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Sample records for persistent organochlorine compounds

  1. Blood concentrations and risk assessment of persistent organochlorine compounds in newborn boys in Turkey. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Çok, İsmet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-12-01

    Even early life in utero cannot provide a safe place for newborns. The first acquaintance with chemicals takes place in utero and/or with mother's milk after delivery. Besides legislations and bans to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), these chemicals are still affecting the general population especially the children as they are one of the populations most susceptible to chemicals, and also the health problems may arise in the future. Our objective is to collect the first data in newborns in Turkey to determine baseline levels of POPs in the general population and estimate the potential cancer risk related to exposure. Twenty-nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in blood samples of newborn boys (0-1 month old) who were born in İstanbul, Turkey, in 2010-2012 were evaluated with high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds are as follows: hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) 1828 ± 3650 pg/g lipid, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT) 10,000 ± 15,398 pg/g lipid, and ΣPCB 1068 ± 1823 pg/g lipid. 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene, and PCB 138 and 153 are the major contaminants. New POPs as lindane 61 ± 268 pg/g lipid, pentachlorobenzene 13 ± 74 pg/g lipid, and endosulfan 29 ± 106 pg/g lipid are also detected in blood. Estimated total risk for lifetime PCB exposure is less than 1 × 10(-5), an acceptable risk. Blood concentration levels will be important base data in the assessment of health concerns of newborns as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans. PMID:26289328

  2. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH). A high level of ?-HCH and low ?-HCH/?-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of ?-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (?-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of ?-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region. PMID:21952469

  3. Organochlorine compounds and testicular dysgenesis syndrome: human data

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Trabert, Britton; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, subfertility, and testicular germ-cell tumor have been suggested to comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) based on the premise that each may derive from perturbations of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to be associated with these disorders given the importance of sex steroid hormones in urogenital development and homeostasis. Organochlorines are one such set of compounds which are defined as containing between one and ten covalently bonded chlorine atoms. These compounds are persistent pollutants with long half-lives, accumulate in adipose tissue when ingested, bioaccumulate and biomagnify, and have complex and variable toxicological profiles. Examples of organochlorines include dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordane. In this comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies which have tested for associations between organochlorines and facets of TDS, we find evidence for associations between the exposures p,p′-DDE, cis-nonachlor, and trans-nonachlor with TGCT. The sum of the evidence from human epidemiologic studies does not indicate any association between specific organochlorines studied and cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or fertility. Many other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including additional organochlorines, have yet to be assessed in relation to disorders associated with TDS, yet study of such chemicals has strong scientific merit given the relevance of such hypotheses to urogenital development. PMID:21668838

  4. Marine pollution by persistent organochlorines in Asia and Oceania

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, S.; Iwata, H.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1995-12-31

    The global chemical trade increased year by year and exceeded US$300 billion in 1991. In this context, the share of chemical exports in developing countries is expanding markedly from 7% of the world total value in 1980to 13% in 1991, almost doubling within 10 years. It was also reported that the growth rates of chemical exports in 1991 were less than 1% in developed nations, whereas those in developing countries revealed more than 13%. Among several developing nations, Asian countries have the largest bulk of chemical exports and now top the list of chemical exporters. It is also remarkable that 68% of the share of Asia`s chemical exports in 1991 has gone to the regional market in the same area. These statistics indicate that the growth in supply and demand of chemicals has been far outpaced in developing, countries, particularly the Asian region, and therefore corresponding, environmental problems caused by toxic chemicals are of great concern. The present paper overviews the marine pollution by toxic organochlorines such as PCBs, DDT, HCHs and chlordane compounds in Asia and Oceania, and also deals with their ecotoxicological implications in marine ecosystems. The recent pattern of contamination by organochlorines is prominent in tropical coastal regions, suggesting their continuous usage in the low-latitude developing countries. Due to the high temperature, the toxic contaminants used in the tropics are rapidly evaporated into the air, and then carried by the long-range atmospheric transport on global terms and eventually deposited in the water phase in the polar regions. These situations may accelerate the biological contaminations and possible toxic effects to marine organisms, particularly mammals which are now facing the extraordinary contamination by persistent organochlorines and serious mass mortalities.

  5. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and whole blood

    SciTech Connect

    Waliszewski, S.M. ); Szymczynski, G.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Since organochlorine pesticides were introduced for plant protection and sanitation, they have been of great benefit in the control of pest populations and in combating the spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, they accumulate in the environment and this has resulted in a ban on their use. Nevertheless, they are still widely used in tropical countries as the insecticides of choice. An analytical procedure was elaborated to find out the extent of contamination of the human body by persistent residues of organochlorine pesticides and to determine the gradient between adipose tissue and biological fluids, which correlates with bioaccumulation and dissipation processes. The method has two important advantages: it is a simple, low-cost semi-micro, and it makes it possible to determine free and bound pesticides.

  6. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2001-12-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs > PCBs > HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p'-DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. PMID:11827119

  7. Distribution of some organochlorine compounds (PCB, CBz, and DDE) in beeswax and honey

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, J.; Cerne, K.

    1993-11-01

    Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Heavy metal and organochlorine compound concentrations in tissues of raccoons from east-central Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, G.B.; Peterle, T.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and related compounds and heavy metals are persistent contaminants in the environment. Bioconcentration and biomagnification are well reported for organochlorine compounds. These compounds have a great potential for causing wildlife mortality or serious behavioral, reproductive, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects, along with specific organ toxicity. The pervasive nature of toxic substances in the environment necessitates some knowledge for potential exposure of wildlife species. Without baseline values of contaminant loads for selected indicator species it is impossible to determine when abnormal or pathological conditions exist in wild populations. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline values for selected environmental contaminants in the raccoon (Procyon lotor), a potential indicator species for wildlife and to see if heavy metal accumulation was related to age or sex.

  9. Biomagnification study on organochlorine compounds in marine aquaculture: the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) as a model.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Roque; Simal-Julián, Angela; Pitarch, Elena; Hernández, Félix; Varó, Inmaculada; Navarro, Juan C

    2003-08-01

    Biomagnification of organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) through the marine aquaculture food chain is investigated. From first-feeding, specimens of sea bass were exposed to commercial fish feed (that contained DDTs and PCBs residues) for ca. 24 months, and selected tissues (white and red muscle, liver, and visceral fat) were analyzed after 6 and 24 months of diet exposure. Data obtained showed that experimental fish tissues presented a similar contamination pattern to that of fish feed, and biomagnification processes of these compounds were proved. Additionally, commercial sea bass cultured in farms from the western Mediterranean were analyzed, their organochlorine concentrations being significantly lower than those of the 24 month old experimental fish. Thus, the exposition of human population to OCs through consumption of cultured fish would be lower than expected from experimental biomagnification studies, although red muscle presented similar OC levels in both cases, which were much higher than those of white muscle. Although levels of organochlorine compounds were found to be low, the persistence, ubiquity, and toxicity of these compounds, together with their presence in fish feed, make it necessary to monitor OC residues in the routine quality assurance programs of aquaculture activities, as this food chain is a source of these toxic compounds for human consumers. The development of sensitive analytical methodology based on GC-MS/MS has allowed for the reaching of low detection limits required to carry out the present study. PMID:12966984

  10. Organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue in the South Platte River Basin, USA, 1992-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, C.M.; Heiny, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected in the South Platte River Basin to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the basin. During August-November 1992 and August 1993, bed sediment (23 sites) and fish tissue (subset of 19 sites) were sampled and analyzed for 32 organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and 27 compounds in fish tissue. More types of organochlorine compounds were detected in fish tissue than in bed sediment. Total DDT, p,p???-DDE, o,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, total PCS, Dacthal??, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and p,p???-DDT were detected in fish tissue at >25% of the sites; p,p???-DDE, total DDT, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane were detected in bed sediment at >25% of the sites. Organochlorine concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue were related to land-use settings. Few organochlorine compounds were detected at minimally impacted sites located in rangeland, forest, and built-up land-use settings. Chlordane-related compounds and p,p???-methoxychlor in bed sediment and fish tissue, endrin in fish tissue, and endosulfan I in bed sediment were associated with urban and mixed (urban and agricultural) sites. Dacthal?? in bed sediment and fish tissue was associated with agricultural sites. The compounds HCB, ??-HCH, PCA, and toxaphene were detected only at mixed land-use sites. Although DDT and DDT-metabolites, dieldrin, and total PCB were detected in urban, mixed, and agricultural land-use settings, highest mean concentrations were detected at mixed land-use sites. Mixed land-use sites had the greatest number of organochlorine compounds detected in fish tissue, whereas urban and mixed sites had the greatest number of organochlorine compounds detected in bed sediment. Measuring concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue at the same site offers a more complete picture of the persistence of organochlorine compounds in the environment and their relation to land-use settings.

  11. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  12. Specific pattern of persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from South India

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Gondaira, Futoshi; Ramesh, A.; Tatsukawa, Ryo ); Subramanian, A.; Mohan, D.; Kumaran, P.; Venugopalan, V.K. )

    1990-03-01

    Human breast milk samples collected from four locations in Tamil Nadu state, South India, were analyzed for understanding the levels of persistent organochlorines such as 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH (BHC)) isomers, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). On the basis of the overall concentrations of these compounds, {Sigma}HCH (sum of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, and {delta} isomers) levels were higher than the other two. Unlike that of developed countries, the concentration of HCH isomers in Indian breast milk was more in vegetarians than nonvegetarians. Interestingly, high levels of HCH isomers indicated a shift toward their preferential accumulation in the body relative to DDT compounds, which had higher levels than HCH isomers in earlier years. In view of the increase usage of technical HCH for agriculture and vector control, the body burden of HCH isomers may still go up in Indians. The authors also detected PCBs in Indian breast milk, but at low levels.

  13. Organochlorine compounds in ice melt water from Italian Alpine rivers.

    PubMed

    Villa, Sara; Negrelli, Christian; Finizio, Antonio; Flora, Onelio; Vighi, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine chemicals (OCs) (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and hexachlorobenzene) were measured in ice melt water from five glaciers in the Italian Alps. Even though the data collected may not be sufficient for a precise description of persistent organic pollutant release patterns from glacier melting, they have, however, highlighted the potential for surface water contamination. Concentrations were of the same order of magnitude in all glacial streams, indicating comparable contamination levels in different glaciers of the alpine region. OC levels in nonglacial springs sampled in the same areas are usually lower. Even if differences during the melting season (from spring to autumn) have been identified, a regular seasonal pattern in OC concentrations was not observed. Risk for the aquatic environment is excluded through direct water exposure, but it is likely to occur through biomagnification and secondary poisoning exposure. PMID:16054693

  14. Reconstruction of organochlorine compound inputs in the Tagus Prodelta.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vicente, Maria; Grimalt, Joan O; Micaelo, Cristina; Abrantes, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Twenty century time-resolved variability of riverine deposits of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was studied in three (210)Pb dated sediment cores collected in a depositional shelf area adjacent to the Tagus estuary (the Tagus Prodelta). The geographic and temporal distribution patterns were consistent with discharge of these organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the area associated with the Tagus mouth. Their concentrations were not correlated with the sedimentary total organic carbon. The PCB down-core profiles were dominated by CB138 and CB153 (hexa-CBs) congeners followed by CB180 (hepta-CBs). Principal Component Analysis of the congener distributions of these compounds did not define temporal down-core trends. The ratios of DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT) were consistent with recent DDT inputs into the environment and/or earlier applications and long-term residence in soils/sediments until these were eroded and remobilized. PMID:26210675

  15. Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organochlorines and Childhood Obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project

    PubMed Central

    Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In some previous studies, prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines such as 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p´-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in children. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), p,p´-DDE, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs with offspring obesity during childhood. Methods: The analysis was based on a subsample of 1,915 children followed until 7 years of age as part of the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). The CPP enrolled pregnant women in 1959–1965; exposure levels were measured in third-trimester maternal serum that was collected before these organochlorines were banned in the United States. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for BMI as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results: Adjusted results did not show clear evidence for an association between organochlorine exposure and obesity; however, a suggestive finding emerged for dieldrin. Compared with those in the lowest quintile (dieldrin, < 0.57 μg/L), odds of obesity were 3.6 (95% CI: 1.3, 10.5) for the fourth and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.8, 7.1) for the highest quintile. Overweight and BMI were unrelated to organochlorine exposure. Conclusions: In this population with relatively high levels of exposure to organochlorines, no clear associations with obesity or BMI emerged. Citation: Cupul-Uicab LA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Longnecker MP. 2013. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines and childhood obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1103–1109; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205901 PMID:23799652

  16. Polychlorobiphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in human follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    De Felip, Elena; di Domenico, Alessandro; Miniero, Roberto; Silvestroni, Leopoldo

    2004-03-01

    Based on observations in animals, there is an increasing evidence that a number of persistent organochlorine pollutants can alter the endocrine homeostasis, this resulting in toxic effects in particular in the developing organism. However, the role of these chemicals in determining endocrine-related diseases in humans, and possibly a decrease of fertility, is still controversial. Exposure data concerning the human reproductive system are essential for risk assessment. Based on this, the occurrence in follicular fluid of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-chlorosubstituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolites, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated. With respect to PCBs, the sum of the three most abundant congeners (PCBs 138, 153 and 180) was 1230 ng/g, lipid basis (0.37 ng/g, wet weight). Congener distribution profile overlapped what is usually observed in other human tissues, as blood and milk. PCDDs, PCDFs, p,p'-DDT and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (p,p'-DDD) were below their determination limits. 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) and HCB were detected in concentrations respectively in the order of 700 and 70 ng/g, lipid basis (approximately 0.2 and approximately 0.02 ng/g, wet weight). PMID:14659946

  17. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern is predictive of the subsequent occurrence of disease. PMID:23785499

  18. Persistent organochlorine residues and their bioaccumulation profiles in resident and migratory birds from North Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Yen, Nguyen Thi Hong; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Qui, Vo

    2002-10-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs), were determined in whole-body homogenates of resident and migratory birds collected from the Red River estuary, North Vietnam, during March and October 1997. Contamination pattern was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs > HCB in both resident and migratory birds. Residue concentrations, according to the feeding habit, showed little variability, which may reflect relatively similar trophic levels of the bird species analyzed. Resident birds accumulated greater concentrations of DDTs as compared to migrants. In contrast, HCH residues were greater in migratory species. Higher proportions of p,p'-DDT to total DDT concentrations were found in many species of residents and migrants, indicating recent exposure to technical DDT in northern Vietnam. Congener-specific PCB analysis showed the predominance of penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls in all the species analyzed. Estimation of hepatic microsomal enzyme activities suggested higher metabolic capacity for PCB congeners in shore birds from Vietnam as compared to higher-trophic predator birds and marine mammals. Comparison of OC residues in avian species in Asia-Pacific revealed that DDT residues in resident birds in North Vietnam are among the highest values reported for the countries surveyed, suggesting recent usage of DDT in Vietnam. Available data for birds, fish, and bivalves from the recent Asia-Pacific Mussel Watch Program suggested that Vietnam might be a potential source of DDT contamination in Asian developing countries. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the OC accumulation in avian species from Vietnam. PMID:12371487

  19. Organochlorine compounds and their metabolites in seven Icelandic seabird species - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn; Löfstrand, Karin; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Ake

    2010-05-01

    The present study is designed to assess the occurrence of a few organochlorine contaminants and their metabolites in eggs of different marine bird species in Iceland, a country located in the sub-Arctic of the North-Western Atlantic. Previous investigations from e.g. Sweden and The Netherlands have shown some obvious differences in contaminant concentrations, including e.g. hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) in guillemot (Uria aalge) and other bird species. Eggs from seven marine bird species, Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), common eider (Somateria mollissima), guillemot, fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), and great skua (Stercorarius skua), that all breed in Iceland, were collected and analyzed for several persistent organic compounds and their metabolites. The contaminant levels varied between the species investigated. The highest concentrations were found in eggs from the great skua (18 and 23 microg/g l.w. of CB-153 and 4,4'-DDE, respectively). The concentration difference was generally 2 orders of magnitude higher in great skua for all organochlorine compounds analyzed with the exception of HCB. HCB did not vary as much between the seven species (ranging from 34 to 710 ng/g l.w). OH-PCB and MeSO(2)-PCB metabolites congener concentrations and patterns showed differences in metabolic capacity between bird species. Guillemot and great skua seem to distinguish themselves most from other species i.e. with the absence of 4-OH-CB187 and low relative levels of 4-OH-CB146 in guillemot and the low abundance of OH-PCBs in great skua. PMID:20356092

  20. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in water and sediment samples from Lake Manyas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erkmen, Belda; Yerli, Sedat Vahdet; Erk'akan, Füsun; Kolankaya, Dürdane

    2013-03-01

    The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination in Manyas Lake (Bird Lake) and its tributary rivers and streams which is situated near the South-eastern coasts of the Marmara Sea in Turkey was investigated. Residues of OCPs in surface water and sediment samples were analysed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. The total OCPs concentration (sigmaOCPs) in water and sediment samples ranged from 1.43 to 8.6 microg l(-1) and from 17.05 to 39.14 ng g(-1), respectively. According to the concentrations and detection frequencies, HCHs, DDTs, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide were the most dominant compounds among the OCPs. The results showed that Manyas Lake was still contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and their residues despite bans on the production and usage over a long time. PMID:24620575

  1. Organochlorine and organobromine compounds in a benthic fish (Solea solea) from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia): implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ben Ameur, Walid; El Megdiche, Yassine; Eljarrat, Ethel; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Badreddine, Barhoumi; Souad, Trabelsi; Bèchir, Hammami; Barceló, Damia; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2013-02-01

    Information on the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish from Tunisia is scarce. In this study, thirty one persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (dichlorodihenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in solea solea muscle, from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia) and from the Mediterranean Sea (reference area) (northern Mediterranean). In the Bizerte Lagoon, contaminant concentrations generally followed this order: PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>MeO-PBDEs>HCB>HCHs; while in the Mediterranean Sea, pollutant concentration followed this order: MeO-PBDEs>PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>HCB>HCHs. Mean levels of organochlorine compounds were 1018 and 380 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw) in fish from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Mean concentrations of organobromine compounds were 279 and 301 ng g(-1) lw in sole from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Organohalogen concentrations in fish from Bizerte Lagoon were similar or slightly lower than those reported for other marine fish species from other locations around the world. PCB, HCH, HCB and PBDE levels were negatively correlated with lipid content, while no such correlation was seen for DDTs. Assessment based on several available guidelines suggested an insignificant human health risk for dietary intake of HCB, lindane and PBDEs associated with consumption of sole. However, the estimated lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to DDTs and PCBs is a potential concern. PMID:23219662

  2. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, Miquel Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-11-15

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

  3. Organochlorine compounds in bovine milk from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avancini, Régia Maria; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; de Mesquita, Sueli Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    Organochlorines are highly hydrophobic, synthetic organic pollutants that accumulate in the environment and in food webs. The primary route of human exposure to organochlorines is through food-mainly fat-rich food of animal origin such as meat, fish, and dairy products. Here we determined the presence and concentration of organochlorine residues in pasteurized milk from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, to monitor consumer exposure to these contaminants. Organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction in octadecyl silica-prepacked columns and identified by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. Of the 100 composite samples analyzed, more than 90% contained residues of organochlorine pesticides: aldrin was present in 44% of the samples, followed by ∑DDT (36%), mirex (34%), endosulfan (32%), chlordane (17%), dicofol (14%), heptachlor (11%) and dieldrin (11%). Compared to the values established by law, the concentration of the compounds in some samples was above the reference values. Given the importance that milk and its products have in the human diet, it is essential to know whether the levels of pesticide residues are kept well below the recommended levels to minimize the risk to human health. PMID:23177004

  4. Thyroid Hormones in Pregnancy in Relation to Environmental Exposure to Organochlorine Compounds and Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Takser, Larissa; Mergler, Donna; Baldwin, Mary; de Grosbois, Sylvie; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and mercury are global environmental contaminants that can disrupt the endocrine system in animals and humans. However, there is little evidence that they can interfere with endocrine status in pregnant women and neonates at low levels of exposure. The aim of this study was to examine thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy and in cord blood in relation to blood concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and Hg in healthy women recruited during pregnancy. We found a significant negative correlation between maternal total triiodothyronine levels and three non-coplanar congeners (PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180), three pesticides (p,p?-DDE, cis-nanochlor, and hexachlorobenzene), and inorganic Hg independently, without any other changes in thyroid status. No significant relationships were observed between OCs and cord serum thyroid hormones. Cord serum free thyroxin was negatively correlated with inorganic Hg. These results suggest that at even low levels of exposure, persistent environmental contaminants can interfere with thyroid status during pregnancy. PMID:16079076

  5. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across Asia.

    PubMed

    Jaward, Foday M; Zhang, Gan; Nam, Jae Jak; Sweetman, Andrew J; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Kobara, Yuso; Jones, Kevin C

    2005-11-15

    Asia is of global importance economically, yet data on ambient persistent organic pollutant levels are still sparse for the region, despite international efforts under the Stockholm Convention to identify and reduce emissions. A large-scale passive air sampling survey was therefore conducted in Asia, specifically in China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. Polyurethane foam disks were deployed simultaneously at 77 sites, between Sept 21 and Nov 16, 2004, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine compounds (hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordane), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The meteorological conditions prevailing in the region at this time facilitated the assessment of local/regional differences in atmospheric emissions, because large-scale advection effects due to monsoons or dust storms did not occur. Air concentrations estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day ranged as follows (pg m(-3)): PCBs, 5-340; HCB, 10-460; DDTs, 0.4-1800; chlordanes, 1-660; PBDEs, < 0.13-340. South Korea and Singapore generally had regionally low concentrations. Elevated concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB occurred at sites in China, higher than reported in a similar recent sampling campaign in Europe. Chlordane was highest in samples from Japan (which also had elevated levels of PCBs and DDTs) and was also elevated in some Chinese locations. PBDE levels were generally low in the region. PMID:16323757

  6. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    PubMed Central

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  7. Organochlorine compound accumulation in delphinids from Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lailson-Brito, José; Dorneles, Paulo R; Azevedo-Silva, Cláudio E; Bisi, Tatiana L; Vidal, Lara G; Legat, Leticiaá N; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Torres, João Paulo M; Malm, Olaf

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated organochlorine compound levels (PCBs, DDTs and HCB) in blubber samples of six delphinid species from Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazilian coast. The species analyzed inhabit the continental shelf (one killer whale, one false killer whale, two bottlenose dolphins, three rough-toothed dolphins, and four long-beaked common dolphins) and open ocean (four Fraser's dolphins). PCBs represented the greatest proportion of the sum of all measured organochlorines (from 0.60 to 257.2 μg g(-1) lw), followed by DDTs (from 0.15 to 125.6 μg g(-1) lw), and, at last, HCB (from

    organochlorine levels in delphinids from southeastern Brazilian coast are comparable to those reported in cetaceans from highly industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Organochlorine accumulation patterns among delphinids from Rio de Janeiro State were related to habitat use. PMID:22771469

  8. An assessment of the intestinal lumen as a site for intervention in reducing body burdens of organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J; Genuis, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine--thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  9. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jandacek, Ronald J.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  10. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, J.R.; Struntz, W.D.J.; Becker, P.R.; York, G.W.; O'Hara, T. M.; Bohonowych, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a variety of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs and metabolites. The geometric mean, on a wet mass basis, of ??PCBs (sum of 29 congeners and congener groups) were 732??282 ng/g (1 S.D.) in seals and 3395??1442 ng/g in polar bears. The geometric mean of ??DDTs, ??HCHs (??-, ??- and ??- HCH) and HCB concentrations (wet mass basis) in seals and bears were 562??261 ng/g vs. 74.8??39 ng/g, 380??213 ng/g vs. 515 ng/g, and 17.4??10.1 ng/g vs. 183??153 ng/g, respectively. The geometric mean sum of chlordane (??chlordane, sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide) and dieldrin concentrations in ringed seals and polar bears were 753??617 ng/g vs. 720??315 ng/g and 38.6??22.8 ng/g vs. 130??65 ng/g, respectively. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (polar bear/ringed seal POP concentrations) were lower in the animals sampled near Barrow, Alaska than in those from locations in the Canadian Arctic. This suggests that polar bears are also preying on marine mammals from lower trophic levels than the ringed seals with correspondingly lower organochlorine levels, such as bowhead whale carcasses. PCB congener patterns in the samples demonstrated the metabolism of certain PCB congeners in the polar bear relative to the ringed seal in agreement with previous studies. Regional comparisons of animals collected in Alaska and Arctic Canada are presented. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Sociodemographic, reproductive and dietary predictors of organochlorine compounds levels in pregnant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ibarluzea, J; Alvarez-Pedrerol, M; Guxens, M; Marina, L Santa; Basterrechea, M; Lertxundi, A; Etxeandia, A; Goñi, F; Vioque, J; Ballester, F; Sunyer, J

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are consistently found in human tissues. Serum levels of organochlorine compounds (OC) in pregnant women in particular have raised concern about possible harm to humans in the early phases of physical and behavioural development. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between concentration of OCs in serum of two cohorts of pregnant women from Gipuzkoa and Sabadell in Spain and socioeconomic, reproductive and dietary variables. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH and γ-HCH), heptachlor epoxide, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) were measured in the serum of 1259 pregnant women. Associations between OCs and potential predictor variables were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The compounds most commonly found in the serum were p,p'-DDE (99% of the samples) and PCB-153 (95% of the samples). Geometric means of serum concentrations (ng g⁻¹ lipid) of organochlorine pesticides were 110.0, 19.1, and 33.5 for p,p'-DDE, β-HCH, and HCB respectively, while the geometric means of PCBs were 21.8, 38.9 and 26.9 for PCB 138, 153, and 180 respectively. The levels of all OCs increased with age. BMI was positively associated with the concentration of organochlorine pesticides but inversely related to PCB concentrations. The serum levels of OCs fell only after a cumulative period of breastfeeding of over a year. Levels of PCBs were related to fish intake, but in general dietary factors did not improve the explained variability of the concentrations of OCs. Overall, the levels of OCs found in the study are at the lower end of the range reported in Spain and other countries. PMID:20965545

  12. Organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and in biological tissue from streams and their relations to land use, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebler, Joseph B.

    2000-01-01

    Streambed-sediment samples from 13 sites and biological-tissue samples from 11 sites in the Gila River Basin in central Arizona were analyzed for 32 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and 28 compounds in biological tissue during 1996 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The objectives of the study were to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and their relation to land use. Sampling sites were categorized on the basis of major land uses in the basin or the source of water in the stream. Because land uses were mixed or had changed over time, some land-use categories were combined. Sites were categorized as forest/rangeland (6), forest/urban (1), urban (4), or agricultural/urban (2). Thirteen organochlorine compounds were detected in streambed-sediment samples, and 10 were detected in tissue samples. The number of compounds found in streambed-sediment samples from individual sites ranged from 0 to 10, and the range for individual tissue samples was 0 to 7. Comparison of the number of detections in streambed-sediment samples to the number of detections in tissue samples from particular sites where both were sampled yielded five instances where more compounds were detected in streambed sediment, six instances where more compounds were detected in tissue, and five instances where the number of detections in streambed sediment and tissue were equal. The frequency of detection of particular compounds for sites where both streambed sediment and tissue were sampled resulted in five compounds being detected more frequently in streambed sediment, five more frequently in tissue, and three compounds that were equally frequent in streambed sediment and in tissue. Few contaminants were detected in samples from the forest/rangeland sites; greater numbers of compounds were detected at the urban sites and at the forest/urban site. The greatest number of compounds and the highest concentrations of many contaminants were detected at agriculture/urban sites. The compound detected most frequently in streambed-sediment and tissue samples was p,p'-DDE. Streambed-sediment guideline values for the protection of aquatic life for p,p'-DDE and total DDT were exceeded at both agricultural/urban sites, The streambed-sediment guideline value for the protection of aquatic life for total chlordane was exceeded at one agricultural/urban site, one urban site, and the forest/urban site. The streambed-sediment guideline value for the protection of aquatic life for total PCB’s was exceeded at one agricultural/urban site. Guideline values for the protection of fish-eating wildlife for total DDT and for toxaphene were exceeded only in samples from the two agricultural/urban sites. The guideline value for the protection of fish-eating wildlife for total PCB’s was equaled or exceeded in samples from two sites—one urban and one agricultural/urban site. Screening values established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the protection of human health for edible portions of fish were exceeded by total DDT and by toxaphene in fish-tissue samples from both agricultural/urban sites. The human-health criterion for total PCB’s was exceeded in two fish-tissue samples from an agricultural site and from an urban site. Tissue samples analyzed in this study were for whole fish, and thus, concentration data are not entirely comparable to the screening values of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Because these exceedences were an order of magnitude above the criteria, however, it is possible that concentrations in the edible portions of fish from these locations could present a human- health risk. Analyses of samples of edible portions of fish from these locations would be needed to adequately assess the presence or absence of a human-health risk. The similarity of the results of this study to the results of other studies of organochlorine compounds in the environment suggests that there is a correlation between contaminants in sediment and biological-tissue samples and land uses. As with other studies of the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine contaminants in streambed sediments and biological tissue, this study shows that many organochlorine compounds continue to persist in the environment and thus could pose a threat to aquatic life, fish-eating wildlife, and possibly to humans who consume contaminated fish.

  13. Assessment of persistent organochlorine pollutants in sediments from Lake Manzala, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Assem O; Mostafa, Alaa; Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; El Sayed, Nadia B

    2012-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in surface and core sediment samples collected from Manzala Lake, the largest of the Egyptian coastal lakes. Total concentrations of OCPs and ∑7 PCBs (ICES) in sediments ranged from 0.63 to 31.31 ng/g and 0.26 to 31.27 ng/g, respectively. Geographical distribution indicates that levels of contaminants were significantly higher in areas which are mainly influenced by municipal discharge, indicating significant sources of these compounds in urbanised areas. The composition of DDT and its metabolites suggest old input of DDT. The levels of contaminants in Manzala Lake were similar or lower than those observed in comparable areas worldwide. The profiles of ∑OCPs and ∑PCBs in a core from a site heavily impacted by sewage discharge have highest concentrations in the surface core section indicating recent inputs. Assessment of ecotoxicological risk indicated that sediments in two sites were likely to pose potential biological adverse impact. PMID:22513361

  14. Organochlorine compounds in mussels cultured in the Ría of Vigo: accumulation and origin.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Pilar; Ruiz, Yolanda; Alonso, Ana; San Juan, Fuencisla

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of mussel physiological conditions on bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants. A direct relationship between reproductive stage, lipid content and accumulation of PCBs, DDTs and HCHs was observed. The organochlorine compounds accumulated by mussels cultured in the Ría of Vigo show levels below the limits set by the European legislation for human consumption, ranging between 12.50-58, 2.21-10.80 and 0.50-2.69 μg kg(-1) dry weight for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs, respectively. Other organochlorine pesticides normally present in estuarine areas, such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, chlordane and nonachlor were not detected. The proportion of PCBs, between 2 and 7 times higher than OCPs, indicates a pollution of predominantly industrial origin in the sampling area. Several molecular indices were used to identify the source of accumulated OCPs by Mytilus, showing recent inputs of technical DDT, mainly in summer-autumn, and continued discharges of lindane. On the other hand, other pesticides containing DDT impurities, such as dicofol, can contribute to DDT pollution in the Ría of Vigo. Multivariate analysis suggests the usefulness of including physiological parameters such as the gonad condition index and lipid content of sentinel organisms in environmental biomonitoring of lipophilic pollutants, as well as in the determination of their origin. PMID:22391050

  15. Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Pyysalo, H.; Antervo, K.

    1988-01-01

    Neutral organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were analyzed by GC-MS technique in 183 human milk samples obtained in 1984-1985 from 165 women living in different parts of Finland. The effect of the donors' age, body mass, place of residence, number of children, dietary habits, smoking habits, occupational history, and weight loss on the organochlorine content of human milk were studied. Of all the milk samples analyzed, p,p'-DDE concentrations were above the detection limit in 99.5%, p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT in 57.9%, isomers of HCH in 30.0%, cis-chlordane in 4.9%, oxychlordane in 3.3%, trans-nonachlor in 6.0%, heptachlor in 12.0%, and heptachlor epoxide in 6.6%. Mirex was not found in any of the milk samples, whereas the signals of chlorinated terpenes (toxaphenes) were detected but could not be quantitatively determined. The mean fat adjusted residue levels above the detection limit in Finnish human milk samples of primipara mothers were 0.66 ppm for total DDT compounds, 0.08 ppm for HCB, 0.93 ppm for PCBs, 0.41 ppm for chlordane compounds, 0.20 ppm for isomers of HCH, and 0.10 ppm for heptachlor epoxide. The geometric means were 0.46, 0.06, 0.57, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.01 ppm, respectively. The age of the mothers positively correlated with the DDE concentrations in human milk. The residues of OC compounds in human milk did not differ in women living in plywood industry regions, those actually working in the industry, and other mothers. Small differences were detected in the levels of organochlorine compounds in different parts of Finland. No relation was found between the OC content and the fish consumption, smoking habits, weight loss, or social group of the donors.

  16. Contamination by butyltin compounds and organochlorine residues in green mussel (Perna viridis, L.) from Thailand coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kan-atireklap, S; Tanabe, S; Sanguansin, J; Tabucanon, M S; Hungspreugs, M

    1997-01-01

    In order to elucidate marine pollution by butyltins and organochlorine residues in coastal waters of Thailand, green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected in 1994 and 1995 and analyzed. Butyltin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT), were detected in most mussel samples, ranging from 4 to 800 ng g(-1) wet wt (as total). The composition of butyltin derivatives in green mussel was in the order of TBT > DBT > MBT. The results indicated that butyltin contamination was widespread, particularly in high boating areas and in coastal aquaculture facilities. Concentrations of organochlorine residues were much lower than of butyltin compounds. Among organochlorine residues examined, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane compounds (DDTs) were found to be the highest, followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) > chlordane compounds (CHLs) > hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) > hexachlorobenzene (HCB). To our knowledge, this is a first report on the detection of butyltin residues in Thailand coastal waters. PMID:15093381

  17. Organochlorine Compounds in the North-western Black Sea Water: Distribution and Water Column Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, C.; Bayona, J. M.

    2002-03-01

    Individual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC Nos 28, 52, 101, 118, 149, 153, 138, 180, 187 and 170), dichlorodiphenylethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene(HCB) and dieldrin were determined in 37 samples (25 surficial and three vertical profiles) of suspended particulate matter (>0·7 μm) (SPM) and 10 dissolved phase (DP) samples (six surficial) collected in the north-western Black Sea waters. The highest concentrations of PCBs in the SPM were found at the Danube mouth (57·4 pg l -1), the north continental shelf (3·7-36·9 pg l -1) and offshore Constantza (33 1 pg l -1), while the most contaminated area (70·7-102 pg l -1) was found to be in the DP of the Danube estuary. Organochlorine compounds (DDTs, HCHs, HCB and dieldrin) were found one or two orders of magnitude higher in the DP than in the corresponding particulate phase. The high concentrations of HCHs (2·3-368 pg l -1 in the DP) as well as the distribution pattern of DDT-related compounds seem to indicate recent chlorinated pesticide use in the riparian countries of the Black Sea despite the regulations. Vertical profiles of SPM showed a general depletion of PCBs and organochlorine compounds (OCs) with depth and two accumulation zones, at the biomass maximum and the redoxcline. A bottom enrichment of OCs was observed when resuspension was favoured.

  18. Changing patterns of cow's milk contamination with organochlorine compounds in Israel (1976-1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, A.; Cucos, S.; Grafstein, O.; Lemesch, C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental pollution with organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCGs) has decreased due to restriction and/or banning of these compounds. However, several recent reports indicate that pollution with OCIs and PCBs still does exist, and may be of public and environmental health significance even in developed countries. Cow's milk is one of the most important media where organochlorine compound (OCC) levels are monitored. On the one hand, milk and its products play a central role in human nutrition and, on the other, highly lipophilic OCCs can accumulate in fat-rich milk products. In a previous study, the authors reported a significant decrease in OCC content in both farm and market milk in Israel between the mid-1970s and early 1980s. The clearest decrease was seen in the cases of DDT, dieldrin and lindane, but not as much as for heptachlor epoxide (HE) and PCBs. The present study was undertaken to follow up the observed trends and to determine whether cow's milk contamination with OCC presently poses a public health problem in Israel.

  19. Modeling Organochlorine Compounds and the σ-Hole Effect Using a Polarizable Multipole Force Field

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The charge distribution of halogen atoms on organochlorine compounds can be highly anisotropic and even display a so-called σ-hole, which leads to strong halogen bonds with electron donors. In this paper, we have systematically investigated a series of chloromethanes with one to four chloro substituents using a polarizable multipole-based molecular mechanics model. The atomic multipoles accurately reproduced the ab initio electrostatic potential around chloromethanes, including CCl4, which has a prominent σ-hole on the Cl atom. The van der Waals parameters for Cl were fitted to the experimental density and heat of vaporization. The calculated hydration free energy, solvent reaction fields, and interaction energies of several homo- and heterodimer of chloromethanes are in good agreement with experimental and ab initio data. This study suggests that sophisticated electrostatic models, such as polarizable atomic multipoles, are needed for accurate description of electrostatics in organochlorine compounds and halogen bonds, although further improvement is necessary for better transferability. PMID:24484473

  20. Hydrophobic organochlorine compounds sequestered in submersed aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla yerticillata (L.f.) Royle) from the tidal Potomac River (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminants to be sequestered in submersed aquatic vegetation was evaluated by determining the concentrations of cis- and trans-chlordane, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feral aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) collected from the tidal Potomac River. Similarities in mean dry-weight concentrations of the identified organochlorine compounds in H. verticillata and surrounding alluvial sediments indicated that the extent of sequestration in H. verticillata was of the same magnitude as sorption of these compounds to river sediments, but some qualitative differences in PCB congener profiles existed. The results imply that to some degree H. verticillata can influence downstream fluxes of organic contaminants in fluvial transport in the Potomac River, and, furthermore, identify this species as a viable candidate organism for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminant biomonitoring in the Chesapeake Bay estuary.

  1. Environmental toxins and breast cancer on Long Island. II. Organochlorine compound levels in blood.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Marilie D; Wolff, Mary S; Neugut, Alfred I; Eng, Sybil M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Britton, Julie A; Terry, Mary Beth; Levin, Bruce; Stellman, Steven D; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Hatch, Maureen; Senie, Ruby; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Bradlow, H Leon; Garbowski, Gail; Maffeo, Carla; Montalvan, Pat; Kemeny, Margaret; Citron, Marc; Schnabel, Freya; Schuss, Allan; Hajdu, Steven; Vinceguerra, Vincent; Niguidula, Nancy; Ireland, Karen; Santella, Regina M

    2002-08-01

    Whether environmental contaminants increase breast cancer risk among women on Long Island, NY, is unknown. The study objective is to determine whether breast cancer risk is increased in relation to organochlorines, compounds with known estrogenic characteristics that were extensively used on Long Island and other areas of the United States. Recent reports do not support a strong association, although there are concerns with high risks observed in subgroups of women. Blood samples from 646 case and 429 control women from a population-based case-control study conducted on Long Island were analyzed. No substantial elevation in breast cancer risk was observed in relation to the highest quintile of lipid-adjusted serum levels of p,p'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (DDE) [odds ratio (OR), 1.20 versus lowest quintile; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-1.90], chlordane (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.62-1.55), dieldrin (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.69-2.72), the sum of the four most frequently occurring PCB congeners (nos. 118, 153, 138, and 180; OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.54-1.29), and other PCB congener groupings. No dose-response relations were apparent. Nor was risk increased in relation to organochlorines among women who had not breastfed or were overweight, postmenopausal, or long-term residents of Long Island; or with whether the case was diagnosed with invasive rather than in situ disease, or with a hormone receptor-positive tumor. These findings, based on the largest number of samples analyzed to date among primarily white women, do not support the hypothesis that organochlorines increase breast cancer risk among Long Island women. PMID:12163320

  2. Levels of organochlorine compounds in spotted dolphins from the Coiba archipelago, Panama.

    PubMed

    Borrell, A; Cantos, G; Pastor, T; Aguilar, A

    2004-02-01

    Blubber and skin samples from 63 spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) (18 males, 40 females and 5 of unknown sex) were collected by biopsy techniques in the waters of the Coiba archipelago. Blubber was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and skin for gender determination. Mean levels of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), tPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and tDDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were 0.064, 2.30 and 6.4 mgkg(-1), respectively. These levels are low and are not considered to represent a threat to the S. attenuata population. No significant differences either in concentrations of HCB, tPCB and tDDT or in PCB profiles were observed between males and females. The ratio tDDT/tPCB was 2.69, indicating predominantly agrarian versus industrial activities in the area. The ratio ppDDE/tDDT was 0.83, a high figure that suggests both a local reduction of DDT inputs and a high rate of DDT degradation. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed between two schools, suggesting intra-population heterogeneity in organochlorine exposure possibly due to demographic segregation. PMID:14599513

  3. Persistent organochlorine pesticide exposure related to a formerly used defense site on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: data from sentinel fish and human sera

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Samuel; Miller, Pamela; Waghiyi, Viola; Buck, C. Loren; von Hippel, Frank A.; Carpenter, David O.

    2015-01-01

    St. Lawrence Island, Alaska is the largest island in the Bering Sea, located 60 km from Siberia. The island is home to approximately 1600 St. Lawrence Island Yupik residents who live a subsistence lifestyle. Two formerly used defense sites (FUDS) exist on the island, one of which, Northeast Cape, has been the subject of a $123 million cleanup effort. Environmental monitoring demonstrates localized soil and watershed contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and arsenic. This study examined whether the Northeast Cape FUDS is a source of exposure to OC pesticides. A total of 71 serum samples were collected during site remediation from volunteers that represented three geographic regions of the island. Additionally, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were collected from Northeast Cape after remediation to assess continuing presence of OC pesticides. Chlordane compounds, DDT compounds, mirex and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the most prevalent and present at the highest concentrations in both fish tissues and human serum samples. After controlling for age and sex, activities near the Northeast Cape FUDS were associated with an increase in serum HCB as compared to residents of the farthest village from the site. Positive but non-significant relationships for sum-chlordane and sum-DDT were also found. Organochlorine concentrations in fish samples did not show clear geographic trends, but appear elevated compared to other sites in Alaska. Taken together, the results suggest that contamination of the local environment at the Northeast Cape FUDS may increase exposure to select persistent OC pesticides. PMID:26262441

  4. Presence and importance of organochlorine solvents and other compounds in Germany's groundwater and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dieter, H H; Kerndorff, H

    1993-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds are widely used in Germany although the inland production of chlorinated solvents has greatly decreased since 1985. Data on groundwater contamination are incomplete, but there are some regional data sets from the States (Lnder). Approximately 25% of the groundwater samples contain more than 1 microgram/l of a single solvent, the most prominent ones being tri- and tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and dichloromethane, but also chloroform. The most important causes for contaminations of the groundwater are unprotected storage and leaking sewage systems. Abandoned waste sites are, besides chlorinated compounds, also a source of many other contaminants. A ranking procedure according to their exposure potential (concentration, incidence, toxicology) is proposed. The compound of greatest concern is vinyl chloride, which is formed from tri- and tetrachloroethene under reducing conditions in the subsoil. The most important contaminant in drinking water is tetrachloroethene followed by 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethane. Chlorobenzene may also be present on occasion, while only about 20% of the finished drinking waters contain more chloroform after treatment than before. Only about 10% of all analyses of drinking water derived from groundwater shows the presence of organochlorine solvents and most of these show total concentrations less than 2 micrograms/l. The degradation product, vinyl chloride, was found up to now only in different groundwaters. To stabilize and to improve the situation, which still is much more favorable for drinking than for groundwater, precautions are going to be taken which should assure that these and other problematic substances which endanger water are used only in closed systems and rigid safety measures be imposed on their disposal and transport. PMID:8279718

  5. Persistent organochlorine residues in livers of six species of Ciconiiformes (aves) from Spain.

    PubMed

    Piqué, E; Mateo, R; Fernández-Fernández, D; Guitart, R

    2006-01-01

    Liver samples of 42 birds belonging to 6 species of Ciconiiformes (grey heron (n = 17), little egret (n = 12), cattle egret (n = 1), glossy ibis (n = 1), little bittern (n = 1), and white stork (n = 10)), collected from two different zones of Spain (Ebro Delta and Madrid) in 1992-1997, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. SigmaPCBs (sum of concentrations of individual congeners), p,p'-DDE, HCB, gamma-HCH, and heptachlor epoxide were the most prevalent residues detected in all samples (occurrence > 95%). There were no statistically significant differences in organochlorine levels between grey herons and little egrets, while levels of SigmaPCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB, gamma-HCH, and heptachlor were significantly lower for white storks. These results could be explained by the different habitat of these species, aquatic in the Ebro Delta (grey herons, little egrets) and dry in Madrid (white stork), and their diverse feeding habits. PMID:16785174

  6. Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Miriam N. . E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T.; Hood, Steven R.

    2005-12-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

  7. Levels of organochlorine compounds in the Mediterranean blue mussel from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kozul, Darija; Romanić, Snjezana Herceg; Kljaković-Gaspić, Zorana; Veza, Jere

    2009-12-01

    The distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was investigated in Mediterranean blue mussel collected at four locations in Mali Ston Bay few times a year in 2005–2007. OCPs were found in all samples and levels ranged between 0.07 and 7.58 ng g−1 dry wt. Levels of PCBs ranged between 0 (below detection limit) and 21.55 ng g−1 dry wt. For most analyzed compounds there were no significant level changes between the 3 years. Exceptions are decreased levels of β-HCH, DDD, and PCB-138 and increased levels of γ-HCH and DDT in 2007. However, mussels from this area are applicable for human diet. PMID:19626261

  8. Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DOT (DDT+DDD+DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat bogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.

  9. Occurrence of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue from eastern Iowa streams, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Linda R.

    1997-01-01

    Human activities have caused dramatic changes to our Nation's landscape for over a century. Use of synthetic organic compounds in agriculture and industry has resulted in the accumulation and persistence of some of these compounds in natural systems. Concern has arisen over the contamination of our Nation's waters and the organisms that depend on them.

  10. Bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gray whale and Pacific walrus from the western part of the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N

    2015-10-15

    The feeding habits of a gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and a Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), caught from the western Bering Sea in the summers of 2010 and 2011, have been studied, and concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in their organs determined. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the gray whales varies from 297 to 3581 and from 769 to 13,808 ng/g lipids, respectively. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the Pacific walruses varies from 197 to 5659 and from 4856 to 90,263 ng/g lipids, respectively. The specifics of diet as a source of pesticide accumulation in these two marine mammal species are discussed. PMID:26169228

  11. Levels of persistent organochlorine residues in eggs of greater flamingos from the Guadalquivir marshes (Doñana), Spain.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Raimon; Clavero, Raquel; Mateo, Rafael; Máñez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residue levels were determined in 53 unhatched eggs from greater roseus flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber). Eggs were collected in 1996 from the National Park of Doñana (Guadalquivir marshes, Southwest Spain), immediately after one breeding colony abandoned the nesting site due to predator attacks. The main metabolite of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, was the OCP residue found at higher concentrations, with a geometric mean of 721 ng/g wet weight. Residues of other pesticides, including some hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor-epoxide, were detected at much lower concentrations. The sum of PCBs was 528 ng/g, with PCB congeners #187 and #153 being the most prominent in eggs. The pattern observed in these compounds of industrial origin corresponded more to Aroclor 1260 than to any other commercial mixture. Levels of organochlorine residues indicate a medium degree of exposure, and they are not considered of any concern for the flamingo population. In particular, neither p,p'-DDE nor PCB levels were found to be correlated with the eggshell thickness. PMID:16190019

  12. Influence of diet in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in herons breeding in remote riverine environments.

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2016-02-01

    The composition of organochlorine compounds (OCs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), has been analyzed in eggs from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and little egret (Egretta garzetta), two species of herons (family Ardeidae), nesting at the same remote riverine environment (Aiguabarreig, Ebro River). These two species were selected to evaluate the importance of diet in the accumulation of OCs. Cattle egret essentially feeds on dry grassy habitats and follow cattle or other large animals whereas little egret feeds on fish, amphibians and crustaceans captured in shallow waters. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C isotopic composition of the sampled eggs was studied and the results were consistent with these species feeding habits. In both species, the compounds accumulated the most were the less volatile and more lipophilic, e.g. PCB congeners of higher chlorination, DDT and metabolites. The distinct foraging species preferences were reflected in significant higher concentrations in little egret than cattle egret of all pollutant groups analysed. These differences were statistically significant for DDTs and PCBs (p < 0.015 and p < 0.047, respectively), e.g. the p,p'-DDE and PCB concentrations were 6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively, in the former than the latter. This strong contrast indicates that in remote environments aquatic riverine ecosystems are more efficient OC reservoirs than the terrestrial ecosystem. PMID:26694793

  13. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the lower Snake River Basin. Whole-body composite samples of suckers and carp from seven sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds; liver samples were analyzed for trace elements. Fillets from selected sportfish were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Bed-sediment samples from three sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Twelve different organochlorine compounds were detected in 14 fish-tissue samples. All fish-tissue samples contained DDT or its metabolites. Concentrations of total DDT ranged from 11 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in fillets of yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 3,633 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Total DDT concentrations in whole-body samples of sucker and carp from the Snake River at C.J. Strike Reservoir, Snake River at Swan Falls, Snake River at Nyssa, and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded criteria established for the protection of fish-eating wildlife. Total PCB concentrations in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River also exceeded fish-eating wildlife criteria. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in whole-body samples, in general, were larger than concentrations in sportfish fillets. However, concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in fillets of channel catfish from the Snake River at Nyssa and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River, and concentrations of total DDT in fillets of smallmouth bass and white crappie from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded a cancer risk screening value of 10-6 established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment were smaller than concentrations in fish tissue. Concentrations of p,p'DDE, the only compound detected in all three bed-sediment samples, ranged from 1.1 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in C.J. Strike Reservoir to 11 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Data from this study, compared with data collected in the upper Snake River Basin from 1992 to 1994, indicates that, in general, organochlorine concentrations in fish tissue and bed sediment increased from the headwaters of the Snake River in Wyoming downstream to Brownlee Reservoir. The largest trace-element concentrations in fish tissue were in liver samples from carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and suckers from the Boise River near Twin Springs. Concentrations of most trace elements were larger in livers than in the sport- fish fillets. However, mercury concentrations were generally larger in the sportfish fillets; they ranged from 0.08 microgram per gram wet weight in yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 0.32 microgram per gram wet weight in channel catfish from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. None of the trace-element concentrations in fillets exceeded median international standards or U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels. Large trace-element concentrations in the upper Snake River Basin were reported in liver samples from suckers from headwater streams, probably a result of historical mining and weathering of metal-rich rocks. Concentrations of most trace elements in the bed-sediment samples were largest in Brownlee Reservoir at Mountain Man Lodge. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc in bed sediment from the Mountain Man Lodge site exceeded either the threshold effect level or probable effect level established by the Canadian Government for the protection of benthic life. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and nickel concentrations in bed sediment from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and chromium, copper, and nickel in bed sediment from C.J. Strike Reservoir also exceeded the threshold effect level.

  14. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from

  15. Organochlorine Compounds and Ultrasound Measurements of Fetal Growth in the INMA Cohort (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vizcaino, Esther; Costa, Olga; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; Guxens, Mònica; Gascon, Mireia; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Grimalt, Joan O.; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported decreases in birth size associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs), but uncertainties remain regarding the critical windows of prenatal exposure and the effects on fetal body segments. Objective We examined the relationship between prenatal OC concentrations and fetal anthropometry. Methods We measured 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (138, 153, and 180) in 2,369 maternal and 1,140 cord serum samples in four Spanish cohorts (2003–2008). We used linear mixed models to obtain longitudinal growth curves for estimated fetal weight (EFW), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and femur length (FL) adjusted by parental and fetal characteristics. We calculated standard deviation (SD) scores of growth at 0–12, 12–20, and 20–34 weeks of gestation as well as size at gestational week 34 for the four parameters. We studied the association between OCs and the fetal outcomes by cohort-specific linear models and subsequent meta-analyses. Results PCBs were associated with a reduction in AC up to mid-pregnancy, and BPD and FL from gestational week 20 onward. An inverse association was also found between HCB and AC growth in early pregnancy. The reduction of these parameters ranged from –4% to –2% for a doubling in the OC concentrations. No association between 4,4´-DDE and fetal growth was observed. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between prenatal exposure to some PCBs and HCB and fetal growth: AC during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, and BPD and FL later in pregnancy. Citation Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Murcia M, Iñiguez C, Vizcaino E, Costa O, Fernández-Somoano A, Basterrechea M, Lertxundi A, Guxens M, Gascon M, Goñi-Irigoyen F, Grimalt JO, Tardón A, Ballester F. 2016. Organochlorine compounds and ultrasound measurements of fetal growth in the INMA cohort (Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:157–163; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408907 PMID:26058084

  16. Persistence of polycyclic aromatic compounds of different molecular size and water solubility in surficial sediment of an intertidal sandflat

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcock, R.J.; Northcott, G.L.; Corban, G.A.; Wilkins, A.L.; Langdon, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    The persistence of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ranging from two- to six-ring compounds, in an intertidal sandflat was studied by applying uniform amounts (0.10 g) of each to the surface of the sandflat and then monitoring concentrations over time. The mass of total PAH, after initial losses, declined slowly, so that after 256 d 12% of the applied material remained. Vertical concentration profiles indicated that little downward movement occurred and that most of the mass was concentrated in the top 2 cm, where most losses also occurred. The study has shown that anthropogenic PAHs have persistences comparable with organochlorine pesticides in aerobic sediments of intertidal sandflats. Rank correlations showed that the order of persistence may be predicted on the basis of molecular size parameters, such as molecular weight, molecular volume, and area. Persistence of PAHs in intertidal sandflats appears to be regulated by simple, physical processes.

  17. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE and DDD are degradation products of DDT (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which is a well-documented, persistent organochlorine insecticide that has been banned from use in the United States since 1972. Detected concentrations were very low, ranging from 0.12 to 4.7 micrograms per kilogram, and probably pose little threat to aquatic organisms in park lakes. DDD and DDE concentrations in a sediment core from Mills Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that atmospheric deposition of DDT and possibly other banned organochlorine compounds to high-elevation parks has been in decline since the 1970s. Commonly detected current-use pesticides in lake sediments included dacthal and endosulfan sulfate, which ranged in concentrations from 0.11 to 0.26 micrograms per kilogram for dacthal and 0.12 to 1.2 micrograms per kilogram for endosulfan sulfate. Both compounds were found in nearly all the snow samples, confirming that some current-use pesticides entering high-elevation aquatic ecosystems through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota.

  18. Organochlorine compound residues in the eggs of broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris) and correlation with measures of reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Stoker, C; Repetti, M R; García, S R; Zayas, M A; Galoppo, G H; Beldoménico, H R; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2011-06-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCCs), like pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are persistent lipophilic chemicals classified as endocrine-disruptors. Caiman latirostris inhabits wetlands throughout north-eastern Argentina and may accumulate OCCs. The aims of this study were to determine OCC residues in the eggs of C. latirostris and to correlate OCC burden with clutch size, hatching success and hatchling survival as measures of reproductive performance. Fourteen caiman clutches were harvested from sites with different degrees of anthropogenic intervention on wetlands surrounding Paraná River tributaries. Two to four eggs by clutch were used to quantify OCCs. OCP residues were found in all clutches. The principal contributors to the OCPs burden were the DDT family (range BDL-153.0 ng g(-1) lipid) and oxychlordane (range BDL-34.3 ng g(-1) lipid). PCBs were present in 92.9% of the clutches (range BDL-136.6 ng g(-1) lipid). Both higher concentrations and higher diversity of pesticides, including endosulfan sulfate, were found in the nests harvested close to croplands. A negative correlation was found between clutch size and ∑OCCs (p=0.02, Pearson r=-0.53, r(2)=0.28), mainly due to the ∑OCPs (p=0.04, Pearson r=-0.54, r(2)=0.30). Since egg OCCs concentrations predict maternal burden, present findings suggest that higher OCCs exposure could lead to smaller clutches. Although, other factors like mother age could influence clutch size. Additionally, as caimans are a long-lived and non-migratory species, the maternal OCCs burden reflects the environmental status throughout their home range; thus, caiman eggs could be useful as a biomonitor of local contamination. PMID:21531435

  19. Organochlorine Turnover in Forest Ecosystems: The Missing Link in the Terrestrial Chlorine Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    A Leri; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

  20. Dietary and aqueous exposure of finfish to organochlorine compounds: A case study

    PubMed

    Hellou; Mackay; Banoub

    1998-04-01

    The level of organochlorine compounds was determined in whole capelin, Mallotus villosus, and compared to concentrations determined in tissues of yellowtail flounder, Pseudopleuronectes ferruginea, that fed on capelin for 2 years while maintained in tanks. Capelin represent part of the diet of offshore yellowtail flounder, however, they come to the beaches to spawn and were collected inshore for the feeding experiment. Therefore, inshore-offshore capelin concentrations were compared to investigate differences, while variables such as fish weight and lipid content were examined to give a better view of the range of contaminants concentrations in capelin. During two years, weekly exposure of flounder was to 148 L of water, as opposed to a dietary intake of 1 g of capelin. Although the level of contaminants was only measured in capelin, it can be estimated for the water, using results obtained on the level of contaminants in sediments obtained in a different study. According to our calculations, levels of contaminants were three to 20 times higher from the aqueous compared to the dietary uptake of inshore flounder, increasing with lower hydrophobicity. Exposure was from less than 10 to up to 100 times lower in expected and/or published results for offshore food and water, respectively. This comparison suggests a major influence of inshore waters on the bioaccumulation of contaminants in some inshore marine species, although the effect of altering the diet of captive finfish can not be disregarded. PMID:9504977

  1. Immune function biomarkers in children exposed to lead and organochlorine compounds: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Brooks, Kevin R; Nebe, Thomas; Witten, Jutta; Obi-Osius, Nadia; Kruse, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Background Different organochlorines and lead (Pb) have been shown to have immunomodulating properties. Children are at greater risk for exposure to these environmental toxicants, but very little data exist on simultaneous exposures to these substances. Methods We investigated whether the organochlorine compounds (OC) dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs) and Pb were associated with immune markers such as immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, white blood cell (WBC), counts of lymphocytes; eosinophils and their eosinophilic granula as well as IgE count on basophils. The investigation was part of a cross-sectional environmental study in Hesse, Germany. In 1995, exposure to OC and Pb were determined, questionnaire data collected and immune markers quantified in 331 children. For the analyses, exposure (OC and Pb) concentrations were grouped in quartiles (γ-HCH into tertiles). Using linear regression, controlling for age, gender, passive smoking, serum lipids, and infections in the previous 12 months, we assessed the association between exposures and immune markers. Adjusted geometric means are provided for the different exposure levels. Results Geometric means were: DDE 0.32 μg/L, ΣPCBs 0.50 μg/L, HCB 0.22 μg/L, γ-HCH 0.02 μg/L and Pb 26.8 μg/L. The ΣPCBs was significantly associated with increased IgM levels, whereas HCB was inversely related to IgM. There was a higher number of NK cells (CD56+) with increased γ-HCH concentrations. At higher lead concentrations we saw increased IgE levels. DDE showed the most associations with significant increases in WBC count, in IgE count on basophils, IgE, IgG, and IgA levels. DDE was also found to significantly decrease eosinophilic granula content. Conclusion Low-level exposures to OC and lead (Pb) in children may have immunomodulating effects. The increased IgE levels, IgE count on basophils, and the reduction of eosinophilic granula at higher DDE concentrations showed a most consistent pattern, which could be of clinical importance in the etiology of allergic diseases. PMID:15831097

  2. Vertical and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in Toronto. 1. Organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Motelay-Massei, Anne; Harner, Tom; Pozo, Karla; Diamond, Miriam; Chevreuil, Marc; Blanchoud, Helene

    2007-04-01

    From May to September 2005, five passive air samples were deployed over five, 1-month periods at five elevations on the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, to investigate the vertical distribution, seasonality, and sources of organochlorine pesticides. A strong seasonality was observed between spring and the end of summer. Vertical profiles differed for different pesticide classes. For instance, alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane exhibited higher concentrations (60-80 pg m(-3), respectively) near the ground during the spring and early summer, suggesting that surface-air exchange within the city or nearby Lake Ontario may be important sources. The vertical profile for chlordane isomers was variable, suggesting that both advective and local inputs are important. For dieldrin, no obvious trend with elevation was observed, suggesting that concentrations could reflect a regional air mass contamination. Strongest seasonality was observed for the endosulfans, a widely used pesticide in North America, that reached peak concentrations of 750-850 pg m(-3) during June/July. Advective inputs of endosulfan from regional or more distant agricultural regions can explain the relatively uniform concentrations with elevation throughout the study period. The approach used in this study demonstrates that monthly average vertical concentration profiles differ between pesticide groups and reflect their use as well as the relative magnitude of input from local versus regional sources. PMID:17438759

  3. Extraction and distribution of organochlorine compounds in eastern Lake Erie and Niagara River water

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A chromic acid digestion extraction technique was compared to conventional solvent extraction for recovery of a series of organochlorine compounds (chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, DDE, mirex and photomirex) from centrifuged water collected at two sites along the Niagara River, between 1/22/86 and 1/7/87. The sampling sites were located near the river's inlet at Fort Erie, Ontario and close to the river's outlet to Lake Ontario at Niagara-on-the-Lake Ontario. The digestion technique was more efficient than conventional solvent extraction. Relative recovery (undigested/digested) decreased exponentially with increasing log K[sub ow]. This implies that digestion-extraction recovers both the fraction dissolved and the fraction bound to dissolved organic matter (DOM), while conventional solvent extraction only recovers the dissolved fraction. As the time compounds equilibrated with the DOM increased, the extraction efficiencies by conventional extraction decreased while the efficiencies by digestion extraction remained 100%. Results obtained with the digestion technique were also more reproducible than those with conventional solvent extraction. the relative recoveries also varied between the two sites. Using conventional solvent extraction PCB concentrations appeared to decrease by about 13% along the length of the river while with digestion extraction the PCBs increased by approximately 33%. To study the homogeneity of water in the eastern basin of Lake Erie, uncentrifuged water samples collected from the inlet of the Niagara River at Fort Erie, Ontario, were compared to samples collected from Lake Erie at Sturgeon Point, New York for the period from 7/24/86 to 1/24/87. The average concentrations of four PCB congeners, total organic carbon, turbidity and conductance were similar at the two sampling sites. The average p,p[prime]-DDE concentration was 0.53 ng/L at Fort Erie but only 0.28 ng/L at Sturgeon Point.

  4. Detection of organochlorine compounds formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite with dentin and dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Varise, Tiago Gilioli; Estrela, Carlos; Guedes, Débora Fernandes Costa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2014-01-01

    This study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect the products formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine pulp and dentin. For analysis of the products formed in the volatile phase, 11 mg of bovine pulp tissue were placed in contact with 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl until complete tissue dissolution occurred. The solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane and immediately injected into the GC-MS system. 30 mg of the of dentin were kept in contact with NaOCl, and then the SPME fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane for adsorption of the products and injected into the GC-MS system. The same protocol was used for the aqueous phase. For analysis of the volatile compounds, the final solution was extracted using pure ethyl ether. The suspended particulate phase of the mixture was aspirated, and ether was separated from the aqueous phase of the solution. The ether containing the products that resulted from the chemical interaction of dentin and pulp with the NaOCl was filtered and then injected into the GC-MS system for analysis of the aqueous phase. The aqueous and volatile phases of both dentin and pulp showed the formation of chloroform, hexachloroethane, dichloromethylbenzene and benzaldehyde. In conclusion, organochlorine compounds are generated during the contact of dentin and pulp with NaOCl at concentrations of 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25%. PMID:25140714

  5. Altitudinal and chiral signature of persistent organochlorine pesticides in air, soil, and spruce needles (Picea abies) of the Alps.

    PubMed

    Shen, Heqing; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Levy, Walkiria; Zsolnay, Adam; Weiss, Peter; Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Moche, Wolfgang; Braun, Katharina; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the distribution, transportation, and biodegradation of the selected chiral persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in the Alps. In the complex environment, we found the movement and fate of OCP could be defined by many factors. Taking HCE as an example, below the timberline its accumulation from air into SPMD increased with altitude and seasonally changed, but the trends reversed above the timberline. In soil, the tendency of HCE concentrations vs organic materials followed a sigmoid curve, and HCE concentration-altitude correlations are positive in central Alps but negative in southern Alps. The HCE enantiomeric ratios (ERs) in soil correlated to HCE isomers concentrations, the humus pH values, and the sampling site altitudes. HCE shift from humus to mineral soil can also be traced by ERs. The altitudinal and longitudinal trends in needles suggested that alpha-HCH has a more complex movementthan HCE in Alps. In conclusion, altitude conducted condensation, plant canopies, organic material in soil, and geographic specific precipitations may affect OCP distributions and transportation, whereas altitude conducted temperature and soil pH could dictate their fate in the environment. PMID:19452900

  6. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

    2001-05-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin - and perhaps the urban area in particular - is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflows, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  8. Prenatal Organochlorine Compound Exposure, Rapid Weight Gain, and Overweight in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Michelle A.; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Guxens, Mónica; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis; Goñi, Fernando; Fochs, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it has been hypothesized that fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may increase obesity risk, empirical data are limited, and it is uncertain how early in life any effects may begin. Objectives We explored whether prenatal exposure to several organochlorine compounds (OCs) is associated with rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and body mass index (BMI) later in infancy. Methods Data come from the INMA (Infancia y Medio-Ambiente) Child and Environment birth cohort in Spain, which recruited 657 women in early pregnancy. Rapid growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight-for-age z-scores > 0.67, and elevated BMI at 14 months, as a z-score ≥ the 85th percentile. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk of rapid growth or elevated BMI associated with 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls in first-trimester maternal serum. Results After multivariable adjustment including other OCs, DDE exposure above the first quartile was associated with doubling of the risk of rapid growth among children of normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but not overweight, mothers. DDE was also associated with elevated BMI at 14 months (relative risk per unit increase in log DDE = 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.03). Other OCs were not associated with rapid growth or elevated BMI after adjustment. Conclusions In this study we found prenatal DDE exposure to be associated with rapid weight gain in the first 6 months and elevated BMI later in infancy, among infants of normal-weight mothers. More research exploring the potential role of chemical exposures in early-onset obesity is needed. PMID:20923745

  9. Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Compounds in Biological Tissue and Bed Sediment From Streams in the Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in biological tissue and bed sediment from the Trinity River Basin study area of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorine compounds were determined in biological tissue and surficial bed sediment from 16 stream sites in the Trinity River Basin of east-central Texas. Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) were collected at 10 sites, and fish, including blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bluegill (Lepomis cyanellus), and yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) were collected at all mainstem and two tributary sites. Thirty of the 36 compounds analyzed in biological tissue or surficial bed sediment were detected in one or both media. Overall, more organochlorine compounds were detected in bed sediment than in biological tissue; however, various chlordane isomers, DDT metabolites, and PCBs were detected more frequently in tissue than in sediment. The chlordane isomers and PCBs that were detected more frequently in biological tissue also were detected more frequently at urban sites than at agricultural sites. Organochlorine compound concentrations generally were highest in fish tissue from Trinity River mainstem sites. Fish tissue from the mainstem sites contained a higher percentage of lipids than did fish- and clam-tissue samples from the tributary sites.

  10. Potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption in humans: interaction of organochlorine compounds with thyroid receptor, transthyretin, and thyroid-binding globulin.

    PubMed Central

    Cheek, A O; Kow, K; Chen, J; McLachlan, J A

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alter serum thyroid hormone levels in humans. Hydroxylated organochlorines have relatively high affinities for the serum transport protein transthyretin, but the ability of these compounds to interact with the human thyroid receptor is unknown. Using a baculovirus expression system in insect cells (Sf9 cells), we produced recombinant human thyroid receptor ss (hTRss). In competitive binding experiments, the recombinant receptor had the expected relative affinity for thyroid hormones and their analogs. In competitive inhibition experiments with PCBs, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and several organochlorine herbicides, only the OH-PCBs competed for binding. The affinity of hTRss for OH-PCBs was 10,000-fold lower (Ki = 20-50 microM) than its affinity for thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine, T3; Ki = 10 nM). Because their relative affinity for the receptor was low, we tested the ability of OH-PCBs to interact with the serum transport proteins--transthyretin and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). With the exception of one compound, the OH-PCBs had the same affinity (Ki = 10-80 nM) for transthyretin as thyroid hormone (thyroxine; T4). Only two of the OH-PCBs bound TBG (Ki = 3-7 microM), but with a 100-fold lower affinity than T4. Hydroxylated PCBs have relatively low affinities for the human thyroid receptor in vitro, but they have a thyroid hormonelike affinity for the serum transport protein transthyretin. Based on these results, OH-PCBs in vivo are more likely to compete for binding to serum transport proteins than for binding to the thyroid receptor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10090705

  11. Mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in a lactating cow

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-03-01

    A contaminant mass balance was conducted of a lactating cow in its natural state. PCBs, HDHs, DDE, DDT, HCB, and several other chlorinated substances were investigated. It was found that virtually all of the cow's exposure was through feed. The contaminant absorption in the cow and hence the carry-over rate of persistent compounds was found to be a function of K[sub ow], with approximately constant values up to a log K[sub ow] of 6.5 and thereafter rapidly decreasing absorption with increasing lipophilicity of the contaminant. The key to PCB persistence in the cow was the 4,4[prime] substitution pattern. The 2,3,5 substitution was a less effective hindrance for PCB metabolism. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p′-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:23028613

  13. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Distribution and fate of persistent organochlorine pesticides in coastal marine environment of Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Pandit, G G; Sahu, S K; Sharma, S; Puranik, V D

    2006-02-01

    Multi-compartment monitoring of residue levels of OCPs in coastal marine environment of Mumbai has been studied. The concentration of total HCHs in seawater varied from 0.16 to 15.92 ng/L and concentrations of total DDT varied from 3.01 to 33.21 ng/L. The total HCH concentration in the sediment samples was in the range of 3.8 to 16.2 ng/g. Gamma-HCH contributed almost 55% to the total HCH. In sediment samples the DDT has higher mean concentration in comparison to its metabolite DDE and DDD. The concentration of total HCHs in different marine species varied from 0.87 to 33.73 ng/g and concentrations of total DDT varied from 0.38 to 34.1 ng/g. The variation in the beta-HCH in different compartments is not significant and this could be due to the high persistence and metabolically inactive nature of this isomer. The alpha-HCH is found to be more dominant in fish samples whereas the gamma-HCH is major contributor in the sediment samples. PMID:16213018

  15. Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.

    PubMed

    Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

    2014-05-01

    The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of Σ20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was the most predominant component. ΣHCH and Σdichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of Σ20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed γ-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. β-HCH, α-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37 ± 0.51% and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with Σ20OCPs, γ-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments. PMID:24488553

  16. Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain.

    PubMed

    Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Skaare, J U

    2001-01-01

    To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod) were selected to represent the lower trophic levels in the food web. Four seabird species were chosen at the higher trophic levels, Uria lomvia (Brünnich's guillemot), Cepphus grylle (black guillemot), Rissa tridactyla (black-legged kittiwake) and Larus hyperboreus (glaucous gull). We found low concentrations of the organochlorines sigma hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigma HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), sigma Chlordanes, sigma DDTs and sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (sigma PCBs) in crustaceans (11-50 ng g-1 lipid wt.) and fish (15-222 ng g-1 lipid wt.). In seabirds, the organochlorine concentrations biomagnified one to three orders of magnitude dependent on species and compound class. Glaucous gulls had the highest concentrations of all organochlorines. The organochlorine levels in all taxa except glaucous gull were comparable to those recorded in similar species in the Canadian Arctic. The organochlorine pattern changed from crustaceans and fish to seabirds. Moving up the food chain, the relative contribution of sigma HCHs, HCB and sigma Chlordanes decreased, and the relative contribution of sigma DDTs, sigma PCBs, persistent compounds and metabolites increased. The results reflected trophic transfer of organochlorines along the food chain as well as different elimination potentials due to direct diffusion in crustaceans and fish, and higher contaminant metabolic activity in seabirds. PMID:11383336

  17. [Persistant perfluorinated compounds cause immunotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Carsten; Jensen, Lise; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Mølbak, Kåre; Grandjean, Philippe

    2014-02-24

    Perfluorinated compounds are highly stable and useful industrial chemicals. Both perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid cause immunotoxic effects in animal models at serum concentrations similar to human levels. In children who have undergone routine vaccinations, serum concentrations of these substances are inversely associated with concentrations of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus. Prevention of such effects will require a decrease of exposure limits by at least 100-fold. Immunotoxicity is not included in routine testing of industrial chemicals but urgently needs attention. PMID:25350410

  18. Metals, trace elements, and organochlorine compounds in bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake, Kansas, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom-sediment cores were used to investigate the occurrence of 44 metals and trace elements, and 15 organochlorine compounds in Tuttle Creek Lake, a reservoir with an agricultural basin in northeast Kansas, U.S.A. On the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sediment-quality guidelines, concentrations of Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn frequently or typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels for toxic biological effects. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally below the threshold-effects levels. Statistically significant positive depositional trends were determined for several elements. However, because the vertical profiles of element concentrations typically indicated a bimodal distribution and much of the variability could be attributable to analytical variance, the statistical trends may not represent actual trends. DDE concentrations reflected the history of DDT use. Substantial increases in grain corn and soybean production, irrigated land, and hog production in the basin have not had a discernible effect on sediment quality in the reservoir. Future research focused on small impoundments throughout the basin may enhance understanding of the effects of human activity on sediment quality within the Tuttle Creek Lake system and elsewhere.

  19. Relations between Land Use and Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs, and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment and Fish on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, A.M.D.; Wolff, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

  20. Relations between land use and organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and semi-volatile organic compounds in streambed sediment and fish on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Brasher, A M D; Wolff, R H

    2004-04-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii. PMID:15195811

  1. Occurrence and levels of organochlorine compounds in human breast milk in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bergkvist, Charlotte; Aune, Marie; Nilsson, Ingrid; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Tofail, Fahmida; Oyvind-Odland, Jon; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie

    2012-08-01

    In low-income countries, the use of some organochlorine pesticides is still common in order to increase food production. Monitoring the chemical exposure is an important step in risk-reducing strategies. This is the first study to report concentrations of organochlorines in breast milk of women from Bangladesh where farming is the main income source. Organochlorines such as p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD (i.e., ∑DDT), HCB, α-, β- and γ-HCH, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxy-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, mirex and polychlorinated biphenyls (CB 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 128, 138, 141, 149, 153, 156, 157, 163, 167, 170, 180, 183, 187, 189, 194) were analyzed in breast milk collected in 2002 from 72 first-time mothers (median age 20years) living in the rural area Matlab, Bangladesh. While the concentrations of PCBs and many of the pesticides were low, the concentrations of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE were high (median 349 and 1645ngg(-1)lipid, respectively) in comparison to other countries. The median value of ∑DDT was 2123ngg(-1)lipid. The estimated daily exposure to p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and ∑DDTs was 10, 30 and 42μgkg(-1) body weight, respectively, in 3months old infants. The p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio ranged from 1 to 23, where 58% of the mothers had a ratio below 5 indicating recent or ongoing DDT exposure. This study reports infant exposure and maternal body burden of organochlorines through breast milk. Although the findings give no reason to limit breast-feeding, it is essential to identify the main exposure sources and find means to decrease the exposure. PMID:22551873

  2. Organochlorine compounds in tissues of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Mediterranean Sea and Azores islands.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Patrizia; Ausili, Antonella; Di Muccio, Alfonso; Fossi, Cristina; Di Muccio, Stefano; Rossi, Silvia; Colasanti, Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The Italian Ministry of Environment has undertaken a program (1999-2001) to measure levels of contaminants in top marine predators and to develop sensitive biomarkers for the evaluation of toxicological risk in these species. In 1999, 15 swordfishes (Xiphias gladius) taken from the Mediterranean Sea along the Sicilian coast (Strait of Messina, Italy) and in the Atlantic Ocean along the Azores Islands, and analysed for 34 congeners of PCBs and 27 organochlorine (OC) pesticides in gonad, muscle, liver and blubber tissues. In the tissues of Mediterranean swordfishes the sum of the determined PCBs congeners ranged from 4.61 to 4651.17 ng g(-1) on fresh tissue basis. Among organochlorine pesticides DDE, DDT and DDD (TDE) predominated with an overall range of 2.37-4734.56 ng(-1) w.w. In particular p,p'-DDE had concentrations appearing up to 3900 ng(-1), with the highest values found in fatty tissues, such as blubber. In the liver of Azores Island swordfishes lower levels of summation PCBs (8.43-294.17 ng/g w.w.) and summation DDTs (<0.01-217.44 ng/g w.w.) were determined. PMID:15556179

  3. Determination of some organochlorine compounds in herbal colouring agent henna (Lawsonia inermis) and in tea (Thea sinensis).

    PubMed

    Prosen, Helena; Antonić, Jan; Klobcar, Andrej

    2005-03-01

    Henna (Lawsonia inermis) has been used for centuries as a herbal hair and skin dye, but very little is known about its additives and contaminants that could adversely affect human health. An analytical method was developed to determine organochlorine compounds in henna, as they are still widely used in the areas where henna is grown. Samples were sonicated with n-hexane, extracts cleansed on Florisil sorbent and analysed using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The overall recoveries were 17-33 % with the extraction RSD 5-21%, while the levels of lindane (gamma-HCH), p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE in henna samples were 7-157 microg kg(-1). The same procedure was successfully applied to analyse black tea samples for the same compounds, and which showed lower contamination. PMID:15969202

  4. Prediction of biomagnification factors for some organochlorine compounds using linear free energy relationship parameters and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, M H; Abraham, M H; Haghdadi, M

    2009-07-01

    Multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANNs) as feature mapping techniques were used for the prediction of the biomagnification factor (BMF) of some organochlorine pollutants. As independent variables, or compound descriptors, the Abraham descriptors often employed in linear free energy relationships were used. Much better results were obtained from the nonlinear ANN model than from multiple linear regression. The average absolute error, average relative error and root mean square error in the calculation of log (BMF) by the ANN model were 0.055, 0.051 and 0.097 for the training set and 0.11, 0.086 and 0.175 for the internal validation set, respectively. The degree of importance of each descriptor was evaluated by carrying out a sensitivity analysis approach for the nonlinear model. The results obtained reveal that the order of importance is the pollutant volume, the pollutant dipolarity/polarizability and the pollutant excess molar refraction. In order to examine the credibility of the obtained ANN model the leave-many-out cross-validation test was applied which gave Q(2)= 0.827 and SPRESS = 0.15. Also the Y-scrambling procedure was applied to the ANN model in order to examine the effect of chance correlations. The results obtained reveal that it is possible to predict the BMFs of organochlorine pollutants using a nonlinear ANN model with Abraham descriptors as inputs. PMID:19916109

  5. [Delayed effects of organochlorine pesticides in man].

    PubMed

    Nunes, M V; Tajara, E H

    1998-08-01

    Available information on organochlorines and the chronic effects of exposure to them are set out. Organochlorinated compounds are the most persistent pesticides and can be found in all ecosystems. Although they are generally efficient in pest control, they are also a potent environment pollutant and can provoke health problems in man. The evidences of the carcinogenic potential of organochlorines are controversial and insufficient, but they have been related to an increase in the incidence of some kinds of tumors, such as leukemia and solid tumors. Reproductive effects, due to anti-androgenic and estrogenic action, on embryonic virilization, the incidence of abortion and the frequency of prematurity, have also been observed. The accumulation of the organochlorines in the adipous tissue is positively correlated to the increase in aging and could be implicated in the development of aging diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The effects of pesticides on human health have not yet been completely elucidated. Genotoxicity is one of the most serious of the possible harmful effects caused by these compounds and calls for special attention in view of the irreversible nature of the process and to the long latency associated with its manifestation. PMID:9876430

  6. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  7. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  8. Concentrations of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit : Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.; Coupe, Richard H.; Justus, B.G.; Kleiss, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    Whole fish were collected at 52 sites during 1995-99 to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of selected organochlorine compounds in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit. Samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. From 5 to 8 fish were collected at each site; the fish were composited, and an aliquot of the tissue was analyzed for 28 organo-chlorine compounds, which included pesticides, pesticide degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The use of these organochlorine compounds has been discontinued or severely restricted within the United States, but the continued detection of these compounds or their degradates in the air, water, soil, and biota in national surveys, coupled with known environmental problems associated with these compounds (such as a long half-life and the propensity to accumulate in living tissue), is cause for continued interest in their environmental fate. At least one organochlorine compound was detected in every fish-tissue sample, and as many as 15 different compounds were detected in some. The most frequently detected com-pounds were the degradates of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichlo-roethane (p,p'-DDT); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected in every sample above the method reporting limit, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), was detected in 94 percent of the samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and dieldrin were detected in 83 and 78 percent of fish-tissue samples, respectively. Because these were whole fish samples, the results are not directly comparable to human health standards, which are based on fish fillets. Comparison of these results, however, to the guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife indicates that concentrations of the p,p'-DDT degradates and toxaphene continue to be of environmental concern.

  9. Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.

    PubMed

    Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

    2014-09-01

    This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. PMID:24568747

  10. Air concentrations of organochlorine compounds related to wind direction and compared with biota concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Egebaeck, A.L.; Wideqvist, U.; Asplund, L.; Strandell, M.; Alsberg, T.; Litzen, K.; Eriksson, U.; Haeggberg, L.; Zakrisson, S.; Oisson, M.; Bignert, A.

    1995-12-31

    Persistent organic compounds are long-range transported by air. Air samples were collected at two background meteorological stations, one southern at Gotland in the central Baltic and one northern, close to the polar circle. The collection was a part of the Swedish Dioxin Survey Project. Air sampling was carried out from fall 1990 to spring 1991 using a high-volume sampler. Air trajectories suggesting stable weather conditions decided which samples to be analyzed for e.g. PCBs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN), chloroparaffines, HCHs and Toxaphene. The gas-phase concentrations of the seven PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 were in the low pg/m{sup 3} range, while the concentration of the nonortho PCB 77 was about two orders of magnitude lower. High concentrations were usually correlated with SW winds and low concentrations with N to NW winds. Air masses coming from N to both sampling sites, resulted in nearly equal concentrations of the seven PCB congeners. PCNs were found in the gas phase of all samples at the pg/m{sup 3} level (total PCNs). The relative concentrations of the various contaminants were compared between air and four biological matrices collected in the vicinity of the air sampling locations. Cod, Herring and Herring feeding Guillemot from the Baltic and Pike from the northern sampling site were all collected within the Swedish National Monitoring Program.

  11. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and streambed sediment in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappia, Humbert

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 1998, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, a survey was conducted to determine which organochlorine compounds and trace elements occur in fish tissues and streambed sediments in the Mobile River Basin, which includes parts of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. The data collected were compared to guidelines related to wildlife, land use, and to 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program Study-Unit data.Twenty-one sites were sampled in subbasins of the Mobile River Basin. The subbasins ranged in size from about 9 to 22,000 square miles and were dominated by either a single land use or a combination of land uses. The major land-use categories were urban, agriculture, and forest.Organochlorine compounds were widespread spatially in the Mobile River Basin. At least one organochlorine compound was reported at the majority of sampling sites (84 percent) and in a majority of whole-fish (80 percent) and streambed-sediment (52 percent) samples. Multiple organochlorine compounds were reported at 75 percent of the sites where fish tissues were collected and were reported at many of the streambed-sediment sampling sites (45 percent). The majority of concentrations reported, however, were less than 5 micrograms per kilogram in fish-tissue samples and less than 1 microgram per kilogram in streambed-sediment samples.The majority of trace elements analyzed in fish-liver tissue (86 percent) and streambed-sediment (98 percent) samples were reported during this study. Multiple trace elements were reported in all samples and at all sites.Based on comparisons of concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish-tissue and streambed-sediment samples in relation to National Academy of Science and National Academy of Engineering and Canadian tissue guidelines, probable-effects concentrations, and mean probable-effects concentration quotients for streambed sediment, the potential exists for adverse effects to wildlife at 15 (72 percent) of the sites sampled. The potential for adverse effects at these sites is because of the presence of residues or breakdown products related to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chromium, lead, and zinc.The majority of compounds reported (65 percent) were chlordane, DDT, and PCB?s, or their breakdown products. Concentrations of chlordane and heptachlor epoxide in whole-fish tissue were positively correlated to the amount of urban land use in a basin. Total DDT concentrations in whole-fish tissues were positively correlated to agriculture.The relation of trace elements to land use is not as clear as the relation of organochlorine compounds to land use. This lack of clarity may be due to the possibility of geologic sources of trace elements in the Mobile River Basin and to the ubiquitous nature of many of these trace elements. However, there may be a correlation between the amount of urban land use and concentrations of antimony, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed-sediment samples from the Mobile River Basin.Fewer organochlorine compounds and trace elements were reported in samples from the Mobile River Basin than in samples collected during the 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies. Of the organochlorine compounds analyzed nationally, 57 percent were reported in whole-fish tissue samples collected locally and 41 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples collected locally, whereas 96 percent and 86 percent, respectively, were reported nationally. Of trace elements analyzed nationally, 86 percent were reported in fish-liver tissue locally and 95 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples locally, whereas 95 percent and 98 percent, respectively, were reported nationally.In general, concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements and the frequency with which they were reported in the Mobile River Basin are similar to or less than t

  12. Organochlorine compounds and heavy metals in the soft tissue of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from Lake Faro (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Licata, P; Trombetta, D; Cristani, M; Martino, D; Naccari, F

    2004-08-01

    Three hundred samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from five stations (north, south, east, west and centre) of Lake Faro to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. Quantitative determinations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were made by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. Concentrations of "essential" (Cu, Se and Zn) and "toxic" (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) metals were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained show the low residue levels of p,p'-DDE in six samples of M. galloprovincialis from southern (7.00-11.00 ng/g w.w. and 148.3-275 ng/g l.w.) and western (7.60-15.37 ng/g w.w. and 126.7-256.2 ng/g l.w.) areas of Lake Faro. No appreciable residues of PCBs were found in any of the samples examined. Zn concentrations (range 11.0-18.5 microg/g w.w.) were higher than Cu (range 188.3-396.0 ng/g w.w.) and Se (range 93.5-288.9 ng/g w.w.) in all areas of origin. Cd (range 41.9-63.8 ng/g w.w.), Pb (range 64.8-93.0 ng/g w.w.) and Hg levels (range 5.7-13.1 ng/g w.w.) showed lower concentrations than permitted MRLs. The As levels were below detection limits for the all mussel samples. In conclusion, the absence of PCBs, the low levels of p,p'-DDE, the concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb below permitted MRLs in M. galloprovincialis, used as a "biological indicator", show that Lake Faro is not at contamination risk from these contaminants and moreover is free from health problems for the consumer of mussel products. PMID:15120199

  13. Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Laliberte, C. ); Bruneau, S. ); Muir, D.C.G. ); Norstrom, R.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from artic Quebec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Quebec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Relationships among aural abscesses, organochlorine compounds, and vitamin a in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; Brown, Justin; Steffen, David; Jones, Delbert; Roberston, John; Holladay, Steven

    2008-10-01

    Aural abscesses are a common health problem in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina), and they have been associated with high body burdens of organochlorine (OC) compounds, which are known disruptors of vitamin A. The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of pathologic lesions in box turtles were correlated with increased and decreased levels of hepatic OC compounds and vitamin A, respectively. A graded scale for the pathologic changes observed in tissue samples collected from abscessed and nonabscessed box turtles over a 2-yr period (2003-04) was developed, and the levels of OC compounds and vitamin A in livers collected from the same turtles were determined through chemical analysis. Sixty-eight turtles (40 with aural abscesses and 28 without) were included in the study. Relationships between variables were analyzed using Spearman's Rank Correlation Test, where Pcompounds were identified. Mean+/-standard deviation (SD) total OC compound level for all turtles was 0.35+/-0.83 ppm (range 0-5.81 ppm), and mean+/-SD vitamin A level was 72.8+/-98.6 ppm (range 0-535.7 ppm). There was no correlation between pathologic score and total hepatic OC compound concentration (r = -0.18, P = 0.16). However, pathologic score was positively correlated with o,p'-DDT (r = 0.25, P = 0.05). Vitamin A was positively correlated with pathologic score (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), which was contrary to the expected result. There was no linear correlation between vitamin A and total hepatic OC compound concentration (r = -0.04, P = 0.75). However, a nonlinear regression provided a significant fit (r(2) = 0.12, P = 0.02), indicating an initial increase in vitamin A as the OC compound burden increased, followed by a decline as OC compound levels increased further. The hepatic OC compound residue concentrations in these box turtles were lower compared to levels found in freshwater aquatic turtles but similar to levels in other terrestrial reptile species. This study provides mixed results in support of a role of OC compounds, presumably of environmental origin, in the etiology of aural abscesses in free-ranging box turtles. PMID:18957648

  15. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. PMID:26202210

  16. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

  17. Data on occurrence of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds in edible fish tissues from Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, James B.

    2002-01-01

    A public-health assessment conducted for the Texas Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concluded that exposure to contaminants through the aquatic food chain is an indeterminate human-health hazard in Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds to support a human-health risk assessment. Left-side, skin-off fillet samples were collected from 10 individuals each of channel catfish, common carp, freshwater drum (gaspergou), largemouth bass, and white crappie but only from five smallmouth buffalo. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory analyzed the samples for 22 trace metals, 40 organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, and 75 semivolatile organic compounds.

  18. Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentz, D.A.; Waite, I.R.; Rinella, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

  19. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH. PMID:26354713

  20. Contaminants in the southern tip of South America: Analysis of organochlorine compounds in feathers of avian scavengers from Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, E; Espín, S; Barbar, F; Lambertucci, S A; Gómez-Ramírez, P; García-Fernández, A J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide. This is the first study on OC in feathers of three terrestrial top carnivores from South America. OC concentrations found in the studied species were much higher than those found in feathers of raptors from Europe and Asia, which likely indicate their high use in the region, specifically in agriculture, and other possible uses of OC in this area. ∑HCH had the highest median concentration, followed by ∑Drins, ∑DDT, ∑Heptachlor, and ∑Endosulfan, similar to those reported in several food samples in Argentina. On the other hand, differences in OC profiles between species and areas may be related to feeding and migratory habits, as well as the molt period. Three individuals showed ∑DDT (DDT, DDD and DDE) concentrations in feathers related to sublethal effects. However, this comparison should be used with caution due to problems with extrapolating such data across tissues and species. PMID:25682585

  1. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-09-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH.

  2. Organochlorine compounds in human breast fat from deceased with and without breast cancer and in a biopsy material from newly diagnosed patients undergoing breast surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, M.; Kiaer, H.; Blichert-Toft, M.; Olsen, J.; Clausen, J.

    1984-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have related the incidence of mammary cancer to the dietary intake of fat and/or meat. Since organochlorine compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDT (and its metabolite DDE)) are accumulated in the adipose tissue it was tempting to suggest a relationship between levels of PCB and DDT (i.e., DDT + DDE) in breast fat tissue and the occurrence of mammary cancer. To elucidate this theory, the organochlorine levels of 14 breast fat tissue samples from breast cancer patients and similar samples from 18 decreased mammary cancer patient were compared to that of 21 similar samples from noncancer patients and finally to adipose tissue samples from 35 non-cancer autopsy specimens. No significant differences were traced. Thus it seems that the accumulation of PCB and DDT measured in breast fat tissue do not relate to the occurrence of mammary cancer.

  3. Alternative tissue analysis method developed for organochlorine contaminants in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, T.H.; Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D. )

    1994-09-01

    The exposure of aquatic life to organochlorine contaminants has been investigated during the past two decades because of human and ecosystem health concerns related to the bioaccumulation of hazardous, lipophilic substances. The toxic effects of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known, and recent evidence also suggests that low level exposure to lipophilic organochlorines may interfere with normal development during sensitive early life history stages. As the use of lipophilic organochlorines, such as DDT, in third world countries continues and with the purported global cycling and food chain accumulation of persistent organochlorines, the occurrence of these compounds in aquatic organisms is a critical global environmental issue. An understanding of the fate of organochlorines in the environmental clearly remains an extremely important subject related to water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently gained congressional approval in the United States to track nation wide trends in water quality through the establishment of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Among the goals defined by NAWQA, aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, and plants, collected from major drainage basins will be analyzed for, along with other contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine insecticides, and chlorobenzenes. The purpose of this report is to present quality assurance data obtained from the development of a PCB, chlorobenzene, and organochlorine insecticide tissue analysis method in support of NAWQA and other large-scale water quality programs conducted through our laboratory. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in whole fish tissue from streams of the lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bilger, Michael D.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Campbell, Harry L.

    1999-01-01

    Tissue samples of whole body white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were collected at 15 sites and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were collected at 5 sites during 1992 in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin to determine the occurrence and distribution of 28 selected organochlorine compounds as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Only 12 of the 28 compounds occurred at concentrations greater than the 5 mg/kg reporting limit (total PCB?s reporting limit is 50 percent) sites than in forest-dominated (>50 percent) sites with the exception of Deer Creek and Big Beaver Creek. These two sites are located more in grazing areas that lack a substantial crop-land use. Concentrations of total PCB?s were highest in basins with greater than 10 percent urban land use excluding the larger river sites. Concentrations of total chlordane were highest at sites with greater than 70 percent agricultural and 10 percent urban land use. Regional comparisons of total DDT, total PCB?s, and total chlordane in white sucker tissue from the Lower Susquehanna, Hudson (in New York), and Connecticut River Basins showed that median concentrations of total DDT were different (p=0.05), with the Lower Susquehanna Basin being the lowest. Total PCB?s and total chlordane medians were similar. Comparison of the data from national and regional studies with data from this local study showed concentrations of p,p?-DDE in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin are similar to those nationwide and lower than the concentrations measured in the Northeast. PCB concentrations in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and the Northeast were higher than those nationwide.

  5. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high-altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté Pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Re-emission of PCBs from soils or as a consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific sources as the predominant origin of these compounds in these remote sites. In contrast, significant correlations between current-use pesticides and air masses flowing from the south were observed in Gossenköllesee, Lochnagar and Redòn. In the case of Redòn, the higher proportion of air masses from the south occurred in parallel to higher temperatures, which did not allow us to discriminate between these two determinant factors of pesticide deposition. However, in Gossenköllesee and Lochnagar, the relationship between pesticide concentration and southern air masses was univocal, reflecting the impact of regions with intensive agricultural activities.

  6. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-02-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Reemission of PCBs from soils or as consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific sources as the predominant origin of these compounds in these remote sites. In contrast, significant correlations between current-use pesticides and air masses flowing from the south were observed in Gossenköllesee, Lochnagar and Redòn. In the case of Redòn, the higher proportion of air masses from the south occurred in parallel to higher temperatures, which did not allow to discriminating between these two determinant factors of pesticide deposition. However, in Gossenköllesee and Lochnagar, the relationship between pesticide concentration and southern air masses was univocal reflecting the impact of regions with intensive agricultural activities.

  7. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in sea turtles from Japan.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sudaryanto, Agus; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masaru; Yasumura, Shigeki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Three species of sea turtles (green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles) stranded along the coasts or caught (by-catch) around Ishigaki Island and Kochi, Japan were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for six organohalogen compounds viz., PBDEs, PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. The present study is the first and foremost to report the occurrence of organohalogen compounds in the sea turtles from Japan. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and CHLs were the highest in all the turtle samples. PBDEs were ubiquitously present in all the turtle species. Comparing with the other two species, concentrations of organohalogens in green turtle were relatively low and decreasing trend in the concentrations were noted with increasing carapace length. Concentrations of OCs in sea turtles from the coasts of Ishigaki Island and Kochi were relatively low as compared to those from other locations in the world. PMID:21377171

  8. Declining bioavailability and inappropriate estimation of risk of persistent compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.W.; Alexander, M.

    1997-03-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) assimilated decreasing amounts of atrazine, phenanthrene, and naphthalene that had been incubated for increasing periods of time in sterile soil. The amount of atrazine and phenanthrene removed from soil by mild extractants also decreased with time. The declines in bioavailability of the three compounds to earthworms and of naphthalene to bacteria were not reflected by analysis involving vigorous methods of solvent extraction; similar results for bioavailability of phenanthrene and 4-nitrophenol to bacteria were obtained in a previous study conducted at this laboratory. The authors suggest that regulations based on vigorous extractions for the analyses of persistent organic pollutants in soil do not appropriately estimate exposure or risk to susceptible populations.

  9. Organochlorine compounds in Baltic salmon and trout. I. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenols 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Vuorinen, P.J.; Paasivirta, J.; Piilola, T.; Surma-Aho, K.; Tarhanen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenol compounds were analyzed in three populations of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and one population of Bothnian Bay trout (Salmo trutta). Muscles, livers an unfertilized eggs were studied and the analysis results treated by standard statistical methods. PCB, DDT residues, HCB and lindan were detected in most, 2,3,6-t-richlorocymene in some samples at levels which are near to the global baseline. Ten chlorophenol compounds were detected, 34DCC at 0-1000 ..mu..g/kg the other 0-100 ..mu..g/kg (fresh weight) levels. Chlorohydrocarbons showed some significant positive correlations with weight, and fat contents of the fish. Significances of the differences between populations and tissues were low or negligible except that the chlorophenols in liver were at clearly higher level than in muscle or eggs.

  10. Impacts of molt-inhibiting organochlorine compounds on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanling; Zou, Enmin

    2009-11-01

    Because of their chemical stability and lipophilicity, many organochlorine compounds (OCs) can readily accumulate in fatty tissues of crustaceans. Several OCs have been reported to inhibit crustacean molting. To determine whether the disruption of crustacean molting by these OCs involves interference with ecdysteroid signaling in the epidermis, the impacts of five molt-inhibiting OCs on the level of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, EC 3.2.1.30) mRNA in cultured epidermal tissues from the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. The NAG mRNA was found to be inducible by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) in cultured epidermal tissues. The inducibility of NAG mRNA in cultured epidermal tissues by 20-HE is not only further direct evidence that epidermal expression of NAG gene in U. pugilator is controlled by the molting hormone but also validates the use of the NAG mRNA as a biomarker for epidermal ecdysteroid signaling. When Aroclor 1242, 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29), endosulfan or kepone was administered alone, the expression of NAG gene in cultured epidermal tissues was upregulated, while heptachlor had no effects. Under binary exposure to both 20-HE and an OC, a condition similar to the natural hormonal milieu of epidermal tissues of animals impacted by OCs, both Aroclor 1242 and endosulfan were found to be capable of antagonizing ecdysteroid signaling in cultured epidermal tissues. This antagonizing effect on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling can at least partly explain the inhibitory effects of these two agents on crustacean molting. PCB29, when given together with 20-HE, produced an additive effect on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling but such an additive effect was not observed when kepone was combined with 20-HE. PMID:19567274

  11. Interspecific comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organochlorines bioaccumulation in bivalves from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    León, Víctor M; Moreno-González, Rubén; González, Emilia; Martínez, Fulgencio; García, Víctor; Campillo, Juan A

    2013-10-01

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized in cockle, oyster and noble pen shell from nine areas in the Mar Menor lagoon with different hydrodynamic and pollutant sources. Biota, sediment and water samples were simultaneously collected in the spring and autumn of 2010. Considering all bivalve samples, PAH concentrations ranged from 8.98 to 370 μg·kg(-1) d.w., those of PCBs from 0.15 to 42.36 μg·kg(-1) d.w. and those of DDXs from below detection limit to 240.6 μg·kg(-1) d.w., where p,p'-DDE was the main fraction. The bioaccumulation of PAHs was similar for cockle, oyster and noble pen shell, being higher close to ports and wastewater effluents. However, DDX and PCB bioaccumulations in oyster and noble pen shell were significantly higher than in cockle in spring (p=0.02). The first organic pollutant bioaccumulation data for noble pen shell were obtained in this study, showing a preferential accumulation of pyrene. The increase of PAH bioaccumulation in autumn, as compared to spring, was low, due to high water temperatures during the summer, which favoured PAH dissipation processes. No significant seasonal variations were detected for OCPs and PCBs, except in some specific areas. The PAH, PCB and OCP levels detected in these bivalves were lower than OSPAR/MED POL environmental assessment criteria, except for p,p'-DDE in bivalves sited close to El Albujón watercourse mouth. PMID:23872249

  12. Brain Organochlorines and Lewy Pathology: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ross, G. Webster; Duda, John E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Pellizzari, Edo; Petrovitch, Helen; Miller, Diane B.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Noorigian, Joseph V.; Masaki, Kamal; Launer, Lenore; White, Lon R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although organochlorines have been reported more frequently in Parkinson’s disease (PD) brains than controls, the association with brain Lewy pathology is unknown. Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) participants, exposed to organochlorines from a variety of sources during mid-life, represent a population well suited to determine the relationship of brain organochlorines with Lewy pathology in decedents from the longitudinal HAAS. Methods Study design included the measurement of 21 organochlorine levels in frozen occipital lobe samples from HAAS decedents. Alpha-synuclein immunostaining performed on 225 brains was used to identify Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Results With the potential for spurious associations to appear between Lewy pathology and 17 organochlorine compounds found to be present in at least one brain, initial assessments identified heptachlor epoxide isomer b, methoxychlor, and benzene hexachloride b as being most important. Prevalence of Lewy pathology was 75% (6/8) among brains with any 2 of the 3 compounds, 48.8% (79/162) among those with 1, and 32.7% (18/55) for those with neither (P=0.007 test for trend). While findings persisted after removing cases with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, and when adjustments were made for age at death, body mass index, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and coffee intake (p=0.013), results were insignificant when correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions While consistent with earlier accounts of an association between organochlorines and clinical PD, associations with Lewy pathology warrant further study. PMID:22976848

  13. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Rignell-Hydbom, A.; Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H.; Elmstahl, S.; Bjellerup, P.; Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U.; Akesson, A.

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  14. Degradation of organochlorine compounds in spent sulfite bleach plant effluents by actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Winter, B; Fiechter, A; Zimmermann, W

    1991-10-01

    Actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples were tested for their abilities to utilize spent sulfite bleach effluents from a paper mill. Degradation and dechlorination of the chlorinated compounds in the effluents of the first two bleaching stages, i.e., chlorination stage [(C + D)red.] and alkaline extraction stage (E1O), were monitored by determining total organic carbon (TOC) and activated-carbon-adsorbable organic-bound halogen (AOX). The isolates showed increased degradation rates after repeated incubations in the effluent-containing medium. Separation of the culture supernatants by ultrafiltration into three fractions of different molecular weights revealed substantial AOX and TOC reductions in the low-molecular-weight fraction. The AOX values of the higher-molecular-weight fractions were also reduced. Extracellular peroxidase and cell wall-bound catalase activities were produced during growth of the microorganisms on bleach effluents. PMID:1746946

  15. Spatial budgetary evaluation of organochlorine contaminants in the sediments of Cochin Estuary, India.

    PubMed

    Akhil, P S; Sujatha, C H

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the first detailed investigation on the residual levels of organochlorine insecticide (OCI) concentrations in the Cochin estuarine sediment. It aims in elucidate their distribution and ecological impact on the aquatic system. Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compound (OC) were determined for 17 surface sediment samples which were collected from specific sites of Cochin Estuarine System (CES) over a period of November 2009 and November 2011. The contaminant levels in the CES were compared with other worldwide ecosystems. The sites bearing high concentration of organochlorine compounds are well associated with the complexities and low energy environment. Evaluation of ecotoxicological factors suggests that adverse biological effects are expected in certain areas of CES. PMID:24210223

  16. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  17. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  18. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Mulvad, G; Pedersen, H S; Ayotte, P; Demers, A; Weber, J P; Hansen, J C

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticides and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured in tissue lipid extracts by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Mean concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, 2, 2'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane in adipose tissue samples from Greenlanders were 3-34-fold higher than those measured using the same analytical method in samples from Canadians in Quebec City, Quebec. Brain lipids contained lower concentrations of all organochlorines than lipids extracted from other tissues. Organochlorine residue levels in lipid extracts from liver, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples were similar, with the exception of ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, which reached a greater concentration in liver lipids than in lipids from both adipose tissues (4-fold; p < 0. 05). Comparisons with available international data on adipose tissue levels reveal that the organochlorine body burden in the Inuit population of Greenland is presently among the highest resulting from environmental exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504150

  19. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

  20. Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the Lower Columbia River using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are of concern in the Columbia River Basin because of their adverse effects on fish and wildlife. Because these compounds can have important biological consequences at concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional water-sampling techniques, we used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per-quintillion detection limits. We deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. We also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our data indicate that (1) in the absence of additional sources, mechanisms such as volatilization, dilution, and settling of suspended particles can act to significantly reduce concentrations of contaminants along the river's flow path, (2) elevated concentrations of contaminants in the Portland-Vancouver area are primarily from local rather than upstream sources, (3) elevated concentrations of many compounds tend to be diluted during periods of high discharge, (4) much higher discharge in the main stem considerably dilutes elevated concentrations entering from tributaries, (5) the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in streambed sediment is not necessarily indicative of their distribution in the dissolved-phase, and (6) SPMDs can reveal patterns of contaminant occurrence at environmentally relevant concentrations that are undetectable by conventional water-sampling techniques.

  1. Survey of Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants (PCDD, PCDF, and PCB) in Fish Collected from the Polish Baltic Fishing Areas

    PubMed Central

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Maszewski, Sebastian; Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Goraj, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, and ndl-PCBs were determined in five species of edible fish from the Baltic Sea (ICES 24–27): salmon (Salmo salar), Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus), sea trout (Salmo trutta m.trutta), and cod (Gadus morhua callarias). Marker PCBs were the dominant compounds (0.07–60.84 ng/g  w.w.), followed by dl-PCBs (0.64–6.07 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and PCDD/PCDFs (0.22–5.67 pg WHO-TEQ w.w). The concentration levels of contaminants varied between species. Salmon possessed the highest concentrations (up to 14.11 ± 2.36 pg WHO-TEQ/g  w.w.) and cod the lowest ones (0.84 ± 0.14 pg WHO-TEQ/g  w.w.). Congener profile in the fish tested had similar pattern. The largest contribution to the dioxin toxicity was caused successively by PCB 126, 118, 156, furans (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF), and two dioxins: 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although the dietary consumption of fish from southwest region of the Baltic Sea did not represent a risk for human health (because of very low consumption of marine fish), the excessive eating of some of them may be of significance importance for health of various subgroups of consumers (fishermen). PMID:22593715

  2. Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the lower Columbia River using semipermeable membrane devices

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The authors used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per-quintillion detection limits. They deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. They also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tom S. Wilson, John X.; Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia; Poon, Raymond; O'Brien, Peter J.

    2008-11-01

    Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes.

  4. Inability to induce tympanic squamous metaplasia using organochlorine compounds in vitamin A-deficient red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Kroenlein, Karl R; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Holladay, Steven D; Joyner, Priscilla H; Brown, Justin D; Griffin, Mark; Saunders, Geoffrey; Smith, Stephen A

    2008-07-01

    Previously, we reported that wild eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses contained higher body burdens of organochlorine (OC) compounds than those without the lesion. This lesion in captive chelonians is associated with turtles that are fed diets deficient in vitamin A. To examine the pathophysiology of this lesion and evaluate the relationship between OC burdens and vitamin A metabolism, we maintained red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) under different conditions of OC exposure and dietary vitamin A concentrations from August 2005 to February 2006. Dietary vitamin A concentration (0 or 5 international units/g in the diet) and OC exposure (no OC compound or the mixture of 2 mg/kg chlordane, 0.25 mg/kg aroclor, and 1 mg/kg lindane) did not affect histologic score based on degree of squamous metaplasia of the tympanic epithelium or levels of plasma or liver vitamin A among the study groups. The results of this study suggest that 6 mo of exposure to the selected OC compounds, or similar duration of reduced dietary vitamin A concentrations do not influence the formation of squamous metaplasia and aural abscesses in red-eared sliders. Further studies are required to determine whether the duration of the experiment was insufficient, the OC compounds selected were inappropriate, the dosing was incorrect, and whether there are other unknown mechanisms causing the reported association between OC exposure and aural abscesses seen in eastern box turtles. PMID:18689652

  5. The effect of long-range atmospheric transport of organochlorine compounds by soil studies from Mongolia to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2016-02-01

    The results of studies on the distribution regularities are presented for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of different degrees of chlorination and for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs): hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH), and DDT with its metabolites in the soils along the Lena River valley and in background areas of Eastern Siberia and Mongolia. A statistically reliable correlation is found between the PCB-OCP and Corg concentrations. The highest levels of HCB are registered in the soils between 50 and 60° N. The concentrations of αand γ-HCCH increase reliably, while those of pp'-DDT and pp'-DDE decrease from south to north. A trend of the decrease in concentrations from Mongolia to the Laptev Sea is revealed for tri-, tetra-, and penta-chlorine-substituted PCB congeners. However, the soils sampled northwards from 60° N show a reliable increase in the concentrations of tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorine-substituted congeners.

  6. The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2013-12-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 μm and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species. PMID:24054891

  7. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process. PMID:25563158

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Brominated Flame Retardants and Other Persistent Organohalogenated Compounds in Relation to Timing of Puberty in a Longitudinal Study of Girls

    PubMed Central

    Pinney, Susan M.; Voss, Robert W.; Sjödin, Andreas; Biro, Frank M.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Stewart, Susan; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to hormonally active chemicals could plausibly affect pubertal timing, so we are investigating this in the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program. Objectives Our goal was to examine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in relation to pubertal onset. Methods Ethnically diverse cohorts of 6- to 8-year-old girls (n = 645) provided serum for measure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and lipids. Tanner stages [breast (B) and pubic hair (PH)], and body mass index (BMI) were measured at up to seven annual clinic visits. Using accelerated failure time models, we calculated time ratios (TRs) for age at Tanner stages 2 or higher (2+) and POPs quartiles (Q1–4), adjusting for confounders (race/ethnicity, site, caregiver education, and income). We also calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) of Tanner stages 2+ at time of blood sampling. Results Cross-sectionally, the prevalence of B2+ and PH2+ was inversely related to chemical serum concentrations; but after adjustment for confounders, only the associations with B2+, not PH2+, were statistically significant. Longitudinally, the age at pubertal transition was consistently older with greater chemical concentrations; for example: adjusted TR for B2+ and Q4 for ΣPBDE = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08, for ΣPCB = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08, and for ΣOCP = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.14, indicating median ages of about 6 and 11 months older than least exposed, and with similar effect estimates for PH2+. Adjusting for BMI attenuated associations for PCBs and OCPs but not for PBDEs. Conclusions This first longitudinal study of puberty in girls with serum POPs measurements (to our knowledge) reveals a delay in onset with higher concentrations. Citation Windham GC, Pinney SM, Voss RW, SjÖdin A, Biro FM, Greenspan LC, Stewart S, Hiatt RA, Kushi LH. 2015. Brominated flame retardants and other persistent organohalogenated compounds in relation to timing of puberty in a longitudinal study of girls. Environ Health Perspect 123:1046–1052; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408778 PMID:25956003

  10. Organochlorine contaminants in albatrosses and petrels during migration in South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2012-02-01

    Albatrosses and petrels (Procellariiformes) are migratory oceanic birds of considerable conservational interest. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were assessed in the subcutaneous fat, liver and muscle of 100 birds belonging to eight species of Procellariiformes collected during their migration period in southern Brazil, one of the most important feeding areas for these species. Although the profiles of PCBs and OCPs were similar among the individuals, with predominance of penta, hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls and p'p-DDE, organochlorine concentrations exhibited a high degree of intra-species variability. The influence of body condition during the migration period in the distribution of organochlorine contaminants was also evaluated, showing that it is a significant factor in the variation and redistribution of these compounds in the tissues of these birds. The intense use of lipid reserves associated to the contamination from organochlorine compounds could be a troubling factor for seabirds with extended breeding periods and that spend most of their lives at sea migrating long distances, such as most of Procellariiformes. Studies on contamination are necessary to improve the knowledge of the threats to these birds and their populations as well as to contribute with information about persistent organic pollutants in the South Atlantic marine environment. PMID:22169209

  11. Water-Quality Assessment of Part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin: Organochlorine Compounds in Streambed Sediments and Fish Tissues, 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNellis, R.P.; Fallon, J.D.; Lee, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Streambed sediments and fish tissues were collected in part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin to assess the presence and distribution of organochlorine compounds (OCs) including PCBs. A total of 13 OCs were detected among 14 of 27 streambed sediment sampling locations. In fish tissues analyzed, 9 OCs were detected among 17 of 24 sites sampled. Eight OCs were detected in both fish and streambed sediment samples, they were: cis-chlordane, o,p'-DDD; p,p'-DDD; p,p'-DDE; p,p'-DDT; hexachlorobenzene; transnonachlor; and PCBs. The most frequently detected OCs were: p,p'-DDE; and p,p'-DDD in streambed sediment and p,p'-DDE and PCBs in fish tissues. No OCs were detected in streambed sediment at agricultural sites; however, the agricultural sites had 17 detections of OCs in fish tissue. Urban streams had concentrations of total DDT and metabolites in streambed sediment that exceed guidelines for classification of sites with high probabilities of adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Total DDT was the only OC within an urban land use that exceeded guidelines for piscivorous wildlife.

  12. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J; Orazio, Carl E; Schmitt, Christopher J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2009-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. PMID:18851891

  13. Identification of anti-virulence compounds that disrupt quorum-sensing regulated acute and persistent pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Melissa; Lepine, Francois; Maura, Damien; Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Lesic, Biljana; He, Jianxin; Kitao, Tomoe; Righi, Valeria; Milot, Sylvain; Tzika, Aria; Rahme, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    Etiological agents of acute, persistent, or relapsing clinical infections are often refractory to antibiotics due to multidrug resistance and/or antibiotic tolerance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes recalcitrant and severe acute chronic and persistent human infections. Here, we target the MvfR-regulated P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) virulence pathway to isolate robust molecules that specifically inhibit infection without affecting bacterial growth or viability to mitigate selective resistance. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen (HTS) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, we identify compounds that block the synthesis of both pro-persistence and pro-acute MvfR-dependent signaling molecules. These compounds, which share a benzamide-benzimidazole backbone and are unrelated to previous MvfR-regulon inhibitors, bind the global virulence QS transcriptional regulator, MvfR (PqsR); inhibit the MvfR regulon in multi-drug resistant isolates; are active against P. aeruginosa acute and persistent murine infections; and do not perturb bacterial growth. In addition, they are the first compounds identified to reduce the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. As such, these molecules provide for the development of next-generation clinical therapeutics to more effectively treat refractory and deleterious bacterial-human infections. PMID:25144274

  14. Identification of Anti-virulence Compounds That Disrupt Quorum-Sensing Regulated Acute and Persistent Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Lesic, Biljana; He, Jianxin; Kitao, Tomoe; Righi, Valeria; Milot, Sylvain; Tzika, Aria; Rahme, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Etiological agents of acute, persistent, or relapsing clinical infections are often refractory to antibiotics due to multidrug resistance and/or antibiotic tolerance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes recalcitrant and severe acute chronic and persistent human infections. Here, we target the MvfR-regulated P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) virulence pathway to isolate robust molecules that specifically inhibit infection without affecting bacterial growth or viability to mitigate selective resistance. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen (HTS) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, we identify compounds that block the synthesis of both pro-persistence and pro-acute MvfR-dependent signaling molecules. These compounds, which share a benzamide-benzimidazole backbone and are unrelated to previous MvfR-regulon inhibitors, bind the global virulence QS transcriptional regulator, MvfR (PqsR); inhibit the MvfR regulon in multi-drug resistant isolates; are active against P. aeruginosa acute and persistent murine infections; and do not perturb bacterial growth. In addition, they are the first compounds identified to reduce the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. As such, these molecules provide for the development of next-generation clinical therapeutics to more effectively treat refractory and deleterious bacterial-human infections. PMID:25144274

  15. (PRESENTED AT MATSUYAMA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS METHOD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity.

  16. (PRESENTED AT MORIOKA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity.

  17. (PRESENTED AT TSUKUBA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS METHOD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity.

  18. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish. PMID:26173852

  19. Occurrence of Organochlorine Pesticides in Stream Bed Sediment and Fish From Selected Streams on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, Anne M.; Anthony, Stephen S.

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were heavily used from the mid-1940s to the mid-1980s. The persistence of organochlorine pesticides, their tendency to accumulate in soil, sediment, and biota, and their harmful effects on wildlife brought this class of compounds into disfavor and eventually resulted in restriction or cancellation of most of them in the United States (Nowell and others, 1999). Despite use restrictions, these compounds continue to be detected in sediment and fish tissue samples. This study was undertaken as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NAWQA program assesses watersheds as integrated systems, focusing on chemical concentrations, physical conditions, and biological status in streams. One component of NAWQA is an occurrence survey of organic contaminants and trace elements in stream bed sediment and fish tissue. The goal of the Oahu stream bed sediment and fish tissue occurrence survey was to determine which organochlorine contaminants are present in streams around the island, and with which land uses they are associated. An understanding of relations between land use and organochlorine compounds will allow land management practices to be designed to reduce the loading of contaminants to streams and nearshore waters.

  20. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  1. Comparative fate of an organochlorine, chlordecone, and a related compound, chlordecone-5b-hydro, in soils and plants.

    PubMed

    Clostre, Florence; Cattan, Philippe; Gaude, Jean-Marie; Carles, Céline; Letourmy, Philippe; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2015-11-01

    We address the problem of the comparative environmental fate of a pesticide, chlordecone (CLD), and a related compound, chlordecone-5b-hydro (CLD-5b-hydro). We used a large database including data from two types of contaminated volcanic soils, andosol and nitisol, and thirteen crops grown in the French West Indies in historically polluted soils. We performed in-depth statistical analysis of the effect of different parameters (soil type, crop, organ, etc.) on the ratio of CLD-5b-hydro to CLD in both soils and plants. The environmental fate of the two compounds differed depending on the type of soil. Proportionally, more CLD-5b-hydro than CLD was measured in nitisols than in andosols. Compared to CLD, we also found a preferential transfer of CLD-5b-hydro from the soil to the plant. Finally, mobilization of the two compounds differed according to the species of crop but also within the plant, with increasing ratios from the roots to the top of the plant. The properties of the compound played a key role in the underlying processes. Because CLD-5b-hydro is more soluble in water and has a lower K(ow) than CLD, CLD-5b-hydro (1) was more easily absorbed from soils by plants, (2) was less adsorbed onto plant tissues and (3) was transported in greater quantities through the transpiration stream. Due to the amounts of CLD-5b-hydro we measured in some plant parts such as cucurbit fruits, an assessment of the toxicity of this CLD monodechlorinated product is recommended. PMID:26081731

  2. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M.A.; Foreman, W.T.; Skaates, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ??g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ??g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ??g/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 ??g/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 ??g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  3. Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-11-01

    Eudora Welty, the famous writer, was once asked what should be done by society or government to encourage young writers. Her response, which surprised the questioner, and me when I heard it, was "Nothing". Welty contended that a person who was really a writer would be persistent enough to overcome whatever obstacles were in the way, needing no interference or support from others.

  4. Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, M; Faus-Kessler, T; Jakobi, G; Levy, W; Henkelmann, B; Bernhft, S; Kotalik, J; Zsolnay, A; Bassan, R; Belis, C; Kruchi, N; Moche, W; Simoncic, P; Uhl, M; Weiss, P; Schramm, K-W

    2009-12-01

    In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude. PMID:19596160

  5. Bees eavesdrop upon informative and persistent signal compounds in alarm pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengwei; Wen, Ping; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Pollinators such as bees provide a critical ecosystem service that can be impaired by information about predation. We provide the first evidence for olfactory eavesdropping and avoidance of heterospecific alarm signals, alarm pheromones, at food sources in bees. We predicted that foragers could eavesdrop upon heterospecific alarm pheromones, and would detect and avoid conspicuous individual pheromone compounds, defined by abundance and their ability to persist. We show that Apis cerana foragers avoid the distinctive alarm pheromones of A. dorsata and A. mellifera, species that share the same floral resources and predators. We next examined responses to individual alarm pheromone compounds. Apis cerana foragers avoided isopentyl acetate (IPA), which is found in all three species and is the most abundant and volatile of the tested compounds. Interestingly, A. cerana also avoided an odor component, gamma-octanoic lactone (GOL), which is >150-fold less volatile than IPA. Chemical analyses confirmed that GOL is only present in A. dorsata, not in A. cerana. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings revealed that A. cerana antennae are 10-fold more sensitive to GOL than to other tested compounds. Thus, the eavesdropping strategy is shaped by signal conspicuousness (abundance and commonality) and signal persistence (volatility). PMID:27157595

  6. Bees eavesdrop upon informative and persistent signal compounds in alarm pheromones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwei; Wen, Ping; Qu, Yufeng; Dong, Shihao; Li, Jianjun; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2016-01-01

    Pollinators such as bees provide a critical ecosystem service that can be impaired by information about predation. We provide the first evidence for olfactory eavesdropping and avoidance of heterospecific alarm signals, alarm pheromones, at food sources in bees. We predicted that foragers could eavesdrop upon heterospecific alarm pheromones, and would detect and avoid conspicuous individual pheromone compounds, defined by abundance and their ability to persist. We show that Apis cerana foragers avoid the distinctive alarm pheromones of A. dorsata and A. mellifera, species that share the same floral resources and predators. We next examined responses to individual alarm pheromone compounds. Apis cerana foragers avoided isopentyl acetate (IPA), which is found in all three species and is the most abundant and volatile of the tested compounds. Interestingly, A. cerana also avoided an odor component, gamma-octanoic lactone (GOL), which is >150-fold less volatile than IPA. Chemical analyses confirmed that GOL is only present in A. dorsata, not in A. cerana. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings revealed that A. cerana antennae are 10-fold more sensitive to GOL than to other tested compounds. Thus, the eavesdropping strategy is shaped by signal conspicuousness (abundance and commonality) and signal persistence (volatility). PMID:27157595

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Maureen A.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Hediger, Mary L.; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cc of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron-capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a five-fold risk of endometriosis (aOR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings. PMID:20580667

  8. G-quadruplex-interacting compounds alter latent DNA replication and episomal persistence of KSHV

    PubMed Central

    Madireddy, Advaitha; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Loosbroock, Christopher P.; Robertson, Erle S.; Schildkraut, Carl L.; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes life-long latent infection by persisting as an extra-chromosomal episome in the infected cells and by maintaining its genome in dividing cells. KSHV achieves this by tethering its epigenome to the host chromosome by latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which binds in the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Sequence analysis of the TR, a GC-rich DNA element, identified several potential Quadruplex G-Rich Sequences (QGRS). Since quadruplexes have the tendency to obstruct DNA replication, we used G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds to examine their effect on latent DNA replication and the persistence of viral episomes. Our results showed that these G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds led to the activation of dormant origins of DNA replication, with preferential bi-directional pausing of replications forks moving out of the TR region, implicating the role of the G-rich TR in the perturbation of episomal DNA replication. Over time, treatment with PhenDC3 showed a loss of viral episomes in the infected cells. Overall, these data show that G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds retard the progression of replication forks leading to a reduction in DNA replication and episomal maintenance. These results suggest a potential role for G-quadruplex stabilizers in the treatment of KSHV-associated diseases. PMID:26837574

  9. G-quadruplex-interacting compounds alter latent DNA replication and episomal persistence of KSHV.

    PubMed

    Madireddy, Advaitha; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Loosbroock, Christopher P; Robertson, Erle S; Schildkraut, Carl L; Verma, Subhash C

    2016-05-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes life-long latent infection by persisting as an extra-chromosomal episome in the infected cells and by maintaining its genome in dividing cells. KSHV achieves this by tethering its epigenome to the host chromosome by latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA), which binds in the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Sequence analysis of the TR, a GC-rich DNA element, identified several potential Quadruplex G-Rich Sequences (QGRS). Since quadruplexes have the tendency to obstruct DNA replication, we used G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds to examine their effect on latent DNA replication and the persistence of viral episomes. Our results showed that these G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds led to the activation of dormant origins of DNA replication, with preferential bi-directional pausing of replications forks moving out of the TR region, implicating the role of the G-rich TR in the perturbation of episomal DNA replication. Over time, treatment with PhenDC3 showed a loss of viral episomes in the infected cells. Overall, these data show that G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds retard the progression of replication forks leading to a reduction in DNA replication and episomal maintenance. These results suggest a potential role for G-quadruplex stabilizers in the treatment of KSHV-associated diseases. PMID:26837574

  10. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediment and livers of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Cashman, J.R.; Nishioka, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made in 1992 of chlorinated organic compounds in sediments and in livers of striped bass from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. Samples of sediment and striped bass livers contained DDT (ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-) and its degradation products, DDD (ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-) and DDE (ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-); PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls); alpha and gamma chlordane, and cis and trans nonachlor. In addition, the livers of striped bass contained small concentrations of DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), a pre-emergent herbicide. Agricultural run-off from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, as well as atmospheric deposition, are probably responsible for a low chronic background of DDT in sediments throughout San Francisco Bay. Larger concentrations of DDT in sediment near Richmond in the Central Bay, and Coyote Creek in the South Bay may be derived from point sources. Ratios of pentachloro isomers of PCBs to hexachloro isomers in the South Bay sediments were different from those in the Central and North Bay, suggesting either differences in microbial activity in the sediments or different source inputs of PCBs. Concentrations of alpha chlordane in livers of striped bass were greater than those of gamma chlordane, which suggests a greater environmental stability and persistence of alpha chlordane. Trans nonachlor, a minor component of technical chlorodane, was present in greater concentrations than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor. Trans nonachlor is more resistant to metabolism than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor, and serves as an environmentally stable marker compound of chlordane contamination in the estuary. Chlorinated organic compounds have bioaccumulated in the livers of striped bass. These compounds may contribute to the decline of the striped bass in San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

  12. A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkowski, P.J.; Smith, J.A.; Fusillo, T.V.; Chiou, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the sorption of contaminants by different sediment size fractions. Field studies indicate that organic contaminants tend to sorb more to fine-grained sediment, and this correlates significantly with sediment organic matter content. Laboratory experiments have extended the field studies to a wider spectrum of natural particulates and anthropogenic compounds. Quantitation of isotherm results allows the comparison of different sediment sorbents as well as the estimation of field partition coefficients from laboratory-measured sediment and contaminant properties. Detailed analyses made on the basis of particle-size classes show that all sediment fractions need to be considered in evaluating the fate and distribution of manmade organic compounds. This conclusion is based on observations from field studies and on the variety of natural organic sorbents that demonstrate sorptive capabilities in laboratory isotherm experiments.

  13. Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in ivory gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Grant Gilchrist, H; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken G

    2007-06-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs. This study also provides the first account of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in ivory gulls. The most quantitatively abundant legacy organochlorines found in the ivory gull eggs were p,p'-DDE, SigmaPCB and oxychlordane. Concentrations of the organochlorines analyzed either decreased or showed little change between 1976 and 2004. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD in ivory gull eggs were greater than SigmaPCDF, and the non-ortho PCBs (primarily PCB-126) contributed the largest fraction to the total TEQ value in all years sampled. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and SigmaTEQ decreased from 1976 to 2004. In contrast, concentrations of the PBDEs steadily increased between 1976 and 2004 driven primarily by increases in BDE-47. Although concentrations of the persistent chlorinated compounds (i.e. organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs) reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for eggs of wild birds, we cannot rule out the possibility of synergistic/additive, sublethal effects. Very few studies have been carried out to evaluate the exposure-effect relationship of the persistent brominated compounds in avian species. Given the scarcity of information on toxicity threshold levels for PBBs and PBDEs in avian species, coupled with the trend toward increasing concentrations in ivory gulls, continued monitoring and further toxicological studies of these compounds are warranted. PMID:17412396

  14. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides residues in green mussels (Perna viridis) from the coastal area of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Jaksakul, Areerat; Puncharoen, Pornthip; Tabucanon, Monthip Sriratana

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of organochlorine pesticides for pest control chemical has been of great interest on residue contamination from biological organisms in the environment. Green mussel (Perna viridis) samples were monitored as bioindicators for assessment of the water quality in coastal waters along the Gulf of Thailand. Thirty-six samples were collected from 12 stations during 1997-1999 and analysed for 26 organochlorine pesticide compounds. This paper focuses on the contamination of organochlorine pesticide residues in green mussel (P. viridis) during 1997-1999. The limit of detection of all organochlorine pesticides compounds was at the range of 0.1-8.3 ng g(-1) wet weight and recovery 75-95%. The concentration of organochlorine pesticides residues in green mussel was lower than the maximum residue limit for aquatic animals as recommended by the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. The trend of organochlorine pesticide residue contamination in this area decreased from 1989 to 1999. PMID:12152831

  15. Evaluation of the persistence of transformation products from ozonation of trace organic compounds - a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Uwe; von Gunten, Urs; Jekel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ozonation is an efficient treatment system to reduce the concentration of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) from technical aquatic systems such as drinking water, wastewater and industrial water, etc. Although it is well established that ozonation generally improves the removal of organic matter in biological post-treatment, little is known about the biodegradability of individual transformation products resulting from ozonation of TrOCs. This publication provides a qualified assessment of the persistence of ozone-induced transformation products based on a review of published product studies and an evaluation of the biodegradability of transformation products with the biodegradability probability program (BIOWIN) and the University of Minnesota Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS). The oxidation of TrOCs containing the four major ozone-reactive sites (olefins, amines, aromatics and sulfur-containing compounds) follows well described reaction pathways leading to characteristic transformation products. Assessment of biodegradability revealed a high sensitivity to the formed products and hence the ozone-reactive site present in the target compound. Based on BIOWIN, efficient removal can be expected for products from cleavage of olefin groups and aromatic rings. In contrast, estimations and literature indicate that hydroxylamines and N-oxides, the major products from ozonation of secondary and tertiary amines are not necessarily better removed in biological post-treatment. According to UM-PPS, degradation of these products might even occur via reformation of the corresponding amine. Some product studies with sulfide-containing TrOCs showed a stoichiometric formation of sulfoxides from oxygen transfer reactions. However, conclusions on the fate of transformation products in biological post-treatment cannot be drawn based on BIOWIN and UM-PPS. PMID:25462725

  16. Baseline occurrence of organochlorine pesticides and other xenobiotics in the marine environment: Caribbean and Pacific collections.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert; Soares Quinete, Natalia; Gardinali, Piero; Seba, Douglas

    2013-05-15

    This ongoing survey reports the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea surface slicks collected on a global circumnavigation. Hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds such as POPs are known to accumulate on the sea surface in slicks at concentrations many fold greater than the underlying water column, raising concerns about the ecological impacts due to the high biological activity associated with this zone. Six different categories of POPs were reported: chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane related compounds, organochlorine pesticides and other cyclodiene pesticides, DDTs and metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations ranged from <1ngL(-1) to 18.45μgL(-1). Ranking analysis indicates an independence of detected concentrations for each class of compounds and their geographical locations. Although concentrations observed were normally low and below commonly accepted toxic levels to animals and humans, they fall within the effective range of concentrations of many hormones and neurotransmitters, thus could potentially act as endocrine disrupters. PMID:23597795

  17. Coexistence of electron-glass phase and persistent photoconductivity in GeSbTe compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2015-03-01

    It is demonstrated that persistent photoconductivity (PPC), well studied in lightly-doped semiconductors, is observable in GeSbTe compounds using infrared excitation at cryogenic temperatures. The low levels of energy flux necessary to induce an appreciable effect seems surprising given the high carrier concentration n of these ternary alloys (n >1020cm-3 ). On the other hand, their high density of carriers makes GeSbTe films favorable candidates for exhibiting intrinsic electron-glass effects with long relaxation times. These are indeed observed in GeSbTe thin films that are Anderson-localized. In particular, a memory dip is observed in samples with sheet resistances larger than ≈105Ω at T ≈4 K with similar characteristics as in other systems that exhibit intrinsic electron-glass effects. Persistent photoconductivity, however, is observable in GeSbTe films even for sheet resistances of the order of 103Ω , well below the range of disorder required for observing electron-glass effects. These two nonequilibrium phenomena, PPC and electron glass, are shown to be of different nature in terms of other aspects as well. In particular, their relaxation dynamics is qualitatively different; the excess conductance Δ G associated with PPC decays with time as a stretched exponential whereas a logarithmic relaxation law characterizes Δ G (t ) of all electron glasses studied to date. Surprisingly, the magnitude of the memory dip is enhanced when the system is in the PPC state. This counter-intuitive result may be related to the compositional disorder in these materials extending over mesoscopic scales. Evidence in support of this scenario is presented and discussed.

  18. Formation of environmentally persistent free radicals from the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Borrowman, Cuyler K; Zhou, Shouming; Burrow, Timothy E; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-01-01

    In the 1980s long-lived radical species were identified in cigarette tar. Since then, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been observed in ambient particulate matter, and have been generated in particulate matter generated from internal combustion engines. For the first time, we measure in situ the formation and decay of EPFRs through the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and several polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC). Solid anthracene (ANT), pyrene (PY), benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), benzo[ghi]perylene (BGHIP), 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4NQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) were reacted with gas-phase ozone in a flow system placed in the active cavity of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer, and the formation of radicals was measured on the timescale of tens of minutes at ambient levels of ozone down to 30 ppb. For most substrates the net radical production is initially rapid, slows at intermediate times, and is followed by a slow decay. For oxidized solid BAP, radical signal persists for many days in the absence of ozone. To evaluate the effect of substrate phase, the solid PAHs were also dissolved in squalane, an organic oil inert to ozone, which yielded a much higher maximum radical concentration and faster radical decay when exposed to ozone. With higher mobility, reactants were apparently able to more easily diffuse and react with each other, yielding the higher radical concentrations. The EPR spectra exhibit three radicals types, two of which have been assigned to semiquinone species and one to a PAH-derived, carbon-centered radical. Although our system uses levels of PAC not typically found in the environment it is worth noting that the amounts of radical formed, on the order of 10(18) radicals per g, are comparable to those observed in ambient particulate matter. PMID:26603953

  19. (PRESENTED AT TSUKIJI, CHUO-KU, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity.

  20. Formation of organochlorine by-products in bleached laundry.

    PubMed

    Leri, Alessandra C; Anthony, Laura N

    2013-02-01

    Laundering fabrics with chlorine bleach plays a role in health and hygiene as well as aesthetics. However, laundry bleaching may create chlorinated by-products with potentially adverse human health effects. Studies have shown that toxic chlorinated gases are produced in the headspace of washing machines when hypochlorite-containing bleach is used. Laundry bleaching has also been implicated in contributing dissolved organochlorine to municipal wastewater. However, there have been no reports of organochlorines produced and retained in fabric as a result of laundry bleaching. We have used a chlorine-specific X-ray spectroscopic analysis to demonstrate the formation of organochlorine by-products in cotton fabrics laundered with chlorine bleach under typical household conditions. Organochlorine formation increases at higher wash temperature. At least two pools of organochlorine are produced in bleached fabric: a labile fraction that diminishes over several months of storage time as well as a more stable fraction that persists after more than 1 year. Our results also suggest that residual hypochlorite remains in fabric after laundering with bleach, presenting the possibility of direct and sustained dermal contact with reactive chlorine. This study provides a first step toward identifying a new risk factor for elevated organochlorine body burdens in humans. PMID:23261123

  1. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  2. Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2008-10-15

    There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

  3. The investigation of atmospheric deposition distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindoruk, S. S?dd?k; Tasdemir, Ycel

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a significant pollution source leading to contamination of remote and clean sites, surface waters and soils. Since persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stay in atmosphere without any degradation, they can be transported and deposited to clean surfaces. Organochlorine pesticides are an important group of POPs which have toxic and harmful effects to living organisms and environment. Therefore, atmospheric deposition levels and characteristics are of importance to determine the pollution quantity of water and soil surfaces in terms of POPs. This study reports the distribution quantities of atmospheric deposition including bulk, dry, wet and air-water exchange of particle and gas phase OCPs as a result of 1-year sampling campaign. Atmospheric deposition distribution showed that the main mechanism for OCPs deposition is wet processes with percentage of 69 of total deposition. OCP compounds' deposition varied according to atmospheric concentration and deposition mechanism. HCH compounds were dominant pesticide species for all deposition mechanisms. HCH deposition constituted the 65% of ?10OCPs.

  4. Desorption of organochlorine pesticides from historically contaminated sediments into water-biofuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero-Diaz, M.; Demond, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gasoline spills in surface waters generally volatilize due to their low miscibility and high volatility. However, biofuel blends may contain ethanol, a compound completely miscible in water. As hazardous components of gasoline are more soluble in ethanol than in water, the presence of ethanol increases the solubilization of these components, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), in surface water. Furthermore, many of these spills may occur in water bodies that have sediments that are historically contaminated with persistent organic contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides. High concentrations of ethanol in the water column, along with solubilized components of gasoline, may increase the desorption of organochlorine pesticides from the sediment. Thus spills of ethanol/gasoline fuel blends have the potential of increasing concentrations of hazardous compounds in rivers and lakes, resulting in increased risk for human and ecological exposure. Using UNIFAC to calculate activity coefficients, one can predict the enhancement of the solubility of pesticides in the aqueous phase as the ethanol fraction increases. Moreover, by predicting the solubility of pesticides in both the aqueous phase and an organic liquid phase, one can construct ternary phase diagrams that show the partitioning behavior of pesticides as a function of ethanol fraction. Such information is useful in estimating the amount of desorption from contaminated sediments that may occur in the presence of biofuel spills. In order to confirm the predicted values, experiments have been conducted to measure the impact of ethanol on the partitioning coefficients of pesticides.

  5. Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Cohen, R.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Residues of 6 organochlorine compds. were detected in adult carcasses, 4 in eggs, 2 in brains, and one in nestlings of Colorado tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). DDE [72-55-9]accounted for 91% of total organochlorine compound residue in each of the 4 sample types. DDE was detected in 30 samples (94%) and DDT [50-29-3] in 2 samples (6%). Carcasses of breeding females and egg clutches had residues of 6 organochlorine compds. not found in nestling samples. Only residues of DDE were found in nestlings. DDT and DDE were the only organochlorine compds. recovered in brain samples. Measurements of tree swallow eggshells showed that unattended eggs were not significantly different from those of attended or historical eggs. The implications of the observed organochlorine compound contamination are discussed.

  6. Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-02-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. PMID:24140682

  7. Blast from the past: melting glaciers as a relevant source for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbhler, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may represent a secondary source of persistent organic chemicals is investigated. To this end, a dated sediment core from a glacier-fed lake (Lake Oberaar, Switzerland) was analyzed for a wide range of persistent organic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, and synthetic musk fragrances. Input fluxes of all organochlorines increased in the 1950s, peaked in the 1960s-1970s, and decreased again to low levels in the 1980s-1990s. This observation reflects the emission history of these compounds and technical improvements and regulations leading to reduced emissions some decades ago. The input of synthetic musks remained at a high level in the 1950s-1990s, which is consistent with their relatively constant production throughout the second half of the 20th century. Since the late 1990s, input of all compound classes into the high-Alpine Lake Oberaar has increased sharply. Currently, input fluxes of organochlorines are similar to or even higher than in the 1960s-1970s. This second peak supports the hypothesis that there is a relevant release of persistent organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive glacier melting predicted for the future, our study indicates the potential for dire environmental impacts due to pollutants delivered into pristine mountainous areas. PMID:19924940

  8. Body burdens of persistent halogenated compounds during different development stages of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Tore C; Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Rønsholdt, Bent; Frier, Jens-Ole

    2007-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were followed through the five life stages of a wild population of anadromous brown trout and related to variations in lipid content and exposure situations. Anadromous brown trout exhibits great variations in lipid content during its life cycle in the freshwater and marine environments. The results indicated substantial differences in PBDE and organochlorine exposure, with apparently more recent sources of PBDEs in the freshwater environment relative to the marine environment. Lipid and contaminant transfer were not always identical: The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and PBDEs (ng/g lipid weight) were about 15 times lower in the eggs compared to the muscle of their mother (e.g., 823 ng PCB/g Iw vs. 12,565 ng PCB/g lw, respectively). During the starving period from maiden to spawning trout the contaminant load increased by a higher factor than the lipid use. The data suggest a decoupling between lipid content and organohalogen concentrations for anadromous brown trout, which may contribute positively to reduce any potential negative effects of the transferred contaminants on eggs and fry. PMID:17937270

  9. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in southern California round stingrays (Urobatis halleri) exposed to planar aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel; Lowe, Christopher G

    2014-06-01

    While contaminant concentrations have been reported for elasmobranchs around the world, no studies have examined bioaccumulation patterns across male and female age classes. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is a local benthic species that forages near areas of high organochlorine contamination and represents a good elasmobranch model. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and chlordanes were measured in juvenile and adult male and female stingrays from areas in southern California, USA (n = 208), and a nearby offshore island, Santa Catalina (n = 34). Both mainland juvenile male and female stingrays showed a significant dilution effect. After maturity, summed contaminant concentrations significantly increased with size for adult males (median 11.1 µg/g lipid wt) and females (5.2 µg/g lipid wt). However, the rate of bioaccumulation was substantially greater in male stingrays than in females, likely a result of the females' ability to offload contaminants to offspring during pregnancy. In addition, males and females showed significant differences in their contaminant profiles, suggesting differential habitat use. Male and female stingrays collected from Santa Catalina Island had significantly lower concentrations (0.51 µg/g and 0.66 µg/g lipid wt, respectively), approximately 5 times less than those of mainland animals. Potential toxicity effects mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor were explored through ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays. Mainland male stingrays exhibited significantly greater EROD activities than Catalina males (481 pmol/min/mg protein and 55 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively); however, activity levels in female stingrays from both locations were comparable (297 pmol/min/mg protein and 234 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively) and lower than those in mainland males. The results suggest that PCBs and/or other structurally related contaminants may be inducing a biological response in mainland males but not females, possibly the result of a dampening effect of estradiol; however, the exact physiological repercussions of exposure remain to be determined. PMID:24838923

  10. Inhibition of Spinal Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors with Dicationic Compounds Alleviates Persistent Inflammatory Pain without Adverse Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kopach, Olga; Krotov, Volodymyr; Goncharenko, Julia; Voitenko, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Upregulation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the dorsal horn (DH) neurons of the spinal cord has been causally linked to the maintenance of persistent inflammatory pain. Therefore, inhibition of CP-AMPARs could potentially alleviate an, otherwise, poorly treatable chronic pain. However, a loss of CP-AMPARs could produce considerable side effects because of the crucial role of CP-AMPARs in synaptic plasticity. Here we have tested whether the inhibition of spinal CP-AMPARs with dicationic compounds, the open-channel antagonists acting in an activity-dependent manner, can relieve inflammatory pain without adverse effects being developed. Dicationic compounds, N1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)pentane-1,5-diaminium bromide (IEM-1925) and 1-trimethylammonio-5-1-adamantane-methyl-ammoniopentane dibromide (IEM-1460) were applied intrathecally (i.t.) as a post-treatment for inflammatory pain in the model of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced long-lasting peripheral inflammation. The capability of dicationic compounds to ameliorate inflammatory pain was tested in rats in vivo using the Hargreaves, the von Frey and the open-field tests. Treatment with IEM-1460 or IEM-1925 resulted in profound alleviation of inflammatory pain. The pain relief appeared shortly after compound administration. The effects were concentration-dependent, displaying a high potency of dicationic compounds for alleviation of inflammatory hyperalgesia in the micromolar range, for both acute and long-lasting responses. The period of pain maintenance was shortened following treatment. Treatment with IEM-1460 or IEM-1925 changed neither thermal and mechanical basal sensitivities nor animal locomotion, suggesting that inhibition of CP-AMPARs with dicationic compounds does not give rise to detectable side effects. Thus, the ability of dicationic compounds to alleviate persistent inflammatory pain may provide new routes in the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:26973464

  11. Arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, H V; Receveur, O; Muir, D C; Chan, H M; Soueida, R

    1995-10-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides through traditional food resources was examined for Arctic Indigenous women living in two cultural and environmental areas of the Canadian Arctic--one community representing Baffin Island Inuit in eastern Arctic and two communities representing Sahtú Dene/Métis in western Arctic. Polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene, chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin were determined in local food resources as normally prepared and eaten. Quantified dietary recalls taken seasonally reflected normal consumption patterns of these food resources by women in three age groups: 20-40 y, 41-60 y and > or = 61 y. There was wide variation of intake of all organochlorine contaminants in both areas and among age groups for the Sahtú. Fifty percent of the intake recalls collected from the Baffin Inuit exceeded the acceptable daily intake for chlordane-related compounds and toxaphene, and a substantial percentage of the intake records for dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls exceeded the acceptable or tolerable daily intake levels. Primary contributing foods to organochlorine contaminants intake for the Baffin Inuit were meat and blubber of ringed seal, blubber of walrus and mattak and blubber of narwal. Important foods contributing organochlorine contaminant to the Sahtú Dene/Métis were caribou, whitefish, inconnu, trout and duck. The superior nutritional benefits and potential health risks of traditional food items are reviewed, as are implications for monitoring organochlorine contaminant contents of food, clinical symptoms and food use. PMID:7562084

  12. Effect of persistent trace compounds in landfill gas on engine performance during energy recovery: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sevimoğlu, Orhan; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-01-01

    Performances of gas engines operated with landfill gas (LFG) are affected by the impurities in the LFG, reducing the economic viability of energy recovery. The purpose of this study was to characterize the trace compounds in the LFG at the Odayeri Landfill, Istanbul, Turkey which is used for energy recovery. Composite gas samples were collected and analyzed for trace compounds (hydrocarbons, siloxanes, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons) over a 3-year period. Trace compounds entering the gas engines, their impact on the engine performance were evaluated. The operational problems included deposit formation in the combustion chamber, turbocharger, and intercooler of engine before the scheduled maintenance times. High levels of hydrogen sulfide, as well as chlorinated and fluorinated compounds cause corrosion of the engine parts and decrease life of the engine oils. Persistence of siloxanes results in deposit formation, increasing engine maintenance costs. Pretreatment of LFG is necessary to protect the engines at the waste-to-energy facilities with persistence levels of siloxanes and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. PMID:23063306

  13. Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies. PMID:25461417

  14. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    SciTech Connect

    Windham, Gayle C.; Pinney, Susan M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Lum, Raymond; Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L.; Biro, Frank M.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2010-04-15

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and -118. Conclusions: Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.

  15. Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of Roseate Tern eggs were collected in 1981 from 5 of the largest colonies in the northeastern U.S. and from one large colony in the U.S. Virgin Islands. No organochlorine compounds were detected in eggs from the U.S. Virgin Islands. PCBs were found in all eggs and DDE was found in most eggs from the northeastern U.S., but concentrations were substantially lower than in Common Terns from the same colonies. There were no significant correlations between eggshell characteristics and organochlorine concentrations. DDE concentrations in Roseate Tern eggs were well below those reported to induce adverse effects in Common Terns.

  16. Potential role of organochlorine pesticides in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and neurobehavioral disorders: A review.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent and bioaccumulative environmental contaminants with potential neurotoxic effects. The growing body of evidence has demonstrated that prenatal exposure to organochlorines (OCs) is associated with impairment of neuropsychological development. The hypothesis is consistent with recent studies emphasizing the correlation of environmental as well as genetic factors to the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral defects. It has been suggested that maternal exposure to OCPs results in impaired motor and cognitive development in newborns and infants. Moreover, in utero exposure to these compounds contributes to the etiology of autism. Although impaired neurodevelopment occurs through prenatal exposure to OCs, breastfeeding causes postnatal toxicity in the infants. Parkinson's disease (PD) is another neurological disorder, which has been associated with exposure to OCs, leading to ?-synuclein accumulation and depletion of dopaminergic neurons. The study aimed to review the potential association between pre- and post-natal exposure to OCs and impaired neurodevelopmental processes during pregnancy and neuropsychological diseases such as PD, behavioral alterations, seizures and autism. PMID:26549647

  17. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soils from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Smith, A

    2001-04-01

    Soil samples were collected from rice growing and industrial areas in South Korea and analysed for organochlorine pesticide content using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The soils were monitored for the presence of 18 organochlorine pesticides. The main pesticides found were gamma- and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin. The range of concentrations, for each compound, was respectively, 0.17-0.94, 0.77-2.97, 1.38-48.0 and 0.32-0.49 ng/g soil. The highest values were found in soil obtained from rice fields indicating that, although the use of organochlorine pesticides has been discontinued since 1980, substantial concentrations of residues particularly the oxidised form of heptachlor remain in the soil. PMID:11297392

  18. Environmental and biological monitoring of persistent fluorinated compounds in Japan and their toxicities.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) comprise a class of per- and poly-fluorinated compounds that have been detected in the environment as well as in humans. The aim of this review is to summarize several monitoring studies in Japan and characterize the toxicokinetics of these compounds. We found that the levels of contamination by these compounds had unique patterns in Japan. The levels of PFOA in serum from inhabitants of the Kansai region were higher than those of other regions. The PFOA levels in air and water samples from the Kansai region were also relatively high. The estimated intakes from these routes partly explain the differences in the serum levels. The toxicokinetics of these compounds have been investigated. Serum samples from male participants had significantly higher geometric means for PFOS and PFOA compared to samples from female participants. This sex-related difference was partly simulated by menstrual blood loss. There are large interspecies differences in the excretion pathways of these compounds. The serum clearances of PFOA via urine were 300-1,000-fold lower in humans than in Wistar rats and Japanese macaques. On the other hand, the biliary excretion of these compounds was comparable in rats and humans, and the long half-lives in humans may be attributable to the low levels of urinary excretion and high biliary reabsorption rates. These findings suggest that qualitative differences in the excretion routes exist between humans and other species. For risk assessment of these compounds, further information regarding sources of exposure and their toxicokinetics is needed. PMID:19568863

  19. Organochlorine compounds in liver and concentrations of vitellogenin and 17beta-estradiol in plasma of sea bass fed with a commercial or with a natural diet.

    PubMed

    Navas, J M; Merino, R; Jiménez, B; Rivera, J; Abad, E; Zanuy, S; Carrillo, M

    2005-11-30

    Results from previous experiments directed to determine the effect of different nutritional factors or the effect of xenobiotics on hormonal control of reproduction, lead to the hypothesis that hormonal perturbations repeatedly observed in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) broodstock feeding commercial diets could have been caused by the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, such as dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the diet. To evaluate this hypothesis, dioxins and related compounds were analysed in liver of female sea bass fed with a commercial or with a natural diet consisting of trash fish (bogue, Boops boops), and concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) were determined in plasma obtained previously in monthly samplings of these animals. As observed in other experiments, females fed with a commercial diet exhibited lower VTG and higher E2 plasma levels than females fed with the natural diet. In liver, sea bass fed with the commercial diet exhibited a profile clearly dominated by high-chlorinated dioxins while in fish fed with the natural diet this profile was dominated by low chlorinated furans. However, typical AhR ligands, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin showed no differences between groups or, as is the case of planar PCBs, showed higher concentrations in the liver of fish fed with the natural diet. These results do not permit to explain the observed hormonal alterations by a possible antiestrogenic effect caused by dioxins and related compounds. PMID:16213605

  20. Bivalve, Mytilus edulis, as a test organism for bioconcentration studies. I. Designing a continuous-flow system and its application to some organochlorine compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Renberg, L.; Tarkpea, M.; Linden, E.

    1985-04-01

    Most bioconcentration studies have previously been carried out using fish as a test organism. Equally important is the use of bivalves for this purpose, from both an ecological and an economic point of view. A continuous-flow system has thus been designed for use also with extremely hydrophobic substances and evaluated using 2,4',5-trichlorobiphenyl, methoxychlor, pentachlorobenzene, and lindane. The variation of the uptake in the individuals after 3 weeks exposure was quite small (relative standard errors varied from 10.1 to 15.3% depending on the test substance), indicating a high degree of reproducibility. The bivalves, however, are known to close their valves under unfavorable conditions, which occasionally may bias the results. To overcome this disadvantage, it is suggested that an internal standard--i.e., a chemically defined compound--be added to the water simultaneously with the test substances. Although there is a principal risk for interactive effects, unexpected variations in the uptake can thus be compensated for by relating the concentration of the test substance to the concentration of the internal standard in the organisms. Comparisons between continuous-flow systems and static systems have also been made. It is concluded that continuous-flow systems are more suitable for studying hydrophobic compounds than static systems.

  1. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Gilmer, D.S.; Coon, N.C.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974?79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks.

  2. Photochemical Transformation of Organochlorine POPs in Frozen Aqueous Systems: Field Studies at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, G. A.; Bausch, A. R.; Grannas, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    Volatile and semi-volatile organochlorine compounds such as aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan and PCBs have frequently been identified as pollutants in remote polar regions, far from their anthropogenic sources. Bioaccumulation of these compounds has been previously documented and poses a potential threat to the health of individuals in Arctic subsistence communities as well as to the broader polar ecosystem. These compounds are normally regarded as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in that they are environmentally long-lived and only undergo significant transformation once they enter living organisms. However, recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that some organochlorine POPs - including but not limited to aldrin and dieldrin - are degraded by near-ultraviolet light in both liquid and frozen aqueous media. From March - June 2008, a field campaign was conducted near Barrow, Alaska to determine whether the reactions observed in the laboratory also occurred under environmental conditions. The photochemical degradation of microgram quantities of aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan (alpha and beta), hexachlorobenzene and 3,3',4,5'- tetrachlorobiphenyl dissolved in either MilliQ purified water or locally-collected melted snow was monitored under ambient temperature and light conditions. Of these, all but the PCB are shown to be degraded by sunlight. We present decay rates and estimated half-lives for these pollutants both at the snow's surface and at nominal depths of up to 10cm into the snowpack. Further, we have data confirming that in almost all cases, degradation occurs faster in predominantly frozen systems than in liquid ones. The significance of these results and their potential implications for Arctic environmental systems will be discussed.

  3. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pollutants in two species of Antarctic fish (Chionodraco hamatus and Trematomus bernacchii).

    PubMed

    Borghesi, Nicoletta; Corsolini, Simonetta; Focardi, Silvano

    2008-09-01

    In the late 1960s the first scientific studies on contamination in Antarctica demonstrated the presence of pollutants in Antarctic ecosystems. Many Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are transported globally from the areas in which they are produced and released into the environment in remote areas, including Antarctica. Here we report results obtained concerning the accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), mono- and non-ortho-polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the tissues of two species of Antarctic fish (Chionodraco hamatus and Trematomus bernacchii). The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) were also calculated to evaluate the potential risk of these compounds for the two species. In general, POP levels were higher in the tissues of T. bernacchii than in C. hamatus and the highest concentrations were found in the liver of both species. The PBDE levels varied from 160.5 pg g(-1) wet wt in C. hamatus muscle to 789.9 pg g(-1) wet wt in T. bernacchii liver and were lower than the levels of PCBs. PCBs were the main organochlorine compounds detected and their concentrations ranged from 0.3 ng g(-1) wet wt in C. hamatus muscle to 15.1 ng g(-1) wet wt in T. bernacchii liver. TEQ concentrations resulted higher in C. hamatus than in T. bernacchii and were due mainly to PCDDs. The presence of PBDEs and organochlorine pollutants in the tissues of Antarctic organisms confirms their global transport and distribution. PMID:18672266

  4. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis and evaluation of chlorinated persistent organic compounds and PAHs in sludge in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ju, Joon-Hyung; Lee, In-Seok; Sim, Won-Jin; Eun, Heesoo; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 12 POPs listed in the Stockholm convention, chlorophenols (CPs) and PAHs were investigated in sludge samples from wastewater and sewage treatment plants (WWTPs and STPs). The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the wastewater sludge ranged from 0.189 to 1092 ng-TEQkg(-1) dry wt., and most of the sludge samples had levels below the EU guideline for the land application of PCDD/Fs (<100 ng-TEQkg(-1) dry wt.) except one sample. Co-PCB congeners were analyzed from four WWTPs, with total concentrations ranging from 0.265 to 26.6 ng-TEQkg(-1) dry wt., which were similar to the results obtained from previous studies. The levels of PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs varied according to the main source of the influent to each WWTP and the paper industry was the main source of these compounds in the sludge due to the chlorine bleaching process. In case of OCPs, HCB and p,p'-DDE were detected at relatively high levels in the sludge samples compared to other target compounds, ranging from 1.30 to 21.5 microg kg(-1) dry wt. and 0.758 to 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry wt., respectively. Different OCP distribution patterns were observed according to sludge types, with HCB and DDTs being dominant in the sludge from WWTPs and STPs, respectively. The total levels of PAHs and CPs ranged from 1.24 to 44.9 mg kg(-1) dry wt. and 0.340 to 3.85 mg kg(-1) dry wt., respectively. The PAHs and CPs were also shown to have various distribution patterns, possibly due to the different wastewater sources to the WWTPs. PMID:18990429

  6. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Atmospheric fluxes of persistent organic compounds to a forest ecosystem at the Swedish west coast

    SciTech Connect

    Brorstroem-Lunden, E.; Loefgren, C.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this ongoing study is to investigate the importance of the atmospheric contribution of POP, such as PCB, HCH, HCB and PAH, to a forest at the Swedish west coast, Lake Gaardsjoen, and to get an idea about circulation and accumulation of these organic contaminants within a terrestrial ecosystem. The measurements include parallel sampling in air, deposition (artificial surface) and spruce needles. Recent sampling periods also include throughfall, runoff water, litterfall and soil. The amounts of POP deposited to the Gaardsjoen area were similar to those obtained during measurements at coastal and sea based sites at the Swedish west coast. Events with long range air transport did not significantly increase the atmospheric concentrations of PAH and PCB in the Gaardsjoen area. However, due to an increased particle concentration in the air, such episodes increased the deposition fluxes of PAH and PCB. Only small variations in the concentrations of POP occurred in the needles during different sampling periods and no accumulation was observed. The lowest PCB concentrations in the needles were found during a summer period in connection with the highest PCB concentrations in the air and with the highest ambient air temperature. The PAH and PCB found in spruce needles seemed to be due to uptake from both the gas and particle phases. Except for a relative increase of less volatile compounds, the distribution among individual PCB obtained in the soil agreed well with the PCB profile found in the deposition and throughfall. This supports the hypothesis that atmospheric deposition is the main source for PCB in this area.

  8. Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in mammals of Donana National Park (Spain), 1982-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Baluja, G.

    1985-12-01

    The existence of 11 organochlorine compounds and five heavy metals in the liver and muscle of 57 members of 10 species of mammals, all from Donana National Park (Spain), has been investigated. Five organochlorine compounds have been found and the five heavy metals were present in the samples. The biomagnification of organochlorines is shown. The detected concentrations for each trophic rank seem not to influence unfavourably on the population stability of the species. The rabbit is proposed as a monitor species for future studies in pollution at Donana National Park.

  9. Is there biomagnification of organochlorines in a Rocky Mountain aquatic food web?

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, L.M.; Schindler, D.W.; Kidd, K.; Donald, D.D.; Muir, D.

    1995-12-31

    In 1991--92, 14 lakes in the Canadian Rocky Mountains were surveyed for organochlorine contamination (PCBs, DDT isomers, toxaphene, and other pesticides) of water and lake trout. Lake trout from Bow Lake, near the Continental Divide, in Banff National Park, contained particularly high concentrations of organochlorines, notably toxaphene, in their tissue compared to other mountain lake trout populations. The hypothesis that the high degree of contamination in fish is caused by biomagnification is being tested by analysis of lake trout (Salveninus namaycush), mountain whitefish (Propsopium williamsoni), benthic invertebrates, and zooplankton for organochlorine compounds and stable nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N). Fish, invertebrates, sediments and water collected from Bow Lake in 1994 were all found to contain organochlorines, and the authors are investigating the apparent patterns of contamination present. The possibility that contaminants deposited in past decades on the glaciers that feed Bow Lake contributes to the high values is also being examined.

  10. [Concentrations of persistent toxic compounds in the Spanish population: a puzzle without pieces and the protection of public health].

    PubMed

    Porta, M; Kogevinas, M; Zumeta, E; Sunyer, J; Ribas-Fitó, N; Ruiz, Laura; Jariod, Manuel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; Martín, Piedad; Malats, Núria; Ayude, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The contamination by persistent toxic compounds (PTCs) of the general population is a fact of relevance from a public health perspective. It is also relevant to health care professionals, as well as for environmental, food, industrial and economic policies. Though in Spain information on food contamination by PTCs shows large time and geographic gaps, the scarcity of data is even more severe on the concentrations that PTCs have in people: a representative study of a general healthy population living in a wide geographic area has never been conducted in the country. However, the available studies indicate that around 80-100% of the population has detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, hexachlorbenzene or lindane. Studies on the effects that PTCs have upon humans are extremely infrequent in Spain. Yet, the international literature suggests that some PTCs may induce significant biological and clinical effects at doses below those traditionally deemed "safe". The mechanism of action of PTCs are not restricted to endocrine disruption. Assessing the clinical and social relevance of the more subtle and long-term effects of PTCs presents interesting challenges and opportunities. Spain and other European countries lack population indicators on the impact that environmental processes have on human health. Several government levels have a role to fulfill in the monitoring of biological levels of PTCs among persons in order to assess the risks of adverse health effects. Along with over a hundred other countries. Spain will soon try to implement the Stockholm treaty on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This constitutes a new opportunity to develop more efficient policies to control PTC residues in food, humans and the environment. As part of the treaty implementation it is necessary to launch a Report on factors that influence body concentrations of PTCs in the Spain general population. PMID:12057183

  11. Levels of organochlorine insecticides in milk of mothers from urban and rural areas of Botucatu, SP, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sant'Ana, L.S.; Jokl, L. ); Vassilieff, I. )

    1989-06-01

    The use of organochlorine insecticides has been common since the forties. But this has become a serious problem of public health, due to the fact that insecticides accumulate in tissues owing to their fat-soluble character, their persistence in the environment and their accumulation in the food-chain. The continuous development of gas chromatographic techniques allowed the detection of ppb levels of these insecticide residues. Studies with laboratory animals have been useful to establish the toxicity of these compounds. Human milk can be used as an evaluation index of environmental contamination by these insecticides, although the main objective of its analysis is to determine the amounts ingested by children. When evaluating the levels of organochlorine insecticides in human milk it is useful to establish where the mothers live. Theoretically, mothers who live in a rural area have much more contact with these insecticides, because they work directly in agriculture. Therefore, the risk of exposure by their nursing children will be even greater. In Brazil, farmers do not have enough knowledge to measure the risks brought about by their indiscriminate use. In addition, government programs for the control of rural endemic diseases still make use of DDT and HCH on a large scale.

  12. Do pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other organic waste water compounds persist when waste water is used for recharge?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Duran, Norma L.; Bouwer, Herman; Rice, Robert C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2004-01-01

    A proof-of-concept experiment was devised to determine if pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water compounds (OWCs), as well as pathogens, found in treated effluent could be transported through a 2.4 m soil column and, thus, potentially reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in arid or semiarid climates. Treated effluent was applied at the top of the 2.4 m long, 32.5 cm diameter soil column over 23 days, Samples of the column inflow were collected from the effluent storage tank at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment, and a sample of the soil column drainage at the base of the column (Bend) was collected at the end of the experiment. Samples were analyzed for 131 OWCs including veterinary and human antibiotics, other prescription and nonprescription drugs, widely used household and industrial chemicals, and steroids and reproductive hormones, as well as the pathogens Salmonella and Legionella. Analytical results for the two effluent samples taken at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment indicate that the number of OWCs detected in the column inflow decreased by 25% (eight compounds) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by 46% while the effluent was in the storage tank during the 23-day experiment. After percolating through the soil column, an additional 18 compounds detected in Tend (67% of OWCs) were no longer detected in the effluent (Bend) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by more than 70%. These compounds may have been subject to transformation (biotic and abiotic), adsorption, and (or) volatilization in the storage tank and during travel through the soil column. Eight compounds—carbamazapine; sulfamethoxazole; benzophenone; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; N,N-diethyltoluamide; tributylphosphate; tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; and cholesterol—were detected in all three samples indicating they have the potential to reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in arid and semiarid climates. Results from real-time polymerase chain reactions demonstrated the presence of Legionella in all three samples. Salmonella was detected only in Tbegin, suggesting that the bacteria died off in the effluent storage tank over the period of the experiment. This proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates that, under recharge conditions similar to those in arid or semiarid climates, some pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other OWCs can persist in treated effluent after soil-aquifer treatment.

  13. Occurrence of organochlorine residues in Australian meat.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P J; Seneviratna, P

    1990-02-01

    In spite of several quality control procedures used by Australia to ensure the wholesomeness of export meat, a number of pesticide residue violations were identified in the Australian product exported to the USA in May 1987. The pesticides involved were the organochlorines, dieldrin and heptachlor. The problems were caused by the persistence of organochlorines in soils and their illicit use or contamination of storage facilities. Animals grazing contaminated pasture, ingesting contaminated feed or held in contaminated yards over a period, bioaccumulated residues in their adipose tissues which eventually exceeded maximum residue limits (MRL) and caused violations. Though there was no immediate public health risk, the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) of the Commonwealth Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE), acted expeditiously to determine and eliminate the factors causing these problems, which threatened Australia's beef export industry worth in excess of two billion dollars annually. An overall strategic plan, "The Integrated Action Plan", was formulated and implemented by AQIS with the assistance of the relevant Departments of the States and the Northern Territory (NT), meat processing and export industries and livestock producer bodies. As a result of this action, the likely sources of contamination were identified and controlled. The National Residue Survey (NRS) was enhanced, a National Residue Data Base (NRDB) was established and a centralised computer system interactive with abattoirs, laboratories and animal health authorities developed. The cattle farm identity tail tag system already in place, capable of tracing cattle to the farm of origin was refined and trace back systems for sheep and pigs were utilised.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2344338

  14. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychloribiphenyls [sic] in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), from the continental United States, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Starlings were collected from 129 sites throughout the contiguous United States in the fall of 1982 and analyzed for organochlorine compounds as part of a nationwide monitoring program. Residues of 14 organochlorine compounds were found. Only DDE, polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide occurred in more than 50% of the lO-starling pools. Geographical variation in the occurrence of seven organochlorine compounds was noted. Mean DDE levels were higher in the southwestern United States. Mean PCB levels were higher in the eastern United States. The occurrence frequency of most organochlorines in 1982 was similar to that which was reported in the previous nationwide study in 1979. A slight increase in occurrence was noted for trans-nonachlor. Mean DDE level I in 1982 was similar to that of 1979. Mean PCB level in 1982 was lower than the 1979 mean, but this change may not reflect a decrease in environmental PCB levels.

  15. Persistent Pesticides in Human Breast Milk and Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Damgaard, Ida N.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma; Virtanen, Helena E.; Shen, Heqing; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Main, Katharina M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Prenatal exposure to some pesticides can adversely affect male reproductive health in animals. We investigated a possible human association between maternal exposure to 27 organochlorine compounds used as pesticides and cryptorchidism among male children. Design Within a prospective birth cohort, we performed a case–control study; 62 milk samples from mothers of cryptorchid boys and 68 from mothers of healthy boys were selected. Milk was collected as individual pools between 1 and 3 months postpartum and analyzed for 27 organochlorine pesticides. Results Eight organochlorine pesticides were measurable in all samples (medians; nanograms per gram lipid) for cases/controls: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE): 97.3/83.8; β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH): 13.6/12.3; hexachlorobenzene (HCB): 10.6/8.8; α -endosulfan: 7.0/6.7; oxychlordane: 4.5/4.1; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT): 4.6/4.0; dieldrin: 4.1/3.1; cis-heptachloroepoxide (cis-HE): 2.5/2.2. Five compounds [octachlorostyrene (OCS); pentachlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDD); o,p′-DDT; mirex] were measurable in most samples (detection rates 90.8–99.2%) but in lower concentrations. For methoxychlor, cis-chlordane, pentachloroanisole (PCA), γ -HCH, 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2,2(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, trans-chlordane, α -HCH, and o,p′-DDE, both concentrations and detection rates were low (26.5–71.5%). Heptachlor, HCH (δ, ɛ ), aldrin, β-endosulfan and trans-heptachloroepoxide were detected at negligible concentrations and low detection rates and were not analyzed further. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides [p,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDT, HCH (α , β, γ ), HCB, PCA, α -endosulfan, cis-HE, chlordane (cis-, trans-) oxychlordane, methoxychlor, OCS, and dieldrin] were measured in higher median concentrations in case milk than in control milk. Apart from trans-chlordane (p = 0.012), there were no significant differences between cryptorchid and healthy boys for individual chemicals. However, combined statistical analysis of the eight most abundant persistent pesticides showed that pesticide levels in breast milk were significantly higher in boys with cryptorchidism (p = 0.032). Conclusion The association between congenital cryptorchidism and some persistent pesticides in breast milk as a proxy for maternal exposure suggests that testicular descent in the fetus may be adversely affected. PMID:16835070

  16. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. Methods: A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. Results: The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother’s age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. Conclusion: The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds. PMID:26478886

  17. Accumulation levels of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue and blood

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kumiko; Ishizaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuharu; Uchiyama, Mitsuru )

    1991-05-01

    Because of their persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, the use of organochlorine pesticides, technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and pp{prime}-DDT, has been prohibited since 1971 in Japan. Furthermore, chlordane which had been applied for termite control has the potential for bioaccumulation and the use of it has been also prohibited since 1986. These chemicals can enter human body through a food chain or by inhalation of vapors. However, few data on chlordane residue in human adipose tissue are available in Japan. The aims of the present study were to assess the levels of organo-chlorine chemicals in adipose tissue and blood of Japanese and to examine the relationship between them.

  18. The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad Hassan; Raeesi, Gholamreza; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    Background The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (α,ß,γ,δ) HCH, (α, ß) endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD. Materials and Methods Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v. Results In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 – 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively. Conclusions Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05), which could pose a risk to aquatic life. PMID:24624185

  19. Latitudinal patterns of organochlorine contamination in plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Koening, B.G.; Lean, D.R.S.

    1994-12-31

    It has been suggested that the high Arctic will be the final sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Through evaporation and deposition processes, OCs may move from warm to cool climates with air mass movements. Fundamental questions that remain unanswered are how far north do OCs travel and do the relative proportions of OCs in biota change along a latitudinal gradient? To answer these questions, zooplankton were sampled from a series of lakes along a transect from the Great Lakes (43{degree}N) to Ellesmere Island (85{degree}N). Zooplankton are useful indicators of environmental levels of OCs because they are ubiquitous, easy to sample, and form an integral part of the food chain leading to fish. Moreover, deposition patterns of OCs are more realistically reflected by zooplankton than by higher trophic level organisms because less trophic modification can occur and zooplankton do not, like fish, selectively exclude or metabolize specific OCs. Zooplankton were analyzed for a suite of OC contaminants that encompass a wide range in their respective water solubilities, vapor pressures and k{sub ow} values. Results indicate that the proportions of specific compounds, relative to the total OCs, do change with latitude. In samples from high latitudes, highly volatile compounds are found in higher proportions than compounds with low vapor pressures.

  20. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Aube, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre; Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. - Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on breast cancer cell growth. {yields} Weak xenoestrogens in the mixture stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. {yields} Antiandrogens increased the proliferation CAMA-1 cells grown with sex steroids. {yields} High concentrations of the mixture decreased the proliferation of all cell lines.

  1. Occurrence and possible fate of organochlorine pesticide residues at Manzala Lake in Egypt as a model study.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Essam; Moussa, Saad; Abonorag, Mostafa A; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Persistence of the residue of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) became a great danger to our environment long ago. In this study, the persistence of OCPs at Manzala Lake in Egypt was determined. Four different sites were investigated: the El-Gamel, El-Kowar, El-Rasoah, and Janb El-Timsah regions. Among these, the El-Kowar region had the highest concentration of total OCPs in the sediment samples when compared to other regions during both 2012 and 2013. In fact, generally, the residues of OCPs in the sediment samples were significantly higher in all tested sites in comparison with other compartments. Conversely, OCP residues were undetectable in water samples at both the El-Gamel region and the El-Rasoah site in the studied seasons. The data proved that the sediment layer plays a sourcing role in OCP persistence in the aquatic ecosystem. Data analysis also indicated that there was an external source for OCP contamination in the Manzala Lake ecosystem that most likely comes from Nile Basin countries and which extends the expected half-life of these compounds. It could be exemplified by DDT, the half-life of which increased from 30 to approximately 47 years. PMID:25424498

  2. Monitoring and remediation of organochlorine residues in water.

    PubMed

    Derbalah, Aly; Ismail, Ahmed; Hamza, Amany; Shaheen, Sabry

    2014-07-01

    This study monitored the presence of organochlorines in drinking water in Kafr-El-Sheikh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem, and Metobess in the Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (i.e., lindane) in drinking water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine residues at all water sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorines in water. Nano photo-Fenton-like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drinking water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms removed 100% of the initial concentration of lindane after 23 days of treatment. The study found that there is no remaining toxicity of lindane-contaminated water after remediation on treated rats relative to the control with respect to histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Therefore, AOPs, particularly those with nanomaterials and bioremediation, can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies for lindane in water. PMID:25112026

  3. Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota.

    PubMed

    Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Plötz, Joachim

    2004-02-01

    Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient>5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination. PMID:14972581

  4. Effect of organochlorine pesticides on human androgen receptor activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Géraldine; Terouanne, Béatrice; Mauvais, Pascale; Michel, Serge; Rahmani, Roger

    2004-04-15

    Many persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been implicated in adverse effects, that is, reproductive and developmental effects, in man and in wildlife alike. It has been hypothesized that these so-called xeno-hormones could be responsible for the increased incidence in various male sexual differentiation disorders such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, low sperm counts and quality. In this report, OCs, called endocrine disrupters, were tested for their interaction with the androgen receptor. The stable prostatic cell line PALM, which contains a human androgen receptor (hAR) expression vector and the reporter MMTV-luciferase, was used to characterize the response of hAR to OC and was compared with synthetic androgen compound R1881. We found that all the OC pesticides tested were able to shift the agonist [(3)H]-R1881 from its binding site to the AR in competitive binding assays. In addition, these compounds antagonize-in a dose-dependent manner-the AR-mediated transcription by synthetic AR ligand R1881. None of the pesticides reacted as agonists. These results demonstrate that OC endocrine activities in vivo probably result from direct and specific binding to the AR ligand-binding domain. Although the antagonistic potential of OC pesticides is lower than that of hydroxyflutamide, they are capable of disrupting the male hormone signaling pathway. Because these chemicals are extremely persistent and tend to bioaccumulate, these results support the hypothesis that the recent increase in the incidence of male sexual disorders could be due to long exposure to ubiquitous OC pesticides found in the environment. PMID:15081270

  5. Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring gulls and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring gulls. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring gulls, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring gulls. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants. PMID:8880006

  6. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 18, METHOD 608 - ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCB'S

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results obtained and data analysis from an interlaboratory evaluation of EPA Method 608 (Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs). The method is designed to analyze for 16 single-compound pesticides, chlordane, toxaphene, and seven Aroclor formulations in wat...

  7. Transplacental Transfer of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Diphenylethers, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, T M; Ross, P S; Reimer, K J

    2016-01-01

    The transplacental transfer of persistent organic pollutants in marine mammals takes place at a formative developmental period, thereby exposing the fetus to endocrine-disrupting compounds. We evaluated the transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in five pregnant ringed seals in Northern Labrador, Canada. PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs were transferred from the mother to the fetus with average concentrations in the fetuses ranging from 0.3 ng/g lipid weight (lw) of mirex to 94 ng/g lw of PCBs. The average percent transferred to the blubber in the fetus was very low with <0.02 % for each of the compounds studied. Based on relationships observed, transfer for full-term fetuses is estimated to range from 0.03 to 0.27 %. Log K ow explained the transfer of PCBs (r (2) = 0.67, p < 0.001) and OCPs (r (2) = 0.62, p < 0.001) with those PCB congeners and OCP compounds having a log K ow of <6.0 and 4.6, respectively, because they are preferentially transferred to the fetus. Adult females transferred a contaminant mixture to their fetuses, which correlated with estimated fetal age (p < 0.001; r (2) = 0.697), with younger fetuses showing a greater proportion of compounds with low K ow compared with later-term fetuses. The implications for the prenatal exposure to these developmental toxicants remains unknown because current toxicity thresholds in marine mammals have only been derived from juveniles or adults. PMID:26142122

  8. Trace elements and organochlorines in the shoalgrass community of the lower Laguna Madre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to measure concentrations of seven trace elements and 14 organochlorine compounds in sediment and biota of the shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii) community of the lower Laguna Madre of south Texas and to determine whether chemicals associated with agriculture (e.g. mercury, arsenic, selenium, organochlorine pesticides) were highest near agricultural drainages. Arsenic, mercury, selenium, lead, cadmium, and organochlorines were generally at background concentrations throughout the lower Laguna Madre. Nickel and chromium concentrations were exceptionally high in shrimp and pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), which is difficult to explain because of no known anthropogenic sources for these trace elements. For sediment and blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), mercury was highest near agricultural drainages. Also, DDE was more frequently detected in blue crabs near agricultural drainages than farther away. In contrast, selenium concentrations did not differ among collecting sites and arsenic concentrations were lowest in shoalgrass, blue crabs, and brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) near agricultural drainages.

  9. Chronic effects of organochlorine exposure in sediment to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, M.H.; Chapman, P.M.; Johns, D.M.; Paine, M.D.

    1997-07-01

    Organisms exposed to organochlorinated compounds in sediments are likely to suffer chronic rather than acute effects. Thus, acute toxicity tests are unlikely to truly assess their potential impact. A 120-d toxicity test was designed to assess the impact of polychlorinated biphenyl on the marine polychaete Neanthes arenacedodentata. A two-tiered approach was used: Tier 1 involved reference sediment spiked with a range of concentrations of the organochlorine bracketing the concentrations found in natural sediments, and tier 2 involved field sediments collected from a coastal area contaminated with high concentrations of the same organochlorine. Testing measured a number of endpoints, including survival, growth, and reproduction. Survival and growth were unaffected in either tier by any of the test sediments. Reproductive endpoints, however, were depressed in both tiers relative to the reference sediment.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seafood from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cirillo, Teresa; Naso, Barbara; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Lucisano, Antonia; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2007-03-01

    Seven target polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) and the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its related metabolites (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) were quantified in edible tissues from seven marine species (European hake, red mullet, blue whiting, Atlantic mackerel, blue and red shrimp, European flying squid, and Mediterranean mussel) from the Gulf of Naples in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). PCBs 118, 138, and 153 were the dominant congeners in all the species examined. The concentrations of all PCBs (from not detectable to 15,427 ng g(-1) fat weight) exceeded those of all the DDTs (from not detectable to 1,769 ng g(-1) fat weight) and HCB (not detectable to 150.60 ng g(-1) fat weight) in the samples analyzed. The OCP concentrations were below the maximum residue limits established for fish and aquatic products by the Decreto Ministerale 13 May 2005 in all the samples analyzed; therefore the OCPs in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea species are unlikely to be a significant health hazard. Conversely, the mean concentrations of PCBs exceeded (greatly in some cases) the current limits (200 ng(-1) fat weight) set by the European Union for terrestrial foods. Although the manufacture and use of PCBs are banned or highly restricted, these compounds still are important persistent chemical contaminants in the Gulf of Naples. PMID:17388063

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected organochlorines in Lake Superior fish, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstenberger, S.L.; Dellinger, J.A.; Gallinat, M.P.

    1997-11-01

    Walleye, whitefish and whitefish livers, lake trout, and siscowet lake trout were collected from the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior. Carp were obtained from a Lake Michigan tributary near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Each fish species was analyzed for 89 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 12 selected organochlorines, and total lipids. Congener profiles varied greatly between the fish species. Carp and whitefish contained tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyl congeners, such as 28 + 31, 63, and 66 + 95 in the highest concentrations. Siscowet trout contained the more heavily chlorinated penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyl congeners such as 153, 89, 138 + 163, 180, 182 + 187, and 170. In addition to the highly chlorinated PCB congeners routinely examined in Great Lakes fish, many lower chlorinated, ortho-substituted PCB congeners are also commonly found. These lower chlorinated congeners have known effects in laboratory animals but may be overlooked by analytical techniques in which Aroclor standards or mixtures of selected congeners are used for quantitation. A congener-specific approach including both the lower chlorinated ortho-substituted PCB congeners and the more highly chlorinated congeners should be implemented to better assess the interactions and toxicities of individual congeners and other persistent compounds.

  12. Assessment of the toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in clams Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yanxia; Pan, Luqing; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Shuangmei

    2013-07-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of endosulfan in clams (Ruditapes philippinarum). For this purpose, a study was performed on clams exposed to 0.005, 0.05 and 0.5μg/L endosulfan for 15 days. S ubsequently, the level of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA strand break was determined in gills and digestive glands. Among the parameters, endosulfan caused significant changes in induction of EROD activity and oxidative stress in clams R. philippinarum. The exposure to endosulfan increased the concentration of EROD, GST, GSH, MDA and decreased the concentration of SOD. Moreover, according to the correlation analysis results, the EROD activity and GSH content in digestive gland as well as GST activity, LPO and DNA damage in both tissues had excellent correlation with endosulfan concentration. These results provided information on potential biomarkers that could be effectively applied to the biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystem in areas susceptible to persistent organochlorine compounds contamination, and also information on toxic effects. PMID:23642779

  13. Identification and level of organochlorine insecticide contamination in groundwater and iridology analysis for people in Upper Citarum cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oginawati, K.; Pratama, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Organochlorines are the main pollutants in the class of persistent organic pollutants which are types of pollutants that are being questioned worldwide due to chronic persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. Human around the Citarum River are still using groundwater as a drinking source. It is very risky for people health that consume groundwater because in 2009 the application of organochlorine still found in the Upper Citarum watershed rice field and had potential to contaminate groundwater. Groundwater was analyzed with nine species belonging to the organochlorine pollutants Organic Peristent types. 7 types of organochlorinesAldrin was detected with an average concentration of 0.09 ppb, dieldrin with an average concentration of 24 ppb, heptaklor with an average concentration of 0.51 ppb, with concentrations of endosulfan on average 0.73 ppb, DDT with average concentration of 0.13 ppb, Lindan with an average concentration of 1.2 ppb, endrin with an average concentration of 0.03 ppb. Types with the highest concentration of organochlorine a lindan and endosulfan. Residues of aldrin, dieldrin and heptaklor in groundwater already exceeds the quality standards for drinking water Permenkes 492/2010. Based on the iridology analysis obtained several systems are expected to nervous, immune and reproductive system disorders and toxin deposits under the skin.

  14. Persistent Organochlorine Exposure and Pregnancy Loss: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Anna Z.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) are suspected reproductive toxicants. We assessed serum concentration of 76 PCB congeners, DDE, and risk of human chorionic gonadotropin confirmed pregnancy loss among 79 women followed for up to 12 menstrual cycles or until pregnancy. 55 women had live births, 14 experienced pregnancy losses, and 10 did not achieve pregnancy. PCBs and DDE were quantified using gas chromatography with electron capture. PCBs were grouped a priori by biologic activity. Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting for age (categorized 24 – 29, 30 – 34) and average standardized alcohol and cigarette intake (continuous) was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of pregnancy loss. Estrogenic PCBs (HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 0.68, 4.02), anti-estrogenic PCBs (HR = 0.10, 95% CI: <0.01, 67.07) and DDE (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.45, 4.52) were not statistically significantly associated with pregnancy loss. Our results provide some signal that estrogenic and antiestrogenic PCBs may be differentially associated with pregnancy loss. Further research is needed to elucidate these associations. PMID:22140635

  15. Organochlorine contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Muir, D C; Ford, C A; Grift, N P; Stewart, R E; Bidleman, T F

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (DDT, chlordane, polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), dieldrin, hexachloroheclohexanes (SigmaHCH), mirex), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and chlorobenzenes (SigmaCBz) were determined in blubber and liver of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) collected during 1982-1983 from Pond Inlet on northern Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. PCCs were the predominate organochlorines in narwhal blubber, ranging in concentration from 2990 to 13 200 ng g(-1) (wet wt) in males and from 1910 to 8390 ng g(-1) in females. PCCs consisted of two major components, an octachlorobornane and a nonachlorobornane with gas chromatographic retention times of 1.05 and 1.22, relative to 4,4'-DDE. SigmaPCB concentrations in blubber ranged from 2250 to 7290 ng g(-1) in males and from 894 to 5710 ng g(-1) in females. Seven PCB congeners (tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls) accounted for 45% of total PCB (SigmaPCB) in narwhal blubber. Narwhal had 1.4- to 8.6-fold higher ratios of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls to PCB-153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl), lower 4,4'-DDE/SigmaDDT ratios and lower proportions of trans-nonachlor to total chlordane components than reported for odontocetes living in more contaminated environments. Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in narwhal were 6- to 15-fold lower than in dolphins from the Canadian east coast and belugas from the St Lawrence River estuary, respectively, while PCC levels were from 4- to about 2-fold lower, and SigmaHCH, dieldrin and SigmaCBz differed by <2-fold. The pattern of organochlorines in narwhal tissues suggests they are exposed to proportionally more volatile compounds, and may have less capacity to metabolize some of these compounds, relative to odontocetes living nearer sources of these contaminants. PMID:15092019

  16. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  17. Predicting the probability of detecting organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in stream systems on the basis of land use in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, R.W.; Haggland, A.L.; Voss, F.D.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed streambed sediment and fish tissue (Cottus sp.) at 30 sites in the Puget Sound and Willamette basins in Washington and Oregon, USA, respectively, for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The study was designed to determine the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish tissue and sediment by land use within these basins and to develop an empirical relation between land use and the probability of detecting these compounds in fish tissue or sediment. We identified 14 organochlorines in fish tissue and sediment; three compounds were unique to either fish tissue or sediment samples. The highest number of organochlorines detected in both fish tissue and streambed sediment was at those sites located in watersheds dominated by urban land uses. Using logistic regression, we found a significant relation between percentage agriculture and urban land use and organochlorines in fish tissue. The results of this study indicate that organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are still found in fish tissues and bed sediments in these two basins. In addition, we produced statistically significant models capable of predicting the probability of detecting specific organochlorines in fish on the basis of land use. Although the presented models are specific to the two study basins, the modeling approach could be applied to other basins as well.

  18. Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

  19. Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Raymond F.; Anderson, Henry A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Blystone, Chad; DeVito, Michael; Jacobs, David; Köhrle, Josef; Lee, Duk-Hee; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Turyk, Mary E.; Boyles, Abee L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lind, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as perfluoroalkyl acids and brominated compounds, and type 2 diabetes. Experimental data are needed to confirm the causality of these POPs, which will shed new light on the pathogenesis of diabetes. This new information should be considered by governmental bodies involved in the regulation of environmental contaminants. PMID:23651634

  20. Organochlorine contamination in some marketable fish in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Abd-Allah, Aly M A

    2004-03-01

    Ten organochlorine compounds were analyzed in four species of fish (Bouri Mugil spp., Denis Sparus auratus, Moza Boops boops and Mousa Pegusa lascaris), from four Egyptian governorates (South Sinai, Suez, Port-Said and Demietta). Although all fish studied are bottom or near-bottom feeders, remarkable variations between studied species were noticed. The grand total values recorded at the studied governorates were in descending order: Bouri>Denis>Moza>Mousa. The highest concentration of pesticides was recorded in Demietta governorate fish (20-211 ng/g of wet weight) and the p,p'-DDE dominated over the other p,p'-isomers in all studied fish, while dieldrin was the dominated in the studied cyclodiene compounds. However, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) occurred at all studied governorate fish except Mousa fish from South Sinai. Toxaphene was detected only in fish (Bouri, Denis, and Mousa) from Demietta governorate. Chlordane was not detected in any studied fish. The level of organochlorine pesticides contamination in fish from the studied governorates is relatively low and should not pose a health risk to consumers. PMID:14659941

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and parasites in Mugil incilis collected in Cartagena Bay, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz E; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara; Ruiz-Garcés, Luis Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Nematode parasites of the Anisakides family are often found in people living in countries where fish is consumed raw or partially cooked. This research shows the histological changes in the liver and spleen of Mugil incilis, collected in Cartagena Bay. These changes are associated with pollution by organochlorine pesticides and their possible influence on the parasite. Organochlorine compounds were extracted using the headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique. Residual amounts in the muscle of M. incilis such as β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, 4,4'-DDE, and dieldrin, among others, were identified by gas chromatography connected to an electron capture detector, indicating that the fauna of Cartagena Bay are exposed to these pollutants. Histological analysis was carried out on liver and spleen samples of M. incilis which were fixed, processed, and embedded in paraffin. The presence of melano-macrophages, granulomes, and trematodes in the liver was the most important changes observed. Larval prevalence for the Anisakis spp. was determined to be 1.6%; for Pseudoterranova spp., 25.3%, and for Contracaecum spp., 57.8%. Other parasites such as acanthocephalans were also reported for a total of 15.3%. Nevertheless, no significant correlation between parasites and organochlorines was found. This study is the first to correlate the presence of organochlorine compounds and histological damage in the liver and spleen of M. incilis, with the presence of parasites in fish from Cartagena Bay (Colombia). PMID:26160124

  2. [Levels of selected organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances in blood--Polish WWF study].

    PubMed

    Struciński, Paweł; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    In June 2004, blood samples of fifteen volunteers were analyzed for presence of selected groups of chemical contaminants. The aim of this survey organized by WWF Poland (World Wildlife Fund) was highlighting the problem of man-made, persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals constantly present in surrounding environment and in our tissues. It was a part of European WWF "Detox" campaign supporting proposal of a new EU regulation that should lead to the identification and phasing out of the most harmful chemicals (known as REACH). Three laboratories in Czech Republic, Sweden and Belgium have analyzed blood samples for presence of the following groups of contaminants: organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated pesticides), phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances. The total number of single chemicals found in the blood samples was 25, that represents 64% of the 39 chemicals looked for. The average number of compounds found in the samples was 21 (from 19 to 22). Among organochlorine compounds analyzed, the predominant chemical found in the highest concentration was p,p'-DDE (range from 130 to 1310 ng/g of fat), which similarly like p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, and HCB (concentrations ranging from 6,4 to 46 ng/g of fat) was present in every person's blood. Among analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls, in all samples the following congeners have been present: PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 (concentrations ranging from 3,7 to 61 ng/g of fat). The two predominant phtalates from total eight analyzed present in all samples were di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (concentration range from 49 to 293 ng/g of blood) and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) (concentration range from 10 to 63 ng/g of blood). Among fifteen perfluorinated aliphatic substances analyzed, six have been present in each single sample (perfluorohexanesulfonic acid - PFHxS, perfluorooctanoic acid - PFOA, perfluorooctane-sulfonic acid - PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonylamide - PFOSA, perfluorononanoic acid - PFNA, and perfluorododecanoic acid - PFDA). The predominant compound in this class of contaminants was PFOS with the concentration ranging from 4,4 to 14 ng/ml of blood. The limited number of samples does not allow for making an analysis of potential impact of different factors on concentrations of particular contaminants in human blood. Results obtained in this survey confirm the ubiquitous contamination by a cocktail of hazardous chemicals of every person tested. Humans being a part of the environment are being contaminated with the same chemicals which are present in surrounding air, water, food, consumer articles, etc. PMID:17044303

  3. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenlys and organochlorinated pesticides in women from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Çok, Ismet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-03-01

    The human body is not a chemically uncontaminated system. Every simple action that humans undertake, such as drinking water, eating, nursing, and even breathing air, puts the system under environmental xenobiotic exposure stress. Environmental chemicals have been shown to produce unwanted effects on health and remove the right to healthy living, starting from the first encounter in utero to geriatrics, throughout the lifespan. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, important members of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been detected before in human breast milk and also in the adipose tissue of women from different regions of Turkey; however, there was no information about the blood levels of these chemicals. This study generated the first information that evaluates OCP and PCB contamination levels in the blood of the women living in Turkey. The current study measured the blood concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in 58 healthy women (age 20-41 years; mean age 28 years) who were living in Istanbul, Turkey, in the years 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 29 OCPs and 18 PCB congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCB 153 was the predominant congener (643.2 pg/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and PCB 180. 4,4'-DDE (24872.8 pg/g lipid) was the most common organochlorinated pesticide contaminant in studied blood samples. Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds were as follows: ∑PCB 2682 ± 3300 pg/g lipid; ∑DDT 25,938 ± 28,644 pg/g lipid; and ∑HCH 2930 ± 2222 pg/g lipid, respectively. The mean concentration of ∑WHOPCB-TEQ was 0.037 pg/g on a lipid basis. This information will be important base data during the assessment of the general health concerns of women, as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans for forthcoming studies. PMID:25701473

  4. The occurrence of organochlorines in marine avian top predators along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Cecilie; Borgå, Katrine; Skaare, Janneche U; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of cold condensation and fractionation on the occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in avian marine top predators along a latitudinal gradient. We measured 24 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and six pesticide OCs in blood of great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) from the Norwegian Coast (58 degrees N-70 degrees N) and glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjornoya in the Norwegian Arctic (74 degrees N). Glaucous gulls had up to 3 times higher sigmaOC concentrations compared to the great black-backed gulls, and a OC pattern dominated largely by persistent and low volatile compounds such as highly chlorinated PCBs and metabolites such as oxychlordane. This was not consistent with cold condensation and fractionation theory, but probably related to diet and elevated biomagnification. Among great black-backed gulls, however, there were indications of both cold condensation and fractionation. Higher and lower chlorinated PCBs had highest absolute concentrations in the south and in the north, respectively, except for one location at an intermediate latitude, where concentrations of most OCs exceeded all other locations. In terms of proportional contribution to sigmaOC (pattern), relatively volatile OCs such as HCB, oxychlordane and tri- to penta- PCB congeners were more important at northern latitudes, while hexa- to nona-PCBs made up a larger proportion of sigmaOC in the south. The results thus showed that differences in global distribution of compounds with different physicochemical properties could be detected in avian top predators such as large gulls, even if biomagnification and biotransformation influence both the absolute concentrations and the patterns of OCs. PMID:16955919

  5. Comparison and analysis of organochlorine pesticides and hexabromobiphenyls in environmental samples by gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Fu, Xiaofang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Liang; Li, Wei; Meng, Bingjun

    2015-02-01

    Two analytical methods, gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS), were evaluated and compared for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants, specifically for 26 organochlorine pesticides and two hexabromobiphenyls, in atmospheric particulate matter and soil samples. The hypothesis tested was that the coelution of non-target compounds may lead to false positives when analyzed by GC-ECD, and that the overestimation associated with these false positives can be eliminated using GC-NCI-MS. The study showed that both methods had satisfactory linearity and reproducibility for the target compounds. Although the sensitivities of GC-ECD for most of the compounds investigated were higher than those observed with the GC-NCI-MS method, the matrices interference was obvious with GC-ECD. There was indeed an apparently high false-positive rate or overestimate when GC-ECD was used for environmental samples, implying that the GC-ECD method has been used with care and that GC-NCI-MS is generally superior for the analysis of trace amounts of these compounds in environmental samples. Based on these results, the sample extraction and cleanup procedures of the GC-NCI-MS method were optimized for achieving acceptable recoveries and less matrices interference. PMID:24872522

  6. Do persistent organic pollutants interact with the stress response? Individual compounds, and their mixtures, interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Steven; Frizzell, Caroline; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-01-22

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential (UNEP, 2001). The majority of studies on endocrine disruption have focused on interferences on the sexual steroid hormones and so have overlooked disruption to glucocorticoid hormones. Here the endocrine disrupting potential of individual POPs and their mixtures has been investigated in vitro to identify any disruption to glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. POP mixtures were screened for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocation using a GR redistribution assay (RA) on a CellInsight™ NXT high content screening (HCS) platform. A mammalian reporter gene assay (RGA) was then used to assess the individual POPs, and their mixtures, for effects on glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transactivation. POP mixtures did not induce GR translocation in the GR RA or produce an agonist response in the GR RGA. However, in the antagonist test, in the presence of cortisol, an individual POP, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), was found to decrease glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity to 72.5% (in comparison to the positive cortisol control). Enhanced nuclear transcriptional activity, in the presence of cortisol, was evident for the two lowest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFOS) potassium salt (0.0147mg/ml and 0.0294mg/ml), the two highest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (0.0025mg/ml and 0.005mg/ml) and the highest concentration of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) (0.0000858mg/ml). It is important to gain a better understanding of how POPs can interact with GRs as the disruption of glucocorticoid action is thought to contribute to complex diseases. PMID:26599974

  7. Organochlorine exposure and bioaccumulation in the endangered northwest Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) population

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2000-03-01

    Exposure to toxicants is one factor hypothesized to influence population growth of the northern right whale. Organochlorines in right whale skin, feces, and prey were measured and used to identify factors influencing exposure and bioaccumulation. Concentrations of 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 20 pesticides in skin biopsies were consistent with other baleenopterids. Concentrations in feces and prey were two orders of magnitude less than in biopsies. In principal component analysis, organochlorines in biopsies matched those from Bay of Fundy, Canada, zooplankton, whereas feces were like Cape Cod, USA, copepods. Year of biopsy collection was the principal factor associated with differential accumulation of nonmetabolizable PCBs, 4,4{prime}-DDE, and dieldrin. Biopsies collected during winter had lower concentrations of lipid and metabolizable compounds than biopsies collected during summer. Concentrations of metabolizable PCBs increased with age in males. The bioaccumulation patterns implied that blubber burdens change annually because of the ingestion of different prey or prey from distinct locations and the release of some organochlorines stored in blubber during lipid depletion in winter. Because biopsy concentrations were lower than those found in marine mammals affected by PCBs and DDTs, the authors do not have evidence that the endangered whales bioaccumulate hazardous concentrations of organochlorines.

  8. Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

    1982-01-01

    A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

  9. Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J.; Weseloh, D.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

  10. Whole blood concentrations of organochlorines as a dose metric for studies of the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus).

    PubMed

    Bustnes, J O; Skaare, J U; Erikstad, K E; Bakken, V; Mehlum, F

    2001-05-01

    In order to examine if whole blood concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) is an appropriate dosimetric parameter for use in ecotoxicological studies of free-living birds, a number of incubating glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were repeatedly sampled within and between subsequent breeding seasons. The wet weight concentrations of selected OCs, differing in persistence and fat solubility, were compared and it was assessed to what extent present concentrations could be predicted from concentrations previously measured in the individuals. There were only a few significant differences in the blood concentrations of the selected OCs within and between seasons. The most persistent compound, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153, showed a low interindividual variability, and between seasons, 70% of the variance could be explained by the level in the previous year, while changes in body condition and blood lipid percentage were of less importance. For PCB-101, the predictability of the present blood concentration from the previous concentration was lower than for PCB-153, and changes in body condition and blood lipid percentage explained a higher proportion of the variance. The present level of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) could not be predicted from the previous level. Sex did not explain any significant proportion of the variance in OC concentrations when previous level and changes in body mass and blood lipid were included in the statistical models. Thus, for the most persistent OCs, concentration in the blood of incubating glaucous gulls is representative for the interindividual differences over time and whole blood concentrations of OCs appear adequate as a dose metric in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:11337867

  11. Dehalogenation of persistent halogenated organic compounds: A review of computational studies and quantitative structure-property relationships.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Hu, Jiwei; Wei, Xionghui; Fu, Liya; Li, Lingyun

    2015-07-01

    Dehalogenation is one of the highly important degradation reactions for halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) in the environment, which is also being developed as a potential type of the remediation technologies. In combination with the experimental results, intensive efforts have recently been devoted to the development of efficient theoretical methodologies (e.g. multi-scale simulation) to investigate the mechanisms for dehalogenation of HOCs. This review summarizes the structural characteristics of neutral molecules, anionic species and excited states of HOCs as well as their adsorption behavior on the surface of graphene and the Fe cluster. It discusses the key physiochemical properties (e.g. frontier orbital energies and thermodynamic properties) calculated at various levels of theory (e.g. semiempirical, ab initio, density functional theory (DFT) and the periodic DFT) as well as their connections to the reactivity and reaction pathway for the dehalogenation. This paper also reviews the advances in the linear and nonlinear quantitative structure-property relationship models for the dehalogenation kinetics of HOCs and in the mathematical modeling of the dehalogenation processes. Furthermore, prospects of further expansion and exploration of the current research fields are described in this article. PMID:25765260

  12. Development of a Compound Distribution Markov Chain Model for Stochastic Generation of Rainfall with Long Term Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Chowdhury, AFM; Lockart, Natalie; Willgoose, Garry; Kuczera, George

    2015-04-01

    One of the overriding issues in the rainfall simulation is the underestimation of observed rainfall variability in longer timescales (e.g. monthly, annual and multi-year), which usually results into under-estimation of reservoir reliability in urban water planning. This study has developed a Compound Distribution Markov Chain (CDMC) model for stochastic generation of daily rainfall. We used two parameters of Markov Chain process (transition probabilities of wet-to-wet and dry-to-dry days) for simulating rainfall occurrence and two parameters of gamma distribution (calculated from mean and standard deviation of wet-day rainfall) for simulating wet-day rainfall amounts. While two models with deterministic parameters underestimated long term variability, our investigation found that the long term variability of rainfall in the model is predominantly governed by the long term variability of gamma parameters, rather than the variability of Markov Chain parameters. Therefore, in the third approach, we developed the CDMC model with deterministic parameters of Markov Chain process, but stochastic parameters of gamma distribution by sampling the mean and standard deviation of wet-day rainfall from their log-normal and bivariate-normal distribution. We have found that the CDMC is able to replicate both short term and long term rainfall variability, when we calibrated the model at two sites in east coast of Australia using three types of daily rainfall data - (1) dynamically downscaled, 10 km resolution gridded data produced by NSW/ACT Regional Climate Modelling project, (2) 5 km resolution gridded data by Australian Water Availability Project and (3) point scale raingauge stations data by Bureau of Meteorology, Australia. We also examined the spatial variability of parameters and their link with local orography at our field site. The suitability of the model in runoff generation and urban reservoir-water simulation will be discussed.

  13. Intra- and inter-species differences in persistent organic contaminants in the blubber of blue whales and humpback whales from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Chris; Koenig, Brenda; Metcalfe, Tracy; Paterson, Gordon; Sears, Richard

    2004-05-01

    Biopsy samples of blubber from adult male and female blue whales, and from female and young-of-the-year humpback whales were collected during the summers of 1992-1999 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In blue whales, concentrations of 25 PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites and several other organochlorine compounds were present at higher concentrations in the blubber of males relative to females; reflecting maternal transfer of these persistent contaminants from females into young. Sex-related differences in concentrations were not observed with less persistent contaminants, such as HCHs. In humpback whale samples, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine compounds in the blubber of females and calves. These data indicate that calves quickly bioaccumulate contaminants by transplacental and lactational routes to concentrations that are in equilibrium with females. In comparisons between contaminant concentrations and patterns in the blubber of female blue and humpback whales, there were no significant differences in concentrations, but the proportions of some PCB congeners, HCH isomers, and DDT and its metabolites were different in the two baleen whale species. These may reflect differences in the diet of the two species, since fish comprise a large part of the diet of humpback whales and blue whales feed exclusively on euphausiid crustaceans (i.e. krill). PMID:14749058

  14. Serum organochlorines and urinary porphyrin pattern in a population highly exposed to hexachlorobenzene

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Herrero, Carmen; Ozalla, Dolores; Sala, Maria; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Background Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is caused by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in several species of laboratory mammals, but the human evidence is contradictory. In a study among adults of a population highly exposed to HCB (Flix, Catalonia, Spain), the prevalence of PCT was not increased. We aimed at analysing the association of individual urinary porphyrins with the serum concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine compounds in this highly exposed population. Methods A cross-sectional study on total porphyrins was carried out in 1994 on 604 inhabitants of the general population of Flix, older than 14 years. Of them, 241 subjects (comprising a random sample and the subgroup with the highest exposure) were included for the present study. The porphyrin profile was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of HCB, as well as common organochlorine compounds, were determined by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection. Results Coproporphyrin I (CPI) and coproporphyrin III (CPIII) were the major porphyrins excreted, while uroporphyrins I and III were only detected in 2% and 36% of the subjects respectively, and heptaporphyrins I and III in 1% and 6%, respectively. CPI and CPIII decreased with increasing HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). This negative association was not explained by age, alcohol, smoking, or other organochlorine compounds. No association was found between uroporphyrin I and III excretion, nor heptaporphyrin excretion, and HCB. CPIII increased with smoking (p < 0.05). Conclusion HCB exposure in this highly exposed population did not increase urinary concentrations of individual porphyrins. PMID:12495451

  15. Vertical distribution of lipids, fatty acids and organochlorine contaminants in the blubber of southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Waugh, Courtney A; Nichols, Peter D; Schlabach, Martin; Noad, Michael; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as toxic lipophilic organochlorine (OC) compounds, accumulate in the blubber tissue of marine mammals. Toxicological sampling methods most frequently target only the superficial blubber layer. Vertical distribution of these contaminants through the blubber mantle may, however, not be homogenous and could reflect any dissemination of lipids and fatty acids (FAs). It is therefore critical to assess stratification patterns in a species of interest as a quality control measure for interpretation of toxicological data. Here, we analysed and compared the distribution of lipids, FAs, and OCs in the outermost and innermost blubber layer of southern hemisphere humpback whales. FA stratification was evident for short-chain (≤18) monounsaturated fatty acids (SC-MUFA), which were concentrated in the outer layer, consistent with the thermoregulatory role of this blubber layer. This stratification was, however, not reflected in OC distribution, which was similar in the inner and outer blubber layers of male humpback whales. By comparison, a noticeable gradient in total blubber lipid from the outer to the inner layer was observed in two lactating females, which coincided with higher lipid normalised contaminant levels in the inner layer. This study contains the most comprehensive assessment of humpback whale blubber stratification to date, however, further investigation of biological and ecological influencing factors is required. PMID:24315760

  16. Dramatic declines of DDE and other organochlorines in spring migrant Peregrine Falcons from Padre Island, Texas, 1978-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Yates, M.A.; Seegar, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) captured in the spring at Padre Island, Texas, nest across the arctic and subarctic from Alaska to Greenland and winter throughout Latin America. Padre Island, located immediately north of the Mexican border, is the peregrines' first landfall in the U.S.A. after spending about 6 mo in Latin America. Blood plasma was collected from spring migrants at Padre Island between 1978 and 2004 to monitor trends in organochlorine (OC) pesticides and their metabolites. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE (??g/g, ww) decreased throughout the study: 1978-1979 (0.879), 1980 (0.617), 1984 (0.551), 1994 (0.406) and 2004 (0.013). Most other OC pesticides, with detection limits used during the earlier portion of this study, were no longer detected during the last two sampling periods. The reduced concentrations of OC pesticides suggest that other pesticides (including carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) are likely being used as replacements. These replacement compounds are not as persistent and cannot be readily evaluated at migration sites like Padre Island. However, concentrations of flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs) have recently increased in bird eggs in many regions and have been reported in blood plasma. Concentrations of PBDEs in peregrine plasma could be evaluated at Padre Island for assessment of trends in the Americas. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  17. Assessment of persistent toxic substances in the environment of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Assem O

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the threats posed by persistent toxic substances (PTS) to the environment and human health in Egypt and to identify priorities, data gaps and recommendations for future intervention to control, reduce or eliminate releases of PTS. Data on available concentrations of persistent toxic substances in the different environmental compartments and their impacts on the ecosystem, and humans have been assembled and summarized. Despite extensive studies, most of the data available deal with limited studies or hot spot situations. Localized inputs of PTS have been identified from freshwater discharges in coastal areas (e.g., Nile estuaries and coastal lakes) and near sewage outfalls from highly industrialized and populated cities. Data are often missing for certain contaminants and in some compartments and geographical areas. The lack of standardized methodologies makes it difficult to compare and use existing data to provide exact conclusions on spatial and temporal trends. In spite of these restrictions, available data indicate that it is unlikely that present levels of cyclodiene pesticides would adversely affect marine organisms. Compounds which are proven to be of concern are DDT, PCBs, gamma-HCH, PAHs, HCB and organotin compounds. Other compounds are suspected to be ubiquitous but data are lacking. Based on few recent data, the reported levels of organochlorine pesticides in fish and human milk samples suggest a concentration decline during the 1990s consistent with the regulatory restrictions on the use of these compounds. It is essential to activate monitoring programs to fill data gaps in appropriate abiotic and biotic. Monitoring programs should be follow standard procedures and include improved QA/QC protocols. PMID:14987860

  18. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and prevalence of allergic disorders in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Masuzaki, Yuko; Sato, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yoshirou; Chisaki, Youichi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2011-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been shown to have immunomodulating effects in humans. However, epidemiological evidence regarding the relationships between organochlorine compound exposure and allergic disorders coming from studies of children has been limited and inconsistent. The current cross-sectional study examined the associations between the concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk and the prevalence of allergic disorders in 124 adult Japanese women. The definition of wheeze and asthma was based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas that of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age, smoking, family history of allergic disorders, and education. The prevalence values of wheeze, asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months were 9.7%, 4.8%, 13.7%, and 29.8%, respectively. The median concentrations of β-HCH, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk were 28.3, 7.0, 71.6, and 23.9 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively (range, 4.5-253, 2.1-14.5, 7.5-362, and 1.8-130 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively). When the exposures were treated as continuous variables, no significant associations were found between concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p'-DDE, or trans-nonachlordane and the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. Our results suggest that concentrations of β-HCH, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and trans-nonachlordane in breast milk are not evidently associated with the prevalence of wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis in young female Japanese adults. PMID:21802112

  19. Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, A.R.; Stern, G.A.; Lockhart, W.L.; Kidd, K.A.; Salki, A.G.; Stainton, M.P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G.B.; Savoie, D.A.; Billeck, B.N.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

  20. Spatial distribution, source apportionment and ecological risk assessment of residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Raha, Priyankar; Shihua, Qi; Dan, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is one of the important mountain ecosystems among the global mountain system which support wide variety of flora, fauna, human communities and cultural diversities. Surface soil samples collected from IHR were analysed for 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentration of ∑OCPs ranged from 0.28 to 2143.96 ng/g (mean 221.54 ng/g) and was mostly dominated by DDTs. The concentration of ∑DDTs ranged from 0.28 to 2126.94 ng/g (mean 216.65 ng/g). Other OCPs such as HCHs, endosulfan and heptachlor, Aldrin and dieldrin were detected in lower concentration in IHR. Their concentrations in soil samples ranged from ND to 2.79 ng/g for HCHs, ND to 2.83 ng/g for endosulfans, NDto 1.46 ng/g for heptachlor, ND to 2.12 ng/g for Aldrin and ND to 1.81 ng/g for dieldrin. Spatial distribution of OCPs suggested prevalence of DDTs and HCHs at Guwahati and Itanagar, respectively. The close relationship between total organic carbon (TOC) and part of OCP compounds (especially α- and γ-HCH) indicated the important role of TOC in accumulation, binding and persistence of OCP in soil. Diagnostic ratio of DDT metabolites and HCH isomers showed DDT contamination is due to recent application of technical DDT and dicofol, and HCH contamination was due to mixture of technical HCH and lindane source. This was further confirmed by principal component analysis. Ecological risk analysis of OCP residues in soil samples concluded the moderate to severe contamination of soil. PMID:26300363

  1. Residual levels and identify possible sources of organochlorine pesticides in Korea atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Soo; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Woo Il; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2011-12-01

    The nationwide monitoring program was established in 2008 to monitor of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Korea. Under this program, it was observed air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 37 sites from January to October of 2008, to determine the residue levels and identify possible sources in Korea atmosphere. Samples of OCPs including HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide were collected with high volume air sampler and analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The concentrations were in the range of 41.2-344.3 pg m -3 for HCB, ND-47.55 pg m -3 for DDTs (sum of p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD), ND-38.97 pg m -3 for chlordanes (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane), ND-9.19 pg m -3 for heptachlors (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide) and ND-4.32 pg m -3 for dieldrin. The predominant compound in air was HCB. However, HCB itself has not ever been registered and used as a pesticide in Korea. The elevated concentration of HCB in Korea might be contributed to geographical location and long range transport. For DDTs, it was found that no more fresh input occurred recently and technical type DDTs was prevailing in Korea. Higher concentration of chlordane was observed in winter, which was contributed to the fresh input technical chlordane and long range transport. Relatively lower levels of heptachlor and dieldrin despite much more consumption than other pesticides were resulted from shorter half-lives in environment.

  2. Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, D; Takahashi, S; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Nakata, H; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K H; Tanabe, S

    2003-10-01

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the North Pacific Ocean). OCs were detected in livers of all of the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed, supporting the thesis that there is widespread contamination of persistent OCs in the marine environment. Within a location, no significant relationship between growth-stage (body length and weight) and OC concentrations (lipid weight basis) was observed, and the OC residue levels were rather uniform among the individuals. Interestingly, the distribution of OC concentrations in skipjack tuna was similar to those in surface seawaters from which they were taken. These results suggest that OC concentrations in skipjack tuna could reflect the pollution levels in seawater from which they are collected and that this species is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of OCs in offshore waters and the open ocean. Concentrations of PCBs and CHLs in skipjack tuna were higher in offshore waters around Japan (up to 1100 and 250 ng/g lipid wt, respectively), suggesting the presence of sources of PCBs and CHLs in Japan. High concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were observed in samples from the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal (up to 1300 and 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively). This result suggests recent use of technical DDT and HCH for agricultural and/or public health purposes in Russia, China, India, and some other developing Asian countries. Relatively high concentrations of PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, and HCB were also observed in samples collected from some locations in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, indicating the expansion of OC contamination on a global scale. Considering these facts, continuous studies monitoring these compounds in offshore waters and the open seas, using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator, are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination. PMID:14674591

  3. Petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescent aromatic compounds in fish bile and organochlorine pesticides from areas surrounding the spill of the Kab121 well, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V; Chan-Cocom, E; Zapata-Perez, O

    2014-01-01

    In October 2007, a light crude oil spill took place in the off shore Kab121 oil well, 32 km north of the mouth of the Grijalva River, Tabasco, Mexico. In order to estimate the possible effects of oil spill on the biota in the area surrounding the spilled well, the level of different fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in fish, as well as the concentration of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs. The organisms examined were cat fish (Ariopsis felis), in addition fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, the contaminants above mentioned and their relationship with cyotochrome P-450 and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, Glutathion-S-Transferase and catalase activities in liver were determined. The concentration of most pollutants were low, except PAHs. Spatial distribution of these compounds, as well as most biomarkers, reflected the highest exposure of fish to pollutants in the area adjacent to well, as well as in the proximity of rivers. The profile of exposure to this environment was chronic in nature and not temporary. PMID:24579530

  4. Persistent organic pollutants and semen quality: The LIFE Study.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Sunni L; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Gore-Langton, Robert E; Boyd Barr, Dana; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence suggests that persistent environmental chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls may adversely affect human fecundity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples discontinuing contraception for purposes of becoming pregnant. Men provided a blood specimen and two fresh semen samples collected approximately a month apart that underwent next day analysis for 35 semen quality endpoints. Serum samples were analyzed for 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners #18, 28, 44, 49, 52, 66, 74, 87, 99, 101, 114, 118, 128, 138, 146, 149, 151, 153, 156, 157, 167, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, 183, 187, 189, 194, 195, 196, 201, 206, 209); 1 polybrominated biphenyl (#153); 9 organochlorine pesticides; and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners #17, 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154183) using high resolution mass spectrometry. To estimate the effect of chemicals on semen quality, we regressed each semen marker on each chemical while adjusting for research site, age, body mass index, serum lipids, and cotinine levels. Males with chemical concentrations in the fourth quartile, as compared to the first quartile, showed significant associations for several individual chemicals in each chemical class and type of semen quality parameter indicating negative and positive associations with semen quality. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in particular were associated with several measures of increased abnormal morphology. These exploratory results highlight the role of environmental influences on male fecundity, and are of particular interest given the ubiquitous exposures to these compounds. PMID:25441930

  5. Comparative evaluation of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk: persistent organic pollutants and mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Tsakiris, I N; Kokkinakis, E; Dumanov, J M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Flouris, A D; Vlachou, M; Tsatsakis, A M

    2013-01-01

    Publications produced over the past 20 years regarding the concentration of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk were evaluated, focusing primarily on persistent organic pollutants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, flame retardants), pesticides (e.g organochlorine) and mycotoxins. In general, countries of low industrialization rate present low levels of dietary milk contamination with dioxins compared to those with high rate of industrialization. According to published data, the most common persistent organic pollutants detected in breast and dietary milk are dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane compounds, hexachlorocyclohexane, and hexachlorobenzene. Even though the potential risks of persistent organic pollutants in human milk have been acknowledged, the beneficial effect of breastfeeding as the optimal food source for newborn babies should not be disregarded. Especially when sharing information with the general public, it should be made clear that the presence of dioxins and persistent organic pollutants in human milk is not an indication for avoiding breastfeeding. The implications of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk is a matter of growing importance and warrants future work given its important health effects. PMID:24200021

  6. Concomitant evaluation of atmospheric levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Strasbourg (France) using pine needle passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Mokbel, Haifaa; Elmoll, Ahmad; Massemin, Sylvie; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Toufaily, Joumana; Hanieh, Tayssir; Millet, Maurice

    2015-11-01

    In this study, pine needles were used as cost-effective and reliable passive bio-monitors to concomitantly evaluate atmospheric concentrations of three classes of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The extraction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from needle samples was performed. Eleven PCBs, 11 OCPs, and 15 PAHs were detected and followed through time in needle samples from three sites in the Strasbourg region. The urban and rural sites were more exposed to PCBs than the suburban site. The highest concentration of PCBs was found at the urban site, but the largest number of congeners (10) was detected at the rural site. PCB 189 and 156 were the predominant congeners in the rural site and PCB 70 in the urban site. For OCPs, the rural site displayed the highest concentrations (up to 22.9 ng g(-1)) and number of compounds investigated (9). The high concentration of γ- and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) at that time in the urban site was the reason for this result. γ- and β-HCH were the two predominant compounds in all samples. The suburban and urban sites were the most exposed with PAHs with pyrene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene being the three predominant compounds in these sites. No specific trend in terms of time was apparent for PCBs and OCPs. However, higher concentrations were detected for some compounds in the first sampling, especially for PAHs, and this is attributed to variations in meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature, wind, rain) and variable inputs from both identified and unidentified sources. PMID:26162446

  7. Recent trends in organochlorine residues in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Mersey Estuary.

    PubMed

    Connor, L; Johnson, M S; Copplestone, D; Leah, R T

    2001-12-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) taken from several sites in the Mersey Estuary, an urban-industrial water body in NW England, have been analyzed for residues of the persistent organochlorines, DDT, PCB congeners nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 (ICES7), and alpha-MHCH (alpha-methyl hexachlorocyclohexane). The concentration range for sigmaPCB (ICES7) was 13.9-34.9 microg kg(-1) in 1994 compared with 9.6-31.9 microg kg(-1) in 1998, whilst the equivalent concentrations of sigmaDDT were 8.9-32.4 microg kg(-1) and 4.5-16.8 microg kg(-1), respectively. The concentration of alpha-MHCH, an organochlorine largely restricted to the Mersey Estuary, was 1.2-11 microg kg(-1) in 1994 and 0.3-1.3 microg kg(-1) in 1998. At both sampling dates the inner estuary sites of Rock Ferry and Egremont were more contaminated than the outer estuary sites of New Brighton. Dove Point and Caldy Blacks. The lower concentrations of organochlorines in mussels in 1998 compared with 1994 are thought to be early evidence of significant improvements in water quality derived from major capital investment in the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage wastewater, linked to a combination of stricter legislative controls and the environmental benefits from the adoption of new, clean technologies in manufacturing. PMID:11763145

  8. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-09-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  9. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L., Jr.; Clark, D.R., Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  10. Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

  11. Accumulation of organochlorines in the European clam (Ruditapes decussatus) and sediment of the Oualidia lagoon (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Jayed, Maria; Benbrahim, Samir; Bakkas, Salem; Ramdani, Mohamed; Flower, Roger

    2015-05-01

    This study focused on the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in tissue samples of the clam, Ruditapes decussatus, in the Oualidia lagoon. Tissue assays were conducted during February to December 2005 and sediment (October 2005) was also tested. 13 organochlorine compounds and eight PCBs congeners were investigated, is HCB, γ-HCH, chlordane, cis-chlordane and trans-nonachlor, DDT and its metabolites DDD, DDE, heptachlor, its epoxide, mirex and PCBs (PCB28 + 50, PCB52, PCB101, PCB 118, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180). Analysis of these compounds was performed using a gas chromatography capillary column and an electron capture detector. Organochlorine contamination of clams and sediments in the lagoon did not exceed tolerable thresholds according to European standards. The levels of tPCB, tDDT and tOCP in clams are high at 49.4, 22.2, and 7.1 ng g(-1) dw respectively. Concentrations of trans nonachlor and mirex are low compared to other chlorinated pesticides. PCB28 + 50, PCB52 and PCB101 show typical values in sediment, at 18.5, 10.8 and 17.8 ng g(-1) dw respectively. PMID:25829056

  12. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds. PMID:25836759

  13. Food web magnificaton of persistent organic pollutants in poikilotherms and homeotherms.

    PubMed

    Hop, Haakon; Borgá, Katrine; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Kleivane, Lars; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2002-06-15

    Food web magnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was determined for the Barents Sea food web using 615N as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels (TL). The food web investigated comprised zooplankton, ice fauna and fish (poikilotherms, TL 1.7-3.3), and seabirds and seals (homeotherms, TL 3.3-4.2), with zooplankton representing the lowest and glaucous gull the highest trophic level. Concentrations of lipophilic and persistent organochlorines were orders of magnitude higher in homeotherms than in poikilotherms. These compounds had significantly higher rates of increase per trophic level in homeotherms relative to poikilotherms, with the highest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) for cischlordane and p,p'-DDE. Some compounds, such as transnonachlor and HCB, had similar rates of increase throughout the food web, whereas compounds that are more readily eliminated (gamma-HCH) showed no relationship with trophic level. It is preferable to calculate FWMFs with regard to thermal groups, because the different energy requirements and biotransformation abilities between poikilotherms and homeotherms may give different rates of contaminant increase with trophic level. When biomagnification is compared between ecosystems, FWMFs are preferable to single predator-prey biomagnification factors. FWMFs represent a trophic level increase of contaminants that is average for the food chain rather than an increase for a specific predator-prey relationship. The Barents Sea FWMFs were generally comparable to those determined for marine food webs with similar food chain lengths in the Canadian Arctic. PMID:12099454

  14. Inadvertent exposure to organochlorine pesticides DDT and derivatives in people from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Zumbado, Manuel; Goethals, Muriel; Alvarez-León, Eva E; Luzardo, Octavio P; Cabrera, Félix; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Domínguez-Boada, Luis

    2005-03-01

    In 1998, one of the largest determinations of organochlorine pesticides in a representative sample of a Spanish population (682 serum samples from the Canary Islands) was made in the context of the "Canary Islands Nutrition Survey" (ENCA). In the Canary Islands, extensive farming areas have been developed in these last decades, with greenhouses dedicated to intensive cultivation using DDT in huge amounts. In Spain, similarly to other European countries, DDT was banned in the late 1970s. The pesticide residues in human serum are indicative of past and present exposure to them. Our objective is to point out the differences of pesticide contamination between islands; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender, age, or habitat of subjects. Concentration of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDD) was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Almost all of the samples (99.3%) presented detectable levels of some DDT-derivatives, being p,p'-DDE the most frequently detected organochlorine. The median concentration of total DDT body burden, expressed in ng/g fat, present in the Canary Islands (370 ng/g fat) was similar to that found in other European countries, although it was noteworthy that a fourth of the population showed a total DDT body burden higher than 715 ng/g. Interestingly, statistical significant differences were found in serum levels of organochlorine pesticides between islands, being these levels higher in people from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (415 and 612 ng/g fat, respectively), the islands that present both highest population and highest surface devoted to intensive agriculture. As expected, serum levels of both total DDT body burden and p,p'-DDE increased with age. Statistically significant differences were also found in relation to gender, women showing higher levels of these organochlorine pesticides than men. One of the most relevant findings of this work is the presence of a very high DDT/DDE ratio in people from the Canary Islands, thus indicating a chronic exposure to DDT that persists nowadays. DDT and its derivatives are considered as xenoestrogens, and they have been linked to breast cancer. Having into account that the Canary Islands present high incidence and mortality for breast cancer, our results point to the possibility that these environmental contaminants may be playing a determining role that must be investigated in detail. The high levels of DDT and its derivatives in serum from people living in this Archipelago should be considered a matter of public health concern. PMID:15740757

  15. Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  16. Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Shabbir, Arsalan; DiStasio, Susan; Zhao, Jingbo; Cardozo, Christopher P.; Wolff, Mary S.; Caplan, Avrom J. . E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

    2005-03-01

    1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  17. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

  18. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores < insectivores < omnivores < piscivores < carnivores. Although, the organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species. PMID:20571760

  19. Characterization of Zebrafish Abcc4 as an Efflux Transporter of Organochlorine Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xing; Long, Yong; Lin, Li; Sun, Rongze; Zhong, Shan; Cui, Zongbin

    2014-01-01

    DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment. PMID:25478949

  20. Characterization of zebrafish Abcc4 as an efflux transporter of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing; Long, Yong; Lin, Li; Sun, Rongze; Zhong, Shan; Cui, Zongbin

    2014-01-01

    DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment. PMID:25478949

  1. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no significant health risk for human consumption by eating eggs collected in this study. PMID:24862478

  2. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Concern Over the Link with Insulin Resistance Related Metabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Mostafalou, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are mostly halogenated compounds tending to persist in the environment, enter into the food chain, and accumulate in fat mass of mammals due to their high lipophilicity. They include some organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these chemicals were widely used in the past so that their residues can be detected in the human body, though their usage has been banned for years. POPs have been shown to perturb the health of biological systems in different ways evidenced by carcinogenicity and disrupting effects on endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems. There are many epidemiologic and experimental studies on the association of exposure to POPs with insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders like obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Inflammation as a known mechanism accompanying insulin resistance has also been shown to arise in insulin target tissues exposed to POPs. This review addresses the breast milk concentration of POPs in different regions of the world, synthesizes the current information on the association of POPs with insulin resistance related metabolic disorders, and discusses the inflammation as an involved mechanism. Considering high prevalence of insulin resistance related metabolic diseases and their relation with POPs, much need is felt regarding international and regional programs to not only limit their production and usage but eliminate these persistent pollutants from the environment. PMID:26670033

  3. POTENTIAL FOR BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANO-CHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are the most important organic contaminants of shallow water-table aquifers. Such aquifers have recently been shown to harbor an indigenous microflora. Organisms in authentic and uncontaminated samples of unconsolidated subsurface m...

  4. Organochlorine insecticides DDT and chlordane in relation to survival following breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Parada, Humberto; Wolff, Mary S; Engel, Lawrence S; White, Alexandra J; Eng, Sybil M; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Khankari, Nikhil K; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine insecticides have been studied extensively in relation to breast cancer incidence, and results from two meta-analyses have been null for late-life residues, possibly due to measurement error. Whether these compounds influence survival remains to be fully explored. We examined associations between organochlorine insecticides [p,p'-DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), its primary metabolite, p,p'-DDE, and chlordane] assessed shortly after diagnosis and survival among women with breast cancer. A population-based sample of women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997 and with available organochlorine blood measures (n?=?633) were followed for vital status through 2011. After follow-up of 5 and 15 years, we identified 55 and 189 deaths, of which 36 and 74, respectively, were breast cancer-related. Using Cox regression models, we estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lipid-adjusted organochlorine concentrations with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. At 5 years after diagnosis, the highest tertile of DDT concentration was associated with all-cause (HR?=?2.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.67) and breast cancer-specific (HR?=?2.72; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.13) mortality. At 15 years, middle tertile concentrations of DDT (HR?=?1.42; 95% CI 0.99, 2.06) and chlordane (HR?=?1.42; 95% CI: 0.94, 2.12) were modestly associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Third tertile DDE concentrations were inversely associated with 15-year all-cause mortality (HR?=?0.66; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.99). This is the first population-based study in the United States to show that DDT may adversely impact survival following breast cancer diagnosis. Further studies are warranted given the high breast cancer burden and the ubiquity of these chemicals. PMID:26285160

  5. Sucralose, a synthetic organochlorine sweetener: overview of biological issues.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S; Rother, Kristina I

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  6. Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  7. Organochlorine residues in harbour porpoises from Southwest Greenland.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Asunción; Aguilar, Alex; Cantos, Gemma; Lockyer, Christina; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Jensen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    During the 1995 hunting season, 75 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) were sampled in three locations in West Greenland: Maniitsoq, Nuuk, and Paamiut. Sex, age, morphometrics, reproductive condition, and organochlorine compound (OC) levels in blubber were determined for each individual. OC levels were extremely low and, therefore considered unlikely to affect the population adversely: mean blubber concentrations, expressed on lipid weight basis were 1.98 (S.D.=1.1) mg/kg for PCBs, 2.76 (S.D.=1.66) mg/kg for tDDT and 0.21 (S.D.=0.11) mg/kg for HCB. No statistical differences were observed among individuals caught in the various locations. OC concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age in males but negative in females; consequently, mature females presented lower pollutant loads than their male counterparts. Juveniles did not show differences between sexes. A higher proportion of less chlorinated and more metabolizable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to tPCBs was found in calves (age< or =1) than in mature females, indicating that the feeding habits of these two groups differ and that a greater transfer of less chlorinated compounds is passed from females to their pups through lactation and parturition. Harbour porpoises significantly contribute to the dietary intake of OCs by local Inuit populations. This contribution could be reduced if mature males were selectively avoided; however, current hunting procedures make this selection impracticable. PMID:14720480

  8. Monitoring of heavy metal and organic compound levels along the Eastern Aegean coast with transplanted mussels.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Pazi, Idil; Yucel-Gier, Guzel; Akcali, Baris; Galgani, François

    2013-11-01

    Within the framework of the MYTITURK project, heavy metals and organic compounds contaminations were assessed in transplanted mussels in eight different bays from the Eastern Aegean coast. Izmir Bay, Canakkale Strait entrance, Saros and Candarli Bay were defined low pollution extent according to Principal Component Analysis taking into metal accumulation. PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) levels in the range of 29.4-64.2 ng g(-1) (dry weight) indicated that PAH contamination level classified as low along the Aegean coast. Concentrations of Aroclor1254 and 1260 were higher in transplanted mussels from Canakkale Strait Outlet due to industrial activities was originated from Marmara Sea. The organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor (<0.4 ng g(-1)), aldrin (<0.30 ng g(-1)), dieldrin (<0.75 ng g(-1)), endrin (<2.3 ng g(-1)) concentrations were homogeneous however, HCB (Hexachlorobenzene) and lindane concentrations were found undetectable level along the coast. DDE/DDT ratio in the caged mussels form Gulluk and Gokova Bay indicated recent DDT (Dikloro difenil trikloroethan) usage in these areas. The residues of organochlorinated compounds in transplanted mussels confirm the long persistence of DDTs. According to world health authorities, the concentration of heavy metals in mussels for the study area can generally be considered not to be at levels posing a health risk except Zn. The levels of POPs indicated that transplanted mussels have a lack of risk for the human health. PMID:23972908

  9. Effects of urbanization and long-term rainfall on the occurrence of organic compounds and trace elements in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue from the Santa Ana River basin, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.

    2002-01-01

    Organcochlorine compounds, semivolatile-organic compounds (SVOC), and trace elements were analyzed in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue in the Santa Ana River Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Three reservoirs were sampled in areas that have different degrees of urbanization. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected at 12 sites were divided into two groups, urban and nonurban. More organochlorine compounds were detected in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment and fish tissue, and at higher concentrations at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of organochlorine compounds were lower than the probable-effect concentration (PEC). At the highly urbanized West Street Basin, chlordane and p,p'-DDE exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The less stringent threshold-effect concentration (TEC) was exceeded for six compounds at eight sites. Most of the organochlorine compounds detected in streambed sediment and fish tissue were at urban sites on the Santa Ana River as opposed to its tributaries, suggesting accumulation and persistence in the river. More SVOCs were detected in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment, and at higher concentrations, at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all the sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of SVOCs were lower than the PEC. At West Street Basin, chrysene, pyrene, and total polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 3 sites. Most of the SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment at urban sites on tributaries to the Santa Ana River rather than the mainstem itself. The less frequent occurrence and lower concentrations in the Santa Ana River suggest that SVOCs are less persistent than organochlorine compounds, possibly as a result of volatization, gradation, or dilution. Most trace-element detections in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment were at urban sites, and the concentrations were generally higher than at nonurban sites. Lead and zinc exceeded their PECs at West Street Basin throughout the historical record; copper exceeded its PEC at Canyon Lake, an area of urban growth. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 11 sites. Frequency of detection and concentration did not differ between tributary and Santa Ana River sites, which may be attributed to the fact that trace elements occur naturally. Four trace elements (arsenic, copper, mercury, and selenium) had higher concentrations in fish tissue at nonurban sites than at urban sites. Concentrations decreased over time for organochlorine compounds at all three reservoirs, probably a result of the discontinued use of many of the compounds. Decreasing trends in SVOCs and trace elements were observed at West Street Basin, but increasing trends were observed at Canyon Lake. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds, SVOCs, and trace elements were higher during periods of above average rainfall at both West Street Basin and Canyon Lake.

  10. Temporal bioavailability of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Sethajintanin, D; Anderson, K A

    2006-06-15

    Because PCBs and organochlorine pesticides continue to be of global concern, studies that address information gaps, such as factors and influences of spatial and temporal effects on contaminant bioavailability, are valuable. The present study focused on the spatial and temporal distribution of bioavailable organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in surface waters of a contaminated harbor. Passive sampling devices were intensively deployed adjacent to various land uses on the Willamette River, OR, including Portland Harbor and McCormick and Baxter Superfund sites, during summer and fall, extreme conditions, 2001-2004. An increase of bioavailable sigmaDDTs (sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) concentrations was strongly affected bythe local historic production of DDTs and temporal changes in river conditions. The increase of bioavailable p,p'-DDD and high DDD/DDE ratios observed during summer indicates conditions favoring anaerobic reductive processes. In contrast to sigmaDDTs, the bioavailable concentrations and daily loads of dieldrin and PCBs increased during fall, especially during episodic rainstorms. On the basis of the PCB congener profiles, PCB inputs from urban runoff /sewer overflows were considered likely current sources of bioavailable PCB into the Harbor. The exceedence of the U.S. national and Oregon water quality criteria was a function of the temporal variability of each bioavailable contaminant. This illustrates the impacts associated with temporal changes of bioavailable organochlorine distributions in surface waters and the significance of considering realistic temporal, bioavailability, and site-specific conditions in risk assessment and water quality management. PMID:16830528

  11. Effects of organochlorine xenobiotics on human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Silvestroni, L; Palleschi, S

    1999-10-01

    The organochlorine insecticide lindane is a widely distributed environmental pollutant belonging to the growing family of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Lindane intercalates into the sperm membrane and alters the molecular dynamics of the bilayer. In the present paper, preliminary data are reported showing that doses of lindane as low as those found in the female genital tract secretions inhibit the sperm cytological responsiveness to progesterone, the physiological agonist which stimulates the onset of acrosome reactions at the site of fertilization. The hypothesis is put forth that even background levels of lindane may exert antifertility effects independently on the health status of either the male and female reproductive organs. PMID:10467719

  12. Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Gobas, F.A.P.C. ); McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organic chemicals in fish and mammals.

  13. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7 ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2 ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by δ(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation. PMID:25899033

  14. Inhibition of final maturation of Atlantic croaker oocytes in vitro by organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Thomas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Final oocyte maturation (FOM) in teleosts is induced by a maturation inducing steroid (MIS) secreted in response to a surge in maturational gonadotropin secretion. Recently the authors found that a variety of organochlorine pesticides bind to the ovarian plasma membrane receptor for the MIS in the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). In the present study the interaction of various xenobiotics (10{sup {minus}9}--10{sup {minus}4}M) with MIS-induced final maturation of follicle-enclosed oocytes of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), a closely related species, was investigated using an in vitro oocyte maturation bioassay. A wide range of organochlorine compounds (10{sup {minus}9}--10{sup {minus}4}M) inhibited MIS-induced FOM 10%-80% in a concentration-dependent manner. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was the most potent inhibitor among the compounds tested. The minimum concentration of TCDD which inhibited final maturation of 50% of the oocytes (EC{sub 50}) was in the 10{sup {minus}7} M range whereas the EC{sub 50} values for Kepone and naphthalene were in the 10{sup {minus}5}M range. The relative potencies of DDT analogs varied greatly, with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}4}M (o,p{prime}-DDD > o,p{prime}-DDE > o,p{prime}DDT > p,p{prime}-DDE > p,p{prime}-DDE > p,p{prime}-DDT). PCBs only inhibited FOM at higher concentrations (2--200 ppm); congeners with higher chlorine contents were the most inhibitory. These results indicate that organochlorine compounds at environmentally realistic concentrations can affect reproduction in fish by interfering with FOM, a critical stage of the reproductive cycle.

  15. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human milk samples from Comarca Lagunera, Mexico, 1976.

    PubMed

    Albert, L; Vega, P; Portales, A

    1981-12-01

    Milk samples were obtained from 15 nursing mothers in the agricultural region of Comarca Lagunera, Mexico, and were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. Nine different types of residues were found. Of these, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, and beta-BHC occurred most frequently. All samples had concentrations of DDT-derived compounds higher than the practical limit recommended by the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization for DDT in cows' milk. Residues of other chlorinated hydrocarbons were present at levels similar to those found in human milk in other developing countries. PMID:7348797

  16. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment and fish from Wetlands in the north central United States.

    PubMed

    Martin, D B; Hartman, W A

    1985-01-01

    Sediment samples collected in 1980-1982 from riverine and pothole wetlands at 17 locations in the north central United States were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, certain of their metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations were above minimum detection levels (5 ng/g of organochlorines and 20 ng/g of PCBs) in less than 4% of the samples taken. Fish samples taken at 9 of these 17 locations, and analyzed for the same compounds, showed a higher frequency of detectable contaminants. The most common compound found in fish was DDE, which was found in 51% of the samples at levels up to 512 ng/g. alpha-BHC was present at concentrations of 5 to 27 ng/g in 36% of the fish samples, and DDD was found at levels of 5 to 60 ng/g in 14%. Four other compounds, DDT, dieldrin, PCB, and trans-nonachlor, were detected in fish at relatively low concentrations in less than 10% of the samples. This survey, thus, indicated little contamination by organochlorine pesticides or PCBs in the wetland habitats of this region. PMID:3928593

  18. Concentrations and mass fluxes estimation of organochlorine pesticides in Three Gorges Reservoir with virtual organisms using in situ PRC-based sampling rate.

    PubMed

    Temoka, Cedrique; Wang, Jingxian; Bi, Yonghong; Deyerling, Dominik; Pfister, Gerd; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are widely distributed environmental pollutants. Due to their persistence and toxicity, it is important to know their fluxes and spatial and temporal distribution in the environment. In this study, a new procedure to estimate OCP concentration based on a set of performance reference compounds (PRCs) was used. Their occurrence and mass fluxes were assessed on a regional scale ranging from Chonqging to Maoping in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) as part of Yangtze River. The results are based on three sampling campaigns in 2009 (twice) and 2011. Due to different factors, the measured concentrations varied from 410 to 1418 pg/L. The highest total OCP concentration was localized in Wanzhou while the lowest was downstream Maoping near the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). The highest load of OCP mass fluxes was observed at Wanhzou with 9.6 mg/s and the lowest load at Maoping with 2.97 mg/s. Studies at Maoping show an increase in OCP water concentration from 2009 to 2012. Comparison between free dissolved OCP water concentration and total OCP water concentration in TGR 2009, 2011 and 2012 show a slight variation, indicating the important role of dilution in the OCP removal process in TGR. PMID:26498100

  19. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  20. Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine chemical residues in oxbow lakes of northeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niethammer, K.R.; White, D.H.; Baskett, T.S.; Sayre, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Samples (98) of 16 spp. of animals were collected at Lake Providence, 88 samples of 15 spp. at Lake Bruin and 21 samples of 5 spp. at Lake St. John, Louisiana, between July 15 and Sept. 25, 1980. Residues of 13 organochlorine compounds were identified in these samples. Substantial concentrations of many compounds throughout the food webs of all 3 lakes showed that the lakes acted as sumps, accumulating residues from nearby agricultural land. DDT and its metabolites (DDE, TDE and DDMU [1-chloro-2,2,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene]), toxaphene and polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) were the principal organochloride residues detected. With few exceptions, biomagnification of the principal residues was clearly illustrated. Tertiary consumers such as green-backed heron (Butorides striatus), snakes, spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) contained the highest residues. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), blacktail shiner (Notropis venustus), yellow-crowned night heron (Nycticorax violaceus) and other secondary consumers contained lower levels of residues. Primary consumers, crayfish (Orconectes lancifer) and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense), contained relatively low residue levels of most compounds. Frogs contained lower residue levels than expected based on their position in the food web. Residue levels in immature green-backed herons and .gtoreq. 1 of the longer-lived predators, e.g., snakes, gars or largemouth bass could be monitored to evaluate levels of organochlorine chemical contaminants in aquatic habitats.

  1. Organochlorines in top predators at Svalbard--occurrence, levels and effects.

    PubMed

    Skaare, J U; Bernhoft, A; Derocher, A; Gabrielsen, G W; Goksøyr, A; Henriksen, E; Larsen, H J; Lie, E; Wiig

    2000-03-15

    Alarmingly high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels have been found in the top predators such as glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard [Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Polder, A., Bakken, V., 1995. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). Sci. Total Environ. 160/161, 337-346; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Environ. Pollut. 95, 159-175; Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Trudeau, S., Wolkers, H., Sagerup, K., Skaare, J.U., 1999. Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Bear Island, the Barents Sea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (in press). ]. Studies of the possible toxic effects, particularly on the immune system and reproduction, of the very high PCB levels in these species are currently being investigated. Data obtained in the field (f.i. reproductive success in polar bears and intestinal nematodes in glaucous gulls), as well as levels of various biochemical and physiological parameters (f.i. thyroid hormones, retinol, EROD activity, CYP1A, IgG), have been coupled with the PCB levels [Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Bernhoft, A., 1994. Klorerte organiske miljogifter; Nivâer og effekter i isbjorn. Norwegian Polar Institute Reportseries no. 86, 1-23 (in Norwegian); Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Environ. Pollut. 95, 159-175; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Derocher, A.E., Larsen, H.J., 2000. Possible immunotoxic effects of organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard (in press); Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Skjegstad, N., Jensen, B.M., 1998a. Relationship between PCB levels, hepatic EROD activity and plasma retinol in glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus. Marine Environ. Res. 46, 45-49; Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Trudeau, S., Wolkers, H., Sagerup, K., Skaare, J.U. , 1999. Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Bear Island, the Barents Sea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (in press); Sagerup, K., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skorping, A., Skaare, J.U., 1998. Association between PCB concentrations and intestinal nematodes in glaucou gulls, Larus hyperboreus, from Bear Island. Organohalogen compounds 39, 449-451; Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Bernhoft, A., 1994. Klorerte organiske miljogifter; Nivâer og effekter i isbjorn. Norwegian Polar Institute Reportseries no. 86, 1-23. (in Norwegian)]. PMID:10720718

  2. Organochlorine pesticides in the Hawaii Kai Marina, 1970-74.

    PubMed

    Tanita, R; Johnson, J M; Chun, M; Maciolek, J

    1976-06-01

    Sediments, water, and oysters from the receiving waters of the Hahaione Valley, a suburban development in south-easter Oahu, Hawaii, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticidal compounds. The insecticides dieldrin, alpha- and gamma- chlordane, and p,p'-DDT were found in the study site environment. Levels were in the low parts per billion range for oysters and sediments and in the low parts per trillion range for water. During the past several years dieldrin residues in the marina study site have increased, even though the only activity known to influence pesticide levels in the valley is the chronic treatment for subterranean and dry wood termites. If present trends continue, dieldrin may pose a threat to biota of the aquatic environment. Findings have shown that residue levels of dieldrin and p,p'-DDT in the sediments are within the LD50 (median lethal dose) range for estuarine fish and thus may have a deleterious effect on bottom-feeding organisms. According to present standards of the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, pesticide residue levels within the study site do not appear to constitute a health hazard to humans. PMID:940734

  3. Organochlorine pollutants and stable isotopes in resident and migrant passerine birds from northwest Michoacn, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mora, Miguel A

    2008-10-01

    Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering area for many species. The objectives of this study were to assess if resident and migrant birds wintering in western Michoacn, Mexico accumulated elevated concentrations of OCs during fall and spring and to determine if the stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD could be used to predict burdens and origins of DDE accumulation. Resident and migrant passerine insectivorous birds were collected during fall and spring (2001-2002) in northwest Michoacn, near Chapala Lake, Mexico. The carcasses were analyzed for OCs and tail feathers were analyzed for stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD. The OCs detected in more than 50% of the samples were: oxychlordane (79%), p,p'-DDE (100%), p,p'-DDT (57%), and total PCBs (100%). p,p'-DDE was the OC detected at the highest concentrations, whereas residues of other OCs were near or below detection limits. Overall, there were no significant differences in concentrations of OCs between seasons or between resident and migrant birds. Concentrations of DDE and oxychlordane were somewhat higher in migrant and resident birds during spring than in fall; however, concentrations were significantly different only for oxychlordane. Two resident birds collected in fall and spring had DDE residues >10 microg/g wet weight in carcass. There were no significant differences in delta(13)C and delta(15)N values among species, between seasons, or between migrant and resident birds. However, deltaD values were clearly different between species and helped differentiate migrant from resident birds. deltaD values also were negatively and significantly correlated with DDE concentrations in carcass. Birds with more depleted deltaD values in feathers tended to have higher DDE concentrations than those with less depleted deltaD values, suggesting a potential latitudinal accumulation of DDE. Overall, our results suggest that during fall and spring, there is not a significant buildup of persistent OCs in migrant and resident passerine insectivorous birds in northwest Michoacn, Mexico. PMID:18227960

  4. The slow recovery of San Francisco Bay from the legacy of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Connor, Michael S; Davis, Jay A; Leatherbarrow, Jon; Greenfield, Ben K; Gunther, Andrew; Hardin, Dane; Mumley, Thomas; Oram, John J; Werme, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides, including DDTs, chlordanes, and dieldrin, peaked in San Francisco Bay's watershed 30-40 years ago, yet residues of the pesticides remain high. Known as legacy pesticides for their persistence in the Bay decades after their uses ended, the compounds and their breakdown products occur at concentrations high enough to contribute to advisories against the consumption of sport fish from the Bay. Combined with other data sets, the long-term monitoring data collected by the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) for trace substances allow us to track recovery of the Bay from these inputs and predict its future improvement. Legacy pesticides enter the water and sediment of San Francisco Bay from a variety of sources, including runoff from California's Central Valley and local watersheds, municipal and industrial wastewater, atmospheric deposition, erosion of historically contaminated sediment deposits, and dredging and disposal of dredged material. Runoff from small-urbanized tributaries may contribute as much or more to the loads than runoff from the agricultural Central Valley, even though 90 percent of the freshwater flow comes from the Central Valley via the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. The fates of legacy pesticides in San Francisco Bay are controlled by their chemical properties, including their solubilities and partition coefficients. Degradation in the sediments, outflow through the Golden Gate, and volatilization-in that relative order-result in removal of pesticides from the Bay. A contaminant fate model was used to estimate recovery times of the Bay under various scenarios. For example, under a scenario in which no new legacy pesticides entered the Bay, model predictions suggested that concentrations of pesticides in the water and the active sediment layer would reach risk-reduction goals within one to three decades. Under scenarios of continued inputs to the Bay, recovery time would be considerably longer or not reached at all. Long-term tissue monitoring corroborates model predictions of slow declines in DDT and chlordane concentrations. Field-transplanted bivalve samples indicate declines since 1980, and lipid-weight concentrations of pesticides have declined in fishes, but the declines are slow. The critical management question for the Bay is whether there are feasible management actions that would decrease concentrations in sport fish significantly faster than the existing slow progress that has been observed. PMID:16930588

  5. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk for consumers in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Pohoryło, Anna; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk is a one of bioindicators of environmental pollution, and, consequently, food contamination. This study estimates contamination level of goat milk produced at two organic farms in years 2009-2013. Analysis covered determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers (α, β, γ, δ), DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and its derivatives, and methoxychlor. Pesticide content was determined using GCMS method. The detected levels of organochlorine residues in goat milk were low, in most cases below 8 ng g(-1) lipids. Among HCH isomers, γ- and β-HCH occurred in the highest concentrations, up to 4.85 ng g(-1) lipids. While among DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD dominated, up to 7.86 ng g(-1) lipids. The detected residues were below the current maximum residue limits (MRLs) for the pesticides. Considering the average milk consumption in Poland, the goat milk from both farms was safe for consumers' health. The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for the sum of the compounds under study ranged within 1.73 × 10(-5)-1.06 × 10(-4) mg kg bw(-1) d(-1) and were well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for particular compounds. This was also confirmed by the values of hazard quotient (HQ), which were very low and ranged within 3.42 × 10(-3)-5.55 × 10(-2). PMID:26829307

  6. Bioaccumulation of organochlorines in the Arctic marine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrave, B.; Phillips, G.; Vass, W.; Harding, G.; Welch, H.

    1995-12-31

    Five classes of organochlorine (OC) compounds (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCB and HCHs), cyclodienes, isomers of DDT and its metabolites and congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene (CHBs)) have been detected in under-ice epontic particulate matter and tissue samples of marine biota from lower trophic levels of the Arctic Ocean at sites in Barrow Strait within the Canadian archipelago (75{degree}N), coastal (79{degree}N) and central Arctic basin (85{degree}N) locations. HCBs, PCBs, isomers of DDT and DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, alpha-endosulphan, HCB and {alpha}-HCH were present in quantifiable amounts in all samples. {beta}- and {gamma}-HCH and the cyclodienes aldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, methoxychlor and mirex were detected but could not be quantified. All OCs measured in biota were also present in the Arctic atmosphere, particulate and dissolved fractions of snow, ice melt water and seawater, Small bodied marine organisms such as zooplankton and amphipods which are short-lived have a lower lipid content for storage of OCs than larger animals such as fish and mammals. Biomagnification factors calculated from presumed predator-prey links in the marine food web varied over two orders of magnitude for different OCs. Ratios for epontic particulates and plankton (< 10) were generally lower than values for trophic links between amphipods and published values for arctic marine fish and mammals (10--100). PCBs, DDT and chlordanes are biomagnified in the Arctic marine food web to a far greater degree than more abundant OC compounds such as HCHs and HCB that have a higher water solubility.

  7. Synergistic activation of human pregnane X receptor by binary cocktails of pharmaceutical and environmental compounds

    PubMed Central

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Dendele, Béatrice; Huet, Tiphaine; Grimaldi, Marina; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine; Beucher, Bertrand; Roecklin, Dominique; Muller, Christina; Rahmani, Roger; Cavaillès, Vincent; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Vivat, Valérie; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Balaguer, Patrick; Bourguet, William

    2015-01-01

    Humans are chronically exposed to multiple exogenous substances, including environmental pollutants, drugs and dietary components. Many of these compounds are suspected to impact human health, and their combination in complex mixtures could exacerbate their harmful effects. Here we demonstrate that a pharmaceutical oestrogen and a persistent organochlorine pesticide, both exhibiting low efficacy when studied separately, cooperatively bind to the pregnane X receptor, leading to synergistic activation. Biophysical analysis shows that each ligand enhances the binding affinity of the other, so the binary mixture induces a substantial biological response at doses at which each chemical individually is inactive. High-resolution crystal structures reveal the structural basis for the observed cooperativity. Our results suggest that the formation of ‘supramolecular ligands' within the ligand-binding pocket of nuclear receptors contributes to the synergistic toxic effect of chemical mixtures, which may have broad implications for the fields of endocrine disruption, toxicology and chemical risk assessment. PMID:26333997

  8. Synergistic activation of human pregnane X receptor by binary cocktails of pharmaceutical and environmental compounds.

    PubMed

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Dendele, Béatrice; Huet, Tiphaine; Grimaldi, Marina; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine; Beucher, Bertrand; Roecklin, Dominique; Muller, Christina; Rahmani, Roger; Cavaillès, Vincent; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Vivat, Valérie; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Balaguer, Patrick; Bourguet, William

    2015-01-01

    Humans are chronically exposed to multiple exogenous substances, including environmental pollutants, drugs and dietary components. Many of these compounds are suspected to impact human health, and their combination in complex mixtures could exacerbate their harmful effects. Here we demonstrate that a pharmaceutical oestrogen and a persistent organochlorine pesticide, both exhibiting low efficacy when studied separately, cooperatively bind to the pregnane X receptor, leading to synergistic activation. Biophysical analysis shows that each ligand enhances the binding affinity of the other, so the binary mixture induces a substantial biological response at doses at which each chemical individually is inactive. High-resolution crystal structures reveal the structural basis for the observed cooperativity. Our results suggest that the formation of 'supramolecular ligands' within the ligand-binding pocket of nuclear receptors contributes to the synergistic toxic effect of chemical mixtures, which may have broad implications for the fields of endocrine disruption, toxicology and chemical risk assessment. PMID:26333997

  9. Levels, distribution, and risk assessment of organochlorines in surficial sediments of the Red Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Moneer, Abeer A; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany

    2013-06-01

    The analyses of environmentally persistent pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in surficial sediment samples collected from 17 locations along with the coast of the Red Sea in Egypt were carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several potential organic contaminants from agricultural (e.g., DDT and its breakdown products, lindane, endrin, dieldrin, and endosulfan) and industrial (PCBs) sources were measured. The levels of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and ten PCB congeners in sediment collected from 17 stations along ~1,200 km were investigated. Concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, and cyclodienes ranged from 0.40 to 6.17, 0.01 to 0.09, n.d. to 0.46, and 0.08 to 0.90 ppb dry weight. Two statistical programs were applied on the data (principal component analysis, PCA, and cluster analysis, CA), and it was concluded that it is impossible to predict the distribution patterns of the OCPs in a contaminated area. Risk assessment of the organochlorines contaminated in the sediments of the studied area was investigated. PMID:23054273

  10. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  11. Accumulation patterns of organochlorines in juveniles of Arctocephalus australis found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fillmann, Gilberto; Hermanns, Luciano; Fileman, Tim W; Readman, James W

    2007-03-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the specific distributions of organochlorine (OC) compounds in various tissues and organs of juveniles of the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) found stranded on beaches in southern Brazil. The OC residue concentrations occurred in the following order: PCBs>DDTs>CHLs>HCHs>HCB. OC concentrations in blubber were higher than other tissues (e.g. PCBs, 2480 ng g(-1) wet weight; DDTs, 660 ng g(-1) wet weight) indicating a positive association with lipid content (except for HCB). However, the poor nutritional status of these animals, possibly following a starvation period, is likely to have allowed the remobilization of organochlorines stored in lipids to other tissues throughout the body, increasing their vulnerability to toxic effects and possibly affecting their survival capability. PMID:17029680

  12. Heavy metals and organochlorine residues in marine animals and coastal sediments of the Tirrenean sea around Naples.

    PubMed

    Camoni, I; Cotta-Ramusino, F; Funari, E; Giordano, R; Ovidi, P; Dohrn, P; Ballio, A

    1980-01-01

    A survey of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg) and organo-chlorine hydrocarbons (DDT and PCB compounds) concentrations in marine animals and of mercury, DDT and PCB in coastal sediments, began in 1973. The sampling was confined to the Bay of Naples, and to the coast along Santa Maria di Castellabate, a small village about 100 km south of Naples which has recently declared a marine park. The results of this investigation indicate that contamination by the above pollutants is low; the extent of contamination in the bay of Naples, compared to that of the marine park, shows that the level of heavy metals and organochlorine hydrocarbons in the benthic organisms is nearly the same within the two areas, whereas that of the sediments of the bay is significantly higher than in the park. PMID:6791540

  13. Evaluation of organochlorine contamination in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinglin; Shi, Jingchun; Zheng, Gene J; Li, Ping; Liang, Bo; Chen, Tufeng; Wu, Yuping; Liu, Wenhua

    2013-02-01

    Organochlorine compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed in blubber samples collected from fifteen Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) stranded in the Pearl River Delta during the period from 2004 to 2009. In general, the magnitude of the mean concentrations is: ∑DDTs>∑PCBs>∑HCHs>∑CHLs>HCB. DDT levels found in this study were very high, with the ΣDDT ranging from 845 to 179,000 ng/g wet weight. Of particular importance is the fact that new inputs from diverse sources still exist in the Pearl River Delta. ∑PCBs ranged from 123 to 10,200 ng/g wet weight. More studies are necessary for a better understanding of these organochlorine contaminants and their impact on the conservation of humpback dolphins residing in the Pearl River Estuary waters. PMID:23280301

  14. Organochlorine pollutants in water, soils, and earthworms in the Guadalquivir River, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1992-08-01

    Organochlorine compounds (insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) are known to maintain their stability in the aquatic environment for long periods. DDT and cyclodiene insecticides were used widely in Spain until their use was banned in 1976; DDT and its degradation products are still found in environmental samples. Since DDT has been legally restricted for use, lindane has become important as a substitute for DDT. This study has been carried out along Guadalquivir River, Spain. This river runs across an agricultural area where pesticides are used extensively. The Guadalquivir basin is the most economically important area of the South of the Iberian Peninsula; its economic importance stems from its proximity to a major metropolitan areas (Cordova, Seville), which indicates the presence of numerous urban, commercial, and industrial locations in the vicinity of the sampling stations. The purposes of this investigation are: (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine compounds in water, soils, and earthworms sampled in ten stations of the Guadalquivir River; (2) to evaluate biological accumulation of pollutants studied within the food webs; (3) to evaluate regional patterns and time trends of residues. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Elevated organochlorines in the brain-hypothalamic-pituitary complex of intersexual shovelnose sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Koch, Brian T; Garvey, James E; You, Jing; Lydy, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, were used on lands adjacent to the Middle Mississippi River (MMR; USA) from 1930 through 1988, and they continue to occur in MMR fish. These compounds are estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic, and they alter hormone production and reception within the brain and gonads of male fish, resulting in intersexuality and/or suppressed gonadal development. To assess how OCs affect reproduction of MMR fish, we quantified OC accumulation, intersexuality, and gonadal development in male shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) throughout the MMR during the spring of 2003. Gonads were observed for intersexual characteristics, weighed to calculate the gonadosomatic index (GSI), and examined histologically. Tissue accumulation of OCs was quantified in gonads, brain-hypothalamic-pituitary (BHP) complex, and fillets. Four of 48 mature males were identified macroscopically as intersexuals, and a fifth was found through histology (a 10.4% incidence). Intersexuals accumulated higher concentrations of OCs in the BHP complex compared with those of mature males. In addition, GSI and OC accumulation within the BHP complex, gonads, and fillets of mature males were negatively related. Exposure to OCs before or during sexual differentiation likely induces intersexuality in MMR shovelnose sturgeon, and exposure throughout gonadal maturation inhibits gonadal development. PMID:16833127

  16. Organochlorine pesticide contamination of ground water in the city of Hyderabad.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Gangesh; Kumar, Anoop; Bhanti, Mayank; Joseph, P E; Taneja, Ajay

    2006-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitous and persistent organic pollutants used widely throughout the world. Due to the extensive use in agriculture, organic environmental contaminants such as HCH, DDT along with other organochlorine pesticides are distributed globally by transport through air and water. The main aim of present study is to determine contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides in the ground water of Hyderabad City. Water samples were collected from 28 domestic well supplies of the city. For this study, random sampling technique was applied, all the samples were collected in high purity glass bottles and refrigerated at 4 degrees C until analysis. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is used for the extraction of organochlorine pesticide residues in water sample. The collected water samples were pre-filtered through a 0.45 microg glass fiber filter (Wattman GF/F) to remove particulate matter and were acidified with hydrochloric acid (6N) to pH 2.5. Methanol modifier (BDH, for pesticide residue analysis, 10 mL) was added to water sample for better extraction. SPE using pre-packed reversed phase octadecyl (C-18 bonded silica) contained in cartridges was used for sample preparation. Prior to the extraction, the C-18 bonded phase, which contains 500 mg of bonded phase, was washed with 20 mL methanol. The sample was mixed well and allowed to percolate through the cartridges with flow rate of 10-15 mL/min under vacuum. After sample extraction, suction continued for 15 min to dry the packing material and pesticides trapped in the C-18 bonded phases were eluted by passing 10 mL hexane and fraction was evaporated in a gentle steam of Nitrogen. In all samples pesticide residues were analyzed by GC (Chemito-8510) with Ni63 ECD detector. Helium was used as carrier gas and nitrogen was used as make up gas. The injection technique was split/split less. All the samples analyzed were found to be contaminated with four pesticides i.e. DDT, beta-Endosulfan, alpha-Endosulfan and Lindane. DDT was found to range between 0.15 and 0.19 microg L(-1), beta-Endosulfan ranges between 0.21 and 0.87 microg L(-1), alpha-Endosulfan ranges between 1.34 and 2.14 microg L(-1) and Lindane ranges between 0.68 and 1.38 microg L(-1) respectively. These concentrations of pesticides in the water samples were found to be above their respective Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values for Humans. PMID:16183122

  17. Levels and spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants in the environment: a case study of German forest soils.

    PubMed

    Aichner, Bernhard; Bussian, Bernd; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Hein, Sebastian

    2013-11-19

    The Of/Oh-horizons of 447 forest stands in Germany were evaluated for concentrations and spatial distribution of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). While concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and PCBs show similar spatial distribution patterns for all measured compounds within each compound class, significantly different distributions were identified for concentrations of low-molecular-weight PAHs [2- and 3-ring PAHs plus fluoranthene (FLA) and pyrene (PYR)] in contrast to high-molecular-weight PAHs (4-6-ring PAHs without FLA and PYR). Maxima of persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations could be mostly explained by specific locatable sources. Because of the slow degradation rates of these target substances, this is especially relevant for historic contamination sources, such as extensive 1980s DDT usage in the former German Democratic Republic and industrial facilities that produced hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or PCBs. A contribution of ubiquitous background pollution derived from long-range atmospheric transport is likely for some compounds in the studied area, e.g., DDT in the western part of Germany and dieldrin. However, most target compounds appear to be mainly sourced from local or regional emissions. This is supported by the absence of clear dependencies between POP concentrations and most evaluated environmental and local parameters. We suggest that these results generally reflect the distribution of POPs in densely populated and industrialized countries located in temperate regions. PMID:24050388

  18. Development of compound-specific isotope analysis of stable chlorine in sub-µmol quantities of chlorinated organic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmstrand, H.; Andersson, P.; Gustafsson, O.

    2003-04-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons is a common class of substances known to be of high ecotoxicity largely due to their persistence and strongly lipophilic properties. This group of chemicals include the semivolatile compounds dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which, together with solvents like trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE), are globally present at detectable levels in all natural environments. Recent reports on the possibility of enzymatic synthesis of chlorinated dioxins and furans, illustrate the need for means to distinguish the naturally produced contribution from anthropogenic input to the environment. Shifts in the chlorine isotope composition due to degradation, or synthesis, of a compound are in the order of a few per mil of the initial isotope ratio. The cause of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) arises from differences in preferential phase distribution of isotopic species. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of stable chlorine should accordingly provide knowledge relevant to degradation rates, distribution patterns and reaction pathways for organochlorines. Isotope analysis of chlorine, derived from chlorinated hydrocarbons, can be performed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) with positive ions. This lowers the limit of determination from about 30 μmol Cl for conventional electron ionisation mass spectrometry (EIMS), to less than 0.3 μmol Cl with a precision of 0.25 ppm (1s) for TIMS. Such a decrease by a factor 100 in the requirements of sample size will enable CSIA of sediment samples collected away from the immediate vicinity of strongly contaminated areas. The aim of this study is to develop a functioning sequence for i) sealed tube combustion with CuO of solid phase chlorinated hydrocarbons equivalent to <0.7 μmol Cl, ii) conversion of formed chloride to CsCl by ion exchange chromatography and iii) analysis of chlorine isotopes in TIMS. The described method can open new possibilities to investigate both source apportionment and degradation rates of the global pool of persistent organochlorines.

  19. Novel Firmicutes Group Implicated in the Dechlorination of Two Chlorinated Xanthones, Analogues of Natural Organochlorines

    PubMed Central

    Krzmarzick, Mark J.; Miller, Hanna R.; Yan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Although the abundance and diversity of natural organochlorines are well established, much is still unknown about the degradation of these compounds. Triplicate microcosms were used to determine whether, and which, bacterial communities could dechlorinate two chlorinated xanthones (2,7-dichloroxanthone and 5,7-dichloro-1,3-dihydroxylxanthone), analogues of a diverse class of natural organochlorines. According to quantitative-PCR (qPCR) results, several known dechlorinating genera were either not present or not enriched during dechlorination of the xanthones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, however, indicated that several Firmicutes were enriched in the dechlorinating cultures compared to triplicate controls amended with nonchlorinated xanthones. One such group, herein referred to as the Gopher group, was further studied with a novel qPCR method that confirmed enrichment of Gopher group 16S rRNA genes in the dechlorinating cultures. The enrichment of the Gopher group was again tested with two new sets of triplicate microcosms. Enrichment was observed during chlorinated xanthone dechlorination in one set of these triplicate microcosms. In the other set, two microcosms showed clear enrichment while a third did not. The Gopher group is a previously unidentified group of Firmicutes, distinct from but related to the Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium genera; this group also contains clones from at least four unique cultures capable of dechlorinating anthropogenic organochlorines that have been previously described in the literature. This study suggests that natural chlorinated xanthones may be effective biostimulants to enhance the remediation of pollutants and highlights the idea that novel genera of dechlorinators likely exist and may be active in bioremediation and the natural cycling of chlorine. PMID:24296507

  20. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were analyzed in sediment and mussel (Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/g lipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and < 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment, and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presented similar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several times higher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compounds measured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition. According to the present results,three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, Lingding Yang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all mussel samples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 microg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group of Guangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration. PMID:15137663

  1. Organochlorine residues in Baluchistan/Pakistan: Blood and fat concentrations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Krawinkel, M.B.; Plehn, G.; Kruse, H.; Kasi, A.M. Bolan Medical College and Sandeman Provincial Hospital, Quetta )

    1989-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC)-residues are detected in measurable concentrations in various tissues of human beings because of the worldwide pollution of air, water, soil, and foods. The concentrations vary from region to region according to chemical, climatic, socio-economic, and geographic factors. Persisting pesticides used in agriculture are found in relevant concentrations in agriculture products, meat, and fish. As developing countries face economic pressure to increase their agricultural exports cheap pesticides are sometimes used without the precautions necessary to prevent contaminations of water and food. The authors conducted a small survey monitoring the OC-concentrations in human blood and fat tissue under the aim to detect more recent as well as elder expositions.

  2. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland.

    PubMed

    Klemens, J A; Wieland, M L; Flanagin, V J; Frick, J A; Harper, R G

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere. PMID:12531313

  3. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, α-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, α-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  4. Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

    1985-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established.

  5. Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. PMID:25043888

  6. Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D

    2014-03-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of organochlorine pollutants, thus reflecting different pollution origins. PMID:24380771

  7. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romanić, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klinčić, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (Σ6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ΣPCB and ΣDDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  9. Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii ) breed in two areas in the Western Hemisphere: in northeastern North America between Long Island, New York, and Nova Scotia, and around the Caribbean Sea from the Florida Keys and the Bahamas to the Netherlands Lesser Antilles. The present paper reports the results of a survey of organochlorine residues in Roseate Terns in 1981. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the levels of organochlorine contamination in eggs of the Roseate Tern in its major colonies and to investigate whether changes in eggshell characteristics similar to those reported by Fox (1976) may have occurred in this species. A secondary objective was to determine geographic patterns of organochlorine contamination within the northeastern U.S. population of Roseate Terns and to compare them with patterns observed in Common Terns.

  10. Concentrations of organochlorines in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from Southern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen; Hindell, Mark; Hince, Greg

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of DDTs, PCBs and HCHs were measured in sperm whales involved in two mass stranding events on the west coast of Tasmania, Australia in February 1998. DDTs and PCBs were present in all samples analysed, while only three contained HCHs. The relationships between organochlorines, sex, age and reproductive groups were marked by high variability. Differences in organochlorine concentrations were observed between animals from the two stranding sites and discussed in light of the ecology of this species. Concentrations of all pollutants were stratified throughout the vertical aspect of the blubber and possible reasons for and the implications of this are discussed. Concentrations of compounds were higher than those documented in this species in the Southern Hemisphere previously, although were relatively lower than those documented in the Northern Hemisphere. However, comparisons were confounded by spatial and temporal differences. Continued monitoring of marine mammals throughout this region in a co-coordinated, standardized manner is essential for establishing definite temporal and spatial variations in pollutant concentrations. PMID:14980465

  11. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears

    SciTech Connect

    Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

  12. Semibiotic Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothmann, C.; Zauner, K.-P.

    From observation, we find four different strategies to successfully enable structures to persist over extended periods of time. If functionally relevant features are very large compared to the changes that can be effectuated by entropy, the functional structure itself has a high enough probability to erode only slowly over time. If the functionally relevant features are protected from environmental influence by sacrificial layers that absorb the impinging of the environment, deterioration can be avoided or slowed. Loss of functionality can be delayed, even for complex systems, by keeping alternate options for all required components available. Biological systems also apply information processing to actively counter the impact of entropy by mechanisms such as self-repair. The latter strategy increases the overall persistence of living systems and enables them to maintain a highly complex functional organisation during their lifetime and over generations. In contrast to the other strategies, information processing has only low material overhead. While at present engineered technology is far from achieving the self-repair of evolved systems, the semibiotic combination of biological components with conventionally engineered systems may open a path to long-term persistence of functional devices in harsh environments. We review nature's strategies for persistence, and consider early steps taken in the laboratory to import such capabilities into engineered architectures.

  13. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  14. Persistent hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Kelly Anne; Tigchelaar, Helene; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama

    2013-07-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common finding in emergency departments. In this article, we review the causes of hypoglycemia in children, the evaluation and management of a child with persistent hypoglycemia, and causes of adrenal insufficiency in children. We report a case of adrenoleukodystrophy, a type of primary adrenal insufficiency, in a 5-year-old boy who presented with altered mental status, seizures, and hypoglycemia. PMID:23823267

  15. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Africa: Egyptian scenario.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2009-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic (carbon-based) compounds that include synthesized substances (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) and other by-product substances generated as a result of human and natural activity (dioxins and furans). Extensive scientific studies have shown that POPs are some of the most dangerous pollutants released into the environment by humans. Great efforts have been made since the early 1960s to enhance chemical management and safety issues. Various conventions have been adopted for this purpose: the Stockholm Convention (SC) is one of the well-known meetings in this context. The SC on POPs (May 2001) focuses on reducing and eliminating releases of 12 POPs coined the 'Dirty Dozen' by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). Persistence of such chemicals in soils, air, and water, together with natural processes such as evaporation to the atmosphere and washout by rain and flood, give rise to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment and eventual penetration into food chains and bio-accumulation in humans. Public concern about contamination by POPs increased recently because several of these compounds are identified as hormone disruptors, which can alter normal function of endocrine and reproductive systems in humans and wildlife. African countries are using pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, toxaphene, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, since more than 50 years for combating agricultural pests and controlling disease vectors, especially malaria. The way in which pesticides are used in Africa caused serious environmental and health problems much more than elsewhere. These problems are represented by accumulation of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in different environmental samples and hosting of at least 50,000 tons of obsolete pesticides, as well as tens of thousands of tons of contaminated soil. Within the framework of the Africa Stockpiles Program (ASP), huge quantities of pesticidal POPs have been completely or partially destroyed in a number of African countries (e.g. Egypt, Namibia, Niger, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia). At regional level (i.e. African Countries), a strategic plan for monitoring and getting rid of POPs in the continent should be set up and implemented through coordination between all governments. Among issues of top priorities are to find alternative non-combustion technologies for disposing obsolete pesticides, and to use alternative control measures for mosquitoes' management and other vector-borne diseases. PMID:19767330

  16. Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  17. Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1999-05-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

  18. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  19. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS OF WINTERING DUCKS FORAGING ON DETROIT RIVER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organochlorine analysis was performed on carcasses of 13 diving ducks from a 1981 wintering population that foraged on contaminated sediments in the lower Detroit River. Mean total PCB concentrations were 10 mg/kg for seven lesser scaups (Aythya affinis), 11 mg/kg for three great...

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  1. FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOOT DEPOSITS FROM NON-OPTIMUM COMBUSTION OF NO. 6 FUEL OIL WITH CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a full-scale hazardous waste combustion study performed for EPA, sampling and analysis was conducted on both stack gases and solid "soot" collected from a boiler's interior surfaces. wo organochlorine compounds, monochlorobenzene (MCB) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were cof...

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  3. Levels of organochlorine contaminants in human milk in relation to the dietary habits of the mothers.

    PubMed

    Norén, K

    1983-11-01

    The levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, alpha- and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH), hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in milk fat from mothers with different dietary habits. The categories studied comprised mothers eating a lacto-vegetarian diet (18 milk samples), a mixed diet (20 milk samples) and a mixed diet which regularly included fatty fish from the Baltic (11 milk samples). The lowest levels of p,p'-DDT+p,p'-DDE and PCBs were found in milk from lacto-vegetarians and the highest levels in milk from mothers who regularly consumed fatty fish from the Baltic. Factors other than the diets which could influence the levels of the organochlorine compounds are discussed, e.g. mother's age, amount of milk produced and mother's weight loss. PMID:6424401

  4. Food habits and organochlorine contaminants in the diet of olivaceous cormorants in Galveston Bay, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    More than 1,000 food items, representing 32 species of fish and one invertebrate, were identified from olivaceous cormorants. Six species of fish comprised 79% of the diet by frequency of occurrence and 78% by weight. Almost half of the diet consisted of a single species, the sheepshead minnow. Concentrations of pp-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in cormorant carcasses were 27 times greater than those in fish and 57 times higher in cormorant eggs than fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) were 18 times higher in carcasses and 15 times higher in eggs than in fish. The biomagnification of other organochlorine contaminants through the cormorant food base in Galveston Bay is difficult to evaluate because the only compounds detected in all three tissues at greater than 50% frequency of occurrence were DDE and PCB.

  5. The pattern of organochlorines in mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the south west Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lee, K M; Kruse, H; Wassermann, O

    1996-07-01

    The concentration of organochlorines (PCB, DDT and its metabolites, HCH isomers and HCB) were determined in mussel, Mytilus edulis, from the south west Baltic Sea. The harbor Kiel Innenförde showed the highest contamination with PCB (487 microg/kg dry weight), the Gelting bathing beach area the lowest contamination (38 microg/kg). The highest contamination with DDT was measured in Lübeck bay, which may be explained by the long term application of DDT in the former German Democratic Republic. Penta- and hexa-chlorinated PCB were selectively accumulated in Mytilus edulis whereas highly lipophilic PCB with more than seven chlorine atoms were found in negligible concentrations. The accumulation of these compounds in mussels is determined by equilibrium partitioning with ambient water. PMID:8687992

  6. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human fat in the United Kingdom 1976-7.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, D C; Collins, G B; Goulding, R; Hoodless, R A

    1981-01-01

    Between May 1976 and August 1977 samples of human body fat were taken during routine necropsies in the United Kingdom on 236 subjects aged over 5 years and four infants aged under 4 months. Comparison with results from earlier studies showed a further decline in residues of pp'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp'-DDT) and dieldrin (HEOD) and increased amounts of hexachlorobenzene residues; concentrations of other compounds were similar to those observed in the studies carried out in 1963-4, 1965-7, and 1969-71. Comparison of the data with those from other countries, showed that the concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorobiphenyls in human fat samples from residents of the United Kingdom remain among the lowest in Europe and, indeed, the world. PMID:6797569

  7. Changes in levels of organochlorines in woodcock wings from 1971 to 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLane, M.A.R.; Hughes, D.L.; Heinz, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Wings from woodcock (Philohela minor) were first monitored for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the eastern U.S. in 1971. Regional differences in these compounds were clearly demonstrated and baseline residue levels were obtained for later comparisons. An expanded sampling of wings in 1972 revealed that residues in wings of adult woodcock may differ significantly from those in immatures, and that residues of several important agricultural insecticides and PCBs had declined significantly. More extensive sampling was undertaken in 1975 to determine if changes in residue levels had taken place in the intervening years. PCBs, mirex, and heptachlor epoxide increased significantly between 1972 and 1975 in adult woodcock wings. In immature woodcock wings mirex, dieldrin, and PCBs increased significantly between 1972 and 1975, but DDT residues decreased significantly.

  8. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of ?(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ?HCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon, 1988-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Lee, Karl K.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were detected in unfiltered samples from Johnson Creek that were collected during a storm in March, 2002. Total DDT (the sum of DDT and its metabolites), as well as dieldrin, potentially exceeded Oregon chronic, freshwater criteria at all four Johnson Creek stream-sampling sites. The total DDT criterion was also potentially exceeded at a storm drain at SE 45th Avenue and Umatilla Street. The concentration of total DDT in water samples has decreased by an order of magnitude since previous sampling was done on Johnson Creek in 1989?1990. This decrease was probably due to the movement of these compounds out of the basin and to degradation processes. Concentrations and loads of the organochlorine pesticides were largest at the most upstream sampling site, Johnson Creek at Palmblad Road, which has historically been primarily affected by agricultural land cover. Concentrations and loads were smaller at downstream locations, and there were only a few detections from storm drains. For the purposes of assessing trends in total DDT concentration in Johnson Creek, data for total suspended solids (TSS) were examined, because TSS is often correlated with DDT concentrations, and TSS data are collected routinely by regulatory agencies. As an intermediate step, linear regression was used to relate TSS (measured in the recent study) and turbidity (measured both in the earlier and in the recent studies). For 77 samples, TSS (in mg/L [milligrams per liter]) = 0.88 x Turbidity (in nephleometric turbidity units). The r2 value was 0.82. The TSS concentration (measured, or estimated by the regression) was compared to the concentration of total DDT using linear regression. The TSS concentration associated with meeting the Oregon water-quality criterion for total DDT was 15 to 18 mg/L in the lower and middle part of the basin and 8 mg/L in the upper reaches of the basin. This TSS/DDT relationship is based on only one storm and may not be valid for other conditions of streamflow and runoff. Dieldrin concentration was not well correlated with TSS. Organochlorine compounds also were detected in significant concentrations in Kelley Creek, an important tributary to Johnson Creek, but quality-control considerations made it difficult to interpret some of the data. It does appear, however, that some of the metabolites of DDT were positively associated with TSS. The high concentrations of the DDT metabolites and dieldrin were correlated with agricultural areas.

  10. Organochlorine pesticide residues: an extensive monitoring of Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Masci, Maurizio; Orban, Elena; Nevigato, Teresina

    2014-01-01

    A sampling campaign from 21 sites in Italy was carried out to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in different fish species. Samples came from marine fishery and either from sea- or freshwater aquaculture. Fish feed used in some fish farms were also analyzed. Pesticides studied belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants widely used in the past such as DDT, chlordane, heptachlor, and others. To ensure good quality results and proper data validation the main existing guidelines in the field were applied. The instrumental technique was a Dual column-Dual detector Gas Chromatography (GC-ECD and Ion Trap GC-MS) which allowed that complementary data on the same sample were acquired. Results for fishery showed a wide range of concentrations depending from the area and species examined. DDT, the major OC pesticide detected, varied from 0.02 to 130.03 ng g(-1) edible portion. As regards the products of aquaculture we observed slightly lower average levels of pollutants in a more narrow range of concentration: this is probably due to fish feed used as shown by some measures performed in the present study. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in all samples examined but they were generally well below the existing tolerance or action levels. Also the estimated daily intakes are well below than those recommended by WHO. This is a good indication about OCPs in the areas investigated but some further considerations on fish safety must be taken into account. An example on how fishes may act as bioindicators is reported. PMID:24184045

  11. Marine mammal health: Organochlorines in blubber, blood and milk of Tursiops truncatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.L.; Ridgway, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    Marine mammals are potentially vulnerable organisms for the effects of hazardous man-made chemicals. Organochlorines (OCs) are suspected of causing reproductive failure and immunosuppression which may result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease. High levels of OCs have been found in victims of mass die offs of cetaceans world-wide. To determine baseline values of these organochlorine contaminants found in healthy reproductive dolphins, the authors collected samples of blood, blubber and milk from a population of Tursiops truncatus maintained by the US Navy. These animals are ideal for study because of the availability of relevant biological data which is often lacking in data from wild animals. The Navy dolphins are trained for medical behaviors like blood and milk collection. These behaviors allow them to collect data under controlled conditions preempting errors that occur when collecting similar data on dead and/or wild animals. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) the authors have quantified 10 to 25 PCBs using congener-specific analysis and 19 chlorinated pesticides from microsamples of blubber, blood and milk collected from these animals. The authors also analyzed the fish in the diets of the dolphins. Serial sample collection of milk has allowed us to track the transfer of OCs over the course of lactation. They were also able to correlate OC levels found in blubber, blood and milk. This database should reveal baseline levels relating environmental toxins and marine mammal health to provide a potentially sensitive indicator of pollution and disease in the natural ocean environment and furnish an unparalleled historical pathway toward understanding the effects and consequences of these persistent contaminants and their impact on the marine ecosystem.

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus)-an aspect of gender.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sophia; Keddig, Nadia; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Neukirchen, Jan; Kammann, Ulrike; Haarich, Michael; Hanel, Reinhold; Theobald, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are monitored regularly in water, sediment, and biota in the Baltic Sea. Lipophilic substances are measured in remarkable concentrations especially in the fatty parts of fish, such as herring (Clupea harengus). However, less lipophilic POPs, e.g. perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), can also be detected. For the first time to our knowledge, this study provides a broad range of contaminant concentrations simultaneously measured in filet, liver, and gonads of both sexes of Baltic herring. We analysed organochlorines, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PFCs in mature autumn-spawning individuals and found distinct organ pollutant pattern for all POPs in both sexes. POP concentrations found in the gonads of both sexes indicate that not only females but also males tend to reduce contaminants via reproduction. However, sex-dependent differences could be identified for hexachlorobenzene, PBDEs, and were most remarkable for PFCs. This transfer of contaminants to the gonads in both male and female herring is being underestimated, as it may directly affect the general reproduction success as well as the healthy development of the next generation. Hence, the accumulation of contaminants in the gonads should be considered one possible threat to a healthy wildlife as its achievement is stated by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Inclusion of a periodic monitoring of POP concentrations in gonads of fish may be an important bioeffect measure to assess the environmental status of biota in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27226172

  13. Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Callender, Edward; Fuller, Christopher C.

    1998-01-01

    Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 (±2.5), 9.5 (±2.2), and 13 (±5.8) yr for decay-corrected 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of 137Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

  14. Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2012-07-17

    The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in Mediterranean seawater and processes affecting their accumulation in plankton.

    PubMed

    Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Dachs, Jordi; Del Vento, Sabino; Ojeda, María José; Valle, María Carmen; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Mariani, Giulio; Wollgast, Jan; Hanke, Georg

    2011-05-15

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to riverine and atmospheric inputs of organic pollutants. Here, we report the results obtained during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007 from Barcelona to Istanbul and Alexandria, respectively, where water and plankton samples were collected simultaneously. Both matrixes were analyzed for hexaclorochyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 41 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The comparison of the measured HCB and HCHs concentrations with previously reported dissolved phase concentrations suggests a temporal decline in their concentrations since the 1990s. On the contrary, PCB seawater concentrations did not exhibit such a decline, but show a significant spatial variability in dissolved concentrations with lower levels in the open Western and South Eastern Mediterranean, and higher concentrations in the Black, Marmara, and Aegean Seas and Sicilian Strait. PCB and OCPs (organochlorine pesticides) concentrations in plankton were higher at lower plankton biomass, but the intensity of this trend depended on the compound hydrophobicity (K(OW)). For the more persistent PCBs and HCB, the observed dependence of POP concentrations in plankton versus biomass can be explained by interactions between air-water exchange, particle settling, and/or bioaccumulation processes, whereas degradation processes occurring in the photic zone drive the trends shown by the more labile HCHs. The results presented here provide clear evidence of the important physical and biogeochemical controls on POP occurrence in the marine environment. PMID:21526777

  16. Spatial biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Iran: a study using locally produced butter.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Amirali; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-07-01

    Butter is a readily collected, integrative and inexpensive sampling matrix for the spatial mapping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the national or regional scale. As air-plant-animal transfers generally supply the POPs reaching butter lipid, this study used butter for an initial evaluation of the occurrence, levels and distribution of POPs (selected organochlorine pesticides and PCBs) in Iran, a country for which very little information on usage, emissions and environmental burdens of these compounds exists. Fifty samples from rural and urban areas, in the north, west and central regions of the country were collected from local farms in spring 2007. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE varied widely by a factor of approximately 1000 and approximately 370 (8450 pg g(-1) lipid and 46 800 pg g(-1) lipid on average). The highest levels, found mainly in urban areas in the centre of the country, were amongst the highest reported in the world. PCB concentrations (4320 pg g(-1) lipid on average) varied by a factor of approximately 160 and were highest close to urban centres and lowest in the rural northwest. Although Iran is not known for widespread PCB usage in the past, concentrations were higher than a 'global average' reported in a butter survey in 2001. This simple sampling approach could be adopted in other regions where cows graze, as part of an initial screening to help meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention. PMID:18688454

  17. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  18. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters.

    PubMed

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by (13)C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  19. The effect of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons on the secretion of estradiol and progesterone by bovine granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Faundez, R; Sitarska, E; Kluciński, W; Duszewska, A M

    1996-07-01

    The role of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCH) in the reproductive disorders in ruminants is not well documented. In the present study we have examined the effect of these compounds and their metabolites on the secretion of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) by bovine granulosa cells in vitro. Granulosa cells were isolated from large follicles (> or = 8 mm diameter) by gently washing the internal follicle wall. Aliquots of approximately 4 X 10(5) viable granulosa cells in 0.5 ml medium were cultured at 37 degrees C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. Granulosa cells were cultured for 96h in a medium containing different concentrations (10(-1)-10(-4) ng/ml) of a PCH combination. Estradiol and progesterone were measured in unextracted granulosa cell culture medium by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). The exposure of granulosa cells to a combination of these organochlorine compounds in vitro results in a slight decrease of estradiol secretion only at the highest studied concentration of the PCH combination. However, the secretion of progesterone by these cells was seriously decreased, even by concentrations found in ovaries from animals kept under natural environmental conditions. The in vitro culture system of granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles may be useful in screening toxic effects of pesticides in animal reproduction. PMID:8779806

  20. Depth profile of persistent and emerging organic pollutants upstream of the Three Gorges Dam gathered in 2012/2013.

    PubMed

    Deyerling, Dominik; Wang, Jingxian; Bi, Yonghong; Peng, Chengrong; Pfister, Gerd; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Persistent and emerging organic pollutants were sampled in September 2012 and 2013 at a sampling site in front of the Three Gorges Dam near Maoping (China) in a water depth between 11 and 61 m to generate a depth profile of analytes. A novel compact water sampling system with self-packed glass cartridges was employed for the on-site enrichment of approximately 300 L of water per sample to enable the detection of low analytes levels in the picogram per liter-scale in the large water body. The overall performance of the sampling system was acceptable for the qualitative detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), perfluoroalkylic acids (PFAAs), pharmaceutical residues and polar pesticides. Strongly particle-associated analytes like PAHs and PCBs resided mainly in the glass wool filter of the sampling system, whereas all other compounds have mainly been enriched on the XAD-resin of the self-packed glass cartridges. The sampling results revealed qualitative information on the presence, depth distribution and origin of the investigated compounds. Although the depth profile of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PFAAs appeared to be homogeneous, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides were detected in distinct different patterns with water depth. Source analysis with diagnostic ratios for PAHs revealed their origin to be pyrogenic (burning of coal, wood and grass). In contrast, most PCBs and OCPs had to be regarded as legacy pollutants which have been released into the environment in former times and still remain present due to their persistence. The abundance of emerging organic pollutants could be confirmed, and their most abundant compounds could be identified as perfluorooctanoic acid, diclofenac and atrazine among investigated PFAAs, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides, respectively. PMID:26585456

  1. Aural abscesses in wild-caught box turtles (Terapene carolina): possible role of organochlorine-induced hypovitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Holladay, S D; Wolf, J C; Smith, S A; Jones, D E; Robertson, J L

    2001-01-01

    Wild-caught box turtles (Terapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses were observed over a period of several years. Histopathologic evaluation of epithelial tissues (conjunctiva, pharynx, trachea, auditory tube) revealed mucosal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, and accumulated keratin-like material in the middle ear cavity. These manifestations suggested the possibility of vitamin A deficiency. A nonsignificant trend toward reduced serum and hepatic vitamin A levels was observed in turtles with abscesses (mean serum and hepatic vitamin A levels 71 and 49% of respective levels in turtles without abscesses). Three organochlorine (OC) compounds (alpha-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor epoxide, and oxychlordane) and total (microg/g) OC compounds were significantly higher in turtles with abscesses compared with turtles without abscesses. No OC compounds were higher in turtles without abscesses compared with turtles with abscesses. These data suggest a possible effect of environmental chemicals on metabolism or utilization of vitamin A in wild box turtles, resulting in hypovitaminosis A. PMID:11161683

  2. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in antarctic fish: levels, patterns, changes.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kurt; Goerke, Helmut

    2003-11-01

    Organochlorine compounds were analysed in three fish species of different feeding types from the area of Elephant Island in the Antarctic. In 1996, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (means: 15-20 ng/g lipid), p,p'-DDE (5-13 ng/g lipid) and mirex (1-7 ng/g lipid) predominated, while PCBs were minor components (PCB 153: 0.4-2 ng/g lipid). Concentration patterns were species-dependent: PCB 180, PCB 153, mirex, nonachlor III, trans-nonachlor and the toxaphene compound B8-1413 were highest in the bottom invertebrate feeder Gobionotothen gibberifrons and lowest in the krill feeder Champsocephalus gunnari. Levels of p,p'-DDE, PCB 138 and heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1), a natural bioaccumulative product, were highest in the fish feeder Chaenocephalus aceratus, whereas HCB was present in about equal concentrations in all species. Most compounds were taken up preferentially via the benthic food chain, the chlorinated bipyrrole via the pelagic food chain and HCB from the water. In antarctic fish, biomagnification was generally more important than bioconcentration. Between 1987 and 1996, most persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels showed significant increases in the benthos feeder and the fish feeder, while they remained nearly constant or increased less in the krill feeder. Hence, the former species represent indicator species for changing POP levels in Antarctica. Ratios (1996/1987) of average concentrations in G. gibberifrons were: PCB 138 0.7, HCB 0.8, B8-1413 1.5, PCB 180 1.7, PCB 153 1.8, p,p'-DDE 2.0, nonachlor III 2.9, trans-nonachlor 3.3, mirex 6.7. By comparison with trends in the northern hemisphere it is concluded that global distribution of HCB is close to equilibrium. Changing levels of other POPs reflect global redistribution and increasing transfer to antarctic waters probably due to recent usage in the southern hemisphere and climate changes. PMID:12962716

  3. Use of stable isotopes of N and C to explain unexpectedly high levels of PCBs and other organochlorines in walrus

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.; Segstro, M.; Stewart, R.; Hobson, K.; Olpinski, S.

    1994-12-31

    Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber from Inukjuak and Akulivik (E. Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin and E. Baffin Is. was analyzed for PCB congeners and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes) as part of studies documenting spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian arctic marine biota. Samples from 18 of 53 individuals had wet weight concentrations of {Sigma}PCBs ranging from 1 to 20 {mu}g//g; the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations. Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where 11 of 13 animals (males and females) had high levels. {Sigma}PCB concentrations greater than 0.5 {mu}g/g were unexpected based on previous studies in Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because DDT, chlordanes and toxaphene were all elevated, and high levels were found in both males and females from 2 of 4 other locations. {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope measurements using muscle samples from the jaws of walrus and seals, showed that walrus with high EPCB had higher {delta}{sup 15}N values than those with low PCBs. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals (Phoca hispida) for a significant proportion of their diet.

  4. Fate of organochlorines at the plant-soil interface -- Relevance to organochlorine cycling within terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The plant-soil interface (the rhizosphere) has greatly altered biological, physical and chemical properties compared to bulk soil. This is because the diversity and size of the soil microbial biomass is greatly increased in the rhizosphere, roots alter the physical structure of soil at the macro and micro and the plant root will act as a sink for xenobiotics. Most studies on the rate and cycling of organochlorines (OCs) fail to take into account the influence macro biota will have on cycling--leading to over simplifications of derived models. The author presents data on the fate and behavior of chlorobenzenes in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Extensive differences in the behavior of mono, 1,2-di- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene occur in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere environments, with the rhizosphere altering degradation and retarding volatilization. Factors behind the altered behavior of chlorobenzenes in the rhizosphere were investigated including shifts in microbial biomass in the presence of roots and chlorobenzenes and partitioning of chlorobenzenes into plant roots. The results suggest that the full complexity of the soil environment must be considered when determining the fate and behavior of OCs in terrestrial environments.

  5. A Novel Method for Analyzing Chlorine Isotope Fractionation for Source and Fate Assessment of Organochlorine Soil and Groundwater Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeppli, Christoph; Wiegert, Charline; Holmstrand, Henry; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, rjan

    2010-05-01

    We developed a simple and accurate analytical method for compound-specific determination of chlorine isotopic composition (?37Cl) or organochlorines based on GC/MS analysis and standard isotope bracketing. Good accuracy (comparison with off-line thermal ionization mass spectrometry) and a precision comparable to other on-line ?37Cl-methods (0.6 permil vs SMOC) were achieved. We applied this method to assess biodegradation of polychlorinated phenols used for wood preservation at a former sawmill site in northern Sweden. To come up with a ?37Cl-based estimation of the importance of on-going aerobic microbial degradation, we analyzed 37Cl-enrichment during enzymatic dechlorination of polychlorinated phenols in laboratory experiments. We also investigated ?37Cl fingerprints of chloroperoxidase-mediated chlorinated phenols, which can be used for apportionment of natural and anthropogenic sources of chlorophenols in boreal soils. Furthermore, we investigated natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes in a contaminated aquifer in the Czech Republic. At this site, the extent of naturally occurring reductive tetrachloroethene (PCE) dechlorination was estimated based on PCE-?37Cl. Overall, our laboratory and field studies demonstrate the potential of using compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis for assessing the source and fate of organochlorine groundwater and soil contaminants.

  6. Organochlorine residues in shellfish from Maryland waters, 1976-1980.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, M; Topping, J J

    1984-10-01

    Shellfish samples, including the American oyster (Craessostrea virginica), the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), the hard shell clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and the blue crab (callinectes sapidus), were taken from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five year period (1976-80) and analyzed to determine residue levels of various organochlorine pesticides. Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for a variety of polychlorinated hydrocarbons. The purpose of this study includes the establishment of baseline values for levels of shellfish contamination, utilization of the data as an indicator of probable levels of water and sediment contamination in the vicinity of the sampling site and ensurance that shellfish harvested for human consumption are within U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines for organochlorine contamination. All mean values and virtually all individual values were within FDA guidelines. PMID:6501793

  7. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Daz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutirrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health. PMID:19294327

  8. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk and serum collected from lactating mothers in the northern Adriatic area of Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthacker, B. )

    1991-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent contaminants of the environment. Owing to their lipophilic properties they are primarily stored in fat-rich tissues and fluids of humans and animals. The results of a monitoring study on levels of the DDT-complex, HCH-group of isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB in human milk and serum are presented in this paper. Samples were collected in the northern Adriatic area for which no data have so far been available. Sample donors were chosen from rural and small urban locations where mediterranean eating habits are still maintained. The previous studies were conducted in an industrialized continental town of Croatia.

  9. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in eggs of colonial waterbirds from Galveston Bay and East Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Frank, D S; Mora, M A; Sericano, J L; Blankenship, A L; Kannan, K; Giesy, J P

    2001-03-01

    Eggs of neotropic cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April-May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency factors (TEQs) or the H4IIE-luc bioassay TCDD-EQs. Concentrations of 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 1,040 ng/g wet wt) in the Houston Ship Channel (Houston, TX, USA) and in those from Telfair Island (mean = 1,460 ng/g wet wt), a reference location outside the bay, than in most locations inside the bay (mean range = 119-453 ng/g wet wt). Mean PCB concentrations were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 5,720 ng/g wet wt) than in eggs of cormorants from areas farther away from the ship channel, including two reference sites outside the bay (mean range = 404-3,140 ng/g wet wt). The TCDD was the main dioxin congener detected in eggs from all locations within Galveston Bay. Instrumental TEQs in eggs ranged from 67 pg/g wet weight at control sites to 452 pg/g wet weight at Alexander Island. Concentrations of TCDD-EQs determined in the H4IIE assay were correlated with instrumental TEQs and were greater in eggs of cormorants from islands within the bay, although these were farther away from the ship channel. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, TCDD, and TCDD-EQs were less than the threshold levels known to affect reproduction. However, some eggs contained concentrations of total PCBs or DDE greater than what would elicit adverse effects on birds. No identifiable deformities or abnormalities were detected in embryos collected from all sites. PMID:11349863

  10. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in eggs of colonial waterbirds from Galveston Bay and East Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, D.S.; Mora, M.A.; Sericano, J.L.; Blankenship, Alan L.; Kannan, K.; Giesy, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs of neotropic cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April-May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency factors (TEQs) or the H4IIE-luc bioassay TCDD-EQs. Concentrations of 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 1,040 ng/g wet wt) in the Houston Ship Channel (Houston, TX, USA) and in those from Telfair Island (mean = 1,460 ng/g wet wt), a reference location outside the bay, than in most locations inside the bay (mean range = 119-453 ng/g wet wt). Mean PCB concentrations were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 5,720 ng/g wet wt) than in eggs of cormorants from areas farther away from the ship channel, including two reference sites outside the bay (mean range = 404-3,140 ng/g wet wt). The TCDD was the main dioxin congener detected in eggs from all locations within Galveston Bay. Instrumental TEQs in eggs ranged from 67 pg/g wet weight at control sites to 452 pg/g wet weight at Alexander Island. Concentrations of TCDD-EQs determined in the H4IIE assay were correlated with instrumental TEQs and were greater in eggs of cormorants from islands within the bay, although these were farther away from the ship channel. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, TCDD, and TCDD-EQs were less than the threshold levels known to affect reproduction. However, some eggs contained concentrations of total PCBs or DDE greater than what would elicit adverse effects on birds. No identifiable deformities or abnormalities were detected in embryos collected from all sites.

  11. Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Suzanne; Ayotte, Pierre; Dodin, Sylvie; Blanchet, Claudine; Mulvad, Gert; Petersen, Henning S; Gingras, Suzanne; Dewailly, Éric

    2006-01-01

    Background Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. Methods We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS) at the right calcaneum of 153 peri- and postmenopausal Inuit women (49–64 year old) from Nuuk, Greenland, and investigated the relation between these parameters and plasma organochlorine concentrations. We used high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection to analyze plasma samples for 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and 11 chlorinated pesticides and metabolites. We analysed morning urine samples for cadmium, a potential confounder, by atomic absorption spectrometry. We used a validated questionnaire to document dietary and lifestyle habits as well as reproductive and medical histories. Results Concentrations of PCB 153, a surrogate of exposure to most organochlorines present in plasma samples, were inversely correlated to QUS parameters in univariate analyses (p < 0.001). However, PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with QUS values in multivariate analyses that comprised potential confounding factors such as age, body weight, former oral contraceptive use and current hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use, which were all significant predictors of bone stiffness (total R2 = 0.39; p < 0.001). Conclusion Overall we found little evidence that organochlorines exposure is related to osteoporosis in Greenlandic Inuit women, but the hypothesis that exposure to dioxin-like compounds might be linked to decreased bone quality and osteoporosis deserves further attention. PMID:17184534

  12. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant. PMID:2445007

  13. Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum β-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of β-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013. Organochlorine pesticides and risk of endometriosis: findings from a population-based case–control study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1319–1324; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306648 PMID:24192044

  14. Influence of trophic position on organochlorine concentrations and compositional patterns in a marine food web.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Ugland, Karl Inne; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2002-11-01

    The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs (p,p'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], o,p'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], p,p'-DDD [1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], o.p'-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], and p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene]), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane), hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers), hexachlorobenzene, and mirex was investigated in a marine food web from southeastern Norway. The food web consisted of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor, lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus), three species of gobys (Gobiusculus flavescens, Pomatoschistus sp., and Gobius niger), bullrout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), cod (Gadus morhua), herring gull (Larus argentatus), and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The results show that interspecies differences in organochlorine (OC) compositional patterns in the food web depend on several factors (allometric, biochemical, physical, and physicochemical) specific to both the chemicals and the organisms. The importance of dietary accumulation and metabolic capacity increases toward higher trophic levels, while the OC patterns are to a larger extent determined by the lipophilicity and water solubility of the compounds at lower trophic levels. Furthermore, stable nitrogen isotopes provided a continuous measure of trophic position, rendering us capable of quantifying the increases in the concentrations of sigma PCB, sigma dichorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and sigma chlordane (CHL) and the percentages of highly chlorinated PCBs through the food web. The information provided may be important for future modeling of the fate of organochlorine contaminants in marine food webs. PMID:12389914

  15. Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F. )

    1989-10-01

    The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

  16. Areas of localized organochlorine contamination in Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Cain, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Wings from mallard ducks harvested in 1980 in Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, and New Mexico were pooled into county aggregates and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCB's. Organochlorine concentrations in duck wings were compared among counties comprising major river drainages within each state. DDE concentrations in the wings of mallards collected from the Verde River and the lower portion of the Gila River drainages in Arizona ranged up to 6 ppm (wet weight basis), which was 17 times higher than the 1979 Pacific Flyway average. DDE at these high levels may be hazardous to wildlife. In combination with other published data, our findings indicate a serious DDT problem in portions of the Verde River and Gila River drainages. High levels of heptachlor (up to 1.7 ppm) and PCB's (3.7 ppm, 61 times the 1979 Central Flyway average) were found in mallard wings from the upper Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages, respectively. We did not detect areas of heavy local organochlorine pesticide or PCB contamination in Arkansas and Louisiana.

  17. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, E.H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  18. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. PMID:26210237

  19. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  20. Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Placental Tissue from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachael M.; Li, An; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Walker, Cheryl; Szabo, Sara; Leuthner, Steve; Durkin, Maureen S.; Moye, Jack; Miller, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and legacy environmental pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (DDE) are found in human placenta, indicating prenatal exposure, but data from the United States are sparse. We sought to determine concentrations of these compounds in human placentae as part of a formative research project conducted by the National Children’s Study Placenta Consortium. A total of 169 tissue specimens were collected at different time points post delivery from 42 human placentae at three U.S. locations, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry following extraction using matrix solid phase dispersion. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE were detected in all specimens. The concentrations of 10 PBDEs (∑10PBDEs), 32 PCBs (∑32PCBs) and p,p’-DDE were 43–1,723, 76–856 and 10–1,968 pg/g wet weight, respectively, in specimens collected shortly after delivery. Significant geographic differences in PBDEs were observed, with higher concentrations in placentae collected in Davis, CA than in those from Rochester, NY or Milwaukee, WI. We combined these with other published data and noted first-order declining trends for placental PCB and DDE concentrations over the past decades, with half-lives of about 5 and 8 years, respectively. The effect of time to tissue collection from refrigerated placentae on measured concentrations of these three classes of persistent organic pollutants was additionally examined, with no significant effect observed up to 120 hours. The results of this work indicate that widespread prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the United States continues. PMID:24485817

  1. Biological risk, source and pollution history of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Yuan, Xin; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Li, Yang

    2015-07-15

    In the last century, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been extensively used, especially in South China, to promote crop yield. In view of their toxicity, persistence and bioavailability, however, the Chinese government has attempted to regulate their production and use. We aimed to examine the biological risk, source and pollution history of OCPs in the sediment in Nansha mangrove which is located in the industrial region in South China. Results showed that HCHs and DDTs, mainly originating from lindane and technical DDT respectively, were the dominant OCPs, but their concentrations were too low to cause adverse effects on biota. In the last decade, the total concentration of HCHs showed a decreasing trend, whereas DDTs remained stable, despite their limited input. This suggests that management of HCHs was effective, while more management efforts should be put on DDTs, especially the use of dicofol and technical DDT, in future. PMID:26021291

  2. Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Gowen, Rose M. Z.; Miller, Rebecca P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes. PMID:23343981

  3. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in the lower Tennessee River basin, 1980-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, R.R.; Powell, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, evaluated the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in samples collected in the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit. Fish tissue analysis provides a time-averaged measurement of contaminants as well as a direct measurement of the contaminants that bioaccumulate in fish tissue. Bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish tissue may result in concentrations that can affect human, wildlife, or aquatic health. Data for two types of tissue analyses were evaluated to assess the occurrence and distribution of contaminants: whole fish for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and fish fillets for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements. The fish tissue data analyzed for this study cover an 18-year span including data collected in 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program; data collected from 1980 through 1997 by the Tennessee Valley Authority; and data collected from 1992 through 1997 by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Concentration data for constituents that are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant List were summarized and compared against existing action levels or guidelines.From the list of organochlorine pesticide compounds analyzed, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a breakdown product of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), was the most commonly detected compound with detections at 83 percent of the sites sampled. Eleven p,p'-DDE samples exceeded action levels or guidelines with concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 12.8 milligrams per kilogram. Five other organochlorine compounds, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls, also exceeded action levels and guidelines, but the detection frequencies at sampling sites generally were less than 70 percent. Mercury, the only trace element to exceed a guideline, was detected at 51 of 102 sites sampled for trace elements. Selenium was detected in fish fillet samples from 70 of 102 sites sampled, which was more sites than for any other trace element; however, selenium did not exceed the 50 micrograms per gram U.S. Environmental Protection Agency screening criteria. Arsenic and cadmium also were detected at 44 and 54 percent of the sampling sites, respectively.

  4. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

    2014-01-15

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses. PMID:24055669

  5. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  6. SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION OF METHOD 8080 -ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design, execution and results of the improvement and single-laboratory evaluation of SW-846 Method 8080, 'Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs', are described. In the study, the application of the method to the analysis of aqueous and solid samples for organochlorine pesticides...

  7. Partitioning of organochlorines between water, particulate matter and some organisms in estuarine and marine systems of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duursma, E. K.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Van Liere, J. M.; Hillebrand, M. T. J.

    The distributions of organochlorines in estuarine and marine systems, and in particular those of the individual PCB components have been analysed for the partitioning of these substances between water, particulate matter (seston), plankton, worms, shellfish, fish and some birds. The K d concept, where K d is the distribution coefficient in ml·g -1 units, has been used to investigate the distribution ratio between solid substrates and water. Additionally, an attempt has been made to determine the regression coefficient of K ds with a polarity index of the individual PCB components. Since the octanol-water partition coefficient (log K ow) is significantly proportional to the IUPAC Numbers of these components, this K d-IUPAC Number regression has been carried out for samples from the Delta region, the North Sea and the Wadden Sea. For the latter two regions, existing concentrations from unpublished reports have been taken. Two major results have been obtained, while one important question remains to be answered: (i) Organochlorine (pesticides and ΣPCBs) concentrations in mussels can be successfully correlated to salinities of estuarine waters, if the sources of organochlorines are linked to the major fresh waters of the estuarine system. This correlation is independent of the seasonal changes in condition of these organisms by fat content, if the records is made for a period of two years. (ii) These results and those on K d determinations demonstrate for aquatic organisms a degree of consistency in the K d levels if concentrations in the organisms are calculated on fat basis. The K d range for ΣPCBs is 10 5-10 6, independent of the area of investigation. The same is true for seston with a range of K ds of 10 4-10 5. (iii) A very interesting question involves the K d-IUPAC Number regression coefficients and the value and sign (+ or -) of this coefficient. In general 60% of all correlations seem to be significant, but the different values and in particular the negative correlations are difficult to explain even when third-degree S-shape correlations are considered. A negative correlation implies a weaker adsorption of less-polar compounds (higher chlorinated PCBs with higher IUPAC Number), which cannot be explained by hydrophobic-hydrophylic reactions. An extended study on the true-dissolved organochlorines might be necessary to exclude errors which might be due to the methodology of filtration.

  8. Macro-analytical methods used to analyze tissues of the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, G.H.; Leong, G.H.

    1981-10-01

    Among the specimens which were processed as the results of poisoning incidents, were tissues of an adult male Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, which had died while in captivity without known cause. Various tissues of the animal were analyzed to determine whether the death of the monk seal had any connection with exposures to environmental pesticides or pollutants, particularly to organochlorine compounds. The specimens included urine, parts of liver, lung and blubber, an entire testis, and an entire kidney. Solid tissues from the animal were from correspondingly large organs. Macro methods for representative analyses of these tissues for multiresidues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were devised. Results are tabulated. The death of the Hawaiian monk seal could not be attributed conclusively to the organochlorines and pentachlorophenol that were found in tissues of this mammal. Baseline (normal) data of residue levels for these pollutants in animal tissues in Hawaii are so limited that pathogenic levels in the fauna cannot be predicted. It is difficult to even speculate whether the residues detected in the monk seal tissues were due to exposures of earth's background (ambient) atmosphere or to exposures of the mammal's immediate (specific) environment.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2012-11-01

    To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ΣDDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ΣDDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples. PMID:22840535

  10. Organochlorine pesticides removal from wastewater by pine bark adsorption after activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Srgio; Jimnez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ruiz, Antonio; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-04-01

    Pesticides have been responsible for strong environmental impacts, mainly due to their persistence in the environment. Removal technologies are usually combined, because degradation of organic matter is needed prior to a tertiary treatment to guarantee pesticides elimination to levels below legal limits (normally 0.1 microg L(-1)). Pine bark was studied as an alternative to activated carbon, for organochlorine pesticides removal. A combination of technologies based on biodegradation with activated sludge followed by pine bark adsorption treatment was used for lindane (LIN) and heptachlor (HEP) removal from contaminated waters. Pesticides were quantified throughout the process by GC-ECD preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). An experimental set-up was maintained for 4 months, by feeding a standard solution with pesticides concentration of 1 microg L(-1) each and known organic matter (Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD, -563 mg O2 L(-1)) on a daily basis. COD suffered a reduction of about 81% in the biological step and no increase was detected in the subsequent adsorption treatment. Overall removal efficiency was 76.6% and above 77.7% for LIN and HEP, respectively. PMID:21877548

  11. Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: A case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin

    PubMed Central

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3 mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August–October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17β-estradiol (E2), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E2). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E2 had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E2 may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system. PMID:23041725

  12. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in the environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Chaofei; Gao, Guanjun; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-11-01

    Antarctica is considered as a final sink of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, distributions and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with HRGC/HRMS technique. Twenty-three OCPs were measured in various environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica. The total concentrations (Σ23OCPs) were at quite low levels, ranging 93.6-1260 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil and sediment, 223-1053 pg g(-1) dw in moss and 373-812 pg g(-1) dw in lichen. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (especially p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the main contaminants in all samples. Lower α-HCH/γ-HCH and higher p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios compared with the technical products indicated long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of recent lindane and aged technical DDT. Significant dependence of many OCPs concentrations on total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. Apart from LRAT, local biotic activities could also contribute and influence the spatial distribution of the contaminants. PMID:26162333

  13. Regulation of hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Simon; Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides constitute a major class of persistent and toxic organic pollutants, known to modulate drug-detoxifying enzymes. In the present study, OCs were demonstrated to also alter the activity and expression of human hepatic drug transporters. Activity of the sinusoidal influx transporter OCT1 (organic cation transporter 1) was thus inhibited by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, lindane, and dieldrine, but not by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers, whereas those of the canalicular efflux pumps MRP2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein) were blocked by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, and chlordecone; this latter OC additionally inhibited the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. OCs, except endosulfan, were next found to induce MDR1/P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expressions in hepatoma HepaRG cells; some of them also upregulated BCRP. By contrast, expression of sinusoidal transporters was not impaired (organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP2B1) or was downregulated (sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and OCT1). Such regulations of drug transporter activity and expression, depending on the respective nature of OCs and transporters, may contribute to the toxicity of OC pesticides. PMID:24464585

  14. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Beyer, W.N.; Stehn, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  15. Significance of organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wintering shorebirds at Corpus Christi, Texas, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal residues were determined in 103 shorebirds of seven species collected at Corpus Christi, Texas, during the winter of 1976-77 to evaluate their potential effects on population survival, DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in most samples. Chlordane isomers, dieldrin, toxaphene, and heptachlor epoxide also occurred, but less frequently. In general, organochlorine residues were low in skinned carcasses. Geometric means on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.25 ppm to 4.76 ppm for DDE and from 0.67 ppm to 6.64 ppm for PCBs; residues of the other compounds averaged less than 1 ppm in all instances. Mercury, lead, arsenic and vanadium occurred in all shorebird livers, and selenium and cadmium were detected in all kidneys. Residues of these metals, except selenium, were low in most tissue samples. Selenium averages varied from 1.77 ppm to 5.62 ppm (wet weight) in kidneys; residues in this range may be sufficient to inhibit reproduction or to induce other forms of toxicity, especially at the higher levels.

  16. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region. PMID:24813984

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  18. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food. PMID:27131056

  19. Mechanistic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of reactive organochlorines and epoxides in green algae.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Christian; Behra, Renata; Harder, Angela; Schwarzenbach, Ren P; Escher, Beate I

    2004-03-01

    Reactive electrophilic chemicals, such as reactive organochlorine compounds or epoxides, react specifically with a broad spectrum of nucleophilic biomolecules, including proteins and DNA. Conventional toxicity tests for algae, involving the observation of growth inhibition, i.e., the inhibition of cell multiplication, after several days, yield unreliable information for risk assessment because reactive compounds hydrolyze to different extents during the exposure period. The diversity of their modes of toxic action further complicates effect assessment and calls for methods yielding additional information on the mechanisms of toxicity. One of the primary targets of reactive chemicals in cells is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), which is important for detoxification but can also be regarded as a toxicity sensor because changes in glutathione levels indicate stress. A vital system for algae is the photosynthetic system, which is indirectly affected by reactive chemicals. The test systems developed in this study for the assessment of reactive toxicity toward algae were therefore based not only on nonspecific toxicity indicators like growth inhibition but also on indicators for disturbance of photosynthesis (inhibition of photosystem II quantum yield) and glutathione metabolism. The application of the developed test systems on Scenedesmus vacuolatus after short-term exposure of 2 h showed that these tests can be used as fast screening tests for algal toxicity and in mode-of-action-based test batteries. PMID:15285364

  20. Fine-scale spatial variation of persistent organic pollutants in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Biscayne Bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Litz, Jenny A; Garrison, Lance P; Fieber, Lynne A; Martinez, Anthony; Contillo, Joseph P; Kucklick, John R

    2007-11-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are long-term residents and apex predators in southeast U.S. estuaries and are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Dart biopsy samples were collected from 45 dolphins in Biscayne Bay (Miami, FL), 34 of which were matched using fin markings to a photo identification catalogue. Blubber samples were analyzed for 73 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and organochlorine pesticides including dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, chlordanes, and dieldrin. Total PCBs (sigma 73PCBs) were present in the highest concentrations and were 5 times higher in males with sighting histories in the northern, metropolitan area of Biscayne Bay than males with sighting histories in the southern, more rural area [geometric mean: 43.3 (95% confidence interval: 28.0-66.9) vs 8.6 (6.3-11.9) microg/g wet mass, respectively]. All compound classes had higher concentrations in northern animals than southern. The differences in POP concentrations found on this small geographic scale demonstrate that differential habitat use can strongly influence pollutant concentrations and should be considered when interpreting bottlenose dolphin POP data. The PCB concentrations in northern Bay dolphins are high as compared to other studies of estuarine dolphins and may place these animals at risk of reproductive failure and decreased immune function. PMID:18044492

  1. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) IN wild Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from different FAO capture zones.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, L M; Labella, G F; Panseri, S; Pavlovic, R; Bonacci, S; Arioli, F

    2016-06-01

    Residues of environmental contaminants in food represent a concern in food safety programs. In this study, the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were evaluated in 79 tuna samples from FAO areas 51 (Indian Ocean), 71 (Pacific Ocean), 34 (Atlantic Ocean), and 37 (Mediterranean Sea). 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 organochlorines (OCs) and 7 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were selected as representative compounds according to EFSA POPs monitoring guidelines. An analytical method, based on Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), with an "in-line" clean-up step and GC-MS/MS detection, was developed, validated and applied. PCBs were detected in all FAO areas, with a prevalence of 100% for most of them. In the FAO area 37, only, all PBDEs were detected. Only 5 OCs were detected. The results showed that POPs contamination of tuna reflects FAO area contamination; in particular FAO area 37 was the most polluted. Moreover, tuna muscle was an appropriate matrix for monitoring contamination and for obtaining information about food safety. PMID:27016811

  2. Organochlorine residues in brown pelican eggs: Relation to reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Neely, B.S., Jr.; Belisle, A.A.; Prouty, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of residues of organochlorine pollutants on reproductive success in the brown pelican. A sample egg was taken from each of 93 marked nests in the nesting colony in South Carolina. Periodic visits were made to determine the fate of marked nests. Each sample egg was analysed for residues of organochlorine pollutants. Nest success in the brown pelican was related to residues of DDE and dieldrin in sample eggs. DDE seemed primarily responsible for nest failure; however, deleterious effects of this pollutant on nest success were not satisfactorily separated from those induced by dieldrin. Significant intercorrelation of all five organochlorine residues identified in the eggs complicated the relationship of residues to nest success. Maximum DDE residues in an egg from a successful nest were 2.37 ?g/g and 8.48 ?g/g in an egg from an unsuccessful nest. Comparable maximum residues for dieldrin in sample eggs were 0.54 ?g/g (successful) and 0.99 ?g/g (unsuccessful). Nineteen of the 26 eggs from unsuccessful nests contained DDE residues that exceeded 2.37 ?g/g, and 14 of these 26 eggs contained dieldrin residues that exceeded O.54 ?g/g. Residues of DDD, DDT or PCBs in sample eggs were not significantly related to nest success. Reproductive success in the brown pelican colony was subnormal in the years of study--1971 and 1972--but reproductive success was normal in those nests in which the sample egg contained either <2,5 ?g/g of DDE or 0.54 ?g/g of dieldrin.

  3. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  4. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  5. Perfluorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Lau, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s and until recently have been considered as biologically inactive. However, during the past decade, their global distribution, environmental persistence, presence in humans and wildlife, and adverse health effects in laboratory animals have come to light, generating scientific, regulatory, and public interest on an international scale. This chapter will provide a brief overview of recent advances in understanding environmental and human exposure, toxicology, and modes of action for this class of compounds in animal models, as well as a summary of epidemiological findings to date. PMID:22945566

  6. Organochlorine pesticide levels in breast milk in Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Dávila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2014-09-01

    In Mexico, organochlorine pesticides were used in public health and agriculture programs, causing chronic exposure to the population. Human breast milk samples were collected from 171 mothers who were residents from Guerrero, Mexico. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. Median concentrations (mg/kg on fat basis) for the following pesticides were: HCB, 0.009; β-HCH, 0.004; pp'DDE, 0.760; op'DDT, 0.016; pp'DDT, 0.045; and Σ-DDT, 0.833. These values are lower than in other States in Mexico, and in some countries where the use of these pesticides was banned more than 30 years ago. Differences were found in HCB, pp'DDE and pp'DDT concentrations in groups divided according to age (p < 0.05). The older age groups had higher concentrations, except for the comparison between groups 21-23/24-28 years, which were 0.913 and 0.530 mg/kg of pp'DDE, respectively. Given the restrictions on use, a greater decrease in organochlorine pesticide levels in human milk is expected in a few years. PMID:24891143

  7. A model to resolve organochlorine pharmacokinetics in migrating humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Cropp, Roger; Nash, Susan Bengtson; Hawker, Darryl

    2014-07-01

    Humpback whales are iconic mammals at the top of the Antarctic food chain. Their large reserves of lipid-rich tissues such as blubber predispose them to accumulation of lipophilic contaminants throughout their lifetime. Changes in the volume and distribution of lipids in humpback whales, particularly during migration, could play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic contaminants such as the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Previous models have examined constant feeding and nonmigratory scenarios. In the present study, the authors develop a novel heuristic model to investigate HCB dynamics in a humpback whale and its environment by coupling an ecosystem nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model takes into account the seasonal feeding pattern of whales, their energy requirements, and fluctuating contaminant burdens in the supporting plankton food chain. It is applied to a male whale from weaning to maturity, spanning 20 migration and feeding cycles. The model is initialized with environmental HCB burdens similar to those measured in the Southern Ocean and predicts blubber HCB concentrations consistent with empirical concentrations observed in a southern hemisphere population of male, migrating humpback whales. Results show for the first time some important details of the relationship between energy budgets and organochlorine pharmacokinetics. PMID:24733631

  8. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia.

    PubMed

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. PMID:26807987

  9. Variation in concentrations of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants among eggs in abandoned clutches of a terrestrial raptor.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2015-01-01

    Bird eggs are often used to measure various pollutants in monitoring programs. In protected species, however, it might only be possible to collect eggs abandoned by the parent birds. In order to assess the appropriateness of abandoned eggs for contaminant monitoring we examined intra-clutch variation in concentrations of 24 halogenated organic pollutants (16 organochlorines [OCs] and 8 brominated flame retardants) in six abandoned tawny owl (Strix aluco) clutches from central Norway. The variation among eggs within a clutch was low for nearly all compounds (intra-class correlation >0.9 both for lipid- and wet weight). This study suggests that abandoned eggs provide a relatively reliable measurement of lipophilic pollutants in clutches of terrestrial raptors such as the tawny owl. PMID:25463262

  10. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for transport of organochlorine pesticides in ground water at the North Hollywood Dump, Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.; Bradley, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data indicate that ground-water contamination is confined to shallow horizons within the unconfined aquifer underlying the North Hollywood Dump in Memphis, Tennessee. The dump is a closed municipal-industrial landfill that has been ranked as Tennessee's potentially most dangerous hazardous-waste site. Toxic constituents of concern at the dump include residues from the manufacture of organochlorine pesticides. The dump overlies an unconfined aquifer of unconsolidated sands, silts, and clays. During average hydrologic conditions, ground waterflows beneath the dump at a mean velocity of approximately 3 feet per day and discharges to the Wolf River. Leachate from the dump mixes with underlying ground water, resulting in increased concentrations of dissolved solids and organic carbon downgradient from the dump. The mobility of chlordane, a representative organochlorine pesticide, is limited by its low solubility and its strong affinity for sand, silt, and clays of the aquifer. Degradation of chlordane may occur slowly, if at all, in the aquifer. Based on estimates of mean ground-water velocity and retardation of the pesticide due to sorption, mean travel times for chlordane migrating from the dump to the ground-water discharge zone are of the order of 50 to 500 years. Simulations of chlordane concentration resulting from the discharge of contaminated ground water and complete mixing in the Wolf River are sensitive to assumptions about chlordane persistence in the unconfined aquifer. If the half life of chlordane in the aquifer is assumed to be 30 years or less, the simulated concentration of chlordane in the Wolf River under average flow conditions is less than the most stringent water-quality criterion.

  11. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in black duck eggs from the Atlantic Flyway, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Mulhern, B.M.; Stafford, C.

    1980-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) eggs were collected during 1978 in the Atlantic Flyway. One egg from each of 49 clutches was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and mercury. DDE was detected in 39 eggs, ranging from 0.09 ppm to 3.4 ppm, wet weight. DDE residues were highest in eggs from Delaware, where the mean DDE level was 2.0 ppm. DDT and TDE were present at Iow levels in only five and four eggs, respectively. PCBs resembling Aroclor 1260 were detected in 24 eggs and ranged from 0.43 ppm to 2.9 ppm. Eggs from Massachusetts and Rhode Island contained an average of >1.0 ppm PCBs, but eggs from Nova Scotia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia contained no detectable PCBs. Dieldrin, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were present in a few samples at low levels. Mercury was detected in 31 eggs, ranging from 0.07 ppm to 0.34 ppm, wet weight. Twenty eggs analyzed for chromium, copper, and arsenic contained averages of 0.64 ppm, 1.7 ppm, and 0.18 ppm, respectively. No geographic pattern was observed in these metal residue levels. Eggshell thickness (0.347 mm) was identical to the pre-1946 norm.

  12. Comparison of five extraction methods for measuring PCBs, PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, and lipid content in serum.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M; Swarthout, Robert F; Carlson, Brianna K R; Yordy, Jennifer; Guichard, Aurore; Schantz, Michele M; Kucklick, John R

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of studies use blood obtained noninvasively to monitor organohalogen contaminants; however, blood can be difficult to analyze because of its aqueous nature and high protein content. We compared five methods for extracting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides, and lipids from serum using National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1589a PCBs, Pesticides, PBDEs, and Dioxins/Furans in Human Serum. Liquid:liquid (LLE), cavity-dispersed microwave-assisted (MAE), focused microwave-assisted (FME), solid-phase (SPE), and pressurized fluid (PFE) extraction techniques were compared. FME extraction yielded the optimal recovery of internal standards (IS). All methods resulted in similar contaminant concentrations that also agreed with the certified values for SRM 1589a, except for only a few compounds measured by methods other than FME. Based on these findings, the FME method was determined to be the best overall extraction method. One procedural factor was found to affect contaminant concentrations; use of IS carrier solvents that were immiscible with serum (or when the serum was not directly physically mixed with IS) resulted in a 30% underestimation of organohalogen concentrations. This study offers valid, novel extraction alternatives beyond traditional methods (e.g., LLE) for blood contaminant measurements. PMID:18958450

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in bird species and their prey (fish) from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and stable isotopes were measured in muscle from 4 bird and 5 fish species from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region where DDT is used for malaria control and vast agricultural activities are carried out. We investigated the bioaccumulation of OCPs such as DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, and heptachlors between the species, and examined the potential risk posed by these compounds for bird species. Significant differences in contaminant profiles and levels were observed within the species. Levels of total OCPs ranged from 3.7 to 148.7 μg/g lipid in bird and 0.04 to 10.9 μg/g lipid in fish species. DDTs were the predominant contaminant, and a positive relationship between δ(15)N and ΣDDT concentrations was found. The main DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant and significantly greater concentrations in bird species (up to 138.5 μg/g lipid), which could have deleterious effects on survival and/or reproduction of birds. PMID:24907858

  14. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX. PMID:27047132

  15. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal flat surface sediments from coastal zone of Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiumei; Zheng, Rong; Zhao, Jiale; Ma, Chao; Gao, Xiaojiang

    2014-09-01

    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected and analysed to evaluate the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from intertidal flat in Jiangsu Province. Overall, 22 OCPs were detected with total concentrations of OCPs ranging widely from 0.96 to 12.14 ng/g (dry wt). Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels varied from <0.01 to 0.67 ng/g and from 0.23 to 4.85 ng/g, respectively. DDTs were the predominant compounds. The dominance of β-HCH indicated a history of HCH pollution. According to the ratios of ( p, p'-DDD+ p, p'-DDE)/ p, p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT, new input of DDTs did not occur in most sites, and the main sources were historical usage of technical DDTs. OCPs such as dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDT exceeded the effects range low, showing adverse biological effects that would occasionally occur at some sites of the study area.

  16. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels in a metropolitan city in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cindoruk, S Sıddık

    2011-01-01

    Air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured at four different sites in Bursa, Turkey to determine current levels. For this purpose, about 35 samples were collected from June 2008 to June 2009 using a high volume air sampler (HVAS) equipped with particle and gas-phase units. Ten OCP compounds (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, Heptachlor epoxide, Endrin, Endosulfan beta, Endrin aldehyde, p,p'-DDT and Methoxychlor) were reported within the scope of this study. The average concentrations of total (particle+gas) ∑OCPs were 550.9 ± 277.6 pg m⁻³ (coastal), 1030.7 ± 453.5 pg m⁻³ (urban/traffic), 519.7 ± 277.5 pg m⁻³ (semi-rural) and 722.8 ± 351.8 pg m⁻³ (urban/residential). The individual OCP concentrations were in line with reported concentrations. The maximum particle and gas-phase concentrations were determined for Endosulfan beta and beta-HCH for all sites, respectively. Available gas/particle partitioning models were applied in order to investigate the compatibility of the experimental data and the significant relationships were observed. PMID:21055787

  17. Polar bear hepatic cytochrome P450: Immunochemical quantitation, EROD/PROD activity and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are an ubiquitous mammal atop the arctic marine food chain and bioaccumulate lipophilic environmental contaminants. Antibodies prepared against purified rat liver cytochrome P450-1 Al, -1 A2, -2Bl and -3Al enzymes have been found to cross-react with structurally-related orthologues present in the hepatic microsomes of wild polar bears, immunochemically determined levels of P450-1 A and -2B proteins in polar bear liver relative to liver of untreated rats suggested enzyme induction, probably as a result of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants. Optical density quantitation of the most immunochemically responsive isozymes P450-I Al, -IA2 and -2Bi to polygonal rabbit anti-rat P450-IA/IA2 sera and -2BI antibodies in hepatic microsomes of 13 adult male polar bars from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic is presented. Correlations with EROD and PROD catalytic activities and levels of organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p-DDE) and their methyl sulfone (MeSO2-) metabolites are made to determine if compound-specific enzyme induction linkages exist. Inter-species immunochemical quantitation of isozymic P450 cytochromes can serve as an indicator of exposure to biologically active contaminant.

  18. Temporal and spatial trends of organochlorine pesticides in Great Lakes precipitation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Backus, Sean; Blanchard, Pierrette; Hites, Ronald A

    2006-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in precipitation samples collected from 1997 to 2003 at seven Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network sites around the Great Lakes are reported. The 28-day volume weighted mean concentrations of several pesticides, including gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, chlordane, and DDE, showed significant seasonal trends. For current-use pesticides (endosulfan and gamma-HCH), their concentrations peaked in late spring to summer just after their agricultural application. For the banned pesticides, higher concentrations were observed in the winter due to their enhanced partitioning to particles and scavenging by snow. Long-term decreasing trends were observed for several pesticides such as gamma-HCH and DDE. On the other hand, beta-HCH showed significant increasing concentrations as a function of time at Brule River, Eagle Harbor, and Sleeping Bear Dunes. Generally, Chicago had the highest concentration of chlordanes, dieldrin, and DDT, indicating that urban areas could be a source for these compounds to precipitation. For gamma-HCH and endosulfans, Point Petre had the highest concentrations due to the application of these pesticides in the surrounding areas. PMID:16646444

  19. Flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in bald eagle plasma from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Wierda, Michael; Bowerman, William W; Hites, Ronald A

    2010-08-01

    We report measurements of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and of emerging flame retardants in the plasma of nestling bald eagles sampled from early May to late June of 2005. Concentrations of total PBDEs ranged from 0.35 ng g(-1) ww to 29.3 ng g(-1) ww (average=5.7+/-1.9 ng g(-1) ww). The most abundant congeners were BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100. The fully brominated congener, BDE-209, was detected in approximately one third of the samples at an average concentration of 1.2+/-0.72 ng g(-1) ww. Several emerging flame retardants, such as pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and Dechlorane Plus (DP), were detected in these samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were also detected at levels close to those previously published. A statistically significant relationship was found between total PBDE concentrations and total PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations, suggesting that these compounds share a common source, which is most likely the eagle's food. PMID:20579684

  20. Microwave-assisted steam distillation for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and pyrethroids in Chinese teas.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jie; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Huiqin; Wu, Yunyun; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2007-02-28

    In this work, microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD) extraction method followed by gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) was developed for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and pyrethroids in the Chinese teas. MASD is a combination of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and steam distillation techniques. Water vapor generated by microwave irradiation is used to accelerate desorption of the analytes from the sample, and the nonpolar organic solvent used for trapping the analytes is kept from direct contact with the sample by the water. Therefore, relatively clean extracts were obtained compared to the method directly using organic solvent as extraction solvent, such as ultrasonic extraction (USE). Microwave power of 200W and irradiation time of 2min was found to be the optimum conditions for the MASD process, and n-heptane was chosen as the analyte-trapping solvent in the study. Five OCPs (alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, dicofol, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT) and two pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenvalate) were determined using this extraction method in the tea samples. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the analytes varied from 2.2 to 8.4%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) found were lower than 0.23mug/kg. The recoveries of the seven compounds in the Jasmine tea sample were between 84.04 and 110.1%. Comparative results obtained by MASD and USE were also discussed in the study. PMID:19071414

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in endangered Hawaiian monk seals from four subpopulations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Myers, Matthew; Stewart, Brent S; Yochem, Pamela K; Braun, Robert; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Boyd, Daryle; Antonelis, George A; Atkinson, Shannon; Aguirre, A Alonso; Krahn, Margaret M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed blubber and blood samples for organochlorines (OCs) from 158 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) at four of their six primary breeding colonies in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Levels of OCs in blubber were lower in adult females compared to juveniles or adult males, evidently owing to the transfer of these lipophilic compounds to pups by pregnant and lactating females. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs and p,p'-DDE in blubber generally increased with age until seals were sexually mature and then continued to increase with age in males after puberty. Average levels of PCBs and PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) in blubber were significantly higher in adult male and juvenile seals at Midway Atoll than the same age class of seals at the other colonies. Unlike concentrations of OCs in blubber, circulating levels of OCs in blood did not vary consistently among age classes of seals or among breeding colonies. Though the concentrations of OCs measured in Hawaiian monk seals were generally equal to or lower than those reported for other pinniped species in the North Pacific Ocean, they were high enough in a few seals to potentially affect their health. PMID:18031765

  2. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine pesticides residues in high-fat spreadable foods produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, butter and margarine are food products attracting wide customer interest. Every day, consumers around the world buy these products for human consumption. Butter is obtained from milk fat, while margarine is derived from vegetable oils. The content of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues was examined in both types of these high fatty products. A gas chromatograph with MSD (HP 5973) detector was used for the determination of pesticides such as α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. The examined products had diverse concentrations of the analyzed compounds. Visible was the division based on the origin of the product, which might be composed of animal or vegetable fats. The research has revealed the presence of OCP residues in all examined spreads. Quantities of organochlorine compounds did not pose an immediate danger to the consumers' health. Human and environmental health risk assessment was carried out by the estimation of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and non-carcinogenic health hazard quotient (HQ). Total estimated LADD ranged between 1.3 × 10(-5) and 3.1 × 10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for butter, and 1.9 × 10(-6) and 4.6 × 10(-6) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for margarine and mix spread. The HQ ranged between 1.1 × 10(-4) and 3.7 × 10(-4) for butter, and 1.4 × 10(-5) and 9.0 × 10(-6) for margarine and mix spread for adults. These estimated HQs were within the safe acceptable limits, indicating a negligible risk to the residents of the study area. PMID:25310807

  3. Estrogenic Evaluation and Organochlorine Identification in Blubber of North Sea Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Stranded on the North Sea Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brose, François; Jauniaux, Thierry; Das, Krishna; Muller, Marc; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000 ng/mL culture medium), as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER) activation or inhibition, using a luciferase reporter gene assay (RGA). None of the PCB 138, 153, or 180 or their mixture induced a response in the RGA. o,p′-DDT was the most potent xenoestrogen from the DDT group, inducing a response already at 80 ng/mL. From the HCH and HCB group, only β-HCH (at 400 and 2000 ng/mL) and δ-HCH (at 2000 ng/mL) displayed estrogenic activities. These 13 organochlorines were determined by GC-MS in 12 samples of North Sea harbor porpoise blubber. The PCBs were the main contaminants. Within each group, PCB 153 (6.0 × 102~4.2 × 104 μg/kg), p,p′-DDE (5.1 × 102~8.6 × 103 μg/kg), and HCB (7.6 × 101~1.5 × 103 μg/kg) were the compounds found in highest concentrations. The hormonal activity of the porpoise blubber samples was also assayed in RGA, where two samples showed estrogenic activity, seven samples showed antiestrogenic activity, and one sample showed both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Our results suggest that the 13 POPs measured by GC-MS in the samples cannot explain alone the estrogenicity of the extracts. PMID:26075240

  4. Trace metals and organochlorines in the bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum from the southern waters of Hong Kong, China.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Andrew S; Ng, W C; Ho, Valerie C M; Wong, H L; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2007-04-15

    The bamboo shark Chiloscyllium plagiosum is an abundant benthic species along the shallow continental shelf of Southeast Asia. It is commonly taken by fishermen in China, India, Taiwan and Thailand for human consumption. This study measured trace metal and organochlorine concentrations in C. plagiosum collected from the southern waters of Hong Kong, China. Metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured in three different tissues: dorsal muscle, spleen and liver. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in the dorsal muscle were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Metal concentrations varied among the three different tissues, with liver having higher levels of Ag and Cd, and spleen possessing higher levels of Cu and Mn. Both Ni and Pb in all tissues were below the detection limit. Tissue concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn generally decreased with increasing body weight whilst no significant concentration-size relationship was found for other metals. In muscle tissues, total PCBs ranged from 1.056-4.771 ng/g (wet wt.) with a median of 1.801 ng/g, while total DDTs ranged from 0.602-23.55 ng/g with a median of 1.109 ng/g, in which p,p'-DDE was the predominant metabolite. Levels of total hexachlorohexanes and cyclodienes were low. The pesticide p,p'-DDT was the only compound found to be positively correlated with body weight, indicating temporal bioaccumulation of this compound. Zn concentrations in the muscle of C. plagiosum were comparatively higher than recorded in other shark species, however, concentrations of other metals and organochlorines were relatively low. C. plagiosum feeds primarily on polychaetes, shrimps and small fishes, and thus is unlikely to contain levels of contaminants of human health concern. PMID:17320935

  5. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide pollution in Upper Awash Ethiopian state farm soils using selective pressurised liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Westbom, Rikard; Hussen, Ahmed; Megersa, Negussie; Retta, Negussie; Mathiasson, Lennart; Björklund, Erland

    2008-07-01

    Upper Awash Agro Industry Enterprises (UAAIE) is one of the major state farms in Ethiopia with known large-scale pesticide use. Although organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been applied for about three decades, no studies have been carried out on levels of residue in the region. In this work a fast selective pressurised liquid extraction (SPLE) methodology has successfully been applied for screening of 13 OCPs in 12 soil samples from different fields in UAAIE, which further strengthen this methodology. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were done using a dual column gas chromatography-electron capture detection system (GC-ECD) and a GC equipped with a mass spectrometer (MS), respectively. The main contaminants identified comprised of previously used persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and currently used insecticides. Low concentrations or non-detectable levels of certain OCPs (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and heptachlor) indicate a positive phasing out of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Similarly HCHs were found in few soils and at low concentrations. Endosulfans and DDTs were detected in substantial amounts in the soils with Sigmaendosulfans up to 56000 and SigmaDDTs up to 230 ng g(-1) dry weight, which is a threat to the surrounding and downstream ecosystems, especially considering that the investigated OCPs constituted 29000 l of the 63000 l of pesticide applied annually on the fields. Additional concerns must be raised concerning synergistic effects of all pesticides added. PMID:18479726

  6. Determination of some organochlorine pesticide residues in honeys from Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Halil; Guler, Gokalp O; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Cakmak, Yavuz S; Ozparlak, Haluk

    2010-09-01

    In this study, 24 organochlorine pesticide residues in 109 different honey samples collected from stores and open markets in Konya, Turkey were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Aldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, oxy-chlordane, 2,4(')-DDE, and 4,4(')-DDE were found in all honey samples. The mean value was 0.0540 microg g(-1) for oxy-chlordane. In the 55 samples of 109, levels of organochlorine pesticide residues of oxy-chlordane were determined as higher than those of Turkish Alimentarius Codex maximum residual limits (MRLs). Other organochlorine pesticide residues also exceeded MRLs except for cis-heptachlor epoxide and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane. Since all of the honey samples are found contaminated and most of these samples exceeded MRLs, a control of organochlorine pesticide residues in honey is necessary for consumer health. PMID:19685151

  7. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Beníšek, Martin; Kukučka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Luděk

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22μg (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts. PMID:25522853

  8. Neurotoxicity of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Possible Mode(s) of Action and Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2005-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-lived toxic organic compounds and are of major concern for human and ecosystem health. Although the use of most POPs is banned in most countries, some organochlorine pesticides are still being used in several parts of the world. Although environmental levels of some POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have declined, newly emerging POPs such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been increasing considerably. Exposure to POPs has been associated with a wide spectrum of effects including reproductive, developmental, immunologic, carcinogenic, and neurotoxic effects. It is of particular concern that neurotoxic effects of some POPs have been observed in humans at low environmental concentrations. This review focuses on PCBs as a representative chemical class of POPs and discusses the possible mode(s) of action for the neurotoxic effects with emphasis on comparing dose-response and structure-activity relationships (SAR) with other structurally related chemicals. There is sufficient epidemiological and experimental evidence showing that PCB exposure is associated with motor and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Although several potential mode(s) of actions were postulated for PCB-induced neurotoxic effects, changes in neurotransmitter systems, altered intracellular signalling processes, and thyroid hormone imbalance are predominant ones. These three potential mechanisms are discussed in detail in vitro and in vivo. In addition, SAR was conducted on other structurally similar chemicals to see if they have a common mode(s) of action. Relative potency factors for several of these POPs were calculated based on their effects on intracellular signalling processes. This is a comprehensive review comparing molecular effects at the cellular level to the neurotoxic effects seen in the whole animal for environmentally relevant POPs. PMID:18648619

  9. Occurrence of Legacy and New Persistent Organic Pollutants in Avian Tissues from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Tae; Son, Min-Hui; Kang, Jung-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Jung, Jin-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-11-17

    Legacy and new persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), Dechlorane Plus (DPs) and related compounds (Dechloranes), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were analyzed in avian tissue samples from King George Island, Antarctica. The avian species consisted of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), the South polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and the Brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus). HBCDs were detected in all samples and ranged from 1.67-713 pg/g-lipid. In the penguin samples, the concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.69-2.07 ng/g-lipid, whereas those in the skua samples ranged from 7.41-175 ng/g-lipid. The levels of Dechloranes ranged from 0.60-1.30 ng/g-lipid in the penguin samples and from 6.57-47.4 ng/g-lipid in the skua samples. The concentrations and congener distributions of OCPs and PCBs were similar to the results of previous reports. The three new POPs were detected in all samples, and this study was one of the first reports on the occurrence of these pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Because Antarctica is one of the most pristine places on Earth, the detection of new POPs in the Antarctic birds, especially penguins, is direct evidence of the long-range transport of pollutants. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of the penguin to the skua samples (BMFs-p) were greater than 1 in most legacy and new POPs, and the BMFs-p values of the new POPs were comparable to those of some OCPs, suggesting a possibility of biomagnification. Despite the small sample size, the results of this study identified POP contamination of the Antarctic avian species and long-range transport and biomagnification of HBCDs, Dechloranes, and PCNs. PMID:26502059

  10. Observations on persistent organic pollutants in indoor and outdoor air using passive polyurethane foam samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Pernilla; Jones, Kevin C.; Tovalin, Horacio; Strandberg, Bo

    Air quality data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) indoors and outdoors are sparse or lacking in several parts of the world, often hampered by the cost and inconvenience of active sampling techniques. Cheap and easy passive air sampling techniques are therefore helpful for reconnaissance surveys. As a part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) project in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in 2006, a range of POPs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) were analyzed in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks used as passive samplers in indoor and outdoor air. Results were compared to those from samplers deployed simultaneously in Gothenburg (Sweden) and Lancaster (United Kingdom). Using sampling rates suggested in the literature, the sums of 13 PAHs in the different sites were estimated to be 6.1-180 ng m -3, with phenanthrene as the predominant compound. Indoor PAH levels tended to be higher in Gothenburg and outdoor levels higher in Mexico City. The sum of PCBs ranged 59-2100 ng m -3, and seemed to be highest indoors in Gothenburg and Lancaster. PBDE levels (sum of seven) ranged 0.68-620 ng m -3, with the highest levels found in some indoor locations. OCPs (i.e. DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes) were widely dispersed both outdoors and indoors at all three studied areas. In Gothenburg all POPs tended to be higher indoors than outdoors, while indoor and outdoor levels in Mexico City were similar. This could be due to the influence of indoor and outdoor sources, air exchange rates, and lifestyle factors. The study demonstrates how passive samplers can provide quick and cheap reconnaissance data simultaneously at many locations which can shed light on sources and other factors influencing POP levels in air, especially for the gaseous fractions.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish with different feeding habits inhabiting a shallow lake ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barni, María F Silva; Ondarza, Paola M; Gonzalez, Mariana; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Meijide, Fernando; Grosman, Fabián; Sanzano, Pablo; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2016-04-15

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment can affect organisms inhabiting aquatic systems, in particular shallow lakes that are vulnerable to environmental stressors. This study aimed to assess POPs accumulation and changes at histological and physiological levels in tissues of three fish species with different trophic habits. Gills, brain, muscle, liver and gonads of Odontesthes bonariensis, Oligosarcus jenynsii and Cyphocharax voga were collected from the shallow lake La Peregrina, located in an agricultural area from Argentina. In addition, contaminant levels in surface water (SW), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments (BS) were assessed. Histological lesions were evaluated in fish tissues and levels of vitellogenin (VTG) were assessed in plasma of male fish in order to correlate these alterations with the presence of POPs in the environment. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by GC-ECD. Biotic and abiotic samples showed the same POPs distribution pattern: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs. Although tissue distribution of OCPs was species-specific, muscle showed the lowest levels in all species. The most abundant contaminants were endosulfans, suggesting their widespread use in the area. O. bonariensis showed the highest endosulfans levels in liver (184.2-219ngg(-1)wet w), which was associated with the high SPM levels considering this species is a filter feeder. The occurrence of PCBs and PBDEs shows the ubiquity of these pollutants in the area. Histological lesions in gills and liver of O. bonariensis and O. jenynsii, might be related with the high levels of endosulfans in these organs. The detection of VTG in males warns about a possible exposure to estrogenic compounds in the environment. In conclusion, the simultaneous exposure of fish to multiple environmental pollutants leads to different alterations, so measures should be taken in order to prevent their occurrence and toxic effects. PMID:26851762

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in particulate matter of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Xinghong; Cheng, Hangxin; Xu, Xiaobai; Zhuang, Guangmin; Zhao, Chuandong

    2008-06-30

    Eighteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 20 sites in Beijing, China in 2005 and 2006 were analyzed to determine the composition, spatial distribution and sources. Total OCPs of PM2.5 and PM10 ranged from 32.59 pg m(-3) to 9232.31 pg m(-3) and 80.96 pg m(-3) to 9434.97 pg m(-3), respectively, categorized as heavier pollution compared to other cities of China. Among six kinds of functional zones involved, commercial areas and industrial centers were heavily polluted. Distinct concentrations variations were detected in PM with different particle diameters. Pollution distribution was spatially heterogeneous inside the city. The most heavily polluted sites located in the southeast part of the city, where laid many chemical factories. Compositional analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that past usage of OCPs was the main source, though there were new inputs in some sites. PMID:18280031

  13. Determination of organochlorine pesticide residue in sediment and water from the Densu river basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet; Atiemo, Sampson Manukure; Palm, Linda Maud Naa-Dedei; Blankson-Arthur, Sarah; Tutu, Anita Osei; Fosu, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the aquatic ecosystem from the Densu river revealed varying levels of concentration in water and the sediment samples. Three locations were sampled along the river to evaluate the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in the river. Sediment and surface water samples were extracted by soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively and analyzed using Gas Chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detectable organochlorine pesticides were gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin. The other pesticides that were investigated are gamma-chlordane, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, methoxychlor, endrin and its metabolite endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone. The order of increasing frequency of detection of samples was higher in sediment than water. In sediment, the mean concentration ranged from 0.030 μg kg(-1) dry weight (endrin) to 10.98 μg kg(-1) dry weight (aldrin). The highest detected concentration of organochlorine in water was endosulfan sulfate with mean concentration of 0.185 μg L(-1). Analysis of variance indicated significant differences for most organochlorine pesticide residue in the sediment sampled from the various locations. Some of the levels of organochlorine pesticides detected in water were relatively high compared to guideline values set by World Health Organization and Australia and thus could be harmful if the trend is not checked. PMID:22123529

  14. X-ray spectromicroscopic investigation of natural organochlorine distribution in weathering plant material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leri, Alessandra C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2007-12-01

    Natural organochlorine (Cl org) is ubiquitous in soil humus, but the distribution and cycling of different Cl species during the humification of plant material is poorly understood. Our X-ray spectromicroscopic studies indicate that the distributions of Cl org and inorganic Cl -(Cl inorg) in oak leaf material vary dramatically with decay stage, with the most striking changes occurring at the onset of weathering. In healthy or senescent leaves harvested from trees, Cl inorg occurs in sparsely distributed, highly localized "hotspots" associated with trichomes as well as in diffuse concentration throughout the leaf tissue. The Cl inorg associated with trichomes exists either in H-bonded form or in a solid salt matrix, while the Cl inorg in diffuse areas of lower Cl concentration appears exclusively in H-bonded form. Most solid phase Cl inorg leaches from the leaf tissue during early weathering stages, whereas the H-bonded Cl inorg appears to leach away slowly as degradation progresses, persisting through advanced weathering stages. In unweathered leaves, aromatic and aliphatic Cl org were found in rare but concentrated hotspots. In weathered leaves, by contrast, aromatic Cl org hotspots are prevalent, often coinciding with areas of elevated Fe or Mn concentration. Aromatic Cl org is highly soluble in leaves at early weathering stages and insoluble at more advanced stages. These results, combined with optical microscopy, suggest that fungi play a role in the production of aromatic Cl org in weathering leaf material. Aliphatic Cl org occurs in concentrated hotspots in weathered leaves as well as in diffuse areas of low Cl concentration. The distribution and speciation of Cl in weathering oak leaves depicted by this spectromicroscopic study provides new insight into the formation and cycling of Cl org during the decay of natural organic matter.

  15. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban atmosphere of Pakistan: concentration, spatial variation and sources.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Jawad; Wang, Xiaoping; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Chuanfei; Joswiak, Daniel R; Rehman, Said; Lodhi, Arifa; Shafiq, Shoaib; Jilani, Rehmatullah

    2014-01-01

    Robust knowledge on the occurrence and distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of low-latitude regions is inevitable to forecast their transportation to pristine ecosystem and assess toxicological impacts upon local biota. Despite the earlier revelation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils/sediments and water bodies in Pakistan, knowledge about atmospheric levels and sources of these POPs remains limited. For the first time, a network of XAD resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) was established across megacities of Pakistan, i.e., Karachi, the coastal city, and Lahore, lying in an agricultural region. Typical geographical locations of the two cities allowed assessing the influence of source regions on the occurrence and distribution patterns of selected POPs. Average concentrations (ng/PAS) in both cities ranged as endosulfan 39-101, DDTs 63-92, HCHs 33-65, heptachlor 10-26, and PCBs 48-61. High concentrations of endosulfan and lindane as observed throughout Lahore were certainly due to their ongoing applications in surrounding agricultural fields. Lower proportions of parental DDTs as compared to their metabolites were observed in both cities, suggesting inputs of DDTs from older or secondary sources. Owing to ultimate discharge of country's agricultural/industrial waste through river streams in to Arabian Sea, the coastal region of Karachi was found potential source of weathered POPs that could be dissipated at regional/global scales by maritime advections. The study contributes to the pool of information on fate and geographical distribution of POPs in subtropical developing countries. PMID:24467173

  16. Organochlorine accumulation on a highly consumed bivalve (Scrobicularia plana) and its main implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2013-09-01

    Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated along a spatial gradient in water, sediments and in commercially important bivalve species Scrobicularia plana, from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Organochlorines dissolved in water were below detection limit and concerning suspended particulate matter, only PCBs were quantified, ranging from 3.8 to 5.8 ng∙g(-1) DW (Σ13PCBs). There was a distinct spatial gradient regarding PCB accumulation in sediments. The highest concentrations were found in deeper layers and closest to the pollution source, decreasing gradually along a 3 km area. Contamination in sediments exceeded the Canadian and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines, inducing potential toxic effects in related biota. PCBs tended to bioaccumulate throughout S. plana lifespan but with different annual rates along the spatial gradient. The maximum values were found in older individuals up to 3+ years old, reaching 19.4 ng∙g(-1) DW. HCB concentrations were residual and no bioaccumulation pattern was evident. Congeners 138, 153 and 180 were the most accumulated due to their abundance and long-term persistence in the environment. In the inner area of the Laranjo Bay (0.6 km(2)), the species was able to remove up to 0.4 g of PCBs annually from sediments into their own tissues, which is consequently free for trophic transfer (biomagnification). Concerning human health, and despite the high concentrations found in sediments, PCB levels in bivalves do not exceed the limit established by the European Union for fishery products and are largely below tolerable daily intake. Although PCBs in Scrobicularia plana are present at low levels, their impact to human health after consumption over many years might be harmful and should be monitored in future studies. PMID:23727603

  17. Greater Cognitive Decline with Aging among Elders with High Serum Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive decline is very common in elders, age-related cognitive decline substantially differs among elders and the determinants of the differences in age-related cognitive decline are unclear. We investigated our hypothesis that the association between age and cognition was stronger in those with higher serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common persistent and strongly lipophilic neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Six OC pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodipenyldichloroethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide) were evaluated. “Lower cognitive function” was defined as having a low Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score (<25th percentile of DSST score, cutpoint 28 symbols substituted). Higher levels of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide modified the associations between age and lower cognitive function (Pinteraction<0.01, 0.03, <0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Elders in the 3rd tertile of these chemicals demonstrated a greater risk of lower cognitive function with aging, compared to those in the combined 1st and 2nd tertiles. Among those with highest OC pesticides (3rd tertile), the odds ratio for the risk of lower cognitive function was about 6 to 11 for the highest quintile of age (80-85 years) vs. the first quintile of age (60-63 years), while the association between age and lower cognitive function became flatter in those with lower OC pesticides (combined 1st and 2nd tertiles). Both DDT and DDE showed no interaction, with lower DSST scores for higher age irrespective of serum concentrations of DDT or DDE. Even though DSST score measures only one aspect of cognition, several OC pesticides modified aging-related prevalence of low cognitive score, a finding which should be evaluated in prospective studies. PMID:26107947

  18. Analytical validation for the HRMS detection of organochlorines in living marine mammals from biopsy microsamples

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomou, M.G.; Crewe, N.F.; Fischer, M.; Smith, T.G.

    1995-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that marine mammals accumulate high concentrations of lipophilic organochlorine contaminants in blubber. As predators of the high trophic level they have also been used to evaluate contamination in the marine environment. Sampling of living marine mammals using a microsample (100 to 200 mg) biopsy dart technique offers a potentially invaluable chronicle in assessing levels and types of persistent environmental pollutants from a sample in which age, sex and other genetic information can additionally be ascertained. The authors have explored analytical methodology based on a high sensitivity detection system (HRGC/HRMS) which provides multi-residue determinations from biopsy dart microsamples. Lipid content and the concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were measured in 100 mg biopsy dart replicates taken from a killer whale carcass and in three strata of the blubber of that carcass. Statistically acceptable results were obtained from the dart replicates which compared very well with those of the blubber strata. Analytical data from 100 mg extractions from an established in house blubber CRM also compared well against a series of 2.5 g extractions of that CRM. The extraction and cleanup procedures used also allow for the determination of other organohalogen contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, all the remaining PCBs, polychlorinated diphenylethers and brominated residues. The strengths and limitations of the analytical methodology and the biopsy dart as a sampling tool and pollution predicator will be illustrated in terms of method accuracy and precision, glassware and procedural blanks associated with each extraction batch, and the incorporation of an in house micro reference standard.

  19. Distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in food web of Nansi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guizhai; Pan, Zhaoke; Bai, Aiying; Li, Jing; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-04-01

    The concentration of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in water, sediment, aquatic plant, and animal (shrimp and fish) of Nansi Lake by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. The total OCPs concentrations were 65.31-100.31 ng L(-1) in water, 2.9-6.91 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 1.29-6.42 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants and 7.57-17.22 ng g(-1) dw in animals. The OCPs composition profiles showed that heptachlor compounds was also the predominant OCPs contaminants in addition to hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in Nansi Lake. According to the source of HCHs and DDTs in sediment samples, there was no new input and the HCHs pollution mainly came from the use of Lindane in Nansi Lake. Bioaccumulation of OCPs in aquatic biota indicated that DDTs and heptachlor compounds had a strong accumulation, followed by HCHs and drins. The accumulation abilities of fish for OCPs were higher than those of plants and shrimps. The OCPs biota-sediment accumulation factor values of Channa argus was the highest in fish samples, followed by Carassius auratus, and Cyprinus caspio. Risk assessment of sediment showed that heptachlor epoxide had a higher occurrence possibility of adverse ecological effects to benthic species. Based on the calculation of acceptable daily intake and hazard ratio, HCHs in fish and shrimps from Nansi Lake had a lifetime cancer risk of greater than one per million. The risk assessment of water, sediment, and fish indicated the water environment of Nansi Lake is at a safe level at present. PMID:24213638

  20. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. PMID:22325437

  1. Persistent organic pollutants and pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Smarr, Melissa M; Grantz, Katherine L; Zhang, Cuilin; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, José M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2016-05-01

    We sought to investigate the relationship between maternal preconception exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pregnancy complications, gestational diabetes (GDM) and gestational hypertension. Data from 258 (51%) women with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) confirmed pregnancies reaching ≥24weeks gestation, from a prospective cohort of 501 couples who discontinued contraception to attempt pregnancy, were analyzed. Preconception concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were quantified in serum. In separate multiple logistic regression models of self-reported physician diagnosed outcomes: GDM (11%) and gestational hypertension (10%), chemicals were natural log-transformed and rescaled by their standard deviation (SD). Models were adjusted for serum lipids, and then adjusted for age, body mass index, race, and smoking. Models were additionally adjusted for the sum of the remaining POPs in each chemical class. Women's serum concentration of PBDE congener 153 (PBDE-153) was positively associated with an increased odds of GDM per SD increase in log-transformed concentration, for unadjusted (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.02-1.81), a priori adjusted (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.03-1.86) and with the sum of remaining PBDEs (OR=1.79, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.74) models. Our findings suggest that at environmentally relevant concentrations, maternal exposure to POPs prior to conception may contribute to increased chance of developing GDM. PMID:26878640

  2. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sourthern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, H.; Kannan, K.; Jing, L.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT), HCHs (α-, β-, γ-isomers), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA, during 1992–96. The contamination pattern of organochlorines in sea otters from several locations was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > > CHLs > HCHs > > HCB, whereas those from Monterey Harbor contained greater concentrations of PCBs than of DDTs. Hepatic concentrations of PCBs and DDTs were in the ranges of 58–8700 and 280–5900 ng/g, wet weight, respectively, which varied depending on the geographic location. Sea otters collected from Monterey Harbor contained the greatest concentrations of PCBs and DDTs. In general, accumulation of DDTs, CHLs and PCBs was greater in kidney than in liver, whereas that of HCHs was similar in both the tissues. The gender difference in organochlorine concentrations was less than those reported in cetaceans. The composition of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs compounds in sea otter tissues indicated no recent inputs of these compounds in coastal California. Sea otters that died from infectious diseases, neoplasia and emaciation contained higher concentrations of DDTs than those that died from trauma.

  3. Persistent organohalogen contaminant burdens in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from the eastern Antarctic sector: a baseline study.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, S M; Poulsen, A H; Kawaguchi, S; Vetter, W; Schlabach, M

    2008-12-15

    A baseline for persistent organohalogen compound (POC) accumulation in the Antarctic keystone species, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been established for a 50 degrees longitudinal range of the eastern Antarctic sector. Samples of adult krill, caught from 12 sites distributed between 30 degrees and 80 degrees E (60-70 degrees S), were analysed for >100 organohalogen compounds including chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated organic compounds and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). Organochlorine pesticides dominated measured krill contaminant burdens with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as the single most abundant compound quantified. Krill HCB concentrations were comparable to those detected at this trophic level in both the Arctic and temperate northwest Atlantic, lending support for the hypothesis that HCB will approach global equilibrium at a faster rate than other POCs. Para, para'-dichlorodiphenylethene (p,p'-DDE) was detected at notable concentrations. Measurements of DDT and its degradation products provide an important baseline for monitoring the temporal and geographical influence of renewed, DDT usage for malaria-control in affected southern hemisphere countries. In contrast to the Arctic, PCBs did not feature prominently in contaminant burdens of Antarctic krill. The major commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners -99 and -47 were quantified at low background levels with clear concentration spikes observed at around 70 degrees E , in the vicinity of modern, active research stations. The likelihood that local anthropogenic activities are supplementing low PBDE levels, delivered otherwise primarily via long range environmental transport, is discussed. The suspected naturally occurring brominated organic compound, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA), was a ubiquitous contaminant in all samples whereas the only PCDD/Fs quantifiable were trace levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and 1,2,3,4,7,8/1,2,3,4,7,9-hexachlorodibenzofuran (HxCDF). With the aims of; i) Generating a robust and broadly applicable POC auditing platform for the scarcely studied eastern Antarctic sector; ii) Determining the compounds accumulating in Antarctic krill for further toxicity evaluation studies and iii) Establishing a baseline for Antarctic predator exposure to POCs, this study represents one of the most comprehensive reports of POC contamination of the Antarctic food web to date. PMID:18848720

  4. Occurrence and prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants using meconium in Korea: Feasibility of meconium as a non-invasive human matrix.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of great concern due to the vulnerability of fetus. Nineteen Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene, and 22 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in meconium samples from 72 newborn infants using high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The median concentrations (on wet weight basis) of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs were 26.8pg/g, 66.7pg/g, and 2.32pg/g, respectively. Highly significant correlations were observed among the compounds of PCBs and OCPs, suggesting their similar sources and kinetic behaviors. BDE 47 had significant correlations with PCBs and OCPs, whereas BDE 209 was not correlated with any of the contaminants due to different exposure sources. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE, β-HCH, and trans-nonaCHL between paired maternal blood-meconium and cord blood-meconium showed significant correlations, while PCBs and PBDEs were not significantly correlated in the paired samples. Maternal age and gestational age were demographic parameters affecting POP levels in meconium. Multiple regression analysis showed that the levels of several OCPs in cord and maternal serum were contributing factors governing the levels of these contaminants in meconium. Our results indicate that meconium can be utilized as a human matrix for prenatal exposure to several OCPs. PMID:26828623

  5. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Chen, Laiguo; Wu, Yuping

    2014-11-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are apex predators in the Pearl River Estuary waters (PRE) of China. PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (e.g., HCHs, HCB, mirex and dieldrin) were analysed in blubber samples of 45 dolphins and 10 prey fishes of S. chinensis collected from 2004 to 2013 in the PRE region to investigate the bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDTs were the most abundant residue in the dolphins, with an average of 6,2700 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (average: 1,790 ng g(-1) ww) and other OCPs including ∑HCHs, mirex, endrin, ∑chlordanes, HCB, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and pentachlorobenzene. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in male dolphins significantly increased with age and length. In contrast, female dolphins did not show obvious bioaccumulation trends with age and body length, possibly due to the lactational and parturitional transfer of these compounds. Compared with the POP residues in the prey fishes, the concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs in the dolphin blubber increased by factors of 99, 212, and 5, respectively, whereas the residue levels of the other OCPs increased 2-185 times, indicating a potentially significant biomagnification in the top predators. The potential biomagnification factors calculated for most POPs were significantly higher than those in the cetacean species from other regions. PMID:25113190

  6. Trends of persistent organic pollutants in American eel (Anguilla rostrata) from eastern Lake Ontario, Canada, and their potential effects on recruitment.

    PubMed

    Byer, Jonathan D; Lebeuf, Michel; Trottier, Steve; Raach, Meriem; Alaee, Mehran; Stephen Brown, R; Backus, Sean; Casselman, John M; Hodson, Peter V

    2015-10-01

    This study reports the history of contamination of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) from eastern Lake Ontario (LO) by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Three groups of 10 large female eels captured in eastern LO in each of 1988, 1998, and 2008 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, several organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Mean concentrations were up to 3-fold lower in 2008 compared to previous years. When combined with the results of previous studies, these data show that concentrations of POPs in American eels have declined exponentially since the early 1980s by an average of 9.1±1.9% per year. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) were calculated from fish toxic equivalency factors. Assuming an efficient transfer of DLCs to their eggs, egg TEQs prior to 2000 exceeded the threshold for chronic toxicity to embryos of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (4-5 pg/g ww of TEQ). These results suggest that embryotoxicity of maternally-derived DLCs from LO eels, historically a major contributor to the spawning stock of American eels, could have impaired the reproductive and recruitment success of the species. PMID:26022407

  7. Persistent organic pollutants at the base of the Antarctic marine food web.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Amy L; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Cochran, Michele A; Ducklow, Hugh W

    2004-07-01

    Various organochlorine pesticides and brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-47, -99, and -100) were measured in sea ice algae, water column plankton, and juvenile and adult krill collected in the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) region west of the Antarctic Peninsula during late austral winter and midsummer, 2001-2002. BDEs were 100-1000 times higher in ice algae and 2-10 times higher in phytoplankton than the most abundant organochlorine pesticide, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), reflecting the current production and use of BDEs versus organochlorine pesticides. However, concentrations of HCB and BDEs were significantly lower in summer plankton than in ice algae indicating lower atmospheric inputs, removal from the water column, and/or biodilution of persistent organic pollutants at the base of the food web during summer. Concentrations of HCB (juvenile and adult krill) and BDEs (juvenile krill) were not significantly different from their primary food source (ice algae, phytoplankton), and BDEs were significantly lower in adult krill versus phytoplankton, indicating no biomagnification of HCB or BDEs during transfer from plankton to krill. The high concentrations of BDEs and HCB in ice algae and associated juvenile krill illustrate the importance of sea ice as a vector for entry of POPs into the Antarctic marine ecosystem. PMID:15296304

  8. Which compounds contribute most to elevated airborne exposure and corresponding health risks in the Western Balkans?

    PubMed

    Bartos, Toms; Cupr, Pavel; Klnov, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2009-10-01

    A majority of ongoing monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is currently focused on chemicals emphasized in the Stockholm Convention. Quantitative detection of other substances (especially those with numerous anthropogenic sources such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) is, however, also needed since their concentrations are usually several orders of magnitude higher. A goal of this study was to determine how various groups of compounds contribute to total human health risks at the variety of sampling sites in the region of Western Balkan. Distribution of the risks between the gas and particulate phases was also addressed. Results showed that inhalation exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) does not represent a significant risk to humans, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) re-volatilized to the atmosphere from contaminated soils and buildings can pose a problem. PCB evaporation from primary sources (currently used PCB-filled transformers or non-adequate storage facilities) generally resulted in much higher atmospheric concentrations than evaporation from the secondary sources (soils at the sites of war destructions). A majority of the human health risks at the urban sites were associated with PAHs. Between 83 and 94% of the cumulative risk at such sites was assigned to chemicals sorbed to particles, and out of it, PAHs were responsible for 99%. PMID:19592094

  9. The Role of Canine Distemper Virus and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Mortality Patterns of Caspian Seals (Pusa caspica)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Susan C.; Eybatov, Tariel M.; Amano, Masao; Jepson, Paul D.; Goodman, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971–2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n = 67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971–2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s–1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126–129 cm (n = 111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low frequency of epizootics suggest they are of secondary importance compared to anthropogenic sources of mortality such as fishing by-catch. PMID:24987857

  10. Dissipation of three organochlorine and four pyrethroid pesticides sprayed in a greenhouse environment during hydroponic cultivation of gerbera.

    PubMed

    Hatzilazarou, Stefanos P; Charizopoulos, Emmanouel T; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Economou, Athanasios S

    2004-12-01

    A wide range of pesticides (insecticides, acaricides and fungicides) is used in the hydroponic cultivation of gerbera. The fate and behaviour of some of these commonly used pesticides (organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides/acaricides) in a greenhouse installation was investigated. The concentrations of endosulfan, dicofol, tetradifon, permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the air of the greenhouse were related to their physicochemical properties and respective application rates. Of these compounds, endosulfan exhibited the highest concentration in the greenhouse air 2 h after application (10 microg m(-3)), due to its highest volatility; afterwards, up to 12 h post-application, a rapid decrease was recorded which finally led to a concentration of 0.41 microg m(-3) at 6 days post-application. Dicofol exhibited the same trend of dissipation in the greenhouse air; its concentration decreased from 0.27 microg m(-3) immediately after the application to 0.12 microg m(-3) at 6 days post-application. Tetradifon, bifenthrin and permethrin were found at concentrations lower than 0.1 microg m(-3) at 2 h post-application, and cypermethrin and deltamethrin could not be detected. The concentrations of all the above pesticides in the drain water of the open hydroponic system were relatively high immediately after application and decreased rapidly during the following 3 days. In the closed hydroponic system, all the pesticides accumulated in the nutrient solution during the first 24 h after application and slowly decreased in concentration over the following 3 days. The spray operators applying these pesticides were exposed to rather high concentrations and the spray deposits were monitored on the chest and forehead of the operator. Endosulfan exhibited the highest concentrations of the seven pesticides. The organochlorine pesticides (endosulfan, dicofol and tetradifon) were usually detected at higher concentrations on the chest than on the forehead of the operator; pyrethroids were detected at higher concentrations on the forehead than on the chest of the operator. PMID:15578600

  11. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in a sediment core from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Díaz-Asencio, M; Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    2015-10-01

    Sediments can be natural archives to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs into coastal areas. This is important to improve management strategies and evaluate the success of pollution control measurements. In this work, the vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex) was determined in a sediment core collected from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, which was dated by using the (210)Pb dating method and validated with the (239,240)Pu fallout peak. Results showed significant changes in sediment accumulation during the last 40 years: recent mass accumulation rates (0.321 g cm(-2) yr(-1)) double those estimated before 1970 (0.15 g cm(-2) yr(-1)). This change matches closely land use change in the region (intense deforestation and regulation of the Colon River in the late 1970s). Among pesticides, only DDTs isomers, Lindane and HCB were detected, and ranged from 0.029 to 0.374 ng g(-1) dw for DDTs, from<0.006 to 0.05 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane and from<0.04 to 0.134 ng g(-1) dw for HCB. Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex were below the detection limits (∼0.003 ng g(-1)), indicating that these compounds had a limited application in the Coloma watershed. Pesticide contamination was evident since the 1970s. DDTs and HCB records showed that management strategies, namely the banning the use of organochlorine contaminants, led to a concentration decline. However, Lindane, which was restricted in 1990, can still be found in the watershed. According to NOAA guidelines, pesticides concentrations encountered in these sediments are low and probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. PMID:26051863

  12. Thyroid toxicity due to subchronic exposure to a complex mixture of 16 organochlorines, lead, and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wade, Michael G; Parent, Sophie; Finnson, Kenneth W; Foster, Warren; Younglai, Edward; McMahon, Avril; Cyr, Daniel G; Hughes, Claude

    2002-06-01

    The human population in the industrialized world is ubiquitously exposed to complex mixtures of persistent pollutants that contaminate food, water, and air. A large number of these contaminants have been shown to cause significant toxicity to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in laboratory animal studies, through a variety of mechanisms, although these effects occur at levels of exposure greatly in excess of common human exposure. While many of the mechanisms of thyroid toxicity of these substances are potentially complementary, little is known of the degree of interaction of common persistent contaminants on responses of the HPT axis. To investigate the potential effects of a complex, environmentally relevant mixture on the HPT axis, sexually mature male rats were administered a mixture of 16 common organochlorines (dichlorodiphenoxytrichloroethane [DDT], p,p'-dichlorodiphenoxydichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], methoxychlor, endosulfan, heptachlor, hexachlorocyclohexane, dieldrin, aldrin, mirex, and several chlorinated benzenes, and metal contaminants [lead, cadmium]). The doses of the mixture that were administered were related to minimum risk levels or tolerable daily intakes of these substances, as derived by risk assessment with the 1x, 10x, 100x, and 1000x groups receiving mixture components at doses equivalent to 1x, 10x, 100x, or 1000x the minimum risk level (or tolerable daily intake, reference dose), respectively. After 70 daily treatments by gavage, endpoints related to circulating thyroid hormone (serum thyroxine [T(4)], triiodothyronine [T(3)], thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH], and serum T(3) uptake [T(3)-up]), thyroid gland histomorphology (thyroid follicle cross sectional area, epithelial height, follicle roundness or aspect ratio, colloid/epithelial ratio) and hepatic metabolism of thyroid hormone (UDP-glucuronyl transferase [UGT] and outer-ring deiodinase [ORD]) were assessed. All examined endpoints were significantly altered by the mixture albeit with great variability between endpoints in the sensitivity. While most endpoints examined did not show significant changes at mixture doses below 1000x, 2 endpoints, TSH and hepatic outer ring deiodinase activity, were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, by 1x dose and showed dose-related increases in severity with increasing dose. Median thyroid follicle cross sectional area was also increased by the lowest dose of the mixture but decreased with subsequent increases in dose until, at the highest dose, this parameter was significantly reduced relative to control. The relative sensitivity of endpoints of thyroid function in detecting toxicity of the mixture was TSH = ORD = median follicle area > T(3) > all other endpoints. These results demonstrate that low doses of ubiquitous environmental contaminants can alter HPT physiology in sexually mature males. PMID:12011480

  13. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Sigma) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordane cyclodienes, Sigmaother cyclodienes, and Sigmachlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by SigmaDDTs and Sigmachlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'DDE) composed 52 to 66% of SigmaDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but SigmaPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with delta15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of SigmaPCBs and p,p'DDE among species and locations. PMID:19374473

  14. Response: persistent perplexities.

    PubMed

    Radin, M J

    2001-09-01

    This response to the preceding five articles highlights the stubborn persistence of the philosophical perplexities surrounding commodification in the realm of medicine and biotechnology. PMID:11700685

  15. Detection of estrogenic activity in sediment-associated compounds using in vitro reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Dennekamp, Martine; Vethaak, A Dick; Brouwer, Abraham; Koeman, Jan H; van der Burg, Bart; Murk, Albertinka J

    2002-07-01

    Sediments may be the ultimate sink for persistent (xeno-)estrogenic compounds released into the aquatic environment. Sediment-associated estrogenic potency was measured with an estrogen receptor-mediated luciferase reporter gene (ER-CALUX) assay and compared with a recombinant yeast screen. The ER-CALUX assay was more sensitive to 17beta-estradiol (E2) than the recombinant yeast screen, with an EC50 of 6 pM E2 compared to 100 pM in the yeast screen. Yeast cells were unable to distinguish the anti-estrogens ICI 182,780 and (4-hydroxy)tamoxifen, which were agonistic in the yeast. Acetone-soluble fractions of hexane/acetone extracts of sediments showed higher estrogenic potency than hexane-soluble extracts in the ER-CALUX assay. Sediments obtained from industrialized areas such as the Port of Rotterdam showed the highest estrogenic potency of the 12 marine sediments tested (up to 40 pmol estradiol equivalents per gram sediment). The estrogenic activity of individual chemicals that can be found in sediments including: alkylphenol ethoxylates and carboxylates; phthalates; and pesticides, was tested. Increasing sidechain length of various nonylphenol ethoxylates resulted in decreased estrogenic activity. Of the phthalates tested, butylbenzylphthalate was the most estrogenic, though with a potency approximately 100,000 times less than E2. The organochlorine herbicides atrazine and simazine failed to induce reporter gene activity. As metabolic activation may be required to induce estrogenic activity, a metabolic transformation step was added to the ER-CALUX assay using incubation of compounds with liver microsomes obtained from PCB-treated rats. Results indicate that metabolites of E2, NP and bisphenol A were less active than the parent compounds, while metabolites of methoxychlor were more estrogenic following microsomal incubations. PMID:12109482

  16. PERSISTENT, BIOACCUMULATIVE, AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS (PBTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Article describes the class of compounds known as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutants (known as PBTs), including the mechanisms responsible for ability to build up the food chain and for causing adverse health effects and ecosystem damage. Exposure to numerous PBTs ...

  17. Ecotoxicology of organofluorous compounds.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret B; Loi, Eva I H; Kwok, Karen Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2012-01-01

    Organofluorous compounds have been developed for myriad purposes in a variety of fields, including manufacturing, industry, agriculture, and medicine. The widespread use and application of these compounds has led to increasing concern about their potential ecological toxicity, particularly because of the stability of the C-F bond, which can result in chemical persistence in the environment. This chapter reviews the chemical properties and ecotoxicology of four groups of organofluorous compounds: fluorinated refrigerants and propellants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), fluorinated pesticides, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. These groups vary in their environmental fate and partitioning, but each raises concern in terms of ecological risk on both the regional and global scale, particularly those compounds with long environmental half-lives. Further research on the occurrence and toxicities of many of these compounds is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of their ecological effects. PMID:21952849

  18. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in healthy adults from five regions of Spain.

    PubMed

    Jakszyn, Paula; Goñi, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asunción; Millán, Esmeralda; López, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, M José; Tormo, M José; González, Carlos A; Agudo, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure of serum levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (p,p'-DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in healthy adults in Spain. Furthermore, we also analyzed these levels according to dietary, other lifestyle factors and anthropometric characteristics. We measured the concentrations of such organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in serum samples collected during 1992-1996 from 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, they were residents of five Spanish regions, they were randomly selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. OCPs were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The most frequent compound found in serum was p,p'-DDE, present in 98% of the samples, followed by HCB and beta-HCH, found in 89% and 77% of samples, respectively, while p,p'-DDT could be measured only in 26% of subjects. The geometric means of serum concentrations (ng/g lipid) were 822 for p,p'-DDE, 167 for beta-HCH, and 379 for HCB. The concentrations of all OCPs were positively associated with age and body mass index, and decreased along the period of blood collection. No association was found between OCPs levels and dietary factors. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCB were higher in Murcia, one of southern regions, most likely associated with intensive past use of pesticides related to agricultural practices, while higher levels of HCB were found in Navarra, located in the north, maybe due to industrial use rather than agricultural application. PMID:19586652

  19. Toxic elements and organochlorines in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), Kodiak, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Calkins, D.G.; Coon, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Marine and estuarine habitats near urban or industrialized regions are vulnerable to contaminated runoff. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), which occur throughout much of the northern hemisphere, are useful mammalian biomonitors because they feed, reproduce, and rest near or on shore and are high-level trophic consumers. They have often been monitored for contaminants in Europe (Wagemann and Muir 1984). To date, no studies have been reported on contaminants in harbor seals from industrialized areas of Alaska. In the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska's largest urban and industrial city, harbor seals are sedentary and limited to coastal waters; some movements have been documented but there is no evidence of extensive migrations. Although some harbor seals in the Kodiak Archipelago move up to 100 km along the shore, strong fidelity to specific haulout sites is more common (Pitcher and Calkins 1979). These seals eat mainly non-migratory fishes and octopi. Harbor seal numbers have declined substantially from unknown causes in the southern part of the Kodiak Archipelago. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) suggested that the decline is a trend for the entire Kodiak region and other Alaskan waters. Contaminants have been suggested as a possible reason for the precipitous decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the region (Braham et al. 1980), and were suspected in the decline of harbor seals. In this study, harbor seals were sampled from throughout the Kodiak Archipelago to determine concentrations of certain metals, metalloids, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides, and to determine if these concentrations varied by sex or accumulated with age. All seals were collected within 75 km of Cook Inlet, an estuary next to Anchorage. The targeted elements or compounds were known to be toxic to a wide spectrum of organisms (e.g., MARC 1980; Eisler 1986).

  20. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2004-01-01

    Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in the surface water and sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei; Luo, Xiaojun; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2008-01-01

    Samples of surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and surface sediment, collected from the Pear River Estuary, Guangdong Province, China in July of 2002 and April of 2003, were analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The levels of total HCHs in water varied from 213 to 3,116 pg/L, although in sediments they ranged from 181 to 1,388 pg/g dry weight. The levels of DDTs were in the range of 228 to 3,284 pg/L in water and 57 to 2,244 pg/g dry weight in sediments, respectively. The observed spatial and temporal variability of concentrations of the target compounds in water body could be attributed to the differences of SPM contents in water body and organic carbon contents in SPM between the two sampling periods. Seven of the 10 water samples collected in July of 2002 had the ratio of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane/(dichlorobischlorophenylethane + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) (DDT/[DDD + DDE]) higher than one, indicating that there were likely fresh inputs of DDT to the Pearl River Estuary. The significant positive correlations between the organochlorine pesticide concentrations and organic carbon contents in SPM and sediments indicated that organic matter played an important role in controlling the distributions of these pollutants in the marine environment. Varied correlations between the partition coefficients of pollutants and total organic carbon, salinity, and total SPM contents have been observed, which indicated the influences of these factors on controlling the transport and fate of pollutants in the marine environment. PMID:18092858

  2. Concentrations in air of organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphate flame retardants in Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Ahrens, Lutz; Jantunen, Liisa; Harner, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of organobromine (BFRs), organochlorine (CFRs) and organophosphate esters flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) in air were monitored for over one year at an urban site in Toronto, Canada during 2010-2011. The mean value for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) (gas + particle phase) was 38 pg/m3 with BDE-47 and BDE-99 as the dominant congeners. The mean concentrations in air for ?non-BDE (BFRs and CFRs), was 9.6 pg/m3 - about four times lower than the BDEs. The brominated FRs: TBP-AE, BTBPE, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and the chlorinated syn- and anti-DP were detected frequently, ranging from 87% to 96%. Highest concentrations in air among all flame retardant classes were observed for the ?-PFRs. The yearly mean concentration in air for ?PFRs was 2643 pg/m3 with detection frequency higher than 80%. Except for TBP-AE and b- DBE-DBCH, non-BDEs (BFRs, CFRs and PFRs) were mainly associated with the particle phase. BDE concentrations in air were positively correlated with temperature indicating that volatilization from local sources was an important factor controlling levels in air. This correlation did not hold for most BFRs, CFRs and PFRs which were mainly on particles. For these compounds, air concentrations in Toronto are likely related to emissions from point sources and advective inputs. This study highlights the importance of urban air monitoring for FRs. Urban air can be considered a sentinel for detecting changes in the use and application of FRs in commercial products.

  3. Seasonal variation of organochlorine pesticides in the gaseous phase and aerosols over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tianyi; Lin, Tian; Wang, Fengwen; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Eighty paired gaseous phase and PM2.5 (particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter) samples, covering four seasons from October 2011 to August 2012 were collected simultaneously from a remote island in the East China Sea (ECS). The samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to determine their seasonal variation and potential sources over the coastal marine environment. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the PM2.5 samples were higher in winter and lower in summer, and the reverse trend was observed for the measured OCP compounds (except hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs) in the gaseous phase. Principal component analysis revealed one trend that contributed 40% to PM2.5-bound OCPs characterized by β-HCH, α-HCH, p,p‧-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p‧-DDD), p,p‧-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p‧-DDE), and chlordanes; whereas two seasonal trends, represented by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) or chlordanes and HCHs, were responsible for 38% and 23% of the gaseous OCPs, respectively. Continental outflow driven by the East Asian monsoon brought large quantities of particulate OCPs to the ECS, especially in winter. Possible fresh sources or net volatilization from the Yangtze River induced by both higher ambient temperature and higher discharge rates caused the higher gaseous DDT and chlordane levels observed in summer. However, the lower concentrations of gaseous HCHs observed in summer suggested that net volatilization had a relatively limited impact on gaseous HCHs due to the long-term prohibition of their use and their low residual levels in the catchment, whereas the elevated concentrations of gaseous HCHs in winter controlled by gas-particle partitioning, resulted from increased particulate HCHs producing a partial shift to gaseous HCHs over ECS.

  4. PBDEs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides distribution in edible fish from Negro River basin, Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, P M; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B

    2014-01-01

    DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs, chlordanes, PCBs and PBDEs levels were determined in different tissues of patagonian silverside (Odontesthes hatcheri) from the Upper (UV), Middle (MV) and Lower (LV) valleys of the Negro River, Argentina. Results showed a direct relation between pollutant levels in fish and land uses along the basin. All tissues showed decreasing levels from headwaters (UV) to downstream (LV). A significant predominance of organochlorine pesticides (306-3,449 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by ΣPCBs (65-3,102 ng g(-1) lipid) and ΣPBDEs (22-870 ng g(-1) lipid) was observed in all tissues and valleys, suggesting agriculture as the main source of pollutants in this basin. Pesticides were dominated by DDTs (90% pp'-DDE) followed by endosulfan (α->β->sulfate), γ-HCH and γ-chlordane showing the prevalence of legacy compounds. Endosulfan levels point out the current use of technical endosulfan in the surrounding areas. The highest PCBs and PBDEs concentrations observed in fish from UV were associated to hydroelectric power plants and industries established upstream. PCB fingerprint presented a prevailing contribution of hexa-CBs (66 ± 7%) and penta-CBs (27 ± 9%), with a similar composition to Aroclor 1254-1260. The predominance of BDE-47 (69 ± 17%) among PBDEs, followed by BDE-100 and BDE-99, suggests possible debromination processes. These results were similar to worldwide trends found in fishes and environmental compartments. PCBs levels in silverside muscles along the Negro River exceeded the maximum limits for safe consumption, suggesting a possible human health risk related to silverside ingest. Therefore, a continued long-term monitoring of organic contaminants in fishes is needed in order to assess the potential risk for human health. PMID:24144466

  5. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2004-04-01

    Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

  6. Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web.

    PubMed

    Wong, Charles S; Mabury, Scott A; Whittle, D Michael; Backus, Sean M; Teixeira, Camilla; DeVault, David S; Bronte, Charles R; Muir, Derek C G

    2004-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments at PCB concentrations far lower than that previously associated with such activity. Widely nonracemic PCB residues in forage fish (lake herring, rainbow smelt, and slimy sculpin) and lake trout suggest a combination of both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from prey for these species. Minimum biotransformation rates, calculated from enantiomer mass balances between predators and prey, suggest metabolic half-lives on the order of 8 yr for CB 136 in lake trout and 2.6 yr for CB 95 in sculpins. This result suggests that significant biotransformation may occur for metabolizable PCB congeners over the lifespan of these biota. This study highlights the potential of chiral analysis to study biotransformation processes in food webs. PMID:14740721

  7. Biomonitoring of organochlorine compounds and trace metals along the Eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia) using Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Kljaković-Gaspić, Zorana; Herceg-Romanić, Snjezana; Kozul, Darija; Veza, Jere

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the results of monitoring trace organic contaminants (17 PCBs and 7 OCPs) and 6 trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the coastal waters of the eastern Adriatic in 2006 using Mytilus galloprovincialis as indicator species. OCPs were found in all samples (0.07-14.3 ng g(-1)d.wt.), while in positive samples concentrations of PCBs ranged between 0.16 and 20.5 ng g(-1)d.wt. The α-HCH/γ-HCH and DDE/DDT ratios indicated recent input of γ-HCH and DDT. Spatial distributions of HCB, PCBs, DDTs and Hg were significantly correlated with population density. Although elevated concentrations of all trace metals and organic contaminants were recorded in the densely populated and industrialized areas, overall data point to relatively low level of contamination of the eastern Adriatic coast. Evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels suggested that there is no health risk for moderate shellfish consumers. PMID:20696441

  8. Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Charles S.; Mabury, Scott A.; Whittle, D. Michael; Backus, Sean M.; Teixeira, Camilla; DeVault, David S.; Bronte, Charles R.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments at PCB concentrations far lower than that previously associated with such activity. Widely nonracemic PCB residues in forage fish (lake herring, rainbow smelt, and slimy sculpin) and lake trout suggest a combination of both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from prey for these species. Minimum biotransformation rates, calculated from enantiomer mass balances between predators and prey, suggest metabolic half-lives on the order of 8 yr for CB 136 in lake trout and 2.6 yr for CB 95 in sculpins. This result suggests that significant biotransformation may occur for metaboliz able PCB congeners over the lifespan of these biota. This study highlights the potential of chiral analysis to study biotransformation processes in food webs.

  9. Cyclic organochlorines in plankton from the North Sea in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knickmeyer, R.; Steinhart, H.

    1989-02-01

    The body burdens of five cyclic organochlorines on the basis of n-hexane extract-able lipids, (∫24 PCB congeners, α-HCH, γ-HCH, HCB, p, p'-DDE,) were determined in North Sea plankton during the declining spring plankton bloom. The PCB patterns of Calanus finmarchicus and Temora longicornis are dominated by low chlorinated congeners. Ingestion of suspended matter as well as geodistribution of congeners may increase the levels of higher chlorinated PCBs in Temora longicornis. The geographical differences in concentrations of ∫PCB show higher concentrations at the British and Continental coasts, the Doggerbank and the region near Bergen. Maximum concentrations of HCB and p, p'-DDE were found at stations on the Continental Coast. Humber, Thames, Rhine, Ems as well as the region near Bergen are sources of Lindane pollution in the North Sea. The increasing α/γ- HCH ratio running from south to north in the North Sea may be evidence of Lindane degredation or isomerization in the marine environment.

  10. Organochlorine residues in bats after a forest spraying with DDT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Maser, C.; Whitaker, J.O., Jr.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Background levels of DDT and its metabolites (ZDDT) were extremely low or not detected in five species of forest-dwelling bats in northeastern Oregon, i.e., areas not sprayed with DDT in 1974. Other organochlorine pesticides were rarely found and no polychlotinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at any time during the study. Four of five species of bats showed significant changes in Z:DDT residues in, their carcasses following the single DDT spray application. Myotis californicus and M. volans showed the highest postspray carcass residues, 6.90 and 6.21 ppm (wet weight). respectively. Lasionycteris noctivagans and Eptesicus fuscus also showed an increase; however, M. evotis exhibited no significant postspray change. By 1977 (3 years postspray), residues declined and only M. californicus and M. volans contained levels that were significantly above those in the nonspray (control) area. We are uncertain if the elevated residue levels resulting from the DDTspray project adversely affected any of the bats. An attempt to relate bat catcass ZDDT residues to food habits, through analysis of stomach contents, yielded no clear relationships.

  11. Organochlorinated pesticide degrading microorganisms isolated from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lovecka, Petra; Pacovska, Iva; Stursa, Petr; Vrchotova, Blanka; Kochankova, Lucie; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-01-25

    Degradation of selected organochlorinated pesticides (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane - γ-HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane - DDT, hexachlorobenzene - HCB) by soil microorganisms was studied. Bacterial strains isolated from contaminated soil from Klatovy-Luby, Hajek and Neratovice, Czech Republic, capable of growth on the selected pesticides were isolated and characterised. These isolates were subjected to characterisation and identification by MS MALDI-TOF of whole cells and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The isolates were screened by gas chromatography for their ability to degrade the selected pesticides. Some isolates were able to degrade pesticides, and the formation of degradation products (γ-pentachlorocyclohexane (γ-PCCH), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) observed in liquid culture confirmed their degradation capability. The isolates and DNA samples isolated from the contaminated soil were also screened for the bphA1 gene (encoding biphenyl-2,3-dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the PCB degradation pathway) and its occurrence was demonstrated. The isolates were also screened for the presence of linA, encoding dehydrochlorinase, the first enzyme of the HCH degradation pathway. The linA gene could not be found in any of the tested isolates, possibly due to the high specificity of the primers used. The isolates with the most effective degradation abilities could be used for further in situ bioremediation experiments with contaminated soil. PMID:25094051

  12. Residues of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in honey, an indicator of ambient environment, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Malhat, Farag M; Haggag, Mohamed N; Loutfy, Naglaa M; Osman, Mohamed A M; Ahmed, Mohamed Tawfic

    2015-02-01

    Samples of honey were screened to monitor residues of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. The study meant to examine the quality of honey, and to use honey as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Residue levels were determined by gas chromatography (GC-μECD). Samples had a wide spectrum of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroids pesticides, with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as the most frequently detected organochlorine, followed by permethrin, heptachlor epoxide. Only one sample had a concentration of γ-HCH higher than maximum residue limit of honey (0.01 mg kg(-1)). Residues of organochlorines detected, indicate the presence of some fresh supplies, despite the ban imposed on their use. The study confirmed that honey bee and beehive matrices could be used as gauge for monitoring environment contamination. From public health point of view, the observed levels of pesticide residues in honey do not pose a serious health risk to the consumers, but raises questions of the source of organochlorines. PMID:25243805

  13. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; Yunker, Mark B; MacDuffee, Misty; Ross, Peter S

    2013-04-01

    The present study characterizes the uptake and loss of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by sampling and analyzing their terrestrial and marine foods and fecal material from a remote coastal watershed in British Columbia, Canada. The authors estimate that grizzly bears consume 341 to 1,120 µg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 3.9 to 33 µg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers daily in the fall when they have access to an abundant supply of returning salmon. The authors also estimate that POP elimination by grizzly bears through defecation is very low following salmon consumption (typically <2% of intake) but surprisingly high following plant consumption (>100% for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides). Excretion of individual POPs is largely driven by a combination of fugacity (differences between bear and food concentrations) and the digestibility of the food. The results of the present study are substantiated by a principal components analysis, which also demonstrates a strong role for log KOW in governing the excretion of different POPs in grizzly bears. Collectively, the present study's results reveal that grizzly bears experience a vegetation-associated drawdown of POPs previously acquired through the consumption of salmon, to such an extent that net biomagnification is reduced. PMID:23401324

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls and selected organochlorine pesticides in serum of Slovak population from industrial and non-industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Chovancová, Jana; Drobná, Beáta; Fabišiková, Anna; Conka, Kamil; Wimmerová, Soňa; Pavuk, Marian

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs No. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and organochlorine pesticides (HCB, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT) in 121 blood serum specimens collected from non-occupationally exposed adults living in contaminated and comparison areas were determined using high-resolution gas chromatography/electron capture detection (HRGC/ECD). The sum of the serum concentrations of the three most abundant PCB congeners (No. 138, 153 and 180) found in participants (N = 81) living in industrial areas near incinerators, metallurgical and chemical plants (Krompachy, Kosice, Nemecka and Sala) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in participants living in villages and towns without known sources causing persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination (N = 40). Similarly, significant differences were observed for p,p'-DDE (p < 0.0001) and p,p'-DDT (p < 0.002). However, a Mann-Whitney U test between groups showed that the difference for HCB was not statistically significant (p = 0.089). Age was positively correlated with the sum of PCBs (No. 138, 153 and 180), HCB and the sum of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT (p < 0.01 for all). PMID:25098899

  15. Spatial trends and associated biological responses of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in hatchlings of north Atlantic kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Murvoll, Kari Mette; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Moe, Borge; Anderssen, Endre; Jenssen, Bjorn Munro

    2006-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), some organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), were analyzed in yolk sacs of kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) hatchlings from Kongsfjorden at Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic; 79 degrees N) and from Runde, an island on the coast of Norway (62 degrees N). Retinol (vitamin A), retinyl palmitate, and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were measured in plasma and liver of the hatchlings to examine whether these vitamins were associated with the POPs. Higher levels of PCBs and OCPs were found in hatchlings from Kongsfjorden than in hatchlings from Runde. However, HBCD levels were significantly lower in hatchlings from Kongsfjorden compared to those in hatchlings from Runde. No differences between the two populations of kittiwake hatchlings were found regarding levels of PBDEs. In comparison with seabirds from other European waters and the Canadian Arctic, the kittiwakes seemed to have relatively high levels of PBDEs and HBCD. No effects on morphological variables or vitamin levels by the POPs were revealed, but multivariate regression indicated that liver tocopherol levels may be influenced by POPs. PMID:16764485

  16. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 1: legacy organochlorine contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; Bechshøft, Thea; McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Legacy organochlorine contaminants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Of 19 major legacy contaminants and congeners (ΣPCB, 4 PCB congeners (CB153, 180, 170/190), ΣDDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p' -DDD and p,p'-DDT, α- and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), HCB, octachlorostyrene, dieldrin, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and BB-153), 18 showed statistically significant average yearly declines of -4.4% (range: -2.0 to -10.8%/year) among subadult polar bears (i.e. females<5years, males<6years). For example, the ∑PCB concentrations declined 2.7 fold from 22730ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 12470-32990ng/g lw) in 1983-1986 to 8473ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 6369-9776ng/g lw) in 2006-2010. Similar but fewer statistically significant trends were found for adult females and adult males likely due to smaller sample size and years. Despite declines as a result of international regulations, relatively high levels of these historic pollutants persist in East Greenland polar bear tissues. PMID:23078749</