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1

Persistent Organochlorine Compounds in Human Breast Milk from Mothers Living in Penang and Kedah, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins\\/dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk samples collected in 2003 from primipara mothers living in Penang, Malaysia. OCs were detected in all the samples analyzed with DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and PCBs as the major contaminants followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB),

Agus Sudaryanto; Tatsuya Kunisue; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mami Niida; Hatijah Hashim

2005-01-01

2

Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon ( Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: Levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 were analysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl tricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs and DDT (including metabolites) were by far the most abundant OC groups, with median concentrations of 55 and 40 ?g\\/g lw, respectively.

Katrin Vorkamp; Marianne Thomsen; Søren Møller; Knud Falk; Peter B. Sørensen

2009-01-01

3

Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 were analysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl tricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs and DDT (including metabolites) were by far the most abundant OC groups, with median concentrations of 55 and 40 microg/g lw, respectively. The concentrations were high in an Arctic context, but similar to previously reported levels from Alaska and Norway and slightly lower than concentrations measured in eggs from industrialised regions. Geographical differences may be of importance, considering the migration of peregrine falcons and their prey. SigmaHCH and HCB had median concentrations of 0.39 and 0.17 microg/g lw, respectively. On average, DDE accounted for 97% of SigmaDDT, but was below critical levels for eggshell thinning. All compound groups showed a weak decreasing trend over the study period, which was statistically significant for HCB and close to being significant for SigmaHCH. The weak decrease of SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT is different from other time trend studies from Greenland, usually showing a more pronounced decrease in the beginning of the study period, followed by a certain stabilisation in recent years. PMID:18823663

Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Møller, Søren; Falk, Knud; Sørensen, Peter B

2009-02-01

4

Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

5

Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed.  

PubMed

Animal products like milk and meat are often found to be contaminated with residues of persistent pesticides and other toxic substances. The major source of entry of these compounds to animal body is the contaminated feed and fodder. So, unless the residues are managed at this stage, it is very difficult to prevent contamination in milk and meat. Therefore, the status of residue level of most persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) in feed and fodder should be monitored regularly. The frequency of occurrence and contamination levels of OCP residues in different kinds of animal concentrate feed and straw samples collected from Bundelkhand region of India were determined. Out of 533 total samples, 301 i.e. 56.47% samples were positive containing residues of different OCPs like hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) complex, endosulfan and dicofol. Among different HCH isomers, the mean concentration of ?-HCH was highest, and total HCH varied from 0.01 to 0.306 mg kg(-1). In case of DDT complex, i.e. DDD, DDE and DDT, the concentration ranged between 0.016 and 0.118 mg kg(-1) and the pp(|) isomers were more frequently encountered than their op(|) counterparts. Endosulfan was also found in some samples in concentration ranging from 0.009 to 0.237 mg/kg, but dicofol could be recorded in very few samples. Although feed samples were found to contain OC residues, after comparing their levels in positive samples with the limiting values of respective pesticides, only very few were found to exceed the threshold level. Otherwise, they were mostly within safe limits. PMID:20443138

Nag, Subir Kumar; Raikwar, Mukesh K

2011-03-01

6

Organochlorine compounds and testicular dysgenesis syndrome: human data  

PubMed Central

Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, subfertility, and testicular germ-cell tumor have been suggested to comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) based on the premise that each may derive from perturbations of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to be associated with these disorders given the importance of sex steroid hormones in urogenital development and homeostasis. Organochlorines are one such set of compounds which are defined as containing between one and ten covalently bonded chlorine atoms. These compounds are persistent pollutants with long half-lives, accumulate in adipose tissue when ingested, bioaccumulate and biomagnify, and have complex and variable toxicological profiles. Examples of organochlorines include dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordane. In this comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies which have tested for associations between organochlorines and facets of TDS, we find evidence for associations between the exposures p,p?-DDE, cis-nonachlor, and trans-nonachlor with TGCT. The sum of the evidence from human epidemiologic studies does not indicate any association between specific organochlorines studied and cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or fertility. Many other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including additional organochlorines, have yet to be assessed in relation to disorders associated with TDS, yet study of such chemicals has strong scientific merit given the relevance of such hypotheses to urogenital development. PMID:21668838

Cook, Michael B.; Trabert, Britton; McGlynn, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

7

ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS PLATORYNCHUS)  

E-print Network

ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS Mississippi River Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus): Bioaccumulation and Reproductive and organochlorine pesticides, were used on lands adjacent to the Middle Mississippi River (MMR) from 1930 through

8

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and human reproductive health.  

PubMed

The present dissertation focuses on the reproductive health effects in humans from four diverse populations, including an Inuit population from Greenland, a Swedish population of fishermen and fishermen's wives, and urban populations from the cities of Warsaw in Poland and Kharkiv in Ukraine, representing populations with considerable variations in organochlorine exposure levels due to differences in the consumption of contaminated food items and the period since banning the use of the organochlorines selected in the present study. Due to bioaccumulation and their long half-lives in humans, these compounds are still ubiquitously detected in humans. The study included a total of 2,269 women who provided information via detailed questionnaires and 798 men who provided semen samples. Time to pregnancy varied between the populations included, whereas semen quality was remarkably similar with only minor differences in motility between countries and within regions in Greenland. An extensive quality control programme ensured a low level of variation between analysers in the evaluation of semen quality during semen sample collection. Sperm concentration and morphology were not associated with PCB-153 or DDE exposure, but sperm motility was consistently associated with PCB-153 exposure across populations. Xeno-estrogen, -androgen and dioxin-like activity in serum samples were not consistently associated with semen quality measures, indicating that the associations observed with sperm motility were not caused via direct effects on these receptors. The sperm chromatin structure assay showed a higher level of DNA fragmentation under higher PCB-153 exposure levels in the European populations, but not in the Greenlandic population. Disturbances in the female menstrual cycle were not consistently associated with PCB-153 or DDE exposure across the countries, but our results suggested a higher probability of ever having a spontaneous abortion among women with high PCB-153 or DDE exposure levels. Overall, the results suggest that PCB-153, but probably not DDE, may affect aspects of male and female reproductive functioning in European and Arctic populations at the levels of exposure currently experienced in these populations, although the associations observed did not seem to be a major cause of reduced human fertility. PMID:25370968

Toft, Gunnar

2014-11-01

9

Organochlorinated compounds in Caspian Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several organochlorinated contaminants, including numerous pesticides, were determined in coastal sediments from the Caspian Sea. The most important contaminants were p,p?-DDT (up to 7400 pgg?1) and its breakdown products, p,p?-DDD (up to 3400 pgg?1) and p,p?-DDE (up to 1300 pgg?1). Although the contamination was most severe in Azerbaijan, the sediment concentrations and percentage distribution of the three DDT-related compounds indicated

Stephen de Mora; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Mohammad Reza Sheikholeslami; Chantal Cattini; Imma Tolosa

2004-01-01

10

Temporal Trends of Persistent Organochlorine Contamination in Russia: A Case Study of Baikal and Caspian Seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) contamination in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea, concentrations of persistent\\u000a OCs, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordane compounds\\u000a (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), in the blubber of female seals were determined. Collections were made in 1992, 1993, 1995\\u000a and 1998. DDT concentrations in Baikal

Shinsuke Tanabe; Satoko Niimi; Tu Binh Minh; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Evgeny A. Petrov

2003-01-01

11

Distribution of some organochlorine compounds (PCB, CBz, and DDE) in beeswax and honey  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Jan, J. [Public Health Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cerne, K. [Chemical Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1993-11-01

12

Persistent organochlorines in air and water from East Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In order to assess the east Siberia for persistent organochlorine (POC) contaminations such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs, the residue levels in air and water collected from Chaun, Magadan, Khabarovsk and Listvyanka during 1992--1993 have been determined. The levels of atmospheric PCBs and DDTs concentrations in Magadan and Khabarovsk were one to two orders of magnitude higher than the global baseline levels, while the prominent contaminations in water were found in Listvyanka which is in the southwest coast of Lake Baikal. The results suggest that these areas are exposed by different local sources. Chaun, located in the coast of Chaunskaya Guba (Gulf) facing the East Siberian Sea, exhibited the lowest POCs residues. Apart from the concentrations, aerial PCB congener compositions varied with the total concentration levels. Khabarovsk air, where the highest PCB levels (2,860 pg/M{sup 3}) were found, contained mainly tetra and pentachlorobiphenyls. In contrast, samples from Chaun (36--160 pg/M{sup 3}) showed the higher predominance of di and trichlorinated congeners and Magadan air (320--880 pg/M{sup 3}) was a mixed type for both the air. Regarding DDTs composition, high percentages of p,p{prime}-DDT to total DDT compounds in the air from Magadan and Khabarovsk indicate the recent usage. Annual concentrations of aerial POCs in Listvyanka were strongly dependent on air temperature. Hence, heats of vaporization (desorption) for POCs were calculated from the relationships between logarithmic concentrations (partial pressure) and inverse temperatures. The values ranged from 26 kJ/mol to 43 kJ/mol in order of HCB < {alpha}-HCH < {gamma}-HCH < p,p{prime}DDE < total PCBs < p,p{prime}DDT. In addition, highly chlorinated PCBs tended to show higher values than the less chlorinated PCBs. The heats of vaporization estimated from the field survey were lower than those from the laboratory experiments previously reported.

Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S.; Ouchi, E.; Tatsukawa, R. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Timonin, A.

1995-12-31

13

TOXAPHENE AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THREE SPECIES OF ALBATROSSES FROM THE NORTH AND SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides (chlordane-related compounds ( SCHL), DDT-related compounds (SDDT), hexachlorocyclohexanes (SHCH), tris(p-chloro-phenyl)methane, hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, diel- drin) were determined in fat of Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) and in fat and eggs of blackfooted albatross (Diomedea nigripes) from the central north Pacific Ocean. The HCH isomers and chlordane- and DDT-related compounds were also determined in eggs of

Derek C. G. Muir; Paul D. Jones; Heidi Karlsson; Krystina Koczansky; Gary A. Stern; Kurunthachalam Kannan; James P. Ludwig; Hamish Reid; Chris J. R. Robertson; John P. Giesy

2002-01-01

14

Heavy metal and organochlorine compound concentrations in tissues of raccoons from east-central Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and related compounds and heavy metals are persistent contaminants in the environment. Bioconcentration and biomagnification are well reported for organochlorine compounds. These compounds have a great potential for causing wildlife mortality or serious behavioral, reproductive, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects, along with specific organ toxicity. The pervasive nature of toxic substances in the environment necessitates some knowledge for potential exposure of wildlife species. Without baseline values of contaminant loads for selected indicator species it is impossible to determine when abnormal or pathological conditions exist in wild populations. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline values for selected environmental contaminants in the raccoon (Procyon lotor), a potential indicator species for wildlife and to see if heavy metal accumulation was related to age or sex.

Herbert, G.B.; Peterle, T.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-02-01

15

Residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ), 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starlings were collected for the National Pesticides Monitoring Program from 112 sites throughout the contiguous United States and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Starling samples from 14 sites had greater than 1.0 ppm DDE residues with the highest DDE level being 15.8 ppm in a sample taken near Roswell, New Mexico. The occurrence of PCBs and chlordane isomers increased since the

Brian W. Cain; Christine M. Bunck

1983-01-01

16

Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-  

E-print Network

Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows:

Tatsuya Kunisue; Mafumi Watanabe; Annamalai Subramanian; Alagappan Sethuraman; Alexei M Titenko; Vo Qui; Maricar Prudente; Shinsuke Tanabe

2003-01-01

18

The synthesis of organochlorine compounds from one-carbon molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on the synthesis of organochlorine compounds from one-carbon molecules are surveyed. The thermodynamics, kinetics, and mechanisms of the direct and oxidative chlorination of methane, the esterification of methanol by hydrogen chloride, the hydrochlorination of acetylene, the hydrodechlorination of carbon tetrachloride, and the carbonylation of chloromethanes, the catalysts employed, and the practical applications of these reactions are examined. The bibliography includes 143 references.

Treger, Yurii A.; Rozanov, V. N.

1989-01-01

19

Distribution of persistent organochlorine chemical residues in blood plasma of three species of vultures from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in blood\\u000a plasma of white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, and griffon vulture Gyps fulvus collected from Ahmedabad, India. All the samples had varying levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Statistically\\u000a significant (P??-HCH), ?HCH, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). The mean concentration of ?HCH, ?DDT, and ?PCBs

Venugopal Dhananjayan; Subramanian Muralidharan; Palanisamy Jayanthi

2011-01-01

20

PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

21

Western mosquitofish as a bioindicator of exposure to organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

The evaluation of the alochthonous and cosmopolitan mosquitofish species Gambusia affinis suitability as a bioindicator species and the induction of its liver cytochrome P450-dependent mixed function oxygenase (MFO), measured as the 7-ethoxyresorfin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as changes in DNA integrity, measured by the Fast Micromethod, for the monitoring of organochlorine fresh water pesticide contamination, were the main aims of the study. The test mosquitofish were exposed under laboratory conditions to several doses (0.1, 10 and 100 microg l(-1)) of lindane in experimental basins for up to 7 days, and a subsequent field study was carried out at five natural ponds in the south-western Istrian peninsula, Croatia, where up to 10 fish were collected from each pond. Results obtained during the studies showed positive correlations between the measured biomarkers in G. affinis liver (EROD activity and DNA integrity status) and lindane (laboratory experiment) or persistent organochlorine pollutant amounts in natural pond sediments (field study). The clear dose-responses of EROD activity and DNA integrity deterioration in G. affinis were recorded after exposure to 0.1-10 microg/l lindane and 96 h exposure to lindane, respectively. The results indicate that the mosquitofish G. affinis, due to its biological-ecological characteristics and the biomarker dose-response, is suitable for the monitoring of fresh water organochlorine pesticide contamination in general and lindane in particular. PMID:18262267

Jaksi?, Zeljko; Hamer, Bojan; Landeka, Nediljko; Batel, Renato

2008-10-01

22

Specific accumulation and elimination kinetics of tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and other persistent organochlorines in humans from Japan.  

PubMed Central

We examined human adipose tissue, liver, and bile from humans in Japan to understand the contamination status, specific accumulation, and elimination of two newly identified environmental contaminants, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs). TCPMe and TCPMOH concentrations in Japanese human adipose tissue were slightly higher than those reported previously, indicating widespread exposure to these compounds in humans. Elevated residues of PCBs and DDTs are found in adipose tissue and liver. Concentrations in bile strongly correlated with concentrations in adipose fat and liver, which may suggest an equilibration in adipose fat/bile and liver/bile and possible biliary excretion of persistent organochlorines in humans. Composition of the organochlorines accumulated further indicates a metabolic capacity in humans higher than that of marine mammals. We observed age-dependent accumulation for TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other organochlorines, but there were no significant gender differences. p,p'-DDE and TCPMe were estimated to have low biliary excretion rate. Elimination potential of persistent organochlorines may be related to their octanol-water partition coefficient. The relationship between excretion rate and octanol-water partition coefficient may be used to predict the biliary excretion potential of some other lipophilic organochlorines such as dioxins and dibenzofurans in humans. The presence of organochlorines in bile suggests that the hepatic excretory system plays a major role in the elimination of xenobiotics in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study of accumulation and elimination of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. PMID:11673122

Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

2001-01-01

23

Premature delivery and organochlorine compounds: polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorine insecticides  

SciTech Connect

Some organochlorine compounds (OCC), DDT and metabolites, ..gamma..-HCH, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide and polychlorinated biphenyls were assessed in the serum of 17 women with premature delivery (PD) and 10 women with normal, third-trimester pregnancy. Out of 17 cases of PD, 8 cases were associated with high PCB serum levels (128.0 ppb versus 19.25 ppb in the control group), and 5 cases with high DDT serum levels (119.6 ppb versus 26.5 ppb in the control group). Two of the cases with high PCB serum levels also had high total DDT serum levels. The 5 cases with high total DDT serum levels also has high ..gamma..-HCH and heptachlor epoxide serum levels and 4 out of these 5 cases also had high dieldrin serum levels. The higher chlorinated PCB isomers constituted a higher percentage of total PCBs in the study group in comparison with the control group (about 30% versus 8.94%). At the same time, the percentage of total o.p'-DDT was unusually high (50% of total DDT in the study group versus 30% in the control group). The possible role of the relatively high serum levels of the organochlorine compounds assessed in this study, in the occurrence of PD, is discussed.

Wassermann, M.; Ron, M.; Bercovici, B.; Wasserman, D.; Cucos, S.; Pines, A.

1982-06-01

24

Residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Starlings were collected for the National Pesticides Monitoring Program from 112 sites throughout the contiguous United States and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Starling samples from 14 sites had greater than 1.0 ppm DDE residues with the highest DDE level being 15.8 ppm in a sample taken near Roswell, New Mexico. The occurrence of PCBs and chlordane isomers increased since the 1976 collection, but DDT, and dieldrin occurrences decreased. DDE and dieldrin levels decreased since the 1976 collection, but the level of PCBs has increased

Cain, B.W.; Bunck, C.M.

1983-01-01

25

Persistent organochlorines in the serum of the non-occupationally exposed New Zealand population  

E-print Network

Persistent organochlorines in the serum of the non-occupationally exposed New Zealand population and Research Ltd., P.O. Box 50-348, Porirua, New Zealand b School of Public Health, University of California-362, Wellington, New Zealand d National Center of Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

California at Berkeley, University of

26

Epidemiological analysis of persistent organochlorine contaminants in cetaceans.  

PubMed

Information is provided to test the hypothesis that organochlorines introduced into the environment since the early 1940s could threaten the reproductive potential of baleen whales and other cetaceans. Comparisons are made using data on the role of organochlorines in a model system, the Great Lakes region of North America, and in model animals, including humans, pinnipeds, and other wildlife. DDT and PCB are used as model organochlorines with the caveat that there may be thousands of other chemicals in the environment also involved. Improved sensitivity in analytical quantification of synthetic chemicals in biological tissue has been accompanied by an increase in knowledge about biochemical processes that control development and function. The effects described in this review are the result of disrupted gene expression, not damage to the gene. The mechanisms of action of the organochlorines reveal their ability to affect developing organisms at very low concentrations during critical life stages: embryonic, fetal, and early postnatal. Exposure during early development can disrupt the organization of the endocrine, reproductive, immune and nervous systems, effecting irreversible damage that may not be expressed until the individuals reach adulthood. The recent discovery that human sperm count is declining worldwide at a rate of 1 x 10(6) sperm/(mL.yr) suggests common exposure to estrogen-like chemicals during prenatal and early postnatal development. This raises concern for other top predator species that also share the same exposure. Periods of intense feeding followed by long periods of fasting are common among species of baleen whales. This unique strategy places the embryonic and nursing calves in vulnerable positions, because under both situations maternal blood levels are elevated as a result of absorption from food intake or as a result of mobilization as fat is metabolized. Estimates of Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) based on the occurrence of four PCB congeners (118, 183, 153, 180) in sigma PCB reported in whales are highest for St. Lawrence belugas and Faroe Island long-finned pilot whales. This conservative approach reveals that some whale species are within the range of enzyme-induced TEQs at which effects have been associated with adverse health effects in other aquatic species. The epidemiological approach was used for analysis because it was developed to handle multiple exposure scenarios in which direct causal links are virtually impossible to isolate. The analysis includes the tenets of timeorder, strength of association, specificity of cause and effect, consistency, coherence, and predictive performance. PMID:8714222

Colborn, T; Smolen, M J

1996-01-01

27

Epidemiology of Breast Cancer and Serum Organochlorine and Serum Organochlorine Compounds and Breast Cancer on Long Island  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Steven D. Stellman, of the American Health Foundation, New York, NY, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk for breast cancer in relation to levels of organochlorine compounds, such as DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB).

28

Organochlorine compounds in bottom sediments, benthos, and fish in the volga pool of the Rybinsk Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of three groups of organochlorine compounds (HCCH, DDT, and PCB) in bottom sediments, zebra mussel, and\\u000a two fish species—zope and roach—in the Volga Pool of the Rybinsk Reservoir. The concentrations of the examined toxicants can\\u000a be ranked in the ascending order as follows: HCCHorganochlorine compounds (OCC) and their\\u000a metabolites are very low, thus

A. V. German; V. V. Zakonnov; A. A. Mamontov

2010-01-01

29

In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male  

PubMed Central

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008–2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988–1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p?-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/ml), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p?-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p?-DDE were 10.0 (2.1–35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2–2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7–55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p?-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p?-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

2014-01-01

30

In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/ml), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

2014-12-01

31

Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences

Kathleen A. McCarthy; Robert W. Gale

2001-01-01

32

Influence of drying of biosludge on organochlorine compounds from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper industry is one of the major sources of man-made generation of organochlorine compounds. During biological treatment of wastewater, part of organochlorine compounds is discharged with treated effluent and part is retained on biomass and disposed of as waste activated sludge. Due to presence of these compounds, the disposal of biosludge from pulp and paper industry has become an issue. The estimation of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) compounds after drying and grinding resulted in 49% lower concentration of AOX due to stripping of purgeable compounds. These purgeable compounds are not released at 60 degrees C in aqueous medium during estimation of purgeable organic halogen (POX) compounds. Dispersion of sludge by sonication overcomes the loss of POX compounds and results in higher concentration ofAOX compounds. The drying of biosludge samples at 45, 100 degrees C and in presence of sun light resulted in 20.1, 49.0 and 29.6% removal of purgeable AOX compounds, respectively. The lab scale sorption study using dichloromethane (as volatile organochlorine compound) reveal that biosludge from pulp and paper industry is a good adsorbent of volatile organochlorine compounds and results in poor release of these compounds during estimation of POX compounds. PMID:23033648

Gupta, S; Purwar, M; Chakrabarti, S K; Singh, Satnam

2012-01-01

33

Equilibrium sampling: partitioning of organochlorine compounds from lipids into polydimethylsiloxane.  

PubMed

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can be used for equilibrium sampling of environmental pollutants in a large variety of matrices including biota. For comparison with lipid-normalized concentrations e.g. from biota monitoring programmes, reliable lipid to PDMS partition ratios (K(Lipid,PDMS)) are required. Additionally, K(Lipid,PDMS) facilitate comparison of equilibrium sampling data obtained in various environmental media and can be helpful to convert equilibrium sampling data into a more informative form. This work investigated the equilibrium partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between lipids from biota of different trophic levels and PDMS. One vegetable oil, a fish oil and seal oil were investigated. The lipid to PDMS partition ratios were compound-specific and ranged from 14.5 to 62.9 g/g with correction for lipid uptake into the PDMS and from 13.0 to 54.8 g/g without correction. Additionally, PDMS served as a reference partitioning phase for the accurate determination of lipid to lipid partition ratios, which for all analytes were close to unity. Evaluating the results in a bioaccumulation context, they indicate that the equilibrium partitioning of neutral lipophilic environmental contaminants into the lipids of the three investigated species will be very similar, although they represent three distinct trophic levels. PMID:18926556

Jahnke, Annika; McLachlan, Michael S; Mayer, Philipp

2008-11-01

34

Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides in 2007 Chinese total diet study.  

PubMed

Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was assessed for Chinese populations, using the total diet study (TDS) approach in 2007. Multistage random cluster sampling method was used in this study. 108 composite samples, representative of foods "as consumed" by the Chinese were analyzed for residues of OCPs by a multi-residue method. The result showed that hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and heptachlor could be detected in, respectively 84%, 39%, 37%, 13% and 5% of all samples. Concentrations of DDT in all samples ranged from undetectable levels to 72.2 ?g/kg. Others were minor components in the OCPs profile. The residual levels of OCPs were significantly below the Extraneous Maximum Residue Limits (EMRLs). Based on the 2000 nationwide food consumption survey, the average dietary exposure of the Chinese to DDT, HCH, HCB, CHLs, and heptachlor was estimated to be 0.016, 0.002, 0.009, 0.006, and 0.001 ?g/kg body weight per day respectively, showing a significant decrease trend compared with the past. The major food groups contributing to dietary OCPs were aquatic foods, meats, and cereals. The average and high end estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for the Chinese were both lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) suggested by authorities indicating low health risk of OCPs dietary exposure among Chinese adults at present. However, the risk of carcinogenicity of the OCPs should be concerned with if the carcinogenicity effects from the exposures to these OCPs were considered. PMID:21715010

Zhou, Pingping; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Guohua; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Qing; Fan, Sai; Yang, Xin; Li, Xiaowei; Wu, Yongning

2012-07-01

35

Engineering bacteria for bioremediation of persistent organochlorine pesticide lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane).  

PubMed

Strategies were designed for bioremediation of the highly persistent toxic pesticide ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) or lindane from the environment. Lindane caused the loss of stress-protective chaperone GroEL, and inhibited photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen-fixation in Anabaena, resulting in growth arrest. To alleviate lindane toxicity, the linA2 gene, encoding HCH dehydrochlorinase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis B90, was knocked-in at an innocuous locus in Anabaena genome and over-expressed from an eco-friendly light-inducible PpsbA1 promoter. The recombinant Anabaena degraded >98% of 10 ppm lindane within 6-10 days. A LinA2 overexpressing Escherichia coli strain could degrade 10 ppm of all the isomers of lindane within 1h and displayed a visual degradation zone on a newly designed histochemical plate containing 50mg lindane within 12h. The study demonstrates (a) bioremediation of traces of lindane prevalent in paddy fields, using bioengineered photoautotrophic Anabaena, and, (b) biodegradation of huge stockpiles of lindane, by employing recombinant live/dead E. coli. PMID:24135568

Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar

2013-12-01

36

Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples were collected from three mid-lake stations and at the mouth of two major tributaries. Average air concentrations of chlorinated bornanes (14 pg m{sup -3}), chlordanes (4.9 pg m{sup -3}), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (194 pg m{sup -3}) were similar to global backgound of Arctic levels. However, air concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, and PCBs were closer to those observed in the Great Lakes region. Significantly higher levels of these three compound classes in air over Irkutsk suggests that regional atmospheric transport and deposition may be an important source of these persistent compounds to Lake Baikal. Air-water gas exchange calculations resulted in net depositional flux values for {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, DDTs, and chlorinated bornanes at 112, 23, 3.6, and 2.4 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The total net flux of 22 PCB congeners, chlordanes, and HCB was from water to air (volatilization) at 47, 1.8, and 32 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. 50 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

McConnell, L.L. [USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States)] [USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States); Kucklick, J.R. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States)] [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Bidleman, T.F. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Ivanov, G.P. [Limnological Inst., Irkutsk (Russian Federation)] [Limnological Inst., Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Chernyak, S.M. [Inst. of Fisheries, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Inst. of Fisheries, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-10-01

37

Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p?- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants. PMID:20146964

Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

2010-01-01

38

Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

Porta, Miquel [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)], E-mail: mporta@imim.es; Bosch de Basea, Magda [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica CIBERESP (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Benavides, Fernando G. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Tomas [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernandez, Esteve [Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Esther [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Puigdomenech, Elisa [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

2008-11-15

39

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues in starlings from 126 sites within the contiguous 48 states were monitored during fall 1976. The average nationwide level of DDE and PCBs has increased significantly since 1974, but the number of sites reporting PCB residues has decreased fivefold. Dieldrin residues have remained unchanged since 1974. Highest DDE levels occurred in samples from parts of Arizona, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, and New Mexico.

White, D.H.

1979-01-01

40

Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples

Laura L. McConnell; John R. Kucklick; Terry F. Bidleman; Genadi P. Ivanov; Sergey M. Chernyak

1996-01-01

41

Sublethal Effects of Chronic Exposure to an Organochlorine Compound on Northern Leopard  

E-print Network

, other pesticides, and dioxin, accumulate in wildlife tissues and are associated 2001 by John WileySublethal Effects of Chronic Exposure to an Organochlorine Compound on Northern Leopard ( )Frog and reproductive problems in wildlife worldwide. However, little is known about the impact of OCs or other

Denver, Robert J.

42

Contamination by organochlorine compounds in sturgeons from Caspian Sea during 2001 and 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the five species of sturgeons collected from coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran during 2001 and 2002 to understand their status of contamination and accumulation features. Among OCs examined, concentrations of DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were predominant in all the sturgeon samples with concentrations ranging from 73 to

Natsuko Kajiwara; Daisuke Ueno; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mohammad Pourkazemi; David G. Aubrey

2003-01-01

43

Organochlorine compounds in the Gulf of Bothnia: sediment and benthic species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface sediment, amphipods (Monoporeia affinis), isopods (Saduria entomon) and fourhorn sculpins (Oncocottus quadricornis) were collected at two coastal stations in the Gulf of Bothnia, one in the Bothnian Bay and the other in the Bothnian Sea. The objective was to study the concentrations, composition profiles, bioaccumulation features and spatial differences of organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCBz),

Bo Strandberg; Cecilia Bandh; Bert van Bavel; Per-Anders Bergqvist; Dag Broman; Rasha Ishaq; Carina Näf; Christoffer Rappe

2000-01-01

44

NEW ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATOR LINKING ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS AND TYPE 2 DIABETES  

EPA Science Inventory

The project will develop an environmental public health indicator (EPHI) by linking soil residues of organochlorine (OC) insecticides and metabolites/degradates, OC compound levels in people and a disease with which they are implicated, type 2 diabetes (T2D). The proposed E...

45

Lipid-Filled semipermeable membrane devices and mussels as samplers of organochlorine compounds in lake water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semipermeable membrane sampling devices (SPMDs) and caged lake mussels (Anodonta piscinalis) were simultaneously deployed at four lake watercourse sites in Central Finland four weeks in August 1992. This study was\\u000a part of the regular annual monitoring of the organochlorine compounds (OCC) in pulp-mill recipient watercourses of Finland\\u000a with bivalves. Chlorohydrocarbons (CHCs), chlorophenol compounds (PCPs), chloroanisoles (PCAs) and chloroveratroles (PCVs)\\u000a were

Sirpa Herve; Harry F. Prest; Pertti Heinonen; Tarja Hyötyläinen; Jaana Koistinen; Jaakko Paasivirta

1995-01-01

46

Levels of persistent organochlorine residues in eggs of greater flamingos from the Guadalquivir marshes (Doñana), Spain.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residue levels were determined in 53 unhatched eggs from greater roseus flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber). Eggs were collected in 1996 from the National Park of Doñana (Guadalquivir marshes, Southwest Spain), immediately after one breeding colony abandoned the nesting site due to predator attacks. The main metabolite of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, was the OCP residue found at higher concentrations, with a geometric mean of 721 ng/g wet weight. Residues of other pesticides, including some hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor-epoxide, were detected at much lower concentrations. The sum of PCBs was 528 ng/g, with PCB congeners #187 and #153 being the most prominent in eggs. The pattern observed in these compounds of industrial origin corresponded more to Aroclor 1260 than to any other commercial mixture. Levels of organochlorine residues indicate a medium degree of exposure, and they are not considered of any concern for the flamingo population. In particular, neither p,p'-DDE nor PCB levels were found to be correlated with the eggshell thickness. PMID:16190019

Guitart, Raimon; Clavero, Raquel; Mateo, Rafael; Máñez, Manuel

2005-01-01

47

Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?  

SciTech Connect

Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Gubala, C.P. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Ford, J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife

1995-12-31

48

Organochlorine pesticide residues in black tea, camomile, and linden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides still exist as pollutants in countries like Spain, despite the limit which was put on their use more than ten years ago. These compounds are highly persistent and they are capable of spreading stuck to dust and rain parncles. The purpose of the present study is to give some data on the levels of organochlorine pesticides in infusion

Nélida Fernández; Matilde Sierra; Juan J. García; María José Diez; María Teresa Terán

1993-01-01

49

Historical Trends of Organochlorine Pesticides in an Alpine Glacier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of persistent organic pollutants, such as organochlorine compounds, as global contaminants in cold regions has been recognised for a long time. In particular, there is a growing interest on the role of high mountains as `cold condensers' for these chemicals. In this paper, for the first time, organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, HCB) are analysed in an ice core

Sara Villa; Marco Vighi; Valter Maggi; Antonio Finizio; Ezio Bolzacchini

2003-01-01

50

Occurrence of Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and some other persistent organochlorines in Japanese human adipose tissue.  

PubMed Central

Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) are among the most recently identified environmental contaminants. Despite their widespread contamination in the marine environment, human exposure to these compounds remains relatively unknown. We determined the concentrations of TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds (CHLs) in human adipose tissue from Japan. TCPMe and TCPMOH were detected in all of the adipose samples analyzed; the concentrations ranged from 2.5-21 and 1.1-18 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans were less than those reported in marine mammals, suggesting the possibility of metabolism and elimination of these compounds by humans. Significant correlation between TCPMe and TCPMOH with concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in human adipose tissues suggested that exposure to DDT is the source of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. The age- and sex-dependent accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH as well as other organochlorines was less pronounced. Results for other organochlorines indicated that recent contamination status of PCBs in human samples from Japan was higher than that in developing countries, whereas DDT contamination is lower. Greater concentrations of CHLs in human adipose tissue from Japan than in those from other countries suggest that continuous monitoring of CHLs in humans in Japan is necessary. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH in human adipose tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10903611

Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

2000-01-01

51

An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds  

PubMed Central

Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

Jandacek, Ronald J.; Genuis, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

52

Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal ( Phoca caspica ) from the Caspian Sea, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes\\u000a (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean\\u000a values of 19 and 1.3 ?g\\/g on wet-weight

M. Watanabe; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; M. Amano; N. Miyazaki; E. A. Petrov; S. L. Khuraskin

1999-01-01

53

Polycyclic aromatic and organochlorine compounds in the atmosphere of Northern Ellesmere Island, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February--April 1988 we collected air samples at Alert in the Canadian Arctic (82.5°N, 62.3°W) to determine the types, concentrations, and vapor-particle relationships for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxygenated compounds, organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Samples were taken using a glass fiber filter-polyurethane foam train and were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass selective and electron

G. W. Patton; M. D. Walla; T. F. Bidleman; L. A. Barrie

1991-01-01

54

Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (?-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

2013-11-01

55

Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a variety of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs and metabolites. The geometric mean, on a wet mass basis, of ??PCBs (sum of 29 congeners and congener groups) were 732??282 ng/g (1 S.D.) in seals and 3395??1442 ng/g in polar bears. The geometric mean of ??DDTs, ??HCHs (??-, ??- and ??- HCH) and HCB concentrations (wet mass basis) in seals and bears were 562??261 ng/g vs. 74.8??39 ng/g, 380??213 ng/g vs. 515 ng/g, and 17.4??10.1 ng/g vs. 183??153 ng/g, respectively. The geometric mean sum of chlordane (??chlordane, sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide) and dieldrin concentrations in ringed seals and polar bears were 753??617 ng/g vs. 720??315 ng/g and 38.6??22.8 ng/g vs. 130??65 ng/g, respectively. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (polar bear/ringed seal POP concentrations) were lower in the animals sampled near Barrow, Alaska than in those from locations in the Canadian Arctic. This suggests that polar bears are also preying on marine mammals from lower trophic levels than the ringed seals with correspondingly lower organochlorine levels, such as bowhead whale carcasses. PCB congener patterns in the samples demonstrated the metabolism of certain PCB congeners in the polar bear relative to the ringed seal in agreement with previous studies. Regional comparisons of animals collected in Alaska and Arctic Canada are presented. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

Kucklick, J.R.; Struntz, W.D.J.; Becker, P.R.; York, G.W.; O'Hara, T. M.; Bohonowych, J.E.

2002-01-01

56

Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers  

SciTech Connect

Neutral organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were analyzed by GC-MS technique in 183 human milk samples obtained in 1984-1985 from 165 women living in different parts of Finland. The effect of the donors' age, body mass, place of residence, number of children, dietary habits, smoking habits, occupational history, and weight loss on the organochlorine content of human milk were studied. Of all the milk samples analyzed, p,p'-DDE concentrations were above the detection limit in 99.5%, p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT in 57.9%, isomers of HCH in 30.0%, cis-chlordane in 4.9%, oxychlordane in 3.3%, trans-nonachlor in 6.0%, heptachlor in 12.0%, and heptachlor epoxide in 6.6%. Mirex was not found in any of the milk samples, whereas the signals of chlorinated terpenes (toxaphenes) were detected but could not be quantitatively determined. The mean fat adjusted residue levels above the detection limit in Finnish human milk samples of primipara mothers were 0.66 ppm for total DDT compounds, 0.08 ppm for HCB, 0.93 ppm for PCBs, 0.41 ppm for chlordane compounds, 0.20 ppm for isomers of HCH, and 0.10 ppm for heptachlor epoxide. The geometric means were 0.46, 0.06, 0.57, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.01 ppm, respectively. The age of the mothers positively correlated with the DDE concentrations in human milk. The residues of OC compounds in human milk did not differ in women living in plywood industry regions, those actually working in the industry, and other mothers. Small differences were detected in the levels of organochlorine compounds in different parts of Finland. No relation was found between the OC content and the fish consumption, smoking habits, weight loss, or social group of the donors.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Pyysalo, H.; Antervo, K.

1988-01-01

57

PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE POLLUTANTS AND TOXAPHENE CONGENER PROFILES IN BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FREQUENTING THE TURTLE\\/BRUNSWICK RIVER ESTUARY, GEORGIA, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Turtle\\/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chro-

Erin L. Pulster; Kelly L. Smalling; Eric Zolman; Lori Schwacke; Keith A. Maruya

2009-01-01

58

Organochlorine Pesticide Compounds in Organisms from the Bay of Bengal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton and bottom-feeding fish (four species) from the coastal Bay of Bengal were analysed for residues of DDT, DDD, DDE and aldrin. Concentrations of t-DDT (DDT+DDD+DDE) ranging from 1·31 to 115·90 ng g -1 wet weight in different fish tissues and 4·00 to 1587·76 ng g -1 wet weight in zooplankton were found. Aldrin levels were of the order of 0·32-4·23 ng g -1 in the fish tissues and 'not detected' to 0·78 ng g -1 in zooplankton. The concentration levels are discussed in relation to the distribution of the compounds in different fish tissues, differences in the proportion of DDT and its metabolites DDE and DDD in the various organisms and the possible influence of suspended particulate matter on the availability of DDT residues to organisms in the water column.

Shailaja, M. S.; Singbal, S. Y. S.

1994-09-01

59

Organochlorine Compounds in the North-western Black Sea Water: Distribution and Water Column Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC Nos 28, 52, 101, 118, 149, 153, 138, 180, 187 and 170), dichlorodiphenylethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene(HCB) and dieldrin were determined in 37 samples (25 surficial and three vertical profiles) of suspended particulate matter (>0·7 ?m) (SPM) and 10 dissolved phase (DP) samples (six surficial) collected in the north-western Black Sea waters. The highest concentrations of PCBs in the SPM were found at the Danube mouth (57·4 pg l -1), the north continental shelf (3·7-36·9 pg l -1) and offshore Constantza (33 1 pg l -1), while the most contaminated area (70·7-102 pg l -1) was found to be in the DP of the Danube estuary. Organochlorine compounds (DDTs, HCHs, HCB and dieldrin) were found one or two orders of magnitude higher in the DP than in the corresponding particulate phase. The high concentrations of HCHs (2·3-368 pg l -1 in the DP) as well as the distribution pattern of DDT-related compounds seem to indicate recent chlorinated pesticide use in the riparian countries of the Black Sea despite the regulations. Vertical profiles of SPM showed a general depletion of PCBs and organochlorine compounds (OCs) with depth and two accumulation zones, at the biomass maximum and the redoxcline. A bottom enrichment of OCs was observed when resuspension was favoured.

Maldonado, C.; Bayona, J. M.

2002-03-01

60

Organochlorine compounds in pine needles: Methods and trends  

SciTech Connect

During April 1989, needles from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees were collected from a network of stations in West Germany, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Samples from selected stations were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers ([alpha]-HCH and [gamma]-HCH [lindane]), DDT, and DDE. Accumulation of the investigated compounds was observed in up to four needle-year classes. [gamma]-HCH decreased from south to north; the pattern for [alpha]-HCH was uniform; DDT/DDE also decreased from south to north. HCB was uniform throughout the sample area, and PCP was high in northern Sweden. Interpretation of trends was not altered by expressing concentrations on a fresh- or dry-weight basis or on a surface-area basis. The range of concentration variation for equivalent samples was 2 to 49% relative standard deviation; averages were 20 to 23%. There were no differences among trees facing the sample open direction; among different directions, trees open to the south collected more DDT, but this was not the case with other substances. There were no differences between trees of different ages. Samples at 4 to 5 m had lower contaminant levels than from 1.5 m.

Strachan, W.M.J. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Centre for Inland Waters); Eriksson, G.; Jensen, S. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberg Lab.); Kylin, H. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberg Lab. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

1994-03-01

61

Changing patterns of cow's milk contamination with organochlorine compounds in Israel (1976-1986)  

SciTech Connect

Environmental pollution with organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCGs) has decreased due to restriction and/or banning of these compounds. However, several recent reports indicate that pollution with OCIs and PCBs still does exist, and may be of public and environmental health significance even in developed countries. Cow's milk is one of the most important media where organochlorine compound (OCC) levels are monitored. On the one hand, milk and its products play a central role in human nutrition and, on the other, highly lipophilic OCCs can accumulate in fat-rich milk products. In a previous study, the authors reported a significant decrease in OCC content in both farm and market milk in Israel between the mid-1970s and early 1980s. The clearest decrease was seen in the cases of DDT, dieldrin and lindane, but not as much as for heptachlor epoxide (HE) and PCBs. The present study was undertaken to follow up the observed trends and to determine whether cow's milk contamination with OCC presently poses a public health problem in Israel.

Pines, A.; Cucos, S.; Grafstein, O.; Lemesch, C.

1988-01-01

62

Passive sampling of atmospheric organochlorine compounds by SPMDs in a remote high mountain area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been deployed in high mountain areas (Central Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain) for the measurement of atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) over a period of 1.5 years. These devices were filled with triolein and have been deployed at three altitudes, 1600, 2240 and 2600 m above sea level. Performance reference compounds were used to calibrate their sampling rates. The SPMD results were validated by comparison to active air sampling with high-volume systems. Sampling rates between 0.55 and 1.3 m 3 d -1 were estimated from the dissipation of PCB155. Atmospheric concentrations measured by SPMDs were in good agreement with the levels obtained by high-volume sampling. These findings suggest that SPMDs can be useful monitoring systems for the atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine compounds in remote high mountain areas.

Van drooge, Barend L.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Booij, Kees; Camarero, Lluis; Catalan, Jordi

63

Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn. PMID:12547524

Mañosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

2003-01-01

64

Persistent organochlorine levels in six prey species of the gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus in Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous investigations have revealed very high levels of organochlorines (OCs) in the Icelandic gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, a resident top predator. We now examine six potential prey species of birds, both resident and migratory, in order to elucidate the most likely route of the OCs to the gyrfalcon. The ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, the most important prey of the gyrfalcon, contained

K. Ólafsdóttir; Æ. Petersen; E. V. Magnúsdóttir; T. Björnsson; T. Jóhannesson

2001-01-01

65

Persistent of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Green Lip Mussel (Perna Viridis) From Marine Estuaries in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand has benefited from the availability of pest control chemicals for improving agricultural products and in public health like any other developing countries. in order to understand the distribution and contamination in the Gulf of Thailand, a Mussel Watch programme has been set up to monitor trace toxic substances of organochlorine pesticides along the Gulf of Thailand since 1989.This paper

Ruchaya Boonyatumanond; Monthip S. Tabucanon; Sunitra Thongklieng; Sukanya Boonchlaermkit

2000-01-01

66

Presence and importance of organochlorine solvents and other compounds in Germany's groundwater and drinking water.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds are widely used in Germany although the inland production of chlorinated solvents has greatly decreased since 1985. Data on groundwater contamination are incomplete, but there are some regional data sets from the States (Länder). Approximately 25% of the groundwater samples contain more than 1 microgram/l of a single solvent, the most prominent ones being tri- and tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and dichloromethane, but also chloroform. The most important causes for contaminations of the groundwater are unprotected storage and leaking sewage systems. Abandoned waste sites are, besides chlorinated compounds, also a source of many other contaminants. A ranking procedure according to their exposure potential (concentration, incidence, toxicology) is proposed. The compound of greatest concern is vinyl chloride, which is formed from tri- and tetrachloroethene under reducing conditions in the subsoil. The most important contaminant in drinking water is tetrachloroethene followed by 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethane. Chlorobenzene may also be present on occasion, while only about 20% of the finished drinking waters contain more chloroform after treatment than before. Only about 10% of all analyses of drinking water derived from groundwater shows the presence of organochlorine solvents and most of these show total concentrations less than 2 micrograms/l. The degradation product, vinyl chloride, was found up to now only in different groundwaters. To stabilize and to improve the situation, which still is much more favorable for drinking than for groundwater, precautions are going to be taken which should assure that these and other problematic substances which endanger water are used only in closed systems and rigid safety measures be imposed on their disposal and transport. PMID:8279718

Dieter, H H; Kerndorff, H

1993-01-01

67

Effects of fish oil replacement and re-feeding on the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata L.) of market size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorinated biphenyls were determined in raw materials, fish feeds and fillets from fish exposed through the productive cycle (14months) to experimental diets with different percentages of fish oil replacement with vegetable oils. Detectable amounts of organochlorine compounds were found in raw materials derived from fish sources with none being detected in vegetable ingredients. Fish feeds presented

Jaime Nácher-Mestre; Roque Serrano; Laura Benedito-Palos; Juan C. Navarro; Francisco J. López; Jaume Pérez-Sánchez

2009-01-01

68

Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)  

SciTech Connect

The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

Jacobs, Miriam N. [Molecular Toxicology Group, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom); Hood, Steven R. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom)

2005-12-01

69

Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DOT (DDT+DDD+DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat bogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.

Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

1997-01-01

70

Organochlorine compounds in the Gulf of Bothnia: sediment and benthic species.  

PubMed

Surface sediment, amphipods (Monoporeia affinis), isopods (Saduria entomon) and fourhorn sculpins (Oncocottus quadricornis) were collected at two coastal stations in the Gulf of Bothnia, one in the Bothnian Bay and the other in the Bothnian Sea. The objective was to study the concentrations, composition profiles, bioaccumulation features and spatial differences of organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCBz), chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, Mirex and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). All groups of compounds were found in every sample investigated, with the exception of Mirex that was not detected in the sediment samples. The concentrations for e.g. PCBs and CHLs ranged from 700 to 2400 and 70 to 400 ng/g lipid in the specimens. For the corresponding sediments the results were 9.0-9.3 ng/g dw for PCBs and 0.54-0.57 ng/g dw for CHLs, respectively. Bioaccumulation differences between the species with regard to both degree of and type of compound were observed. The highest accumulation potential was found for the cyclodiene compounds including CHLs and Mirex in isopod. Finally, there were only small concentration and bioaccumulation differences between the two stations. PMID:10739063

Strandberg, B; Bandh, C; van Bavel, B; Bergqvist, P A; Broman, D; Ishaq, R; Näf, C; Rappe, C

2000-01-01

71

Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments of Hong Kong Victoria Harbour and Xiamen Western Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of surface sediment were collected from Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong (Aug. 1992), and Xiamen Western Bay (Nov. 1993), and analysed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides (HCHs, DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentration ranges of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in the survey area of Victoria Harbour were from undetectable to 9.4 ?g/kg, 1.38 97 ?g/kg and 3.2 81 ?g/kg, respectively; those for Xiamen Western Bay were 0.14 1.12 ?g/kg, 4.45 311 ?g/kg and 0.05 7.24 ?g/kg, respectively. The determined residue levels and distribution patterns of these organochlorines are discussed, and the Harbour and Bay contamination levels are compared. Two sediment cores were collected (Oct. 1994) from Xiamen Western Bay for study on the vertical profiles and pollution history of the above contaminants. The vertical profile characteristics indicated that the inner part of Xiamen Western Bay was once polluted by PCBs moderately and that there are still new inputs of DDT.

Chen, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Luo-Ping; Xu, Li; Wang, Xin-Hong; Hong, Hua-Sheng

1998-03-01

72

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Major Rivers of Southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contaminations by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of inland water have been a global issue, since most of these compounds are very persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds. Due to the widespread use of DDT for malaria vector eradication programs in the past and no comprehensive works have been conducted to assess trace organic pollutants in river waters, this work is the

Abd Naser; Haji Samoh; Sani Ibrahim

73

Polycyclic aromatic and organochlorine compounds in the atmosphere of Northern Ellesmere Island, Canada  

SciTech Connect

In February--April 1988 we collected air samples at Alert in the Canadian Arctic (82.5{degree}N, 62.3{degree}W) to determine the types, concentrations, and vapor-particle relationships for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxygenated compounds, organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Samples were taken using a glass fiber filter-polyurethane foam train and were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass selective and electron capture detection. PAH and oxygenated compounds included dibenzofuran, biphenyl, fluorene, phenanthrene, 9-fluorenone, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthenes, pyrene, chrysene, benzopyrenes, indeno(cd)pyrene, benzo(ghi)-perylene, 2-methyl phenanthrene, benz(a)anthracene, and anthracene (given in order of relative abundance, highest to lowest). OC compounds included hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, PCB, polychlorocamphenes, chlordanes, and the dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) group (given as above). The concentration ratios of {alpha}-HCH/{gamma}-HCH (5.2--9.8) and {ital trans} to {ital cis}-chlordane (0.78{minus}1.29) are reported. Compounds having estimated liquid-phase saturation vapor pressure ({ital p}{sup 0}{sub {ital L}}){ge}10{sup {minus}3} Pa at the average sampling temperature (245 K) were almost entirely gaseous. Those from 10{sup {minus}6}{le}{ital p}{sup 0}{sub {ital L}}{le}10{sup {minus}3} Pa were distributed between the particle and gas phases, whereas little or no gaseous component was evident for compounds having {ital p}{sup 0}{sub {ital L}}{le}10{sup {minus}6} Pa. The particle-vapor distribution of PAH and OC compared favorably to the Junge-Pankow model. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1991

Patton, G.W.; Walla, M.D.; Bidleman, T.F. (Department of Chemistry, University of South Carolina (Columbia)); Barrie, L.A. (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada))

1991-06-20

74

Cancer Mortality in Workers Exposed to Organochlorine Compounds in the Pulp and Paper Industry: An International Collaborative Study  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate cancer mortality in pulp and paper industry workers exposed to chlorinated organic compounds. We assembled a multinational cohort of workers employed between 1920 and 1996 in 11 countries. Exposure to both volatile and nonvolatile organochlorine compounds was estimated at the department level using an exposure matrix. We conducted a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on age and calendar-period–specific national mortality rates and a Poisson regression analysis. The study population consisted of 60,468 workers. Workers exposed to volatile organochlorines experienced a deficit of all-cause [SMR = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89–0.93] and all-cancer (SMR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89–0.97) mortality, with no evidence of increased risks for any cancer of a priori interest. There was a weak, but statistically significant, trend of increasing risk of all-cancer mortality with increasing weighted cumulative exposure. A similar deficit in all-cause (SMR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91–0.96) and all-cancer (SMR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89–1.00) mortality was observed in those exposed to non-volatile organochlorines. No excess risk was observed in cancers of a priori interest, although mortality from Hodgkin disease was elevated (SMR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.02–2.82). In this study we found little evidence that exposure to organochlorines at the levels experienced in the pulp and paper industry is associated with an increased risk of cancer, apart from a weak but significant association between all-cancer mortality and weighted cumulative volatile organochlorine exposure. PMID:16835051

McLean, David; Pearce, Neil; Langseth, Hilde; Jäppinen, Paavo; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Persson, Bodil; Wild, Pascal; Kishi, Reiko; Lynge, Elsebeth; Henneberger, Paul; Sala, Maria; Teschke, Kay; Kauppinen, Timo; Colin, Didier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Boffetta, Paolo

2006-01-01

75

Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

2001-01-01

76

Lipid-Filled semipermeable membrane devices and mussels as samplers of organochlorine compounds in lake water.  

PubMed

Semipermeable membrane sampling devices (SPMDs) and caged lake mussels (Anodonta piscinalis) were simultaneously deployed at four lake watercourse sites in Central Finland four weeks in August 1992. This study was part of the regular annual monitoring of the organochlorine compounds (OCC) in pulp-mill recipient watercourses of Finland with bivalves. Chlorohydrocarbons (CHCs), chlorophenol compounds (PCPs), chloroanisoles (PCAs) and chloroveratroles (PCVs) were analyzed from lipid extract of mussels and from the synthetic triolein lipid of the SPMDs. Hexane-diethyl ether (9:1, v/v) dialysis using polyethylene membrane was applied in dean up of the SPMD lipids and, for comparison, to six sets of the mussel fat. Dialysis recovered CHCs but not PCPs from the mussel fat. CHCs, PCPs, PCAs and PCVs were all recovered in dialysis of the SPMD lipid. Handling of SPMDs in the transport and deployment operations caused significant OCC contamination for the blank SPMDs. Similar trends were revealed in the OCC profiles for mussels ans SPMDs. An exception was the lack of PCPs appearing in SPMDs that did appear in mussels and in a complementary manner the appearance of the PCAs and PCVs in SPMDs. PMID:24234466

Herve, S; Prest, H F; Heinonen, P; Hyötyläinen, T; Koistinen, J; Paasivirta, J

1995-07-01

77

Optimization and validation of organochlorine compounds in adipose tissue by SPE-gas chromatography.  

PubMed

Scientific evidence has shown an association between organochlorine compounds (OCC) exposure and human health hazards. Concerning this, OCC detection in human adipose samples has to be considered a public health priority. This study evaluated the efficacy of various solid-phase extraction (SPE) and cleanup methods for OCC determination in human adipose tissue. Octadecylsilyl endcapped (C??-E), benzenesulfonic acid modified silica cation exchanger (SA), poly(styrene-divinylbenzene (EN) and EN/RP?? SPE sorbents were evaluated. The relative sample cleanup provided by these SPE columns was evaluated using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The C??-E columns with strong homogenization were found to provide the most effective cleanup, removing the greatest amount of interfering substance, and simultaneously ensuring good analyte recoveries higher than 70%. Recoveries?>?70% with standard deviations (SD)?compounds under the selected conditions. Method detection limits were in the 0.003-0.009?mg/kg range. The positive samples were confirmed by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The highest percentage found of the OCC in real samples corresponded to HCB, o,p'-DDT and methoxychlor, which were detected in 80 and 95% of samples analyzed respectively. PMID:22407478

Fernandes, Virgínia C; Pestana, Diogo; Monteiro, Rosário; Faria, Gil; Meireles, Manuela; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Teixeira, Diana; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

2012-12-01

78

Organochlorine compounds and stable isotopes indicate bottlenose dolphin subpopulation structure around the Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic signatures and organochlorine pollutant loads of organisms reflect the characteristics of the waters in which they live and feed. To investigate population structure of bottlenose dolphins around the Iberian Peninsula we determined ?13C and ?15N in the skin and organochlorine (OC) levels in the blubber of stranded bottlenose dolphins inhabiting the Mediterranean (Catalonia, Valencia and Balearic Islands) and adjacent

A. Borrell; A. Aguilar; V. Tornero; M. Sequeira; G. Fernandez; S. Al?s

2006-01-01

79

Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE and DDD are degradation products of DDT (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which is a well-documented, persistent organochlorine insecticide that has been banned from use in the United States since 1972. Detected concentrations were very low, ranging from 0.12 to 4.7 micrograms per kilogram, and probably pose little threat to aquatic organisms in park lakes. DDD and DDE concentrations in a sediment core from Mills Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that atmospheric deposition of DDT and possibly other banned organochlorine compounds to high-elevation parks has been in decline since the 1970s. Commonly detected current-use pesticides in lake sediments included dacthal and endosulfan sulfate, which ranged in concentrations from 0.11 to 0.26 micrograms per kilogram for dacthal and 0.12 to 1.2 micrograms per kilogram for endosulfan sulfate. Both compounds were found in nearly all the snow samples, confirming that some current-use pesticides entering high-elevation aquatic ecosystems through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota.

Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

2006-01-01

80

Accumulation and persistence of chlorobiphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and faecal sterols at the Garroch Head sewage sludge disposal site, Firth of Clyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sediment concentrations of organic carbon, faecal sterols, individual chlorobiphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides have been measured in seabed cores from the sewage sludge disposal area at Garroch Head in the Firth of Clyde. The measurements confirm the accumulative nature of the site with high levels of sedimentary faecal sterols (152 mg kg?1 coprostanol). Levels of chlorobiphenyls, DDT compounds and

A. G. Kelly

1995-01-01

81

Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.  

PubMed

Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from

Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

2015-05-01

82

Organochlorine compound residues in the eggs of broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris) and correlation with measures of reproductive performance.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds (OCCs), like pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are persistent lipophilic chemicals classified as endocrine-disruptors. Caiman latirostris inhabits wetlands throughout north-eastern Argentina and may accumulate OCCs. The aims of this study were to determine OCC residues in the eggs of C. latirostris and to correlate OCC burden with clutch size, hatching success and hatchling survival as measures of reproductive performance. Fourteen caiman clutches were harvested from sites with different degrees of anthropogenic intervention on wetlands surrounding Paraná River tributaries. Two to four eggs by clutch were used to quantify OCCs. OCP residues were found in all clutches. The principal contributors to the OCPs burden were the DDT family (range BDL-153.0 ng g(-1) lipid) and oxychlordane (range BDL-34.3 ng g(-1) lipid). PCBs were present in 92.9% of the clutches (range BDL-136.6 ng g(-1) lipid). Both higher concentrations and higher diversity of pesticides, including endosulfan sulfate, were found in the nests harvested close to croplands. A negative correlation was found between clutch size and ?OCCs (p=0.02, Pearson r=-0.53, r(2)=0.28), mainly due to the ?OCPs (p=0.04, Pearson r=-0.54, r(2)=0.30). Since egg OCCs concentrations predict maternal burden, present findings suggest that higher OCCs exposure could lead to smaller clutches. Although, other factors like mother age could influence clutch size. Additionally, as caimans are a long-lived and non-migratory species, the maternal OCCs burden reflects the environmental status throughout their home range; thus, caiman eggs could be useful as a biomonitor of local contamination. PMID:21531435

Stoker, C; Repetti, M R; García, S R; Zayas, M A; Galoppo, G H; Beldoménico, H R; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

2011-06-01

83

Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the Canadian market: polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides.  

PubMed

Fish and seal oil dietary supplements, marketed to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids, are frequently consumed by Canadians. Samples of these supplements (n = 30) were collected in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2007. All oil supplements were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) and each sample was found to contain detectable residues. The highest SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT (1,1,1-trichloro-di-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) concentrations (10400 ng/g and 3310 ng/g, respectively) were found in a shark oil sample while lowest levels were found in supplements prepared using mixed fish oils (anchovy, mackerel, and sardine) (0.711 ng SigmaPCB/g and 0.189 ng SigmaDDT/g). Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in oil supplements were 34.5, 24.2, 25.1, 95.3, 12.0, 5260, 321, and 519 ng/g in unidentified fish, mixed fish containing no salmon, mixed fish with salmon, salmon, vegetable with mixed fish, shark, menhaden (n = 1), and seal (n = 1), respectively. Maximum concentrations of the other OCs were generally observed in the seal oil. The hexachlorinated PCB congeners were the dominant contributors to SigmaPCB levels, while SigmaDDT was the greatest contributor to organochlorine levels. Intake estimates were made using maximum dosages on manufacturers' labels and results varied widely due to the large difference in residue concentrations obtained. Average SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT intakes were calculated to be 736 +/- 2840 ng/d and 304 +/- 948 ng/d, respectively. PMID:19200125

Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, K; Verigin, V; Nicolidakis, H; Sit, D; Feeley, M

2009-01-01

84

Organochlorine Turnover in Forest Ecosystems: The Missing Link in the Terrestrial Chlorine Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

A Leri; S Myneni

2011-12-31

85

Structural diversity of organochlorine compounds in groundwater affected by an industrial point source.  

PubMed

Groundwater samples contaminated by an industrial point source were analysed in order to reveal the structural diversity of halogenated organic contaminants. Particular focus was laid on the metabolites and derivatives related to the pesticides DDT (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichlorethane) and lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane). Additionally, a wide range of chlorinated and brominated xenobiotics were identified. These results represent a high degree of contamination with organochlorine compounds illustrating a considerable structural diversity in groundwater in the vicinity of the industrial plant. The polar DDT-metabolite DDA (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)acetic acid), which has been neglected in water studies widely, represents the main DDT metabolite analysed in the water samples. Besides DDA, some unknown substances with structural relation to DDA and DDT were detected and identified, in detail 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid N-methyl amide (DDAMA) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid n-butyl ester (DDABE). As an overall implication of this study it has to be demanded that analysis of industrially affected ground waters have to be based on screening analysis for a comprehensive view on the state of pollution. PMID:20810145

Frische, Kerstin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Ricking, Mathias

2010-09-01

86

Distribution of persistent organochlorine pesticides in tissue/organ of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Guanting Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

The concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tissues and organs of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Guanting Reservoir were investigated to evaluate the pollution potential and distribution of OCPs. A total of 16 OCPs were measured and the concentrations were in the range of 1.61-69.01 ng/g wet weight (ww) for total OCPs, 0.16-0.75 ng/g ww for. HCB, 0.75-26.80 ng/g ww for sigmaHCH (sum of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH) and 0.68-35.94 ng/g ww for sigmaDDT( sum of p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDT). The mean concentrations of total OCPs, HCB, sigmaHCH, and sigmaDDT were 18.04, 0.96, 7.14 and 9.28 ng/g ww, respectively. Among the organochlorine pesticides, beta-HCH and p, p'-DDE were the most dominant compounds in tissue and organ with the average concentrations of 4.42 and 8.14 ng/g, respectively. The results obtained in this study show that the levels of 16 OCP residues found in silver carps are low and pose no threat to human health and wildlife fed upon them on the basis of existing related quality guidelines. However, recent input of lindane and DDT might still exist in the area investigated and further investigation should be carried on. PMID:16312991

Sun, Yang-zhao; Wang, Xue-tong; Li, Xing-hong; Xu, Xiao-bai

2005-01-01

87

Distribution of persistent organochlorine residues in sediments from the Songhuajiang River, Northeast China.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface sediments from 10 sampling sites of the Songhuajiang River were analyzed to evaluate their potential pollution and hazards. Gas chromatography equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) methods were used, respectively. The total concentrations of 13 OCPs varied from 4.26 to 18.45 ng g(-1). Sigma HCH (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, delta-HCH, gamma-HCH), sigma DDT (p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT) and sigma Cyclodiene (Heptachlor, Aldrin, Heptachlor epoxide, Dieldrin, Endrin) ranged from 2.42 to 7.95, 0.14 to 5.12, 0.55 to 6.01 ng g(-1), respectively. The most dominant pollutant among the OCPs was gamma-HCH with the concentration of 3.4 (0.77 to 7.21) ng g(-1). Total PCB concentrations ranged between 0.59 and 15.93 ng g(-1). Low chlorinated biphenyls (tri- and tetra-) dominated in total PCBs. Positive correlations were observed between the EDDT, sigma Cyclodiene, sigma OCP or sigma PCB and TOC of the sediments (P < 0.05, n = 10). No obvious correlation was observed between the sigma HCH and the TOC of the sediments. PMID:18610792

He, M; Wang, H; Lin, C; Quan, X; Guo, W; Yang, Z

2008-03-01

88

Persistent organochlorine levels in six prey species of the gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus in Iceland.  

PubMed

Our previous investigations have revealed very high levels of organochlorines (OCs) in the Icelandic gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, a resident top predator. We now examine six potential prey species of birds, both resident and migratory, in order to elucidate the most likely route of the OCs to the gyrfalcon. The ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, the most important prey of the gyrfalcon, contained very low levels of OCs. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in mallards Anas platyrhynchos, tufted ducks Aythya fuligula, golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria, purple sandpipers Calidris maritima, and black guillemots Cepphus grylle reflected their position in the foodchain. The differences in OC-levels seem nevertheless too high just to reflect the different food-chain levels of these species in Iceland. The winter grounds of the migratory golden plovers and tufted ducks appear to be more contaminated than the Icelandic terrestrial habitat of ptarmigans or the freshwater habitat as reflected in mallards, both resident species. However, spending the winter on the coast in Iceland, results in high levels of contaminants in purple sandpipers and black guillemots. Our results indicate OC contamination of the marine ecosystem in Iceland while the terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are little affected. It is postulated that gyrfalcons receive the major part of the observed contamination from prey other than ptarmigan, especially birds associated with the marine ecosystem and also from migratory birds. PMID:11234542

Olafsdóttir, K; Petersen, A E; Magnúsdóttir, E V; Björnsson, T; Jóhannesson, T

2001-01-01

89

Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals ( Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were determined in the blubber and liver of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) found stranded on the coast of the Caspian Sea during an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2000. Among organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 470 ?g\\/g on a lipid-weight basis.

N. Kajiwara; S. Niimi; M. Watanabe; Y. Ito; S. Takahashi; S. Tanabe; L. S. Khuraskin; N. Miyazaki

2002-01-01

90

Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.  

PubMed

The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of ?20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) was the most predominant component. ?HCH and ?dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of ?20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed ?-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. ?-HCH, ?-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37?±?0.51% and 0.46?±?0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with ?20OCPs, ?-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments. PMID:24488553

Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

2014-05-01

91

Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)] [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

1997-05-01

92

Effects of persistent organochlorine exposure on the liver transcriptome of the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific.  

PubMed

Hepatic concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) were determined in the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific. To investigate the effects of OCs on the transcriptome in the minke whale, the present study constructed a hepatic oligo array of this species where 985 unique oligonucleotides were spotted and further analyzed the relationship between the OC levels and gene expression profiles of liver tissues. The stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified 32 genes that correlated with hepatic OC levels. The mRNA expression levels of seven cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C78, 2E1, 3A72, 4A35, and 4V6 showed no clear correlations with the concentration of each OC, suggesting that the accumulated OCs in the liver did not reach levels that could alter CYP expression. Among the genes screened by the custom oligo array analysis, hepatic mRNA expression levels of 16 genes were further measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) were negatively correlated with non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels. Androgen receptor-associated coregulator 70 (ARA70) expression levels showed a significant positive correlation with concentrations of non-ortho coplanar PCB169. These correlations suggest that coplanar PCB-reduced DBP expression could suppress vitamin D receptor-mediated signaling cascades in peripheral tissues. Alternatively, the suppression of vitamin D receptor signaling cascade could be enhanced through competition with the androgen receptor signaling pathway for ARA70. In addition, a negative correlation between kynureninase and PCB169 levels was also observed, which suggest an enhanced accumulation of an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, kynurenine in the minke whale population. Further studies are necessary to translate the changes in the transcriptome to toxicological outcomes including the disruption of the nervous and immune systems. PMID:25046851

Niimi, Satoko; Imoto, Mai; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Michio X; Kim, Eun-Young; Nakayama, Kei; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

2014-10-01

93

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols....

94

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

95

Effects of fish oil replacement and re-feeding on the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) of market size.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorinated biphenyls were determined in raw materials, fish feeds and fillets from fish exposed through the productive cycle (14 months) to experimental diets with different percentages of fish oil replacement with vegetable oils. Detectable amounts of organochlorine compounds were found in raw materials derived from fish sources with none being detected in vegetable ingredients. Fish feeds presented trace concentrations of contaminants at the ng/g level, which varied according to the contribution of the different resources used in their manufacture. Contaminants did not accumulate during the first 11 months of exposure, and low concentrations of organochlorine compounds were found both at the start and at the end of this feeding period. Fillets from fish fed the fish oil diet presented the highest concentrations of organochlorine compounds, with these decreasing in proportion to fish oil replacement. Three months of fish oil re-feeding during the finishing phase only produced significant bioaccumulation over the course of the first month. By optimizing fish meal and fish oil replacement with vegetable oils alternative feeds can contribute to significantly reduce the risk of organochlorine uptake by consumers. PMID:19450868

Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; López, Francisco J; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

2009-08-01

96

Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain.  

PubMed

To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod) were selected to represent the lower trophic levels in the food web. Four seabird species were chosen at the higher trophic levels, Uria lomvia (Brünnich's guillemot), Cepphus grylle (black guillemot), Rissa tridactyla (black-legged kittiwake) and Larus hyperboreus (glaucous gull). We found low concentrations of the organochlorines sigma hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigma HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), sigma Chlordanes, sigma DDTs and sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (sigma PCBs) in crustaceans (11-50 ng g-1 lipid wt.) and fish (15-222 ng g-1 lipid wt.). In seabirds, the organochlorine concentrations biomagnified one to three orders of magnitude dependent on species and compound class. Glaucous gulls had the highest concentrations of all organochlorines. The organochlorine levels in all taxa except glaucous gull were comparable to those recorded in similar species in the Canadian Arctic. The organochlorine pattern changed from crustaceans and fish to seabirds. Moving up the food chain, the relative contribution of sigma HCHs, HCB and sigma Chlordanes decreased, and the relative contribution of sigma DDTs, sigma PCBs, persistent compounds and metabolites increased. The results reflected trophic transfer of organochlorines along the food chain as well as different elimination potentials due to direct diffusion in crustaceans and fish, and higher contaminant metabolic activity in seabirds. PMID:11383336

Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Skaare, J U

2001-01-01

97

Using passive air samplers to assess urban-rural trends for persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. 2. Seasonal trends for PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides.  

PubMed

This is the second of two papers demonstrating the feasibility of using passive air samplers to investigate persistent organic pollutants along an urban-rural transect in Toronto. The first paper investigated spatial trends for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). This second paper investigates the seasonality of air concentrations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, and OCPs along this transect. Air samplers, consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks housed in stainless steel domed chambers, were deployed for three 4-month integration periods from June 2000 to July 2001. The seasonal variations of derived air concentrations for PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs reflected the different source characteristics for these compounds. PAHs showed a strong urban-rural gradient with maximum concentrations at urban sites during the summer period (July-October). These high summer values in Toronto were attributed to increases in evaporative emissions from petroleum products such as asphalt. PCBs also exhibited a strong urban-rural gradient with maximum air concentrations (approximately 2-3 times higher) during the spring period (April-June). This was attributed to increased surface-air exchange of PCBs that had accumulated in the surface layer over the winter. alpha-HCH was fairly uniformly distributed, spatially and temporally, as expected. This pattern and the derived air concentration of approximately 35 to approximately 100 pg m(-3) agreed well with high volume air data from this region, adding confidence to the operation of the passive samplers and showing that site-to-site differences in sampling rates was not an issue. For other OCPs, highest concentrations were observed during the spring period. This was associated with either (i) their local and/or regional application (gamma-HCH, endosulfan) and (ii) their revolatilization (chlordanes, DDT isomers, dieldrin, and toxaphene). Principal component analysis resulted in clusters for the different target chemicals according to their chemical class/source type. The results of this study demonstrate how such a simple sampling technique can provide both spatial and seasonal information. These data, integrated over seasons, can be used to evaluate contaminant trends and the potential role of large urban centers as sources of some semivolatile compounds to the regional environment, including the Great Lakes ecosystem. PMID:16124313

Motelay-Massei, Anne; Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba; Diamond, Miriam; Stern, Gary; Rosenberg, Bruno

2005-08-01

98

Distribution of Organochlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Mussels tissue from Albania coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorinated compounds such as PCBs and DDTs are a class of widespread organic contaminants which are ubiquitous in the environment. They are stable lipophilic compounds which can be bioaccumulated (Lang, 1992) and have several toxic effects (Tanabe, 1988). PCBs are among the most widely known class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because of their ubiquity, potential for magnification in the

Koste Koci; Elda Marku; Aurel Nuro; Dritan Topi

99

Evaluation of organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and their main prey (Columba livia) inhabiting central Spain.  

PubMed

The population of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus sbs. brookei) inhabiting the Regional Park of southeastern Madrid (RPSM), Spain, has experienced an increase of unsuccessful pairs (from 15% among a total of 20 pairs in 1995 to 55% among a total of 18 pairs in 2001). Traditionally, this area has been known to be contaminated with organochlorine compounds and toxic metals, which are known to be deleterious to the reproductive system of birds. During the breeding seasons of 2000 and 2001, contaminant residues were measured in unhatched eggs of peregrine falcons and liver of their main prey, to determine if they could be affecting the survival of the population. The most abundant contaminants were ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (ortho-PCBs), ranging from 202.56 to 3,335.16 ng/g (wet wt) in falcon eggs and from 10.25 to 53.51 ng/g (wet wt) in pigeon livers. In all samples, the 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected, although these levels never exceeded 20 pg/g (wet wt). The major contributor to total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) were non-ortho-PCBs. Organochlorine levels found in this study may contribute to the entire suite of stressors that are negatively affecting the peregrine population. PMID:16152983

Merino, Rubén; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña

2005-08-01

100

Recent changes in levels of persistent organochlorines and mercury in eggs of seabirds from the Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs of ten seabird species were collected from six regions in North Norway, Svalbard and NW Russia in 1993, and were analyzed for organochlorines (OCs) and mercury. Significant declines in levels of PCBs, p,p?-DDE, HCB, ?-HCH, ?-HCH and oxychlordane were documented in nearly half the data set since a similar study in 1983 in six of the seabird species breeding

R. T. Barrett; J. U. Skaare; G. W. Gabrielsen

1996-01-01

101

Concentrations of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit : Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee, 1995-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole fish were collected at 52 sites during 1995-99 to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of selected organochlorine compounds in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit. Samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. From 5 to 8 fish were collected at each site; the fish were composited, and an aliquot of the tissue was analyzed for 28 organo-chlorine compounds, which included pesticides, pesticide degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The use of these organochlorine compounds has been discontinued or severely restricted within the United States, but the continued detection of these compounds or their degradates in the air, water, soil, and biota in national surveys, coupled with known environmental problems associated with these compounds (such as a long half-life and the propensity to accumulate in living tissue), is cause for continued interest in their environmental fate. At least one organochlorine compound was detected in every fish-tissue sample, and as many as 15 different compounds were detected in some. The most frequently detected com-pounds were the degradates of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichlo-roethane (p,p'-DDT); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected in every sample above the method reporting limit, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), was detected in 94 percent of the samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and dieldrin were detected in 83 and 78 percent of fish-tissue samples, respectively. Because these were whole fish samples, the results are not directly comparable to human health standards, which are based on fish fillets. Comparison of these results, however, to the guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife indicates that concentrations of the p,p'-DDT degradates and toxaphene continue to be of environmental concern.

Femmer, Suzanne R.; Coupe, Richard H.; Justus, Billy G.; Kleiss, Barbara A.

2004-01-01

102

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

White, D.H.

1979-01-01

103

Air concentrations of organochlorine compounds related to wind direction and compared with biota concentration  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organic compounds are long-range transported by air. Air samples were collected at two background meteorological stations, one southern at Gotland in the central Baltic and one northern, close to the polar circle. The collection was a part of the Swedish Dioxin Survey Project. Air sampling was carried out from fall 1990 to spring 1991 using a high-volume sampler. Air trajectories suggesting stable weather conditions decided which samples to be analyzed for e.g. PCBs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN), chloroparaffines, HCHs and Toxaphene. The gas-phase concentrations of the seven PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 were in the low pg/m{sup 3} range, while the concentration of the nonortho PCB 77 was about two orders of magnitude lower. High concentrations were usually correlated with SW winds and low concentrations with N to NW winds. Air masses coming from N to both sampling sites, resulted in nearly equal concentrations of the seven PCB congeners. PCNs were found in the gas phase of all samples at the pg/m{sup 3} level (total PCNs). The relative concentrations of the various contaminants were compared between air and four biological matrices collected in the vicinity of the air sampling locations. Cod, Herring and Herring feeding Guillemot from the Baltic and Pike from the northern sampling site were all collected within the Swedish National Monitoring Program.

Egebaeck, A.L.; Wideqvist, U.; Asplund, L.; Strandell, M.; Alsberg, T.; Litzen, K.; Eriksson, U.; Haeggberg, L.; Zakrisson, S. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental; Oisson, M.; Bignert, A.

1995-12-31

104

Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec  

SciTech Connect

Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from artic Quebec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Quebec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Laliberte, C. (Laval Univ. Hospital, Ste-Foy (Canada)); Bruneau, S. (Kativik Regional Council of Health, Kuujjuaq (Canada)); Muir, D.C.G. (Freshwater Institute, Winnipeg (Canada)); Norstrom, R.J. (Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull (Canada))

1993-12-01

105

First compound-specific chlorine-isotope analysis of environmentally-bioaccumulated organochlorines indicates a degradation-relatable kinetic isotope effect for DDT.  

PubMed

Compound-specific chlorine-isotope analysis (CSIA-Cl) of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) in blubber from Baltic Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) was performed in order to investigate if a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) could be observed concomitant to environmental degradation of DDT. The delta(37)Cl of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were -0.69 +/- 0.21 per thousand and -2.98 +/- 0.57 per thousand (1s igma, n = 3), respectively. Both samples were enriched relative to the hypothesized initial isotope composition (-4.34 per thousand), thus indicating a composite KIE associated with the degradation mechanisms pertaining to DDT. An isotope fractionation factor for degradation of dichloromethane, from the literature, was adapted and modified for use in the calculation of DDT degradation. A subsequent simplified Rayleigh distillation model of the DDT chlorine-isotope composition yielded an estimated fraction (f) of 7 +/- 2% of released DDT presently remaining as undegraded compound in the environment. The consistency between the result of the Rayleigh model (f approximately 7%) and the use of the DDT/(DDT + DDE) ratio as a measure of DDT degradation ( approximately 10% undegraded DDT) suggests that the KIE of DDT degradation may be significant, and that the novel approach of CSIA-Cl may be a valuable tool for degradation/persistence studies of lipophilic organochlorines in the environment. PMID:17631944

Holmstrand, Henry; Mandalakis, Manolis; Zencak, Zdenek; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

2007-11-01

106

Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus from the German bight, December 1988 -May 1989  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contamination of Pagurus bernhardus with PCB (as the sum of concentrations of 36 individual components), p,p'-DDE, HCB, ?-HCH and Lindane (?-HCH) was determined in samples collected between December 1988 and May 1989 in the German Bight. Consistent values of congener composition were shown to exist in the abdomens when individual congener levels were expressed as percentages of total composition. This value does not appear to be influenced by total concentration, lipid content of the tissue or the sampling position in the German Bight. A comparison of PCB patterns in the hermit crab and zooplankton shows that P. bernhardus accumulated penta- to decachlorobiphenyls which lack vicinal H atoms in meta-para positions. The body burdens of cyclic organochlorines changes with time, but this change was different for different compounds at the same sampling station, and also at different sampling stations for the same compound. These changes were not correlated to natural seasonal events or changing lipid content of the tissues, but were strongly influenced by their sources. The concentrations of aromatic compounds slightly reflected time integrating characteristics, whereas the ?/?-HCH ratio was useful in identifying sudden changes in the influence of rivers as well as water masses coming from the central North Sea.

Knickmeyer, R.; Steinhart, H.

107

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1979-80.  

PubMed

Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes) were monitored nationwide from birds harvested during the 1979-80 hunting season. DDE residues were found in all samples. DDT residues had declined from levels reported in 1976 on a flyway basis but the decline was significant (P less than 0.05) only in the Pacific Flyway. Levels of DDT, DDE, TDE, and dieldrin were low on a flyway basis, and all but DDE declined significantly (P less than 0.05) in the percent occurrence. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels were lower in mallard wings from all flyways compared with 1976 data, but percent occurrence had significantly (P less than 0.05) increased. Pools from Alabama and New Mexico continued to show higher DDE residues than pools from other areas. PMID:6817294

Cain, B W

1981-12-01

108

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1979-80  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes) were monitored nationwide from birds harvested during the 1979-80 hunting season. DDE residues were found in all samples. DDT residues had declined from levels reported in 1976 on a flyway basis but the decline was significant (P less than 0.05) only in the Pacific Flyway. Levels of DDT, DDE, TDE, and dieldrin were low on a flyway basis, and all but DDE declined significantly (P less than 0.05) in the percent occurrence. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels were lower in mallard wings from all flyways compared with 1976 data, but percent occurrence had significantly (P less than 0.05) increased. Pools from Alabama and New Mexico continued to show higher DDE residues than pools from other areas.

Cain, B.W.

1981-01-01

109

Chapter 12 Persistent Toxic Substances in the Philippine Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the studies on persistent toxic substances (PTS) in the Philippines environment. Many of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including pesticides and industrial chemicals, which were either banned or restricted for use in most northern industrialized countries, are still in use in some developing countries. This review focuses on organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as

Maricar S. Prudente; Govindan Malarvannan; Shinsuke Tanabe

2007-01-01

110

Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.  

PubMed

High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as DXNs, from MSWI flue gas at approximately 300 degrees C. More than half of the clays used in this study showed the decomposition characteristics of MCB. The presence of Cl atoms in the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C proved the occurrence of MCB decomposition. The results of this study suggest a novel flue gas treatment method to establish high-energy efficient MSWI systems. PMID:25282999

Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

2014-09-01

111

Organochlorines in crocodile eggs from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive use of persistent organochlorine chemicals (OCs), both in agriculture and industry, has lead to widespread pollution of the environment, and residues of for instance DDT and PCBs are found at all levels of the food chain. Most industrialized countries have imposed restrictions on their use and disposal. In most developing countries, however, persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are still

J. U. Skaare; K. Ingebrigtsen; A. Aulie; T. I. Kanui

1991-01-01

112

Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and butyltin compounds in blubber and livers of stranded California sea lions, elephant seals, and harbor seals from coastal California, USA.  

PubMed

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT), chlordanes (CHLs; cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and mono- (MBT), di-(DBT), and tri-butyltin (TBT) were determined in blubber and livers of 15 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 6 northern elephant seals (Mirounga augustirostris), and 10 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) found stranded along the coasts of California, USA, during 1991-1997. Among the organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were predominant, followed in decreasing order by PCBs, CHLs, TCPMe, TCPMOH, HCHs, and HCB. The greatest concentrations of organochlorines were found in California sea lions. The highest DDT and PCB concentrations found in the blubber of California sea lions were 2,900 and 1,300 microg/g, lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in California sea lions were correlated significantly with DDT concentrations. Concentration ratios of various organochlorines in harbor seal livers were different from those in California sea lions and elephant seals, which suggested that the sources of exposure of harbor seals to organochlorines were different from those in the other two species. Concentrations of butyltin compounds in livers of pinniped species ranged from 2 to 99 ng/g, wet weight, which were less than those observed in cetaceans and in California sea otters. PMID:11385594

Kajiwara, N; Kannan, K; Muraoka, M; Watanabe, M; Takahashi, S; Gulland, F; Olsen, H; Blankenship, A L; Jones, P D; Tanabe, S; Giesy, J P

2001-07-01

113

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

1988-09-01

114

Organochlorine pesticides residue in lakes of Khorezm, Uzbekistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Khorezm province in northwest Uzbekistan is a productive agricultural area within the Aral Sea Basin that produces cotton, rice and wheat. Various organochlorine pesticides were widely used for cotton production before Uzbekistan's independence in 1991. In Khorezm, small lakes have formed in natural depressions that receive inputs mostly from agricultural runoff. Samples from lake waters and sediments, as well as water from the Amu Darya River (which is the source of most of the lake water) have been analyzed to study variations in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides residues during the year. Low concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, a-HCH and y-HCH compounds were found in water and sediment samples. The concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (DDT and HCH) in water and sediment is much lower than the maximum permissible concentrations that exist for water and soil. According to these preliminary results, the investigated lakes in Khorezm appear to be suitable for recreation or for aquaculture.

Rosen, Michael R.; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Fayzieva, Dilorom; Saito, L.; Lamers, J.

2009-01-01

115

Static headspace versus head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the determination of volatile organochlorine compounds in landfill leachates by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of five volatile organochlorine compounds, VOX (chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene) in raw landfill leachates and biologically cleansed leachates by GC-MS is investigated. Two extraction and preconcentration procedures were evaluated for recovery of such analies from the samples, including static headspace (HS) and solid phase microextraction by sampling the headspace above the sample (HS-SPME). Optimisation of

J. C Flórez Menéndez; M. L Fernández Sánchez; E Fernández Mart??nez; J. E Sánchez Ur??a; A Sanz-Medel

2004-01-01

116

Profile of persistent chlorinated contaminants, including selected chiral compounds, in wolverine ( Gulo gulo) livers from the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are circumpolar omnivores that live throughout the alpine and arctic tundra ecosystem. Wolverine livers were collected at Kugluktuk (Coppermine), NU (n=12) in the western Canadian Arctic to report, for the first time, the residue patterns of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in this species. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of several chiral OCs, including PCB atropisomers, in wolverines were

P. F. Hoekstra; B. M. Braune; C. S. Wong; M. Williamson; B. Elkin; D. C. G. Muir

2003-01-01

117

Detection limits of organochlorine pesticides and related compounds in blood serum  

SciTech Connect

Determinations of organochlorine pesticides and similar chemical residues in blood serum have often reported detection limits of 1 ng/mL. When a study group has incurred body burdens lower than this, underestimates and misclassifications of exposure may occur because persons with pesticide residue concentration below the limit of detection are usually treated as zeros.' Thus in order to more accurately assess exposures in such populations, analysis of adipose tissue has been done. Recently, with TCDD, use of a sufficient volume of serum, as much as 0.5 L, in conjunction with appropriate analytical techniques has been shown to achieve detection limits necessary for epidemiological assessments, i.e., comparable to analysis of adipose tissue. In a population-based study involving children in which the authors were involved, it was not feasible to obtain specimens of either adipose or a large volume of serum. There was no compelling health motivation for such measures, nor did they wish to impair participation rates. Therefore, they chose to optimize the existing serum analysis, in order to achieve a detection limit low enough to assess reasonably the anticipated exposures.

Wolff, M.S.; Rivera, M.; Baker, D.B. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

1991-10-01

118

Endocrine Disruption Induced by Organochlorines (OCs): Field Studies And Experimental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-range transport of persistent organic compounds by air and ocean currents from industrialized areas resulted in high levels of these pollutants in food webs in the Svalbard area. With the aim to test if organochlorine (OC) exposure in free-living polar bears from Svalbard affected their plasma steroid hormone concentrations, it was found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were associated with increased

Erik Ropstad; Irma C. Oskam; Jan L. Lyche; Hans J. Larsen; Elisabeth Lie; Marte Haave; Ellen Dahl; Richard Wiger; Janneche Utne Skaare

2006-01-01

119

Global Pollution Monitoring of PCBs and Organochlorine Pesticides Using Skipjack Tuna as a Bioindicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and

D. Ueno; S. Takahashi; H. Tanaka; A. N. Subramanian; G. Fillmann; H. Nakata; P. K. S. Lam; J. Zheng; M. Muchtar; M. Prudente; K. H. Chung; S. Tanabe

2003-01-01

120

Specific accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Japanese common squid as a bioindicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorines (OCs) representing Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDTs (DDT and its metabolites), CHLs (chlordane compounds), HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in the liver of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) collected from the waters around Japan (Japan Sea and western North Pacific Ocean). Among OCs concentrations, PCBs (upto 5600 ng\\/g lipid wt.) were

D Ueno; S Inoue; K Ikeda; H Tanaka; H Yamada; S Tanabe

2003-01-01

121

Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

Wentz, D.A.; Waite, I.R.; Rinella, F.A.

1998-01-01

122

Organochlorine residues in bird species collected dead in Ontario 1972-1988  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine residues have been reported in many species of birds found dead or shot around the Great Lakes Basin. Raptors and fish-eating birds have had very high residues in the past while terrestrial seed- and insect-eaters have had relatively low residues. Most of the organochlorine insecticides like DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, endrin and heptachlor have been removed from field use, and controls have been placed on the dispersal of organochlorine industrial chemicals like mirex and PCB. These substances are very persistent. The major sources of contamination now are environmental residues picked up by birds in their normal feeding. These compounds bioaccumulate in bird species, and the highest residues accumulate at the top of the food chain. This paper is a compilation of data obtained from dead birds collected in the Great Lakes Basin over the last 16 years and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants.

Frank, R.; Braun, H.E. (Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1990-06-01

123

Maternal Concentrations of Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Asthma in Offspring: Results from a Prospective Cohort with 20 Years of Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous findings suggest that developmental exposures to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may be detrimental for the development of the immune system in the offspring. Whether these suspected immunoregulatory effects persist beyond early childhood remains unclear. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal serum concentrations of POPs and the risk of asthma in offspring after 20 years of follow-up. Methods: A birth cohort with 965 women was formed in 1988–1989 in Aarhus, Denmark. Concentrations of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) were quantified in maternal serum (n = 872) collected in gestation week 30. Information about offspring use of asthma medications was obtained from the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results: Maternal serum concentrations of HCB and dioxin-like PCB-118 were positively associated with offspring asthma medication use after 20 years of follow-up (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with subjects in the first tertile of maternal concentration, those in the third tertile of PCB-118 had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.23). For HCB the HR for the third versus the first tertile of maternal concentration was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.21). Weak positive associations were also estimated for PCB-156 and the non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180). No associations were found for p,p´-DDE. Conclusions: Maternal concentrations of PCB-118 and HCB were associated with increased risk of asthma in offspring followed through 20 years of age. Citation: Hansen S, Strøm M, Olsen SF, Maslova E, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Rytter D, Bech BH, Hansen LV, Halldorsson TI. 2014. Maternal concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants and the risk of asthma in offspring: results from a prospective cohort with 20 years of follow-up. Environ Health Perspect 122:93–99;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206397 PMID:24162035

Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Maslova, Ekaterina; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil H.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

2013-01-01

124

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78.6 +/- 32.4 microg/g lipid) and toxaphene (11.7 +/- 9.3 microg/g lipid) were significantly higher in dolphins sampled in the TBRE than in dolphins stranded near Savannah (GA, USA) 80 to 100 km to the north. Levels of OCPs were several-fold lower than levels of PCBs; moreover, PCBs comprised 81 and 67% of the total POP burden in TBRE and non-TBRE dolphins, respectively. Analyses with GC-ECNI-MS revealed that 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a), a major component in technical toxaphene and a major residue congener in local estuarine fish species, was the most abundant chlorobornane in both sets of blubber samples. Mean total POP concentrations (sum of PCBs, OCPs, and toxaphene) approached 100 microg/g lipid for the TBRE animals, well above published total PCB thresholds at which immunosuppresion and/or reproductive anomalies are thought to occur. These results indicate extended utilization of the highly contaminated TBRE as habitat for a group of coastal estuarine dolphins, and they further suggest that these animals may be at risk because of elevated POP concentrations. PMID:19203137

Pulster, Erin L; Smalling, Kelly L; Zolman, Eric; Schwacke, Lori; Maruya, Keith A

2009-07-01

125

Current-Use Pesticides and Organochlorine Compounds in Precipitation and Lake Sediment from Two High-Elevation National Parks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western U.S. to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, only chlordane, HCB, and two PCB congeners were detected. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ?g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ?g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ?g/m2 for dacthal of which over 85% occurred during summer. DDE and DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in lake sediments. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been in decline since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11-1.2 ?g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in lake sediments.

Mast, M. A.; Foreman, W. T.

2007-12-01

126

Contaminants in the southern tip of South America: Analysis of organochlorine compounds in feathers of avian scavengers from Argentinean Patagonia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide. This is the first study on OC in feathers of three terrestrial top carnivores from South America. OC concentrations found in the studied species were much higher than those found in feathers of raptors from Europe and Asia, which likely indicate their high use in the region, specifically in agriculture, and other possible uses of OC in this area. ?HCH had the highest median concentration, followed by ?Drins, ?DDT, ?Heptachlor, and ?Endosulfan, similar to those reported in several food samples in Argentina. On the other hand, differences in OC profiles between species and areas may be related to feeding and migratory habits, as well as the molt period. Three individuals showed ?DDT (DDT, DDD and DDE) concentrations in feathers related to sublethal effects. However, this comparison should be used with caution due to problems with extrapolating such data across tissues and species. PMID:25682585

Martínez-López, E; Espín, S; Barbar, F; Lambertucci, S A; Gómez-Ramírez, P; García-Fernández, Aj

2015-05-01

127

Air monitoring at Alert in the high Arctic: Results of one year of monitoring of organochlorine compounds and PAH  

SciTech Connect

In January 1992, an air toxics sampler was set up at Alert, on Northern Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic (82.5{degree} N, 62.3{degree} W) as part of an arctic air toxics monitoring and assessment program. Since then, three more sites were added to the network: Tagish, Yukon Territory near Whitehorse, Dunai Island in the former Soviet Union, and Cape Dorset on Baffin Island. Organochlorines (OCs) and PAHs were sampled weekly to determine the types, concentrations and vapor-particle relationships. High volume samplers with a 10 micrometer size selective inlet were used with a collection cartridge consisting of glass fiber filter(s) for particulates followed by two 20 cm diameter 5 cm thick polyurethane foam plugs for vapors, with a weekly sample volume of approximately 11,000 m{sup 3}. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography using electron capture detection and confirmation by GC/MS. This paper will focus on selected compounds for 1992 at Alert: a volatile OC hexachlorobenzene, a semi-volatile OC DDT, and the PAHs, pyrene, benzo(e) and benzo(a)pyrene. The authors will present annual average concentrations as well as weekly integrated values to look for potential seasonal variation through temporal profiles and their distribution between the particle and gas phases.

Toom, D.; Barrie, L. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada); Fellin, P.; Dougherty, D. [Concord Environmental, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Muir, D.; Grift, B.; Lockhart, L.; Billick, B. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

1994-12-31

128

Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in sea turtles from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of sea turtles (green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles) stranded along the coasts or caught (by-catch) around Ishigaki Island and Kochi, Japan were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for six organohalogen compounds viz., PBDEs, PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. The present study is the first and foremost to report the occurrence of organohalogen compounds in the

Govindan Malarvannan; Shin Takahashi; Tomohiko Isobe; Tatsuya Kunisue; Agus Sudaryanto; Toshihiko Miyagi; Masaru Nakamura; Shigeki Yasumura; Shinsuke Tanabe

2011-01-01

129

Alternative tissue analysis method developed for organochlorine contaminants in aquatic organisms  

SciTech Connect

The exposure of aquatic life to organochlorine contaminants has been investigated during the past two decades because of human and ecosystem health concerns related to the bioaccumulation of hazardous, lipophilic substances. The toxic effects of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known, and recent evidence also suggests that low level exposure to lipophilic organochlorines may interfere with normal development during sensitive early life history stages. As the use of lipophilic organochlorines, such as DDT, in third world countries continues and with the purported global cycling and food chain accumulation of persistent organochlorines, the occurrence of these compounds in aquatic organisms is a critical global environmental issue. An understanding of the fate of organochlorines in the environmental clearly remains an extremely important subject related to water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently gained congressional approval in the United States to track nation wide trends in water quality through the establishment of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Among the goals defined by NAWQA, aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, and plants, collected from major drainage basins will be analyzed for, along with other contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine insecticides, and chlorobenzenes. The purpose of this report is to present quality assurance data obtained from the development of a PCB, chlorobenzene, and organochlorine insecticide tissue analysis method in support of NAWQA and other large-scale water quality programs conducted through our laboratory. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Shan, T.H.; Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))

1994-09-01

130

Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Reemission of PCBs from soils or as consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific sources as the predominant origin of these compounds in these remote sites. In contrast, significant correlations between current-use pesticides and air masses flowing from the south were observed in Gossenköllesee, Lochnagar and Redòn. In the case of Redòn, the higher proportion of air masses from the south occurred in parallel to higher temperatures, which did not allow to discriminating between these two determinant factors of pesticide deposition. However, in Gossenköllesee and Lochnagar, the relationship between pesticide concentration and southern air masses was univocal reflecting the impact of regions with intensive agricultural activities.

Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

2015-02-01

131

Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in sea turtles from Japan.  

PubMed

Three species of sea turtles (green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles) stranded along the coasts or caught (by-catch) around Ishigaki Island and Kochi, Japan were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for six organohalogen compounds viz., PBDEs, PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. The present study is the first and foremost to report the occurrence of organohalogen compounds in the sea turtles from Japan. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and CHLs were the highest in all the turtle samples. PBDEs were ubiquitously present in all the turtle species. Comparing with the other two species, concentrations of organohalogens in green turtle were relatively low and decreasing trend in the concentrations were noted with increasing carapace length. Concentrations of OCs in sea turtles from the coasts of Ishigaki Island and Kochi were relatively low as compared to those from other locations in the world. PMID:21377171

Malarvannan, Govindan; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sudaryanto, Agus; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masaru; Yasumura, Shigeki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2011-01-01

132

Brain organochlorines and Lewy pathology: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.  

PubMed

Although organochlorines have been reported more frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD) brains than in controls, the association with brain Lewy pathology is unknown. Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) participants, exposed to organochlorines from a variety of sources during midlife, represent a population well suited to determining the relationship of brain organochlorines with Lewy pathology in decedents from the longitudinal HAAS. The study design included the measurement of 21 organochlorine levels in frozen occipital lobe samples from HAAS decedents. Alpha-synuclein immunostaining performed on 225 brains was used to identify Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. With the potential for spurious associations to appear between Lewy pathology and 17 organochlorine compounds found in at least 1 brain, initial assessments identified heptachlor epoxide isomer b, methoxychlor, and benzene hexachloride b as being most important. The prevalence of Lewy pathology was 75% (6 of 8) among brains with any 2 of the 3 compounds, 48.8% (79 of 162) among those with 1, and 32.7% (18 of 55) for those with neither (P = .007 test for trend). Although findings persisted after removing cases with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies and after adjustment for age at death, body mass index, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and coffee intake (P = .013), the results were insignificant when correcting for multiple testing. Although consistent with earlier accounts of an association between organochlorines and clinical PD, associations with Lewy pathology warrant further study. PMID:22976848

Ross, G Webster; Duda, John E; Abbott, Robert D; Pellizzari, Edo; Petrovitch, Helen; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P; Tanner, Caroline M; Noorigian, Joseph V; Masaki, Kamal; Launer, Lenore; White, Lon R

2012-09-15

133

Atmospheric transport and accumulation of organochlorine compounds on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Nepal.  

PubMed

Studies have been devoted to the transport and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in mountain environments. The Himalayas have the widest altitude gradient of any mountain range, but few studies examining the environmental behavior of POPs have been performed in the Himalayas. In this study, air, soil, and leaf samples were collected along a transect on the southern slope of the Himalayas, Nepal (altitude: 135-5100 m). Local emission occurred in the lowlands, and POPs were transported by uplift along the slope. During the atmospheric transport, the HCB proportion increased from the lowlands (20%) to high elevation (>50%), whereas the proportions of DDTs decreased. The largest residue of soil POPs appeared at an altitude of approximately 2500 m, and may be related to absorption by vegetation and precipitation. The net deposition tendencies at the air-soil surface indicated that the Himalayas may be a 'sink' for DDTs and PCBs. PMID:24880535

Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Li, Sheng-hai; Yu, Wu-sheng; Li, Jiu-le; Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Wang, Wei-cai; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tan-dong; Joswiak, Daniel R

2014-09-01

134

Organochlorine compounds in Baltic salmon and trout. I. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenols 1982  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenol compounds were analyzed in three populations of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and one population of Bothnian Bay trout (Salmo trutta). Muscles, livers an unfertilized eggs were studied and the analysis results treated by standard statistical methods. PCB, DDT residues, HCB and lindan were detected in most, 2,3,6-t-richlorocymene in some samples at levels which are near to the global baseline. Ten chlorophenol compounds were detected, 34DCC at 0-1000 ..mu..g/kg the other 0-100 ..mu..g/kg (fresh weight) levels. Chlorohydrocarbons showed some significant positive correlations with weight, and fat contents of the fish. Significances of the differences between populations and tissues were low or negligible except that the chlorophenols in liver were at clearly higher level than in muscle or eggs.

Vuorinen, P.J.; Paasivirta, J.; Piilola, T.; Surma-Aho, K.; Tarhanen, J.

1985-01-01

135

Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Elmstahl, S. [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden)] [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden); Bjellerup, P. [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden)] [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden); Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Akesson, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-11-15

136

Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

2009-01-01

137

Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

2008-01-01

138

Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

1996-01-01

139

Persistent, ecotoxic, and bioaccumulative com- pounds and their possible environmental effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between physico-chemical properties, environmental distribution and effects of organochlorine compounds as a major class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are discussed. The environmental fate of a compound includes its transport and dispersion in the environment as well as its accumulation and transformation in defined environmental compart- ments. Accumulation and transformation as the result of environmental distribution may have

Karlheinz Ballschmiter

1996-01-01

140

Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the Lower Columbia River using semipermeable-membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are of concern in the Columbia River Basin because of their adverse effects on fish and wildlife. Because these compounds can have important biological consequences at concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional water-sampling techniques, we used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per- quintillion detection limits. We deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. We also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our data indicate that (1) in the absence of additional sources, mechanisms such as volatilization, dilution, and settling of sus pended particles can act to significantly reduce concentrations of contami nants along the river's flow path, (2) elevated concentrations of contaminants in the Portland-Vancouver area are primarily from local rather than upstream sources, (3) elevated concentrations of many compounds tend to be diluted during periods of high discharge, (4) much higher discharge in the main stem considerably dilutes elevated concentrations entering from tributaries, (5) the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in streambed sediment is not necessarily indicative of their distribution in the dissolved-phase, and (6) SPMDs can reveal patterns of contaminant occurrence at environmentally relevant concentrations that are undetectable by conventional water-sampling techniques.

McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

1999-01-01

141

Interactions between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway and exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants affect human semen quality.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may affect male reproductive function. Many dioxin-like POPs exert their effects by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling pathway. We analysed whether gene-environment interactions between polymorphisms in AHR (R554K) and AHR repressor (AHRR P185A) and serum levels of markers of POP exposure 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) are associated with 21 parameters of male reproductive function in 581 proven-fertile European and Greenlandic men. In Greenlandic men, AHR variants significantly modified the association between serum levels of both p,p'-DDE and CB-153 and inhibin B levels, sperm chromatin integrity, and seminal zinc levels. In the total cohort, interactions between AHRR variants and serum levels of CB-153 were associated with sperm chromatin integrity and the expression of the pro-apoptotic marker protein Fas. The data indicate that susceptibility to adverse effects of POP exposure on male reproductive function is dependent on polymorphisms in genes involved in AHR signalling. PMID:25084496

Brokken, L J S; Lundberg, P J; Spanò, M; Manicardi, G C; Pedersen, H S; Struci?ski, P; Góralczyk, K; Zviezdai, V; Jönsson, B A G; Bonde, J P; Toft, G; Lundberg Giwercman, Y; Giwercman, A

2014-07-30

142

The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 ?m and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species. PMID:24054891

Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

2013-12-01

143

Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway  

SciTech Connect

Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes.

Chan, Tom S. [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada)], E-mail: chatsy@gmail.com; Wilson, John X. [Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, 14214 (United States); Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada); Poon, Raymond [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); O'Brien, Peter J. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3M2 (Canada)

2008-11-01

144

Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the lower Columbia River using semipermeable membrane devices  

SciTech Connect

The authors used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per-quintillion detection limits. They deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. They also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

1999-01-01

145

Concentration of Organochlorine Pollutants in Surface Waters of the Central European Biosphere Reserve Krivoklatsko (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a \\u000a The article is focused on dioxin, furan, PCB and organochlorine pesticide monitoring in the surface waters of the Central\\u000a European, protected natural reserve Krivoklatsko, under the UNESCO programme Man and Biosphere. Persistent compounds are presently\\u000a transported via different means throughout the entire world. This contamination varies significantly between sites. This raises\\u000a the question of what constitutes

Vladimír Ko?; Tomáš Ocelka; Darek Dragoun; Michael Vít; Roman Grabic; Marek Šváb

2007-01-01

146

Organochlorine pesticides and PCB residues in sediments of Alexandria Harbour, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine compound concentrations were determined for 23 surface sediment samples collected from Alexandria Harbor, Egypt. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 1210 ng\\/g with four to seven Cl-substituted biphenyls being the most prevalent PCBs congeners. Different PCB congener distribution patterns were observed, probably reflecting different inputs and attenuation at various locations. Total DDT concentrations varied from <0.25 ng\\/g

Assem O Barakat; Moonkoo Kim; Yoarong Qian; Terry L Wade

2002-01-01

147

Occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in the eggs and dropping-amended soil of Antarctic large animals and its ecological significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are analyzed for the dropping-amended soils from the habitats of Antarctic seabirds\\u000a and seals in Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island. The concentration ranges are 0.21 to 3.85 ng\\/g for polychlorinated biphenyls\\u000a (?PCBs), 0.09 to 2.01 ng\\/g for organochlorine pesticides (?DDT), and 0.06 to 0.76 ng\\/g for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs).\\u000a Among these, hepatachlorobiphenyls, hexachlorobiphenyls, p,p?-DDE and ?-HCH compounds

HaiSheng Zhang; ZiPan Wang; Bing Lu; Chun Zhu; GuangHai Wu; Vetter Walter

2007-01-01

148

Age trends and reproductive transfer of organochlorine compounds in long-finned pilot whales from the Faroe Islands.  

PubMed

Total DDT and PCB concentrations were determined in blubber of 130 long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas (100 females and 30 males) from the Faroe Islands (northern north-east Atlantic). In males and immature females no relation was observed between age and organochlorine concentrations or the ratio of tDDT (total DDT)/PCB; in contrast, concentrations and ratios in mature females declined with age, which is attributed to reproductive transfer to their offspring during gestation and lactation. Relative abundance of DDE respective to tDDT increased in males and young females and decreased in mature females. Organochlorine transfer to offspring during lactation was found to represent about 60-100% of the mother's body load, while that occurring during gestation was estimated to be much lower, in the range 4-10% of mother's body load. Transfer rates tended to decrease with mother's age and were, consequently, much higher in primiparous females than in those that had already given birth. Transplacental rates were found to be consistent with the ratio between mother's body weight and neonatal body weight. PMID:15091540

Borrell, A; Bloch, D; Desportes, G

1995-01-01

149

(PRESENTED AT MORIOKA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

150

Validation of user- and environmentally friendly extraction and clean-up methods for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in soils.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the potential of compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (CSIA) for tracking organochlorine pesticides in soil systems, sample pre-treatment methods have to be developed, which can provide recoveries sufficient for low detection limits without altering the isotope ratio of the target compounds. In this study we tested the compatibility of CSIA with user- and environmentally friendly extraction methods, including the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe procedure (QuEChERS), Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (USE) and Focused Ultrasonic Extraction (FUSE), as well as clean-up methods, including sulfuric acid clean-up and Florisil(®) column chromatography for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and their environmental metabolites (chlorinated benzenes, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene - DDE and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane - DDD) in soils. We optimized the extraction methods for maximum recovery and pre-concentration. At optimal conditions, all extraction methods and clean-up procedures, as well as the pre-concentration of the extract by solvent evaporation, led to insignificant changes in carbon isotope ratios of the target compounds. We modified the USE procedure to increase the volume of withdrawn organic extract, resulting in a higher pre-concentration of the target compounds by the subsequent solvent evaporation step. This Modified Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (MUSE) was the most suitable procedure, and it was validated for the determination of carbon isotope ratios of the target compounds using two different types of soil matrices. The method could be applied to analyze carbon isotope ratios of HCHs, DDT, and their chlorinated metabolites in soil samples with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 0.8mg/kg. The analytical uncertainty of MUSE, incorporating both accuracy and precision, was ?0.4‰. PMID:24980091

Ivdra, Natalija; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Fischer, Anko

2014-08-15

151

Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during  

E-print Network

Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants decades, eight studies measured persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in sea turtle eggs (Hillestad the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose

Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

152

Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

2009-01-01

153

Organochlorine levels in adipose tissue of women from a littoral region of Argentina.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds (OCCs), such as pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are persistent lipophilic chemicals identified as endocrine disruptors, mainly with estrogen-like effects. Northeastern Argentina, near the Paraná River, is characterized by intensive farming and agricultural activities and industrial development, and is therefore prone to high incidences of environmental and dietary exposure to OCCs. Hence, we conducted a study to (1) estimate the organochlorine residues present in mammary fat tissue in a population of women from this littoral region and (2) identify potential sources of exposure to OCCs. Our subjects were 76 women (residing in and around Santa Fe city and not occupationally exposed to organochlorines) who underwent excision biopsy of a breast lesion or had plastic surgery. Both frequency of occurrence and levels of organochlorine residues were high in breast adipose tissue of all the participants. The organochlorine residues most frequently found were p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in all the subjects analyzed, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in 86.8%, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) in 75.0%. The incidence of PCB congeners was very low. p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH residues reached the highest levels, 4794 and 1780 ppb, respectively. The diet was a relevant source of exposure, consumption of animal fat and freshwater fish playing a significant role. Bioaccumulation was evidenced by the significant positive association between organochlorine levels and body mass index (p = 0.0003) and the age of the patient (p = 0.0002). The frequency and levels of OCCs found in our study population raise concerns regarding Argentinean exposure to these endocrine disruptors. PMID:16480710

Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Beldoménico, Horacio R; García, Silvia R; Stoker, Cora; De Jesús, Juan J; Beldoménico, Pablo M; Ramos, Jorge G; Luque, Enrique H

2006-09-01

154

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg\\/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to

Derek C. G. Muir; Ross J. Norstrom; Mary Simon

1988-01-01

155

Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States.  

PubMed

Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 microg/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 microg/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 microg/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 microg/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 microg/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well. PMID:17285235

Mast, M A; Foreman, W T; Skaates, S V

2007-04-01

156

Organochlorine residues in adult mallard and black duck wings, 1981–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten organochlorine compounds were identified in pools of black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) wings from the 1981–82 hunting season. Most organochlorine compounds occurred very infrequently. Among those compounds positively identified by mass spectrometry, DDE and, secondarily, PCB had the highest frequencies of occurrence. Other compounds, positively identified and occurring less frequently, included DDT, DDD, DDMU, dieldrin, heptachlor

Richard M. Prouty; Christine M. Bunck

1986-01-01

157

PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in ducks of Fereydoon-kenar wildlife refuge in Iran.  

PubMed

Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCB were determined in three duck species: Pintail (Anas acuta), Common Teal (Anas creaca), and Mallard (Anas platyhynchos). Both persistent organochlorines were more abundant in muscle than in the liver; Mallard had the highest levels of PCBs [84.0 +/- 39.0 ng/g wet weight (ww)], and Common Teal showed the highest levels of DDTs (561.0 +/- 220.0 ng/g ww). This exposure level is more than two orders of magnitude below provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) (0.01 mg/kg bw for DDT and its associated compounds) of The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:20419290

Rajaei, Fateme; Bahramifar, Nader; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

2010-05-01

158

Organochlorine concentrations (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and MIREX) in delphinids stranded at the northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds are highly persistent in the environment, causing bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the marine food chain. To verify the bioaccumulation pattern of DDT and its metabolites, as well as PCBs, Mirex, HCHs and HCB, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), two Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), two spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), one spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) were analyzed. The collected specimens were found stranded in northeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2011. The concentrations were reported in ?g·g(-1) lip, varying from 0.02 to 17.3 for ?PCB, from 0.003 to 5.19 for ?DDT, from 0.005 to 0.16 for ?HCH, from 0.002 to 0.16 for HCB, and from 0.02 to 2.38 for Mirex. The PCBs dominated the bioaccumulation pattern for both the Guiana and spinner dolphins; for the other species, DDT was the major compound. A discriminant function analysis revealed the differences in the organochlorine accumulation patterns between the Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) and the continental shelf/oceanic dolphins (S. frontalis and S. longirostris). The results also show that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds found in the delphinids in northeastern Brazil were lower than the delphinids found in other regions of Brazil, as well as other locations worldwide with intense agroindustrial development and/or a larger population. PMID:24291562

Santos-Neto, Elitieri B; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Bisi, Tatiana L; Santos, Jessica; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Guimarães, José Eugênio; Lailson-Brito, José

2014-02-15

159

Influence of diet and other factors on the levels of organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue in Finland  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and five human adipose tissue samples were recovered during surgical operations of postmortem examinations of patients experiencing death due to traumatic injury. The sample donors were between the ages of 2 mo and 91 yr. Samples were analyzed by GLC-MS techniques for polychlorobiophenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) compounds, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and chlorinated phenols. Special attention was paid to the concentration of heptachlor epoxide, a metabolite of heptachlor, commonly used as an insecticide in the Finnish plywood industry. The mean concentrations of PCB, DDTs, HCB, and chlordanes were 0.26, 0.33, 0.02, and 0.007 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively, while the mean concentration of heptachlor epoxide was 2.3 ..mu..g/kg. The geometric means were 0.20, 0.28, 0.018, 0.0055, and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of PCB and DDT compounds in Finnish human adipose tissue has rapidly decreased during the last 10 years. The average concentrations were higher in south Finland than those in north Finland, and the results clearly indicate the prominent influence of fish meals and the age of sample donors on the pollutant concentrations in adipose tissue. The results were further analyzed and discussed with respect to sex, smoking habits, and number of childbirths of the sample donors. 44 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Pyysalo, H.; Moilanen, R.

1984-01-01

160

A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the sorption of contaminants by different sediment size fractions. Field studies indicate that organic contaminants tend to sorb more to fine-grained sediment, and this correlates significantly with sediment organic matter content. Laboratory experiments have extended the field studies to a wider spectrum of natural particulates and anthropogenic compounds. Quantitation of isotherm results allows the comparison of different sediment sorbents as well as the estimation of field partition coefficients from laboratory-measured sediment and contaminant properties. Detailed analyses made on the basis of particle-size classes show that all sediment fractions need to be considered in evaluating the fate and distribution of manmade organic compounds. This conclusion is based on observations from field studies and on the variety of natural organic sorbents that demonstrate sorptive capabilities in laboratory isotherm experiments.

Witkowski, P.J.; Smith, J.A.; Fusillo, T.V.; Chiou, C.T.

1987-01-01

161

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. (Agricultural Univ., Warsaw (Poland)); Ludwicki, J. (National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-12-01

162

Persistent halogenated compounds in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from China.  

PubMed

While a number of studies have reported residual levels of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in crocodilia, there is still a dearth of information on the Chinese alligator, a critically endangered crocodilian species. In the present study, several PHCs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were detected in the adult tissues, neonates, and eggs of captive Chinese alligators from China. The concentrations of ?PBDEs, ?PCBs, and ?DDTs in Chinese alligators ranged from 0.11 to 16.1, 1.12 to 22.2, and 6.03 to 1020ngg(-1) wet weight, respectively, with higher levels of ?PCBs and ?DDTs in the neonates and eggs than in muscle tissues. The ?DDT residues in the studied Chinese alligators were at the high end of reported ranges from crocodilia around the world, and some results exceeded levels known to cause a female-biased sex ratio in crocodilians. PMID:24880595

Wu, Ting; Hong, Bing; Wu, Xiaobing; Wu, Jiangping; Wang, Xinming; Yi, Zhigang; Zhao, Juan; Zhan, Miao; Mai, Bixian

2014-09-01

163

(PRESENTED AT TSUKIJI, CHUO-KU, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

164

Evaluation of the persistence of transformation products from ozonation of trace organic compounds - a critical review.  

PubMed

Ozonation is an efficient treatment system to reduce the concentration of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from technical aquatic systems such as drinking water, wastewater and industrial water, etc. Although it is well established that ozonation generally improves the removal of organic matter in biological post-treatment, little is known about the biodegradability of individual transformation products resulting from ozonation of TrOCs. This publication provides a qualified assessment of the persistence of ozone-induced transformation products based on a review of published product studies and an evaluation of the biodegradability of transformation products with the biodegradability probability program (BIOWIN) and the University of Minnesota Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS). The oxidation of TrOCs containing the four major ozone-reactive sites (olefins, amines, aromatics and sulfur-containing compounds) follows well described reaction pathways leading to characteristic transformation products. Assessment of biodegradability revealed a high sensitivity to the formed products and hence the ozone-reactive site present in the target compound. Based on BIOWIN, efficient removal can be expected for products from cleavage of olefin groups and aromatic rings. In contrast, estimations and literature indicate that hydroxylamines and N-oxides, the major products from ozonation of secondary and tertiary amines are not necessarily better removed in biological post-treatment. According to UM-PPS, degradation of these products might even occur via reformation of the corresponding amine. Some product studies with sulfide-containing TrOCs showed a stoichiometric formation of sulfoxides from oxygen transfer reactions. However, conclusions on the fate of transformation products in biological post-treatment cannot be drawn based on BIOWIN and UM-PPS. PMID:25462725

Hübner, Uwe; von Gunten, Urs; Jekel, Martin

2015-01-01

165

Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediment and livers of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary assessment was made in 1992 of chlorinated organic compounds in sediments and in livers of striped bass from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. Samples of sediment and striped bass livers contained DDT (ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-) and its degradation products, DDD (ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-) and DDE (ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-); PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls); alpha and gamma chlordane, and cis and trans nonachlor. In addition, the livers of striped bass contained small concentrations of DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), a pre-emergent herbicide. Agricultural run-off from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, as well as atmospheric deposition, are probably responsible for a low chronic background of DDT in sediments throughout San Francisco Bay. Larger concentrations of DDT in sediment near Richmond in the Central Bay, and Coyote Creek in the South Bay may be derived from point sources. Ratios of pentachloro isomers of PCBs to hexachloro isomers in the South Bay sediments were different from those in the Central and North Bay, suggesting either differences in microbial activity in the sediments or different source inputs of PCBs. Concentrations of alpha chlordane in livers of striped bass were greater than those of gamma chlordane, which suggests a greater environmental stability and persistence of alpha chlordane. Trans nonachlor, a minor component of technical chlorodane, was present in greater concentrations than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor. Trans nonachlor is more resistant to metabolism than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor, and serves as an environmentally stable marker compound of chlordane contamination in the estuary. Chlorinated organic compounds have bioaccumulated in the livers of striped bass. These compounds may contribute to the decline of the striped bass in San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Cashman, J.R.; Nishioka, R.S.

1994-01-01

166

Integrating life-history and reproductive success data to examine potential relationships with organochlorine compounds for bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research initiated in 1970 has identified a long-term, year-round resident community of about 140 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida, providing unparalleled opportunities to investigate relationships between organochlorine contaminant residues and life-history and reproductive parameters. Many individual dolphins are identifiable and of known age, sex, and maternal lineage (?4 generations). Observational monitoring provides data on dolphin spatial and

Randall S. Wells; Victoria Tornero; Asuncion Borrell; Alex Aguilar; Teri K. Rowles; Howard L. Rhinehart; Suzanne Hofmann; Walter M. Jarman; Aleta A. Hohn; Jay C. Sweeney

2005-01-01

167

Coexistence of electron-glass phase and persistent photoconductivity in GeSbTe compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is demonstrated that persistent photoconductivity (PPC), well studied in lightly-doped semiconductors, is observable in GeSbTe compounds using infrared excitation at cryogenic temperatures. The low levels of energy flux necessary to induce an appreciable effect seems surprising given the high carrier concentration n of these ternary alloys (n >1020cm-3 ). On the other hand, their high density of carriers makes GeSbTe films favorable candidates for exhibiting intrinsic electron-glass effects with long relaxation times. These are indeed observed in GeSbTe thin films that are Anderson-localized. In particular, a memory dip is observed in samples with sheet resistances larger than ?105? at T ?4 K with similar characteristics as in other systems that exhibit intrinsic electron-glass effects. Persistent photoconductivity, however, is observable in GeSbTe films even for sheet resistances of the order of 103? , well below the range of disorder required for observing electron-glass effects. These two nonequilibrium phenomena, PPC and electron glass, are shown to be of different nature in terms of other aspects as well. In particular, their relaxation dynamics is qualitatively different; the excess conductance ? G associated with PPC decays with time as a stretched exponential whereas a logarithmic relaxation law characterizes ? G (t ) of all electron glasses studied to date. Surprisingly, the magnitude of the memory dip is enhanced when the system is in the PPC state. This counter-intuitive result may be related to the compositional disorder in these materials extending over mesoscopic scales. Evidence in support of this scenario is presented and discussed.

Ovadyahu, Z.

2015-03-01

168

Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters  

SciTech Connect

The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

1987-11-01

169

Baseline occurrence of organochlorine pesticides and other xenobiotics in the marine environment: Caribbean and Pacific collections.  

PubMed

This ongoing survey reports the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea surface slicks collected on a global circumnavigation. Hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds such as POPs are known to accumulate on the sea surface in slicks at concentrations many fold greater than the underlying water column, raising concerns about the ecological impacts due to the high biological activity associated with this zone. Six different categories of POPs were reported: chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane related compounds, organochlorine pesticides and other cyclodiene pesticides, DDTs and metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations ranged from <1ngL(-1) to 18.45?gL(-1). Ranking analysis indicates an independence of detected concentrations for each class of compounds and their geographical locations. Although concentrations observed were normally low and below commonly accepted toxic levels to animals and humans, they fall within the effective range of concentrations of many hormones and neurotransmitters, thus could potentially act as endocrine disrupters. PMID:23597795

Menzies, Robert; Soares Quinete, Natalia; Gardinali, Piero; Seba, Douglas

2013-05-15

170

Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark); Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard [Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark); Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark)], E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

2008-10-15

171

Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. PMID:24140682

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

2014-02-01

172

Effect of persistent trace compounds in landfill gas on engine performance during energy recovery: a case study.  

PubMed

Performances of gas engines operated with landfill gas (LFG) are affected by the impurities in the LFG, reducing the economic viability of energy recovery. The purpose of this study was to characterize the trace compounds in the LFG at the Odayeri Landfill, Istanbul, Turkey which is used for energy recovery. Composite gas samples were collected and analyzed for trace compounds (hydrocarbons, siloxanes, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons) over a 3-year period. Trace compounds entering the gas engines, their impact on the engine performance were evaluated. The operational problems included deposit formation in the combustion chamber, turbocharger, and intercooler of engine before the scheduled maintenance times. High levels of hydrogen sulfide, as well as chlorinated and fluorinated compounds cause corrosion of the engine parts and decrease life of the engine oils. Persistence of siloxanes results in deposit formation, increasing engine maintenance costs. Pretreatment of LFG is necessary to protect the engines at the waste-to-energy facilities with persistence levels of siloxanes and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. PMID:23063306

Sevimo?lu, Orhan; Tansel, Berrin

2013-01-01

173

Chlorinated and brominated persistent organic compounds in biological samples from the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven selected biological samples representing different ecosystems, trophic levels, and areas mainly in Sweden have been analyzed for 31 halogenated organic compounds or compound groups. The multiresidue analytical method provides a good opportunity to compare the concentrations of the different compounds in the investigated samples. By the use of ratios of these concentrations, comparisons can be done between species and

Bo Jansson; Renate Andersson; Lillemor Asplund; K. Litzen; Kerstin Nylund; U. Sellstroem; Ulla-Britt Uvemo; Cajsa Wahlberg; Ulla Wideqvist; T. Odsjoe; Mats Olsson

1993-01-01

174

The investigation of atmospheric deposition distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition is a significant pollution source leading to contamination of remote and clean sites, surface waters and soils. Since persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stay in atmosphere without any degradation, they can be transported and deposited to clean surfaces. Organochlorine pesticides are an important group of POPs which have toxic and harmful effects to living organisms and environment. Therefore, atmospheric deposition levels and characteristics are of importance to determine the pollution quantity of water and soil surfaces in terms of POPs. This study reports the distribution quantities of atmospheric deposition including bulk, dry, wet and air-water exchange of particle and gas phase OCPs as a result of 1-year sampling campaign. Atmospheric deposition distribution showed that the main mechanism for OCPs deposition is wet processes with percentage of 69 of total deposition. OCP compounds' deposition varied according to atmospheric concentration and deposition mechanism. HCH compounds were dominant pesticide species for all deposition mechanisms. HCH deposition constituted the 65% of ?10OCPs.

Cindoruk, S. S?dd?k; Tasdemir, Yücel

2014-04-01

175

Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls  

SciTech Connect

Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and -118. Conclusions: Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.

Windham, Gayle C., E-mail: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov [CA Department of Public Health, DEODC, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg. P, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Sjodin, Andreas [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Lum, Raymond [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)] [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Biro, Frank M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hiatt, Robert A. [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kushi, Lawrence H. [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

2010-04-15

176

Body Burdens of Brominated Flame Retardants and Other Persistent Organohalogenated Compounds and their Descriptors in U.S. Girls  

PubMed Central

Background Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in U.S. populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally-active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-to-8 years old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 36 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breastfeeding in adjusted models. Results Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9–855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breastfed, whose mothers were younger, or whose caregivers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and ?118. Conclusions Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications. PMID:20129604

Windham, Gayle C.; Pinney, Susan M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Lum, Raymond; Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L.; Biro, Frank M.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

2010-01-01

177

A Clinical Trial of Kampo Formulae for the Treatment of Symptoms of Yusho, a Poisoning Caused by Dioxins and Related Organochlorine Compounds  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) on the symptoms of Yusho. Yusho is a mass food poisoning that was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with dioxins and related organochlorines in 1968. Patients with Yusho suffer from skin symptoms (acneform eruptions, liability to suppuration and pigmentation), respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration of sputum), neurological symptoms (numbness and paresthesia of extremities), arthralgia and general fatigue, and no effective treatment has yet been developed. In this clinical trial, four Kampo formulae (Bakumondo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosha-jinki-gan and Hochu-ekki-to) were administered to four representative Yusho symptoms (respiratory, skin, neurological symptoms and general fatigue), respectively. Twenty-seven Yusho patients were enrolled and two formulae were administered to each patient for half-a-year each. The effectiveness of Kampo formulae was estimated by changes in the intensity of symptoms measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 100 mm recorded at baseline and after administration of each formula. The influence of Kampo formulae on patients' quality of life (QOL) was also assessed by the SF-36 (NBS). Twenty-five patients completed the treatment. Bakumondo-to significantly improved respiratory symptoms as well as patients' QOL in the context of vitality, compared with other formulae. In contrast, Hochu-ekki-to impaired patients' QOL in the context of physical functioning and vitality, compared with other formulae. This study demonstrated for the first time that a Kampo formula Bakumondo-to is useful for treating respiratory symptoms caused by dioxins. PMID:19996156

Uchi, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Mitoma, Chikage; Shibata, Satoko; Hamada, Naoki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kajiwara, Junboku; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Furue, Masutaka

2011-01-01

178

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in southern California round stingrays (Urobatis halleri) exposed to planar aromatic compounds.  

PubMed

While contaminant concentrations have been reported for elasmobranchs around the world, no studies have examined bioaccumulation patterns across male and female age classes. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is a local benthic species that forages near areas of high organochlorine contamination and represents a good elasmobranch model. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and chlordanes were measured in juvenile and adult male and female stingrays from areas in southern California, USA (n?=?208), and a nearby offshore island, Santa Catalina (n?=?34). Both mainland juvenile male and female stingrays showed a significant dilution effect. After maturity, summed contaminant concentrations significantly increased with size for adult males (median 11.1?µg/g lipid wt) and females (5.2?µg/g lipid wt). However, the rate of bioaccumulation was substantially greater in male stingrays than in females, likely a result of the females' ability to offload contaminants to offspring during pregnancy. In addition, males and females showed significant differences in their contaminant profiles, suggesting differential habitat use. Male and female stingrays collected from Santa Catalina Island had significantly lower concentrations (0.51?µg/g and 0.66?µg/g lipid wt, respectively), approximately 5 times less than those of mainland animals. Potential toxicity effects mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor were explored through ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays. Mainland male stingrays exhibited significantly greater EROD activities than Catalina males (481?pmol/min/mg protein and 55?pmol/min/mg protein, respectively); however, activity levels in female stingrays from both locations were comparable (297?pmol/min/mg protein and 234?pmol/min/mg protein, respectively) and lower than those in mainland males. The results suggest that PCBs and/or other structurally related contaminants may be inducing a biological response in mainland males but not females, possibly the result of a dampening effect of estradiol; however, the exact physiological repercussions of exposure remain to be determined. PMID:24838923

Lyons, Kady; Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel; Lowe, Christopher G

2014-06-01

179

Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residues of 6 organochlorine compds. were detected in adult carcasses, 4 in eggs, 2 in brains, and one in nestlings of Colorado tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). DDE [72-55-9]accounted for 91% of total organochlorine compound residue in each of the 4 sample types. DDE was detected in 30 samples (94%) and DDT [50-29-3] in 2 samples (6%). Carcasses of breeding females and egg clutches had residues of 6 organochlorine compds. not found in nestling samples. Only residues of DDE were found in nestlings. DDT and DDE were the only organochlorine compds. recovered in brain samples. Measurements of tree swallow eggshells showed that unattended eggs were not significantly different from those of attended or historical eggs. The implications of the observed organochlorine compound contamination are discussed.

DeWeese, L.R.; Cohen, R.R.; Stafford, C.J.

1985-01-01

180

Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.  

PubMed

There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies. PMID:25461417

Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

2015-02-01

181

Organochlorine residues in booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) eggs from southeastern Spain.  

PubMed

Most organochlorine (OC) use has been banned in Spain, but these compounds are persistent and may still adversely affect predatory birds. Data generally are lacking, however. Residues of hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 22 failed eggs of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from southeastern Spain; both species are declining in this region. Hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDE, and sum PCB congener concentrations were significantly higher in booted eagle than in goshawk eggs, and an inverse relationship was found between shell thickness and DDE concentrations in booted eagles. Organochlorides may have been associated with the failure of some booted eagle eggs, but concentrations in booted eagle and goshawk eggs decreased over the period during which populations have dwindled. Thus, although OCs may be a contributory factor, they are unlikely to be the primary cause of the recent population declines in southeastern Spain. PMID:17941741

Martinez-Lopez, Emma; Maria-Mojica, Pedro; Martinez, Jose E; Calvo, Jose F; Wright, Julian; Shore, Richard F; Romero, Diego; Garcia-Fernandez, Antonio J

2007-11-01

182

PCBs and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ducks of Fereydoon-kenar Wildlife Refuge in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCB were determined in three duck species: Pintail (Anas acuta), Common Teal (Anas creaca), and Mallard (Anas platyhynchos). Both persistent organochlorines were more abundant in muscle than in the liver; Mallard had the highest levels of PCBs\\u000a [84.0 ± 39.0 ng\\/g wet weight (ww)], and Common Teal showed the highest levels of DDTs (561.0 ± 220.0 ng\\/g ww). This exposure

Fateme Rajaei; Nader Bahramifar; Abbas Esmaili Sari; Seyed Mahmoud Ghasempouri

2010-01-01

183

Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant.  

PubMed

In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. PMID:15262161

Stackelberg, Paul E; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T; Zaugg, Steven D; Henderson, Alden K; Reissman, Dori B

2004-08-15

184

Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B.

2004-01-01

185

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in adipose tissues of Korean women.  

PubMed

Studies on residue levels and accumulation profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human adipose tissues of Korean populations are scarce. In this study, concentrations and accumulation features of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in adipose tissues of Korean women age 40-68 years. The highest concentrations were found for PCBs and DDTs, which were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordanes, and PBDEs. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were lower than those reported for other countries. However, PBDE concentrations were greater than those reported for other countries, suggesting that ongoing exposure to PBDEs is a concern in Korea. The profiles of PBDEs were characterized by the predominance of BDE 209, followed by nona- and octa-BDEs, which are consistent with the consumption patterns of products containing PBDEs in Korea. The concentrations of PCBs and some OCPs were significantly correlated with each other, whereas PBDEs showed low or moderate correlations with other POPs, suggesting differences in exposure routes and biotransformation potentials of the compounds studied. The concentrations of organochlorines and PBDEs were not correlated with subjects' age and body mass index. The results of this study provide baseline information on POPs in adipose tissues of the general population in Korea. PMID:21594673

Moon, Hyo-Bang; Lee, Duk-Hee; Lee, Yoon Soon; Choi, Minkyu; Choi, Hee-Gu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2012-01-01

186

Organochlorine chemicals in seafood: occurrence and health concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cheap availability of chlorine gas, together with the development of industrial chlorinating procedures in the 20th century, led to the production of a wide range of organochlorine compounds many with a variety of commercial applications, including usage as insecticides and defoliants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used as coolants in electricity supply transformers. However, it was soon found that many

A. G. Smith; S. D. Gangolli

2002-01-01

187

Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residues in the Indian marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediment and fish samples collected from the east and west coasts of India are presented. HCH isomers and DDT and its metabolites are the predominantly identified compounds in most of the samples. Despite the higher quantity of consumption, HCH and DDT levels in fish in India were lower than those in temperate countries suggesting a lower

G. G Pandit; A. M Mohan Rao; S. K Jha; T. M Krishnamoorthy; S. P Kale; K Raghu; N. B. K Murthy

2001-01-01

188

PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and reproduction in river otters from Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reproductive tracts from 89 3-year-old female river otters (Lutra canadensis), from Louisiana were examined. Eighteen of these were in a reproductive phase out of synchrony with the expected population norms. Eight of 32 otters had fewer embryos than corpora lutea, indicating intrauterine mortality in 25% of the sample. Chemical analyses of liver tissue from 57 otters revealed a low prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide contamination. These low Ievels of organochlorine compounds were not associated with atypical reproductive synchrony or intrauterine mortality.

Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Linscombe, G.; Kinler, N.; Stafford, C.J.

1985-01-01

189

The use of semipermeable membrane devices as passive samplers to determine persistent organic compounds in indoor air.  

PubMed

In the study reported here semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample 28 PAHs and 19 PCBs in the gas phase in 15 single-family houses located in an area where domestic wood burning is widespread. Eight of the households used wood burning appliances whereas the others used other systems for residential heating. Most of the studied compounds were found in the houses: the PAHs at levels that were similar to or slightly higher than published SPMD-sampled levels for background or urban sites in Sweden, and the PCBs at levels that were somewhat lower than those recently found in both indoor and outdoor urban locations. A principal component analysis revealed that wood-burning heating systems may contribute to PAHs in indoor air. The sources may be emissions indoors or penetration from outdoors. The convenience of SPMD technology facilitates its use for semi-quantitative screening and monitoring of various persistent organic compounds indoors in dwellings and working environments. PMID:16470257

Strandberg, Bo; Gustafson, Pernilla; Söderström, Hanna; Barregard, Lars; Bergqvist, Per-Anders; Sällsten, Gerd

2006-02-01

190

EVALUACIÓN PRELIMINAR DE LA PRESENCIA DE PESTICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS EN PESCADOS DE LA PRESA VICENTE GUERRERO (TAMAULIP AS, MÉXICO) PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE PRESENCE OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN FISH OF VICENTE GUERRERO DAM (TAMAULIP AS, MEXICO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants. The presence of OCPs in the environment is of global concern as they are persistent, ubiquitous and highly toxic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides (aldrin, endrin, chlordane, mirex, heptachlor, DDT, DDE and DDD) in the muscle of four fish species from Vicente Guerrero

R. M. Uresti-Marín; R. Santiago-Adame; N. E. Díaz-Moroles; J. Gutiérrez-Lozano; M. Vázquez; J. A. Ramírez de León

2008-01-01

191

Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

2007-01-01

192

Evaluation of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in the upper Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine contaminants sequestered in lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were compared to those found in tangential-flow ultrafilter permeates as part of a pilot study at 10 sites in the Upper Mississippi River system. Caged and feral fish from three primary sites were also analyzed for comparison. Concentrated organochlorine (OC) compounds were readily extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis into hexane,

Geoffrey S. Ellis; Colleen E. Rostad; James N. Huckins; Christopher J. Schmitt; Jimmie D. Petty; Patrick Maccarthy

1995-01-01

193

Atmospheric fluxes of persistent organic compounds to a forest ecosystem at the Swedish west coast  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this ongoing study is to investigate the importance of the atmospheric contribution of POP, such as PCB, HCH, HCB and PAH, to a forest at the Swedish west coast, Lake Gaardsjoen, and to get an idea about circulation and accumulation of these organic contaminants within a terrestrial ecosystem. The measurements include parallel sampling in air, deposition (artificial surface) and spruce needles. Recent sampling periods also include throughfall, runoff water, litterfall and soil. The amounts of POP deposited to the Gaardsjoen area were similar to those obtained during measurements at coastal and sea based sites at the Swedish west coast. Events with long range air transport did not significantly increase the atmospheric concentrations of PAH and PCB in the Gaardsjoen area. However, due to an increased particle concentration in the air, such episodes increased the deposition fluxes of PAH and PCB. Only small variations in the concentrations of POP occurred in the needles during different sampling periods and no accumulation was observed. The lowest PCB concentrations in the needles were found during a summer period in connection with the highest PCB concentrations in the air and with the highest ambient air temperature. The PAH and PCB found in spruce needles seemed to be due to uptake from both the gas and particle phases. Except for a relative increase of less volatile compounds, the distribution among individual PCB obtained in the soil agreed well with the PCB profile found in the deposition and throughfall. This supports the hypothesis that atmospheric deposition is the main source for PCB in this area.

Brorstroem-Lunden, E.; Loefgren, C.

1995-12-31

194

Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from the Garigliano River (Campania region, Italy).  

PubMed

Measuring organochlorine compounds in muscle tissue of European eels from the Garigliano River in Campania (Italy), overall PCBs emerged as the most abundant pollutants, followed by DDTs, Dieldrin and HCB. Target PCBs, IUPAC nos. 118, 138, 153 and 180, were the dominant congeners accounting for 64.2% of total PCBs. Among OCPs, p,p'-DDE was detected in all eels, always with higher concentration levels than other OCPs; p,p'-DDT was frequently detected, about 93.3% of the sample. The high and statistically significant correlations between concentration and length as well as weight of eels suggest that the organochlorine compounds concentrations tend to increase with the size and consequently with the age. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs detected were similar to those reported in studies relative to France, UK and Sweden. As regards toxicological risk for human health, in general OCPs residual levels were below the limits established for fish and aquatic products. Conversely, the concentrations of PCBs exceeded the limit set by the EU for terrestrial foods. Our results imply that OCPs and PCBs are still important persistent chemical contaminants in Campania freshwaters, although their manufacture and use are banned or highly restricted. PMID:20022354

Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Meli, Rosaria; Fusco, Giovanna; Naccari, Clara; Lucisano, Antonia

2010-02-01

195

Organochlorines, including chlordane compounds and their metabolites, in peregrine-falcon, prairie-falcon, and clapper-rail eggs from the USA.  

PubMed

Four compounds present in technical chlordane (trans- and cis-nonachlor, and tentatively MC-2 and MC-5) and three metabolites of chlordane (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, and U-4) were identified by GC/MS in peregrine-falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum) eggs. Levels of Heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were quantified by GC/ECD in peregrine-falcon eggs from the US east coast, Colorado, and California; and in prairie-falcon (Falco mexicanus) and light-footed-clapper-rail (Rallus longirostris levipes) eggs from California. The eggs were collected between 1986 and 1989. Oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were detected in every egg analyzed. Heptachlor, trans-, and cis-chlordane were either not detected, or present at low levels in the eggs. The highest Sigmachlordane levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a geometric mean (geom. mean) concentrations of 1800 microg/kg (ppb); the lowest levels of Sigmachlordane were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 120 microg/kg (geom. mean). Of the technical chlordane compounds measured, MC-2 bioaccumulated to the greatest degree. SigmaDDT levels in the falcons ranged from 11 000 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the Colorado samples to 8800 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the East Coast and California peregrines. SigmaDDT levels in the rail eggs were 3000 microg/kg (geom. mean). The highest SigmaPCB levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a concentration of 14 000 microg/kg (geom. mean); the lowest levels of SigmaPCB were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 350 microg/kg (geom. mean). PMID:15091821

Jarman, W M; Norstrom, R J; Simon, M; Burns, S A; Bacon, C A; Simoneit, B R

1993-01-01

196

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Human Milk in Great Britain, 1979-80  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The concentrations of some organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyl compounds have been determined in 102 samples of human milk collected between January 1979 and September 1980.2 Comparison of the results with those from a limited study undertaken in 1963-4 shows a decline in residues' levels.3 The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls in human milk samples from residents in Great

G. B. Collins; D. C. Holmes; R. A. Hoodless

1982-01-01

197

Persistent Pesticides in Human Breast Milk and Cryptorchidism  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prenatal exposure to some pesticides can adversely affect male reproductive health in animals. We investigated a possible human association between maternal exposure to 27 organochlorine compounds used as pesticides and cryptorchidism among male children. Design Within a prospective birth cohort, we performed a case–control study; 62 milk samples from mothers of cryptorchid boys and 68 from mothers of healthy boys were selected. Milk was collected as individual pools between 1 and 3 months postpartum and analyzed for 27 organochlorine pesticides. Results Eight organochlorine pesticides were measurable in all samples (medians; nanograms per gram lipid) for cases/controls: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p?-DDE): 97.3/83.8; ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH): 13.6/12.3; hexachlorobenzene (HCB): 10.6/8.8; ? -endosulfan: 7.0/6.7; oxychlordane: 4.5/4.1; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p?-DDT): 4.6/4.0; dieldrin: 4.1/3.1; cis-heptachloroepoxide (cis-HE): 2.5/2.2. Five compounds [octachlorostyrene (OCS); pentachlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p?-DDD); o,p?-DDT; mirex] were measurable in most samples (detection rates 90.8–99.2%) but in lower concentrations. For methoxychlor, cis-chlordane, pentachloroanisole (PCA), ? -HCH, 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2,2(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, trans-chlordane, ? -HCH, and o,p?-DDE, both concentrations and detection rates were low (26.5–71.5%). Heptachlor, HCH (?, ? ), aldrin, ?-endosulfan and trans-heptachloroepoxide were detected at negligible concentrations and low detection rates and were not analyzed further. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides [p,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDE, p,p?-DDD, o,p?-DDT, HCH (? , ?, ? ), HCB, PCA, ? -endosulfan, cis-HE, chlordane (cis-, trans-) oxychlordane, methoxychlor, OCS, and dieldrin] were measured in higher median concentrations in case milk than in control milk. Apart from trans-chlordane (p = 0.012), there were no significant differences between cryptorchid and healthy boys for individual chemicals. However, combined statistical analysis of the eight most abundant persistent pesticides showed that pesticide levels in breast milk were significantly higher in boys with cryptorchidism (p = 0.032). Conclusion The association between congenital cryptorchidism and some persistent pesticides in breast milk as a proxy for maternal exposure suggests that testicular descent in the fetus may be adversely affected. PMID:16835070

Damgaard, Ida N.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma; Virtanen, Helena E.; Shen, Heqing; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Main, Katharina M.

2006-01-01

198

Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in mammals of Donana National Park (Spain), 1982-1983  

SciTech Connect

The existence of 11 organochlorine compounds and five heavy metals in the liver and muscle of 57 members of 10 species of mammals, all from Donana National Park (Spain), has been investigated. Five organochlorine compounds have been found and the five heavy metals were present in the samples. The biomagnification of organochlorines is shown. The detected concentrations for each trophic rank seem not to influence unfavourably on the population stability of the species. The rabbit is proposed as a monitor species for future studies in pollution at Donana National Park.

Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Baluja, G.

1985-12-01

199

Levels of organochlorine insecticides in milk of mothers from urban and rural areas of Botucatu, SP, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The use of organochlorine insecticides has been common since the forties. But this has become a serious problem of public health, due to the fact that insecticides accumulate in tissues owing to their fat-soluble character, their persistence in the environment and their accumulation in the food-chain. The continuous development of gas chromatographic techniques allowed the detection of ppb levels of these insecticide residues. Studies with laboratory animals have been useful to establish the toxicity of these compounds. Human milk can be used as an evaluation index of environmental contamination by these insecticides, although the main objective of its analysis is to determine the amounts ingested by children. When evaluating the levels of organochlorine insecticides in human milk it is useful to establish where the mothers live. Theoretically, mothers who live in a rural area have much more contact with these insecticides, because they work directly in agriculture. Therefore, the risk of exposure by their nursing children will be even greater. In Brazil, farmers do not have enough knowledge to measure the risks brought about by their indiscriminate use. In addition, government programs for the control of rural endemic diseases still make use of DDT and HCH on a large scale.

Sant'Ana, L.S.; Jokl, L. (Faculty of Pharmacy, UFMG, Botucatu (Brazil)); Vassilieff, I. (Institute of Biosciences, UNESP, Botucatu (Brazil))

1989-06-01

200

Is there biomagnification of organochlorines in a Rocky Mountain aquatic food web?  

SciTech Connect

In 1991--92, 14 lakes in the Canadian Rocky Mountains were surveyed for organochlorine contamination (PCBs, DDT isomers, toxaphene, and other pesticides) of water and lake trout. Lake trout from Bow Lake, near the Continental Divide, in Banff National Park, contained particularly high concentrations of organochlorines, notably toxaphene, in their tissue compared to other mountain lake trout populations. The hypothesis that the high degree of contamination in fish is caused by biomagnification is being tested by analysis of lake trout (Salveninus namaycush), mountain whitefish (Propsopium williamsoni), benthic invertebrates, and zooplankton for organochlorine compounds and stable nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N). Fish, invertebrates, sediments and water collected from Bow Lake in 1994 were all found to contain organochlorines, and the authors are investigating the apparent patterns of contamination present. The possibility that contaminants deposited in past decades on the glaciers that feed Bow Lake contributes to the high values is also being examined.

Campbell, L.M.; Schindler, D.W.; Kidd, K. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Donald, D.D. [Environment Canada, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Muir, D. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

1995-12-31

201

Effect of organochlorine pesticides on human androgen receptor activation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been implicated in adverse effects, that is, reproductive and developmental effects, in man and in wildlife alike. It has been hypothesized that these so-called xeno-hormones could be responsible for the increased incidence in various male sexual differentiation disorders such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, low sperm counts and quality. In this report, OCs, called endocrine disrupters,

Géraldine Lemaire; Béatrice Terouanne; Pascale Mauvais; Serge Michel; Roger Rahmani

2004-01-01

202

Organochlorine transfer in the food web of subalpine Bow Lake, Banff National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from subalpine Bow Lake, near the Continental Divide in Banff National Park, have been reported to have higher concentrations of toxaphene than other lake trout populations of the Rocky Mountains. Our original hypothesis was that unusually high biomagnification via a long food chain was responsible for elevated levels of toxaphene and other persistent organochlorines in the

Linda M. Campbell; David W. Schindler; Derek C. G. Muir; David B. Donald; Karen A. Kidd

2000-01-01

203

Monitoring Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Baiyangdian Lake Using Microbial Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used polyurethane foam units (PFUs) to collect persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from four sites in Baiyangdian Lake in July 2003. Following extraction from the PFUs, relative concentrations of seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined by gas chromatography. OCPs and PCBs were detected in the microbial communities from all the four sampling stations. In terms

Feng-Chao Li; Yun-Fen Shen; Xin-Hua Wang; Xian-Jiang Kang

2005-01-01

204

Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychloribiphenyls [sic] in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), from the continental United States, 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Starlings were collected from 129 sites throughout the contiguous United States in the fall of 1982 and analyzed for organochlorine compounds as part of a nationwide monitoring program. Residues of 14 organochlorine compounds were found. Only DDE, polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide occurred in more than 50% of the lO-starling pools. Geographical variation in the occurrence of seven organochlorine compounds was noted. Mean DDE levels were higher in the southwestern United States. Mean PCB levels were higher in the eastern United States. The occurrence frequency of most organochlorines in 1982 was similar to that which was reported in the previous nationwide study in 1979. A slight increase in occurrence was noted for trans-nonachlor. Mean DDE level I in 1982 was similar to that of 1979. Mean PCB level in 1982 was lower than the 1979 mean, but this change may not reflect a decrease in environmental PCB levels.

Bunck, C.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1987-01-01

205

Organochlorine residues in New York waterfowl harvested by hunters in 1983–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen organochlorine compounds were detected in fat and breast muscle tissues of Canada goose and five species of ducks that were shot by sportsman in New York. Residues of DDE and PCB occurred most frequently and were positively identified along with DDT, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene. Compounds that were detected but not positively confirmed by mass spectrometry were dieldrin,

Robert E. Foley

1992-01-01

206

Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine chemical residues in oxbow lakes of Northeastern Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-eight samples of 16 species of animals were collected at Lake Providence, 88 samples of 15 species at Lake Bruin, and 21 samples of 5 species at Lake St. John, Louisiana, between 15 July and 25 September 1980. Residues of 13 organochlorine compounds were identified in these samples. Substantial concentrations of many of these compounds throughout the food webs of

Kenneth R. Niethammer; Donald H. White; Thomas S. Baskett; Mark W. Sayre

1984-01-01

207

Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenlys and organochlorinated pesticides in women from Istanbul, Turkey.  

PubMed

The human body is not a chemically uncontaminated system. Every simple action that humans undertake, such as drinking water, eating, nursing, and even breathing air, puts the system under environmental xenobiotic exposure stress. Environmental chemicals have been shown to produce unwanted effects on health and remove the right to healthy living, starting from the first encounter in utero to geriatrics, throughout the lifespan. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, important members of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been detected before in human breast milk and also in the adipose tissue of women from different regions of Turkey; however, there was no information about the blood levels of these chemicals. This study generated the first information that evaluates OCP and PCB contamination levels in the blood of the women living in Turkey. The current study measured the blood concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in 58 healthy women (age 20-41 years; mean age 28 years) who were living in Istanbul, Turkey, in the years 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 29 OCPs and 18 PCB congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCB 153 was the predominant congener (643.2 pg/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and PCB 180. 4,4'-DDE (24872.8 pg/g lipid) was the most common organochlorinated pesticide contaminant in studied blood samples. Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds were as follows: ?PCB 2682?±?3300 pg/g lipid; ?DDT 25,938?±?28,644 pg/g lipid; and ?HCH 2930?±?2222 pg/g lipid, respectively. The mean concentration of ?WHOPCB-TEQ was 0.037 pg/g on a lipid basis. This information will be important base data during the assessment of the general health concerns of women, as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans for forthcoming studies. PMID:25701473

Uluta?, Onur Kenan; Çok, Ismet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

2015-03-01

208

Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.  

PubMed

Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and ?-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. PMID:23954213

Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

2014-02-01

209

Occurrence of organochlorine residues in Australian meat.  

PubMed

In spite of several quality control procedures used by Australia to ensure the wholesomeness of export meat, a number of pesticide residue violations were identified in the Australian product exported to the USA in May 1987. The pesticides involved were the organochlorines, dieldrin and heptachlor. The problems were caused by the persistence of organochlorines in soils and their illicit use or contamination of storage facilities. Animals grazing contaminated pasture, ingesting contaminated feed or held in contaminated yards over a period, bioaccumulated residues in their adipose tissues which eventually exceeded maximum residue limits (MRL) and caused violations. Though there was no immediate public health risk, the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) of the Commonwealth Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE), acted expeditiously to determine and eliminate the factors causing these problems, which threatened Australia's beef export industry worth in excess of two billion dollars annually. An overall strategic plan, "The Integrated Action Plan", was formulated and implemented by AQIS with the assistance of the relevant Departments of the States and the Northern Territory (NT), meat processing and export industries and livestock producer bodies. As a result of this action, the likely sources of contamination were identified and controlled. The National Residue Survey (NRS) was enhanced, a National Residue Data Base (NRDB) was established and a centralised computer system interactive with abattoirs, laboratories and animal health authorities developed. The cattle farm identity tail tag system already in place, capable of tracing cattle to the farm of origin was refined and trace back systems for sheep and pigs were utilised.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2344338

Corrigan, P J; Seneviratna, P

1990-02-01

210

Chlorine isotope effects and composition of naturally produced organochlorines from chloroperoxidases, flavin-dependent halogenases, and in forest soil.  

PubMed

The use of stable chlorine isotopic signatures (?(37)Cl) of organochlorine compounds has been suggested as a tool to determine both their origins and transformations in the environment. Here we investigated the ?(37)Cl fractionation of two important pathways for enzymatic natural halogenation: chlorination by chloroperoxidase (CPO) and flavin-dependent halogenases (FDH). Phenolic products of CPO were highly (37)Cl depleted (?(37)Cl = -12.6 ± 0.9‰); significantly more depleted than all known industrially produced organochlorine compounds (?(37)Cl = -7 to +6‰). In contrast, four FDH products did not exhibit any observable isotopic shifts (?(37)Cl = -0.3 ± 0.6‰). We attributed the different isotopic effect to the distinctly different chlorination mechanisms employed by the two enzymes. Furthermore, the ?(37)Cl in bulk organochlorines extracted from boreal forest soils were only slightly depleted in (37)Cl relative to inorganic Cl. In contrast to previous suggestions that CPO plays a key role in production of soil organochlorines, this observation points to the additional involvement of either other chlorination pathways, or that dechlorination of naturally produced organochlorines can neutralize ?(37)Cl shifts caused by CPO chlorination. Overall, this study demonstrates that chlorine isotopic signatures are highly useful to understand sources and cycling of organochlorines in nature. Furthermore, this study presents ?(37)Cl values of FDH products as well of bulk organochlorines extracted from pristine forest soil for the first time. PMID:23320408

Aeppli, Christoph; Bastviken, David; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

2013-07-01

211

Occurrence and possible fate of organochlorine pesticide residues at Manzala Lake in Egypt as a model study.  

PubMed

Persistence of the residue of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) became a great danger to our environment long ago. In this study, the persistence of OCPs at Manzala Lake in Egypt was determined. Four different sites were investigated: the El-Gamel, El-Kowar, El-Rasoah, and Janb El-Timsah regions. Among these, the El-Kowar region had the highest concentration of total OCPs in the sediment samples when compared to other regions during both 2012 and 2013. In fact, generally, the residues of OCPs in the sediment samples were significantly higher in all tested sites in comparison with other compartments. Conversely, OCP residues were undetectable in water samples at both the El-Gamel region and the El-Rasoah site in the studied seasons. The data proved that the sediment layer plays a sourcing role in OCP persistence in the aquatic ecosystem. Data analysis also indicated that there was an external source for OCP contamination in the Manzala Lake ecosystem that most likely comes from Nile Basin countries and which extends the expected half-life of these compounds. It could be exemplified by DDT, the half-life of which increased from 30 to approximately 47 years. PMID:25424498

Kamel, Essam; Moussa, Saad; Abonorag, Mostafa A; Konuk, Muhsin

2015-01-01

212

Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. - Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on breast cancer cell growth. {yields} Weak xenoestrogens in the mixture stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. {yields} Antiandrogens increased the proliferation CAMA-1 cells grown with sex steroids. {yields} High concentrations of the mixture decreased the proliferation of all cell lines.

Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada) [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

2011-04-15

213

Latitudinal patterns of organochlorine contamination in plankton  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that the high Arctic will be the final sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Through evaporation and deposition processes, OCs may move from warm to cool climates with air mass movements. Fundamental questions that remain unanswered are how far north do OCs travel and do the relative proportions of OCs in biota change along a latitudinal gradient? To answer these questions, zooplankton were sampled from a series of lakes along a transect from the Great Lakes (43{degree}N) to Ellesmere Island (85{degree}N). Zooplankton are useful indicators of environmental levels of OCs because they are ubiquitous, easy to sample, and form an integral part of the food chain leading to fish. Moreover, deposition patterns of OCs are more realistically reflected by zooplankton than by higher trophic level organisms because less trophic modification can occur and zooplankton do not, like fish, selectively exclude or metabolize specific OCs. Zooplankton were analyzed for a suite of OC contaminants that encompass a wide range in their respective water solubilities, vapor pressures and k{sub ow} values. Results indicate that the proportions of specific compounds, relative to the total OCs, do change with latitude. In samples from high latitudes, highly volatile compounds are found in higher proportions than compounds with low vapor pressures.

Koening, B.G.; Lean, D.R.S. [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1994-12-31

214

Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples

Paul E. Stackelberg; Edward T. Furlong; Michael T. Meyer; Steven D. Zaugg; Alden K. Henderson; Dori B. Reissman

2004-01-01

215

Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 ?g kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 ?g kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 ?g kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants. PMID:23998305

Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

2013-01-01

216

Global expression profile of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial compounds in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa reveals evidence of persister cells.  

PubMed

Investigations of biofilm resistance response rarely focus on plant-pathogenic bacteria. Since Xylella fastidiosa is a multihost plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilm in the xylem, the behavior of its biofilm in response to antimicrobial compounds needs to be better investigated. We analyzed here the transcriptional profile of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in response to inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of copper and tetracycline. Copper-based products are routinely used to control citrus diseases in the field, while antibiotics are more widely used for bacterial control in mammals. The use of antimicrobial compounds triggers specific responses to each compound, such as biofilm formation and phage activity for copper. Common changes in expression responses comprise the repression of genes associated with metabolic functions and movement and the induction of toxin-antitoxin systems, which have been associated with the formation of persister cells. Our results also show that these cells were found in the population at a ca. 0.05% density under inhibitory conditions for both antimicrobial compounds and that pretreatment with subinhibitory concentration of copper increases this number. No previous report has detected the presence of these cells in X. fastidiosa population, suggesting that this could lead to a multidrug tolerance response in the biofilm under a stressed environment. This is a mechanism that has recently become the focus of studies on resistance of human-pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics and, based on our data, it seems to be more broadly applicable. PMID:22730126

Muranaka, Lígia S; Takita, Marco A; Olivato, Jacqueline C; Kishi, Luciano T; de Souza, Alessandra A

2012-09-01

217

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum and their relation with age, gender, and BMI for the general population of Bizerte, Tunisia.  

PubMed

Human serum samples (n?=?113) from Bizerte, northern Tunisia, collected between 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor and 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners. Concentrations of these residues in serum were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and total cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TG) levels were evaluated by enzymatic colorimetric method. HCB, p,p'-DDE, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180, were the most abundant organochlorine compounds (OCs) detected in >95 % of the study subjects. The mean levels of p,p'-DDE and HCB in serum were 168.8 and 49.1 ng?g(-1) lipid, respectively. The sum PCBs concentrations ranged from 37.5 to 284.6 ng?g(-1) lipid in the samples, with mean and median value of 136.1 and 123.2 ng?g(-1) lipid, respectively. The PCB profile consisted of persistent congeners, such as PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 which contributed for approximately 82.7 % to the ?PCBs. Statistical analysis showed that most OCs correlated significantly with age, considering all samples together or with gender differentiation. The present study shows that the levels of p,p'-DDE and ?DDTs were significantly higher in females than in males (p?organochlorine pesticide or PCB congeners 153, 138, 180, or ?PCBs. PMID:23338993

Ben Hassine, Sihem; Hammami, Bechir; Ben Ameur, Walid; El Megdiche, Yassine; Barhoumi, Badriddine; El Abidi, Rached; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

2014-05-01

218

[Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in soils in Poland].  

PubMed

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, HCBz and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 59 soil samples collected in Poland in 1990-1994 to understand the scale of contamination, spatial distribution and sources of these compounds. Identification and quantification of organochlorines were carried out using HRGC-ECD (63Ni) and HRGC-LRMS. All soil samples were contaminated by DDTs, PCBs and HCHs, while HCBz and CHLs were absent in a few samples. DDTs dominated as organochlorine residues in Polish soil and on the concentration of other insecticides was two orders of magnitude lower. Percentage composition of DDTs (about 60% of p,p'-DDT) indicates a very slow metabolism of DDT in Polish soils. Spatial distribution of HCHs in Poland is similar to distribution of DDTs, while HCBz and CHLs are rather evenly distributed. PCBs concentrations in soil of the Former Soviet Union Army Base are 10 times higher then in urban soils, and 100 times higher then in cultivated and forests soils. PMID:10846932

Kawano, M; Brudnowska, B; Falandysz, J; Wakimoto, T

2000-01-01

219

Monitoring and remediation of organochlorine residues in water.  

PubMed

This study monitored the presence of organochlorines in drinking water in Kafr-El-Sheikh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem, and Metobess in the Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (i.e., lindane) in drinking water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine residues at all water sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorines in water. Nano photo-Fenton-like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drinking water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms removed 100% of the initial concentration of lindane after 23 days of treatment. The study found that there is no remaining toxicity of lindane-contaminated water after remediation on treated rats relative to the control with respect to histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Therefore, AOPs, particularly those with nanomaterials and bioremediation, can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies for lindane in water. PMID:25112026

Derbalah, Aly; Ismail, Ahmed; Hamza, Amany; Shaheen, Sabry

2014-07-01

220

Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in New World Passerines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticide contaminants detrimentally affect wildlife in many ways, including lowered reproductive success, endocrine disruption, and embryonic defects. Most organochlorine pesticides have been banned in the United States after the recognition of these effects. However, these pesticides are still used in Central and South America, and little information is available concerning the levels of pesticide contamination in wildlife from these

Tyler A. Sager

1997-01-01

221

Organochlorine residues in adult mallard and black duck wings, 1981-1982.  

PubMed

Ten organochlorine compounds were identified in pools of black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) wings from the 1981-82 hunting season. Most organochlorine compounds occurred very infrequently. Among those compounds positively identified by mass spectrometry, DDE and, secondarily, PCB had the highest frequencies of occurrence. Other compounds, positively identified and occurring less frequently, included DDT, DDD, DDMU, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, cis-chlordane and mirex. Compounds looked for but not positively identified include oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, endrin, hexachlorobenzene and toxaphene. PCB levels in black duck wings declined between the 1979-80 and 1981-82 collections. PCB levels in black duck wings from the northern region of the Atlantic Flyway were higher than those in wings from the southern region. Mean DDE residues in mallard wings declined between collections and differed among flyways and regions. PCB levels in mallard wings differed only among flyways and regions. PMID:24254543

Prouty, R M; Bunck, C M

1986-01-01

222

Residues of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Eggs of Water Birds from Tai Lake in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of water birds from the colony on Tai Lake in China were studied. The eggs were collected in 2000 and belonged to the following species: 65 samples of black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), 36 samples of little egret (Egretta garzetta), 26 samples of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) from 13 clutches and 43 samples

Y. H. Dong; H. Wang; Q. An; X. Ruiz; M. Fasola; Y. M. Zhang

2004-01-01

223

Organochlorine pesticide residues associated with mortality: Additivity of chlordane and endrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality may be correlated with residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in the brains of exposed animals. Experimental studies have compared brain residues of animals that died with those of survivors of id› or similar exposure. Based on the results of such studies, lethal residue levels that may be used for diagnostic purposes have been established for some compounds. DALE et

J. Larry Ludke

1976-01-01

224

Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring gulls and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring gulls. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring gulls, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring gulls. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants. PMID:8880006

Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P

1996-01-01

225

Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from Chicago, Illinois.  

PubMed

Breast muscle samples, with or without overlying adipose tissue and skin, were obtained from Canada geese collected in northeastern illinois while undergoing feather molt. Specimens were evaluated for contaminant concentrations to determine if they would be acceptable as human food provided through government-subsidized programs. Samples were baked, allowing fat to drip free, and assayed for persistent organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. Residues of heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, DDE and PCBs (as Arochlor 1248) were detected. The specimens contained relatively low concentrations of contaminants, such that US Department of Agriculture residue limits for meat were exceeded in only 1 sample. Baking of breast muscle without the overlying skin and adipose tissue resulted in reductions in concentrations of detectable compounds. Fewer samples baked with the skin attached had detectable concentrations of heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and PCB then samples cooked without skin; however, the converse was true for DDE. Periodic monitoring for environmental contaminants such as PCBs, exclusion of geese from localities where samples have contaminants such as PCBs, exclusion of geese from localities where samples have contaminants at concentrations that exceed recommended dietary limits, the use of processing and/or cooking methods which remove large amounts of lipid, and advisories that provide information on known health risks are recommended if wild resident Canada geese from the Chicago area are provided as food for underprivileged humans. PMID:10192133

Levengood, J M; Ross, S C; Stahl, M L; Beasley, V R

1999-04-01

226

Inflation Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the concept of inflation persistence in macroeconomic theory. It begins by defining persistence — emphasizing the difference between reduced-form and structural persistence. It then examines a number of empirical measures of reduced-form persistence, considering the possibility that persistence may have changed over time. The chapter then examines the theoretical sources of persistence, distinguishing “intrinsic” from “inherited” persistence,

Jeffrey C. Fuhrer

2010-01-01

227

Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74.  

PubMed

Eighty-six bald eagles found sick or dead during 1973-74 in 24 States were analyzed for organochlorine compounds. DDE was detected in all caracasses; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were found in all but two. Seventy-five carcasses contained TDE and/or dieldrin. Four eagles had possibly lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain. Bald eagles continue to retain high residue levels of organochlorine pollutants. Illegal shooting remained the most common cause of death but accounted for a smaller percentage of the mortalities than in the two previous biennial collections. PMID:416416

Prouty, R M; Reichel, W L; Locke, L N; Belisle, A A; Cromartie, E; Kaiser, T E; Lamont, T G; Mulhern, B M; Swineford, D M

1977-12-01

228

The incidence of polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in the eggs of the cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis): an evaluation of the situation in four Greek wetlands of international importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributed to identifying the current levels of organochlorine pollutants in four Greek wetlands of international importance (the Evros and Axios Deltas, and Kerkini and Prespa Lakes), using the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis as a suitable bioindicator in a region where such information is scarce. Residue levels of eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 13 organochlorine pesticide (OC) compounds

I. K. Konstantinou; V. Goutner; T. A. Albanis

2000-01-01

229

Recent trends in organochlorine residues in mussels ( Mytilus edulis) from the Mersey Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) taken from several sites in the Mersey Estuary, an urban-industrial water body in NW England, have been analyzed for residues of the persistent organochlorines, DDT, PCB congeners nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 (ICES7), and ?-MHCH (?-methyl hexachlorocyclohexane). The concentration range for ?PCB (ICES7) was 13.9–34.9 ?g kg?1 in 1994 compared with 9.6–31.9

L Connor; M. S Johnson; D Copplestone; R. T Leah

2001-01-01

230

Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (? -HCH, ? -HCH, ? -HCH, p,p?-DDT, o,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDD, p,p?-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras,

Carolina Lourencetti; Rodrigo Favoreto; Mary R. R. Marchi; Maria L. Ribeiro

2007-01-01

231

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Adipose Tissues of Korean Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on residue levels and accumulation profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human adipose tissues of Korean\\u000a populations are scarce. In this study, concentrations and accumulation features of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine\\u000a pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in adipose tissues of Korean women age 40–68 years.\\u000a The highest concentrations were found for PCBs and DDTs, which

Hyo-Bang MoonDuk-Hee; Duk-Hee Lee; Yoon Soon Lee; Minkyu Choi; Hee-Gu Choi; Kurunthachalam Kannan

232

Persistent Organochlorine Exposure and Pregnancy Loss: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) are suspected reproductive toxicants. We assessed serum concentration of 76 PCB congeners, DDE, and risk of human chorionic gonadotropin confirmed pregnancy loss among 79 women followed for up to 12 menstrual cycles or until pregnancy. 55 women had live births, 14 experienced pregnancy losses, and 10 did not achieve pregnancy. PCBs and DDE were quantified using gas chromatography with electron capture. PCBs were grouped a priori by biologic activity. Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting for age (categorized 24 – 29, 30 – 34) and average standardized alcohol and cigarette intake (continuous) was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of pregnancy loss. Estrogenic PCBs (HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 0.68, 4.02), anti-estrogenic PCBs (HR = 0.10, 95% CI: <0.01, 67.07) and DDE (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.45, 4.52) were not statistically significantly associated with pregnancy loss. Our results provide some signal that estrogenic and antiestrogenic PCBs may be differentially associated with pregnancy loss. Further research is needed to elucidate these associations. PMID:22140635

Pollack, Anna Z.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.

2011-01-01

233

Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine contaminants in white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blubber was collected from live-captured, adult male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway, and analysed for levels and patterns of organochlorine (OC) contaminants. The OC compounds analysed were HCB, dieldrin, ?HCH (?-HCH, ?-HCH and ?-HCH), ?Chl (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, and cis-nonachlor), ?DDT (pp?-DDT, pp?-DDE and pp?-DDD) and ?PCB (27 PCB congeners). The major OC compounds detected in

G Andersen; K. M Kovacs; C Lydersen; J. U Skaare; I Gjertz; B. M Jenssen

2001-01-01

234

Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

1981-01-01

235

Distribution and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from four lakes of Heilongjiang Province, China.  

PubMed

There is growing concern for the lake environment because polluted sediments may cause ecotoxicological effects. In the current study, persistent organochlorine compounds (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and cyclodienes, were analyzed in core sediments taken from Huoshaohei Lake, Xihulu Lake, Wanghua Lake and Keqin Lake, Heilongjiang Province, China. The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 0.92 to 7.09, 0.15 to 9.95, 0.19 to 1.84 and 0.06 to 3.52 ng/g, respectively. The most dominant pollutants were the HCHs, high proportions of ?-HCH isomer indicating the recent input of lindane. The ratios of ?-HCH/?-HCH of four lakes are all lower than that in technical HCH mixtures indicating that there was input of lindane in the past several years, and the mean ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs are all <0.5, suggesting recent release of DDT compounds. Compared with the corresponding ecological environmental quality guidelines from Ingersoll and base on the model of risk based corrective action environmental health risk assessment, the sediments from the four lakes poses a lower potential hazard to human health and the environment but still should be taken into account. PMID:24420623

Hui, Hongkuan; Zang, Shuying

2014-05-01

236

Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the Aleutian Islands and Bristol Bay. However, within some species there were exceptions to this general pattern, and mean concentrations of most chemicals differed from one site to another within the same region.Among eggs of species collected in two or more regions, residue frequencies were highest in those of the fork-tailed storm-petrel, tufted puffin (Lunda cirrhata), horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata), pelagic cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), and northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), and lowest in those of common murre (Uria aalge), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia).On a regional basis, mean concentrations of DDE and PCB's varied significantly among species, but there were few consistent patterns of species differences, except that levels of DDE were always lowest in black-legged kittiwakes and concentrations of PCB's were usually lowest in murres. Also, concentrations of both chemicals (except PCB's in the Gulf of Alaska) were usually higher in northern fulmars than in other species, and the highest concentrations of both DDE and PCB's found in this study were in glaucous-winged gulls in the Aleutian Islands.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

1982-01-01

237

Organochlorine pesticide residues in fish from southern Italian rivers  

SciTech Connect

Extensive use of pesticides in agricultural and municipal fields contributed all over the world to an effective increase of production and to a limitation of the vector injuries to health. However the large quantities of synthetic chemical products employed to achieve these purposes have resulted in an extended environmental pollution, especially worrying about the organochlorine insecticides that are very persistent and suspected of carcinogenicity. For these reasons, this group of pesticides has been banned or strongly restricted in many countries including Italy, where just Lindane and Endosulfan are now allowed in agriculture, representing only 7% of the annual use of synthetic pesticides. In order to control the amount of contamination of surface water from organochlorine pesticides, some surveys were carried out in northern and central Italy, but information regarding situation in southern Italy is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and the magnitude of chlorinated pesticide aquatic pollution in southern Italy by the analysis of some permanent freshwater fish species.

Amodio-Cocchieri, R.; Arnese, A.

1988-02-01

238

Comparison and analysis of organochlorine pesticides and hexabromobiphenyls in environmental samples by gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two analytical methods, gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS), were evaluated and compared for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants, specifically for 26 organochlorine pesticides and two hexabromobiphenyls, in atmospheric particulate matter and soil samples. The hypothesis tested was that the coelution of non-target compounds may lead to false positives when analyzed by GC-ECD, and that the overestimation associated with these false positives can be eliminated using GC-NCI-MS. The study showed that both methods had satisfactory linearity and reproducibility for the target compounds. Although the sensitivities of GC-ECD for most of the compounds investigated were higher than those observed with the GC-NCI-MS method, the matrices interference was obvious with GC-ECD. There was indeed an apparently high false-positive rate or overestimate when GC-ECD was used for environmental samples, implying that the GC-ECD method has been used with care and that GC-NCI-MS is generally superior for the analysis of trace amounts of these compounds in environmental samples. Based on these results, the sample extraction and cleanup procedures of the GC-NCI-MS method were optimized for achieving acceptable recoveries and less matrices interference. PMID:24872522

Liu, Yu; Fu, Xiaofang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Liang; Li, Wei; Meng, Bingjun

2015-02-01

239

Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in soils from the southern part of Poland.  

PubMed

Surface soil and sediment samples collected from the cities of Kraków, Katowice, and Chorzow in 1993-94 were analyzed to determine the residual levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (HCB, HCHs, DDTs, CHLs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Detection, identification, and quantification were made after a two-step clean-up and fractionation of sample extract with concentrated sulfuric acid and Florisil gel, followed by capillary gas chromatography with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD) or a mass selective detector (GC-LRMS). The soil from the city of Katowice is relatively more polluted, mainly by PCBs but also by the other organochlorines. Both the soil in the cities of Kraków and Katowice are more polluted by organochlorines than soil from many other places in Poland. The residual concentrations of the organochlorines indicated nonexistence of the domestic sources of pollution by CHLs and elevated local contamination with PCBs. Sediment contained PCBs and CHLs in much higher concentrations than found in soil. In the case of DDTs, HCHs and HCB, the concentrations were of the same order of magnitude. Composition of DDT metabolites and of HCH isomers were investigated in detail. PMID:11243318

Falandysz, J; Brudnowska, B; Kawano, M; Wakimoto, T

2001-02-01

240

Organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue in Spain: Study of an agrarian area  

SciTech Connect

The environmental pollution by persistent organochlorine residues has received much attention in the last years because of its possible effects on wildlife and human health. These residues - organochlorine insecticides, hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in minor levels, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) - are accumulated in lipid-rich tissues. Their concentrations in adipose tissues of human populations are the best indices in determining the extent of exposure and in evaluating the hazard. In a previous study on the urban population of Barcelona (Spain) during the years 1982-83, high levels of DDE, DDT, /beta/-HCH and HCB were determined. Recently the incidence of HCB in Barcelona has been confirmed by serum determinations. In the present paper the authors have investigated the levels of organochlorine residues - with special concern on HCB- in human adipose tissues from an agrarian area, located at 130 km from Barcelona, mainly devoted to fruit-trees and cereal culture. Results obtained will form part of an up-to-date report on organochlorine pollution in Spain, including several populations of different geographical and socioeconomic characteristics, that will make it possible to identify the sources and trends of this contamination.

Camps, M.; Planas, J.; Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Corbella, J.

1989-02-01

241

Intra- and inter-species differences in persistent organic contaminants in the blubber of blue whales and humpback whales from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.  

PubMed

Biopsy samples of blubber from adult male and female blue whales, and from female and young-of-the-year humpback whales were collected during the summers of 1992-1999 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In blue whales, concentrations of 25 PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites and several other organochlorine compounds were present at higher concentrations in the blubber of males relative to females; reflecting maternal transfer of these persistent contaminants from females into young. Sex-related differences in concentrations were not observed with less persistent contaminants, such as HCHs. In humpback whale samples, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine compounds in the blubber of females and calves. These data indicate that calves quickly bioaccumulate contaminants by transplacental and lactational routes to concentrations that are in equilibrium with females. In comparisons between contaminant concentrations and patterns in the blubber of female blue and humpback whales, there were no significant differences in concentrations, but the proportions of some PCB congeners, HCH isomers, and DDT and its metabolites were different in the two baleen whale species. These may reflect differences in the diet of the two species, since fish comprise a large part of the diet of humpback whales and blue whales feed exclusively on euphausiid crustaceans (i.e. krill). PMID:14749058

Metcalfe, Chris; Koenig, Brenda; Metcalfe, Tracy; Paterson, Gordon; Sears, Richard

2004-05-01

242

Distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides along the Black Sea coast.  

PubMed

Sediment, mussel, and seawater samples were collected three times during 2001-2003 at nine sampling stations along the mid-Black Sea coast of Turkey. The samples were analyzed with GC-ECD for contents of various organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the environment. DDT and its metabolites were detected at concentrations significantly above the detection limits. The highest concentrations of DDT metabolites measured in the sediment and mussel samples were 35.9 and 14.0 ng/g wet weight respectively. Considerable levels of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, endosulfan sulphate, and HCB were also detected in the sediment, mussel, or seawater samples. Although these persistent toxic compounds have been banned for some years in Turkey, they may still be used illegally in some regions, contributing to their significant levels in the environment. The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) estimated for DDT and its metabolites in mussels was 2.9, which is nearly two times higher than the benchmark of 1.7. In spite of such high BSAF values observed for these toxic compounds, their levels in mussels were significantly below the international legal limits recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Edible biota from the waterbodies examined may thus still be considered safe for human consumption at this time. However, as pollutants can biomagnify through the food chain over time, further routine sampling and analysis of biota along the Black Sea coast are warranted in order to better assess the threat of OCPs to public health in the region. PMID:17203369

Ozkoc, Hülya Boke; Bakan, Gulfem; Ariman, Sema

2007-02-01

243

Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons.  

PubMed

Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain. PMID:6793997

Ohlendorf, H M; Swineford, D M; Locke, L N

1981-03-01

244

Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

1981-01-01

245

Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Milk from Central Italy: Levels and Time Trends  

PubMed Central

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as HCB, p,p?-DDE, and PCBs were measured in Italian breast milk. This work is part of a study on human milk, adipose tissues, and food carried out in the same area over the last 20 years. The results showed the prevalence of p,p?-DDE and PCBs over HCB. Comparison of our results with those of previous studies carried out in the same area showed that concentrations are decreasing. No statistically significant differences in organochlorine levels were found when the samples were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories “primiparae” and “multiparae”. In order to quantify the amount of the molecules of interest transmitted by mother to child during breast feeding, we estimated the daily intake of each class of compounds: our results indicated that HCB and p,p?-DDE were several times lower than the safety thresholds. PMID:23724278

Guerranti, Cristiana; Palmieri, Michela; Mariottini, Michela; Focardi, Silvano Ettore

2011-01-01

246

Persistent organic pollutants and semen quality: The LIFE Study.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that persistent environmental chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls may adversely affect human fecundity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples discontinuing contraception for purposes of becoming pregnant. Men provided a blood specimen and two fresh semen samples collected approximately a month apart that underwent next day analysis for 35 semen quality endpoints. Serum samples were analyzed for 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners #18, 28, 44, 49, 52, 66, 74, 87, 99, 101, 114, 118, 128, 138, 146, 149, 151, 153, 156, 157, 167, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, 183, 187, 189, 194, 195, 196, 201, 206, 209); 1 polybrominated biphenyl (#153); 9 organochlorine pesticides; and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners #17, 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154183) using high resolution mass spectrometry. To estimate the effect of chemicals on semen quality, we regressed each semen marker on each chemical while adjusting for research site, age, body mass index, serum lipids, and cotinine levels. Males with chemical concentrations in the fourth quartile, as compared to the first quartile, showed significant associations for several individual chemicals in each chemical class and type of semen quality parameter indicating negative and positive associations with semen quality. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in particular were associated with several measures of increased abnormal morphology. These exploratory results highlight the role of environmental influences on male fecundity, and are of particular interest given the ubiquitous exposures to these compounds. PMID:25441930

Mumford, Sunni L; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Gore-Langton, Robert E; Boyd Barr, Dana; Buck Louis, Germaine M

2014-11-28

247

Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine contaminants in marine turtles  

E-print Network

Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine contaminants in marine turtles from Mediterranean (CBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in marine turtle tissues collected from the Mediterranean in loggerhead (Caretta carretta), green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles

Exeter, University of

248

An overview of exposure to, and effects of, petroleum oil and organochlorine pollution in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus).  

PubMed

Most incidences involving oil pollution of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) seem to have occurred at the breeding sites. Because of the high concentration of animals at this time, even small oil spills will pollute many animals. As a result of chronic low-level pollution from coastal ship traffic and discharges from offshore petroleum activity in the North Sea, approximately 50% of the grey seal pups at the largest breeding colony in Norway are polluted each year by oil. In this case, as well as in other similar cases of spills at breeding colonies, oil has produced little visible disturbance to the seals behaviour and there has been little mortality. The effects and mortality may, however, be more serious following a spill of crude oil, where animals may be affected by inhalation of toxic volatile compounds. High body burdens of PCBs and DDTs seem to have caused skull-bone lesions and occlusions of the uteri in grey seals in the Baltic Sea. Exposure to these persistent compounds has also been suspected to be the cause of reduction in the population of Baltic grey seals. There are indications that thyroid hormone and vitamin A status of grey seal pups are affected by the low exposure concentrations experienced at the Norwegian coast (approximately 1/20 of the concentration detected in grey seal pups from the Baltic Sea). This gives serious cause for concern about the effects that chronic low-level exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants may have on individuals and on populations of grey seals. PMID:8685703

Jenssen, B M

1996-07-16

249

Scavenging amphipods: sentinels for penetration of mercury and persistent organic chemicals into food webs of the deep Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075 to 4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983 and 1998, were analyzed for total mercury (?Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median ?Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g(-1) ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of ?Hg. ?Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (?Hg r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n = 63; MeHg r(2) = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n = 25), but not significantly with ?(13)C nor ?(15)N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750 to 156,000 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with order of abundance: ?TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > ?PCBs > ?DDTs > ?chlordanes > ?mirex compounds > ?BDEs ? ?chlorobenzenes ? octachlorostyrene > ?-hexachlorocyclohexane ? hexachlorobenzene ? pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ?10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologues, whereas profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences. PMID:23627492

Bidleman, Terry F; Stern, Gary A; Tomy, Gregg T; Hargrave, Barry T; Jantunen, Liisa M; Macdonald, Robie W

2013-06-01

250

Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod)

K Borgå; G. W Gabrielsen; J. U Skaare

2001-01-01

251

Hexachlorocyclohexane: persistence, toxicity and decontamination.  

PubMed

Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), a persistent organochlorine insecticide, has been extensively used in the past for control of agricultural pests and vector borne diseases. The use of HCH has indeed accrued benefits, however the unusual production of the insecticidal isomer; ?-HCH (lindane) and unregulated disposal of HCH muck has created various dumpsites all over the world, leading to serious environmental concerns. HCH isomers have been ranked as possible human carcinogens and endocrine disruptors with proven teratogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects, hence making its decontamination mandatory. Efforts in this direction have led to the isolation of various HCH degrading bacteria from the dumpsites, reflecting their role in HCH bioremediation. This review summarizes the problem of environmental persistence of HCH isomers along with their toxicity and possible solutions for their decontamination. PMID:24622782

Nayyar, Namita; Sangwan, Naseer; Kohli, Puneet; Verma, Helianthous; Kumar, Roshan; Negi, Vivek; Oldach, Phoebe; Mahato, Nitish Kumar; Gupta, Vipin; Lal, Rup

2014-01-01

252

Organochlorine residues in woodcock wings, 11 states--1970-71  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A survey of organochlorine residues in woodcock wings was undertaken to determine whether these wings are suitable for showing regional differences in residues and to obtain a baseline in 1970-71 for later comparisons. Woodcock wings were obtained from the annual hunter's wing survey. Samples came from eight States (Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin) and one tri-State area (North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia). Wings from the tri-State area contained significantly higher (P<0.01) concentrations of DDT (including DDT, DDD, and DDE) than those from other States. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) also were significantly higher (P<0.05) in samples from these three States. Wings from Louisiana and the tri-State area had significantly higher (P<0.01) concentrations of dieldrin than wings from the other States, and those from Louisiana had significantly higher (P < 0.01) concentrations of mirex than those from other States. (Residues are on lipid base) The compounds detected and the ranges of residue means for all sampling areas were as follows: Total DDT (5.89--65.15 ppm); DDT (0.34 m--14.93 ppm); DDE (4.66--47.47 ppm); DDD (0.11--3.44 ppm); mirex (0.76--16.93 ppm); dieldrin (0.09--3.06 ppm); and PCB's (4.27--8.63 ppm). Woodcock wings appear to be suitable for determining regional differences in organochlorine residues in this species.

McLane, M.A.R.; Stickel, L.F.; Clark, E.R.; Hughes, D.L.

1973-01-01

253

Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada). National Wildlife Research Centre; Weseloh, D.V. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

254

Organochlorine exposure and bioaccumulation in the endangered northwest Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) population  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to toxicants is one factor hypothesized to influence population growth of the northern right whale. Organochlorines in right whale skin, feces, and prey were measured and used to identify factors influencing exposure and bioaccumulation. Concentrations of 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 20 pesticides in skin biopsies were consistent with other baleenopterids. Concentrations in feces and prey were two orders of magnitude less than in biopsies. In principal component analysis, organochlorines in biopsies matched those from Bay of Fundy, Canada, zooplankton, whereas feces were like Cape Cod, USA, copepods. Year of biopsy collection was the principal factor associated with differential accumulation of nonmetabolizable PCBs, 4,4{prime}-DDE, and dieldrin. Biopsies collected during winter had lower concentrations of lipid and metabolizable compounds than biopsies collected during summer. Concentrations of metabolizable PCBs increased with age in males. The bioaccumulation patterns implied that blubber burdens change annually because of the ingestion of different prey or prey from distinct locations and the release of some organochlorines stored in blubber during lipid depletion in winter. Because biopsy concentrations were lower than those found in marine mammals affected by PCBs and DDTs, the authors do not have evidence that the endangered whales bioaccumulate hazardous concentrations of organochlorines.

Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

2000-03-01

255

Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

1982-01-01

256

Use of Fatty Acids to Explain Variability of Organochlorine Concentrations in Eggs and Plasma of Common Terns ( Sterna hirundo )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the breeding parameters, organochlorine compounds (OCs) concentrations, and fatty acid (FA) composition of egg yolks (n = 47) and plasma (n = 90) of common terns (Sterna hirundo) from two colonies (Banya and Fangar) in the Ebro delta, NE Spain. Terns from Banya tend to have smaller clutch size and lower hatching success than terns from Fangar.

Rafael Mateo; Càrol Gil; Montserrat Badia-Vila; Raimon Guitart; Antonio Hernández-Matías; Carola Sanpera; Xavier Ruiz

2004-01-01

257

INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE US: FOUR STUDIES, SIX STATES AND TWENTY YEARS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pesticides used to control indoor pests have transitioned across the chemicals classes of organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds from the 1980's to the present. This work summarizes the pesticide concentrations measured from the indoor air of homes from four st...

258

Certain organochlorine and organobromine contaminants in Swedish human milk in perspective of past 20–30 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations of organochlorine compounds in breast milk from women living in the Stockholm region started in 1967. The present study summarises the investigations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), naphthalenes (PCNs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and pesticides (DDT, DDE, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin) as well as methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs and DDE in human milk sampled during different periods

Koidu Norén; Daiva Meironyté

2000-01-01

259

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has

D. Pastor; C. Sanpera; J. González-Sol??s; X. Ruiz; J. Albaigés

2004-01-01

260

Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the North Pacific Ocean). OCs were detected in livers of all of the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed, supporting the thesis that there is widespread contamination of persistent OCs in the marine environment. Within a location, no significant relationship between growth-stage (body length and weight) and OC concentrations (lipid weight basis) was observed, and the OC residue levels were rather uniform among the individuals. Interestingly, the distribution of OC concentrations in skipjack tuna was similar to those in surface seawaters from which they were taken. These results suggest that OC concentrations in skipjack tuna could reflect the pollution levels in seawater from which they are collected and that this species is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of OCs in offshore waters and the open ocean. Concentrations of PCBs and CHLs in skipjack tuna were higher in offshore waters around Japan (up to 1100 and 250 ng/g lipid wt, respectively), suggesting the presence of sources of PCBs and CHLs in Japan. High concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were observed in samples from the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal (up to 1300 and 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively). This result suggests recent use of technical DDT and HCH for agricultural and/or public health purposes in Russia, China, India, and some other developing Asian countries. Relatively high concentrations of PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, and HCB were also observed in samples collected from some locations in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, indicating the expansion of OC contamination on a global scale. Considering these facts, continuous studies monitoring these compounds in offshore waters and the open seas, using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator, are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination. PMID:14674591

Ueno, D; Takahashi, S; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Nakata, H; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K H; Tanabe, S

2003-10-01

261

Organochlorine Pollutants and Stable Isotopes in Resident and Migrant Passerine Birds from Northwest Michoacán, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased\\u000a over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during\\u000a migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering\\u000a area for many species. The

Miguel A. Mora

2008-01-01

262

Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet’s crocodile ( Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-viable eggs of Morelet’s crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n=24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and

Ted H Wu; Thomas R Rainwater; Steven G Platt; Scott T McMurry; Todd A Anderson

2000-01-01

263

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively

Ross J. Norstrom; Mary Simon; Derek C. G. Muir; Ray E. Schweinsburg

1988-01-01

264

Organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in ground water and surface waters of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey undertaken in Kanpur, northern India, has shown the presence of high concentrations of both organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in the surface and ground water samples. Liquid–liquid extraction followed by GC-ECD was used for the determination of these compounds. Among the various pesticides analyzed, high concentrations of ?-HCH (0.259 ?g\\/l) and malathion (2.618 ?g\\/l) were detected in the surface

Nalini Sankararamakrishnan; Ajit Kumar Sharma; Rashmi Sanghi

2005-01-01

265

Residual levels and identify possible sources of organochlorine pesticides in Korea atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nationwide monitoring program was established in 2008 to monitor of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Korea. Under this program, it was observed air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 37 sites from January to October of 2008, to determine the residue levels and identify possible sources in Korea atmosphere. Samples of OCPs including HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide were collected with high volume air sampler and analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The concentrations were in the range of 41.2-344.3 pg m -3 for HCB, ND-47.55 pg m -3 for DDTs (sum of p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD), ND-38.97 pg m -3 for chlordanes (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane), ND-9.19 pg m -3 for heptachlors (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide) and ND-4.32 pg m -3 for dieldrin. The predominant compound in air was HCB. However, HCB itself has not ever been registered and used as a pesticide in Korea. The elevated concentration of HCB in Korea might be contributed to geographical location and long range transport. For DDTs, it was found that no more fresh input occurred recently and technical type DDTs was prevailing in Korea. Higher concentration of chlordane was observed in winter, which was contributed to the fresh input technical chlordane and long range transport. Relatively lower levels of heptachlor and dieldrin despite much more consumption than other pesticides were resulted from shorter half-lives in environment.

Park, Jin Soo; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Woo Il; Kim, Byung Hoon

2011-12-01

266

Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

Stewart, A.R.; Stern, G.A.; Lockhart, W.L.; Kidd, K.A.; Salki, A.G.; Stainton, M.P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G.B.; Savoie, D.A.; Billeck, B.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Muir, D.C.G.

2003-01-01

267

Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in mountain soils from Tajikistan.  

PubMed

The concentrations and spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface soils of different altitudes (570–4656 m) from Tajikistan were determined. OCPs were detected in all samples with concentrations in the range 52.83–247.98 ng g(-1) dry weight (ng g(-1) dw). Aldrins were the most predominant compounds followed by chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and endosulfans, while dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and methoxychlor were detected at much lower concentrations. Composition analysis indicated that OCPs mainly came from the atmospheric transport of historically used pesticides. OCP residues in the west and northwest parts of Tajikistan were higher than the east and the southeast due to the proximity to the potential sources and anthropogenic activity intensities around. Additionally, correlation analysis between OCPs and altitudes indicated that the more volatile pollutants, such as HCH isomers, seemed to become enriched more easily in regions with higher altitudes relative to the less volatile ones, such as DDTs. PMID:23738359

Zhao, Zhonghua; Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu; Zhang, Lu

2013-03-01

268

Seasonal and temporal trends in polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in East Greenland polar bears ( Ursus maritimus), 1990–2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs)) were determined in adipose tissue of 92 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled between 1999 and 2001 in central East Greenland (69°00?N to 74°00?N). OC data were presented from subadults (S: females: ×5 years and males: ×6 years), adult females (F: ×5 years) and adult males (M: ×6

R. Dietz; F. F. Riget; C. Sonne; R. Letcher; E. W. Born; D. C. G. Muir

2004-01-01

269

Environmental fate and behavior of persistent organic pollutants in Shergyla Mountain, southeast of the Tibetan Plateau of China.  

PubMed

Pristine mountains are ideal settings to study transport and behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along gradients of climate and land cover. The present work investigated the concentrations and patterns of 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 25 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) isomers in the air of the Shergyla Mountain, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Endosulfan ?, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes and dichlorodibenzotrichloroethane and its degradation products (DDTs) were the predominant compounds while PBDEs and HBCDs showed the lowest background concentrations. Most of the target POPs had significantly higher concentrations in summer than those in winter. Increasing trends of the concentrations of DDTs and endosulfan were found with increasing altitude on the western slope in the Shergyla Mountain. Potential forest filter effect was observed based on the lower air concentrations of the target POPs in the forest than the ones out of the forest. PMID:24842382

Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

2014-08-01

270

Determinants of organochlorine levels detectable in the amniotic fluid of women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain).  

PubMed

Organochlorines (OCs) tend to accumulate in human tissues and can be measured in amniotic fluid (AF). The detection of OCs in AF samples reflects intrauterine exposure of human beings to these persistent organic pollutants. The present study was performed to evaluate the level of contamination of AF by OCs in 100 pregnant women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes, including 7 polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners and 18 OC pesticides and metabolites. The majority of the AF samples (67%) showed some detectable OC-residue, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) being the most frequently detected compound (66% of the samples) and at the highest concentration (median 0.023 ng/ml). Lindane was also detected in 28% of the samples. Inverse associations were found between previous lactation and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH) and cyclodienes in the group of younger women (p = 0.037 and p = 0.027, respectively). Unexpectedly, serum values of HCB (r = -0.414; p = 0.04), gamma-HCH (r = -0.294; p = 0.035), and SigmaOCs (r = -0.350; p = 0.014) were negatively related to age. Even more, women with detectable levels of HCH isomers were younger (33.9 +/- 4.9 years) than women with undetectable levels of them (36.1 +/- 4.9 years; p = 0.035). We conclude that approximately one in two fetuses in the Canary Islands is exposed to OCs in utero, and that, therefore, the exposure of young women from these Islands to some HCH isomers persists nowadays. Because prenatal exposure to these chemicals may be a causative factor in adverse health trends, further studies are required to enhance preventive measures. PMID:19403124

Luzardo, Octavio P; Mahtani, Vikesh; Troyano, Juan M; Alvarez de la Rosa, Margarita; Padilla-Pérez, Ana I; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida, Maira; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Boada, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

2009-07-01

271

Nationwide residues of organochlorines in starlings, 1974  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from 126 collection sites were monitored during the fall of 1974. DDE, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and benzene hexachloride were present in all samples. Dieldrin, heptachlor expoxide, hexachlorobenzene, and oxychlordane were present in approximately 97% of the samples. DDE, dieldrin, and PCB residues in starlings were significantly lower than they had been in 1972.

White, D.H.

1976-01-01

272

Effects of urbanization and long-term rainfall on the occurrence of organic compounds and trace elements in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue from the Santa Ana River basin, California, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organcochlorine compounds, semivolatile-organic compounds (SVOC), and trace elements were analyzed in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue in the Santa Ana River Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Three reservoirs were sampled in areas that have different degrees of urbanization. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected at 12 sites were divided into two groups, urban and nonurban. More organochlorine compounds were detected in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment and fish tissue, and at higher concentrations at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of organochlorine compounds were lower than the probable-effect concentration (PEC). At the highly urbanized West Street Basin, chlordane and p,p'-DDE exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The less stringent threshold-effect concentration (TEC) was exceeded for six compounds at eight sites. Most of the organochlorine compounds detected in streambed sediment and fish tissue were at urban sites on the Santa Ana River as opposed to its tributaries, suggesting accumulation and persistence in the river. More SVOCs were detected in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment, and at higher concentrations, at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all the sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of SVOCs were lower than the PEC. At West Street Basin, chrysene, pyrene, and total polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 3 sites. Most of the SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment at urban sites on tributaries to the Santa Ana River rather than the mainstem itself. The less frequent occurrence and lower concentrations in the Santa Ana River suggest that SVOCs are less persistent than organochlorine compounds, possibly as a result of volatization, gradation, or dilution. Most trace-element detections in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment were at urban sites, and the concentrations were generally higher than at nonurban sites. Lead and zinc exceeded their PECs at West Street Basin throughout the historical record; copper exceeded its PEC at Canyon Lake, an area of urban growth. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 11 sites. Frequency of detection and concentration did not differ between tributary and Santa Ana River sites, which may be attributed to the fact that trace elements occur naturally. Four trace elements (arsenic, copper, mercury, and selenium) had higher concentrations in fish tissue at nonurban sites than at urban sites. Concentrations decreased over time for organochlorine compounds at all three reservoirs, probably a result of the discontinued use of many of the compounds. Decreasing trends in SVOCs and trace elements were observed at West Street Basin, but increasing trends were observed at Canyon Lake. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds, SVOCs, and trace elements were higher during periods of above average rainfall at both West Street Basin and Canyon Lake.

Burton, Carmen A.

2002-01-01

273

Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression  

SciTech Connect

1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

Shabbir, Arsalan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); DiStasio, Susan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Zhao, Jingbo [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher P. [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Wolff, Mary S. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Caplan, Avrom J. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

2005-03-01

274

Recent trends in organochlorine residues in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Mersey Estuary.  

PubMed

Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) taken from several sites in the Mersey Estuary, an urban-industrial water body in NW England, have been analyzed for residues of the persistent organochlorines, DDT, PCB congeners nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 (ICES7), and alpha-MHCH (alpha-methyl hexachlorocyclohexane). The concentration range for sigmaPCB (ICES7) was 13.9-34.9 microg kg(-1) in 1994 compared with 9.6-31.9 microg kg(-1) in 1998, whilst the equivalent concentrations of sigmaDDT were 8.9-32.4 microg kg(-1) and 4.5-16.8 microg kg(-1), respectively. The concentration of alpha-MHCH, an organochlorine largely restricted to the Mersey Estuary, was 1.2-11 microg kg(-1) in 1994 and 0.3-1.3 microg kg(-1) in 1998. At both sampling dates the inner estuary sites of Rock Ferry and Egremont were more contaminated than the outer estuary sites of New Brighton. Dove Point and Caldy Blacks. The lower concentrations of organochlorines in mussels in 1998 compared with 1994 are thought to be early evidence of significant improvements in water quality derived from major capital investment in the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage wastewater, linked to a combination of stricter legislative controls and the environmental benefits from the adoption of new, clean technologies in manufacturing. PMID:11763145

Connor, L; Johnson, M S; Copplestone, D; Leah, R T

2001-12-01

275

Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)  

PubMed Central

Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR?=?1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p?=?0.024). Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk. PMID:22534004

2012-01-01

276

Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. (Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada))

1993-11-01

277

Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L., Jr.; Clark, D.R., Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

1980-01-01

278

Accumulation of Organochlorines in the European Clam (Ruditapes decussatus) and Sediment of the Oualidia Lagoon (Morocco).  

PubMed

This study focused on the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in tissue samples of the clam, Ruditapes decussatus, in the Oualidia lagoon. Tissue assays were conducted during February to December 2005 and sediment (October 2005) was also tested. 13 organochlorine compounds and eight PCBs congeners were investigated, is HCB, ?-HCH, chlordane, cis-chlordane and trans-nonachlor, DDT and its metabolites DDD, DDE, heptachlor, its epoxide, mirex and PCBs (PCB28 + 50, PCB52, PCB101, PCB 118, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180). Analysis of these compounds was performed using a gas chromatography capillary column and an electron capture detector. Organochlorine contamination of clams and sediments in the lagoon did not exceed tolerable thresholds according to European standards. The levels of tPCB, tDDT and tOCP in clams are high at 49.4, 22.2, and 7.1 ng g(-1) dw respectively. Concentrations of trans nonachlor and mirex are low compared to other chlorinated pesticides. PCB28 + 50, PCB52 and PCB101 show typical values in sediment, at 18.5, 10.8 and 17.8 ng g(-1) dw respectively. PMID:25829056

Jayed, Maria; Benbrahim, Samir; Bakkas, Salem; Ramdani, Mohamed; Flower, Roger

2015-05-01

279

Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

1980-09-01

280

Comparison of Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Human Adipose Tissue of Inhabitants from Veracruz and Puebla, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of insecticide properties of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane),\\u000a they have provided great benefits to humans in sanitary actions to combat the spread of infection-borne disease vectors. Public\\u000a Health Programs in Mexico used DDT and HCH until 1999 as the insecticides of choice to control disease-transmitting organisms.\\u000a Because of their persistence and accumulative properties, organochlorine pesticides bioconcentrate

Stefan M. Waliszewski; R. Valencia Quintana; C. A. Corona; M. Herrero; K. Sánchez; H. Aguirre; I. A. Aldave; S. Gomez Arroyo; R. Villalobos Pietrini

2010-01-01

281

Uptake and excretion of organochlorine pesticides by Nereis virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The marine polychaete worm, Nereis virens, is resistant to organochlorine pesticides. When exposed to each of five pesticides (endosulfan, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT) in concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/L (DDT) to 22.0 mg/L (chlordane), only endosulfan and chlordane killed Nereis. In comparison, the same compounds were much more toxic to another marine invertebrate, Crangon septemspinosa. The authors wondered if the resistance of N. virens to organochlorines was related to their response to hypoxia. N. virens is a sediment dweller often found in intertidal regions and consequently may experience periods of severe oxygen deprivation; varying degrees of hypoxia can initiate a switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. When N. virens encounter hypoxic conditions, they can also exhibit a compensatory ventilation response. In the present study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT by N. virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

Haya, K.; Burridge, L.E.

1988-02-01

282

Organochlorine pesticide concentrations and enantiomer fractions for chlordane in indoor air from the US cornbelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-seven indoor air samples were collected and analyzed to determine if enantioselective degradation of past-use organochlorine pesticides, occurs indoors and to increase the available information on concentrations in homes. Samples were collected from homes in the US cornbelt region and analyzed for the concentrations of 11 pesticides and the enantiomer signature of chlordanes. Residues were found for all pesticides analyzed in at least several of the samples, with chlordane dominating in most samples. Racemic residues were seen for the chlordane enantiomers in all samples. Since levels of organochlorine pesticides in urban areas are often an order of magnitude above ambient levels, emissions from house foundations may be a source of these compounds to ambient air. Past research has shown that selective enantiomeric degradation occurs in many environmental samples resulting in non-racemic residues. Knowledge of the enantiomer signatures of chlordane and other pesticides in different media may be useful for distinguishing sources of chlordane to ambient air.

Leone, Andi D.; Ulrich, Elin M.; Bodnar, Colleen E.; Falconer, Renee L.; Hites, Ronald A.

283

Organochlorine pesticides and PAHs in the surface water and atmosphere of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Surface seawater and boundary layer atmospheric samples were collected on the FS Polarstern during cruise ARKXX in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean in 2004. Samples were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), with a focus on organochlorine pesticides, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes, DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, the enantiomer fractions (EFs) of pesticides, notably alpha-HCH and cis-chlordane (CC), were determined. Concentrations of dissolved HCB increased from near Europe (approximately 1-2 pg/L) toward the high Arctic (4-10 pg/L). For dissolved HCB, strongest correlations were obtained with the average air or water temperature during sampling, not latitude. In the western Arctic Ocean, surface waters with elevated concentrations of HCB (5-10 pg/ L) were flowing out of the Arctic Ocean as part of the East Greenland current In contrast to dissolved compounds, atmospheric POPs did not display trends with temperature. Air-water exchange gradients suggested net deposition for all compounds, though HCB was closest to air-water equilibrium. EFs for alpha-HCH in seawater ranged from 0.43 to 0.50, except for two samples from 75 degrees N in the East Greenland Sea, with EFs of 0.31 and 0.37. Lowest EF (0.47) for CC were also at 75 degrees N, other samples had EFs from 0.49 to 0.52. It is suggested that samples from around 75 degrees N in the Greenland Gyre represented a combination of surface and older/deeper Arctic water. PMID:19731655

Lohmann, Rainer; Gioia, Rosalinda; Jones, Kevin C; Nizzetto, Luca; Temme, Christian; Xie, Zhiyong; Schulz-Bull, Detlef; Hand, Ines; Morgan, Eric; Jantunen, Liisa

2009-08-01

284

Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

1992-01-01

285

Organochlorines and trace elements in upland game birds harvested in Canada.  

PubMed

American woodcock, common snipe, two species of ptarmigan (willow and rock), and three species of grouse (ruffed, spruce, and sharp-tailed) were collected from 21 locations between 1991 and 1994 as part of a nationwide survey of contaminants in game birds harvested in Canada. Breast muscle was analysed for organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane-related compounds, DDT metabolites, mirex, dieldrin, and PCBs) and trace elements (Hg, Cd, Se, and As). The concentrations of organochlorine compounds measured in breast muscle of the birds in this survey were very low. Median concentrations for the organochlorines measured were less than 0.001 mg kg-1 in breast muscle of all ptarmigan and grouse species sampled. Only SigmaPCB, SigmaDDT and SigmaCHL were found above trace levels in breast muscle of all of the woodcock, and only SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT were found above trace levels in the snipe. Total Hg was detected only in the woodcock and the snipe whereas Se was above detection levels in all samples of all species except one sample pool of willow ptarmigan from Nunavut. Cadmium was detected in all species except for the spruce and sharp-tailed grouse with the highest overall concentrations found in the ptarmigan species. Arsenic was detected in all of the woodcock and snipe samples but was not found in any of the grouse samples. The highest Hg and As concentrations were both found in snipe sampled from southeastern New Brunswick. Concentrations of As, Hg and Se measured in breast muscle of the birds in this survey were below toxicological threshold levels found in the literature. Concentrations of Cd, however, were elevated in some birds, particularly in willow ptarmigan from the Yukon. Health Canada determined that the organochlorine and trace element levels found in samples of breast muscle of game birds analysed in this study did not pose a health hazard to human consumers and therefore these birds were safe to eat. PMID:16055172

Braune, Birgit M; Malone, Brian J

2006-06-15

286

Levels of persistent organic pollutants in several child day care centers.  

PubMed

The concentrations of a suite of persistent organic chemicals were measured in multiple media in 10 child day care centers located in central North Carolina. Five centers served mainly children from low-income families, as defined by the federal Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) assistance program, and five served mainly children from middle-income families. The targeted chemicals were chosen because of their probable carcinogenicity, acute or chronic toxicity, or hypothesized potential for endocrine system disruption. Targeted compounds included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachloro- and nonyl-phenol, bisphenol-A, dibutyl and butylbenzyl phthalate, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, the organophosphate pesticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D). Sampled media were indoor and outdoor air, food and beverages, indoor dust, and outdoor play area soil. Concentrations of the targeted compounds were determined using a combination of extraction and analysis methods, depending on the media. Analysis was predominantly by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Concentrations of the targeted pollutants were low and well below the levels generally considered to be of concern as possible health hazards. Potential exposures to the target compounds were estimated from the concentrations in the various media, the children's daily time-activity schedules at day care, and the best currently available estimates of the inhalation rates (8.3 m(3)/day) and soil ingestion rates (100 mg/day) of children ages 3-5. The potential exposures for the target compounds differed depending on the compound class and the sampled media. Potential exposures through dietary ingestion were greater than those through inhalation, which were greater than those through nondietary ingestion, for the total of all PAHs, the phenols, the organophosphate pesticides, and the organochlorine pesticides. Potential exposures through dietary ingestion were greater than those through nondietary ingestion, which were greater than those through inhalation, for those PAHs that are probable human carcinogens (B2 PAH), the phthalate esters, and 2,4D. For the PCBs, exposures through inhalation were greater than those through nondietary ingestion, and exposures through dietary ingestion were smallest. Differences in targeted compound levels between the centers that serve mainly low-income clients and those that serve mainly middle-income clients were small and depended on the compound class and the medium. PMID:11791162

Wilson, N K; Chuang, J C; Lyu, C

2001-01-01

287

Natural organochlorine in humic soils. GC and GC/MS studies of soil pyrolysates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic Halogen (OX) matter of natural origin in soils forms an integral part of the macromolecular humic materials and, therefore, it cannot be removed by simple washing and extracting processes. In this study pyrolysis at 400°C in a nitrogen atmosphere was used to break down the humic macromolecules to gas chromatographable compounds, which were collected in a cold trap system. According to coulorimetric analysis, 10-60% of the original soil OX was removed by the pyrolysis process but only a small part of the OX removed (2-40%) was collected in the cold trap system. The bulk of the OX was found in a precipitate that was formed between the furnace and the cold trap system. Analysis of the pyrolysates with GC/ECD indicated the presence of organohalogen compounds. GC/MS-NCI/SIM gave evidence for the presence of at least 20 different organochlorine compounds. Identification of individual organochlorine compounds with GC/MS and GC/MS-SIM was not successful, possibly due to the relatively low concentrations of these compounds and the overlap with other major non-chlorinated components. GC/MS-CNL indicated the presence of dichloropropane or chlorobenzene, and chlorophenol as of several unidentified chloroalkanes and/or chloroalkenes.

de Lijser, H. J. Peter; Erkelens, Corrie; Knol, Adri; Pool, Wim; de Leer, Ed W. B.

288

Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.  

PubMed

As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of ?-HCH/?-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no significant health risk for human consumption by eating eggs collected in this study. PMID:24862478

Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

2015-02-01

289

Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores < insectivores < omnivores < piscivores < carnivores. Although, the organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species. PMID:20571760

Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

2010-08-01

290

Characterization of Zebrafish Abcc4 as an Efflux Transporter of Organochlorine Pesticides  

PubMed Central

DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment. PMID:25478949

Lu, Xing; Long, Yong; Lin, Li; Sun, Rongze; Zhong, Shan; Cui, Zongbin

2014-01-01

291

Role of Organochlorine Pesticides in Children with Idiopathic Seizures  

PubMed Central

Background. Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are persistent organic pollutants that have been implicated in causing several deleterious effects in humans. These are known neurotoxins in high doses, but the role of environmentally acquired OCPs in the body to induce seizures in children has not been investigated yet. Objectives. To assess the serum levels of OCPs in children aged 2–12 with idiopathic seizure and to find out any association between the two are our objectives. Methods. It was a cross-sectional pilot study. Twenty developmentally normal children aged 2–12, presenting with idiopathic generalized seizures, were recruited. Twenty age-matched controls without any history of seizures were also taken. Their serum levels of ?, ?, and ? hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); and aldrin; dieldrin; p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p-DDT, and p,p dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); and ? and ? endosulfan were analysed using gas chromatography (GC). Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare OCP levels between the groups. Spearman correlation was used to find the correlation between individual pesticide levels with age and seizure duration. Results. Levels of ?, ?, and total HCH were significantly higher among cases as compared to the control group (P ? 0.05). Conclusion. There exists a possible association between idiopathic seizures and high serum levels of OCPs, especially HCH. PMID:24368944

Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Gupta, Sushan

2013-01-01

292

Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Southern Right Whales (Eubalaena australis) breeding at Península Valdés, Argentina.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in blubber from 35 dead Southern Right Whales (SRW - Eubalaena australis) stranded at Península Valdés, Argentina. The life cycle includes a feeding period in high productivity areas of the South West Atlantic and a reproductive period in coastal template waters of Argentina. Organochlorine pesticides showed higher concentrations (22.6±13.8ng·g(-1)ww) than PCBs (7.5±10ng·g(-1)ww). Among pesticides, HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, dieldrin, chlordans, heptachlor epoxide, and trans-nonachlor were detected. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were present in 69% and 26% of samples, respectively. p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio showed low values (<0.33) as a result of aged DDT inputs. However, the occurrence of only p,p'-DDT in some samples suggests a recent pesticide input. ?-HCH/?-HCH ratio (organochlorine compounds are forbidden they were bioaccumulated in the blubber of SRW with a predominance of endosulfans, the more recently used pesticide. The absence of data on chemical pollutants in stranded dead whales is highlighted as a priority for research. This is the first study on levels, compositional patterns, and organochlorine sources in SRW. Moreover, more research including milk, and other tissues/organs is recommended considered that in the studied specimens, mostly calves, pollutants are likely transferred from the mother during pregnancy and nursing. PMID:25813841

Torres, P; Miglioranza, K S B; Uhart, M M; Gonzalez, M; Commendatore, M

2015-06-15

293

Susceptibility to infections and immune status in Inuit infants exposed to organochlorines.  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether organochlorine exposure is associated with the incidence of infectious diseases in Inuit infants from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec, Canada). We compiled the number of infectious disease episodes during the first year of life for 98 breast-fed and 73 bottle-fed infants. Concentrations of organochlorines were measured in early breast milk samples and used as surrogates to prenatal exposure levels. Immune system parameters were determined in venous blood samples collected from infants at 3, 7, and 12 months of age. Otitis media was the most frequent disease, with 80. 0% of breast-fed and 81.3% of bottle-fed infants experiencing at least one episode during the first year of life. During the second follow-up period, the risk of otitis media increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and dieldrin. The relative risk (RR) for 4- to 7-month-old infants in the highest tertile of p, p'-DDE exposure as compared to infants in the lowest tertile was 1. 87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-3.26]. The RR of otitis media over the entire first year of life also increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE (RR, 1.52; CI, 1.05-2.22) and hexachlorobenzene (RR, 1.49; CI, 1.10-2.03). Furthermore, the RR of recurrent otitis media ( [Greater/equal to] 3 episodes) increased with prenatal exposure to these compounds. No clinically relevant differences were noted between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to immunologic parameters, and prenatal organochlorine exposure was not associated with immunologic parameters. We conclude that prenatal organochlorine exposure could be a risk factor for acute otitis media in Inuit infants. Images Figure 1 PMID:10706525

Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Bruneau, S; Gingras, S; Belles-Isles, M; Roy, R

2000-01-01

294

Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues  

PubMed Central

Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

2013-01-01

295

Organochlorine contaminants in sea turtles from the Eastern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent (14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of the 35 tissue samples, respectively). PCBs were detected in all but one of the 9 turtles studied, with congener 18 the most

Susan C. Gardner; M. Dawn Pier; Raymond Wesselman; J. Arturo Juárez

2003-01-01

296

ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC  

EPA Science Inventory

We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

297

Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling  

E-print Network

Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling Sergei A. Kurta a , Alex A Byproduct Recycling Dichloroethane Vinyl chloride Trichloroethane a b s t r a c t Due to environmental waste recycling. Environmentally-friendly processing and recycling methods of organochlorine waste

Volinsky, Alex A.

298

Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

2014-01-01

299

Levels of persistent organic pollutants in the Neretva River (Bosnia and Herzegovina) determined by deployment of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD).  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to determine levels of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Neretva River, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), which is currently facing implementation of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and environmental protection strategies. This is the very first report on the deployment of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in BiH. SPMDs were used for continuous 3-weeks sampling of POPs at three locations, covering 220 km long stream of the Neretva River. Water concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were calculated using performance reference compounds (PRCs). The total OCP concentrations ranged from 40 to 140 pg L(-1) and most of compounds were detected only in lower course of the river. Total PAH ranged from 160 to 4000 pg L(-1) and show a clear spatial variation. Dominant PAHs were phenanthrene, fluoranthene, fluorene and acenaphthene. Total PCB ranged from undetectable to 120 pg L(-1). From the group of 15 PBDE congeners investigated, only PBDE-47 and PBDE-99 were detected. Since the concentrations of broad spectrum of POPs found in the Neretva River are quite low, future actions should be focused on preservation rather than on sanitation measures. Regular monitoring should anyhow be established. PMID:20390942

Djedjibegovic, Jasmina; Marjanovic, Aleksandra; Sober, Miroslav; Skrbo, Armin; Sinanovic, Kemo; Larssen, Thorjørn; Grung, Merete; Fjeld, Eirik; Rognerud, Sigurd

2010-02-01

300

Evaluation of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in the upper Mississippi River  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine contaminants sequestered in lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were compared to those found in tangential-flow ultrafilter permeates as part of a pilot study at 10 sites in the Upper Mississippi River system. Caged and feral fish from three primary sites were also analyzed for comparison. Concentrated organochlorine (OC) compounds were readily extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis into hexane, and samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Fish and water samples were processed by conventional methods. Reasonable agreement was found between analyte SPMD-derived water concentrations and measured values of ultrafilter permeates; however, concentrations of the same analytes in caged fish did not appear to be proportional to water concentrations derived from SPMDs and ultrafilter permeates. The greatest number of OC compounds was detected in SPMDs; fewer were detected in caged fish and feral fish.

Ellis, G.S.; Rostad, C.E. [Geological Survey, Arvada, CO (United States). Water Resources Div.; Huckins, J.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Petty, J.D. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center; MacCarthy, P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Geochemistry

1995-11-01

301

Residues of organochlorines in mallards and blue-winged teal collected in Colombia and Wisconsin, 1984–1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the seasonal concentrations of 12 organochlorine (OC) compounds in samples of breast muscle, associated skin, and subcutaneous fat of blue-winged teal (Anas discors) collected in Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia (1987–1988), and of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and blue-winged teal collected in Wisconsin (1984–1989). Although these species have similar feeding habits and overlapping breeding distributions, their winter ranges

J. E. Botero; M. W. Meyer; S. S. Hurley; D. H. Rusch

1996-01-01

302

Persistent Threads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent threads are a database program- ming concept particularly well-suited for a.p- plications that manage long-term, distributed or cooperative activities. We introduce per- sistent threads as a novel form of bindings from data in persistent object stores to ac- tivated code and relate them to existing bind- ing concepts found in database programming. We also describe the integration of persis-

Florian Matthes; Joachim W. Schmidt

1994-01-01

303

Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data.  

PubMed

Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5ng/kgbw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970ng/kgbw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:25454223

Bu, Qingwei; MacLeod, Matthew; Wong, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mueller, Jochen F; Yu, Gang

2015-01-01

304

Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organic chemicals in fish and mammals.

Gobas, F.A.P.C. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)); McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01

305

Partitioning and Transport of Organochlorine Pollutants in the Arctic: From Snowfall to Snowmelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile and semi-volatile organochlorine (OCs) compounds such as dieldrin, endosulfan and PCBs have frequently been identified as pollutants in remote polar regions, far from their anthropogenic sources. Bioaccumulation of these compounds has been previously documented and poses a potential threat to the health of individuals in Arctic subsistence communities as well as to the broader polar ecosystem. These compounds are carried to the polar regions via atmospheric transport mechanisms, but it is less clear how they partition between air, snow/ice, water and soil. Previous studies have found quantifiable concentrations of OCs in each of these compartments, but the extent to which they interact is still largely unknown. Measurements of the concentration of several organochlorine pesticides and PCB congeners in the air, ice, snowpack, and water were made near Barrow, AK, from February-April 2009 as a project within the OASIS campaign, and again during the seasonal snowmelt in May-June 2009 in conjunction with SNOWNET. Our first dataset, when combined with atmospheric measurements and physical snowpack characterization made by other participants in OASIS, allows us to better understand the seasonal accumulation of OCs on snow and ice. Our second dataset, in which we track the movement of OCs through the snowpack and into meltwater runoff, is used in conjunction with snow deposition and hydrological data collected for the SNOWNET study to present a detailed picture of the release and ultimate fate of OCs incorporated into the snowpack during winter.

Rowland, G. A.; Torres, A.; Grannas, A. M.

2009-12-01

306

Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins  

SciTech Connect

Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

1999-07-01

307

Temporal variations of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal variations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in precipitation and monthly depositional fluxes were calculated in Beijing from February 2009 to March 2011. Compounds which were detected most often included ?-HCH and ?-HCH, and the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was 33.0 ng L-1, accounting for 72.3% of the ?OCPs in precipitation. The total concentrations of OCPs ranged from 3.73 to 152 ng L-1 (mean: 29.7 ± 3.5 ng L-1) for dissolved phase and from 1.61 to 114 ng L-1 (mean: 15.9 ± 2.0 ng L-1) for particulate phase, respectively. OCPs in dissolved phase dominated sampled concentrations in precipitation (HCHs: 71.8%, Chlordane: 77.7%, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes-DDTs: 50.1%) with an exception of hexachlorobenzene-HCB (26.3%). Furthermore, the distribution coefficient, Kpd, was generally large in low temperature, especially in spring. The abundance of ?OCPs in the precipitation fluctuated monthly, with high value in late winter and spring. The past farmland near the sampling site was under construction during sampling, which may be an important local re-emission source in this study. The elevated wet deposition flux of 11 selected OCPs was 14.9 ?g m-2 yr-1 in Beijing.

Yang, Guosheng; Ma, Lingling; Xu, Diandou; Liu, Liyan; Jia, Hongliang; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yongbao; Chai, Zhifang

2012-12-01

308

Persistent Organic Pollutants in gull eggs of two species (Larus michahellis and Larus audouinii) from the Ebro delta Natural Park.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of priority and emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in gull eggs from two species, the scavenger Larus michahellis and the protected species, Larus audouinii. These two species share habitat in the Natural Park of the Ebro delta (Catalonia, Spain). Compounds studied are included or under consideration in the Stockholm Convention and comprise polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated compounds (OCs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). Four methods based in selective extraction and gas or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were used and quality parameters are provided. OC pesticides and marker PCBs were the most abundant chemical families detected in eggs from the two species, followed by PFCs, PBDEs (especially BDE 209) and SCCPs. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were also detected in all samples. The overall widespread presence of POPs is discussed in terms of feeding habits, bird ecology and anthropogenic pressures in the protected Ebro delta breeding area. PMID:22564454

Morales, Laura; Martrat, Maria Generosa; Olmos, Jorge; Parera, Jordi; Vicente, Joana; Bertolero, Albert; Abalos, Manuela; Lacorte, Silvia; Santos, Francisco Javier; Abad, Esteban

2012-09-01

309

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in the water/sediment system of the Southeast Regional Park in Madrid, Spain.  

PubMed

A study into levels of contamination by organochlorine compounds (insecticides and PCBs) and heavy metals (Cd and Pb) in the water/sediment system of the Southeast Regional Park (SERP) in Madrid, Spain, has been carried out. Residue levels of xenobiotics were determined in surface and underground waters and sediments from selected sites throughout the protected area. The results showed these contaminants to be widespread throughout the studied area. p,p'-DDT concentration levels were consistently higher than its metabolite p,p'-DDE, indicating a recent use of this organochlorine insecticide in the area. PCB levels exceeded, in the majority of the cases, the levels taken as the maximum (100 ng/microl) for highly polluted waters. Cd and Pb levels found in water samples were under the detection limits of the methodology used. Pb levels found in sediment samples were higher than Cd. PMID:10864151

Fernández, M; Cuesta, S; Jiménez, O; García, M A; Hernández, L M; Marina, M L; González, M J

2000-09-01

310

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain).  

PubMed

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has been explained by two mechanisms: equilibrium partitioning and/or biomagnification through the trophic web. Nevertheless, bioaccumulation processes are by far more complex, since several biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the observed pollutant loads in the organisms. In this respect, the biological characteristics of the organisms considered (e.g. species, age, lipid contents, feeding habits, etc.), as well as ecological factors (e.g. the habitat of the species and vertical distribution), have been shown to account for the organochlorine levels observed. PMID:15006509

Pastor, D; Sanpera, C; González-Solís, J; Ruiz, X; Albaigés, J

2004-04-01

311

Levels, distribution, and risk assessment of organochlorines in surficial sediments of the Red Sea coast, Egypt.  

PubMed

The analyses of environmentally persistent pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in surficial sediment samples collected from 17 locations along with the coast of the Red Sea in Egypt were carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several potential organic contaminants from agricultural (e.g., DDT and its breakdown products, lindane, endrin, dieldrin, and endosulfan) and industrial (PCBs) sources were measured. The levels of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and ten PCB congeners in sediment collected from 17 stations along ~1,200 km were investigated. Concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, and cyclodienes ranged from 0.40 to 6.17, 0.01 to 0.09, n.d. to 0.46, and 0.08 to 0.90 ppb dry weight. Two statistical programs were applied on the data (principal component analysis, PCA, and cluster analysis, CA), and it was concluded that it is impossible to predict the distribution patterns of the OCPs in a contaminated area. Risk assessment of the organochlorines contaminated in the sediments of the studied area was investigated. PMID:23054273

El Nemr, Ahmed; Moneer, Abeer A; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany

2013-06-01

312

Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

1988-01-01

313

Organochlorine Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson's Disease in North Indian Population  

PubMed Central

The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive, but environmental chemical exposures have been postulated to be involved in the etiology of PD. We examined the association between the persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PD in the North Indian population. This case control study included 70 PD and 75 control subjects in the age group of 50 to 85 years. Blood samples were collected and high-purity grade hexane and acetone (2?:?1 ratio) were used for extraction of organochlorine residues. OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, pp?-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp?-DDE), op?-DDE, pp?- Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp?-DDT), op?-DDT, pp?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (pp?-DDD) and op?-DDD) were quantitatively estimated by using gas chromatography. The most frequently detected OCP was dieldrin, which was present in 9.3% of control and 61.4% of PD. The strongest predictor was ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), which reported an odds ratio of 2.566, indicating that for every additional one unit of ?-HCH, patients had 2.566 times more chances of presence of PD. This study indicates that increased level of ?-HCH and dieldrin may be associated with the risk of PD. PMID:23936670

Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, B. D.; Bala, Kiran; Sharma, Deepika

2013-01-01

314

Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish from lakes of the Tibetan Plateau and the implications.  

PubMed

High mountains may play significant roles in the global transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, patterns and distribution of semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants and to improve the understanding of the long-range atmospheric transport and fate of contaminants on the Tibetan Plateau. A total of 60 fish samples were collected from eight lakes located between 2813 and 4718 m above sea level across the Plateau. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in fish muscle. The results showed that concentrations of DDT, HCH and HCB were comparable to or lower than those found in remote mountains of Europe, Canada and US, while PCB concentrations in fish were, on average, about 4-150 times lower on Tibet than at other mountain areas. The transport and fate of contaminants in the Plateau are significantly influenced by the unique climatological and meteorological conditions, particularly by the summer Indian monsoon and winter westerly jet stream. PMID:20199831

Yang, Ruiqiang; Wang, Yawei; Li, An; Zhang, Qinghua; Jing, Chuanyong; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Jiang, Guibin

2010-06-01

315

Elevated organochlorines in the brain-hypothalamic-pituitary complex of intersexual shovelnose sturgeon.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, were used on lands adjacent to the Middle Mississippi River (MMR; USA) from 1930 through 1988, and they continue to occur in MMR fish. These compounds are estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic, and they alter hormone production and reception within the brain and gonads of male fish, resulting in intersexuality and/or suppressed gonadal development. To assess how OCs affect reproduction of MMR fish, we quantified OC accumulation, intersexuality, and gonadal development in male shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) throughout the MMR during the spring of 2003. Gonads were observed for intersexual characteristics, weighed to calculate the gonadosomatic index (GSI), and examined histologically. Tissue accumulation of OCs was quantified in gonads, brain-hypothalamic-pituitary (BHP) complex, and fillets. Four of 48 mature males were identified macroscopically as intersexuals, and a fifth was found through histology (a 10.4% incidence). Intersexuals accumulated higher concentrations of OCs in the BHP complex compared with those of mature males. In addition, GSI and OC accumulation within the BHP complex, gonads, and fillets of mature males were negatively related. Exposure to OCs before or during sexual differentiation likely induces intersexuality in MMR shovelnose sturgeon, and exposure throughout gonadal maturation inhibits gonadal development. PMID:16833127

Koch, Brian T; Garvey, James E; You, Jing; Lydy, Michael J

2006-07-01

316

Organochlorine pollutants in water, soils, and earthworms in the Guadalquivir River, Spain  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine compounds (insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) are known to maintain their stability in the aquatic environment for long periods. DDT and cyclodiene insecticides were used widely in Spain until their use was banned in 1976; DDT and its degradation products are still found in environmental samples. Since DDT has been legally restricted for use, lindane has become important as a substitute for DDT. This study has been carried out along Guadalquivir River, Spain. This river runs across an agricultural area where pesticides are used extensively. The Guadalquivir basin is the most economically important area of the South of the Iberian Peninsula; its economic importance stems from its proximity to a major metropolitan areas (Cordova, Seville), which indicates the presence of numerous urban, commercial, and industrial locations in the vicinity of the sampling stations. The purposes of this investigation are: (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine compounds in water, soils, and earthworms sampled in ten stations of the Guadalquivir River; (2) to evaluate biological accumulation of pollutants studied within the food webs; (3) to evaluate regional patterns and time trends of residues. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. (Institute of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain))

1992-08-01

317

Bioaccumulation of organochlorines in the Arctic marine food web  

SciTech Connect

Five classes of organochlorine (OC) compounds (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCB and HCHs), cyclodienes, isomers of DDT and its metabolites and congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene (CHBs)) have been detected in under-ice epontic particulate matter and tissue samples of marine biota from lower trophic levels of the Arctic Ocean at sites in Barrow Strait within the Canadian archipelago (75{degree}N), coastal (79{degree}N) and central Arctic basin (85{degree}N) locations. HCBs, PCBs, isomers of DDT and DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, alpha-endosulphan, HCB and {alpha}-HCH were present in quantifiable amounts in all samples. {beta}- and {gamma}-HCH and the cyclodienes aldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, methoxychlor and mirex were detected but could not be quantified. All OCs measured in biota were also present in the Arctic atmosphere, particulate and dissolved fractions of snow, ice melt water and seawater, Small bodied marine organisms such as zooplankton and amphipods which are short-lived have a lower lipid content for storage of OCs than larger animals such as fish and mammals. Biomagnification factors calculated from presumed predator-prey links in the marine food web varied over two orders of magnitude for different OCs. Ratios for epontic particulates and plankton (< 10) were generally lower than values for trophic links between amphipods and published values for arctic marine fish and mammals (10--100). PCBs, DDT and chlordanes are biomagnified in the Arctic marine food web to a far greater degree than more abundant OC compounds such as HCHs and HCB that have a higher water solubility.

Hargrave, B.; Phillips, G.; Vass, W.; Harding, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography; Welch, H. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

1995-12-31

318

Pollution by organochlorine pesticides in Navachiste-Macapule, Sinaloa, Mexico.  

PubMed

The lagoon system of Navachiste-Macapule is located in northern Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, with an area of 24,000 ha. The main economic activity in the area is agriculture, and the lagoon lies next to the irrigation district ID-063 which covers 116,615 ha. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of pollution generated by organochlorine pesticides (OC) in the surface sediments of the lagoon and in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 that are supposedly transported into the system as a result of agricultural activities and runoff from adjacent land. For this, between 2006 and 2007, 45 surface sediment samples were collected (warm dry, rainy and cold dry) from 15 sampling sites, during the three climatic seasons. Of these, eight were located inside the lagoon in marine conditions (salinity >31 PSU) and seven in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 in freshwater conditions (salinity <5 PSU). The average concentration of the OC in the sediments was 44.75 ng g(-1), among which the group of the alicyclic compounds presented the greatest concentrations. The average value of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the sediments of the system was 0.90%. The sediments collected inside the lagoon had an average OC concentration of 18.97 ng g(-1), and the predominant type of sediment was fine to very fine sand. The average OC concentration in the sediments collected in the agricultural drains was 75.69 ng g(-1), where fine sediments (silt) were predominant. The presence of methoxychlor, endrin and heptachlor suggested that these compounds were continuously used in the system, even though their use is forbidden in Mexico. PMID:21484297

Montes, Adriana M; González-Farias, Fernando A; Botello, Alfonso V

2012-03-01

319

Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, ?-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, ?-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

2014-10-01

320

The use of pine bark as a natural adsorbent for persistent organic pollutants - study of lindane and heptachlor adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pine bark obtained as a sawmill by-product in the north of Portugal was used for the adsorption of lindane and heptachlor, two organochlorine pesticides classified as POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), from aqueous solutions. It is intended that this natural adsorbent be used as an alternative to activated carbon in an innovative approach for the removal of these classes of com-

Nuno Ratola; Arminda Alves

2003-01-01

321

Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters  

PubMed Central

Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

2014-01-01

322

Organochlorine pesticide residues in a farming area, Nova Scotia--1972-73.  

PubMed

Soil, silt, and water samples from the Habitant Creek water-shed, Nova Scotia, a tobacco-growing area, have been monitored for organochlorine insecticides. Most samples contain measurable quantities of many persistent pesticides used in farming during the past decade. Sediment levels indicate that residues settle in sluggish parts of the stream. Drainage ditches show highest residual content caused in part by mass transport of soil in runoff. Residue content of water samples is normally one-tenth to one-hundredth that of silt, but is much higher during periods of heavy runoff. Levels vary with the seasons and are highest in the fall, decrease through the spring and summer, and are lowest in the winter. Although samples of well water taken fairly close to the stream showed virtually no residual content, a natural drainage reservior had a pesticide content similar to that in the stream. PMID:1181549

Burns, B G; Peach, M E; Stiles, D A

1975-06-01

323

Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards.  

PubMed

Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York (USA) and fed to three captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (wet weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. PMID:2668568

Stendell, R C; Beyer, W N; Stehn, R A

1989-07-01

324

Organochlorine residues in eggs of black-crowned night-herons from Colorado and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of black-crowned night-herons N. nycticorax were collected for analysis from 7 nesting sites in Colorado and Wyoming in 1979. One egg was taken/nest from as many as 20 nests/site during early incubation. The nests were marked and revisited after hatching, but before fledging, to record the number of live young. DDE was detected in all collected eggs (147) at a mean concentration of 3.1 ppm, fresh basis (residue means were geometric). Mean DDE at the 7 sites varied from 1.8-7.6 ppm. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were detected in 81 eggs (mean 1.0 ppm); the highest mean at any site was 2.2 ppm. Twelve other organochlorines were each detected in 1-30 eggs, usually at a concentration of lt 1.0 ppm. Mean total organochlorines in the eggs from the 7 sites ranged from 2.0-10.1 ppm and the median number of compounds/egg ranged from 1-5. Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated (P lt 0.001, r = -0.585) with DDE levels in the 147 eggs. Average shell thickness (0.258 +- 0.030 mm) was 8.8% lower than the average thickness (0.283 +- 0.016 mm) of 40 pre-DDT eggs from this region. The nesting sites with the highest DDE and total organochlorine residues in the eggs had the thinnest shells, produced the fewest young and had more nonviable eggs and dead young. At 4 of 7 sites, the average number of live young/nest was lt 2.0, the minimum long-term mean required for population maintenance. The source of the contaminants found in the heron eggs in this study was not determined.

McEwen, L.C.; Stafford, C.J.; Hensler, G.L.

1984-01-01

325

Organochlorine contamination in shorebirds from Washington state and the significance for their falcon predators.  

PubMed

Arctic-breeding shorebirds collected in western Washington state during winter and spring, and a comparative sample collected in coastal California during the winter were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants to determine the potential impact of these residues on populations of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and merlins (F. columbarius) which prey upon shorebirds in western Washington. Dunlins (Calidris alpina), an important winter prey for falcons in western Washington, were collected between 1975 and 1981. During winter 1980-81, dunlins carried low organochlorine residues; DDE levels ranged from 0.01 to 1.2 ppm, and PCB levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.82 ppm (wet weight). Levels of other organochlorine contaminants (HCB, Chlordane compounds, Dieldrin, and Heptachlor Epoxide), analyzed in a subsample of dunlins, were consistently lower than DDE and PCB levels, and ranged from 0.001 to 0.22 ppm (wet weight). Dunlins in western Washington did not significantly increase their DDE or PCB burdens over the 1980-81 winter. A decline in DDE residues between 1978 and 1981 was noted, and declines in PCB residues from both 1975 and 1978 to 1980-81 were noted. Residues in other wintering shorebirds from western Washington were similar. Wintering sanderlings (Calidris alba) from California, revealed much higher DDE contamination than in Washington (up to 32 ppm, wet weight). Spring migrant shorebirds in western Washington contained both low and very high DDE residues (up to 417 ppm, wet weight). There is evidence suggesting these high DDE concentrations are accumulated along the Pacific coast of North America. PMID:24254183

Schick, C T; Brennan, L A; Buchanan, J B; Finger, M A; Johnson, T M; Herman, S G

1987-09-01

326

Novel Firmicutes Group Implicated in the Dechlorination of Two Chlorinated Xanthones, Analogues of Natural Organochlorines  

PubMed Central

Although the abundance and diversity of natural organochlorines are well established, much is still unknown about the degradation of these compounds. Triplicate microcosms were used to determine whether, and which, bacterial communities could dechlorinate two chlorinated xanthones (2,7-dichloroxanthone and 5,7-dichloro-1,3-dihydroxylxanthone), analogues of a diverse class of natural organochlorines. According to quantitative-PCR (qPCR) results, several known dechlorinating genera were either not present or not enriched during dechlorination of the xanthones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, however, indicated that several Firmicutes were enriched in the dechlorinating cultures compared to triplicate controls amended with nonchlorinated xanthones. One such group, herein referred to as the Gopher group, was further studied with a novel qPCR method that confirmed enrichment of Gopher group 16S rRNA genes in the dechlorinating cultures. The enrichment of the Gopher group was again tested with two new sets of triplicate microcosms. Enrichment was observed during chlorinated xanthone dechlorination in one set of these triplicate microcosms. In the other set, two microcosms showed clear enrichment while a third did not. The Gopher group is a previously unidentified group of Firmicutes, distinct from but related to the Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium genera; this group also contains clones from at least four unique cultures capable of dechlorinating anthropogenic organochlorines that have been previously described in the literature. This study suggests that natural chlorinated xanthones may be effective biostimulants to enhance the remediation of pollutants and highlights the idea that novel genera of dechlorinators likely exist and may be active in bioremediation and the natural cycling of chlorine. PMID:24296507

Krzmarzick, Mark J.; Miller, Hanna R.; Yan, Tao

2014-01-01

327

Organochlorine residues in New York waterfowl harvested by hunters in 1983-1984.  

PubMed

Thirteen organochlorine compounds were detected in fat and breast muscle tissues of Canada goose and five species of ducks that were shot by sportsman in New York. Residues of DDE and PCB occurred most frequently and were positively identified along with DDT, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene. Compounds that were detected but not positively confirmed by mass spectrometry were dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor, chlordane, oxychlordane, and endrin. Wood duck (Aix sponsa) and Canada goose (Branta canadensis) had significantly lower levels of DDE and PCB than black duck (Anas rubripes), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), scaup (Athya sp.), and bufflehead (Bucephala albeola). Birds collected from Long Island and the Hudson River-Lake Champlain corridor carried highest concentrations. PMID:24234343

Foley, R E

1992-04-01

328

A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland.  

PubMed

Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere. PMID:12531313

Klemens, J A; Wieland, M L; Flanagin, V J; Frick, J A; Harper, R G

2003-01-01

329

Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.  

PubMed

The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

2012-07-17

330

Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 (±2.5), 9.5 (±2.2), and 13 (±5.8) yr for decay-corrected 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of 137Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Callender, Edward; Fuller, Christopher C.

1998-01-01

331

Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems  

SciTech Connect

Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of {sup 137}Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 ({+-}2.5), 9.5 ({+-}2.2), and 13 ({+-}5.8) yr for decay-corrected {sup 137}Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of {sup 137}Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

Metre, P.C. van; Wilson, J.T. [Geological Survey, Austin, TX (United States)] [Geological Survey, Austin, TX (United States); Callender, E. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)] [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Fuller, C.C. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1998-11-01

332

FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOOT DEPOSITS FROM NON-OPTIMUM COMBUSTION OF NO. 6 FUEL OIL WITH CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

During a full-scale hazardous waste combustion study performed for EPA, sampling and analysis was conducted on both stack gases and solid "soot" collected from a boiler's interior surfaces. wo organochlorine compounds, monochlorobenzene (MCB) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were cof...

333

Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.  

PubMed

Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (?6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ?PCB and ?DDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

Romani?, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klin?i?, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

2014-09-01

334

Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid. PMID:22099537

Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

2012-02-01

335

Organochlorine pesticides in soils from south-western Uganda.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) residues were analysed in soil samples collected from Kihiihi sub-county, Kanungu District, which is located in south-western Uganda. Mabira Central Forest Reserve which is located in central Uganda was used as a reference site in this study. The samples were collected at 15-20 cm depths below the soil surface and extracted with organic solvents. The extracts were cleaned using florisil, and were analysed using a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). The results were confirmed using a GC equipped with a mass spectrometer (MS). The levels of the OC residues in soil from Kihiihi sub-county varied from non-detectable (ND) to 59 microg kg(-1) dry weight. The frequencies of detection for p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD in the total soil samples were 47%, 24% and 11%, respectively. The o,p'compounds were detected in the following frequencies: o,p'-DDT (23%), o,p'-DDE (19%) and o,p'-DDD (8%). The low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT residue ratios (0.2-0.9) in Kihiihi samples suggest recent inputs of DDT in Kihiihi sub-county. The detection frequencies for dieldrin, endosulfan-alpha, -beta and -sulphate in the soil samples were 21%, 26%, 31% and 19%, respectively. Mabira Forest Reserve soils showed detection frequencies of p,p'-DDT (5%) and p,p'-DDE (9% of the soil samples), varying from ND to 9 microg kg(-1). Although the use of OCPs has been banned, our results show that they can still be detected in the environment. Their presence may be attributed to adulteration of pesticides which are not banned and also atmospheric deposition. PMID:20064653

Ssebugere, Patrick; Wasswa, John; Mbabazi, Jolocam; Nyanzi, Steven A; Kiremire, Bernard T; Marco, John A M

2010-03-01

336

Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a group of compounds that includes some  

E-print Network

for years indoors, akin to persistent organic pollutants in the outdoor environment (POPs). Many SVOCs alterSemivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) Background Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs products, and additives to materials such as vinyl flooring, furniture, clothing, cookware, food packaging

Iglesia, Enrique

337

Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established.

Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

1985-12-01

338

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

1988-09-01

339

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

2008-01-01

340

A routine accredited method for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, chlorobenzenes and screening of other halogenated organics in soil, sediment and sludge by GCxGC-?ECD.  

PubMed

The analysis of persistent organic pollutants is a real challenge due to the large number of compounds with varying chemical and physical properties. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection or mass spectrometry has been the method of choice for the past 50 years. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) coupled with micro-electron capture detector (?ECD) is a new method that can analyze polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and chlorobenzenes (CBz) in a single analytical run with enhanced selectivity and sensitivity over single column methods and can also be used to screen for other halogenated organics in environmental samples. An accredited routine method using commercially available LECO GCxGC-?ECD and a column combination DB-1 × Rtx-PCB has been developed to analyse PCBs/OCs/CBz in soils, sediments and sludges. The method provides quantification of Aroclors and Aroclor mixtures to within 15% of target values and sub-nanogrammes per gramme detection limits. PMID:21633841

Muscalu, Alina M; Reiner, Eric J; Liss, Steven N; Chen, Tony; Ladwig, Gerry; Morse, David

2011-11-01

341

Persistent organic pollutants in snow from European high mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cores were collected in the catchment area of five remote mountain lakes in Europe. They were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and organochlorine pesticides, namely DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH). PAH are found in higher amounts in the Tatra and Caledonian mountains, PCB are higher in the Alps and HCH are highest in the Alps and Pyrenees. The qualitative PAH distributions are dominated by low molecular weight compounds, phenanthrene being the most abundant PAH in all but in one site. These compounds also occur predominantly in the gas phase in the atmosphere. Their high abundance in the snowpack witness the occurrence of effective transfer mechanisms from gas to snow flakes. In Starolesnianske (Tatra mountains), a higher contribution of high molecular weight compounds is found. This site exhibits the highest snow PAH and suspended particulate levels. Transformation of the concentration values of these compounds into annual deposition rates and correction for catchment/lake area indicates that in Scandinavia and the Alps a large proportion of PAH incorporation is mediated by snowfallout whereas in the Tatra mountains snow deposition only accounts for a small fraction of the compounds stored in the lake sediments. Among organochlorine compounds, only PCB and HCH have been found above method detection limit in most of the samples. The PCB congener distributions changes significantly between sites, although a predominance of the less chlorinated congeners have generally been observed.

Carrera, Guillem; Fernández, Pilar; Vilanova, Rosa M.; Grimalt, Joan O.

342

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > ? endosulfan > ? HCH > ? heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of ? HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ? 0.05). PMID:18777151

Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

2014-01-01

343

Organochlorine pesticides in squamate reptiles from southern Arizona, USA.  

PubMed

Despite recognition of the lack of reptile ecotoxicology data, the taxon remains poorly studied. Contaminant body burdens are useful in demonstrating exposures to contaminants do occur and may provide insight regarding risks. The purpose of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticide burdens in various tissues of terrestrial reptiles opportunistically collected in Arizona. Heptachlor, DDE, and endrin were the most common analytes detected in fat samples. Liver samples contained methoxychlor and heptachlor at greater frequency than other organochlorines. Investigations into chronic low-level exposures are rare for reptiles and research is needed to determine critical body residues associated with adverse impacts. PMID:23546687

Weir, Scott M; Dobrovolny, Marianne; Torres, Chelsea; Torres, Cassie; Goode, Matt; Rainwater, Thomas R; Salice, Christopher J; Anderson, Todd A

2013-06-01

344

Lake-wide distribution and depositional history of current- and past-use persistent organic pollutants in Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface sediment concentrations of past-use persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated napthalenes (PCNs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and current-use chemicals such as the polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), were determined in sediments from 22 sites across Lake Simcoe. PFCs were also measured in surface waters. Maximum concentrations of historical POPs,

Paul A. Helm; Jacquie Milne; Veronique Hiriart-Baer; Patrick Crozier; Terry Kolic; Rocsana Lega; Tony Chen; Karen MacPherson; Sarah Gewurtz; Jennifer Winter; Anne Myers; Chris H. Marvin; Eric J. Reiner

2011-01-01

345

Variation in organochlorine accumulation in relation to the life history of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.  

PubMed

Members of the catadromous eel live in various fresh, brackish and marine habitats. Therefore, these eels can accumulate organic pollutants and are a suitable bioindicator species for determining the levels of organic contaminants within different water bodies. The ecological risk for organochlorine compounds (OCs) in Anguilla japonica with various migration patterns, such as freshwater, estuarine and marine residences, was examined to understand the specific accumulation patterns. The concentrations of HCB, ?HCHs, ?CHLs and ?DDTs in the silver stage (maturing) eel were significantly higher than those in the yellow stage (immature) eel, in accordance with the higher lipid contents in the former versus the latter. The OC accumulations were clearly different among migratory types in the eel. The ecological risk of OCs increased as the freshwater residence period in the eel lengthened. The migratory histories and the lipid contents directly affected the OC accumulation in the catadromous eel species. PMID:24461693

Arai, Takaomi

2014-03-15

346

Organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk from agricultural region in Northwestern Spain  

SciTech Connect

During the past 30 years, the variety and usage of pesticides have increased in Spain and worldwide. Agricultural use of pesticides can be expected to result in residues in or food and feed. Several limited monitoring programs have received an extensive investigation in order to detect residues from organochlorine compounds in milk. This paper reports the findings of a pesticide residue study in cow's milk samples examined during the time period of one year between May of 1987 and March of 1988. The cow's milk samples destined to human consumption were collected from an agrarian area located at a geographic region of northwestern Spain. Analyses were conducted for DDT complex DDT{sub s}, DDD, DDE and isomers alpha, beta and gamma (lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, alpha- and beta-endosulfan, metoxichlor and mirex.

La Riva, C. de (Municipal Lab. of Leon, (Spain)); Anadon, A. (Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain))

1991-04-01

347

{gamma} Irradiation-induced degradation of organochlorinated pollutants in fatty esters and in Cod  

SciTech Connect

The {gamma} irradiation-induced degradation of 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) dissolved in methyl myristate and methyl oleate was studied. DDT and DDE produced DDD and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)chloroethylene (DDMU) respectively, in agreement with a previous study performed with aliphatic solvents. The degradation of these two former compounds was larger in methyl myristate than in methyl oleate and addition products between methyl myristate and the organochlorines were found. While DDD, DDE, and many PCB congeners in a cod sample were not measurably degraded at 15 KGy, DDT underwent 30% degradation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lepine, F.L.; Brochu, F.; Milot, S. [Institut Armand-Frappier, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

1995-02-01

348

Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has delivered valuable information on trends and spatial differences of these compounds in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and other Dutch canals, rivers and lakes. Specific local PCB, HCH and dieldrin contaminations were identified. Temporal trends show a slow decrease of PCB concentrations since 1977. Eels from the rivers Rhine and Meuse still exceed present European maximum residue limits for dioxin-like PCBs. Apart from some exceptions, OCP and tetra-BDE concentrations have also decreased, and more than those of PCBs. Fat contents of eel have decreased from an average of 21 to ca. 13%. This decrease in fat contents, coincides with the strong reduction of the European eel stock. PMID:20185213

de Boer, Jacob; Dao, Quy T; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Schobben, John H M

2010-05-01

349

Regional differences and sources of organochlorine pesticides in soils surrounding chemical industrial parks.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were investigated in 105 soil samples collected in vicinity of the chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. OCP concentrations significantly varied in the study area, high HCH and DDT levels were found close to the chemical industrial parks. The intensity of agricultural activity and distance from the potential OCP emitters have important influences on the OCP residue distributions. Principal component analysis indicates that HCH pollution is a mix of historical technical HCH and current lindane pollution and DDT pollution input is only due to technical DDT sources. The significant correlations of OCP compounds reveal that HCHs, DDTs and HCB could have some similar sources of origin. PMID:18563610

Wang, Guang; Lu, Yonglong; Li, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Han, Jingyi; Luo, Wei; Shi, Yajuan; Jiao, Wentao

2009-05-01

350

Organochlorine contaminants in common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs and young from the river Rhine area (France)  

SciTech Connect

Common terns (Sterna hirundo) exhibit a remarkable range of variation in reproductive success. Several factors are known to contribute to reproductive failure either before hatching or between the time of hatching and fledging : predation pressure, food availability, flooding, competition for nesting sites, and toxic chemicals. Contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), mercury and selenium were proved to significantly impair tern reproduction. During the reproductive period of 1988, an important mortality of common terns was observed in french colonies around the river Rhine. Approximately 50% of the young died a few days after hatching. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the intoxication by chlorinated compounds could have been responsible for the observed reproductive failure. 25 refs., 1 tab.

Castillo, L. (Heredia National Univ., San Jose (Costa Rica)); Thybaud, E. (National Institute of Environmental and Industrial Risk, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)); Caquet, T.; Ramade, F. (Univ. of Paris-Sud, Orsay (France))

1994-11-01

351

Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ?DDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ?PCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

352

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in environmental samples from the Shatt al-Arab River, Iraq.  

PubMed

Application of high resolution gas chromatography has confirmed relatively low residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in the Shatt al-Arab River. Thus, average concentration of these compounds in the edible portion of the cyprinid (Barbus xanthopetrus) were 21, 4 and 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively. Mean values of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in surface sediments were 5, 40 and 20 microg kg(-1) dry weight respectively. Shrimps sampled from the Shatt al-Arab River were found to contain residues of o, p'-DDD only (average concentration was 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight). However, comparison of these samples with those from an area affected directly by a point source of organochlorine pesticides has shown that the cyprinid of the same age group contained significantly higher residue levels (average concentrations of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were 166, 20 and 7 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). Thus, it may be concluded that there was no direct input of organochlorine pesticides to the Shatt al-Arab River, and transportation via the natural processes, such as drainage, appeared to be the sole source. Based upon the observation that the original compound (p,p'-DDT) has not been detected in this river, it has also been concluded that there was no recent contribution of DDT here. Relatively higher residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were encountered in the muscles of the Indian shad captured from the Shatt al-Arab River (average concentrations were 163, 80 and 28 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). However, these elevated values were attributed to this fish being migratory and it being exposed to these pesticides elsewhere. PMID:15092796

DouAbul, A A; Al-Saad, H T; Al-Rekabi, H N

1987-01-01

353

Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber.  

PubMed

So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g., in plastic and glass sheds), which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)). Air was sampled at 5, 15, and 30cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cylinders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges. Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs. These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air. The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed. PMID:25597683

Yang, Bing; Han, Baolu; Xue, Nandong; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng

2015-01-01

354

Organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of pregnant women in Veracruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

DDT and Lindane (gamma-HCH) which were used until 1999 in Mexico, have provided great benefits in the combat of vectors that spread infection-borne diseases and in agriculture for crop protection. The persistence in the environment and their accumulative properties results in bioconcentration in lipid rich tissues of the human body that reflect the extent of environmental pollution. Human adipose tissue samples were taken during 2009 from abdominal cavities of 69 pregnant women by cesarean surgery and from 34 samples of control donors by autopsy in Veracruz State. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with ECD. The results of mean levels (mg/kg on fat basis) were higher in controls compared to pregnant women beta-HCH 0.064 vs 0.027; pp'DDE 1.187 vs. 0.745; op'DDT 0.016 vs. 0.011; pp'DDT 0.117 vs. 0.099 and Sigma-DDT 1.337 vs. 0.854. The pregnant women group was divided according to age: up to 20, 20-30, and more than 30 years, and presented an increase for the more persistent pesticides with age in terms of mean concentrations and a more pronounced higher correlation in medians levels. Pairing Body Mass Index to organochlorine pesticide mean levels revealed no correlation between these factors in pregnant women. PMID:20449723

Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Valencia-Quintana, R; Caba, M; Hernández-Chalate, F; García-Aguilar, E; Villalba, R

2010-06-01

355

Organochlorine pollutants in human blood and their relation with age, gender and habitat from North-east India.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been beneficial to man and environment but their inadvertent use has caused considerable harm to human health. Despite the proliferation of different types of pesticides, organochlorines such as HCH and DDT still account for two third of the total consumption in India because of their low cost and versatility in action again various pests. Since, Assam, a state in North-eastern part of India is an endemic area with perennial transmission where mosquito borne diseases are serious health problems; these pesticides are still being used in huge quantities in vector control as well as in agriculture. A total of 331 human blood samples were collected from district Nagaon and Dibrugarh of Assam to determine the residue levels of DDT and HCH in human blood. The concentrations of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants were measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. The results demonstrated that the mean levels of total DDT and HCH were 743 ?g L(-1) and 627 ?g L(-1) for district Nagaon while 417 ?g L(-1) and 348 ?g L(-1) for district Dibrugarh. The difference of total HCH and total DDT between these two districts was found to be highly significant (P<0.0001). Among DDT metabolites, the same trend was observed for both the districts as p,p-DDT was the principal component contributed 41% for Nagaon and 58% for Dibrugarh. In case of HCH residues, for Nagaon, ?-HCH was the predominant contaminant comprised more than 34% while for Dibrugarh, it was ?-HCH that was contributing 43% of total HCH concentration. PMID:21925698

Mishra, K; Sharma, Ramesh C; Kumar, Sudhir

2011-10-01

356

Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

1999-05-01

357

Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

1973-01-01

358

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in Hong Kong soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was short of research on the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in the soils of Hong Kong. Sixty-six representative soil samples were collected from the 46 sites covering five types of land uses in Hong Kong. Hexachlorohexanes (HCH) and 7 Stockholm Convention OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a Nickel 63 electronic capture detector (?ECD). The results

H. B. Zhang; Y. M. Luo; Q. G. Zhao; M. H. Wong; G. L. Zhang

2006-01-01

359

Organochlorines in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive survey on organochlorine (OC) contaminants in polar bears at Svalbard has been undertaken. Subcutaneous tissue, blood and milk have been sampled from anesthetized free-ranging bears of both sexes and different ages in the period from 1990 to 1994. A number of sexually mature females have been fitted with satellite transmitters which make it possible to follow their reproductive

Aksel Bernhoft; Øystein Wiig; Janneche Utne Skaare

1997-01-01

360

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

361

Factors affecting the transfer of organochlorine pesticide residues to breastmilk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies monitoring organochlorine pesticide residues in breastmilk were examined to identify whether common factors determine the extent of transfer of these residues. A structured review of the English language literature was conducted. Papers were reviewed and assessed using a structured protocol. A total of 77 papers were initially identified, 46 of which contained conclusions relating to the factors which

Caroline A. Harris; Michael W. Woolridge; Alastair W. M. Hay

2001-01-01

362

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Human Fat in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the trend in the body load of organochlorine pesticide residues in Great Britain, between July 1965 and June 1967 samples of fat were taken during routine necropsies on 247 subjects over 3 years old and on 44 stillborn or premature babies and infants below the age of 3. The levels of the three main pesticides, B.H.C.,

D. C. Abbott; R. Goulding; J. O. G. Tatton

1968-01-01

363

Simplified Procedure for Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Analysis in Honey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified method for analysing organochlorine (OC) pesticides residues in honey was devised. It uses capillary column gas chromatography.It implies dissolving honey in water. The solution thus obtained is extracted by petroleum ether. The extract is purified on a Florisil micro-column. The recovery for the eleven OC pesticides studied was better than 90% for three levels of fortification. The LOQs

M. R. Driss; M. Zafzouf; S. Sabbah; M. L. Bouguerra

1994-01-01

364

Spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and River Ganga in India.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged in surface water by various point and nonpoint sources thereby degrading the functioning of the ecosystem and threatening human health. Chlorinated pesticides such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) are effective pest control chemicals, used in agriculture and public health activities (malaria eradication, etc.) in India for the past several decades and are still in use. POPs can cause endocrine disruption and food chain biomagnification because of their lipophilicity and environmental persistence. This study aims to assess the environmental occurrence and spatial distribution of OCPs, PAHs and PCBs in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and Ganga ending at the of the Bay of Bengal.The order of organochlorine pesticides is as: heptachlor>HCHs>DDTs>dieldrin>aldrin>endosulfan. Diamond Harbour and Bakkhali were the two places with elevated level of all individual HCH isomers compared to all other sites. ?-Endosulfan and ?-Endosulfan were high at Dibrugarh than other sampling sites. This is due to the ongoing use of Endosulfan in the tea estates in Assam especially the estates close to the town of Dibrugarh. p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT levels indicate the fresh input of DDT in all the sampling sites. Heptachlor has been observed in 57% of the total samples reported in the present study.These reasons may attribute to high deposition of pesticides in the surface water of Ganga and Brahmaputra.In addition the catchments area of the Ganga River is surrounded by agricultural lands so a relatively higher residue of pesticides was prevalent. ?27 PCBs varied from BDL to 142 (Avg±SD, 3.96±6.71) ng L-1. PCB-18, PCB-52 & PCB-44 showed the highest concentration levels for all the sampling sites. PCB-126 was observed in samples taken from sites close to the city limit of Kolkata and Assam which is an indication of higher toxic effect from this highly toxic congener. PCB-169 was prevalent in most of the sites. The total concentrations of PAHs varied from BDL to 31 (Avg±SD, 0.2±1.5) µg L-1. PAHs concentrations were very low as PAHs are particle bound compounds. PMID:24659603

Chakraborty, Paromita; Sakthivel, S; Kumar, Bhupander; Kumar, Sanjay; Mishra, Meenu; Verma, V K; Gaur, Richa

2014-01-01

365

Anthropogenic and Natural Organohalogen Compounds in Blubber of Dolphins and Dugongs ( Dugong dugon ) from Northeastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of organohalogen compounds (10 polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] congeners, DDT and metabolites, chlordane-related compounds,\\u000a the potential natural organochlorine compound Q1, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin, and several\\u000a yet unidentified brominated compounds) were detected in the blubber of four bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), one common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), and seven dugongs (Dugong dugon), as well as in adipose tissue of a

W. Vetter; E. Scholz; C. Gaus; J. F. Müller; D. Haynes

2001-01-01

366

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in amphipods (Gammarus lacustris) along an elevation gradient in mountain lakes of western Canada.  

PubMed

Populations of the amphipod Gammarus lacustris were examined for their concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from seven lakes spanning a 1,300-m elevation gradient in Alberta, Canada. The concentrations of several of the semivolatile organochlorine compounds ([SVOCs], vapor pressure > 0.03 Pa at 20 degrees C) increased at higher altitudes. This pattern was generally not observed among the less volatile organochlorines ([LVOCs]. vapor pressure < 0.03 Pa at 20 degrees C). These same SVOC compounds have been previously shown to increase at high latitudes as a result of their long-range transport and preferential deposition in cold climates. We also show that populations of G. lacustris at high elevations have slower growth rates and store more lipids than populations at lower elevations. To resolve the colinearity of independent variables, we used multiple regression to identify patterns of contaminant concentrations in this data set. Multiple regressions showed that the effect of elevation, lipid content, and temperature on contaminant concentrations was no longer significant once the growth rate of Gammarus was included as an independent variable. This study shows that enrichment of SVOCs occurs in Gammarus at high altitudes in Alberta, Canada, and that growth rate (biodilution) appears to be the primary influence. Because Gammarus is an important trophic link in aquatic foodwebs in these environments, enhanced concentrations of toxicants in prey may increase their biomagnification in top predators of high-altitude lakes. PMID:14587899

Blais, Jules M; Wilhelm, Frank; Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Donald, David B; Schindler, David W

2003-11-01

367

Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Indian flue-cured tobacco with gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

Presence of pesticide residues in tobacco increases health risk of both active and passive smokers, apart from the imminent potential health problems associated with it. Thus, monitoring of pesticide residue is an important issue in terms of formulating stringent policies, enabling global trade and safeguarding the consumer's safety. In this study, a gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method based upon quantifier-qualifier ions (m/z) ratio was employed for detecting and assessing ten organochlorine pesticide residues (?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, endrin, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate) in 152 flue-cured (FC) tobacco leave samples from two major tobacco growing states, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, of India. In the majority of samples, pesticide residue levels were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). In few samples, pesticide residues were detected and they found to comply with the guidance residue levels (GRL) specifications of the Cooperation Center for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA). Detection of the phase out pesticides like DDT/HCH might be due to transfer of persistent residues from the environmental components to the plant. This is the first report on these ten organochlorine pesticide residues in Indian FC tobacco. PMID:24687692

Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar; Khan, Zareen S; Rao, C V N; Banerjee, Kaushik; Reddy, D Damodar; Murthy, T G K; Johnson, Nalli; Ray, Deb Prasad

2014-08-01

368

Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides and their Metabolites in Alligator Livers from Lakes Apopka and Woodruff, Florida, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

369

Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a

John R. Kucklick; William D. J. Struntz; Paul R. Becker; Geoff W York; Todd M O'Hara; Jesssica E Bohonowych

2002-01-01

370

Persistent organochlorine pollutants in eggs of colonial waterbirds from Galveston Bay and East Texas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of neotropic cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April-May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency factors (TEQs) or the H4IIE-luc bioassay TCDD-EQs. Concentrations of 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 1,040 ng/g wet wt) in the Houston Ship Channel (Houston, TX, USA) and in those from Telfair Island (mean = 1,460 ng/g wet wt), a reference location outside the bay, than in most locations inside the bay (mean range = 119-453 ng/g wet wt). Mean PCB concentrations were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 5,720 ng/g wet wt) than in eggs of cormorants from areas farther away from the ship channel, including two reference sites outside the bay (mean range = 404-3,140 ng/g wet wt). The TCDD was the main dioxin congener detected in eggs from all locations within Galveston Bay. Instrumental TEQs in eggs ranged from 67 pg/g wet weight at control sites to 452 pg/g wet weight at Alexander Island. Concentrations of TCDD-EQs determined in the H4IIE assay were correlated with instrumental TEQs and were greater in eggs of cormorants from islands within the bay, although these were farther away from the ship channel. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, TCDD, and TCDD-EQs were less than the threshold levels known to affect reproduction. However, some eggs contained concentrations of total PCBs or DDE greater than what would elicit adverse effects on birds. No identifiable deformities or abnormalities were detected in embryos collected from all sites.

Frank, D.S.; Mora, M.A.; Sericano, J.L.; Blankenship, A.L.; Kannan, K.; Giesy, J.P.

2001-01-01

371

Temporal trends of organochlorines and mercury in seabird eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1975–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, total mercury and selenium were measured in eggs of thick-billed murres, northern fulmars and black-legged kittiwakes collected from Prince Leopold Island in the Canadian High Arctic between 1975 and 2003. The primary organochlorines found were ?PCB, p,p?-DDE, oxychlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Most of organochlorines analyzed showed either significant declines or no significant change between 1975 and 2003

Birgit M. Braune

2007-01-01

372

Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case–Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum ?-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of ?-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013. Organochlorine pesticides and risk of endometriosis: findings from a population-based case–control study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1319–1324;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306648 PMID:24192044

De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

2013-01-01

373

Distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments and benthic organisms from Taihu Lake, China.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments and benthic organisms from Taihu Lake were studied. OCPs were detected in all sediment samples with total concentrations ranging from 4.22 to 461 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). The ratios of certain metabolites to their parent compounds indicated there are still new inputs of parent DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) to Taihu Lake, while the highest residues of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) mainly came from earlier usage and fresh gamma-HCH (lindane). No positive correlation was found between the distribution of OCPs and organic matter contents in sediments. Concentrations of OCPs and lipids in typical large benthic organisms, Bellamya aeruginosa (B. aeruginosa) and Corbicula fluminea (C. fluminea), increased with body weight. HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes and heptachlors were the dominant compounds detected in organisms and C. fluminea accumulated much more OCP than B. aeruginosa. Higher values of biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) were detected in C. fluminea, which was both affected by biological characteristics of the organisms and physicochemical properties of the compounds. PMID:19819519

Zhao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lu; Wu, Jinglu; Fan, Chengxin

2009-11-01

374

Mercury, selenium, cadmium and organochlorines in eggs of three Hawaiian seabird species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of three representative species of seabirds (wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus; red-footed booby Sula sula; and sooty tern Sterna fuscata) were collected in 1980 to determined differences in heavy metal, Se, and organochlorine residues among species nesting in the Hawaiian Archipelago and among the four nesting sites sampled (Oahu, French Frigate Shoals, Laysan, and Midway). Hg and Se were present in all eggs analysed, but Cd was not detected. Hg was usually highest in booby eggs, and there was a southeast-to-northeast trend toward higher concetrations in this species; booby eggs from Midway contained the highest mean concentration of Hg (0?36 :g g-1, wet weight). Se consistently occurred at lowest concentrations in booby eggs. When Se and Hg concentrations were expressed as nanomoles per gram, Se constituted 94?96% of the combined total at each location for shearwater and tern eggs. In booby eggs, the proportion as Se declined significantly (' = 0?05) from Oahu (93?4%) westward to Midway (85?9%). Although DDT occurred in most of the shearwater eggs from each site, it was not found in booby or tern eggs. DDE occured in all eggs, but mean concentrations did not exceed 0?6 :g g-1. DDE concentrations were higher in eggs from the two south-eastern nesting sites and were consistently highest in shearwater eggs. PCBs were found in most of the shearwater and booby eggs, but were not detected in tern eggs. Other organochlorines usually occurred more frequently in eggs of shearwaters than in other species. The only exception were '-HCH and HCB, which occurred more frequently in booby eggs. Kepone, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane compounds, and toxaphene were not detected. Differences in residue concentrations seem to reflect differences in diets and seasonal movements of the birds, and perhaps other factors such as atmospheric and oceanic transport of chemicals and physiological differences among the species.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Harrison, C.S.

1986-01-01

375

Residues of organochlorinated pesticides in eggs of water birds from Tai Lake in China.  

PubMed

The levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of water birds from the colony on Tai Lake in China were studied. The eggs were collected in 2000 and belonged to the following species: 65 samples of black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), 36 samples of little egret (Egretta garzetta), 26 samples of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) from 13 clutches and 43 samples of Chinese pond heron (Ardeola bacchus) from 17 clutches. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivates (DDE and DDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its isomers (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate were determined in the laboratory by gas chromatography. The data showed that DDE had the highest levels in all the samples, followed by beta-HCH. The mean levels of DDE among the water bird species were in the order as follows: black-crowned night heron (5464.26 ng/g, dry weight) > Chinese pond heron (2791.12 ng/g, dry weight) > little egret (1979.97 ng/g, dry weight) > cattle egret (660.11 ng/g, dry weight). DDT and its metabolites accounted for 90% of the total organochlorines, except that it was only 73% for cattle egret. The differences of the residue among the bird species were statistically significant and could be attributed to their variations in prey and habitat. Although the DDE burdens in Tai Lake were much lower than 8 microg/g (wet weight) which are thought to have significant adverse effects on black-crowned night herons, they would be expected to increase the risk of adverse effects on survival of chicks of herons and egrets, particularly black-crowned night heron, based on the critical value of 1 microg/g (wet weight) DDE. The burdens of HCHs in this study were higher and the cyclodienes were lower than those found elsewhere. PMID:15499782

Dong, Y H; Wang, H; An, Q; Ruiz, X; Fasola, M; Zhang, Y M

2004-01-01

376

Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.  

PubMed

In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat. PMID:7794009

Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R

1995-07-01

377

Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.  

PubMed

This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health. PMID:19294327

Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

2009-06-01

378

Organochlorine residues in shellfish from Maryland waters, 1976-1980.  

PubMed

Shellfish samples, including the American oyster (Craessostrea virginica), the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), the hard shell clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and the blue crab (callinectes sapidus), were taken from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five year period (1976-80) and analyzed to determine residue levels of various organochlorine pesticides. Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for a variety of polychlorinated hydrocarbons. The purpose of this study includes the establishment of baseline values for levels of shellfish contamination, utilization of the data as an indicator of probable levels of water and sediment contamination in the vicinity of the sampling site and ensurance that shellfish harvested for human consumption are within U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines for organochlorine contamination. All mean values and virtually all individual values were within FDA guidelines. PMID:6501793

Eisenberg, M; Topping, J J

1984-10-01

379

Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas  

PubMed Central

Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes. PMID:23343981

Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Gowen, Rose M. Z.; Miller, Rebecca P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

2013-01-01

380

HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA  

EPA Science Inventory

Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

381

[Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant. PMID:2445007

Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

1986-06-01

382

Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is

Donald R. Clark; Arnulfo Moreno-Valdez; Miguel A. Mora

1995-01-01

383

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.  

PubMed

Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22?g (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts. PMID:25522853

Beníšek, Martin; Kuku?ka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Lud?k

2015-03-01

384

Simultaneous determination of trihalomethanes and organochlorine pesticides in water samples by direct immersion-headspace-solid phase microextraction.  

PubMed

In this study the extraction conditions for the simultaneous extraction of volatile (trihalomethanes - THM) and semi-volatile (organochlorine pesticides) compounds from water samples by direct immersion-headspace-solid phase microextraction (DI-HS-SPME) were optimized and compared. The extraction efficiencies of the proposed DI-HS-SPME and traditional SPME modes were also compared. The separation and detection were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in SIM mode (GC-MS-SIM). The variables evaluated were extraction time, extraction temperature and added volume of aqueous NaCl solution at 20% (m/v). Central composite designs were carried out to determine the optimal extraction conditions for each SPME mode. The optimal condition for the DI-HS-SPME mode was 80min of total extraction time (64min at 70°C in DI-SPME mode and 16min at 12°C in HS-SPME mode) with 5mL of 20% (m/v) NaCl solution. The SPME extraction modes were compared and the DI-HS-SPME produced excellent results for both volatile and semi-volatile compounds. This represents a promising alternative for the analysis of matrices that contain compounds with very different ranges of volatility. The analytical figures of merit were evaluated and good results were obtained using this procedure for both classes of compounds studied. The limit of quantitation ranged from 0.02 to 2.0?gL(-1) for organochlorine pesticides and from 0.30 to 0.77?gL(-1) for THM. PMID:24239037

Merib, Josias; Simão, Vanessa; Dias, Adriana Neves; Carasek, Eduardo

2013-12-20

385

Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, E.H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

2008-01-01

386

Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters  

SciTech Connect

The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

Mason, C.F. (Univ. of Essex, Colchester (England))

1989-10-01

387

Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in wood storks and anhingas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

All 10 Wood Stork eggs collected at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in 1973 contained residues of DDE (geometric mean 4.0 ppm wet weight) and PCBs (1.2 ppm). Nine other organochlorines were found at lower frequencies in the eggs. Eggshells from the recent period were 8.9% thinner (P < 0.001) than pre-1947 samples; decrease in eggshell thickness was more closely correlated with DDE than other organochlorines and correlation of DDE and eggshell thickness approached significance (P = 0.115).....Anhinga eggs were collected at 7 localities; 45 of the 46 eggs analyzed contained DDE residues and 24 contained PCBs. Residues of other organochlorines were found less frequently. Shell thickness of recent eggs from Louisiana and Mississippi was significantly less (-7.5%; P < 0.05) than the mean for pre-1947 eggs, but there was no significant change in shell thickness of eggs from Florida. The change in clutch mean eggshell thickness was significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the concentration of DDE in the eggs.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

1978-01-01

388

Macro-analytical methods used to analyze tissues of the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and pentachlorophenol  

SciTech Connect

Among the specimens which were processed as the results of poisoning incidents, were tissues of an adult male Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, which had died while in captivity without known cause. Various tissues of the animal were analyzed to determine whether the death of the monk seal had any connection with exposures to environmental pesticides or pollutants, particularly to organochlorine compounds. The specimens included urine, parts of liver, lung and blubber, an entire testis, and an entire kidney. Solid tissues from the animal were from correspondingly large organs. Macro methods for representative analyses of these tissues for multiresidues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were devised. Results are tabulated. The death of the Hawaiian monk seal could not be attributed conclusively to the organochlorines and pentachlorophenol that were found in tissues of this mammal. Baseline (normal) data of residue levels for these pollutants in animal tissues in Hawaii are so limited that pathogenic levels in the fauna cannot be predicted. It is difficult to even speculate whether the residues detected in the monk seal tissues were due to exposures of earth's background (ambient) atmosphere or to exposures of the mammal's immediate (specific) environment.

Takei, G.H.; Leong, G.H.

1981-10-01

389

Reproductive transfer of organochlorines in viviparous surfperch, Ditrema temmincki.  

PubMed

To discuss the maternal-fetal transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in viviparous fish, the whole-body burdens of POPs were determined in gravid surfperches from Otsuchi Bay, Japan, and in their fetuses. The concentrations were 2.75-15.5 times higher in the maternal tissue. To compare the characteristics of the maternal-fetal transfer between species with different gestation systems, reports on the striped dolphin and long-finned pilot whales were studied. The transfer rates of POPs in surfperches were 0.6-6.0%, while in marine mammals they were 3.0-9.4%. The difference in transfer rates may derive from the difference in their reproductive systems. On the other hand, as in marine mammals, selective transfer of POPs was seen in surfperches. The transfer rates were higher in less hydrophobic compounds such as dieldrin, and lower in more hydrophobic compounds such as DDTs. A new transfer factor is also discussed which instantly indicates the difference in the concentrations between mother and fetus. PMID:16360249

Oka, Mayuko; Arai, Takaomi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

2006-08-01

390

Toxic metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) and organochlorine residue levels in hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Marmara Sea, Turkey.  

PubMed

Toxic metals (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) and organochlorine residue levels were measured in hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Marmara Sea. Biota samples were collected by a trawling cruise of the R/V ARAR in August and December 2009. The concentrations of toxic metals varied between Pb, 3.23-14.4; Cd, <0.01-2.14; Hg, 0.01-0.18 and As, 0.01-0.21 [Formula: see text]g g(-1) dry wt. Pb levels in the Marmara Sea were found to be higher than the critical limits set by the both Turkish Ministry of Environment for Aquatic Products (1 ?g g(-1) wet wt.) and European countries (2.0 ?g g(-1), UNEP 1985). In contrast, As and Hg levels were found to be lower than the critical limits for two periods. Cd contents of fish from the Marmara Sea were also comparable to or slightly lower than contents of fish from the Southern Black Sea Shelf. The results of organochlorine residues ranged between total HCH, <0.05 and 99 ng g(-1); endrin, <0.001 and 381 ng g(-1); alpha-endosulphan, <0.05 and 90 ng g(-1); beta-endosulphan, <0.05 and 15.3 ng g(-1); o,p DDE, 3.5 and 52.4 ng g(-1); p,p DDE, 7.4 and 139 ng g(-1); o,p DDD, 1.5 and 90.2 ng g(-1) and p,p DDD, 2.7 and 86 ng g(-1) wet weight. The rivers for the distribution of organochlorine levels in the Marmara Sea ordered from highest to lowest as Dil R. > Susurluk R. > Biga R. > Gönen R. The high levels of o,p and p,p DDE, and o,p and p,p DDD compounds, which are metabolites of DDT, indicate its illegal use. Toxic metal and organochlorine residue levels of fish are significantly higher than levels from the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21336486

Aksu, Abdullah; Balkis, Nuray; Ta?kin, Omer S; Er?an, Mahmut S

2011-11-01

391

Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: A case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin  

PubMed Central

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3 mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August–October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17?-estradiol (E2), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E2). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E2 had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E2 may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system. PMID:23041725

Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

2013-01-01

392

Residues and Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Surface Water in the Suburb of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT and HCH, have stable chemical properties and less biodegradability. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, they have high risk to the environment and human health. Although DDT and HCH have been prohibited in China since 1983, they are still found in some soil and water nowadays. Water resource is very important in natural environment and essential for agriculture. The existence of OCPs in some surface water in Beijing has been detected with different levels according to previous investigations. In recent years, many measures have been taken to control the pollution and to monitor the environment, and more attention has been paid to the status of surface water today. In this study, the water samples were collected from the Wenyu, Beiyun, Yanqing, Fangshan, Changping, and Shunyi Rivers in the suburb of Beijing, and the residues and characteristics of DDT and HCH were studied. The results showed that the contents of DDTs and HCHs were ND-13.98 ng/L and 3.87-146.42 ng/L, respectively. According to the indicators of the ratio values of (DDD+DDE)/DDT and ?-HCH/?-HCH, the source of pollution and its potential risk are also discussed in this article.

CHEN, Jiawei; LIU, Chen; YANG, Zhongfang; WANG, Jiyuan

393

Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

Stendell, R.C.; Beyer, W.N.; Stehn, R.A.

1989-01-01

394

Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: a case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August-October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17?-estradiol (E(2)), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E(2)). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E(2) had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E(2) may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system. PMID:23041725

Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-01-01

395

Cell cycle disruption and apoptosis as mechanisms of toxicity of organochlorines in Zea mays roots.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widespread environmental pollutants; two of them are highly persistent: lindane (?HCH) and chlordecone (CLD). Maize plants cope with high levels of OCP-environmental pollution, however little is known about cellular mechanisms involved in plant response to such OCP-exposures. This research was aimed at understanding the physiological pathways involved in the plant response to OCPs in function of a gradient of exposure. Here we provide the evidences that OCPs might disrupt root cell cycle leading to a rise in the level of polyploidy possibly through mechanisms of endoreduplication. In addition, low-to-high doses of ?HCH were able to induce an accumulation of H2O2 without modifying NO contents, while CLD modulated neither H2O2 nor NO production. [Ca(2+)]cytosolic, the caspase-3-like activity as well as TUNEL-positive nuclei and IP-positive cells increased after exposure to low-to-high doses of OCPs. These data strongly suggest a cascade mechanism of the OCP-induced toxic effect, notably with an increase in [Ca(2+)]cytosolic and caspase-3-like activity, suggesting the activation of programmed cell death pathway. PMID:24892778

Blondel, Claire; Melesan, Marc; San Miguel, Angélique; Veyrenc, Sylvie; Meresse, Patrick; Pezet, Mylène; Reynaud, Stephane; Raveton, Muriel

2014-07-15

396

PERSISTENT BACULOVIRUS INFECTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This review will encompass persistent baculovirus infections. As well, this review does not address the persistence of baculoviruses in invertebrate hosts other than insects. The intent of this review is to draw together the information on baculovirus persistence in vivo and in v...

397

Observations on persistent organic pollutants in indoor and outdoor air using passive polyurethane foam samplers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) indoors and outdoors are sparse or lacking in several parts of the world, often hampered by the cost and inconvenience of active sampling techniques. Cheap and easy passive air sampling techniques are therefore helpful for reconnaissance surveys. As a part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) project in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in 2006, a range of POPs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) were analyzed in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks used as passive samplers in indoor and outdoor air. Results were compared to those from samplers deployed simultaneously in Gothenburg (Sweden) and Lancaster (United Kingdom). Using sampling rates suggested in the literature, the sums of 13 PAHs in the different sites were estimated to be 6.1-180 ng m -3, with phenanthrene as the predominant compound. Indoor PAH levels tended to be higher in Gothenburg and outdoor levels higher in Mexico City. The sum of PCBs ranged 59-2100 ng m -3, and seemed to be highest indoors in Gothenburg and Lancaster. PBDE levels (sum of seven) ranged 0.68-620 ng m -3, with the highest levels found in some indoor locations. OCPs (i.e. DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes) were widely dispersed both outdoors and indoors at all three studied areas. In Gothenburg all POPs tended to be higher indoors than outdoors, while indoor and outdoor levels in Mexico City were similar. This could be due to the influence of indoor and outdoor sources, air exchange rates, and lifestyle factors. The study demonstrates how passive samplers can provide quick and cheap reconnaissance data simultaneously at many locations which can shed light on sources and other factors influencing POP levels in air, especially for the gaseous fractions.

Bohlin, Pernilla; Jones, Kevin C.; Tovalin, Horacio; Strandberg, Bo

398

Neurotoxicity of persistent organic pollutants: possible mode(s) of action and further considerations.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-lived toxic organic compounds and are of major concern for human and ecosystem health. Although the use of most POPs is banned in most countries, some organochlorine pesticides are still being used in several parts of the world. Although environmental levels of some POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have declined, newly emerging POPs such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been increasing considerably. Exposure to POPs has been associated with a wide spectrum of effects including reproductive, developmental, immunologic, carcinogenic, and neurotoxic effects. It is of particular concern that neurotoxic effects of some POPs have been observed in humans at low environmental concentrations. This review focuses on PCBs as a representative chemical class of POPs and discusses the possible mode(s) of action for the neurotoxic effects with emphasis on comparing dose-response and structure-activity relationships (SAR) with other structurally related chemicals. There is sufficient epidemiological and experimental evidence showing that PCB exposure is associated with motor and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Although several potential mode(s) of actions were postulated for PCB-induced neurotoxic effects, changes in neurotransmitter systems, altered intracellular signalling processes, and thyroid hormone imbalance are predominant ones. These three potential mechanisms are discussed in detail in vitro and in vivo. In addition, SAR was conducted on other structurally similar chemicals to see if they have a common mode(s) of action. Relative potency factors for several of these POPs were calculated based on their effects on intracellular signalling processes. This is a comprehensive review comparing molecular effects at the cellular level to the neurotoxic effects seen in the whole animal for environmentally relevant POPs. PMID:18648619

Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S

2005-01-01

399

Neurotoxicity of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Possible Mode(s) of Action and Further Considerations  

PubMed Central

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-lived toxic organic compounds and are of major concern for human and ecosystem health. Although the use of most POPs is banned in most countries, some organochlorine pesticides are still being used in several parts of the world. Although environmental levels of some POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have declined, newly emerging POPs such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been increasing considerably. Exposure to POPs has been associated with a wide spectrum of effects including reproductive, developmental, immunologic, carcinogenic, and neurotoxic effects. It is of particular concern that neurotoxic effects of some POPs have been observed in humans at low environmental concentrations. This review focuses on PCBs as a representative chemical class of POPs and discusses the possible mode(s) of action for the neurotoxic effects with emphasis on comparing dose-response and structure-activity relationships (SAR) with other structurally related chemicals. There is sufficient epidemiological and experimental evidence showing that PCB exposure is associated with motor and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Although several potential mode(s) of actions were postulated for PCB-induced neurotoxic effects, changes in neurotransmitter systems, altered intracellular signalling processes, and thyroid hormone imbalance are predominant ones. These three potential mechanisms are discussed in detail in vitro and in vivo. In addition, SAR was conducted on other structurally similar chemicals to see if they have a common mode(s) of action. Relative potency factors for several of these POPs were calculated based on their effects on intracellular signalling processes. This is a comprehensive review comparing molecular effects at the cellular level to the neurotoxic effects seen in the whole animal for environmentally relevant POPs. PMID:18648619

Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

2005-01-01

400

Shell thinning and residues of organochlorines and mercury in seabird eggs, eastern canada, 1970-76  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine and mercury concentrations in 252 eggs of eight species of seabirds, collected from the Bay of Fundy, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the open Atlantic Ocean during 1970-76, are reported. All organochlorines, except DDE and PCB's, were present in low concentrations. DDE, PCB's, and mercury residues were highest in cormorant and petrel, intermediate in alcids, and lowest in

P. A. Pearce; D. B. Peakall; L. M. Reynolds

1979-01-01

401

Organochlorine pesticide in fresh and pasteurized cow’s milk from Kampala markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh and pasteurized milk samples from Kampala markets were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron ca