessed in 48 newborns from a remote maritime population living on

Marthe Belles-Isles; Pierre Ayotte; Eric Dewailly; Jean-Philippe Weber; Raynald Roy



Organochlorine residues in animals from three Louisiana watersheds in 1978 and 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination by various chemicals is a problem of constant occurrence. In order to determine the levels of harmful chemicals in the environment, monitoring programs have been set up throughout the United States. In 1964, the National Pesticide Monitoring Program was set up to include sites in Louisiana (such as watersheds) to assess the presenc& of organochlorine compounds including insecticides

Patrick F. Dowd; George U. Mayfield; Dwayne P. Coulon; Jerry B. Graves; John D. Newsom



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in urban air of Konya, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in urban air samples of Konya, Turkey between August 2006 and May 2007. The concentrations of pollutants in both the gas and particulate phase were separately analysed. The average total (gas + particulate) concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs were determined as 206 ng m - 3 , 0.106 ng m - 3 , 4.78 ng m - 3 respectively. All of the investigated target compounds were dominantly found in the gas phase except OCPs. Higher air concentrations of PAHs were found at winter season while the highest concentrations of PCBs were determined in September. The highest OCPs were detected in October and in March. In urban air of Konya, PCB 28 and PCB 52 congeners represent 46% and 35% of total PCBs while Phenanthrene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene accounted for 29%, 13%, 10% of total PAHs. HCH compounds (? + ? + ? + ?-HCH), total DDTs ( p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT), Endosulfan compounds (Endosulfan I, Endosulfan II, Endosulfan sulfate) were dominantly determined as 30%, 21%, 20% of total OCPs respectively. Considering the relation between these compounds with temperature, there was no significant correlation observed. Despite banned/restricted use in Turkey, some OCPs were determined in urban air. These results demonstrated that they are either illegally being used in the course of agricultural activity and gardens in Konya or they are residues of past use in environment. According to these results, it can be suggested that Konya is an actively contributing region to persistent organic pollutants in Turkey.

Ozcan, Senar; Aydin, Mehmet Emin



Persistent DDE in the Mesopotamian wetlands of southern Iraq.  


Screening of potential pollutants in surface sediments revealed that almost all persistent organochlorine pesticides were not detected in the newly flooded Mesopotamian wetlands of southern Iraq. This observation suggests that there has been minimal input of organochlorine pesticides recently except for p,p'-DDE which was the only pesticide residue detected (0.29-2.33 microg/kg). It was found in all samples indicating its ability to persist under severe drying of previously exposed surface sediments, high temperature, and intensive solar radiation. p,p'-DDE appears to have a negative relationship with wetland biota, such as zooplankton. PMID:19294328

DouAbul, Ali A Z; Mohammed, Sama S; Warner, Barry G; Asada, Taro



Comparison of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls residues in vegetables, grain and soil from organic and conventional farming in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic and conventional crops were studied by identifying the relationship between persistent organic pollutants in cereals, vegetables and soil. The residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in grains (rye and wheat), vegetables (carrots and beets) and soil collected from the fields. PCB residues recorded in the beets from organic farming were as high as 3.71 ppb

Agata Witczak; Hassan Abdel-Gawad



Determinants of organochlorine levels detectable in the amniotic fluid of women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorines (OCs) tend to accumulate in human tissues and can be measured in amniotic fluid (AF). The detection of OCs in AF samples reflects intrauterine exposure of human beings to these persistent organic pollutants. The present study was performed to evaluate the level of contamination of AF by OCs in 100 pregnant women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Gas

Octavio P. Luzardo; Vikesh Mahtani; Juan M. Troyano; Margarita Álvarez de la Rosa; Ana I. Padilla-Pérez; Manuel Zumbado; Maira Almeida; Guillermo Burillo-Putze; Carlos Boada; Luis D. Boada



Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as perfluoroalkyl acids and brominated compounds, and type 2 diabetes. Experimental data are needed to confirm the causality of these POPs, which will shed new light on the pathogenesis of diabetes. This new information should be considered by governmental bodies involved in the regulation of environmental contaminants.

Novak, Raymond F.; Anderson, Henry A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Blystone, Chad; DeVito, Michael; Jacobs, David; Kohrle, Josef; Lee, Duk-Hee; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Turyk, Mary E.; Boyles, Abee L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lind, Lars



Trace elements and organochlorines in the shoalgrass community of the lower Laguna Madre Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objectives were to measure concentrations of seven trace elements and 14 organochlorine compounds in sediment and biota of the shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii) community of the lower Laguna Madre of south Texas [USA] and to determine whether chemicals associated with agriculture (e.g. mercury, arsenic, selenium, organochlorine pesticides) were highest near agricultural drainage. Arsenic, mercury, selenium, lead, cadmium, and organochlorines were generally at background concentrations throughout the lower Laguna Madre. Nickel and chromium concentrations were exceptionally high in shrimp and pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), which is difficult to explain because of no known anthropogenic sources for these trace elements. For sediment and blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), mercury was highest near agricultural drainages. Also, DDE was more frequently detected in blue crabs near agricultural drainages than farther away. In contrast, selenium concentrations did not differ among collecting sites and arsenic concentrations were lowest n shoalgrass, blue crabs, and brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) near agricultural drainages.

Custer, T. W.; Mitchell, C. A.



Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected organochlorines in Lake Superior fish, USA  

SciTech Connect

Walleye, whitefish and whitefish livers, lake trout, and siscowet lake trout were collected from the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior. Carp were obtained from a Lake Michigan tributary near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Each fish species was analyzed for 89 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 12 selected organochlorines, and total lipids. Congener profiles varied greatly between the fish species. Carp and whitefish contained tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyl congeners, such as 28 + 31, 63, and 66 + 95 in the highest concentrations. Siscowet trout contained the more heavily chlorinated penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyl congeners such as 153, 89, 138 + 163, 180, 182 + 187, and 170. In addition to the highly chlorinated PCB congeners routinely examined in Great Lakes fish, many lower chlorinated, ortho-substituted PCB congeners are also commonly found. These lower chlorinated congeners have known effects in laboratory animals but may be overlooked by analytical techniques in which Aroclor standards or mixtures of selected congeners are used for quantitation. A congener-specific approach including both the lower chlorinated ortho-substituted PCB congeners and the more highly chlorinated congeners should be implemented to better assess the interactions and toxicities of individual congeners and other persistent compounds.

Gerstenberger, S.L.; Dellinger, J.A. [Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine; Gallinat, M.P. [Red Cliff Tribal Fisheries Dept., Bayfield, WI (United States)



Endocrine disruption induced by organochlorines (OCs): field studies and experimental models.  


Long-range transport of persistent organic compounds by air and ocean currents from industrialized areas resulted in high levels of these pollutants in food webs in the Svalbard area. With the aim to test if organochlorine (OC) exposure in free-living polar bears from Svalbard affected their plasma steroid hormone concentrations, it was found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were associated with increased progesterone levels in females. The sum of pesticides (sigma pesticides) and sigma PCBs contributed significantly negative to the variation of the plasma testosterone in males, and the overall contribution of the OCs to the plasma cortisol variation was negative. A second objective was to study the effects of selected OCs (i.e., PCB 153 and PCB 126) on animal health as a consequence of effects on endocrine-regulated functions such as reproduction and immunity in a goat model focusing on long-term and low-level exposure during the periods of fetal development and in the neonatal period. Additionally, acute exposure was studied in adult mice. The results indicated that exposure to low doses of PCB 153 in utero and in the suckling period influenced reproductive functions and both PCB 153 and PCB 126 exerted immunomodulatory effects on the offspring, whereas acute exposure of adult mice had minor effects on male reproductive function. PMID:16291562

Ropstad, Erik; Oskam, Irma C; Lyche, Jan L; Larsen, Hans J; Lie, Elisabeth; Haave, Marte; Dahl, Ellen; Wiger, Richard; Skaare, Janneche Utne



Organochlorine contamination in anuran amphibians of an artificial lake in the semiarid midwest of Argentina.  


Artificial water reservoirs are important for fauna in arid-semiarid regions, because they provide suitable habitats for species that depend on water, such as amphibians. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are toxic, persistent compounds that tend to bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate. We evaluated contaminant levels in anurans from an artificial lake (Embalse La Florida) in a semiarid region of the Midwest Argentina. This lake is one of the few sources of permanent water in the area. OCPs were detected in all individuals. Levels ranged from 2.34 +/- 0.62 ng/g wet mass of heptachlors to 9.76 +/- 1.76 ng/g wet mass of hexachlorocyclohexanes. The distribution pattern of OCP was Sigma HCH > Sigma DDT > endosulfan > Sigma chlordane > metoxichlor > Sigma aldrin > Sigmaheptachlor. Contaminant levels in individuals were positively correlated with contaminant levels in the water. Burden differed between species, but not among sites differing in water contaminant levels. Results suggest that anurans may concentrate OCPs and thus provide an important source of exposure for amphibian predators. This study provides important information for potential risk assessment of amphibians in the region and contributes to our understanding of the extent of OCP contamination. PMID:18368436

Jofré, Mariana B; Antón, Rosa I; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique



Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seafood from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).  


Seven target polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) and the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its related metabolites (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) were quantified in edible tissues from seven marine species (European hake, red mullet, blue whiting, Atlantic mackerel, blue and red shrimp, European flying squid, and Mediterranean mussel) from the Gulf of Naples in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). PCBs 118, 138, and 153 were the dominant congeners in all the species examined. The concentrations of all PCBs (from not detectable to 15,427 ng g(-1) fat weight) exceeded those of all the DDTs (from not detectable to 1,769 ng g(-1) fat weight) and HCB (not detectable to 150.60 ng g(-1) fat weight) in the samples analyzed. The OCP concentrations were below the maximum residue limits established for fish and aquatic products by the Decreto Ministerale 13 May 2005 in all the samples analyzed; therefore the OCPs in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea species are unlikely to be a significant health hazard. Conversely, the mean concentrations of PCBs exceeded (greatly in some cases) the current limits (200 ng(-1) fat weight) set by the European Union for terrestrial foods. Although the manufacture and use of PCBs are banned or highly restricted, these compounds still are important persistent chemical contaminants in the Gulf of Naples. PMID:17388063

Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cirillo, Teresa; Naso, Barbara; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Lucisano, Antonia; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio



Organochlorine contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic.  


Organochlorine pesticides (DDT, chlordane, polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), dieldrin, hexachloroheclohexanes (SigmaHCH), mirex), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and chlorobenzenes (SigmaCBz) were determined in blubber and liver of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) collected during 1982-1983 from Pond Inlet on northern Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. PCCs were the predominate organochlorines in narwhal blubber, ranging in concentration from 2990 to 13 200 ng g(-1) (wet wt) in males and from 1910 to 8390 ng g(-1) in females. PCCs consisted of two major components, an octachlorobornane and a nonachlorobornane with gas chromatographic retention times of 1.05 and 1.22, relative to 4,4'-DDE. SigmaPCB concentrations in blubber ranged from 2250 to 7290 ng g(-1) in males and from 894 to 5710 ng g(-1) in females. Seven PCB congeners (tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls) accounted for 45% of total PCB (SigmaPCB) in narwhal blubber. Narwhal had 1.4- to 8.6-fold higher ratios of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls to PCB-153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl), lower 4,4'-DDE/SigmaDDT ratios and lower proportions of trans-nonachlor to total chlordane components than reported for odontocetes living in more contaminated environments. Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in narwhal were 6- to 15-fold lower than in dolphins from the Canadian east coast and belugas from the St Lawrence River estuary, respectively, while PCC levels were from 4- to about 2-fold lower, and SigmaHCH, dieldrin and SigmaCBz differed by <2-fold. The pattern of organochlorines in narwhal tissues suggests they are exposed to proportionally more volatile compounds, and may have less capacity to metabolize some of these compounds, relative to odontocetes living nearer sources of these contaminants. PMID:15092019

Muir, D C; Ford, C A; Grift, N P; Stewart, R E; Bidleman, T F



Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds manufactured in South China.  


Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in fish feeds (including trash fish and compound feed) manufactured in South China, were analyzed. PHHs were ubiquitous in fish feeds, with the concentrations of OCPs, PBDEs, and PCBs at the upper, mid, and lower levels of the global range. Trash fish generally contained higher concentrations of DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU), especially p,p'-DDT and low-brominated PBDEs, while compound feeds had higher concentrations of highly brominated BDEs, e.g., BDE-209. In addition, no concentration difference of HCHs and PCBs was found between trash fish and compound feeds. The habit of direct use of trash fish as fish feeds has induced the accumulation of DDXs in aquatic species in China, and trash fish collected in South China seemed to be slightly hazardous to wildlife because of the concentrations of DDXs. The results from the present study suggest that the use pattern of fish feeds in China may have to be adjusted to minimize contamination of fishery products and wildlife by PHHs. Use of compound feeds produced with controlled procedures should be encouraged, whereas that of trash fish should be restricted, at least for now. PMID:19326952

Guo, Ying; Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Zeng, Eddy Y



Global expression profile of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial compounds in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa reveals evidence of persister cells.  


Investigations of biofilm resistance response rarely focus on plant-pathogenic bacteria. Since Xylella fastidiosa is a multihost plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilm in the xylem, the behavior of its biofilm in response to antimicrobial compounds needs to be better investigated. We analyzed here the transcriptional profile of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in response to inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of copper and tetracycline. Copper-based products are routinely used to control citrus diseases in the field, while antibiotics are more widely used for bacterial control in mammals. The use of antimicrobial compounds triggers specific responses to each compound, such as biofilm formation and phage activity for copper. Common changes in expression responses comprise the repression of genes associated with metabolic functions and movement and the induction of toxin-antitoxin systems, which have been associated with the formation of persister cells. Our results also show that these cells were found in the population at a ca. 0.05% density under inhibitory conditions for both antimicrobial compounds and that pretreatment with subinhibitory concentration of copper increases this number. No previous report has detected the presence of these cells in X. fastidiosa population, suggesting that this could lead to a multidrug tolerance response in the biofilm under a stressed environment. This is a mechanism that has recently become the focus of studies on resistance of human-pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics and, based on our data, it seems to be more broadly applicable. PMID:22730126

Muranaka, Lígia S; Takita, Marco A; Olivato, Jacqueline C; Kishi, Luciano T; de Souza, Alessandra A



Organochlorine formation in magnesium electrowinning cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of organochlorines during the electrolytic production of magnesium was investigated using a laboratory-scale electrolytic cell having a graphite anode, a liquid aluminium alloy cathode, and a molten chloride electrolyte. The cell was operated at current densities ranging from 3000 to 10,000 A m?2 and at temperatures ranging from 660°C to 750°C. Organochlorines were adsorbed from the cell off-gases

R. L. Deutscher; K. J. Cathro



Organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue in Spain: Study of an agrarian area  

SciTech Connect

The environmental pollution by persistent organochlorine residues has received much attention in the last years because of its possible effects on wildlife and human health. These residues - organochlorine insecticides, hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in minor levels, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) - are accumulated in lipid-rich tissues. Their concentrations in adipose tissues of human populations are the best indices in determining the extent of exposure and in evaluating the hazard. In a previous study on the urban population of Barcelona (Spain) during the years 1982-83, high levels of DDE, DDT, /beta/-HCH and HCB were determined. Recently the incidence of HCB in Barcelona has been confirmed by serum determinations. In the present paper the authors have investigated the levels of organochlorine residues - with special concern on HCB- in human adipose tissues from an agrarian area, located at 130 km from Barcelona, mainly devoted to fruit-trees and cereal culture. Results obtained will form part of an up-to-date report on organochlorine pollution in Spain, including several populations of different geographical and socioeconomic characteristics, that will make it possible to identify the sources and trends of this contamination.

Camps, M.; Planas, J.; Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Corbella, J.



Organochlorine concentrations in balb eagles; brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation.  


Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination. PMID:7328713

Barbehenn, K R; Reichel, W L


Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.



The organochlorine contamination history of the Mersey estuary, UK, revealed by analysis of sediment cores from salt marshes.  


Sediment profiles in the Banks, Ince and Widnes Warth salt marshes in Northwest England contain a mappable record of historic pollution. For persistent organochlorine compounds this stretches back over 90 years. The PCB and HCH profiles can be successfully rationalised by dating methods, and they can be related to the dates of initial production and subsequent withdrawal from use of these chemicals as a result of restrictive environmental legislation. HCB has a more complex pollution profile as it has been manufactured in Northwest England, both deliberately as a pesticide and accidentally as a by-product of several chlorination processes, dating back to the start of the 20th century. The concentrations of degradation products of DDT are relatively constant through the sediment profile and are dominated by op'- and pp'-DDD with only minor contributions from the most toxic species, pp'-DDT. The quantities of these compounds resident in the reservoir of pollutants under these marshes have been calculated, and have fallen progressively in the last 30-50 years. PMID:11468966

Fox, W M; Connor, L; Copplestone, D; Johnson, M S; Leah, R T



Persistence of carbamate insecticides, carbosulfan and carbofuran in soils as influenced by temperature and microbial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbamate insecticides are used increasingly in agriculture as a replacement for environmentally more persistent organochlorines for broadspectrum control of insect pests of crops including certain insect pests not controlled by organochlorine or organophosphorus insecticides. Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7benzofuranyl N-methylcarbamate), a broadspectrum insecticide, is one of the widely used carbamate insecticides in rice culture, especially for controlling brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal), a

Anusmita Sahoo; Siddhartha K. Sahu; M. Sharmila; N. Sethunathan



Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.  


The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution. PMID:20189196

Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela



[Levels of selected organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances in blood--Polish WWF study].  


In June 2004, blood samples of fifteen volunteers were analyzed for presence of selected groups of chemical contaminants. The aim of this survey organized by WWF Poland (World Wildlife Fund) was highlighting the problem of man-made, persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals constantly present in surrounding environment and in our tissues. It was a part of European WWF "Detox" campaign supporting proposal of a new EU regulation that should lead to the identification and phasing out of the most harmful chemicals (known as REACH). Three laboratories in Czech Republic, Sweden and Belgium have analyzed blood samples for presence of the following groups of contaminants: organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated pesticides), phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances. The total number of single chemicals found in the blood samples was 25, that represents 64% of the 39 chemicals looked for. The average number of compounds found in the samples was 21 (from 19 to 22). Among organochlorine compounds analyzed, the predominant chemical found in the highest concentration was p,p'-DDE (range from 130 to 1310 ng/g of fat), which similarly like p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, and HCB (concentrations ranging from 6,4 to 46 ng/g of fat) was present in every person's blood. Among analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls, in all samples the following congeners have been present: PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 (concentrations ranging from 3,7 to 61 ng/g of fat). The two predominant phtalates from total eight analyzed present in all samples were di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (concentration range from 49 to 293 ng/g of blood) and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) (concentration range from 10 to 63 ng/g of blood). Among fifteen perfluorinated aliphatic substances analyzed, six have been present in each single sample (perfluorohexanesulfonic acid - PFHxS, perfluorooctanoic acid - PFOA, perfluorooctane-sulfonic acid - PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonylamide - PFOSA, perfluorononanoic acid - PFNA, and perfluorododecanoic acid - PFDA). The predominant compound in this class of contaminants was PFOS with the concentration ranging from 4,4 to 14 ng/ml of blood. The limited number of samples does not allow for making an analysis of potential impact of different factors on concentrations of particular contaminants in human blood. Results obtained in this survey confirm the ubiquitous contamination by a cocktail of hazardous chemicals of every person tested. Humans being a part of the environment are being contaminated with the same chemicals which are present in surrounding air, water, food, consumer articles, etc. PMID:17044303

Struci?ski, Pawe?; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech



Contamination by Persistent Chemical Pesticides in Livestock Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of persistent organic pesticides represents one of the major environmental problems as reported in several studies\\u000a and reflected in some mandatory actions at the inter-governmental level. In particular, isomers of Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH),\\u000a like many others Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), are of human health and environmental concern due to their persistence\\u000a in the biosphere. In industrialised countries, Lindane (the ?-isomer

Bruno Ronchi; Pier Paolo Danieli


Monitoring of persistent, lipophilic pollutants in water and sediment by solvent-filled dialysis membranes  

SciTech Connect

Dialysis membranes filled with solvents can be used to monitor persistent, lipophilic pollutants in marine and fresh water environments, to predict levels of bioavailable compounds in organisms, and to study bioaccumulation mechanisms. The membranes are filled with n-hexane and exposed for 1 to several weeks in the water or in the sediment. The solvent impregnates the membrane, makes it unsuitable for periphyton growth, and prevents bacterial degradation. The membranes can also be used in environments too polluted for biological indicators to survive. The use of membranes with a molecular weight cutoff of 1000 Da prevents substances of higher molecular weight from diffusing through their walls, thereby simplifying the cleanup procedure. Internal standards in the solvent can be quantified to ensure that the membrane functions properly during the exposure. Uptake and depuration of organochlorine residues by the membranes seem to be governed by equilibrium partitioning.

Soedergren, A. (Lund Univ., Ecotoxicology (Sweden))



Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.  


A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W


Organochlorine residues in woodcock wings, 11 states--1970-71  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A survey of organochlorine residues in woodcock wings was undertaken to determine whether these wings are suitable for showing regional differences in residues and to obtain a baseline in 1970-71 for later comparisons. Woodcock wings were obtained from the annual hunter's wing survey. Samples came from eight States (Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin) and one tri-State area (North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia). Wings from the tri-State area contained significantly higher (P<0.01) concentrations of DDT (including DDT, DDD, and DDE) than those from other States. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) also were significantly higher (P<0.05) in samples from these three States. Wings from Louisiana and the tri-State area had significantly higher (P<0.01) concentrations of dieldrin than wings from the other States, and those from Louisiana had significantly higher (P < 0.01) concentrations of mirex than those from other States. (Residues are on lipid base) The compounds detected and the ranges of residue means for all sampling areas were as follows: Total DDT (5.89--65.15 ppm); DDT (0.34 m--14.93 ppm); DDE (4.66--47.47 ppm); DDD (0.11--3.44 ppm); mirex (0.76--16.93 ppm); dieldrin (0.09--3.06 ppm); and PCB's (4.27--8.63 ppm). Woodcock wings appear to be suitable for determining regional differences in organochlorine residues in this species.

McLane, M.A.R.; Stickel, L.F.; Clark, E.R.; Hughes, D.L.



Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in osprey eggs — 1970–79 — and their relationships to shell thinning and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected in 14 states in 1970–79 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury. Moderate shell thinning occurred in eggs from several areas. DDE was detected in all eggs, PCBs in 99%, DDD in 96%, dieldrin in 52%, and other compounds less frequently. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites declined in eggs from

Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Christine M. Bunck; Alexander J. Krynitsky



Mussel watch: marine pollution monitoring of butyltins and organochlorines in coastal waters of Thailand, Philippines and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination by butyltin (BTs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in green mussels collected along the coastal areas of Thailand, Philippines and India during the period of 1994–1997 was examined. The BT residues in green mussel were widely detected, suggesting a widespread contamination along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Relatively high concentrations of BTs in green mussel were found in

Shinsuke Tanabe; Maricar S Prudente; Supawat Kan-atireklap; Annamalai Subramanian



Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in blubber and liver tissue collected from Queensland (Australia) dugong ( Dugong dugon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue samples of liver and blubber were salvaged from fifty-three dugong (Dugong dugon) carcasses stranded along the Queensland coast between 1996 and 2000. Liver tissue was analysed for a range of heavy metals and blubber samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds. Metal concentrations were similar in male and female animals and were generally highest in mature animals. Liver concentrations of

David Haynes; Steve Carter; Caroline Gaus; Jochen Müller; William Dennison



Certain organochlorine and organobromine contaminants in Swedish human milk in perspective of past 20–30 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations of organochlorine compounds in breast milk from women living in the Stockholm region started in 1967. The present study summarises the investigations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), naphthalenes (PCNs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and pesticides (DDT, DDE, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin) as well as methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs and DDE in human milk sampled during different periods

Koidu Norén; Daiva Meironyté



Distribution and sources of organochlorinated contaminants in sediments from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea).  


Eighteen surface sediment samples representative of the entire Izmir Bay were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This was in order to provide extensive information concerning the recent deposition of these compounds in this area, together with levels, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk. Sites that were contaminated by high concentrations of organochlorine compounds were associated with dense population, such as the harbour and the Gediz River estuary. Relatively higher ?DDT concentrations and high DDT/DDE+DDD ratios in the Gediz River estuary indicated DDT usage, probably linked to public health emergencies. According to the established guidelines for sediment quality, the risk of adverse biological effects from such levels of OCPs and PCBs as recorded at most of the study sites was insignificant. But the higher concentrations in Inner bay and in the Gediz River estuary could cause biological damage. PMID:21463880

Pazi, I; Kucuksezgin, F; Gonul, L T



Serum Organochlorine Pesticide Residues and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 20–34. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, sub-optimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess anti-androgenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p’-DDE, and whether the p,p-DDE-TGCC association is modified by CAG or GGN repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 18–44 year-old male residents of three Washington State counties. Cases (n=246) were diagnosed during 1999–2003 with a first, primary TGCC. Controls (n=630) were men of similar age with no history of TGCC from the same population identified through random-digit telephone dialing. Questionnaires elicited information on demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A blood specimen provided serum for gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues, and DNA for genotyping. We observed no clear patterns between TGCC risk and concentrations of any of the organochlorines measured, nor did we observe that the risk associated with p,p’-DDE was modified by AR CAG (<23 vs.23+ repeats) or GGN (<17 vs.17+ repeats) genotype. This study does not provide support for the hypothesis that adult exposure to organochlorine pesticides is associated with risk of TGCC. Due to uncertainty regarding how well organochlorine levels measured in adulthood reflect exposures during early life, further research is needed using exposure measurements collected in utero or during infancy.

Biggs, Mary L.; Davis, Mark D.; Eaton, David L.; Weiss, Noel S.; Barr, Dana B.; Doody, David R.; Fish, Sherianne; Needham, Larry L.; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M.



Organochlorine Contamination in Bald Eagle Eggs and Nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Unhatched eggs and plasma samples from prefledged bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from a recovering population in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin were contaminated with organochlorine compounds at levels\\u000a comparable to those reported for eagle populations in several areas of the United States. PCBs were among the most commonly\\u000a detected contaminants and occurred at high concentrations in plasma. Plasma PCB

G. M. Donaldson; J. L. Shutt; P. Hunter



Organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in ground water and surface waters of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey undertaken in Kanpur, northern India, has shown the presence of high concentrations of both organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in the surface and ground water samples. Liquid–liquid extraction followed by GC-ECD was used for the determination of these compounds. Among the various pesticides analyzed, high concentrations of ?-HCH (0.259 ?g\\/l) and malathion (2.618 ?g\\/l) were detected in the surface

Nalini Sankararamakrishnan; Ajit Kumar Sharma; Rashmi Sanghi



Land-based sources of marine pollution: organochlorine pesticides in stream systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been dispersed ubiquitously in the environment. Bottom sediments act as sinks for these\\u000a compounds and their concentrations often reflect the degree of anthropogenic pollution. This study was designed to evaluate\\u000a the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in superficial streambed sediments and their relation to land use in two creeks that\\u000a contribute to the coastal pollution of

Karina S. B. Miglioranza; Julia E. Aizpún de Moreno; Victor J. Moreno



Vertical profiles of organochlorine pesticides in sediment core from Nile river and Manzala lake, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, HCB and chlordane compounds) were determined in core samples collected from Nile River near by Cairo and Manzala Lake, Egypt in 1994. Regional difference and vertical profiles were discussed in view of historical reconstruction of environmental pollution by these chemicals. On the basis of estimated sedimentation rate (0.5 to 0.7 cm\\/year) in Manzala

Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Shigeki Masunaga; Mohamed S. Rizk; Yoshikuni Urushigawa



Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet’s crocodile ( Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-viable eggs of Morelet’s crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n=24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and

Ted H Wu; Thomas R Rainwater; Steven G Platt; Scott T McMurry; Todd A Anderson



Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-five surface sediment samples covering virtually the entire Bohai Sea (Bohai) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in order to provide the extensive information of recent occurrence levels, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of these compounds in this area. Concentrations of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in Bohai ranged widely from 0.24 to 5.67ngg?1 (mean 1.36±0.93ngg?1) and

Limin Hu; Gan Zhang; Binhui Zheng; Yanwen Qin; Tian Lin; Zhigang Guo



Organochlorine and heavy metal contaminants in wild mink in western Northwest Territories, Canada.  


The mink (Mustela vision) is a top trophic level species that readily bioaccumulates environmental pollutants and is considered to be a sensitive indicator of ecosystem health. Spatial trends in levels of organochlorine and heavy metal contaminant burdens were determined from 1991 to 1995 for wild mink from western Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Tissue samples from 207 mink from seven communities were analyzed for residues of 63 organochlorines and 10 heavy metals. All groups of organochlorines were detected in mink livers at relatively low levels; maximum community means were 9.52 ng/g sigma DDT and 73.07 ng/g sigma PCB (sum of 43 congeners). There was a general trend of decreasing organochlorine burdens along a northerly or westerly gradient for some groups of compounds, primarily sigma DDT, sigma PCB, sigma chlordane and dieldrin. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of mink liver tissue were low, with the maximum community mean of 0.28 pg/g wet weight (5.5 pg/g lipid weight). Levels of heavy metal burdens in liver and kidney tissues were found to be relatively low, with the exception of Hg, which was found at moderate levels. There was no obvious geographic trend to the pattern of heavy metal burdens. The available evidence suggests that long-range atmospheric transport is the main source of the organochlorine contaminants observed. Local conditions (geology, water and soil chemistry, diet, etc.) may determine heavy metal burdens. Levels of contaminants in NWT mink appear to be one to two orders of magnitude lower than levels observed to cause reproductive impairment, reduced survival of kits, or lethality in adult mink. In the western NWT mink may be the best indicator to assess trends in environmental contaminants and ecosystem health; periodic monitoring is recommended. PMID:9543512

Poole, K G; Elkin, B T; Bethke, R W



Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in the Atoya river basin, Chinandega, Nicaragua.  


The hydrographic basin of the Atoya river, located in the Department of Chinandega, one of the main cotton producing regions in Nicaragua, is intensively contaminated by pesticides. Samples of river waters and sediments, as well as strategically selected wells have been analyzed to study variations in the concentrations of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues between the dry season (November-April) and the rainy season (May-June). Generally, higher concentrations of pesticides have been detected in the river waters and sediments in the dry season. DDT, DDD, DDE compounds and toxaphene are the most frequent organochlorine residues found in the water and sediment samples, while endrin, aldrin, dieldrin and lindane are mainly found in the waters of rivers and wells. Organophosphorus compounds were rarely detected. However, residues of ethion, methyl-parathion and ethyl-parathion were found in high concentrations in some river and well water samples. Generally, organochlorine compounds tend to accumulate in the fine grain-size fractions, rich in organic matter, except DDE, which concentrates basically in the coarse grain-size fractions. PMID:15092831

Castilho, J A; Fenzl, N; Guillen, S M; Nascimento, F S



Seasonal and temporal trends in polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in East Greenland polar bears ( Ursus maritimus), 1990–2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs)) were determined in adipose tissue of 92 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled between 1999 and 2001 in central East Greenland (69°00?N to 74°00?N). OC data were presented from subadults (S: females: ×5 years and males: ×6 years), adult females (F: ×5 years) and adult males (M: ×6

R. Dietz; F. F. Riget; C. Sonne; R. Letcher; E. W. Born; D. C. G. Muir



Recent trends in organochlorine residues in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Mersey Estuary.  


Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) taken from several sites in the Mersey Estuary, an urban-industrial water body in NW England, have been analyzed for residues of the persistent organochlorines, DDT, PCB congeners nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 (ICES7), and alpha-MHCH (alpha-methyl hexachlorocyclohexane). The concentration range for sigmaPCB (ICES7) was 13.9-34.9 microg kg(-1) in 1994 compared with 9.6-31.9 microg kg(-1) in 1998, whilst the equivalent concentrations of sigmaDDT were 8.9-32.4 microg kg(-1) and 4.5-16.8 microg kg(-1), respectively. The concentration of alpha-MHCH, an organochlorine largely restricted to the Mersey Estuary, was 1.2-11 microg kg(-1) in 1994 and 0.3-1.3 microg kg(-1) in 1998. At both sampling dates the inner estuary sites of Rock Ferry and Egremont were more contaminated than the outer estuary sites of New Brighton. Dove Point and Caldy Blacks. The lower concentrations of organochlorines in mussels in 1998 compared with 1994 are thought to be early evidence of significant improvements in water quality derived from major capital investment in the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage wastewater, linked to a combination of stricter legislative controls and the environmental benefits from the adoption of new, clean technologies in manufacturing. PMID:11763145

Connor, L; Johnson, M S; Copplestone, D; Leah, R T



Adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed Central

In this nested case-control study we examined the relationship between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and organochlorine pesticide exposure. We used a data set originally collected between 1969 and 1983 in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Adipose samples were randomly collected from cadavers and surgical patients, and levels of organochlorine pesticide residues were determined. From the original study population, 175 NHL cases were identified and matched to 481 controls; 173 controls were selected from accident victims, and 308 from cases with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Cases and controls were mainly from cadavers (> 96%) and were matched on sex, age, region of residence within the United States, and race/ethnicity. Conditional logistic regression showed the organochlorine pesticide residue heptachlor epoxide to be significantly associated with NHL [compared with the lowest quartile: third quartile odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.28; fourth quartile OR = 3.41, 95% CI, 1.89-6.16]. The highest quartile level of dieldrin was also associated with elevated NHL risk (OR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.58-4.61), as were higher levels of oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE [p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and ss-benzene hexachloride (ORs = 1.79, 1.99, and 2.47, respectively). The p-values for trends for these associations were significant. In models containing pairs of pesticides, only heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin remained significantly associated with risk of NHL. Limitations of this study include collection of samples after diagnosis and a lack of information on variables affecting organochlorine levels such as diet, occupation, and body mass index. Given the persistence of pesticides in the environment, these findings are still relevant today.

Quintana, Penelope J E; Delfino, Ralph J; Korrick, Susan; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kutz, Frederick W; Jones, Ellen L; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric



Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Hong Kong waters: Levels, profiles and distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber, liver and kidney of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) stranded in Hong Kong coastal waters during 1995–2001. Among the organohalogen compounds analyzed, DDTs were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 9.9 to 470?g\\/g lipid wt. PBDEs in Hong Kong cetaceans,

Karri Ramu; Natsuko Kajiwara; Shinsuke Tanabe; Paul K. S. Lam; Thomas A. Jefferson



Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. (Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada))



Uptake and excretion of organochlorine pesticides by Nereis virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The marine polychaete worm, Nereis virens, is resistant to organochlorine pesticides. When exposed to each of five pesticides (endosulfan, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT) in concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/L (DDT) to 22.0 mg/L (chlordane), only endosulfan and chlordane killed Nereis. In comparison, the same compounds were much more toxic to another marine invertebrate, Crangon septemspinosa. The authors wondered if the resistance of N. virens to organochlorines was related to their response to hypoxia. N. virens is a sediment dweller often found in intertidal regions and consequently may experience periods of severe oxygen deprivation; varying degrees of hypoxia can initiate a switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. When N. virens encounter hypoxic conditions, they can also exhibit a compensatory ventilation response. In the present study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT by N. virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

Haya, K.; Burridge, L.E.



Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression  

SciTech Connect

1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

Shabbir, Arsalan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); DiStasio, Susan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Zhao, Jingbo [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher P. [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Wolff, Mary S. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Caplan, Avrom J. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail:



Methods for determination of toxic organic compounds in air  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides environmental regulatory agencies, industry, and other interested parties with specific, standardized sampling and analysis procedures for toxic organic compounds in air. Compounds include Volatile Organic Compounds, Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs, Aldehydes and Ketones, Phosgene, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Phenol and Methylphenols (Cresols), Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Formaldehyde, Non-Methane Organic Compounds (NMOCs) and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Winberry, W.T. Jr.



Monitoring of heavy metal and organic compound levels along the Eastern Aegean coast with transplanted mussels.  


Within the framework of the MYTITURK project, heavy metals and organic compounds contaminations were assessed in transplanted mussels in eight different bays from the Eastern Aegean coast. Izmir Bay, Canakkale Strait entrance, Saros and Candarli Bay were defined low pollution extent according to Principal Component Analysis taking into metal accumulation. PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) levels in the range of 29.4-64.2ngg(-1) (dry weight) indicated that PAH contamination level classified as low along the Aegean coast. Concentrations of Aroclor1254 and 1260 were higher in transplanted mussels from Canakkale Strait Outlet due to industrial activities was originated from Marmara Sea. The organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor (<0.4ngg(-1)), aldrin (<0.30ngg(-1)), dieldrin (<0.75ngg(-1)), endrin (<2.3ngg(-1)) concentrations were homogeneous however, HCB (Hexachlorobenzene) and lindane concentrations were found undetectable level along the coast. DDE/DDT ratio in the caged mussels form Gulluk and Gokova Bay indicated recent DDT (Dikloro difenil trikloroethan) usage in these areas. The residues of organochlorinated compounds in transplanted mussels confirm the long persistence of DDTs. According to world health authorities, the concentration of heavy metals in mussels for the study area can generally be considered not to be at levels posing a health risk except Zn. The levels of POPs indicated that transplanted mussels have a lack of risk for the human health. PMID:23972908

Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Pazi, Idil; Yucel-Gier, Guzel; Akcali, Baris; Galgani, François




Microsoft Academic Search

The pollution of organochlorine insecticides in drink- ing water poses risks for humans. Turkey is a candidate country for the European Community and should, there- fore, perform pesticide residue analyses in the near future, including that of organochlorine residues in drinking water. In 2005, bottled water samples were collected from local markets and market chains in Aydin, Turkey, and analyzed

Cafer Turgut; Cengiz Gokbulut



EPA Science Inventory

We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...


Thyroid Dysfunction as a Mediator of Organochlorine Neurotoxicity in Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) can alter thyroid function in humans, and hypothyroidism during early life can adversely affect a child’s neurodevelopment. Objectives: In this study we aimed to assess the relationship between developmental organochlorine exposures and thyroid function and the relationship between thyroid function and subsequent neurodevelopment. Methods: A population-based birth cohort of 182 children was followed annually up to 5.5 years of age. The assessments included OC concentrations in maternal pregnancy serum and milk, clinical thyroid parameters in maternal and cord serum, and subsequent neuropsychological outcomes of the child, along with sociodemographic cofactors. Resin triiodothyronine uptake ratio (T3RU) was also assessed as an estimate of the amount of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) sites unsaturated by thyroxine. The T3RU is high in hyperthyroidism and low in hypothyroidism. Results: The findings showed consistent inverse and monotonic associations between organochlorine exposure and T3RU after covariate adjustments. We observed no associations with other thyroid parameters. T3RU was positively associated with improved performance on most of the neuropsychological tests. For other thyroid parameters, the findings were less consistent. Conclusions: The results suggest that OC exposures may decrease the T3RU during early life, which is a proxy measure of the binding capacity of TBG. In addition, minor decreases of the thyroid function may be inversely associated with a child’s neurodevelopment.

Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Choi, Anna L.; Grandjean, Philippe



Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 enzyme activity and DNA adducts in placenta of women environmentally exposed to organochlorines.  


Organochlorine compounds bioaccumulate in fishing and hunting products included in the daily diet of many coastal populations. Prenatal and perinatal exposure to large doses of PCBs and PCDFs was shown to be deleterious on fetal and neonatal development, but information is scarce regarding possible effects of chronic low-dose exposure. This study investigates biomarkers of early effects in newborns from women exposed to organochlorines through the consumption of species from marine food chains, in two remote coastal regions of the province of Quebec (Canada). A CYP1A1-dependent enzyme activity (EROD) and DNA adducts were measured in placenta samples obtained from 30 women living on the Lower-North-Shore of the St. Lawrence River and 22 Inuit women from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec). These biomarkers were also assessed in 30 women from a Quebec urban center (Sept-Iles) as a reference group. Prenatal organochlorine exposure was determined by measuring these compounds in umbilical cord plasma. The amount of bulky polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-related DNA adducts was significantly greater in the Lower-North-Shore group than in the reference group. Placental EROD activity and the amount of less bulky (OC-related) DNA adducts were significantly higher in the Nunavik group than in the reference group. For both biomarkers, smoking was found to be an important confounding factor. Organochlorine exposure was significantly associated with EROD activity and DNA adduct levels when stratifying for smoking. This study confirms that CYP1A1 enzyme induction and DNA adducts in placental tissue constitute useful biomarkers of early effects induced by environmental exposure to organochlorines. PMID:10330311

Lagueux, J; Pereg, D; Ayotte, P; Dewailly, E; Poirier, G G



Susceptibility to infections and immune status in Inuit infants exposed to organochlorines.  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether organochlorine exposure is associated with the incidence of infectious diseases in Inuit infants from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec, Canada). We compiled the number of infectious disease episodes during the first year of life for 98 breast-fed and 73 bottle-fed infants. Concentrations of organochlorines were measured in early breast milk samples and used as surrogates to prenatal exposure levels. Immune system parameters were determined in venous blood samples collected from infants at 3, 7, and 12 months of age. Otitis media was the most frequent disease, with 80. 0% of breast-fed and 81.3% of bottle-fed infants experiencing at least one episode during the first year of life. During the second follow-up period, the risk of otitis media increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and dieldrin. The relative risk (RR) for 4- to 7-month-old infants in the highest tertile of p, p'-DDE exposure as compared to infants in the lowest tertile was 1. 87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-3.26]. The RR of otitis media over the entire first year of life also increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE (RR, 1.52; CI, 1.05-2.22) and hexachlorobenzene (RR, 1.49; CI, 1.10-2.03). Furthermore, the RR of recurrent otitis media ( [Greater/equal to] 3 episodes) increased with prenatal exposure to these compounds. No clinically relevant differences were noted between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to immunologic parameters, and prenatal organochlorine exposure was not associated with immunologic parameters. We conclude that prenatal organochlorine exposure could be a risk factor for acute otitis media in Inuit infants. Images Figure 1

Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Bruneau, S; Gingras, S; Belles-Isles, M; Roy, R



Organochlorine and mercury contamination in fish tissues from the River Nestos, Greece.  


Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, other organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs, including trans-chlordane and cis- and trans-nonachlor) and the heavy metal mercury were quantified in muscle and liver of the European chub (Leuciscus cephalus, Linnaeus, 1758) and in the muscle of the barbel (Barbus cyclolepis, Heckel, 1837) at two sampling sites of the River Nestos, Greece. PCBs in muscle and DDTs in the liver tissues were the predominant organochlorinated contaminants. Among the PCBs, congeners 47 (up to 9.60 ng g(-1) wet wt.), 180 (up to 1.15 ng g(-1) wet wt.) and 190 (up to 1.50 ng g(-1) wet wt.) were the most frequent and abundant. The contamination degree by the sum of PCBs on the fish tissue samples from the River Nestos is lower or similar to PCB levels found in other ecosystems. Among the organochlorine pesticides, essentially only p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH were found, with the former appearing at mean levels up to 30.71 ng g(-1) wet wt. From a public health standpoint, residue organochlorine pesticide levels from our work are considerably lower than the recommended tolerance limits. Finally, mean values of Hg in chub were significant lower (up to 31.04 ng g(-1) wet wt.) compared to those detected on barbel (up to 169.27 ng g(-1) wet wt.). The concentrations of Hg in fresh water fish from the River Nestos did not exceed WHO and US EPA health guidelines, and were suitable for human consumption. PMID:17688909

Christoforidis, Achilleas; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Schmieder, Klaus; Tsachalidis, Efstathios



Organochlorine Concentrations in Burbot (Lota lota) Livers From Fairbanks, Alaska, and Kanuti, Tetlin and Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuges, Alaska, 1998. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists during 1998 and 1999. Burbot liver was the tissue of choice for this study because chlorinated hydrocarbons, or organochlorine compounds, are lipophilic and burbot use the liver as thei...

A. C. Matz K. A. Mueller



Determination of the limits of identification and quantitation of selected organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in surface water by full-scan gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report a reliable method for quantitation and determination of the limits of identification of 14 organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide (OPP) residues in surface water. The method features the simultaneous identification and quantitation of targeted pesticides and the possibility of identification of any other eluting compounds. The method is based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) with a mixture

Yahya R. Tahboub; Mohammad F. Zaater; Zeiad A. Al-Talla



Evaluation of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in the upper Mississippi River  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine contaminants sequestered in lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were compared to those found in tangential-flow ultrafilter permeates as part of a pilot study at 10 sites in the Upper Mississippi River system. Caged and feral fish from three primary sites were also analyzed for comparison. Concentrated organochlorine (OC) compounds were readily extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis into hexane, and samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Fish and water samples were processed by conventional methods. Reasonable agreement was found between analyte SPMD-derived water concentrations and measured values of ultrafilter permeates; however, concentrations of the same analytes in caged fish did not appear to be proportional to water concentrations derived from SPMDs and ultrafilter permeates. The greatest number of OC compounds was detected in SPMDs; fewer were detected in caged fish and feral fish.

Ellis, G.S.; Rostad, C.E. [Geological Survey, Arvada, CO (United States). Water Resources Div.; Huckins, J.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Petty, J.D. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center; MacCarthy, P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Geochemistry



Role of the estrogen receptor in the action of organochlorine pesticides on estrogen metabolism in human breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As interest in the properties of xenoestrogenic compounds has grown, different in vitro cell culture systems have been proposed as models, against which to gauge relative estrogenic impact. Previous research indicated that some organochlorine-based pesticides elevated the production of 16?-hydroxyestrone relative to 2-hydroxyestrone in ER+ MCF-7 breast cancer cells while phytochemicals like indole-3-carbinol reduced this ratio. That this ratio may

H. Leon Bradlow; Devra Davis; Daniel W. Sepkovic; Raj Tiwari; Michael P. Osborne



Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) from the Garigliano River (Campania region, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring organochlorine compounds in muscle tissue of European eels from the Garigliano River in Campania (Italy), overall PCBs emerged as the most abundant pollutants, followed by DDTs, Dieldrin and HCB. Target PCBs, IUPAC nos. 118, 138, 153 and 180, were the dominant congeners accounting for 64.2% of total PCBs. Among OCPs, p,p?-DDE was detected in all eels, always with higher

Maria Carmela Ferrante; Maria Teresa Clausi; Rosaria Meli; Giovanna Fusco; Clara Naccari; Antonia Lucisano



Simultaneous identification and quantitation of selected organochlorine pesticide residues in honey by full-scan gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report a reliable method for simultaneous identification and quantitation of 11 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues (?-HCH, HCB, ?-HCH, alachlor, heptachlor, aldrin, primiphos-ethyl (internal standard), endosulfan II, 4,4?-DDE, dieldrin, endrin and 4,4?-DDD) in honey. The method features the simultaneous identification and quantitation of targeted pesticides and the possibility of identification of any other eluting compounds. The method

Yahya R. Tahboub; Mohammad F. Zaater; Thaer A. Barri



Organochlorinated Compounds in Waters of the Pearl River Delta Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of river water and sewage water were analysed for ten PCB congeners, chlorobenzenes and chlorinated pesticides (BHCs and DDT) in three cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Zhaoqing) in the Pearl River Delta, The results showed that the sewage water in Shengzhen had the highest concentration of total PCBs at about 10ng\\/L, and Dasha River (Shengzhen), the lowest at about 1.0ng\\/L.

Yang Yanhong; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jimo; Min Yushun




EPA Science Inventory

Halogenated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are the most important organic contaminants of shallow water-table aquifers. Such aquifers have recently been shown to harbor an indigenous microflora. Organisms in authentic and uncontaminated samples of unconsolidated subsurface m...


Persistent organic pollutants in dusts that settled indoors in lower Manhattan after September 11, 2001.  


The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol impacting many residents, workers, and commuters after September 11, 2001. In all, 12 bulk samples of the settled dust were collected at indoor locations surrounding the epicenter of the disaster, including one sample from a residence that had been cleansed and was once again occupied. Additionally, one sample was collected from just outside a fifth story window on the sill. These samples were analyzed for many components, including inorganic and organic constituents as well as morphology of the various particles. The results of the analyses for persistent organic pollutants on dusts that settled at indoor locations are described herein, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and select organo-chlorine pesticides. The Sigma(86)-PCB concentrations, comprising less than one part per million by mass of the bulk in the two samples analyzed, indicated that PCBs were of limited significance in the dust that settled at indoor locations across lower Manhattan. Likewise, organo-chlorine pesticides, Hexachlorobenzene, Heptachlor, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDT and Mirex were found at even lower concentrations in the bulk samples. Conversely, Sigma(37)-PAHs comprised up to 0.04% (<0.005-0.036%) by mass of the bulk indoor dust in the 11 WTC impacted bulk indoor samples. Analysis of one sample of indoor dusts collected from a vacuum cleaner of a rehabilitated home shows markedly lower PAH concentrations (<0.0005 mass%), as well as differing relative contributions for individual compounds. In addition to similar concentrations, comparison of PAH concentration patterns (i.e. chemical fingerprints) shows that dusts that settled indoors are chemically similar to previously measured WTC dusts found at outdoor locations and that these PAH analyses may be used in identifying dusts of WTC origin at indoor locations, along with ascertaining further needs for cleaning. PMID:15014547

Offenberg, John H; Eisenreich, Steven J; Gigliotti, Cari L; Chen, Lung Chi; Xiong, Judy Q; Quan, Chunli; Lou, Xiaopeng; Zhong, Mianhua; Gorczynski, John; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Illacqua, Vito; Lioy, Paul J



Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. (Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))



Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorinated pesticides in birds from a contaminated region in South China: association with trophic level, tissue distribution and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Birds have been used successfully for biomonitoring of the levels and effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the\\u000a environments; however, there is exceedingly little data on organochlorinated pesticide (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls\\u000a (PCBs) residues in bird inhabiting in China. In the present study, we detected the concentrations of PCBs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane\\u000a and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in muscle,

Xiu-Lan Zhang; Xiao-Jun Luo; Juan Liu; Yong Luo; She-Jun Chen; Bi-Xian Mai



Organochlorine contaminants in fish from an arctic lake in Alaska, USA.  


A wide range of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in muscle tissue and livers of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Schrader Lake in Arctic Alaska. Results confirm the long-range transport of these contaminants to a US Arctic freshwater system. The most abundant group of compounds in all tissues was composed of PCBs. Mean concentrations of the sum of a selected group of PCB congeners ranged from 3.2 ng/g in grayling liver to 22.8 ng/g in trout liver and from 1.3 ng/g in grayling muscle to 6.6 ng/g in trout muscle (wet wt.). The second most abundant group was composed of chlordane-related compounds. No significant correlations of organochlorine concentrations with fish weight or length were observed for the data set as a whole. There were marked differences in sigma PCB, sigma chlordane and p,p'-DDE concentrations between species. The biomagnification factors for these compounds are similar to ratios reported for other aquatic systems. Comparisons showed that contaminant concentrations in lake trout from Schrader Lake were similar to levels found in burbot and slightly higher than levels in whitefish reported in Canadian studies from the Mackenzie River Delta. PMID:7892581

Wilson, R; Allen-Gil, S; Griffin, D; Landers, D



Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine chemical residues in oxbow lakes of northeastern Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples (98) of 16 spp. of animals were collected at Lake Providence, 88 samples of 15 spp. at Lake Bruin and 21 samples of 5 spp. at Lake St. John, Louisiana, between July 15 and Sept. 25, 1980. Residues of 13 organochlorine compounds were identified in these samples. Substantial concentrations of many compounds throughout the food webs of all 3 lakes showed that the lakes acted as sumps, accumulating residues from nearby agricultural land. DDT and its metabolites (DDE, TDE and DDMU [1-chloro-2,2,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene]), toxaphene and polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) were the principal organochloride residues detected. With few exceptions, biomagnification of the principal residues was clearly illustrated. Tertiary consumers such as green-backed heron (Butorides striatus), snakes, spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) contained the highest residues. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), blacktail shiner (Notropis venustus), yellow-crowned night heron (Nycticorax violaceus) and other secondary consumers contained lower levels of residues. Primary consumers, crayfish (Orconectes lancifer) and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense), contained relatively low residue levels of most compounds. Frogs contained lower residue levels than expected based on their position in the food web. Residue levels in immature green-backed herons and .gtoreq. 1 of the longer-lived predators, e.g., snakes, gars or largemouth bass could be monitored to evaluate levels of organochlorine chemical contaminants in aquatic habitats.

Niethammer, K.R.; White, D.H.; Baskett, T.S.; Sayre, M.W.



Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize.  


Non-viable eggs of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n = 24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and 29% of the eggs examined, respectively. Concentrations of individual OC contaminants ranged from 1 ppb (ng chemical/g egg) to > 0.5 ppm (microgram chemical/g egg). Total concentrations of OCs (sum of all OCs) for one egg collected from a nest at GBL reached as high as 0.7 ppm. Sediment samples from both lagoons also tested positive for OCs (lindane, aldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p-DDT, among others). Nest media (soil and plant material) collected from crocodile nests at GBL were positive for p,p-DDT, methoxychlor, aldrin, endosulfan II, and endrin aldehyde. Based on the 24 egg samples analyzed to date, crocodiles from both lagoons are being exposed to OCs. Such exposure may present a health threat to populations of crocodiles in Central America. PMID:10705543

Wu, T H; Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; McMurry, S T; Anderson, T A



Coupling granular activated carbon adsorption with membrane bioreactor treatment for trace organic contaminant removal: breakthrough behaviour of persistent and hydrophilic compounds.  


This study investigated the removal of trace organic contaminants by a combined membrane bioreactor - granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) system over a period of 196 days. Of the 22 compounds investigated here, all six hydrophilic compounds with electron-withdrawing functional groups (i.e., metronidazole, carbamazepine, ketoprofen, naproxen, fenoprop and diclofenac) exhibited very low removal efficiency by MBR-only treatment. GAC post-treatment initially complemented MBR treatment very well; however, a compound-specific gradual deterioration of the removal of the above-mentioned problematic compounds was noted. While a 20% breakthrough of all four negatively charged compounds namely ketoprofen, naproxen, fenoprop and diclofenac occurred within 1000-3000 bed volumes (BV), the same level of breakthrough of the two neutral compounds metronidazole and carbamazepine did not occur until 11,000 BV. Single-solute isotherm parameters did not demonstrate any discernible correlation individually with any of the parameters that may govern adsorption onto GAC, such as log D, number of hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor groups, dipole moment or aromaticity ratio of the compounds. The isotherm data, however, could differentiate the breakthrough behaviour between negatively charged and neutral trace organic contaminants. PMID:23500020

Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D




Microsoft Academic Search

l and J. W. LOCK 2 SUMMARY: The effects of organochlorines on raptors are reviewed. Pectoral muscle samples from 13 New Zealand falcons, 3 Australasian harriers, 7 little owls, 7 moreporks, 1 long-tailed cuckoo and 1 New Zealand pigeon were analysed for organochlorine pesticide and poly- chlorinated biphenyls. Five juvenile falcons contained a mean level of 2.6 mg total DDT\\/kg



Photochemical Transformations of Trace Persistent Organic Pollutants in Snow and Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar snowpacks have been established as active matrices for chemical processing of atmospheric species such as molecular halogens, volatile organics and ozone. It has previously been demonstrated that photochemical transformations of anthropogenic persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in ice occur under laboratory conditions, but there is little in the published literature regarding these processes. In the study described here, we consider the effect of near ultraviolet radiation on trace amounts of various organochlorine compounds in ice; the compounds selected are of interest because of their known presence in polar regions and their detrimental effect on organisms in polar ecosystems. Both direct photochemical transformations and indirect photo-oxidation by OH radical were investigated. To differentiate between pure liquid-phase, solid phase and interfacial processes, experiments were conducted on POPs in aqueous solution, ice and crushed ice/snow at various temperatures. In all cases, the degradation of the POP was monitored by the extraction of photolyzed samples followed by GC analysis. On the basis of these degradation studies, some reactive systems were selected for more detailed investigation. Reaction products were identified from irradiated samples by SPME with GCMS analysis. On the basis of the kinetic studies and identified reaction products, mechanisms for selected photochemical transformations are proposed. Potential implications of these transformations for environmental partitioning and interactions of the selected POPs will be discussed.

Grannas, A. M.; Rowland, G. A.; Sprenkle, A.; Bausch, A.



Exposure to an organochlorine pesticide (chlordecone) and development of 18-month-old infants.  


Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that was used in the French West Indies until the early 1990s for banana weevil borer control. Human exposure to this chemical in this area still occurs nowadays due to consumption of contaminated food. Although adverse effects on neurodevelopment, including tremors and memory deficits, have been documented in experimental studies conducted with rodents exposed during the gestational and neonatal periods, no study has been conducted yet to determine if chlordecone alters child development. This study examines the relation of gestational and postnatal exposure to chlordecone to infant development at 18 months of age in a birth-cohort of Guadeloupean children. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in Guadeloupe (Timoun mother-child cohort study), exposure to chlordecone was measured at birth from an umbilical cord blood sample (n=141) and from a breast milk sample collected at 3 months postpartum (n=75). Toddlers were assessed using an adapted version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Higher chlordecone concentrations in cord blood were associated with poorer fine motor scores. When analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls, this effect was only observed among boys. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to chlordecone is associated with specific impairments in fine motor function in boys, and add to the growing evidence that exposure to organochlorine pesticides early in life impairs child development. PMID:23376090

Boucher, Olivier; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Muckle, Gina; Rouget, Florence; Kadhel, Philippe; Bataille, Henri; Chajès, Véronique; Dallaire, Renée; Monfort, Christine; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Multigner, Luc; Cordier, Sylvaine



Avian liver organochlorine and PCB from South coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran.  


Liver samples (n = 43) of 9 avian species representing the families Phalacrocoracidae, Podicipedidae, Laridae, and Anatidae, were collected from the Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and seven PCB congeners. p,p'-DDE was predominantly found in all species, at concentrations ranging from the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 340 ng/g ww. Most frequently encountered PCB congeners, in all samples, were 118, 153 and 138; and birds in Phalacrocoracidae had the highest liver PCB (mean 90 +/- 32; ranging from persistent organochlorine pollutants in liver of birds from Iran. PMID:19806454

Rajaei, Fateme; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Mahmood; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan



Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs

Kurunthachalam Kannan; Hyo-Bang Moon; Se Hun Yun; Tetsuro Agusa; Nancy J. Thomas; Shinsuke Tanabe



Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?  


Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from 19 of 53 individuals had concentrations of SigmaPCBs greater than 1000 ng g(-1) (wet wt); the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations (50-600 ng g(-1)). Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where average concentrations in blubber of females (N = 9) were 1450 +/- 954 ng g(-1) toxaphene, 2750 +/- 1780 ng g(-1) SigmaCHLOR, 2160 +/- 925 ng g(-1) SigmaDDT and 4790 +/- 2380 ng g(-1) SigmaPCB. SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT concentrations greater than 1000 ng g(-1) were unexpected based on previous studies of walrus from Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because levels of all organochlorines were elevated in each animal from Inukjuak, and elevated levels were also found in animals from Akulivik and Loks Land. Walrus from Inukjuak had sigma13C and sigma15N values in muscle intermediate between those of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and those of walrus from Akulivik with low organochlorine levels. There was a weak but significant correlation between and sigma15N and (log)SigmaPCB. The Inukjuak walrus also had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, and higher DDE/SigmaDDT ratios than walrus from Igloolik or Akulivik. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals for a portion of their diet. PMID:15091467

Muir, D C; Segstro, M D; Hobson, K A; Ford, C A; Stewart, R E; Olpinski, S



[Persistent neutropenia].  


We report the case of a 72-old patient with persistent neutropenia diagnosed during investigation of sialadenitis. Further examination led to the diagnosis of immune neutropenia and systemic lupus erythematosus. Anamnesis and the clinical course made initial diagnosis of drug-induced lupus erythematosus implausible. Steroid trial was done, followed by maintenance therapy, with good control of symptoms. PMID:20700874

Bürki, S; Oestmann, Andreas; Vogel, D; Oertle, S



Organochlorine-induced histopathology in kidney and liver tissue from Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).  


The effects of persistent organic pollutants on renal and liver morphology in farmed arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) were studied under experimental conditions. Control animals received a diet containing pork (Sus scrofa) fat with low amounts of persistent organic pollutants, while the diet of the exposed animals contained whale blubber, 'naturally' contaminated with persistent organic pollutants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the whale blubber were 488 and 395 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Animals were sacrificed and sampled when they were at their fattest (winter) as well as their lowest body weight (summer). The results show that PCB and OCP exposure causes renal (and probably also liver) lesions in arctic foxes. The prevalence of glomerular, tubular and interstitial lesions was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi-square: all p<0.05). The frequency of liver lesions (steatosis, intravascular granulocyte accumulations, interstitial cell infiltrations, lipid granulomas, portal fibrosis and bile duct hyperplasia) were also highest in the exposed group, although not significantly (chi-square: all p>0.05). The prevalence of lesions was not significantly different between lean (winter) and fat (summer) foxes for any of the lesions (chi-square: all p>0.05). We suggest that wild arctic foxes exposed to an environmental cocktail of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs and OCPs, in their natural diet are at risk for developing chronic kidney and liver damage. Whether such lesions may have an impact on age and health of the animals remains uncertain. PMID:18279914

Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Leifsson, Pall S; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even



Assessment of human health risk from organochlorine pesticide residues in Cidade dos Meninos, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  


This article presents the results of a heath risk assessment in Cidade dos Meninos, an area contaminated with organochlorine pesticide residues located in the county (municipality) of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) risk assessment methodology was applied. The following organochlorine compounds exceeded the established limits and were considered target pollutants: HCH and its isomers (in eggs, milk, and soil); DDT and its metabolites; trichlorobenzenes; trichlorophenols; dioxins and furans (eggs and soil). For all the substances studied (with the exception of trichlorophenols), the estimated doses exceeded the minimum risk levels for chronically exposed children and adults. According to the ATSDR classification, the area was considered an "urgent public health hazard" because of its high and serious exposure to substances that are dangerous to human health. PMID:18392352

Asmus, Carmen Ildes R Fróes; Alonzo, Herling Gregorio Aguilar; Palácios, Marisa; Silva, Alexandre Pessoa da; Freitas Filhote, Maria Isabel de; Buosi, Daniela; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães



In vitro activation of cord blood mononuclear cells and cytokine production in a remote coastal population exposed to organochlorines and methyl mercury.  


Remote coastal populations that rely on seafood for subsistence often receive unusually high doses of organochlorines and methyl mercury. Immunosuppression resulting from prenatal exposure to organochlorines has been reported in wildlife species and humans. In this study, we assessed lymphocyte activation and associated cytokine secretion in 47 newborns from a remote maritime population living on the Mid and Lower North Shore regions of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada; subsistence fishing group) and 65 newborns from nearby urban settings (reference group). Cord blood samples were collected for organochlorine and mercury analyses and also to isolate cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) for the in vitro assessment of cytokine production and expression of surface markers after mitogenic stimulation (CD4(+)CD45RO(+), CD8(+)CD45RO(+), CD3(+)CD25(+), and CD8(+)HLA-DR(+)). Blood mercury and plasma concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were significantly higher in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.001). No difference was observed between the two groups regarding subsets of lymphocytes showing markers of activation. In vitro secretion of cytokines by CBMCs after mitogenic stimulation was lower in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and plasma PCB, p,p'-DDE, and HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). Our data support a negative association between TNF-alpha secretion by CBMCs and prenatal organochlorine exposure. If the relationship between organochlorine and TNF-alpha secretion is causal, it would suggest a role for this important proinflammatory cytokine in mediating organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to these compounds. PMID:14644672

Bilrha, Houda; Roy, Raynald; Moreau, Brigitte; Belles-Isles, Marthe; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre



Time Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Atmosphere over the Indian Ocean in the last 30 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expedition around the Indian ocean by sailboat (Jocara Indian ocean quest) in 2004\\/5 provided a novel and unusual opportunity to collect air samples for the analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The region of the Indian Ocean, and its bordering countries are considered to be a prime source of the global

O. Wurl; J. R. Potter; C. Durville; J. O. Obbard



Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants as measured in cord blood and meconium from three localities of Zhejiang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants were assessed using the levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) measured in cord blood and meconium samples from Luqiao and two other localities of the Zhejiang province in China. Luqiao is a town with the largest site for disassembly of PCB-containing obsolete transformers and electrical waste in China. The other two localities Pingqiao

Gaofeng Zhao; Ying Xu; Wen Li; Guanggen Han; Bo Ling



Organochlorine pollutants in water, soils, and earthworms in the Guadalquivir River, Spain  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine compounds (insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) are known to maintain their stability in the aquatic environment for long periods. DDT and cyclodiene insecticides were used widely in Spain until their use was banned in 1976; DDT and its degradation products are still found in environmental samples. Since DDT has been legally restricted for use, lindane has become important as a substitute for DDT. This study has been carried out along Guadalquivir River, Spain. This river runs across an agricultural area where pesticides are used extensively. The Guadalquivir basin is the most economically important area of the South of the Iberian Peninsula; its economic importance stems from its proximity to a major metropolitan areas (Cordova, Seville), which indicates the presence of numerous urban, commercial, and industrial locations in the vicinity of the sampling stations. The purposes of this investigation are: (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine compounds in water, soils, and earthworms sampled in ten stations of the Guadalquivir River; (2) to evaluate biological accumulation of pollutants studied within the food webs; (3) to evaluate regional patterns and time trends of residues. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. (Institute of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain))



Spatial trends and factors affecting variation of organochlorine contaminants levels in Canadian Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).  


Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were analysed in blubber from beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), or white whales, collected at 15 sites in the Canadian Arctic between 1993 and 2001. The objective of the study was to define and interpret the spatial trends of major organic contaminants in northern beluga in terms of sources and transport pathways, and the biological factors influencing accumulation. When compared on a lipid weight basis, the concentrations of beta-HCH, cis-CHL and SigmaCHL, cis-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and p,p'-DDT were significantly higher in males than females at all five sites in the eastern Arctic where the two sexes were harvested. The differences were attributed to losses from the females during fetal development and lactation as reported in previous studies. Major compounds increased with age in males at most sites, however the lack of a significant increase with age at some sites was in part due to high organochlorine concentrations in young year classes (2-5 years), particularly at eastern sites such as Iqaluit and Pangnirtung. Lower concentrations of SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT compounds in young males in 2001 relative to 1995 at Hendrickson Island could be due to declining levels in the environment, changes in the diet, or differences in organochlorine loads transferred from the female after birth. Age-corrected least square mean concentrations in males showed significantly higher levels of many compounds, such as p,p'-DDE and SigmaCHB, at south Baffin Island sites than those in the west. Two notable exceptions were HCBz and beta-HCH which were higher in the west. Methoxyclor was detected in males at Sanikiluaq (58 ng g-1) and in both sexes at Kimmirut, but at no other sites. Principal component analysis grouped the 16 sites into five major groupings based on the similarity of normalised organochlorine pesticide and PCB levels. Sites from the western Arctic were grouped by higher proportions of HCBz, beta-HCH and gamma-HCH and higher chlorinated PCBs. Endosulfan and alpha-HCH comprised a larger proportion of total organochlorine residues in the northern Hudson Bay sites, while methoxychlor, chlordane compounds and octachlorobiphenyls were enriched at Sanikiluaq in eastern Hudson Bay. The analysis showed that the relative amounts of several key compounds are similar in the beluga stocks over large spatial areas (i.e. eastern versus western sites), however, some stocks have distinct fingerprints which can be used to differentiate them from adjacent stocks. Ratios of major HCH isomers largely corresponded with air and surface water measurements conducted during the 1990s, but low alpha-/beta- and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios in all three western Arctic collections indicate rapid losses of the alpha-isomer from the food web, proportionately higher beta- and gamma-isomers in the Beaufort Sea, or a combination of the two processes. Chlordane residue patterns generally correspond to those from previous studies, however, interpretation of spatial trends are difficult due to the aging of the probable sources in the south, possible atmospheric input from new sources and complex transport pathways. PMID:16154619

Stern, G A; Macdonald, C R; Armstrong, D; Dunn, B; Fuchs, C; Harwood, L; Muir, D C G; Rosenberg, B



Early developmental neurotoxicity of a PCB/organochlorine mixture in rodents after gestational and lactational exposure.  


The developmental and neurobehavioral effects of gestational and lactational exposure to a mixture of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 organochlorine pesticides was examined and compared against the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. The mixture was based on blood levels reported in Canadian populations living in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence basin. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with 0.013, 0.13, 1.3, or 13 mg/kg of the chemical mixture or 15 mg/kg of Aroclor 1254 from gestation day (GD) 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. The highest mixture dose decreased maternal gestation and lactation body weight, and produced high mortality rates (80% overall) and reductions in offspring weight that persisted to adulthood. Aroclor 1254 produced smaller but persistent decreases in offspring weight without affecting maternal weight or offspring mortality. Aroclor 1254 and 13 mg/kg of the mixture produced comparable decreases in maternal and offspring serum T4 levels and comparable alterations to maternal thyroid morphology. Aroclor 1254 delayed the righting reflex and ear opening, accelerated eye opening, and reduced grip strength at PNDs 10-14. The mixture at 13 mg/kg delayed negative geotaxis in addition to delaying righting reflex and ear opening and reducing grip strength but had no effect on eye opening. Lower mixture doses (0.13 and 1.3 mg/kg) also delayed ear opening but affected no other parameters. Developmental exposure to the chemical mixture was found to be more toxic than exposure to Aroclor 1254 and produced a different profile of effects on early neurodevelopment. This PCB/organochlorine pesticide mixture affects mortality, growth, thyroid function, and neurobehavioral development in rodents. PMID:14514954

Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie S; Chu, Ih; Wade, Michael G; Moir, David; Yagminas, Al; Gill, Santokh; Pulido, Olga; Meuller, Rudi



Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.  


Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid. PMID:22099537

Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E




PubMed Central

Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples.

de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Marcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira



Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.



Temperature dependence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in Chicago air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides measured in Chicago, IL between June and October 1995 were investigated using plots of the natural logarithm of partial pressures (ln P) vs. reciprocal mean temperatures (1/ T). For the eight lowest molecular weight PAHs, temperature dependence was statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level) and temperature accounted for 23-49% of the variability in gas-phase concentrations. The relatively higher slopes for most of the PAHs suggested that volatilization from local sources and short-range transport influenced their concentrations. For pesticides, temperature dependence was statistically significant for DDD and for trans-nonachlor (at the 95% and 90% confidence levels), and was not statistically significant for the other five compounds (2-18% of the variability in their gas-phase concentrations). The relatively lower slopes for individual pesticides suggested that they have mostly non-urban and distant sources. Results of back trajectory analyses suggested that the region, southwest of Chicago, might be an important local or regional source sector for PAHs and organochlorine pesticides. No statistically significant relationship was observed between wind speed and PAH or pesticide concentrations. None of the variables (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, local and regional sources) could fully explain the variation in their concentrations measured in Chicago, therefore, this variation can be attributed to the combined effect of those factors.

Sofuoglu, Aysun; Odabasi, Mustafa; Tasdemir, Yucel; Khalili, Nasrin R.; Holsen, Thomas M.


Concentration responses to organochlorines in Phragmites australis.  


Phragmites australis shows potential for the phytoremediation of chlorinated chemicals. Also there has been some attempt to determine the phytotoxic effects of organochlorines (OC). This study reports for lindane (HCH), monochlorobenzene (MCB), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), a no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC(7d)) that was 1000-300,000 times higher than environmental concentrations. Nevertheless, the combined OC mixture (NOEC(7d) level of each congener) induced a synergistic toxic effect, causing a severe drop (70%) in chlorophyll concentration. The mixture 0.2 mg L(-1) MCB+0.2 mg L(-1) DCB+2.5 mg L(-1) TCB+0.175 mg L(-1) HCH, that was 15 times more concentrated than environmental OC mixture, did not cause phytotoxicity during 21 days. Antioxidant enzymes were affected immediately after the start of exposure (3 days), but the plants showed no signs of stress thereafter. These data suggest that environmental OC mixtures do not pose a significant risk to P. australis. PMID:22366347

Faure, Mathieu; San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick; Raveton, Muriel



Chiral organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the enantiomeric fractions (EF) of various organochlorine pesticides in air samples from Indiana, Arkansas, and Louisiana collected in 2002-2003. Enantiomeric fractions for o,p'-DDD are reported here for the first time, and they suggest preferential depletion of one enantiomer over the other, with a mean value of 0.44. For the chlordanes, the EFs followed the same trends as reported in previous studies. EF values for trans-chlordane (TC) were slightly below 0.5, and values for cis-chlordane (CC) were slightly above 0.5. For cis-heptachlor epoxide (HEPX), the EF values averaged 0.65, indicating a clear preferential depletion of the (-)-enantiomer. For TC and CC, no clear distinction could be made between the values measured among the three sites, suggesting that it is not possible to use these EF values as "source signatures". For HEPX, the Indiana site had significantly higher EF values than did the Arkansas site; this difference may reflect differences in the historic use of heptachlor in these two regions.

Venier, Marta; Hites, Ronald A.


Persistent organic pollutants in Mediterranean seawater and processes affecting their accumulation in plankton.  


The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to riverine and atmospheric inputs of organic pollutants. Here, we report the results obtained during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007 from Barcelona to Istanbul and Alexandria, respectively, where water and plankton samples were collected simultaneously. Both matrixes were analyzed for hexaclorochyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 41 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The comparison of the measured HCB and HCHs concentrations with previously reported dissolved phase concentrations suggests a temporal decline in their concentrations since the 1990s. On the contrary, PCB seawater concentrations did not exhibit such a decline, but show a significant spatial variability in dissolved concentrations with lower levels in the open Western and South Eastern Mediterranean, and higher concentrations in the Black, Marmara, and Aegean Seas and Sicilian Strait. PCB and OCPs (organochlorine pesticides) concentrations in plankton were higher at lower plankton biomass, but the intensity of this trend depended on the compound hydrophobicity (K(OW)). For the more persistent PCBs and HCB, the observed dependence of POP concentrations in plankton versus biomass can be explained by interactions between air-water exchange, particle settling, and/or bioaccumulation processes, whereas degradation processes occurring in the photic zone drive the trends shown by the more labile HCHs. The results presented here provide clear evidence of the important physical and biogeochemical controls on POP occurrence in the marine environment. PMID:21526777

Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Dachs, Jordi; Del Vento, Sabino; Ojeda, María José; Valle, María Carmen; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Mariani, Giulio; Wollgast, Jan; Hanke, Georg



Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems  

SciTech Connect

Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of {sup 137}Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 ({+-}2.5), 9.5 ({+-}2.2), and 13 ({+-}5.8) yr for decay-corrected {sup 137}Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of {sup 137}Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

Metre, P.C. van; Wilson, J.T. [Geological Survey, Austin, TX (United States); Callender, E. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Fuller, C.C. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)



Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk of mothers living in northern Germany: Current extent of contamination, time trend from 1986 to 1997 and factors that influence the levels of contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the concentration levels of PCB, DDT, HCB and ?-HCH in the human milk of women living in northern Germany over a period of 12 years and determines factors that may influence these levels. From 1986 to 1997 more than 3500 milk samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds. A questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding personal characteristics,

G Schade; B Heinzow



Organochlorines in the Great Lakes ecosystem: Sources, partitioning, and control  

SciTech Connect

The authors of this article agree with many of the arguments against a complete ban on organochlorines, but they suggest that certain key point require greater emphasis and some are open to question. Because social responses are involved, it is useful first to clarify how organochlorines (OC) are generated by society and how they are or can be regulated. Discussion includes the following topics: OC synthesis: by design and by accident; partitioning and bioaccumulation; causes of hydrophobicity; known bioaccumulative OCs; social decisions on Chlorine. 10 refs. 1 fig.

Mackay, D.; Di Guardo, A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)



Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in antarctic fish: levels, patterns, changes.  


Organochlorine compounds were analysed in three fish species of different feeding types from the area of Elephant Island in the Antarctic. In 1996, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (means: 15-20 ng/g lipid), p,p'-DDE (5-13 ng/g lipid) and mirex (1-7 ng/g lipid) predominated, while PCBs were minor components (PCB 153: 0.4-2 ng/g lipid). Concentration patterns were species-dependent: PCB 180, PCB 153, mirex, nonachlor III, trans-nonachlor and the toxaphene compound B8-1413 were highest in the bottom invertebrate feeder Gobionotothen gibberifrons and lowest in the krill feeder Champsocephalus gunnari. Levels of p,p'-DDE, PCB 138 and heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1), a natural bioaccumulative product, were highest in the fish feeder Chaenocephalus aceratus, whereas HCB was present in about equal concentrations in all species. Most compounds were taken up preferentially via the benthic food chain, the chlorinated bipyrrole via the pelagic food chain and HCB from the water. In antarctic fish, biomagnification was generally more important than bioconcentration. Between 1987 and 1996, most persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels showed significant increases in the benthos feeder and the fish feeder, while they remained nearly constant or increased less in the krill feeder. Hence, the former species represent indicator species for changing POP levels in Antarctica. Ratios (1996/1987) of average concentrations in G. gibberifrons were: PCB 138 0.7, HCB 0.8, B8-1413 1.5, PCB 180 1.7, PCB 153 1.8, p,p'-DDE 2.0, nonachlor III 2.9, trans-nonachlor 3.3, mirex 6.7. By comparison with trends in the northern hemisphere it is concluded that global distribution of HCB is close to equilibrium. Changing levels of other POPs reflect global redistribution and increasing transfer to antarctic waters probably due to recent usage in the southern hemisphere and climate changes. PMID:12962716

Weber, Kurt; Goerke, Helmut



Effects of local and distant contaminant sources: polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines in bottom-dwelling animals from an Arctic estuary.  


Elevated concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues of large marine predators in the Canadian Arctic are well documented. This paper presents some of the first data on the composition and distribution of chlorinated organic compounds in some arctic coastal animals found at lower levels of the marine food chain. Organisms include bottom-dwelling invertebrates: clams (Mya truncata), mussels (Mytilus edulis), sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and fish: sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis). The majority of samples were collected in the vicinity of Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada; however, samples were also collected near another inhabited area (Hall Beach, NWT) and at a reference site (Wellington Bay, NWT). PCBs and other organochlorines typically originate in more industrialized parts of the northern hemisphere, enter the Arctic, and are subsequently biomagnified. In this study, differences in the PCB congener compositions and concentrations, as well as the relative concentrations of a larger suite of organochlorines in biota, allowed the discrimination between local and distant PCB sources. Terrestrial runoff from southern Victoria Island, NWT, has resulted in localized elevation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in marine sediment and bottom-dwelling animals. The major inputs of PCBs to coastal waters within Cambridge Bay were derived from local sources (the hamlet dump and DEW Line site). In addition, transport from more distant sources via riverine input accounts for locally elevated concentrations of other organochlorines in upper Cambridge Bay. This process may also account for concentrations of all measured organochlorines that are higher in Wellington Bay than in Queen Maud Gulf. The high PCB concentrations in the whole tissue (excluding liver) or livers of four-horned sculpins in Cambridge Bay (up to 220 ng/g and 1950 ng/g, respectively) and, to a lesser extent, Wellington Bay (3.8 ng/g and 47 ng/g, respectively) reflect a strong tendency for biomagnification of PCBs in coastal benthic communities. PMID:7892574

Bright, D A; Dushenko, W T; Grundy, S L; Reimer, K J



Determination of organochlorine pesticides in the agricultural soil of Oke-Osun farm settlement, Osogbo, Nigeria.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the levels and seasonal variations of some organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the cultivated land of Oke-Osun farm settlement, Osogbo, Nigeria. A field sampling programme was conducted in the rainy and dry seasons for 4 months each resulting in the analysis of a total of 40 samples. Soil samples collected at 20-m intervals were air-dried to a constant weight, sieved through a mesh of 2.0-mm pore size and selected by coning and quartering method. Solid-liquid extraction was used to extract OCPs from the soil. Qualitative identifications and quantitative evaluation of the OCPs were carried out with the aid of a Perkin Elmer gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. Seasonal mean ranges of OCPs in soil (?g/kg) were 13.09 ± 21.66 ?-BHC-42.01 ± 17.50 p, p(')-DDT in rainy season and 30.74 ± 17.38 ?-BHC-82.88 ± 32.24 p, p(')-DDT in the dry season. The results obtained from this study revealed that agricultural soil samples of Oke-Osun farm settlement were contaminated with persistent organochlorine pesticides mainly as a result of their applications by farmers. Higher levels of OCPs were obtained for dry season than the rainy season. There were indications from this study that pesticides that have deleterious health effects on humans previously placed under legal restrictions by regulatory agencies were still being used by the farmers of Oke-Osun farm settlement and this gives cause for environmental concern. PMID:20680440

Oyekunle, John Adekunle Oyedele; Ogunfowokan, Aderemi O; Torto, Nelson; Akanni, M S



Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the face of evidence of human milk contamination by organochlorine pesticides, an analysis was performed on samples of milk obtained from healthy lactating women in the provinces of Granada and Almeria in Southern Spain. The samples were obtained by the Neonate Section of the Department of Pediatrics of Granada University Hospital (Neonatology Division) and by the Neonatal Service of

C. Campoy; M. Jimenez; M. F. Olea-Serrano; M Moreno Frias; F Cañabate; N Olea; R Bayés



Organochlorines in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive survey on organochlorine (OC) contaminants in polar bears at Svalbard has been undertaken. Subcutaneous tissue, blood and milk have been sampled from anesthetized free-ranging bears of both sexes and different ages in the period from 1990 to 1994. A number of sexually mature females have been fitted with satellite transmitters which make it possible to follow their reproductive

Aksel Bernhoft; Øystein Wiig; Janneche Utne Skaare



Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology



Distribution of Low Organochlorine Residues in a Woodland Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorines (OC) play an important part in our environment now as before. Although observing a decreasing trend in concentration in the northern hemisphere for chlorinated pesticides, we have to realise that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still a dominant contaminant (Loganathan and Kannan 1994). For assessing residues under ecotoxicological aspects we have to consider questions concerning distribution and accumulation. Less information

W. Scharenberg; P. Gramann; E. Ebeling



[Quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in Chinese drugs].  


This paper reports the GC determination of 20 organochlorine pesticides in Chinese drugs Flos Ionicerae and Moluodan etc by the present method of Japan for determinaing pesticide residues. The results suggest that except Folium Isatidis, Radix Codonopsis and Sanqi Pian all accord with the for provisions pesticide residues in Japanese foodstuffs. PMID:9772626

Han, G; Chen, T; Yang, J; Dai, J; Xu, R; Zhang, Y; Okano, J; Yui, R; Nakajima, H; Hamasaki, T



Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water Sources of Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 9 chlorinated pesticides in the water sources and tap waters of Istanbul, Turkey, were determined by gas chromatographic methods following the enrichment through adsorption and elution techniques. The observed organochlorine pesticides were a- and ?-HCH and aldrin which had been banned from use. The contents of a- and ?-HCH in raw waters were in the range of

Adnan Aydin; Türkan Yurdun



Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations  

SciTech Connect

PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.




EPA Science Inventory

Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...


In utero exposure to organochlorines and age at menarche  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on age at menarche in offspring, we conducted a cohort study over two generations. METHODS: Female participants (and their offspring) in a Michigan angler cohort in which organochlorine levels had been determined previously were studied. Of their 213 female offspring aged 20-50 years, 151

O. Vasiliu; J. Muttineni; W. Karmaus



Historical contamination of Yukon Lake sediments by PCBs and organochlorine pesticides: influence of local sources and watershed characteristics.  


PCBs and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides were analyzed in sediment cores collected from six lakes in Yukon Territory and one in northern British Columbia, Canada, with the objective of establishing sources and historical trends of these contaminants. DDT was found to be the most prominent OC in the sediment profiles of most of the lakes. Maximum sigmaDDT levels (3.47-2680 ng g(-1) dw) were observed in sediment slices dated to the 1950s from lakes near populated areas. In contrast, in more remote lakes (Hanson, Kusawa and Lindeman), the maximum sigmaDDT concentrations were observed in the sediments dated to the 1970s. Highest sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations were measured in sediments from Watson Lake, near a suspected PCB waste disposal site and in a region where DDT was heavily applied in the 1950s and 1960s. Elevated sigmaPCB concentrations [16.1-93.6 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw)] were also observed in sediments from lakes situated near populated areas, relative to Kusawa and Lindeman (11.1 and 12.7 ng g(-1) dw, respectively). Recent sigmaPCB fluxes ranged from 621 ng m(-2) y(-1) in Kusawa Lake to 16400 ng m(-2) y(-1) in Little Atlin Lake. The extremely high sedimentation rate (2050 g m(-2) y(-1)) in glacial fed Lindeman Lake gave rise to elevated fluxes of sigmaPCB (2410 ng m(-2) y(-1)) and other OCs, despite much lower concentrations in the sediment. Levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigmaHCH), chlordane-related compounds (sigmaCHL), and chlorobenzenes (sigmaCBz) were in the low ng g(-1) (dw) range in all lake sediments, similar to concentrations previously reported for Arctic lakes in Canada, indicating that their major source was long range atmospheric transport. Contamination of the lakes with PCBs and DDT near populated areas of the Yukon Territory appears to be a result of regional activities rather than long range transport and deposition. The results also point to glacial runoff as a significant source of OCs to small, high elevation lakes (Lindeman), but not to larger lakes within the Yukon River drainage basin that are also affected by glacial sources (Kusawa, Laberge). PMID:11763265

Rawn, D F; Lockhart, W L; Wilkinson, P; Savoie, D A; Rosenberg, G B; Muir, D C



Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands.  


Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has delivered valuable information on trends and spatial differences of these compounds in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and other Dutch canals, rivers and lakes. Specific local PCB, HCH and dieldrin contaminations were identified. Temporal trends show a slow decrease of PCB concentrations since 1977. Eels from the rivers Rhine and Meuse still exceed present European maximum residue limits for dioxin-like PCBs. Apart from some exceptions, OCP and tetra-BDE concentrations have also decreased, and more than those of PCBs. Fat contents of eel have decreased from an average of 21 to ca. 13%. This decrease in fat contents, coincides with the strong reduction of the European eel stock. PMID:20185213

de Boer, Jacob; Dao, Quy T; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Schobben, John H M



Striped weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa): a biomonitor of organochlorine pesticides in estuarine and near-coastal zones.  


The general goal of this study was to investigate the role of Cynoscion guatucupa as a biomonitor of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) contamination in Bahía Blanca estuary. Thus, we evaluated whether or not OCP fish distribution pattern reflects the OCP land sources, and if size-related bioaccumulation and biomagnification of these contaminants does occur by comparing different tissues of juvenile and adults of C. guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830). Size-related bioaccumulation in C. guatucupa was observed and it was more important for the more lipophilic and biomagnifying OCP, being determined over time by diet influence. Endosulfan sulfate, chlordanes, HCH isomers and DDT compounds predominated in tissues and ingested food of C. guatucupa, being alpha-chlordane, heptachlor and p,p'-DDE highly bioaccumulated and biomagnificated. Our findings also showed that male adults of C. guatucupa are biomonitors of OCP pollution so we propose this species for further investigations in other coastal zones of South America. PMID:16209878

Lanfranchi, A L; Menone, M L; Miglioranza, K S B; Janiot, L J; Aizpún, J E; Moreno, V J



Occurrence of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Soils from College School Yards of Xi'an, China.  


In this study, surface soil samples from 14 representative college school yards in Xi'an, the capital city of Shaanxi province, China, were collected and analyzed for 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The total concentrations were in the ranges of 0.2-67.0 ng/g. HCHs and DDTs were the most dominant compounds among the 21 OCPs, and their concentrations ranged from 0.1-8.5 to 0.1-56.3 ng/g, respectively. Source identification analysis indicated that the residues of HCHs and DDTs were mostly due to historical use of these chemicals or from other source regions. The quality of all the Xi'an college school yard soils except sample XAUAT was classified as low pollution by OCPs according to the National Environmental Quality Standards for Soils of China (GB15618-1995). PMID:23963440

Lu, Hongxuan; Liu, Weiguo



Organochlorines in the Vaccarès Lagoon trophic web (Biosphere Reserve of Camargue, France).  


During a decade (1996-2006), ecotoxicological studies were carried out in biota of the Vaccarès Lagoon (Biosphere Reserve in Rhone Delta, France). A multicontamination was shown at all levels of the trophic web due to a direct bioconcentration of chemical from the medium combined with a food transfer. Here, the pollutants investigated were organochlorines, among which many compounds banned or in the course of prohibition (or restriction) (PCB, lindane, pp'-DDE, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan...) and some substances likely still used in the Rhone River basin (diuron, fipronil). The results confirmed the ubiquity of contamination. It proves to be chronic, variable and tends to regress; however contamination levels depend on the trophic compartment. A biomagnification process was showed. A comparison of investigation methods used in other Mediterranean wetlands provides basis of discussion, and demonstrates the urgent need of modelling to assess the ecotoxicological risk in order to improve the management of such protected areas. PMID:19362400

Roche, H; Vollaire, Y; Persic, A; Buet, A; Oliveira-Ribeiro, C; Coulet, E; Banas, D; Ramade, F



Organochlorine pesticide residues in human fat in the United Kingdom 1976-7.  

PubMed Central

Between May 1976 and August 1977 samples of human body fat were taken during routine necropsies in the United Kingdom on 236 subjects aged over 5 years and four infants aged under 4 months. Comparison with results from earlier studies showed a further decline in residues of pp'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp'-DDT) and dieldrin (HEOD) and increased amounts of hexachlorobenzene residues; concentrations of other compounds were similar to those observed in the studies carried out in 1963-4, 1965-7, and 1969-71. Comparison of the data with those from other countries, showed that the concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorobiphenyls in human fat samples from residents of the United Kingdom remain among the lowest in Europe and, indeed, the world.

Abbott, D C; Collins, G B; Goulding, R; Hoodless, R A



Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.  


The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of ?(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ?HCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y



{gamma} Irradiation-induced degradation of organochlorinated pollutants in fatty esters and in Cod  

SciTech Connect

The {gamma} irradiation-induced degradation of 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) dissolved in methyl myristate and methyl oleate was studied. DDT and DDE produced DDD and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)chloroethylene (DDMU) respectively, in agreement with a previous study performed with aliphatic solvents. The degradation of these two former compounds was larger in methyl myristate than in methyl oleate and addition products between methyl myristate and the organochlorines were found. While DDD, DDE, and many PCB congeners in a cod sample were not measurably degraded at 15 KGy, DDT underwent 30% degradation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lepine, F.L.; Brochu, F.; Milot, S. [Institut Armand-Frappier, Quebec (Canada)] [and others



Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the thyroid function of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Aegean sea, is it an endocrine disruption?  


We evaluated the alterations of organochlorinated compounds such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on the thyroid in wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) at environmental concentrations. These compounds influence the endocrine system of many fish species and are qualified as endocrine disruptors. The thyroid seems to be a target organ. Two alteration endpoints: the thyroid histology and the muscular thyroid hormone concentrations, were used simultaneously. High concentrations in PCBs and DDT were detected in muscles, supporting the idea that the Mediterranean fauna could be more polluted than the Atlantic fauna. The high abundance of DDE indicates a progressive degradation of remnant DDT load and the absence of new inputs in this area. Aquaculture sea bass shows a significant higher amount of pollutants on fresh weight basis (especially PCBs) in their muscles compared to the wild sea bass. Those differences may be related mainly to the contaminations of diet. Thyroid parameters vary between wild and aquaculture sea bass, wild sea bass were characterized by higher follicle diameters, epithelial cell heights and muscular T(4) concentrations. A significant relationship between persistent organic pollutants (muscular PCBs and DDT concentration) and the different thyroid parameters (diameters of follicles, epithelial cell heights and muscular T(4) levels) could be observed, which support the hypothesis that these compounds have an adverse impact on thyroid morphometry and function. PMID:18692207

Schnitzler, Joseph G; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Siebert, Ursula; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Das, Krishna



Organochlorine pesticides in colostrums in case of normal and preterm labor (Iasi, Romania).  


Assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human body is important for human health because they have weak estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects and are considered endocrine disrupters. We used colostrum of women as indicator for levels of OCPs in human body for mothers with normal and preterm labor from eastern part of Romania. Sixty- three samples of colostrum were extracted by solid-phase extraction. Analyses were carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). OCPs have been detected in all samples, with p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) being at the highest concentrations. Of the organochlorines measured in clostrum samples from women in preterm labor, median levels of DDTs (470 ng/g) and HCHs (99 ng/g) were higher than for the same compounds from women in normal labor (median of DDTs=268 ng/g and median of HCHs=96 ng/g). Normal labor had higher median concentrations of HCB (19.5 ng/g) versus preterm labor (14 ng/g). Statistical data show high Spearman correlation coefficients between various OCPs. We found a good correlation between alpha-, gamma-, beta- and delta- HCH isomers (p<0.001) for both normal and preterm labor. The most abundant target compound was p,p'-DDE (median value 96 ng/g, and 137 ng/g for mother with normal and preterm labor, respectively) in all colostrum samples. The estimated daily intakes of HCHs by infants exceeded corresponding Health Canada guidelines. PMID:20378154

Cioroiu, Mona; Tarcau, Doina; Mocanu, Raluca; Cucu-Man, Simona; Nechita, Bogdan; Luca, Maria



Residues of organochlorine pesticides in environmental samples from the Shatt al-Arab River, Iraq.  


Application of high resolution gas chromatography has confirmed relatively low residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in the Shatt al-Arab River. Thus, average concentration of these compounds in the edible portion of the cyprinid (Barbus xanthopetrus) were 21, 4 and 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively. Mean values of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in surface sediments were 5, 40 and 20 microg kg(-1) dry weight respectively. Shrimps sampled from the Shatt al-Arab River were found to contain residues of o, p'-DDD only (average concentration was 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight). However, comparison of these samples with those from an area affected directly by a point source of organochlorine pesticides has shown that the cyprinid of the same age group contained significantly higher residue levels (average concentrations of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were 166, 20 and 7 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). Thus, it may be concluded that there was no direct input of organochlorine pesticides to the Shatt al-Arab River, and transportation via the natural processes, such as drainage, appeared to be the sole source. Based upon the observation that the original compound (p,p'-DDT) has not been detected in this river, it has also been concluded that there was no recent contribution of DDT here. Relatively higher residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were encountered in the muscles of the Indian shad captured from the Shatt al-Arab River (average concentrations were 163, 80 and 28 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). However, these elevated values were attributed to this fish being migratory and it being exposed to these pesticides elsewhere. PMID:15092796

DouAbul, A A; Al-Saad, H T; Al-Rekabi, H N



PCBs and organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) in the north-eastern Mediterranean.  


Levels of eight PCB congeners (IUPAC 8, 20, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 180) and 13 organochlorine pesticides (alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane (gamma-BHC), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, 2,4'-DDT, 2,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE) were measured in unhatched Audouin gull eggs from Aegean Sea (northeastern Mediterranean) colonies in 1997 and 1998. Levels of more persistent congeners 138, 180 and in some colonies 118, predominated among PCBs. Between years significant differences were found in the levels of a variety of contaminants in the same regional colonies (Lipsos, Agathonisi, and Fourni) attributable to temporal changes in diet. Within years differences were limited (1997: PCB congeners 52, 118, 180, heptachlor and 4,4'-DDD; 1998: PCB congener 8 and heptachlor epoxide) which in combination with cluster analysis suggest a temporal rather than spatial pattern of pollution in the Aegean Sea. Maximum median levels of five PCB congeners, total PCBs and eight organochlorine pesticides were found in the Agathonisi and Fourni colonies suggesting an elevated nearby pollution probably from the polluted Menderez River. Levels of all contaminants were too low to have any adverse reproductive effects on the Audouin's gull of the Aegean colonies. PMID:11436818

Goutner, V; Albanis, T; Konstantinou, I; Papakonstantinou, K



Comparison of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls residues in vegetables, grain and soil from organic and conventional farming in Poland.  


Organic and conventional crops were studied by identifying the relationship between persistent organic pollutants in cereals, vegetables and soil. The residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in grains (rye and wheat), vegetables (carrots and beets) and soil collected from the fields. PCB residues recorded in the beets from organic farming were as high as 3.71 ppb dry weight (dry wt.), while in the soil from conventional farming of beets 0.53 ppb dry wt. Among vegetables, higher concentrations of pesticides were detected in organically grown beets (190.63 ppb dry wt.). Soil samples from the organic farming contained lower levels of organochlorine pesticide residues compared to the conventional farming. Taking into account toxicity equivalent (TEQ), the conventionally grown carrots accumulated the most toxic PCBs. Non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs were also noted in the grain of conventionally grown rye and amounted to 3.05 pg-TEQ/g wet wt. PMID:22428896

Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan



Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk and serum collected from lactating mothers in the northern Adriatic area of Yugoslavia  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent contaminants of the environment. Owing to their lipophilic properties they are primarily stored in fat-rich tissues and fluids of humans and animals. The results of a monitoring study on levels of the DDT-complex, HCH-group of isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB in human milk and serum are presented in this paper. Samples were collected in the northern Adriatic area for which no data have so far been available. Sample donors were chosen from rural and small urban locations where mediterranean eating habits are still maintained. The previous studies were conducted in an industrialized continental town of Croatia.

Krauthacker, B. (Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia))



Endosulfan and Other Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Maternal and Cord Blood in North Indian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are exposed to various environmental chemicals such as organochlorine pesticide residues, heavy metals, polychlorinatedbiphenyls\\u000a (PCBs) etc. There is paucity of data regarding the present blood levels of organochlorine residues in North Indian population\\u000a with reference to reproductive health. The present study was designed to analyze the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues\\u000a in maternal and cord blood samples of normal

Rahul Pathak; Sanvidhan G. Suke; Rafat S. Ahmed; A. K. Tripathi; Kiran Guleria; C. S. Sharma; S. D. Makhijani; Meenu Mishra; B. D. Banerjee



An Ecological Study of Organochlorine Pesticides and Breast Cancer in Rural Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have suggested that environmental contamination with organochlorine pesticides may be related to risk\\u000a of breast cancer. To investigate this association in a rural part of Australia, organochlorine contamination data from a breast\\u000a milk organochlorine study conducted in the state of Victoria in 1993 were used. The state was divided into 11 statistical\\u000a divisions. Standardized incidence ratios

Narges Khanjani; Dallas R. English; Malcolm R. Sim



Revised and new reference values for some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blood for human biomonitoring in environmental medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference values for environmental pollutants related to the German population are established continuously by the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environmental Agency. The revised and new reference values for organochlorine compounds in whole blood are derived from the German Environmental Survey 1998 (adults aged 18 – 69 years) and from a survey performed with children (age 9 –

Michael Wilhelm; Ulrich Ewers; Christine Schulz



Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a

John R. Kucklick; William D. J. Struntz; Paul R. Becker; Geoff W York; Todd M O'Hara; Jesssica E Bohonowych



Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides and their Metabolites in Alligator Livers from Lakes Apopka and Woodruff, Florida, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...


Distribution of persistent organochlorine contaminants in infertile patients from Tanzania and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To test whether environmental pollutants could affect fertility in humans.\\u000a Methods: 31 women and 16 men from Tanzania and 21 couples from Germany were included (n=89). Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in serum, follicular fluid or seminal plasma by gaschromatography and related to sperm quality and pregnancy rates.\\u000a Results: Higher concentrations of DDT+DDE and dieldrin in Tanzania and

Jürgen M. Weiss; Otmar Bauer; Albrecht Blüthgen; Annika K. Ludwig; Elke Vollersen; Malise Kaisi; Safaa Al-Hasani; Klaus Diedrich; Michael Ludwig



The impacts of organochlorines and other persistent pollutants on thyroid and metabolic health.  


High prevalence of thyroid and metabolic disorders has been repeatedly observed in the population living in the area of eastern Slovakia highly polluted by a mixture of PCBs, DDE and HCB since about 50 years ago. Among thyroid disorders, increase of thyroid volume as measured by ultrasound volumetry may be suggested as one of notable findings which appeared possibly related to increased OCs levels and to autoimmunity signs (e.g. positive thyroperoxidase antibodies in blood and/or hypoechogenicity image obtained by ultrasound), while some participation of individual susceptibility and also of immunogenic effect of OCs and iodine in this iodine replete country cannot be excluded. Another notable finding has been the increase of blood FT4 and TT3 positively related to high PCBs level. Such increased FT4 level has been found associated with TSH level in hyperthyroid range in about 2% of examined population from polluted area. High prevalence of thyroid autoimmune disorders strongly supported the assumption on impaired immune system and thus also on presumably increased prevalence of other autoimmune disorders in highly exposed population. In addition, markedly increased prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes significantly related to major OCs (PCBs, DDE and HCB) levels and accompanied by increasing level of cholesterol and triglycerides has been observed. The observations also suggested a role of prenatal exposure to OCs in the development of several adverse health signs (e.g. increased prevalence of thyroid antibodies, impaired fasting glucose level, increased thyroid volume, decreased thymus volume, decreased neurobehavioral performance, increased hearing and dental disorders) in young generation born to highly exposed mothers in polluted area. PMID:20797403

Langer, Pavel



Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland  

PubMed Central

Background Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. Methods We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS) at the right calcaneum of 153 peri- and postmenopausal Inuit women (49–64 year old) from Nuuk, Greenland, and investigated the relation between these parameters and plasma organochlorine concentrations. We used high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection to analyze plasma samples for 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and 11 chlorinated pesticides and metabolites. We analysed morning urine samples for cadmium, a potential confounder, by atomic absorption spectrometry. We used a validated questionnaire to document dietary and lifestyle habits as well as reproductive and medical histories. Results Concentrations of PCB 153, a surrogate of exposure to most organochlorines present in plasma samples, were inversely correlated to QUS parameters in univariate analyses (p < 0.001). However, PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with QUS values in multivariate analyses that comprised potential confounding factors such as age, body weight, former oral contraceptive use and current hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use, which were all significant predictors of bone stiffness (total R2 = 0.39; p < 0.001). Conclusion Overall we found little evidence that organochlorines exposure is related to osteoporosis in Greenlandic Inuit women, but the hypothesis that exposure to dioxin-like compounds might be linked to decreased bone quality and osteoporosis deserves further attention.

Cote, Suzanne; Ayotte, Pierre; Dodin, Sylvie; Blanchet, Claudine; Mulvad, Gert; Petersen, Henning S; Gingras, Suzanne; Dewailly, Eric



Endometriosis and Organochlorinated Environmental Pollutants: A Case-Control Study on Italian Women of Reproductive Age  

PubMed Central

Background Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue. In industrialized countries, it affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Its etiology is unclear, but a multifactorial origin is considered to be most plausible. Environmental organochlorinated persistent pollutants, in particular dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been hypothesized to play a role in the disease etiopathogenesis. However, results of studies carried out on humans are conflicting. Objective We evaluated the exposure to organochlorinated persistent pollutants as a risk factor for endometriosis. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Rome on 158 women comprising 80 cases and 78 controls. In all women, serum concentrations of selected non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p?-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined by ion-trap mass spectrometry. DR-CALUX bioassay was employed to assess the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and DL-PCBs. Results We found an increased risk of endometriosis for DL-PCB-118 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.61–8.91], NDL-PCB-138 (OR = 3.78; 95% CI, 1.60–8.94), NDL-PCB-153 (OR = 4.88; 95% CI, 2.01–11.0), NDL-PCB-170 (OR = 3.52; 95% CI, 1.41–8.79), and the sum of DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs (OR = 5.63; 95% CI, 2.25–14.10). No significant associations were observed with respect to HCB or to the sum of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs given as total TEQs. Conclusions The results of this study show that an association exists between increased PCB and p,p?-DDE serum concentrations and the risk of endometriosis.

Porpora, Maria Grazia; Medda, Emanuela; Abballe, Annalisa; Bolli, Simone; De Angelis, Isabella; di Domenico, Alessandro; Ferro, Annamaria; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Maggi, Antonella; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti; De Felip, Elena



Levels, persistence and bioavailability of organic contaminants present in marine harbor sediments impacted by raw sewage.  


As part of a program to investigate the levels, fate and bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in a polluted marine harbor, organochlorine compounds including the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro diphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes, dibenzo-p-dioxins (Ds) and dibenzofurans (Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulphur hetero cycles were analysed in sediments spiked with St. John's Harbor sludge. Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) were exposed to these sediments containing six levels of harbor sludge during four winter months. Following exposure, sediments were reanalysed to investigate the persistence of the contaminants. The primary contaminants detected were PAHs (approximately 5000 ng/g), predominantly alkylated phenanthrenes, fluoranthene and pyrene; PCBs with a predominance of Aroclor 1260 signature (approximately 64 ng/g), DDTs (approximately 5 ng/g), hepta and octachloro dioxins and furans (approximately 0.5 ng/g) with very low levels of less chlorinated congeners. The PAHs degraded with an estimated half life of 2 to 3 months, while no significant degradation could be attributed to the other compounds. Bioaccumulation to muscle showed the potential uptake of contaminants in biota inhabiting the harbor. A dose-response relationship was observed between spiked sediments and the concentrations of PCB congener 153 and unresolved congeners 138/163/164 in muscle. Of the dioxins and furans, only 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorofuran was detectable in muscle and at a similar concentration in all exposures indicating a similar bioavailability independent of the fraction of sludge in sediments. Of the PAHs, only naphthalene and methyl naphthalenes were detected in muscle, but did not display a dose-response. One bile metabolite of pyrene was quantified and demonstrates metabolism. Biota-sediment accumulation factors were of 0.2 to 7 indicating that equilibrium was approached, with the exception of the hepta and octachloro dioxins and furans which were not significantly bioaccumulated. PMID:10901667

Hellou, J; Mackay, D; Banoub, J



Partitioning of persistent organic pollutants between blubber and blood of wild bottlenose dolphins: implications for biomonitoring and health.  


Biomonitoring surveys of wild cetaceans commonly utilize blubber as a means to assess exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but the relationship between concentrations in blubber and those in blood, a better indicator of target organ exposure, is poorly understood. To define this relationship, matched blubber and plasma samples (n = 56) were collected from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and analyzed for 61 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 5 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). With the exception of PCB 209, lipid-normalized concentrations of the major POPs in blubber and plasma were positively and significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.828 to 0.976). Plasma concentrations, however, significantly increased with declining blubber lipid content, suggesting that as lipid is utilized, POPs are mobilized into blood. Compound- and homologue- specific blubber/blood partition coefficients also differed according to lipid content, suggesting POPs are selectively mobilized from blubber. Overall, these results suggest that with the regression parameters derived here, blubber may be used to estimate blood concentrations and vice versa. Additionally, the mobilization of lipid from blubber and concomitant increase in contaminants in blood suggests cetaceans with reduced blubber lipid may be at greater risk for contaminant-associated health effects. PMID:20491435

Yordy, Jennifer E; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teri K; Kucklick, John R



[Determination of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide levels in imported beef].  


A simple and efficient cleanup method was established for capillary gas chromatographic determination of 12 organochlorine and 11 organophosphorus pesticides in beef. Extracted fat was subjected to silica gel dry column chromatography and further cleaned up by Florisil minicolumn chromatography for organochlorine pesticide analysis, while partitioning between n-hexane and acetonitrile of the extract and silica gel minicolumn chromatography were employed for the analysis of organophosphorus pesticides. Several samples (imported Australian beef) were analyzed by the proposed method. DDT was detected in 14 (0.01-0.10 ppm). BHC was found in 11 (0.003-0.031 ppm) and dieldrin was demonstrated in 2 (0.004 and 0.008 ppm). Heptachlors and the 11 organophosphorus pesticides investigated were not detected in any of the meat samples. PMID:8854909

Takatsuki, S; Nemoto, S; Matsuda, R; Sasaki, K; Saito, Y



Biomarker Measurements in a Coastal Fish-Eating Population Environmentally Exposed to Organochlorines  

PubMed Central

The Lower North Shore region of the St. Lawrence River is home to a fish-eating population that displays an unusually high body burden of several organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). We measured biomarkers indicative of liver enzyme induction and investigated the relationship with organochlorine body burden in adult volunteers from this population. We determined plasma concentrations of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) with electron capture detection. DLC concentrations were measured by the dioxin-receptor chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay and in a subset of participants, by HRGC/high-resolution mass spectrometry. We measured cotinine, d-glucaric acid, and porphyrins in morning urine samples and determined liver CYP1A2 activity in vivo using the caffeine breath test. Neither DLC concentrations as measured by the DR-CALUX nor PCB-153 concentrations, the latter representing total PCB exposure, were correlated with biomarkers of effects. Smoking (morning urinary cotinine concentration) was positively related to CYP1A2 activity as measured by the caffeine breath test (p < 0.01). Liver CYP1A2 activity was in turn negatively correlated with PCB-105:PCB-153 and PCB-118:PCB-153 congener ratios (p < 0.05). Hence, despite the relatively high body burden of PCBs and DLCs in this population, only smoking had a significant correlation with biomarkers of hepatic enzyme induction. Our data are consistent with smoking-induced liver CYP1A2 activity altering heme metabolism and increasing the biotransformation of mono-ortho PCB congeners.

Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Lambert, George H.; Perkins, Sherry L.; Poon, Raymond; Feeley, Mark; Larochelle, Christian; Pereg, Daria



Levels of organochlorine pesticides in human milk from central Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study determined the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human milk collected in central Taiwan between December 2000 and November 2001. The OCPs were analyzed by GC\\/MS for 36 human milk samples from healthy women ranging between 20 and 36 years of age. The predominant OCPs were p,p?-DDE, p,p?-DDT, ?-CHL, heptachlor epoxide, heptachlor, ?-HCH, and ?-HCH, with median

How-Ran Chao; Shu-Li Wang; Ta-Chang Lin; Xu-Hui Chung



Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is

Donald R. Clark; Arnulfo Moreno-Valdez; Miguel A. Mora



Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491ngg?1) and plastic fragments (243–418ngg?1). Among the OCPs, p,p?-DDE had the highest concentrations,

Fernanda Imperatrice Colabuono; Satie Taniguchi; Rosalinda Carmela Montone



Organochlorines in wild mink (Mustela vison) from Norway.  


Levels of PCBs, DDE, and HCB have been determined in wild mink caught in the Norwegian counties of Sogn and Fjordane, Rogaland, and Hedmark. No significant differences were founds in organochlorine levels in wild mink from these counties, and the average level, based on fat weight, in abdominal adipose tissue was about 1 ppm DDE, 0.1 ppm HCB and for PCB ranging from 1 to 15 ppm. PMID:6798552

Skaare, J U; Polder, A; Brevik, E M; Kveseth, N J


Composition and distribution of organochlorine pesticide residues in surface sediments from the Wu-Shi River Estuary, Taiwan.  


The contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments from the Wu-Shi River estuary was investigated to evaluate the pollution potentials and distribution of OCPs in central Taiwan. A total of 19 sediment samples were collected at five sampling stations along the River estuary. The concentrations of OCPs were in the range of 0.99-14.5 ng/g-dry weight (dw) for sigmaHCH (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-HCH), 0.46-13.4 ng/g-dw for sigma cyclodiene and 0.53-11.4 ng/g-dw for sigmaDDT (p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT). The mean concentrations of sigmaHCH, sigma cyclodiene and sigmaDDT were 3.79, 4.87 and 2.51 ng/g-dw, respectively. The total concentrations of OCPs correspond to 1.73-71.9 microg/g-OC when normalized to TOC contents. Among the organochlorine pesticides, endosulfan sulfate, beta-HCH, and p,p'-DDD were the most dominant compounds in the sediments with the average concentrations of 1.97, 3.43 and 2.08 ng/g, respectively. Also, different contamination patterns among sampling seasons were observed. The measured concentrations of OCPs collected in spring were higher than those in autumn and winter. A linear relationship between sediment characteristics and OCP residues was also demonstrated. The results obtained in this study show that there still exist a variety of organochlorine pesticide residues in the sediments from the near shore of central Taiwan. PMID:12398392

Doong, Ruey-An; Peng, Chin-Kai; Sun, Yuh-Chang; Liao, Pei-Lin



Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.  


In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat. PMID:7794009

Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R



Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters  

SciTech Connect

The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

Mason, C.F. (Univ. of Essex, Colchester (England))



Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in wood storks and anhingas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

All 10 Wood Stork eggs collected at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in 1973 contained residues of DDE (geometric mean 4.0 ppm wet weight) and PCBs (1.2 ppm). Nine other organochlorines were found at lower frequencies in the eggs. Eggshells from the recent period were 8.9% thinner (P < 0.001) than pre-1947 samples; decrease in eggshell thickness was more closely correlated with DDE than other organochlorines and correlation of DDE and eggshell thickness approached significance (P = 0.115).....Anhinga eggs were collected at 7 localities; 45 of the 46 eggs analyzed contained DDE residues and 24 contained PCBs. Residues of other organochlorines were found less frequently. Shell thickness of recent eggs from Louisiana and Mississippi was significantly less (-7.5%; P < 0.05) than the mean for pre-1947 eggs, but there was no significant change in shell thickness of eggs from Florida. The change in clutch mean eggshell thickness was significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the concentration of DDE in the eggs.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.



Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine pesticides in Taihu Lake, China.  


Previous research in the Taihu Lake Region (TLR) of China found high levels of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). To understand the sources and the environmental behaviors of these OCPs in the TLR, research on air-water gas exchange was performed in 2004. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT related compounds (DDTs), cis-chlordane (CC), trans-chlordane (TC), heptachlor (HEPT), and alpha-endosulfan in both air and water samples were analyzed, and air-water gas exchange fluxes of these compounds were calculated. The net volatilization flux of alpha-HCH was 58 ng m(-2) day(-1), suggesting that the residue of technical HCH in the lake sediment might have been an important source of alpha-HCH to the air of this region after the ban of technical HCH two decades ago. The main components of technical chlordane, TC, CC, and HEPT, each had net volatilization fluxes >230 ng m(-2) day(-1), suggesting that waste discharge from manufacturing plants in the upper region was the main source of chlordane to the lake. Unlike alpha-HCH and chlordane, o,p'-DDT and alpha-endosulfan had net deposition fluxes, suggesting that these compounds were transported through the atmosphere from land sources and then deposited into the lake. The correlation between air concentrations and ambient air temperature indicated that the current sources of o,p'-DDT and alpha-endosulfan were from land; alpha-HCH and chlordane were mainly from the lake. PMID:18409615

Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Feng; Hu, Jianxin



Long-term air monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) in the Alps.  


Atmospheric sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was conducted using Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) deployed in the Alps at different altitudinal transects for two consecutive exposure periods of half a year and a third simultaneous year-long period. Along all the altitude profiles, the sequestered amounts of OCPs increased in general with altitude. SPMDs were still working as kinetic samplers after half a year for the majority of the OCPs. However, compounds with the lowest octanol-air partition coefficient (K(oa)), reached equilibrium within six months. This change in the SPMD uptake was determined for the temperature gradient along the altitude profile influencing K(oa), OCPs availability in the gaseous phase, and SPMD performance. In sum, it seems two effects are working in parallel along the altitude profiles: the change in SPMD performance and the different availability of OCPs along the altitudinal transects determined by their compound properties and concentrations in air. PMID:19552989

Levy, W; Henkelmann, B; Pfister, G; Bernhöft, S; Kirchner, M; Jakobi, G; Bassan, R; Kräuchi, N; Schramm, K-W



Biomarkers of maternal and fetal exposure to organochlorine pesticides measured in pregnant Hispanic women from Brownsville, Texas.  


Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes. PMID:23343981

Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J; McDonald, Thomas J; Gowen, Rose M Z; Miller, Rebecca P; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P



Organochlorine pesticide in fresh and pasteurized cow’s milk from Kampala markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh and pasteurized milk samples from Kampala markets were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Five organochlorine pesticides, namely; aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, lindane, DDT and its metabolites were detected in the milk samples and confirmed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer [GC-MS]. The mean values are expressed in mgkg?1

Edwige Kampire; Bernard T. Kiremire; Steven A. Nyanzi; Michael Kishimba



Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Measures of Behavior in Infancy Using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous literature suggests an association between organochlorines and behavioral measures in childhood, including inattention. Objective: This study was designed to assess whether prenatal organochlorine exposure is associated with measures of attention in early infancy. Methods: We investigated an association between cord serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) levels and measures of attention from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment

Sharon K. Sagiv; J. Kevin Nugent; T. Berry Brazelton; Anna L. Choi; Paige E. Tolbert; Larisa M. Altshul; Susan A. Korrick



Serum Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of pesticides in Egypt, the high incidence of colorectal cancer in Egyptian children and young adults, and the published U.S. case reports in which pesticides have been connected with colorectal cancer led the authors to investigate the possible association between organochlorines and colorectal cancer. The authors conducted a pilot study to describe serum organochlorine levels among 31

Amr S. Soliman; Mary Ann Smith; Sharon P. Cooper; Kadry Ismail; Hussein Khaled; Sohair Ismail; R. Sue McPherson; Ibrahim A. Seifeldin; Melissa L. Bondy



Macro-analytical methods used to analyze tissues of the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and pentachlorophenol  

SciTech Connect

Among the specimens which were processed as the results of poisoning incidents, were tissues of an adult male Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, which had died while in captivity without known cause. Various tissues of the animal were analyzed to determine whether the death of the monk seal had any connection with exposures to environmental pesticides or pollutants, particularly to organochlorine compounds. The specimens included urine, parts of liver, lung and blubber, an entire testis, and an entire kidney. Solid tissues from the animal were from correspondingly large organs. Macro methods for representative analyses of these tissues for multiresidues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were devised. Results are tabulated. The death of the Hawaiian monk seal could not be attributed conclusively to the organochlorines and pentachlorophenol that were found in tissues of this mammal. Baseline (normal) data of residue levels for these pollutants in animal tissues in Hawaii are so limited that pathogenic levels in the fauna cannot be predicted. It is difficult to even speculate whether the residues detected in the monk seal tissues were due to exposures of earth's background (ambient) atmosphere or to exposures of the mammal's immediate (specific) environment.

Takei, G.H.; Leong, G.H.



Toxic metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) and organochlorine residue levels in hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Marmara Sea, Turkey.  


Toxic metals (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) and organochlorine residue levels were measured in hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Marmara Sea. Biota samples were collected by a trawling cruise of the R/V ARAR in August and December 2009. The concentrations of toxic metals varied between Pb, 3.23-14.4; Cd, <0.01-2.14; Hg, 0.01-0.18 and As, 0.01-0.21 [Formula: see text]g g(-1) dry wt. Pb levels in the Marmara Sea were found to be higher than the critical limits set by the both Turkish Ministry of Environment for Aquatic Products (1 ?g g(-1) wet wt.) and European countries (2.0 ?g g(-1), UNEP 1985). In contrast, As and Hg levels were found to be lower than the critical limits for two periods. Cd contents of fish from the Marmara Sea were also comparable to or slightly lower than contents of fish from the Southern Black Sea Shelf. The results of organochlorine residues ranged between total HCH, <0.05 and 99 ng g(-1); endrin, <0.001 and 381 ng g(-1); alpha-endosulphan, <0.05 and 90 ng g(-1); beta-endosulphan, <0.05 and 15.3 ng g(-1); o,p DDE, 3.5 and 52.4 ng g(-1); p,p DDE, 7.4 and 139 ng g(-1); o,p DDD, 1.5 and 90.2 ng g(-1) and p,p DDD, 2.7 and 86 ng g(-1) wet weight. The rivers for the distribution of organochlorine levels in the Marmara Sea ordered from highest to lowest as Dil R. > Susurluk R. > Biga R. > Gönen R. The high levels of o,p and p,p DDE, and o,p and p,p DDD compounds, which are metabolites of DDT, indicate its illegal use. Toxic metal and organochlorine residue levels of fish are significantly higher than levels from the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21336486

Aksu, Abdullah; Balkis, Nuray; Ta?kin, Omer S; Er?an, Mahmut S



Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Great Lakes fish, 1999-2009.  


Temporal trend analysis of the latest Great Lake Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program (GLFMSP) data showed statistically significant decreases in persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) contaminant (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane and its metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor) concentrations in Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Michigan lake trout over the period of 1999 to 2009. In contrast, for most contaminants, no statistically significant concentration trends were found in top predator fish in Lakes Superior and Erie during the same period. For Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Michigan 5.0 ± 2.6% average annual concentration decreases were found for PCBs, DDTs, dieldrin, and other organochlorine pesticides (OCs) decreased at a faster rate, ranging from 10 ± 4.3% to 20 ± 7.1% per year. For these three lakes, with the exception of PCBs, these current decreases are greater than were shown by an earlier trend analysis that estimated an annual contaminant decrease of about 2-5% for the period of 1980 to 2003. For Lakes Superior and Erie, the finding of no statistically significant trend is in agreement with previously reported results for these lakes. PMID:23085469

Chang, Fengchih; Pagano, James J; Crimmins, Bernard S; Milligan, Michael S; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in fish from Taihu Lake: their levels, sources, and biomagnification.  


The investigation of biomagnification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and a new persistent organic pollutant, has been limited in freshwater food chains. The objective of the present study was to investigate the levels with focus on the sources and biomagnification of PAHs and OCPs in fish from Taihu Lake, China. In 193 samples of 24 species investigated, the concentrations ranged from 289 to 9 500 ng/g lipid weight (lw) for PAHs, and from 121 to 904 ng/g lw for OCPs, indicating that the fish in the lake was moderately contaminated. The PAHs mainly originated from both unburned petroleum and combustion of fossil fuels, and the OCPs from aged residues. It was unlikely that most of the PAHs and OCPs were biodiluted through the food chain because their trophic magnification factors were higher than one nevertheless the P-values >0.05. Aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and endosulfan sulfate were significantly biomagnified through the food chain. PMID:22673124

Wang, De-Qing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Shao-Huan; Pang, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Ming-Hong; Fu, Jia-Mo



Residues and Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Surface Water in the Suburb of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT and HCH, have stable chemical properties and less biodegradability. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, they have high risk to the environment and human health. Although DDT and HCH have been prohibited in China since 1983, they are still found in some soil and water nowadays. Water resource is very important in natural environment and essential for agriculture. The existence of OCPs in some surface water in Beijing has been detected with different levels according to previous investigations. In recent years, many measures have been taken to control the pollution and to monitor the environment, and more attention has been paid to the status of surface water today. In this study, the water samples were collected from the Wenyu, Beiyun, Yanqing, Fangshan, Changping, and Shunyi Rivers in the suburb of Beijing, and the residues and characteristics of DDT and HCH were studied. The results showed that the contents of DDTs and HCHs were ND-13.98 ng/L and 3.87-146.42 ng/L, respectively. According to the indicators of the ratio values of (DDD+DDE)/DDT and ?-HCH/?-HCH, the source of pollution and its potential risk are also discussed in this article.

CHEN, Jiawei; LIU, Chen; YANG, Zhongfang; WANG, Jiyuan


Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains.  


Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. delta(15)N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per thousand higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. delta(13)C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens. PMID:17945331

Serrano, Roque; Blanes, Miguel A; López, Francisco J



Anthropogenic and Natural Organohalogen Compounds in Blubber of Dolphins and Dugongs ( Dugong dugon ) from Northeastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of organohalogen compounds (10 polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] congeners, DDT and metabolites, chlordane-related compounds,\\u000a the potential natural organochlorine compound Q1, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin, and several\\u000a yet unidentified brominated compounds) were detected in the blubber of four bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), one common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), and seven dugongs (Dugong dugon), as well as in adipose tissue of a

W. Vetter; E. Scholz; C. Gaus; J. F. Müller; D. Haynes



Polychlorinated biphenyls pattern analysis: Potential nondestructive biomarker in vertebrates for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Biomarkers are valuable instruments to assess the risks from exposure of organisms to organochlorines. In general, however, these biomarkers are either destructive to the animal of interest or extremely difficult to obtain otherwise. In this paper, the authors present a nondestructive biomarker for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines. This marker is based on a pattern analysis of metabolizable and nonmetabolizable polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, which occur in several kinds of tissues (and even blood) that can be obtained without serious effects on the organism involved. The fraction of metabolizable PCB congeners is negatively correlated with exposure to PCBs, which are known to induce specific P450 isoenzymes. This relation can be modeled by a logistic curve, which can be used to define critical levels of exposure. In addition, this method creates an opportunity to analyze biomarker responses in archived tissues stored at standard freezing temperatures ({minus}20 C), at which responses to established biomarkers deteriorate. Furthermore, this method facilitates attribution of the enzyme induction to certain classes of compounds.

Brink, N.W. van den; Ruiter-Dijkman, E.M. De; Broekhuizen, S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Bosveld, A.T.C.



Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study  

PubMed Central

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body.

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef



Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.  


Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

Genuis, Stephen J; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef



Narcissism and Task Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated narcissists' persistence in attempting impossible tasks framed as intelligence tests. Narcissism predicted more task persistence when no alternative paths to self-enhancement were available (Study 1) and less persistence when alternative routes to self-enhancement were provided (Study 2). Overall, the results suggest that narcissists can maintain confidence and tolerate setbacks in pursuit of a goal, but may quickly

Harry M. Wallace; C. Beth Ready; Erin Weitenhagen



Screening for Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants in the Bosna River (Bosnia and Herzogovina).  


The Stockholm Convention, which aspires to manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the international level, was recently ratified in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Despite this fact, there is in general a paucity of data regarding the levels of POPs in the environment in BiH. In the present study, screening for POPs was conducted in one of the country's major rivers, the Bosna. A two-pronged approach was applied using passive samplers to detect the freely dissolved and bioavailable concentrations in the water phase and sediment analysis to provide an integrated measure of historical contamination. At several places along the river, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were high and exhibited potential for both chronic and acute effects to biota. River water also showed elevated concentrations of PAH, up to 480 ng L(-1) near the city of Doboj, and diagnostic ratios suggested combustion sources for the contamination present in both types of sample. The levels of the other contaminants measured-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers--were generally low in the water phase. However, PCBs and some OCPs were present in river sediments at levels which breach the international criteria and thus suggest potential for ecological damage. Additionally, the levels of heptachlor breached these criteria in many of the sites investigated. This study presents the first screening data for some of these Stockholm Convention relevant compounds in BiH and reveals both low concentrations of some chemical groups, but significant point sources and historic contamination for others. PMID:22580747

Harman, Christopher; Grung, Merete; Djedjibegovic, Jasmina; Marjanovic, Aleksandra; Sober, Miroslav; Sinanovic, Kemo; Fjeld, Eirik; Rognerud, Sigurd; Ranneklev, Sissel Brit; Larssen, Thorjørn



Neurotoxicity of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Possible Mode(s) of Action and Further Considerations  

PubMed Central

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-lived toxic organic compounds and are of major concern for human and ecosystem health. Although the use of most POPs is banned in most countries, some organochlorine pesticides are still being used in several parts of the world. Although environmental levels of some POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have declined, newly emerging POPs such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been increasing considerably. Exposure to POPs has been associated with a wide spectrum of effects including reproductive, developmental, immunologic, carcinogenic, and neurotoxic effects. It is of particular concern that neurotoxic effects of some POPs have been observed in humans at low environmental concentrations. This review focuses on PCBs as a representative chemical class of POPs and discusses the possible mode(s) of action for the neurotoxic effects with emphasis on comparing dose-response and structure-activity relationships (SAR) with other structurally related chemicals. There is sufficient epidemiological and experimental evidence showing that PCB exposure is associated with motor and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Although several potential mode(s) of actions were postulated for PCB-induced neurotoxic effects, changes in neurotransmitter systems, altered intracellular signalling processes, and thyroid hormone imbalance are predominant ones. These three potential mechanisms are discussed in detail in vitro and in vivo. In addition, SAR was conducted on other structurally similar chemicals to see if they have a common mode(s) of action. Relative potency factors for several of these POPs were calculated based on their effects on intracellular signalling processes. This is a comprehensive review comparing molecular effects at the cellular level to the neurotoxic effects seen in the whole animal for environmentally relevant POPs.

Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.



Dietary intake of persistent organic pollutants and potential health risks via consumption of global aquatic products.  


The concentration levels of typical persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in global aquatic products from major producing countries were summarized. Daily intakes of these compounds via consumption of various aquatic products for global consumers were also estimated based on available literature data. Risk assessment based upon existing criteria for OCPs and PBDEs shows that there is minimal risk to global consumers from consumption of aquatic products, with the exception of products from specific regions located around known heavy-point sources. Exposure to dioxins through consumption of aquatic products, excluding marine fish, is also in the range of the acceptable level, lower than 4 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ)/kg bw/d; however, dioxin intake via marine fish may cause hazards to human health, especially for Europeans. Regarding PCBs, there is cancer risk for global consumers via consumption of aquatic products, especially marine fish, based on cancer and noncancer hazard ratio assessment. Generally, European consumers have higher exposure levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, while Americans and Asians have relatively higher exposure levels of OCPs and PCBs. In contrast, all global populations are found to have lower exposure levels of PBDEs, which may be attributed to its relatively shorter history of use compared with PCBs and OCPs. Finally, the estimated total amounts of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs stored in global aquatic products constitute only a small portion of the total amount that has been used, and the majority obviously occurs in other environmental media or even remains in commercial products. PMID:20872674

Yu, Huan-Yun; Guo, Ying; Zeng, Eddy Y



Organochlorine residues in brown pelican eggs: Relation to reproductive success  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was conducted to determine the influence of residues of organochlorine pollutants on reproductive success in the brown pelican. A sample egg was taken from each of 93 marked nests in the nesting colony in South Carolina. Periodic visits were made to determine the fate of marked nests. Each sample egg was analysed for residues of organochlorine pollutants. Nest success in the brown pelican was related to residues of DDE and dieldrin in sample eggs. DDE seemed primarily responsible for nest failure; however, deleterious effects of this pollutant on nest success were not satisfactorily separated from those induced by dieldrin. Significant intercorrelation of all five organochlorine residues identified in the eggs complicated the relationship of residues to nest success. Maximum DDE residues in an egg from a successful nest were 2.37 ?g/g and 8.48 ?g/g in an egg from an unsuccessful nest. Comparable maximum residues for dieldrin in sample eggs were 0.54 ?g/g (successful) and 0.99 ?g/g (unsuccessful). Nineteen of the 26 eggs from unsuccessful nests contained DDE residues that exceeded 2.37 ?g/g, and 14 of these 26 eggs contained dieldrin residues that exceeded O.54 ?g/g. Residues of DDD, DDT or PCBs in sample eggs were not significantly related to nest success. Reproductive success in the brown pelican colony was subnormal in the years of study--1971 and 1972--but reproductive success was normal in those nests in which the sample egg contained either <2,5 ?g/g of DDE or 0.54 ?g/g of dieldrin.

Blus, L.J.; Neely, B.S., Jr.; Belisle, A.A.; Prouty, R.M.



Microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane before determination of organochlorines in fish tissue by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.  


Focused open-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (FOV-MAE), closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (CV-MAE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were used for extraction before determination of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dieldrin) in cod liver and fish fillets. Wet samples were extracted without the time-consuming step of lyophilization or other sample-drying procedures. Extractions were performed with the solvent mixture ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v), which allowed direct use of gel-permeation chromatography without solvent exchange. For FOV-MAE, the solvent mixture removed water from the sample matrix via azeotropic distillation. The status of water removal was controlled during extraction by measuring the temperature of the distillate. After water removal, the temperature of the distillate increased and the solvent mixture became less polar. Only the pure extraction solvent allowed quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds. For CV-MAE, water could not be separated during the extraction. For this reason, the extraction procedure for wet fish tissue required 2 extraction steps: the first for manual removal of coextracted water, and the second for quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds with the pure solvent. Therefore, CV-MAE is less convenient for samples with high water content. For ASE, water in the sample was bound with Na2SO4. The reproducibility for each technique was very good (relative standard deviation was typically <10%); the slightly varying levels were attributed to deviations during sample cleanup and the generally low levels. PMID:11128135

Weichbrodt, M; Vetter, W; Luckas, B


China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.  


Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. PMID:22325437

Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y



International Pellet Watch: Global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in coastal waters. 1. Initial phase data on PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of polyethylene pellets were collected at 30 beaches from 17 countries and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. PCB concentrations in the pellets were highest on US coasts, followed by western Europe and Japan, and were lower in tropical Asia, southern Africa and Australia. This spatial pattern reflected regional differences in the usage of PCBs and was positively correlated with data

Yuko Ogata; Hideshige Takada; Kaoruko Mizukawa; Hisashi Hirai; Satoru Iwasa; Satoshi Endo; Yukie Mato; Mahua Saha; Keiji Okuda; Arisa Nakashima; Michio Murakami; Nico Zurcher; Ruchaya Booyatumanondo; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Le Quang Dung; Miriam Gordon; Carlos Miguez; Satoru Suzuki; Charles Moore; Hrissi K. Karapanagioti; Steven Weerts; Tim McClurg; Erick Burres; Wally Smith; Michael Van Velkenburg; Judith Selby Lang; Richard C. Lang; Duane Laursen; Brenda Danner; Nickol Stewardson; Richard C. Thompson



Limit of detection and limit of quantification development procedures for organochlorine pesticides analysis in water and sediment matrices  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable values for method validity of organochlorine pesticides determination were investigated, in water by solid phase extraction and in sediment by Soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides are categorized as Persistent Organic Pollutants. Hence, critical decisions to control exposure to these chemicals in the environment are based on their levels in different media; it is important to find valid qualitative and quantitative results for these components. In analytical chemistry, internal quality procedures are applied to produce valid logical results. Result In this study, 18 organochlorine pesticides were targeted for analysis and determination in water and river sediment. Experiments based on signal-to-noise ratio, calibration curve slope and laboratory fortified blank methods were conducted to determine the limits of qualification and quantification. The data were compared with each other. The limitation values, following Laboratory Fortified Blank, showed significant differences in the signal-to-noise ratio and calibration curve slope methods, which are assumed in the results for the sample concentration factor to be 1,000 times in water and 10 times in sediment matrices. The method detection limit values were found to be between 0.001 and 0.005 ?g/L (mean of 0.002?±?0.001) and 0.001 and 0.005 ?g/g (mean of 0.001?±?0.001). The quantification limits were found to be between 0.002 and 0.016 ?g/L (mean of 0.006?±?0.004) and 0.003 and 0.017 ?g/g (mean of 0.005?±?0.003 ?g/L) for water and sediment, respectively, based on the laboratory fortified blank method. Because of different slopes in the calibration methods, it was also found that the limitation values for some components from the internal standard were higher than from external standard calibration, because in the latter a factor for injection efficiency is applied for calibration. Conclusion Technically, there are differentiations between detection limits for quality and quantity from component to component, resulting from noise, response factors of instruments and matrix interference. However, the calculation method is the cause of differentiation for each component of the different methods. The results show that for no matter what component, the relationship between these levels in different methods is approximately: Signal to Noise : Calibration Slope?=?1:10. Therefore, due to different methods to determine LOD and LOQ, the values will be different. In the current study, laboratory fortified blank is the best method, with lower limitation values for Soxhlet and solid phase extraction of OCPs from sediment and water, respectively.



Results and evaluation of the first study of organochlorine contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs), heavy metals and metalloids in birds from Baja California, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p-p?-DDE), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu), and arsenic were measured in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and common ground doves (Columbina passerina) from Baja California Sur, México. Concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs were low, with 21pg\\/g for house sparrows, and 7.7pg\\/g for common ground doves. Non-ortho-PCB concentrations in

Begoña Jiménez; Ricardo Rodríguez-Estrella; Rubén Merino; Gema Gómez; Laura Rivera; María José González; Esteban Abad; Josep Rivera



Organochlorine contaminants in the hair of Iranian pregnant women.  


In the present study, the hair of pregnant women was sampled between November 2007 and January 2008 in Ahvaz and Noushahr cities and the countryside of Noushahr, Iran. They were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-, ?-, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and seven polychlorinated (PCBs) congeners (IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180). Significant differences between the concentrations of investigated pollutants were found between the locations (p<0.05). For HCHs, the ?-HCH isomer was measured at higher mean concentrations (6 ng g(-1) hair) compared to the ?-HCH isomer (0.03 ng g(-1)), which generally is the most prevalent HCH in biological matrices. Very high mean concentrations of p,p'-DDT in countryside of Noushahr (24 ng g(-1)) combined with lower values (0.6) of ratio p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in the hair samples suggest recent exposure to "fresh" DDT in this region. Significant differences in OCPs and PCBs were found between primiparous and multiparous mothers (p<0.05). There was no correlation between levels of OCPs and PCBs in the hair of Iranian pregnant women and their age. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the organochlorine levels, including HCHs, between mothers who have eaten fish once a week and those who consumed fish more than once per week in Noushahr. PMID:22047617

Dahmardeh Behrooz, Reza; Barghi, Mandana; Bahramifar, Nader; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas



Reproductive performance and organochlorine pollutants in an Antarctic marine top predator: the south polar skua.  


Despite low levels of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in Antarctic biota, some compounds may exceed the levels in equivalent Arctic species, and previous studies have found biochemical evidence of pollutant exposure in south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki), a common marine top predator in the region. In this study we examined relationships between fitness components (fecundity and adult return rate between breeding seasons) and concentrations of OCs in this species. In 65 nests, both males and females were caught, and using principal component analyses (PCA) we produced composite measurements (PC1 and PC2) of six highly correlated OCs measured in blood samples. Although the concentrations of OC were below those documented to have reproductive effects in other aquatic birds, we found that the eggs of females with high levels of OCs in the blood hatched later, and their chicks were in poorer condition at hatching, than females with low OC levels. Thus OCs may delay reproduction and reduce foetal growth in the skuas. However, there was no relationship between the parents' OC residues and the occurrence of non-viable eggs, although the proportion of nests containing non-viable eggs was high (47%). Moreover, there were no significant relationships between OCs and reproductive variables in males, even if males had higher OC levels than females, and no associations between OCs and adult return rate between breeding seasons. PMID:17561256

Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Varpe, Øystein; Henden, John A; Skaare, Janneche U



Organochlorines and trace elements in four colonial waterbird species nesting in the lower Laguna Madre, Texas.  


Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting on the National Audubon Sanctuary Islands of the lower Laguna Madre were collected during 1993 and 1994 to determine concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace metals and to evaluate their possible detrimental effects on birds nesting in this aquatic ecosystem. The only chlorinated hydrocarbons found above detection limits were p,p'-DDE (DDE), p,p'-DDT (DDT), HCB, HCH, chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Median DDE and PCB levels in eggs of four species were below 1 microgram/g ww. Concentrations of DDE were much greater (6-70 fold) than the concentrations of other chlorinated pesticides which were present at or near detection limits. One egg from a snowy egret contained 9.65 micrograms/g DDE, 0.056 microgram/g DDD, and 1.75 micrograms/g DDT. Ten heavy metals and trace elements (Hg, Se, B, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sr, and Zn) were detected in 90% of the samples but at levels that were not of concern. In 1993-1994, concentrations of DDE in eggs of aquatic birds of the lower Laguna Madre were much lower than levels detected in this area during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Concentrations of DDE, PCBs, and trace metals in eggs detected in this study could not be associated with deformities or other detrimental effects on birds. PMID:8975826

Mora, M A



Organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in ground water and surface waters of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.  


A survey undertaken in Kanpur, northern India, has shown the presence of high concentrations of both organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in the surface and ground water samples. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC-ECD was used for the determination of these compounds. Among the various pesticides analyzed, high concentrations of gamma-HCH (0.259 microg/l) and malathion (2.618 microg/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the River Ganges in Kanpur. In the ground water samples collected from the various hand pumps located in agricultural and industrial areas, apart from gamma-HCH and malathion, dieldrin was also detected. The maximum concentration values of gamma-HCH, malathion and dieldrin were 0.900, 29.835 and 16.227 microg/l, respectively. Especially, the concentration of malathion was found to be much higher than the EC water quality standards in the ground water samples from industrial area posing a high risk to the common people. Pesticides like DDE, DDT, aldrin, ethion, methyl parathion and endosulfan were not detected in both the surface and ground water samples. PMID:15607785

Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Kumar Sharma, Ajit; Sanghi, Rashmi



Alkylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorines in sediment from Lake Shihwa, Korea: Instrumental and bioanalytical characterization  

SciTech Connect

Lake Shihwa is an artificial lake, located on the west coast of Korea, that has experienced environmental deterioration since 1994, when it was formed by construction of a sea dike. This study used instrumental analysis and in vitro bioassays to characterize organic contaminants in sediment collected from 11 stations on Lake Shihwa. Alkylphenol (AP) concentrations in Lake Shihwa sediment ranged from 20.2 to 1,820 ng/g nonylphenol and from 4.69 to 50.5 ng/g octylphenol, on a dry weight basis. Maximum concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were 30.8, 2.26, and 12.3 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Significant estrogenic activity was associated with fractions containing APs. Mass-balance analysis suggested that reported concentrations of APs account for less than 20% of the estrogenic activity observed. No significant dioxin like activity was associated with fractions containing classic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, such as PCBs, but the mid-polarity fractions containing PAHs and most polar fractions yielded significant dioxin like activity. Overall, most of the in vitro bioassay responses appear to have been caused by unidentified and/or undetectable compounds associated with Lake Shihwa sediment.

Khim, J.S.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Kannan, K.; Lee, K.T.; Snyder, S.A.; Koh, C.H.; Giesy, J.P.



Organochlorine pesticides in chorioallantoic membranes of Morelet's crocodile eggs from belize.  


Recent studies examined the utility of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as a nonlethal, noninvasive indicator of environmental contaminant exposure in oviparous wildlife. The CAM is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane that functions as a site for respiration, nutrient transport, and waste storage during embryonic development. After hatching, the CAM is usually discarded with the eggshell and can be used for chemical residue analysis. Chorioallantoic membranes have been used successfully to examine contaminant exposure and predict chemical concentrations in multiple species of birds and reptiles. In this study, we examined organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in CAMs from eggs of Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize. Multiple OCs were detected in crocodile CAMs, including aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), heptachlor, lindane, and methoxychlor. Number and concentrations of OC compounds in CAMs were variable. The most prevalent contaminant detected was DDE, which occurred in 69% of CAMs, with concentrations ranging from 0.3 parts per billion (ppb) to 17.0 ppb. The OC burdens in crocodile CAMs confirm contamination of eggs and suggest exposure in embryos and maternal females. These results further support the use of CAMs as qualitative indicators of OC exposure in oviparous wildlife. The efficacy of this sampling technique in the field will depend on the logistics and cost associated with CAM collection and the specific life history traits of the wildlife species. PMID:15465717

Pepper, Christopher B; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; Dever, Jennifer A; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T



Organochlorine pesticide residues in strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming.  


A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and a cleanup using dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4), PSA, and C18 sorbents has been developed for the routine analysis of 14 pesticides in strawberries. The analyses were performed by three different analytical methodologies: gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The recoveries for all the pesticides studied were from 46 to 128%, with relative standard deviation of <15% in the concentration range of 0.005-0.250 mg/kg. The limit of detection (LOD) for all compounds met maximum residue limits (MRL) accepted in Portugal for organochlorine pesticides (OCP). A survey study of strawberries produced in Portugal in the years 2009-2010 obtained from organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) was developed. Lindane and ?-endosulfan were detected above the MRL in OF and IPM. Other OCP (aldrin, o,p'-DDT and their metabolites, and methoxychlor) were found below the MRL. The OCP residues detected decreased from 2009 to 2010. The QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of strawberry samples. PMID:21235274

Fernandes, Virginia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina



Fish consumption and plasma levels of organochlorines in a female population in Northern Norway.  


Increased cancer incidence and mortality have been found among humans exposed to high levels of organochlorines (OCs), either accidentally or as industrial workers. In order to assess levels of OCs in Norwegian women north of the Arctic Circle and validate self-reported fish consumption as a surrogate measure of organochlorine body burden, concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners [IUPAC Nos. CB-105, CB-118, CB-138 (+ CB-163), CB-153, CB-180, CB-183, CB-187], beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), 2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and cis- and trains-chlordane (c-CD and t-CD) were examined in plasma samples of middle-aged women attending for health screening. Altogether, 47 of those invited (81%) completed a questionnaire and donated a suitable blood sample. The ability of questionnaire data to predict plasma levels of OCs was tested in linear and logistic regression analyses. Measured plasma concentrations were in the range reported for the general female population of other Western countries and the relative amounts of PCBs were similar to the circumpolar pattern. Intake of seagulls' eggs was a predictor of PCB congeners CB-138 (+CB-163) (p<0.05) and CB-153 (p<0.01). No other food category was positively associated with any compound. In contrast, duration of residence in the study municipality, body mass index (BMI) and lifetime lactation (months) were the best univariate predictors. There was an increase in beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE and most of the PCBs (p<0.05 for all) with increasing length of time a subject had lived in the municipality. BMI was a positive predictor for beta-HCH (OR=3.10, 95% CI 1.50-6.43, per 5 kgm(-2)), chlordane (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.05, per 5 kgm(-2)) and CB-105 and CB-153 (p<0.05 for both). Lactation was negatively associated with all OCs (p<0.05), except chlordane and two of the PCB congeners. Time living in the municipality and lactation explained 34%, of the variance in concentration of total PCB in a multivariate model (p<0.001). The results indicate that regular consumption of fish (mostly lean species) from the Norwegian waters is not associated with an increased body burden of OCs (e.g., of importance to cancer development), although they confirm that lactation is the most important elimination route of these contaminants in women. PMID:11871702

Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Sandanger, Torkjel; Thune, Inger; Burkow, Ivan C; Lun, Eiliv



Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks  

SciTech Connect

Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. Accumulation rates of mass between egg and 5-d-old chicks for each of the nine organochlorines were positive and varied from 0.2 {mu}g/d (p,p{prime}-DDT) to 42 {mu}g/d (PCBs). These results suggest that the loss of contaminant mass from eggs to chicks reported in some earlier studies was because the entire carcass was not analyzed. These results also support the use of contaminant accumulation rates as an indicator of local contamination.

Custer, T.W.; Custer, C.M. [National Biological Survey, LaCrosse, WI (United States)



Serum organochlorine pesticides and PCBs and breast cancer risk: results from a prospective analysis (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To prospectively evaluate relationships of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with breast cancer, we conducted a case-control study nested in a cohort using the Columbia, Missouri Breast Cancer Serum Bank.

Joanne F. Dorgan; John W. Brock; Nathaniel Rothman; Larry L. Needham; Rosetta Miller; Hugh E. Stephenson Jr; Nicki Schussler; Philip R. Taylor



Persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in adipose tissues of patients with uterine leiomyomas and the association of these pollutants with seafood diet, BMI, and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals can cause diseases in women, however, the relationships of these pollutants\\u000a and uterine leiomyomas (UL), which are non-cancerous tumors of the uterus, are unclear. This study focused on the quantification\\u000a of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated\\u000a diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals in subcutaneous and

Yan Yan Qin; Clement Kai Man Leung; Anna Oi Wah Leung; Sheng Chun Wu; Jin Shu Zheng; Ming Hung Wong



Organochlorine Pesticides in Water, Sediment and Fish from the Nile River and Manzala Lake in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the risks of organochlorine pesticides discharged into the hydrospheric environment of Egypt, river and lake water, drinking water, suspended solids, sediments and fish were collected during 1993—1994 from the Nile River and Manzala Lake in Egypt and were transported to Japan for chemical analysis. Among different organochlorine pesticides analyzed, p,p?-DDE was the most predominant in fish (7.6 to

Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Yoshikuni Urushigawa; Shigeki Masunaga; Mohamed I. Walash; Akira Miyazaki



Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Foodstuffs from Asian and Oceanic Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Public concern about the adverse environmental and human health impacts of organochlorine contaminants led to strict regulations\\u000a on their use in developed nations two decades ago. Nevertheless, DDT and several other organochlorine insecticides are still\\u000a being used for agricultural and public health programs in developing countries in Asia and the South Pacific. As a consequence,\\u000a humans in this region are

Kurunthachalam Kannan; Shinsuke Tanabe; John P. Giesy; Ryo Tatsukawa


Limitations of expressing organochlorine levels in eggs on a lipid-weight basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature citations of organochlorine residue levels of environmental samples are expressed on a wet-weight, dry-weight or lipid-weight basis; however, there appears to be an increasing trend to express the results on a lipid-weight basis. The eggs of birds have been used widely to assess levels of organochlorine pollutants accumulated in the wild and through experimental exposure. In this note the

D. B. Peakall; A. P. Gilman




EPA Science Inventory

Article describes the class of compounds known as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutants (known as PBTs), including the mechanisms responsible for ability to build up the food chain and for causing adverse health effects and ecosystem damage. Exposure to numerous PBTs ...


Orthogonal persistence and Ada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into persistent programming languages and systems in recent years has shown that the technology is useful for developing complex software in many problem domains. This paper explores the issues of adding persistence support to Ada, either as extensions to Ada 9X, or as an integral part of the next version of the language.

Stephen Crawley; Michael Oudshoorn



X-ray spectromicroscopic investigation of natural organochlorine distribution in weathering plant material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural organochlorine (Cl org) is ubiquitous in soil humus, but the distribution and cycling of different Cl species during the humification of plant material is poorly understood. Our X-ray spectromicroscopic studies indicate that the distributions of Cl org and inorganic Cl -(Cl inorg) in oak leaf material vary dramatically with decay stage, with the most striking changes occurring at the onset of weathering. In healthy or senescent leaves harvested from trees, Cl inorg occurs in sparsely distributed, highly localized "hotspots" associated with trichomes as well as in diffuse concentration throughout the leaf tissue. The Cl inorg associated with trichomes exists either in H-bonded form or in a solid salt matrix, while the Cl inorg in diffuse areas of lower Cl concentration appears exclusively in H-bonded form. Most solid phase Cl inorg leaches from the leaf tissue during early weathering stages, whereas the H-bonded Cl inorg appears to leach away slowly as degradation progresses, persisting through advanced weathering stages. In unweathered leaves, aromatic and aliphatic Cl org were found in rare but concentrated hotspots. In weathered leaves, by contrast, aromatic Cl org hotspots are prevalent, often coinciding with areas of elevated Fe or Mn concentration. Aromatic Cl org is highly soluble in leaves at early weathering stages and insoluble at more advanced stages. These results, combined with optical microscopy, suggest that fungi play a role in the production of aromatic Cl org in weathering leaf material. Aliphatic Cl org occurs in concentrated hotspots in weathered leaves as well as in diffuse areas of low Cl concentration. The distribution and speciation of Cl in weathering oak leaves depicted by this spectromicroscopic study provides new insight into the formation and cycling of Cl org during the decay of natural organic matter.

Leri, Alessandra C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Myneni, Satish C. B.



Organochlorine pesticides contamination in surface soils from two pesticide factories in Southeast China.  


The present article attempts to investigate organochlorine pesticides' (OCPs) contamination in soils from polluted sites and to assess the soil quality in the study area. HCHs and eight other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pesticides were studied in surface soil samples collected from a new (F) and an old (G) pesticide factory in Southeast China. According to the measured results, surface soils from F and G were contaminated with HCHs, DDTs, HCB, and chlordane, with beta-HCH and p,p'-DDT being the two dominant substances. The total OCPs concentrations of surface soils from F and G were 0.84 and 166mgkg(-1) respectively. Cluster analysis was performed to group the soil sites in terms of their total OCPs contamination levels. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT, and trans-/cis- chlordane in some of the soil samples are similar to their technical products in the study area which indicates the lack of hazardous waste management practices of the pesticide production and transportation. According to GB 15618-1995, the HCHs could be classified as light pollution and little pollution for F and G, whereas DDTs levels of F and G could be defined as little pollution and heavy pollution, respectively. This study indicates that surface soils, especially residential area soils from F and G were facing varying degrees of pollutions. The situation is more hazardous due to the continuous exposure of the population that lives in the surroundings. Therefore, on-site remediation technologies and the best available techniques/best environmental practices (BAT/BEP) should be carried out on these factories with the national implementation of the Stockholm Convention. PMID:19772983

Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Yeru



Organochlorine concentrations in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo) from Four Florida Estuaries.  


Because of their persistence in aquatic environments and ability to impair reproduction and other critical physiological processes, organochlorine (OC) contaminants pose significant health risks to marine organisms. Despite such concerns, few studies have investigated levels of OC exposure in sharks, which are fish particularly threatened by anthropogenic pollution because of their tendency to bioaccumulate and biomagnify environmental contaminants. The present study examined concentrations of 29 OC pesticides and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo), an abundant species for which evidence of reproductive impairment has been observed in certain Florida populations. Quantifiable levels of PCBs and 22 OC pesticides were detected via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in liver of 95 S. tiburo from four estuaries on Florida's Gulf coast: Apalachicola Bay, Tampa Bay, Florida Bay, and Charlotte Harbor. In general, OC concentrations were significantly higher in Apalachicola Bay, Tampa Bay, and Charlotte Harbor S. tiburo in relation to the Florida Bay population. Because the rate of infertility has been shown to be dramatically higher in Tampa Bay versus Florida Bay S. tiburo, the present findings allude to a possible relationship between OC exposure and reproductive health that requires further investigation. Pesticide and PCB concentrations did not appear to significantly increase with growth or age in S. tiburo, suggesting limited potential for OC bioaccumulation in this species compared with other sharks for which contaminant data are available. Concentrations of OCs in serum and muscle were not correlated with those in liver, indicating that these tissues are poor surrogates for measuring internal OC burden in this species via nonlethal sampling procedures. PMID:15883671

Gelsleichter, J; Manire, C A; Szabo, N J; Cortés, E; Carlson, J; Lombardi-Carlson, L



Associations between Organochlorine Pesticides and Vitamin D Deficiency in the U.S. Population  

PubMed Central

Background Recently low dose organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been strongly linked to various chronic diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Both field and animal studies have suggested a possibility that persistent lipophilic chemicals like OC pesticides can cause vitamin D deficiency, but there have been no human studies of exposure to any chemical as a possible cause of vitamin D deficiency. This study was performed to examine if serum concentrations of OC pesticides were associated with serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the U.S. general population. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross-sectional associations of serum OC pesticides with serum 25(OH)D were investigated in 1,275 subjects aged ?20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(NHANES), 2003–2004. We selected 7 OC pesticides detectable in ?80% of participants. Among the 7 OC pesticides, p,p?-DDT (??=??0.022, P<0.01), p,p?-DDE (??=??0.018, P?=?0.04), and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (??=??0.022, P?=?0.02) showed significant inverse associations with serum 25(OH)D levels. When study subjects were stratified by age, race, and the presence of various chronic diseases, p,p?-DDT showed consistent inverse associations in all subgroups, although stronger associations tended to be observed among subjects with old age, white race, or chronic diseases. Conclusion/Significance The current study suggests that the background exposure to some OC pesticides leads to vitamin D deficiency in human. Considering the importance of vitamin D deficiency in the development of chronic diseases, chemical exposure as a possible cause of vitamin D deficiency should be evaluated in prospective and experimental studies.

Yang, Jin-Hoon; Lee, Yu-Mi; Bae, Sang-Geun; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee



Organochlorine residues and shell thinning in Oregon seabird eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single egg was collected at 62 nests of 10 seabird species from Oregon in 1979. The eggs were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants; contemporary shell thickness was compared with eggshells collected during earlier time periods. Concentrations of DDE and PCB's in 1979 were generally low with the most contaminated species being the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Leach's Storm Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Forktailed Storm Petrel (O. furcata). Limited eggshell data provide evidence that shell thinning was more severe along the Oregon coast in the 1950's than in 1979. With the possible exception of the Fork-tailed Storm Petrel, the residues in 1979 posed no known threat to the welfare of the species.

Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Prouty, R.M.



Organochlorine pesticides in particulate matter of Beijing, China.  


Eighteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 20 sites in Beijing, China in 2005 and 2006 were analyzed to determine the composition, spatial distribution and sources. Total OCPs of PM2.5 and PM10 ranged from 32.59 pg m(-3) to 9232.31 pg m(-3) and 80.96 pg m(-3) to 9434.97 pg m(-3), respectively, categorized as heavier pollution compared to other cities of China. Among six kinds of functional zones involved, commercial areas and industrial centers were heavily polluted. Distinct concentrations variations were detected in PM with different particle diameters. Pollution distribution was spatially heterogeneous inside the city. The most heavily polluted sites located in the southeast part of the city, where laid many chemical factories. Compositional analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that past usage of OCPs was the main source, though there were new inputs in some sites. PMID:18280031

Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Xinghong; Cheng, Hangxin; Xu, Xiaobai; Zhuang, Guangmin; Zhao, Chuandong



Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Human Fat in Great Britain  

PubMed Central

In order to assess the trend in the body load of organochlorine pesticide residues in Great