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1

Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and

Daisuke Ueno; Shin Takahashi; Haruhiko Nakata; Agus Sudaryanto; Annamalai Subramanian; Subramanian Karuppiah; Ahmad Ismail; Muswerry Muchtar; Jinshu Zheng; Bruce J Richardson; Maricar Prudente; Ngyen Duc Hue; Touch Seang Tana; Alexander V Tkalin; Shinsuke Tanabe

2003-01-01

2

Methodological aspects of a national population-based study of persistent organochlorine compounds in serum.  

PubMed

Key methodological aspects are presented for a study of concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides in the serum of a sample of the New Zealand population aged 15 years and older. The study took advantage of the sampling frame and sample collection and interview processes of the National Nutrition Study (NNS). An additional blood sample for this organochlorines study was collected by the NNS and questions added to the NNS questionnaire. Serum was obtained from the blood and, based on responses to questions in the questionnaire, samples with possible occupational exposure to organochlorines were excluded. Remaining samples providing at least 2 ml of serum were pooled within 80 strata defined according to geographic area, age group, sex and ethnicity. A minimum number of five individual serum samples was required for pooling within a stratum. Within strata with sufficient samples, two or three pooled samples were created for variance calculation. Eligible for inclusion in the study were 2497 individual serum samples. Sixty strata had sufficient serum samples for pooling and chemical analysis. This was the first study of organochlorine compounds with a national population-based sample. Two factors that made the study feasible deserve emphasis. First, being able to "piggy-back" on another study. Second, pooling of samples to reduce analytic expenses. It is hoped that the methods used in this study will form the basis for other studies investigating organochlorine concentrations in national populations. PMID:15639266

Bates, Michael N; Buckland, Simon J; Garrett, Nick; Caudill, Samuel P; Ellis, Howard

2005-02-01

3

Persistent Organochlorine Compounds in Human Breast Milk from Mothers Living in Penang and Kedah, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins\\/dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk samples collected in 2003 from primipara mothers living in Penang, Malaysia. OCs were detected in all the samples analyzed with DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and PCBs as the major contaminants followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB),

Agus Sudaryanto; Tatsuya Kunisue; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mami Niida; Hatijah Hashim

2005-01-01

4

Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.  

PubMed

Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:12604061

Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2003-03-01

5

Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments from Chinese river\\/estuary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine compounds were analyzed in surficial sediment samples from seven large Chinese river\\/estuary systems. The reported concentrations of organochlorine compounds in sediments collected from Zhujiang, Minjiang and Jiulongjiang were also presented for comparison. Concentrations of HCH were low in most sediments except the Zhujiang River, where the concentrations were one order of magnitude higher than for the other rivers.

Ying Wu; Jing Zhang; Qing Zhou

1999-01-01

6

Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

7

Organochlorine compounds and testicular dysgenesis syndrome: human data  

PubMed Central

Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, subfertility, and testicular germ-cell tumor have been suggested to comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) based on the premise that each may derive from perturbations of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to be associated with these disorders given the importance of sex steroid hormones in urogenital development and homeostasis. Organochlorines are one such set of compounds which are defined as containing between one and ten covalently bonded chlorine atoms. These compounds are persistent pollutants with long half-lives, accumulate in adipose tissue when ingested, bioaccumulate and biomagnify, and have complex and variable toxicological profiles. Examples of organochlorines include dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordane. In this comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies which have tested for associations between organochlorines and facets of TDS, we find evidence for associations between the exposures p,p?-DDE, cis-nonachlor, and trans-nonachlor with TGCT. The sum of the evidence from human epidemiologic studies does not indicate any association between specific organochlorines studied and cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or fertility. Many other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including additional organochlorines, have yet to be assessed in relation to disorders associated with TDS, yet study of such chemicals has strong scientific merit given the relevance of such hypotheses to urogenital development. PMID:21668838

Cook, Michael B.; Trabert, Britton; McGlynn, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

8

Organochlorinated compounds in Caspian Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several organochlorinated contaminants, including numerous pesticides, were determined in coastal sediments from the Caspian Sea. The most important contaminants were p,p?-DDT (up to 7400 pgg?1) and its breakdown products, p,p?-DDD (up to 3400 pgg?1) and p,p?-DDE (up to 1300 pgg?1). Although the contamination was most severe in Azerbaijan, the sediment concentrations and percentage distribution of the three DDT-related compounds indicated

Stephen de Mora; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Mohammad Reza Sheikholeslami; Chantal Cattini; Imma Tolosa

2004-01-01

9

Temporal Trends of Persistent Organochlorine Contamination in Russia: A Case Study of Baikal and Caspian Seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) contamination in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea, concentrations of persistent\\u000a OCs, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordane compounds\\u000a (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), in the blubber of female seals were determined. Collections were made in 1992, 1993, 1995\\u000a and 1998. DDT concentrations in Baikal

Shinsuke Tanabe; Satoko Niimi; Tu Binh Minh; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Evgeny A. Petrov

2003-01-01

10

Persistent organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and whole blood  

SciTech Connect

Since organochlorine pesticides were introduced for plant protection and sanitation, they have been of great benefit in the control of pest populations and in combating the spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, they accumulate in the environment and this has resulted in a ban on their use. Nevertheless, they are still widely used in tropical countries as the insecticides of choice. An analytical procedure was elaborated to find out the extent of contamination of the human body by persistent residues of organochlorine pesticides and to determine the gradient between adipose tissue and biological fluids, which correlates with bioaccumulation and dissipation processes. The method has two important advantages: it is a simple, low-cost semi-micro, and it makes it possible to determine free and bound pesticides.

Waliszewski, S.M. (Univ. of Veracruz, (Mexico)); Szymczynski, G.A. (Medical Academy, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

1991-06-01

11

Distribution of some organochlorine compounds (PCB, CBz, and DDE) in beeswax and honey  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Jan, J. [Public Health Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cerne, K. [Chemical Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1993-11-01

12

TOXAPHENE AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THREE SPECIES OF ALBATROSSES FROM THE NORTH AND SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides (chlordane-related compounds ( SCHL), DDT-related compounds (SDDT), hexachlorocyclohexanes (SHCH), tris(p-chloro-phenyl)methane, hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, diel- drin) were determined in fat of Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) and in fat and eggs of blackfooted albatross (Diomedea nigripes) from the central north Pacific Ocean. The HCH isomers and chlordane- and DDT-related compounds were also determined in eggs of

Derek C. G. Muir; Paul D. Jones; Heidi Karlsson; Krystina Koczansky; Gary A. Stern; Kurunthachalam Kannan; James P. Ludwig; Hamish Reid; Chris J. R. Robertson; John P. Giesy

2002-01-01

13

Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-  

E-print Network

Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

Heavy metal and organochlorine compound concentrations in tissues of raccoons from east-central Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and related compounds and heavy metals are persistent contaminants in the environment. Bioconcentration and biomagnification are well reported for organochlorine compounds. These compounds have a great potential for causing wildlife mortality or serious behavioral, reproductive, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects, along with specific organ toxicity. The pervasive nature of toxic substances in the environment necessitates some knowledge for potential exposure of wildlife species. Without baseline values of contaminant loads for selected indicator species it is impossible to determine when abnormal or pathological conditions exist in wild populations. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline values for selected environmental contaminants in the raccoon (Procyon lotor), a potential indicator species for wildlife and to see if heavy metal accumulation was related to age or sex.

Herbert, G.B.; Peterle, T.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-02-01

15

Residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ), 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starlings were collected for the National Pesticides Monitoring Program from 112 sites throughout the contiguous United States and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Starling samples from 14 sites had greater than 1.0 ppm DDE residues with the highest DDE level being 15.8 ppm in a sample taken near Roswell, New Mexico. The occurrence of PCBs and chlordane isomers increased since the

Brian W. Cain; Christine M. Bunck

1983-01-01

16

PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

17

Specific accumulation and elimination kinetics of tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and other persistent organochlorines in humans from Japan.  

PubMed Central

We examined human adipose tissue, liver, and bile from humans in Japan to understand the contamination status, specific accumulation, and elimination of two newly identified environmental contaminants, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs). TCPMe and TCPMOH concentrations in Japanese human adipose tissue were slightly higher than those reported previously, indicating widespread exposure to these compounds in humans. Elevated residues of PCBs and DDTs are found in adipose tissue and liver. Concentrations in bile strongly correlated with concentrations in adipose fat and liver, which may suggest an equilibration in adipose fat/bile and liver/bile and possible biliary excretion of persistent organochlorines in humans. Composition of the organochlorines accumulated further indicates a metabolic capacity in humans higher than that of marine mammals. We observed age-dependent accumulation for TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other organochlorines, but there were no significant gender differences. p,p'-DDE and TCPMe were estimated to have low biliary excretion rate. Elimination potential of persistent organochlorines may be related to their octanol-water partition coefficient. The relationship between excretion rate and octanol-water partition coefficient may be used to predict the biliary excretion potential of some other lipophilic organochlorines such as dioxins and dibenzofurans in humans. The presence of organochlorines in bile suggests that the hepatic excretory system plays a major role in the elimination of xenobiotics in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study of accumulation and elimination of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. PMID:11673122

Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

2001-01-01

18

Residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Starlings were collected for the National Pesticides Monitoring Program from 112 sites throughout the contiguous United States and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Starling samples from 14 sites had greater than 1.0 ppm DDE residues with the highest DDE level being 15.8 ppm in a sample taken near Roswell, New Mexico. The occurrence of PCBs and chlordane isomers increased since the 1976 collection, but DDT, and dieldrin occurrences decreased. DDE and dieldrin levels decreased since the 1976 collection, but the level of PCBs has increased

Cain, B.W.; Bunck, C.M.

1983-01-01

19

Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds during pregnancy and the newborn  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of organochlorine compounds as insecticides during the past few decades has led to their ubiqitous presence in the environment. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced for use as coolant and insulator fluids for transformers and capacitors, as heat transfer fluids and as fire retardants for wood products; heavy industrial usage has led to widespread contamination of the environment with the PCBs. Organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and PCBs are highly lipid soluble and are resistant to environmental degradation. In human beings these compounds are stored in adipose tissue and are resistant to metabolism. These substances are present in women and the fetus is exposed during utero development by transplacental transfer. Relatively high serum levels of OCIs and PCBs have been found in women with premature delivery. Also, DDT and PCB residue levels were higher in California sea lions which gave birth prematurely than in those with full-term pups. OCIs may disturb the hormonal balance of pregnancy and perhaps precipitate labor. Some DDT analogs are reported to have estrogenic effects and PCBs were also estrogenically active. Limited data exist on the levels and kinetics of OCIs and PCBs during pregnancy and in newborns.

Roncevic, N.; Pavkov, S.; Galetin-Smith, R.; Vukavic, T.; Vojinovic, M.; Djordjevic, M.

1987-01-01

20

Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organochlorines and Childhood Obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project  

PubMed Central

Background: In some previous studies, prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines such as 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p´-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in children. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), p,p´-DDE, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs with offspring obesity during childhood. Methods: The analysis was based on a subsample of 1,915 children followed until 7 years of age as part of the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). The CPP enrolled pregnant women in 1959–1965; exposure levels were measured in third-trimester maternal serum that was collected before these organochlorines were banned in the United States. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for BMI as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results: Adjusted results did not show clear evidence for an association between organochlorine exposure and obesity; however, a suggestive finding emerged for dieldrin. Compared with those in the lowest quintile (dieldrin, < 0.57 ?g/L), odds of obesity were 3.6 (95% CI: 1.3, 10.5) for the fourth and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.8, 7.1) for the highest quintile. Overweight and BMI were unrelated to organochlorine exposure. Conclusions: In this population with relatively high levels of exposure to organochlorines, no clear associations with obesity or BMI emerged. Citation: Cupul-Uicab LA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Longnecker MP. 2013. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines and childhood obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1103–1109;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205901 PMID:23799652

Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2013-01-01

21

Specific Accumulation and Elimination Kinetics of Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and Other Persistent Organochlorines in Humans from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined human adipose tissue, liver, and bile from humans in Japan to understand the cont- amination status, specific accumulation, and elimination of two newly identified environmental contaminants, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCP- MOH), and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs). TCPMe and TCPMOH concentrations

Tu Binh Minh; Mafumi Watanabe; Shinsuke Tanabe; Taketo Yamada; Jun-ichi Hata; Shaw Watanabe

2001-01-01

22

Age and accumulation of persistent organochlorines: a study of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus).  

PubMed

We studied the relationship between increasing age and blood concentrations of four persistent organochlorines (OCs), hexachlorbenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorbiphenyl (PCB-153), in arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We measured OC concentrations in 31 individuals of known age and took repeated blood samples of 64 individuals in different years, either one year apart or three or four years apart. The age of individuals was not related to the blood concentrations for any of the four compounds, and in birds whose values were measured repeatedly, there was no effect of the length of time (number of years) between sampling events on the relative change in OC concentration. This indicates that steady-state levels were reached before the age of first breeding. However, breeding area significantly influenced the changes in OC concentration between sampling events. In areas in which birds fed on prey from higher trophic levels, the OC concentrations showed large increases between sampling events; in areas in which birds fed at lower trophic levels, OC concentrations increased relatively little or not at all. This indicates that individual birds had different equilibrium concentrations, which are reached at different ages depending on the intake of OCs through the food. It also indicates that some individuals had not reached steady-state concentrations at the onset of reproduction. Changes in body condition and amount of blood lipids were of lesser importance than trophic level and influenced the concentrations of HCB and oxychlordane more strongly than DDE and PCB-153. In conclusion, this study indicates that steady-state concentrations of persistent OCs are reached early in life in most glaucous gulls, considering the long life span of the species. PMID:12959547

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Bakken, Vidar; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar

2003-09-01

23

In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/ml), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

2014-12-01

24

In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male  

PubMed Central

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008–2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988–1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p?-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/ml), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p?-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p?-DDE were 10.0 (2.1–35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2–2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7–55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p?-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p?-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

2014-01-01

25

Influence of drying of biosludge on organochlorine compounds from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper industry is one of the major sources of man-made generation of organochlorine compounds. During biological treatment of wastewater, part of organochlorine compounds is discharged with treated effluent and part is retained on biomass and disposed of as waste activated sludge. Due to presence of these compounds, the disposal of biosludge from pulp and paper industry has become an issue. The estimation of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) compounds after drying and grinding resulted in 49% lower concentration of AOX due to stripping of purgeable compounds. These purgeable compounds are not released at 60 degrees C in aqueous medium during estimation of purgeable organic halogen (POX) compounds. Dispersion of sludge by sonication overcomes the loss of POX compounds and results in higher concentration ofAOX compounds. The drying of biosludge samples at 45, 100 degrees C and in presence of sun light resulted in 20.1, 49.0 and 29.6% removal of purgeable AOX compounds, respectively. The lab scale sorption study using dichloromethane (as volatile organochlorine compound) reveal that biosludge from pulp and paper industry is a good adsorbent of volatile organochlorine compounds and results in poor release of these compounds during estimation of POX compounds. PMID:23033648

Gupta, S; Purwar, M; Chakrabarti, S K; Singh, Satnam

2012-01-01

26

Temporal trends of persistent organochlorine contamination in Russia: a case study of Baikal and Caspian Seal.  

PubMed

To examine temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) contamination in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea, concentrations of persistent OCs, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), in the blubber of female seals were determined. Collections were made in 1992, 1993, 1995 and 1998. DDT concentrations in Baikal and Caspian seals showed a rapid decline during 1992 to 1998, while the concentrations of PCBs declined slowly. Elevated concentrations of HCHs were found in Caspian seals and there was no decline in their concentrations during 1993 to 1998, which could be due to extensive usage of HCHs around Caspian Sea in recent years. Trends of TCPMe and TCPMOH residues in Caspian seals were similar to that of DDTs. The pattern of PCB isomers in both Baikal seals and Caspian seals exhibited little temporal variations. Concentrations of non- ortho coplanar PCBs have declined at a faster rate than those of mono- ortho congeners. Compilation of available data on OC contamination in the North Pacific, Antarctic, Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, and India suggested that the time trend of residues of contaminants during the 1990s were different among these regions. Residue levels of OC insecticides have declined slowly while PCBs remained at a steady state in the open oceans and the Antarctic. The magnitude of temporal variation in Lake Baikal seemed to be higher than that in the Caspian Sea. Residue concentrations of OCs have increased in Ganges River dolphins from 1989-92 to 1994-96, suggesting that tropical, developing countries are potential emission source of OCs. PMID:12712284

Tanabe, Shinsuke; Niimi, Satoko; Minh, Tu Binh; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Petrov, Evgeny A

2003-05-01

27

Residues of persistent organochlorine contaminants in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Elephant Island, Antarctica.  

PubMed

Contamination of blubber tissues by organochlorine pesticides (OC) and PCBs was assessed in female and male pups and juveniles, as well as in adult females and subdominant adult males of the Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, from Elephant Island in the Antarctic Peninsula. All residues of persistent organochlorine contaminants analyzed were found in blubber samples, except for beta-HCH, endosulfan II, endrin, heptachlor, and aldrin. The relative concentrations of the analytes detected were sigmaDDT > sigmaPCB > sigmachlordane > mirex > dieldrin > HCB> sigmaendosulfan > methoxychlor > sigmaHCHs > other OC pesticides. OC and PCBs concentrations were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than those found in pinnipeds from northern hemisphere. The ratio sigmaDDT/sigmaPCB was higher in southern elephant seals. The relative importance of some OC residues indicates that pesticides used either currently or in the recent past in countries in the southern hemisphere are the sources of contamination in the Antarctic region. Data showed that concentrations of contaminants generally increased from pups < juveniles < adults and suggested that pups accumulated contaminants through transfer from the mother seals via transplacental and lactational routes. PMID:17612156

Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Metcalfe, Tracy L; Metcalfe, Chris D; Robaldo, Ricardo B; Muelbert, Mônica M C; Colares, Elton P; Martinez, Pablo E; Bianchini, Adalto

2007-06-01

28

Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

Porta, Miquel [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)], E-mail: mporta@imim.es; Bosch de Basea, Magda [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica CIBERESP (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Benavides, Fernando G. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Tomas [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernandez, Esteve [Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Esther [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Puigdomenech, Elisa [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

2008-11-15

29

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues in starlings from 126 sites within the contiguous 48 states were monitored during fall 1976. The average nationwide level of DDE and PCBs has increased significantly since 1974, but the number of sites reporting PCB residues has decreased fivefold. Dieldrin residues have remained unchanged since 1974. Highest DDE levels occurred in samples from parts of Arizona, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, and New Mexico.

White, D.H.

1979-01-01

30

Contamination by organochlorine compounds in sturgeons from Caspian Sea during 2001 and 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the five species of sturgeons collected from coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran during 2001 and 2002 to understand their status of contamination and accumulation features. Among OCs examined, concentrations of DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were predominant in all the sturgeon samples with concentrations ranging from 73 to

Natsuko Kajiwara; Daisuke Ueno; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mohammad Pourkazemi; David G. Aubrey

2003-01-01

31

Thyroid Hormones in Pregnancy in Relation to Environmental Exposure to Organochlorine Compounds and Mercury  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and mercury are global environmental contaminants that can disrupt the endocrine system in animals and humans. However, there is little evidence that they can interfere with endocrine status in pregnant women and neonates at low levels of exposure. The aim of this study was to examine thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy and in cord blood in relation to blood concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and Hg in healthy women recruited during pregnancy. We found a significant negative correlation between maternal total triiodothyronine levels and three non-coplanar congeners (PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180), three pesticides (p,p?-DDE, cis-nanochlor, and hexachlorobenzene), and inorganic Hg independently, without any other changes in thyroid status. No significant relationships were observed between OCs and cord serum thyroid hormones. Cord serum free thyroxin was negatively correlated with inorganic Hg. These results suggest that at even low levels of exposure, persistent environmental contaminants can interfere with thyroid status during pregnancy. PMID:16079076

Takser, Larissa; Mergler, Donna; Baldwin, Mary; de Grosbois, Sylvie; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie

2005-01-01

32

Occurrence of Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and some other persistent organochlorines in Japanese human adipose tissue.  

PubMed Central

Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) are among the most recently identified environmental contaminants. Despite their widespread contamination in the marine environment, human exposure to these compounds remains relatively unknown. We determined the concentrations of TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds (CHLs) in human adipose tissue from Japan. TCPMe and TCPMOH were detected in all of the adipose samples analyzed; the concentrations ranged from 2.5-21 and 1.1-18 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans were less than those reported in marine mammals, suggesting the possibility of metabolism and elimination of these compounds by humans. Significant correlation between TCPMe and TCPMOH with concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in human adipose tissues suggested that exposure to DDT is the source of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. The age- and sex-dependent accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH as well as other organochlorines was less pronounced. Results for other organochlorines indicated that recent contamination status of PCBs in human samples from Japan was higher than that in developing countries, whereas DDT contamination is lower. Greater concentrations of CHLs in human adipose tissue from Japan than in those from other countries suggest that continuous monitoring of CHLs in humans in Japan is necessary. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH in human adipose tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10903611

Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

2000-01-01

33

Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal ( Phoca caspica ) from the Caspian Sea, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes\\u000a (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean\\u000a values of 19 and 1.3 ?g\\/g on wet-weight

M. Watanabe; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; M. Amano; N. Miyazaki; E. A. Petrov; S. L. Khuraskin

1999-01-01

34

Urinary Porphyrin Excretion in Children is Associated with Exposure to Organochlorine Compounds  

PubMed Central

Background Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and other organochlorines induce porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) in animal studies. Evidence in humans, however, is contradictory. In neonates and adults from a population historically highly exposed to HCB (Flix, Catalonia, Spain), no relation with PCT or with porphyrin excretion was found. Objectives We aimed to analyze the association between urinary porphyrin excretion and exposure to HCB and other organochlorinated compounds in children 4 years of age. Methods Our birth cohort included all newborns from Flix and the five surrounding towns (where no airborne pollution occurred). Among the 68 children with porphyrins we measured in cord blood, 52 children 4 years of age provided blood to measure organochlorine compounds, hair for methylmercury, and urine for porphyrin excretion pattern. Results Quantitative porphyrin excretion was within the normal values. However, total porphyrins, coproporphyrin I (CPI), and coproporphyrin III (CPIII) adjusted to creatinine excretion increased with increasing levels of HCB, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p?-DDE), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p?-DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153). We found no association with methylmercury. When we fitted multiple pollutant models, p,p?-DDE had the strongest association. We found these associations in children from both Flix and other towns, and they were independent of breast-feeding and of organochlorine and porphyrin levels at birth. Conclusion HCB at current levels did not induce porphyria or increase uroporphyrins. However, the increase of urinary coproporphyrins suggests an incipient toxic effect of the organochlorines, especially for p,p?-DDE, on the hepatic heme-synthesis pathway that differs from the major effects seen in PCT. PMID:18941586

Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; To-Figueras, Jordi; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan O.; Herrero, Carmen

2008-01-01

35

Contamination levels and specific accumulation of persistent organochlorines in Caspian seal (Phoca caspica) from the Caspian sea, Russia.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean values of 19 and 1.3 microg/g on wet-weight basis in adult male seals, respectively. PCB pollution in Caspian seals was not so considerable compared with those of seals that suffered mass mortality. Less gender difference of organochlorine residue levels in adult animals implies less excretion of organochlorines from the body of adult females through lactation and gestation, probably due to the higher rate of pregnancy failure. Immature seals had a wide range of organochlorine concentrations, which decreased as body length increased, suggesting dilution. Caspian seals can be considered to have higher degradation capacity for coplanar PCBs. Mean TEQs (2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents) for non-, mono- and di-ortho coplanar PCBs was 51 pg/g on wet-weight basis, which was lower than those in seals that have suffered mass mortality, but comparable to those found in Arctic seals. PMID:10473798

Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Tatsukawa, R; Amano, M; Miyazaki, N; Petrov, E A; Khuraskin, S L

1999-10-01

36

Organochlorine Compounds in the Plasma of Peregrine Falcons and Gyrfalcons Nesting in Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine compounds in the blood plasma of after-second-year female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were determined from samples collected from southern Greenland in 1985 and western Greenland from 1983 to 1989, and from adult and nestling gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) from western Greenland in 1989 and 1990. Samples were taken during nesting. Levels of p,p'-DDE (DDE) in peregrine plasma were

W. M. JARMAN; S. A. BURNS; W. G. MATTOX; W. S. SEEGAR

1994-01-01

37

Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (?-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

2013-11-01

38

Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a variety of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs and metabolites. The geometric mean, on a wet mass basis, of ??PCBs (sum of 29 congeners and congener groups) were 732??282 ng/g (1 S.D.) in seals and 3395??1442 ng/g in polar bears. The geometric mean of ??DDTs, ??HCHs (??-, ??- and ??- HCH) and HCB concentrations (wet mass basis) in seals and bears were 562??261 ng/g vs. 74.8??39 ng/g, 380??213 ng/g vs. 515 ng/g, and 17.4??10.1 ng/g vs. 183??153 ng/g, respectively. The geometric mean sum of chlordane (??chlordane, sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide) and dieldrin concentrations in ringed seals and polar bears were 753??617 ng/g vs. 720??315 ng/g and 38.6??22.8 ng/g vs. 130??65 ng/g, respectively. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (polar bear/ringed seal POP concentrations) were lower in the animals sampled near Barrow, Alaska than in those from locations in the Canadian Arctic. This suggests that polar bears are also preying on marine mammals from lower trophic levels than the ringed seals with correspondingly lower organochlorine levels, such as bowhead whale carcasses. PCB congener patterns in the samples demonstrated the metabolism of certain PCB congeners in the polar bear relative to the ringed seal in agreement with previous studies. Regional comparisons of animals collected in Alaska and Arctic Canada are presented. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

Kucklick, J.R.; Struntz, W.D.J.; Becker, P.R.; York, G.W.; O'Hara, T. M.; Bohonowych, J.E.

2002-01-01

39

Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers  

SciTech Connect

Neutral organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were analyzed by GC-MS technique in 183 human milk samples obtained in 1984-1985 from 165 women living in different parts of Finland. The effect of the donors' age, body mass, place of residence, number of children, dietary habits, smoking habits, occupational history, and weight loss on the organochlorine content of human milk were studied. Of all the milk samples analyzed, p,p'-DDE concentrations were above the detection limit in 99.5%, p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT in 57.9%, isomers of HCH in 30.0%, cis-chlordane in 4.9%, oxychlordane in 3.3%, trans-nonachlor in 6.0%, heptachlor in 12.0%, and heptachlor epoxide in 6.6%. Mirex was not found in any of the milk samples, whereas the signals of chlorinated terpenes (toxaphenes) were detected but could not be quantitatively determined. The mean fat adjusted residue levels above the detection limit in Finnish human milk samples of primipara mothers were 0.66 ppm for total DDT compounds, 0.08 ppm for HCB, 0.93 ppm for PCBs, 0.41 ppm for chlordane compounds, 0.20 ppm for isomers of HCH, and 0.10 ppm for heptachlor epoxide. The geometric means were 0.46, 0.06, 0.57, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.01 ppm, respectively. The age of the mothers positively correlated with the DDE concentrations in human milk. The residues of OC compounds in human milk did not differ in women living in plywood industry regions, those actually working in the industry, and other mothers. Small differences were detected in the levels of organochlorine compounds in different parts of Finland. No relation was found between the OC content and the fish consumption, smoking habits, weight loss, or social group of the donors.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Pyysalo, H.; Antervo, K.

1988-01-01

40

CONCENTRATIONS OF SELECTED PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN STORE-BOUGHT FOODS FROM NORTHERN ALASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We address marine and terrestrial mammal blubber, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, tongue, maktak and maktaaq (epidermis and blubber from bowhead, beluga whales, respectively), and fish muscle and livers, as commonly consumed tissues in subsistence communities across northern Alaska in the context of organochlorine (OC) contamination of store-bought foods. Human exposure to contaminants from biota, as part of a subsistence

Todd M. O'Hara; Paul F. Hoekstra; Cyd Hanns; Sean M. Backus; Derek C. G. Muir

2005-01-01

41

Persistent organochlorine levels in six prey species of the gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus in Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous investigations have revealed very high levels of organochlorines (OCs) in the Icelandic gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, a resident top predator. We now examine six potential prey species of birds, both resident and migratory, in order to elucidate the most likely route of the OCs to the gyrfalcon. The ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, the most important prey of the gyrfalcon, contained

K. Ólafsdóttir; Æ. Petersen; E. V. Magnúsdóttir; T. Björnsson; T. Jóhannesson

2001-01-01

42

Passive sampling of atmospheric organochlorine compounds by SPMDs in a remote high mountain area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been deployed in high mountain areas (Central Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain) for the measurement of atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) over a period of 1.5 years. These devices were filled with triolein and have been deployed at three altitudes, 1600, 2240 and 2600 m above sea level. Performance reference compounds were used to calibrate their sampling rates. The SPMD results were validated by comparison to active air sampling with high-volume systems. Sampling rates between 0.55 and 1.3 m 3 d -1 were estimated from the dissipation of PCB155. Atmospheric concentrations measured by SPMDs were in good agreement with the levels obtained by high-volume sampling. These findings suggest that SPMDs can be useful monitoring systems for the atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine compounds in remote high mountain areas.

Van drooge, Barend L.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Booij, Kees; Camarero, Lluis; Catalan, Jordi

43

The role of the sea-surface microlayer in the air–sea gas exchange of organochlorine compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous measurements of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in seawater, the sea-surface microlayer and the atmosphere were conducted in June–July 2004 in the coastal marine environment of Singapore. Together, these measurements represent the first data on the flux of OCs between the ocean and atmosphere reported in the scientific literature that take into account the implication of the sea surface microlayer (SML)

Oliver Wurl; Subramanian Karuppiah; Jeffrey Philip Obbard

2006-01-01

44

Persistent organochlorine residues in livers of six species of Ciconiiformes (aves) from Spain.  

PubMed

Liver samples of 42 birds belonging to 6 species of Ciconiiformes (grey heron (n = 17), little egret (n = 12), cattle egret (n = 1), glossy ibis (n = 1), little bittern (n = 1), and white stork (n = 10)), collected from two different zones of Spain (Ebro Delta and Madrid) in 1992-1997, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. SigmaPCBs (sum of concentrations of individual congeners), p,p'-DDE, HCB, gamma-HCH, and heptachlor epoxide were the most prevalent residues detected in all samples (occurrence > 95%). There were no statistically significant differences in organochlorine levels between grey herons and little egrets, while levels of SigmaPCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB, gamma-HCH, and heptachlor were significantly lower for white storks. These results could be explained by the different habitat of these species, aquatic in the Ebro Delta (grey herons, little egrets) and dry in Madrid (white stork), and their diverse feeding habits. PMID:16785174

Piqué, E; Mateo, R; Fernández-Fernández, D; Guitart, R

2006-01-01

45

Persistent organochlorine pesticides residues in cow and goat milks collected from different regions of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the bioaccumulation of organochlorines in two milk-producing animals (goats and cows) grazed on the same feed to explore the extent of organochlorines availability in milk and any species effect on the bioaccumulation pattern. Six organochlorine pesticides: aldrin, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were determined in samples collected from four regions in Ethiopia. Aldrin (11.6?gkg(-1)) was detected only in one cow milk sample and ?-endosulfan was detected in one goat milk sample at a level of 142.1?gkg(-1), and in one cow milk sample (47.8?gkg(-1)) from the same region. p,p'-DDE was detected in 40% of the milk samples analyzed while o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT were found in high amounts in almost all samples. The average total DDT (excluding DDD) in the samples was 328.5?gkg(-1). Regions known for their malaria epidemics were the most contaminated with DDT residue. The accumulation pattern in both species was not clear under natural sampling. PMID:24630448

Deti, Habtewold; Hymete, Ariaya; Bekhit, Adnan A; Mohamed, Abdel Maaboud I; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

2014-07-01

46

Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)  

SciTech Connect

The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

Jacobs, Miriam N. [Molecular Toxicology Group, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom); Hood, Steven R. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom)

2005-12-01

47

Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DOT (DDT+DDD+DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat bogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.

Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

1997-01-01

48

Organochlorine compounds in the Gulf of Bothnia: sediment and benthic species.  

PubMed

Surface sediment, amphipods (Monoporeia affinis), isopods (Saduria entomon) and fourhorn sculpins (Oncocottus quadricornis) were collected at two coastal stations in the Gulf of Bothnia, one in the Bothnian Bay and the other in the Bothnian Sea. The objective was to study the concentrations, composition profiles, bioaccumulation features and spatial differences of organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCBz), chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, Mirex and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). All groups of compounds were found in every sample investigated, with the exception of Mirex that was not detected in the sediment samples. The concentrations for e.g. PCBs and CHLs ranged from 700 to 2400 and 70 to 400 ng/g lipid in the specimens. For the corresponding sediments the results were 9.0-9.3 ng/g dw for PCBs and 0.54-0.57 ng/g dw for CHLs, respectively. Bioaccumulation differences between the species with regard to both degree of and type of compound were observed. The highest accumulation potential was found for the cyclodiene compounds including CHLs and Mirex in isopod. Finally, there were only small concentration and bioaccumulation differences between the two stations. PMID:10739063

Strandberg, B; Bandh, C; van Bavel, B; Bergqvist, P A; Broman, D; Ishaq, R; Näf, C; Rappe, C

2000-01-01

49

The deep-sea as a final global sink of semivolatile persistent organic pollutants? Part II: Organochlorine pesticides in surface and deep-sea dwelling fish of the north and south Atlantic and the Monterey Bay Canyon (California).  

PubMed

The understanding of the global environmental multiphase distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a result of the physico-chemical properties of the respective compounds is well established. We have analysed the results of a vertical transport of POPs from surface water to deepwater in terms of the contamination of the biota living in the respective environmental compartments. Samples were taken from the North and the South Atlantic and from the uprising water region of the continental shelf of California (Marine Sanctuary Monterey Bay and its Canyon). The contents of persistent organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphenes, HCHs, and HCB) in surface-living fish are compared to those in deepwater fish of the same geographic area. The deepwater biota show significantly higher burdens as compared to surface-living species of the same region. There are also indications for recycling processes of POPs of the class of organochlorine pesticides in the biophase of the abyss as well. It can be concluded that the bio- and geophase of the deep-sea may act as an ultimate global sink for persistent semivolatile contaminants in the marine environment like the soil on the continents. PMID:10705542

Looser, R; Froescheis, O; Cailliet, G M; Jarman, W M; Ballschmiter, K

2000-03-01

50

ASSOCIATION OF IN UTERO ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND FETAL GROWTH AND LENGTH OF GESTATION IN AN AGRICULTURAL POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1940 through the 1970s, organochlorine compounds were widely used as insecticides in the United States. Thereafter, their use was severely restricted after recognition of their persistence in the environment, their toxicity in animals, and their potential for endocrine disruption. Although substantial evidence exists for the fetal toxicity of organochlorines in animals, information on human reproductive effects is conflicting. We

L Fenster; Brenda Eskenazi; Meredith Anderson; A Bradman; A Hubbard; K Harley; G Vargas; D Barr

2005-01-01

51

Organochlorine Turnover in Forest Ecosystems: The Missing Link in the Terrestrial Chlorine Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

A Leri; S Myneni

2011-12-31

52

Concentration changes of organochlorine compounds and polybromodiphenyl ethers during metamorphosis of aquatic insects.  

PubMed

The role of insect larvae and pupae as sources of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in freshwater food webs for high predators such as fish is evaluated. Trichoptera and diptera have been taken as organisms of choice for such comparison because they are common in benthic aquatic habitats and accumulate substantial amounts of these compounds. Hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes,4,4'-DDE,4,4'-DDT, polychlorobiphenyls, and PBDEs have been measured. The results show a nonselective enrichment of OCs and PBDEs from larvae to pupae. These concentration increases may result from the weight loss of pupae during metamorphosis as a consequence of mainly protein carbon respiration and lack of feeding. Despite the lack of change in total amount, the concentration increases from larvae to pupae are very relevant for the pollutant ingestion of the higher predators. The intakes of OCs and PBDEs by trout are between 2- and 5-fold higher per calorie gained when predating on pupae than on larvae. Since pollutant concentration, energy reward, predation susceptibility, and duration of life stage are very different between these two insect stages, and none of them is irrelevant for the incorporation of OCs or PBDEs to higher levels, bioaccumulation food-web models should distinguish between the two sources. PMID:17937293

Bartrons, Mireia; Grimalt, Joan O; Catalan, Jordi

2007-09-01

53

Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

2001-01-01

54

Effect of chemical structure of organo-chlorine compounds on the lubricity of A12024 against steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction reduction and antiwear properties of a range of organo-chlorine compounds as oil additives in mineral oil were assessed using a Timken tester with a SAE52100 steel ring sliding against an A12024 block. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and microscopic infrared reflectance were employed to examine the boundary film formed on the surface of the Al block. The results reveal

Yanhong Hu; Weimin Liu

1998-01-01

55

Persulfate Persistence and Treatability of Gasoline Compounds.  

E-print Network

??Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) such as gasoline are ubiquitous organic compounds present at contaminated sites throughout the world. Accidental spills and leakage from underground storage tanks… (more)

Sra, Kanwartej Singh

2010-01-01

56

Persistent organochlorine levels in six prey species of the gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus in Iceland.  

PubMed

Our previous investigations have revealed very high levels of organochlorines (OCs) in the Icelandic gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, a resident top predator. We now examine six potential prey species of birds, both resident and migratory, in order to elucidate the most likely route of the OCs to the gyrfalcon. The ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, the most important prey of the gyrfalcon, contained very low levels of OCs. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in mallards Anas platyrhynchos, tufted ducks Aythya fuligula, golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria, purple sandpipers Calidris maritima, and black guillemots Cepphus grylle reflected their position in the foodchain. The differences in OC-levels seem nevertheless too high just to reflect the different food-chain levels of these species in Iceland. The winter grounds of the migratory golden plovers and tufted ducks appear to be more contaminated than the Icelandic terrestrial habitat of ptarmigans or the freshwater habitat as reflected in mallards, both resident species. However, spending the winter on the coast in Iceland, results in high levels of contaminants in purple sandpipers and black guillemots. Our results indicate OC contamination of the marine ecosystem in Iceland while the terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are little affected. It is postulated that gyrfalcons receive the major part of the observed contamination from prey other than ptarmigan, especially birds associated with the marine ecosystem and also from migratory birds. PMID:11234542

Olafsdóttir, K; Petersen, A E; Magnúsdóttir, E V; Björnsson, T; Jóhannesson, T

2001-01-01

57

Altitudinal and chiral signature of persistent organochlorine pesticides in air, soil, and spruce needles (Picea abies) of the Alps.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the distribution, transportation, and biodegradation of the selected chiral persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in the Alps. In the complex environment, we found the movement and fate of OCP could be defined by many factors. Taking HCE as an example, below the timberline its accumulation from air into SPMD increased with altitude and seasonally changed, but the trends reversed above the timberline. In soil, the tendency of HCE concentrations vs organic materials followed a sigmoid curve, and HCE concentration-altitude correlations are positive in central Alps but negative in southern Alps. The HCE enantiomeric ratios (ERs) in soil correlated to HCE isomers concentrations, the humus pH values, and the sampling site altitudes. HCE shift from humus to mineral soil can also be traced by ERs. The altitudinal and longitudinal trends in needles suggested that alpha-HCH has a more complex movementthan HCE in Alps. In conclusion, altitude conducted condensation, plant canopies, organic material in soil, and geographic specific precipitations may affect OCP distributions and transportation, whereas altitude conducted temperature and soil pH could dictate their fate in the environment. PMID:19452900

Shen, Heqing; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Levy, Walkiria; Zsolnay, Adam; Weiss, Peter; Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Moche, Wolfgang; Braun, Katharina; Schramm, Karl-Werner

2009-04-01

58

Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals ( Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were determined in the blubber and liver of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) found stranded on the coast of the Caspian Sea during an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2000. Among organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 470 ?g\\/g on a lipid-weight basis.

N. Kajiwara; S. Niimi; M. Watanabe; Y. Ito; S. Takahashi; S. Tanabe; L. S. Khuraskin; N. Miyazaki

2002-01-01

59

Extraction and distribution of organochlorine compounds in eastern Lake Erie and Niagara River water  

SciTech Connect

A chromic acid digestion extraction technique was compared to conventional solvent extraction for recovery of a series of organochlorine compounds (chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, DDE, mirex and photomirex) from centrifuged water collected at two sites along the Niagara River, between 1/22/86 and 1/7/87. The sampling sites were located near the river's inlet at Fort Erie, Ontario and close to the river's outlet to Lake Ontario at Niagara-on-the-Lake Ontario. The digestion technique was more efficient than conventional solvent extraction. Relative recovery (undigested/digested) decreased exponentially with increasing log K[sub ow]. This implies that digestion-extraction recovers both the fraction dissolved and the fraction bound to dissolved organic matter (DOM), while conventional solvent extraction only recovers the dissolved fraction. As the time compounds equilibrated with the DOM increased, the extraction efficiencies by conventional extraction decreased while the efficiencies by digestion extraction remained 100%. Results obtained with the digestion technique were also more reproducible than those with conventional solvent extraction. the relative recoveries also varied between the two sites. Using conventional solvent extraction PCB concentrations appeared to decrease by about 13% along the length of the river while with digestion extraction the PCBs increased by approximately 33%. To study the homogeneity of water in the eastern basin of Lake Erie, uncentrifuged water samples collected from the inlet of the Niagara River at Fort Erie, Ontario, were compared to samples collected from Lake Erie at Sturgeon Point, New York for the period from 7/24/86 to 1/24/87. The average concentrations of four PCB congeners, total organic carbon, turbidity and conductance were similar at the two sampling sites. The average p,p[prime]-DDE concentration was 0.53 ng/L at Fort Erie but only 0.28 ng/L at Sturgeon Point.

Driscoll, M.S.

1992-01-01

60

Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Compounds in Biological Tissue and Bed Sediment From Streams in the Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in biological tissue and bed sediment from the Trinity River Basin study area of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorine compounds were determined in biological tissue and surficial bed sediment from 16 stream sites in the Trinity River Basin of east-central Texas. Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) were collected at 10 sites, and fish, including blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bluegill (Lepomis cyanellus), and yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) were collected at all mainstem and two tributary sites. Thirty of the 36 compounds analyzed in biological tissue or surficial bed sediment were detected in one or both media. Overall, more organochlorine compounds were detected in bed sediment than in biological tissue; however, various chlordane isomers, DDT metabolites, and PCBs were detected more frequently in tissue than in sediment. The chlordane isomers and PCBs that were detected more frequently in biological tissue also were detected more frequently at urban sites than at agricultural sites. Organochlorine compound concentrations generally were highest in fish tissue from Trinity River mainstem sites. Fish tissue from the mainstem sites contained a higher percentage of lipids than did fish- and clam-tissue samples from the tributary sites.

Moring, J. Bruce

1997-01-01

61

Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)] [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

1997-05-01

62

Effects of persistent organochlorine exposure on the liver transcriptome of the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific.  

PubMed

Hepatic concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) were determined in the common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Pacific. To investigate the effects of OCs on the transcriptome in the minke whale, the present study constructed a hepatic oligo array of this species where 985 unique oligonucleotides were spotted and further analyzed the relationship between the OC levels and gene expression profiles of liver tissues. The stepwise multiple linear regression analysis identified 32 genes that correlated with hepatic OC levels. The mRNA expression levels of seven cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C78, 2E1, 3A72, 4A35, and 4V6 showed no clear correlations with the concentration of each OC, suggesting that the accumulated OCs in the liver did not reach levels that could alter CYP expression. Among the genes screened by the custom oligo array analysis, hepatic mRNA expression levels of 16 genes were further measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) were negatively correlated with non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels. Androgen receptor-associated coregulator 70 (ARA70) expression levels showed a significant positive correlation with concentrations of non-ortho coplanar PCB169. These correlations suggest that coplanar PCB-reduced DBP expression could suppress vitamin D receptor-mediated signaling cascades in peripheral tissues. Alternatively, the suppression of vitamin D receptor signaling cascade could be enhanced through competition with the androgen receptor signaling pathway for ARA70. In addition, a negative correlation between kynureninase and PCB169 levels was also observed, which suggest an enhanced accumulation of an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist, kynurenine in the minke whale population. Further studies are necessary to translate the changes in the transcriptome to toxicological outcomes including the disruption of the nervous and immune systems. PMID:25046851

Niimi, Satoko; Imoto, Mai; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Michio X; Kim, Eun-Young; Nakayama, Kei; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

2014-10-01

63

A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p?-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:23028613

Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars

2012-01-01

64

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

65

CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)  

EPA Science Inventory

This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols....

66

Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain.  

PubMed

To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod) were selected to represent the lower trophic levels in the food web. Four seabird species were chosen at the higher trophic levels, Uria lomvia (Brünnich's guillemot), Cepphus grylle (black guillemot), Rissa tridactyla (black-legged kittiwake) and Larus hyperboreus (glaucous gull). We found low concentrations of the organochlorines sigma hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigma HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), sigma Chlordanes, sigma DDTs and sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (sigma PCBs) in crustaceans (11-50 ng g-1 lipid wt.) and fish (15-222 ng g-1 lipid wt.). In seabirds, the organochlorine concentrations biomagnified one to three orders of magnitude dependent on species and compound class. Glaucous gulls had the highest concentrations of all organochlorines. The organochlorine levels in all taxa except glaucous gull were comparable to those recorded in similar species in the Canadian Arctic. The organochlorine pattern changed from crustaceans and fish to seabirds. Moving up the food chain, the relative contribution of sigma HCHs, HCB and sigma Chlordanes decreased, and the relative contribution of sigma DDTs, sigma PCBs, persistent compounds and metabolites increased. The results reflected trophic transfer of organochlorines along the food chain as well as different elimination potentials due to direct diffusion in crustaceans and fish, and higher contaminant metabolic activity in seabirds. PMID:11383336

Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Skaare, J U

2001-01-01

67

Relations between Land Use and Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs, and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment and Fish on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

Brasher, A.M.D.; Wolff, R.H.

2004-01-01

68

Metals, trace elements, and organochlorine compounds in bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake, Kansas, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bottom-sediment cores were used to investigate the occurrence of 44 metals and trace elements, and 15 organochlorine compounds in Tuttle Creek Lake, a reservoir with an agricultural basin in northeast Kansas, U.S.A. On the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sediment-quality guidelines, concentrations of Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn frequently or typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels for toxic biological effects. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally below the threshold-effects levels. Statistically significant positive depositional trends were determined for several elements. However, because the vertical profiles of element concentrations typically indicated a bimodal distribution and much of the variability could be attributable to analytical variance, the statistical trends may not represent actual trends. DDE concentrations reflected the history of DDT use. Substantial increases in grain corn and soybean production, irrigated land, and hog production in the basin have not had a discernible effect on sediment quality in the reservoir. Future research focused on small impoundments throughout the basin may enhance understanding of the effects of human activity on sediment quality within the Tuttle Creek Lake system and elsewhere.

Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

2003-01-01

69

Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were determined in the blubber and liver of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) found stranded on the coast of the Caspian Sea during an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2000. Among organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 470 microg/g on a lipid-weight basis. Caspian seals collected in 2000 during the epizootic had higher concentrations of organochlorines than healthy individuals sampled in 1998. However, the blubber layer was generally thinner in the seals collected in 2000 than those in the previous surveys. Although compositions of organochlorine pesticides in seals suggested that the contamination status in the Caspian Sea is improving, the levels found in Caspian seals in 2000 were comparable to those in other marine mammals that have suffered from epizootics. This implies that the present status of contamination found in Caspian seals poses a risk of immunosuppression. Concentrations of butyltin compounds in livers of seals ranged from 0.49 to 17 ng/g on a wet-weight basis and octyltin compounds were below limit of detection in all the samples analyzed, suggesting less contamination by organotin compounds in the Caspian Sea. PMID:11911523

Kajiwara, N; Niimi, S; Watanabe, M; Ito, Y; Takahashi, S; Tanabe, S; Khuraskin, L S; Miyazaki, N

2002-01-01

70

Integrated biological and chemical analysis of organochlorine compound pollution and of its biological effects in a riverine system downstream the discharge point.  

PubMed

Pollution in riverine systems, along with its biological effects, may propagate downstream even at considerable distances. We analyzed the organochlorine compound (OC) pollution in a section of the low Ebro River (Northeast Spain) downstream a long-operating chlor-alkali plant. Maximal levels of OCs and of their associated dioxin-like biological activity occurred in residue samples from the plant, and persisted in river sediments some 40km downstream (Xerta site). Biological analysis at multiple organization levels in local carp (Cyprinus carpio, EROD, Cyp1A mRNA expression in the liver, hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and micronuclei index in peripheral blood) showed a similar pattern, with a maximal impact in Ascó, few kilometers downstream the plant, and a clear reduction at Xerta. This combination of chemical, molecular, cellular and physiological data allowed the precise assessment of the negative impact of the chlor-alkali plant on the quality of river sediments and on fish, and suggests that sediments may be a reservoir for toxic substances even in dynamic environments like rivers. PMID:20800876

Olivares, Alba; Quirós, Laia; Pelayo, Sergi; Navarro, Anna; Bosch, Carme; Grimalt, Joan O; Fabregat, Maria Del Carme; Faria, Melisa; Benejam, Lluis; Benito, Josep; Solé, Montserrat; Barata, Carlos; Piña, Benjamin

2010-10-15

71

Concentrations of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit : Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee, 1995-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole fish were collected at 52 sites during 1995-99 to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of selected organochlorine compounds in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit. Samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. From 5 to 8 fish were collected at each site; the fish were composited, and an aliquot of the tissue was analyzed for 28 organo-chlorine compounds, which included pesticides, pesticide degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The use of these organochlorine compounds has been discontinued or severely restricted within the United States, but the continued detection of these compounds or their degradates in the air, water, soil, and biota in national surveys, coupled with known environmental problems associated with these compounds (such as a long half-life and the propensity to accumulate in living tissue), is cause for continued interest in their environmental fate. At least one organochlorine compound was detected in every fish-tissue sample, and as many as 15 different compounds were detected in some. The most frequently detected com-pounds were the degradates of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichlo-roethane (p,p'-DDT); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected in every sample above the method reporting limit, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), was detected in 94 percent of the samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and dieldrin were detected in 83 and 78 percent of fish-tissue samples, respectively. Because these were whole fish samples, the results are not directly comparable to human health standards, which are based on fish fillets. Comparison of these results, however, to the guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife indicates that concentrations of the p,p'-DDT degradates and toxaphene continue to be of environmental concern.

Femmer, Suzanne R.; Coupe, Richard H.; Justus, Billy G.; Kleiss, Barbara A.

2004-01-01

72

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

White, D.H.

1979-01-01

73

Human health risk assessment of environmental exposure to organochlorine compounds in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River, Spain.  

PubMed

In this study, the environmental impact and human health risks associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) through soils and tap water in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River, Spain, were investigated. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, as well as DDT and derivates, were determined. Relatively low levels of these pollutants were observed, with mean concentrations ranging between 0.51-315.8 lg/kg and 0.05-74.6 ng/L in soil and tap water, respectively. These values are similar to those found in a number of recent surveys over the world. In spite of the presence of a chlor-alkali plant located upstream the Ebro River, which could mean a potential source of pollution, the current levels of OCs should not mean significant additional health risks for the local population. PMID:19771382

Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Bosch, Carme; Lourencetti, Carolina; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Domingo, José L

2009-11-01

74

Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.  

PubMed

This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. PMID:24568747

Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

2014-09-01

75

Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec  

SciTech Connect

Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from artic Quebec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Quebec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Laliberte, C. (Laval Univ. Hospital, Ste-Foy (Canada)); Bruneau, S. (Kativik Regional Council of Health, Kuujjuaq (Canada)); Muir, D.C.G. (Freshwater Institute, Winnipeg (Canada)); Norstrom, R.J. (Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull (Canada))

1993-12-01

76

Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and streambed sediment in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1998, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, a survey was conducted to determine which organochlorine compounds and trace elements occur in fish tissues and streambed sediments in the Mobile River Basin, which includes parts of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. The data collected were compared to guidelines related to wildlife, land use, and to 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program Study-Unit data.Twenty-one sites were sampled in subbasins of the Mobile River Basin. The subbasins ranged in size from about 9 to 22,000 square miles and were dominated by either a single land use or a combination of land uses. The major land-use categories were urban, agriculture, and forest.Organochlorine compounds were widespread spatially in the Mobile River Basin. At least one organochlorine compound was reported at the majority of sampling sites (84 percent) and in a majority of whole-fish (80 percent) and streambed-sediment (52 percent) samples. Multiple organochlorine compounds were reported at 75 percent of the sites where fish tissues were collected and were reported at many of the streambed-sediment sampling sites (45 percent). The majority of concentrations reported, however, were less than 5 micrograms per kilogram in fish-tissue samples and less than 1 microgram per kilogram in streambed-sediment samples.The majority of trace elements analyzed in fish-liver tissue (86 percent) and streambed-sediment (98 percent) samples were reported during this study. Multiple trace elements were reported in all samples and at all sites.Based on comparisons of concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish-tissue and streambed-sediment samples in relation to National Academy of Science and National Academy of Engineering and Canadian tissue guidelines, probable-effects concentrations, and mean probable-effects concentration quotients for streambed sediment, the potential exists for adverse effects to wildlife at 15 (72 percent) of the sites sampled. The potential for adverse effects at these sites is because of the presence of residues or breakdown products related to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chromium, lead, and zinc.The majority of compounds reported (65 percent) were chlordane, DDT, and PCB?s, or their breakdown products. Concentrations of chlordane and heptachlor epoxide in whole-fish tissue were positively correlated to the amount of urban land use in a basin. Total DDT concentrations in whole-fish tissues were positively correlated to agriculture.The relation of trace elements to land use is not as clear as the relation of organochlorine compounds to land use. This lack of clarity may be due to the possibility of geologic sources of trace elements in the Mobile River Basin and to the ubiquitous nature of many of these trace elements. However, there may be a correlation between the amount of urban land use and concentrations of antimony, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed-sediment samples from the Mobile River Basin.Fewer organochlorine compounds and trace elements were reported in samples from the Mobile River Basin than in samples collected during the 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies. Of the organochlorine compounds analyzed nationally, 57 percent were reported in whole-fish tissue samples collected locally and 41 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples collected locally, whereas 96 percent and 86 percent, respectively, were reported nationally. Of trace elements analyzed nationally, 86 percent were reported in fish-liver tissue locally and 95 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples locally, whereas 95 percent and 98 percent, respectively, were reported nationally.In general, concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements and the frequency with which they were reported in the Mobile River Basin are similar to or less than t

Zappia, Humbert

2002-01-01

77

First compound-specific chlorine-isotope analysis of environmentally-bioaccumulated organochlorines indicates a degradation-relatable kinetic isotope effect for DDT.  

PubMed

Compound-specific chlorine-isotope analysis (CSIA-Cl) of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) in blubber from Baltic Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) was performed in order to investigate if a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) could be observed concomitant to environmental degradation of DDT. The delta(37)Cl of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were -0.69 +/- 0.21 per thousand and -2.98 +/- 0.57 per thousand (1s igma, n = 3), respectively. Both samples were enriched relative to the hypothesized initial isotope composition (-4.34 per thousand), thus indicating a composite KIE associated with the degradation mechanisms pertaining to DDT. An isotope fractionation factor for degradation of dichloromethane, from the literature, was adapted and modified for use in the calculation of DDT degradation. A subsequent simplified Rayleigh distillation model of the DDT chlorine-isotope composition yielded an estimated fraction (f) of 7 +/- 2% of released DDT presently remaining as undegraded compound in the environment. The consistency between the result of the Rayleigh model (f approximately 7%) and the use of the DDT/(DDT + DDE) ratio as a measure of DDT degradation ( approximately 10% undegraded DDT) suggests that the KIE of DDT degradation may be significant, and that the novel approach of CSIA-Cl may be a valuable tool for degradation/persistence studies of lipophilic organochlorines in the environment. PMID:17631944

Holmstrand, Henry; Mandalakis, Manolis; Zencak, Zdenek; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

2007-11-01

78

Organochlorines in crocodile eggs from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive use of persistent organochlorine chemicals (OCs), both in agriculture and industry, has lead to widespread pollution of the environment, and residues of for instance DDT and PCBs are found at all levels of the food chain. Most industrialized countries have imposed restrictions on their use and disposal. In most developing countries, however, persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are still

J. U. Skaare; K. Ingebrigtsen; A. Aulie; T. I. Kanui

1991-01-01

79

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1979-80  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes) were monitored nationwide from birds harvested during the 1979-80 hunting season. DDE residues were found in all samples. DDT residues had declined from levels reported in 1976 on a flyway basis but the decline was significant (P less than 0.05) only in the Pacific Flyway. Levels of DDT, DDE, TDE, and dieldrin were low on a flyway basis, and all but DDE declined significantly (P less than 0.05) in the percent occurrence. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels were lower in mallard wings from all flyways compared with 1976 data, but percent occurrence had significantly (P less than 0.05) increased. Pools from Alabama and New Mexico continued to show higher DDE residues than pools from other areas.

Cain, B.W.

1981-01-01

80

Anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health determinants of placental transfer of organochlorine compounds  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to relate placental transfer, quantified by the cord to maternal serum concentration ratio (C/M), of five organochlorine pesticides (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) , p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 52, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123+149, 138+163, 153, 156+171, 157, 167, 170, 180, and 189) to anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health characteristics. We included into the study 1,134 births during the period 2002–2004 from two districts in eastern Slovakia with high organochlorine concentrations relative to other areas of the world. Only concentrations >LOD were taken into account. Variables as age, weight and height of mothers, parity, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, illness during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, hypertension, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus, and birth weight were related to C/M. Results of regression analyses showed that C/M was predicted by several factors studied. Positive associations were observed for gestational alcohol consumption, fewer illnesses during pregnancy, maternal age, and maternal weight. Caucasians had a greater C/M compared to Romani for wet weight data of congeners 170 and 180 and in contrast C/M for HCB was greater in Romani. Our results show that drinking mothers compared to abstaining expose their fetuses not only to alcohol but to an increased level of several PCB congeners. A straightforward explanation of associations between C/M shifts and factors studied is very difficult, however, with regard to the high lipophilicity of OCPs and PCBs, changes in their kinetics probably reflect lipid kinetics. PMID:23677752

Patayová, Henrieta; Wimmerová, So?a; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovi?ová, ?ubica; Drobná, Beata; Fabišková, Anna; Ková?, Ján; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.

2014-01-01

81

Organochlorine pesticides residue in lakes of Khorezm, Uzbekistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Khorezm province in northwest Uzbekistan is a productive agricultural area within the Aral Sea Basin that produces cotton, rice and wheat. Various organochlorine pesticides were widely used for cotton production before Uzbekistan's independence in 1991. In Khorezm, small lakes have formed in natural depressions that receive inputs mostly from agricultural runoff. Samples from lake waters and sediments, as well as water from the Amu Darya River (which is the source of most of the lake water) have been analyzed to study variations in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides residues during the year. Low concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, a-HCH and y-HCH compounds were found in water and sediment samples. The concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (DDT and HCH) in water and sediment is much lower than the maximum permissible concentrations that exist for water and soil. According to these preliminary results, the investigated lakes in Khorezm appear to be suitable for recreation or for aquaculture.

Rosen, Michael R.; Nishonov, B.; Fayzieva, D.; Saito, L.; Lamers, J.

2009-01-01

82

Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.  

PubMed

High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as DXNs, from MSWI flue gas at approximately 300 degrees C. More than half of the clays used in this study showed the decomposition characteristics of MCB. The presence of Cl atoms in the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C proved the occurrence of MCB decomposition. The results of this study suggest a novel flue gas treatment method to establish high-energy efficient MSWI systems. PMID:25282999

Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

2014-09-01

83

Endocrine Disruption Induced by Organochlorines (OCs): Field Studies And Experimental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-range transport of persistent organic compounds by air and ocean currents from industrialized areas resulted in high levels of these pollutants in food webs in the Svalbard area. With the aim to test if organochlorine (OC) exposure in free-living polar bears from Svalbard affected their plasma steroid hormone concentrations, it was found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were associated with increased

Erik Ropstad; Irma C. Oskam; Jan L. Lyche; Hans J. Larsen; Elisabeth Lie; Marte Haave; Ellen Dahl; Richard Wiger; Janneche Utne Skaare

2006-01-01

84

The role of the sea-surface microlayer in the air-sea gas exchange of organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

Simultaneous measurements of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in seawater, the sea-surface microlayer and the atmosphere were conducted in June-July 2004 in the coastal marine environment of Singapore. Together, these measurements represent the first data on the flux of OCs between the ocean and atmosphere reported in the scientific literature that take into account the implication of the sea surface microlayer (SML) as a controlling boundary layer for the exchange of OCs. The average fluxes of SigmaPCBs and SigmaHCHs were 127.5 and -32.8 ng m(-2) day(-1) respectively using a modified two-layer model (negative flux indicates adsorption by the ocean). The average fluxes using a conventional approach, ignoring the SML as boundary layer (classical two-layer model), were 67.2 and -43.1 ng m(-2) day(-1) for SigmaPCBs and SigmaHCHs, respectively. However, the maximum difference in the flux calculation between the two approaches was up to 15-fold for individual compounds at high enrichment in the SML. It is shown that the SML plays an important role in the control of air-sea gas exchange of OCs, particular under a low prevailing wind regime and with an enrichment of OCs in the SML. The physical and chemical properties of OCs are critical factors in the control of the air-sea gas exchange process, and the effect of the SML on this process is more significant for more hydrophobic OCs. PMID:16806403

Wurl, Oliver; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

2006-10-01

85

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

1988-09-01

86

Declining bioavailability and inappropriate estimation of risk of persistent compounds  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) assimilated decreasing amounts of atrazine, phenanthrene, and naphthalene that had been incubated for increasing periods of time in sterile soil. The amount of atrazine and phenanthrene removed from soil by mild extractants also decreased with time. The declines in bioavailability of the three compounds to earthworms and of naphthalene to bacteria were not reflected by analysis involving vigorous methods of solvent extraction; similar results for bioavailability of phenanthrene and 4-nitrophenol to bacteria were obtained in a previous study conducted at this laboratory. The authors suggest that regulations based on vigorous extractions for the analyses of persistent organic pollutants in soil do not appropriately estimate exposure or risk to susceptible populations.

Kelsey, J.W.; Alexander, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1997-03-01

87

Profile of persistent chlorinated contaminants, including selected chiral compounds, in wolverine ( Gulo gulo) livers from the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are circumpolar omnivores that live throughout the alpine and arctic tundra ecosystem. Wolverine livers were collected at Kugluktuk (Coppermine), NU (n=12) in the western Canadian Arctic to report, for the first time, the residue patterns of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in this species. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of several chiral OCs, including PCB atropisomers, in wolverines were

P. F. Hoekstra; B. M. Braune; C. S. Wong; M. Williamson; B. Elkin; D. C. G. Muir

2003-01-01

88

Detection limits of organochlorine pesticides and related compounds in blood serum  

SciTech Connect

Determinations of organochlorine pesticides and similar chemical residues in blood serum have often reported detection limits of 1 ng/mL. When a study group has incurred body burdens lower than this, underestimates and misclassifications of exposure may occur because persons with pesticide residue concentration below the limit of detection are usually treated as zeros.' Thus in order to more accurately assess exposures in such populations, analysis of adipose tissue has been done. Recently, with TCDD, use of a sufficient volume of serum, as much as 0.5 L, in conjunction with appropriate analytical techniques has been shown to achieve detection limits necessary for epidemiological assessments, i.e., comparable to analysis of adipose tissue. In a population-based study involving children in which the authors were involved, it was not feasible to obtain specimens of either adipose or a large volume of serum. There was no compelling health motivation for such measures, nor did they wish to impair participation rates. Therefore, they chose to optimize the existing serum analysis, in order to achieve a detection limit low enough to assess reasonably the anticipated exposures.

Wolff, M.S.; Rivera, M.; Baker, D.B. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

1991-10-01

89

Brain Organochlorines and Lewy Pathology: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although organochlorines have been reported more frequently in Parkinson’s disease (PD) brains than controls, the association with brain Lewy pathology is unknown. Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) participants, exposed to organochlorines from a variety of sources during mid-life, represent a population well suited to determine the relationship of brain organochlorines with Lewy pathology in decedents from the longitudinal HAAS. Methods Study design included the measurement of 21 organochlorine levels in frozen occipital lobe samples from HAAS decedents. Alpha-synuclein immunostaining performed on 225 brains was used to identify Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Results With the potential for spurious associations to appear between Lewy pathology and 17 organochlorine compounds found to be present in at least one brain, initial assessments identified heptachlor epoxide isomer b, methoxychlor, and benzene hexachloride b as being most important. Prevalence of Lewy pathology was 75% (6/8) among brains with any 2 of the 3 compounds, 48.8% (79/162) among those with 1, and 32.7% (18/55) for those with neither (P=0.007 test for trend). While findings persisted after removing cases with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, and when adjustments were made for age at death, body mass index, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and coffee intake (p=0.013), results were insignificant when correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions While consistent with earlier accounts of an association between organochlorines and clinical PD, associations with Lewy pathology warrant further study. PMID:22976848

Ross, G. Webster; Duda, John E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Pellizzari, Edo; Petrovitch, Helen; Miller, Diane B.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Noorigian, Joseph V.; Masaki, Kamal; Launer, Lenore; White, Lon R.

2012-01-01

90

Chlorobenzenes, chlorinated pesticides, coplanar chlorobiphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in Greenland biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the levels and composition of chlorobenzenes, chlorinated pesticides, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the chlorinated compounds octachlorostyrene (OCS), hexachlorocyclobutadiene (HCBD) and pentachloro-anisole (PCA) in biota from the terrestrial, freshwater and marine environment of Greenland. The data were obtained during the second phase of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). Of the chlorobenzenes, hexachlorobenzene was the main

Katrin Vorkamp; Frank Riget; Marianne Glasius; Maria Pécseli; Michel Lebeuf; Derek Muir

2004-01-01

91

Interspecific comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organochlorines bioaccumulation in bivalves from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized in cockle, oyster and noble pen shell from nine areas in the Mar Menor lagoon with different hydrodynamic and pollutant sources. Biota, sediment and water samples were simultaneously collected in the spring and autumn of 2010. Considering all bivalve samples, PAH concentrations ranged from 8.98 to 370 ?g·kg(-1) d.w., those of PCBs from 0.15 to 42.36 ?g·kg(-1) d.w. and those of DDXs from below detection limit to 240.6 ?g·kg(-1) d.w., where p,p'-DDE was the main fraction. The bioaccumulation of PAHs was similar for cockle, oyster and noble pen shell, being higher close to ports and wastewater effluents. However, DDX and PCB bioaccumulations in oyster and noble pen shell were significantly higher than in cockle in spring (p=0.02). The first organic pollutant bioaccumulation data for noble pen shell were obtained in this study, showing a preferential accumulation of pyrene. The increase of PAH bioaccumulation in autumn, as compared to spring, was low, due to high water temperatures during the summer, which favoured PAH dissipation processes. No significant seasonal variations were detected for OCPs and PCBs, except in some specific areas. The PAH, PCB and OCP levels detected in these bivalves were lower than OSPAR/MED POL environmental assessment criteria, except for p,p'-DDE in bivalves sited close to El Albujón watercourse mouth. PMID:23872249

León, Víctor M; Moreno-González, Rubén; González, Emilia; Martínez, Fulgencio; García, Víctor; Campillo, Juan A

2013-10-01

92

Atmospheric transport and accumulation of organochlorine compounds on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Nepal.  

PubMed

Studies have been devoted to the transport and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in mountain environments. The Himalayas have the widest altitude gradient of any mountain range, but few studies examining the environmental behavior of POPs have been performed in the Himalayas. In this study, air, soil, and leaf samples were collected along a transect on the southern slope of the Himalayas, Nepal (altitude: 135-5100 m). Local emission occurred in the lowlands, and POPs were transported by uplift along the slope. During the atmospheric transport, the HCB proportion increased from the lowlands (20%) to high elevation (>50%), whereas the proportions of DDTs decreased. The largest residue of soil POPs appeared at an altitude of approximately 2500 m, and may be related to absorption by vegetation and precipitation. The net deposition tendencies at the air-soil surface indicated that the Himalayas may be a 'sink' for DDTs and PCBs. PMID:24880535

Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Li, Sheng-hai; Yu, Wu-sheng; Li, Jiu-le; Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Wang, Wei-cai; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tan-dong; Joswiak, Daniel R

2014-09-01

93

Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

2008-01-01

94

Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

2009-01-01

95

Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

1996-01-01

96

Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the Lower Columbia River using semipermeable-membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are of concern in the Columbia River Basin because of their adverse effects on fish and wildlife. Because these compounds can have important biological consequences at concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional water-sampling techniques, we used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per- quintillion detection limits. We deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. We also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our data indicate that (1) in the absence of additional sources, mechanisms such as volatilization, dilution, and settling of sus pended particles can act to significantly reduce concentrations of contami nants along the river's flow path, (2) elevated concentrations of contaminants in the Portland-Vancouver area are primarily from local rather than upstream sources, (3) elevated concentrations of many compounds tend to be diluted during periods of high discharge, (4) much higher discharge in the main stem considerably dilutes elevated concentrations entering from tributaries, (5) the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in streambed sediment is not necessarily indicative of their distribution in the dissolved-phase, and (6) SPMDs can reveal patterns of contaminant occurrence at environmentally relevant concentrations that are undetectable by conventional water-sampling techniques.

McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

1999-01-01

97

The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 ?m and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species. PMID:24054891

Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

2013-12-01

98

Fate and assessment of persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment from Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine compounds were analyzed in surface water, porewater and surficial sediment samples from Minjiang River Estuary, which is the first large river in Fujian Province, Southeast of China. The total concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides were 214.4–1819, 4541–13699 ng\\/l, 28.79–52.07 ng\\/g in surface water, porewater and sediments (dry weight) respectively, and those of 21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the

Z. L. Zhang; H. S. Hong; J. L. Zhou; J. Huang; G. Yu

2003-01-01

99

Organochlorine pesticides and PCB residues in sediments of Alexandria Harbour, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine compound concentrations were determined for 23 surface sediment samples collected from Alexandria Harbor, Egypt. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 1210 ng\\/g with four to seven Cl-substituted biphenyls being the most prevalent PCBs congeners. Different PCB congener distribution patterns were observed, probably reflecting different inputs and attenuation at various locations. Total DDT concentrations varied from <0.25 ng\\/g

Assem O Barakat; Moonkoo Kim; Yoarong Qian; Terry L Wade

2002-01-01

100

Occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in the eggs and dropping-amended soil of Antarctic large animals and its ecological significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are analyzed for the dropping-amended soils from the habitats of Antarctic seabirds\\u000a and seals in Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island. The concentration ranges are 0.21 to 3.85 ng\\/g for polychlorinated biphenyls\\u000a (?PCBs), 0.09 to 2.01 ng\\/g for organochlorine pesticides (?DDT), and 0.06 to 0.76 ng\\/g for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs).\\u000a Among these, hepatachlorobiphenyls, hexachlorobiphenyls, p,p?-DDE and ?-HCH compounds

HaiSheng Zhang; ZiPan Wang; Bing Lu; Chun Zhu; GuangHai Wu; Vetter Walter

2007-01-01

101

(PRESENTED AT MORIOKA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

102

Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.  

PubMed

The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process. PMID:25563158

Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

2015-03-01

103

Evaluation of organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) in two raptor species inhabiting a Mediterranean island in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Species that are at high levels of the food web have often been used as bioindicators to evaluate the presence of persistent\\u000a contaminants in ecosystems. Most of these species are long-lived, so pollutant burdens may be integrated in some complex way\\u000a over time. This makes them particularly sensitive to deleterious effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Birds have\\u000a been suggested

Begoña Jiménez; Rubén Merino; Esteban Abad; Josep Rivera; Kees Olie

2007-01-01

104

Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

105

Organochlorine Pesticides and the Dairy Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and use of organochlorine pesticides has been declining in recent years. This suggests that residue prob- lems will decrease, but the persistence of these materials in the environment means that some residues will be encountered for many years. The residue levels in the general food supply are low enough to pose no demonstrable adverse effect on human health. The

G. F. Fries

1970-01-01

106

PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in ducks of Fereydoon-kenar wildlife refuge in Iran.  

PubMed

Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCB were determined in three duck species: Pintail (Anas acuta), Common Teal (Anas creaca), and Mallard (Anas platyhynchos). Both persistent organochlorines were more abundant in muscle than in the liver; Mallard had the highest levels of PCBs [84.0 +/- 39.0 ng/g wet weight (ww)], and Common Teal showed the highest levels of DDTs (561.0 +/- 220.0 ng/g ww). This exposure level is more than two orders of magnitude below provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) (0.01 mg/kg bw for DDT and its associated compounds) of The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:20419290

Rajaei, Fateme; Bahramifar, Nader; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

2010-05-01

107

Organochlorine concentrations (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and MIREX) in delphinids stranded at the northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds are highly persistent in the environment, causing bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the marine food chain. To verify the bioaccumulation pattern of DDT and its metabolites, as well as PCBs, Mirex, HCHs and HCB, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), two Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), two spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), one spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) were analyzed. The collected specimens were found stranded in northeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2011. The concentrations were reported in ?g·g(-1) lip, varying from 0.02 to 17.3 for ?PCB, from 0.003 to 5.19 for ?DDT, from 0.005 to 0.16 for ?HCH, from 0.002 to 0.16 for HCB, and from 0.02 to 2.38 for Mirex. The PCBs dominated the bioaccumulation pattern for both the Guiana and spinner dolphins; for the other species, DDT was the major compound. A discriminant function analysis revealed the differences in the organochlorine accumulation patterns between the Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) and the continental shelf/oceanic dolphins (S. frontalis and S. longirostris). The results also show that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds found in the delphinids in northeastern Brazil were lower than the delphinids found in other regions of Brazil, as well as other locations worldwide with intense agroindustrial development and/or a larger population. PMID:24291562

Santos-Neto, Elitieri B; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Bisi, Tatiana L; Santos, Jessica; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Guimarães, José Eugênio; Lailson-Brito, José

2014-02-15

108

Adjusting serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by lipids and symptoms: a causal framework for the association with K-ras mutations in pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

In clinically aggressive diseases, patients experience pathophysiological changes that often alter concentrations of lipids and environmental lipophilic factors; such changes are related to disease signs and symptoms. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of correcting for total serum lipids (TSL) and other clinical factors on the odds of mutations in the K-ras oncogene by organochlorine compounds (OCs), in logistic models, in 103 patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC) using a causal directed acyclic graph (DAG) framework. Results and likelihood of bias were discussed in the light of possible causal scenarios. The odds of K-ras mutated EPC was associated with some TSL-corrected OCs, including p,p'-DDT (p-value: 0.008) and polychlorinated biphenyl 138 (p-trend: 0.024). When OCs were not corrected by TSL, the OR of a K-ras mutation was significant for p,p'-DDT (p-trend: 0.035). Additionally adjusting for cholestatic syndrome increased the ORs of TSL-corrected OCs. When models were adjusted by the interval from first symptom to blood extraction (ISE), the ORs increased for both TSL-corrected and uncorrected OCs. Models with TSL-corrected OCs and adjusted for cholestatic syndrome or ISE yielded the highest ORs. We show that DAGs clarify the covariates necessary to minimize bias, and demonstrate scenarios under which adjustment for TSL-corrected OCs and failure to adjust for symptoms or ISE may induce bias. Models with TSL-uncorrected OCs may be biased too, and adjusting by symptoms or ISE may not control such biases. Our findings may have implications as well for studying environmental causes of other clinically aggressive diseases. PMID:25113205

López, Tomàs; Pumarega, José A; Pollack, Anna Z; Lee, Duk-Hee; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Jacobs, David R; Schisterman, Enrique F; Porta, Miquel

2014-11-01

109

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg\\/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to

Derek C. G. Muir; Ross J. Norstrom; Mary Simon

1988-01-01

110

A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the sorption of contaminants by different sediment size fractions. Field studies indicate that organic contaminants tend to sorb more to fine-grained sediment, and this correlates significantly with sediment organic matter content. Laboratory experiments have extended the field studies to a wider spectrum of natural particulates and anthropogenic compounds. Quantitation of isotherm results allows the comparison of different sediment sorbents as well as the estimation of field partition coefficients from laboratory-measured sediment and contaminant properties. Detailed analyses made on the basis of particle-size classes show that all sediment fractions need to be considered in evaluating the fate and distribution of manmade organic compounds. This conclusion is based on observations from field studies and on the variety of natural organic sorbents that demonstrate sorptive capabilities in laboratory isotherm experiments.

Witkowski, P.J.; Smith, J.A.; Fusillo, T.V.; Chiou, C.T.

1987-01-01

111

Persistent halogenated compounds in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from China.  

PubMed

While a number of studies have reported residual levels of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in crocodilia, there is still a dearth of information on the Chinese alligator, a critically endangered crocodilian species. In the present study, several PHCs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were detected in the adult tissues, neonates, and eggs of captive Chinese alligators from China. The concentrations of ?PBDEs, ?PCBs, and ?DDTs in Chinese alligators ranged from 0.11 to 16.1, 1.12 to 22.2, and 6.03 to 1020ngg(-1) wet weight, respectively, with higher levels of ?PCBs and ?DDTs in the neonates and eggs than in muscle tissues. The ?DDT residues in the studied Chinese alligators were at the high end of reported ranges from crocodilia around the world, and some results exceeded levels known to cause a female-biased sex ratio in crocodilians. PMID:24880595

Wu, Ting; Hong, Bing; Wu, Xiaobing; Wu, Jiangping; Wang, Xinming; Yi, Zhigang; Zhao, Juan; Zhan, Miao; Mai, Bixian

2014-09-01

112

Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters  

SciTech Connect

The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

1987-11-01

113

Rapid multiresidue determination of organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds in human serum by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid analytical method for the multiresidue determination of several organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum samples has been developed. Analytes were isolated by solid-phase extraction using C18 cartridges with subsequent analysis by GC-MS\\/MS using a glass liner packed with CarboFrit in the GC injection port. Labelled surrogate internal standards (fenitrothion D6, HCB 13C6, p,p'-DDE D8

E. Pitarch; R. Serrano; F. J. López; F. Hernández

2003-01-01

114

(PRESENTED AT TSUKIJI, CHUO-KU, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

115

A comparative study of Greek nondeletional hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and ß-thalassemia compound heterozygotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coexistence of #- and %-globin gene mutations in the compound heterozygous state presents a rare in vivo model that provides important data on gene regulation of clinical interest. In this unique comparative study we present the hematological, biosynthetic, and molecular data from six adult compound heterozygotes for the Greek nondeletional hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (nd-HPFH, A%-117 GMA) and

Manoussos N. Papadakis; George P. Patrinos; Panayotis Tsaftaridis; Aphrodite Loutradi-Anagnostou

2002-01-01

116

Further studies of the organochlorine content of Dipper Cinclus cinclus eggs: local differences between Welsh catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous papers, we examined the use of deserted and addled eggs of the Dipper Cinclus cinclus as monitors of the contamination of upland rivers by persistent organochlorines. Here, we examine and interpret differences between the organochlorine content of eggs from adjacent sub-catchments of rivers in Wales. We provide information particularly on individual polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), for which few data

S. J. Ormerod; S. J. Tyler

1993-01-01

117

Temporal trends of organochlorine contamination in Black Guillemots in Iceland from 1976 to 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of several different persistent organochlorines (OCs) in Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle, collected during the summers of 1976–1996 at Breiðafjörður in W-Iceland, were investigated. The levels of about 40 different organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphenes, HCH, HCB) were compared with respect to age, sex, fat content, and year of collection. The levels of PCBs correlated very closely with those

Kristín Ólafsdóttir; Ævar Petersen; Elín V. Magnúsdóttir; Thorvaldur Björnsson; Torkell Jóhannesson

2005-01-01

118

Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark); Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard [Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark); Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark)], E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

2008-10-15

119

Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. PMID:24140682

Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

2014-02-01

120

Organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed by cyclic steam distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that organochlorine pesticides (OCP's) are among the most persistent and toxic pollutants both in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The use of these pesticides has been banned in many countries since several years, but they are still used in Chile especially to protect the large beet crops in the south of the country. Only DDT and

Alfonso G. Ober; Inés Santa María; Jaime D. Carmi

1987-01-01

121

Chlorinated and brominated persistent organic compounds in biological samples from the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven selected biological samples representing different ecosystems, trophic levels, and areas mainly in Sweden have been analyzed for 31 halogenated organic compounds or compound groups. The multiresidue analytical method provides a good opportunity to compare the concentrations of the different compounds in the investigated samples. By the use of ratios of these concentrations, comparisons can be done between species and

Bo Jansson; Renate Andersson; Lillemor Asplund; K. Litzen; Kerstin Nylund; U. Sellstroem; Ulla-Britt Uvemo; Cajsa Wahlberg; Ulla Wideqvist; T. Odsjoe; Mats Olsson

1993-01-01

122

Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974–79  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974–79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found

Rey C. Stendell; David S. Gilmer; Nancy A. Coon; Douglas M. Swineford

1988-01-01

123

Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls  

SciTech Connect

Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and -118. Conclusions: Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.

Windham, Gayle C., E-mail: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov [CA Department of Public Health, DEODC, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg. P, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Sjodin, Andreas [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Lum, Raymond [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)] [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Biro, Frank M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hiatt, Robert A. [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kushi, Lawrence H. [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

2010-04-15

124

Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residues of 6 organochlorine compds. were detected in adult carcasses, 4 in eggs, 2 in brains, and one in nestlings of Colorado tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). DDE [72-55-9]accounted for 91% of total organochlorine compound residue in each of the 4 sample types. DDE was detected in 30 samples (94%) and DDT [50-29-3] in 2 samples (6%). Carcasses of breeding females and egg clutches had residues of 6 organochlorine compds. not found in nestling samples. Only residues of DDE were found in nestlings. DDT and DDE were the only organochlorine compds. recovered in brain samples. Measurements of tree swallow eggshells showed that unattended eggs were not significantly different from those of attended or historical eggs. The implications of the observed organochlorine compound contamination are discussed.

DeWeese, L.R.; Cohen, R.R.; Stafford, C.J.

1985-01-01

125

Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.  

PubMed

There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies. PMID:25461417

Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

2015-02-01

126

PCBs and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ducks of Fereydoon-kenar Wildlife Refuge in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCB were determined in three duck species: Pintail (Anas acuta), Common Teal (Anas creaca), and Mallard (Anas platyhynchos). Both persistent organochlorines were more abundant in muscle than in the liver; Mallard had the highest levels of PCBs\\u000a [84.0 ± 39.0 ng\\/g wet weight (ww)], and Common Teal showed the highest levels of DDTs (561.0 ± 220.0 ng\\/g ww). This exposure

Fateme Rajaei; Nader Bahramifar; Abbas Esmaili Sari; Seyed Mahmoud Ghasempouri

2010-01-01

127

Evaluation of Automated Extraction of Organochlorine Contaminants from Freshwater  

E-print Network

and concentration of trace contaminants in water. Organochlorine compounds of environmental interest and covering. The extraction of trace organic contaminants from environ- mental water samples has long been accomplished with appropriate solvents in separatory funnels or capped bottles. The need to extract much larger volumes of water

Mazumder, Asit

128

Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residues in the Indian marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediment and fish samples collected from the east and west coasts of India are presented. HCH isomers and DDT and its metabolites are the predominantly identified compounds in most of the samples. Despite the higher quantity of consumption, HCH and DDT levels in fish in India were lower than those in temperate countries suggesting a lower

G. G Pandit; A. M Mohan Rao; S. K Jha; T. M Krishnamoorthy; S. P Kale; K Raghu; N. B. K Murthy

2001-01-01

129

Occurrence and bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in fishes from Siskiwit Lake, Isle Royale, Lake Superior. [Salvelinus namaycush namaycush; Coregonus culpeaformis neohantoniensus  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of chlorinated organic compounds was measured in different size classes of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) and whitefish (Coregonus culpeaformis neohantoniensus) from Siskiwit Lake, a remote lake on Isle Royale in Lake Superior. Our results confirm the long-range transport of several chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in addition, indicate that technical chlordane constituents, octachlorostyrene, pentachloroanisole, and decachlorodiphenyl ether also are transported to remote locations. Chemical concentrations as a function of fish age (size) were not similar between species and were not consistent among compounds. Differences in bioaccumulation with age between species for a given compound indicated that physical-chemical properties alone do not determine bioaccumulation in a species; fish characteristics are also important. The relationship of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the octanol-water partition coefficient (K{sub OW}) was examined. The correlation was weak for pesticides and poor for PCB congeners when compared to published relationships based on laboratory data.

Swackhamer, D.L.; Hites, R.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA))

1988-05-01

130

PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and reproduction in river otters from Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reproductive tracts from 89 3-year-old female river otters (Lutra canadensis), from Louisiana were examined. Eighteen of these were in a reproductive phase out of synchrony with the expected population norms. Eight of 32 otters had fewer embryos than corpora lutea, indicating intrauterine mortality in 25% of the sample. Chemical analyses of liver tissue from 57 otters revealed a low prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide contamination. These low Ievels of organochlorine compounds were not associated with atypical reproductive synchrony or intrauterine mortality.

Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Linscombe, G.; Kinler, N.; Stafford, C.J.

1985-01-01

131

Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of Roseate Tern eggs were collected in 1981 from 5 of the largest colonies in the northeastern U.S. and from one large colony in the U.S. Virgin Islands. No organochlorine compounds were detected in eggs from the U.S. Virgin Islands. PCBs were found in all eggs and DDE was found in most eggs from the northeastern U.S., but concentrations were substantially lower than in Common Terns from the same colonies. There were no significant correlations between eggshell characteristics and organochlorine concentrations. DDE concentrations in Roseate Tern eggs were well below those reported to induce adverse effects in Common Terns.

Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1983-01-01

132

Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B.

2004-01-01

133

Immune function and organochlorine pollutants in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls.  

PubMed

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000 and 2001 we injected two novel nonpathogenic antigens (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) into the pectoral muscle of gulls and measured the primary antibody responses. We then related these measurements to the blood concentrations of three pesticides (hexachlorobenzene [HCB], oxychlordane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) and seven different polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB 101, 99, 118, 153, 138, 180, and 170). There were significant or near significant positive relationships (0.1 > p > 0.001) between most persistent OCs and the levels of heterophils in the blood for both sexes in 1997 and for male gulls in 2001. Similarly, levels of all persistent OCs and lymphocytes were positively related (0.1 > p > 0.001) in both sexes in 1997. This suggests that OCs are causing alterations to immune systems, which may decrease their efficiency and make the birds more susceptible to parasites and diseases. In female gulls, the antibody response to the diphtheria toxoid was significant and negative for HCB (p < 0.01) and weaker, but significant, for oxychlordane (p < 0.05), suggesting that OCs were causing an impairment of the humoral immunity. Various OCs have been linked to negative effects in our study population, including decreased survival and reproduction, and this study suggests that such compounds also affect immune status and function. PMID:15499504

Bustnes, J O; Hanssen, S A; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E; Hasselquist, D; Skaare, J U

2004-11-01

134

Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

2007-01-01

135

Organochlorines, including chlordane compounds and their metabolites, in peregrine-falcon, prairie-falcon, and clapper-rail eggs from the USA.  

PubMed

Four compounds present in technical chlordane (trans- and cis-nonachlor, and tentatively MC-2 and MC-5) and three metabolites of chlordane (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, and U-4) were identified by GC/MS in peregrine-falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum) eggs. Levels of Heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were quantified by GC/ECD in peregrine-falcon eggs from the US east coast, Colorado, and California; and in prairie-falcon (Falco mexicanus) and light-footed-clapper-rail (Rallus longirostris levipes) eggs from California. The eggs were collected between 1986 and 1989. Oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were detected in every egg analyzed. Heptachlor, trans-, and cis-chlordane were either not detected, or present at low levels in the eggs. The highest Sigmachlordane levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a geometric mean (geom. mean) concentrations of 1800 microg/kg (ppb); the lowest levels of Sigmachlordane were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 120 microg/kg (geom. mean). Of the technical chlordane compounds measured, MC-2 bioaccumulated to the greatest degree. SigmaDDT levels in the falcons ranged from 11 000 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the Colorado samples to 8800 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the East Coast and California peregrines. SigmaDDT levels in the rail eggs were 3000 microg/kg (geom. mean). The highest SigmaPCB levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a concentration of 14 000 microg/kg (geom. mean); the lowest levels of SigmaPCB were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 350 microg/kg (geom. mean). PMID:15091821

Jarman, W M; Norstrom, R J; Simon, M; Burns, S A; Bacon, C A; Simoneit, B R

1993-01-01

136

Atmospheric fluxes of persistent organic compounds to a forest ecosystem at the Swedish west coast  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this ongoing study is to investigate the importance of the atmospheric contribution of POP, such as PCB, HCH, HCB and PAH, to a forest at the Swedish west coast, Lake Gaardsjoen, and to get an idea about circulation and accumulation of these organic contaminants within a terrestrial ecosystem. The measurements include parallel sampling in air, deposition (artificial surface) and spruce needles. Recent sampling periods also include throughfall, runoff water, litterfall and soil. The amounts of POP deposited to the Gaardsjoen area were similar to those obtained during measurements at coastal and sea based sites at the Swedish west coast. Events with long range air transport did not significantly increase the atmospheric concentrations of PAH and PCB in the Gaardsjoen area. However, due to an increased particle concentration in the air, such episodes increased the deposition fluxes of PAH and PCB. Only small variations in the concentrations of POP occurred in the needles during different sampling periods and no accumulation was observed. The lowest PCB concentrations in the needles were found during a summer period in connection with the highest PCB concentrations in the air and with the highest ambient air temperature. The PAH and PCB found in spruce needles seemed to be due to uptake from both the gas and particle phases. Except for a relative increase of less volatile compounds, the distribution among individual PCB obtained in the soil agreed well with the PCB profile found in the deposition and throughfall. This supports the hypothesis that atmospheric deposition is the main source for PCB in this area.

Brorstroem-Lunden, E.; Loefgren, C.

1995-12-31

137

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Human Milk in Great Britain, 1979-80  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 The concentrations of some organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyl compounds have been determined in 102 samples of human milk collected between January 1979 and September 1980.2 Comparison of the results with those from a limited study undertaken in 1963-4 shows a decline in residues' levels.3 The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls in human milk samples from residents in Great

G. B. Collins; D. C. Holmes; R. A. Hoodless

1982-01-01

138

Persistent Interactions between Biguanide-Based Compound NB325 and CXCR4 Result in Prolonged Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection ?  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that the biguanide-based compound NB325 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by interacting with the CXCR4 viral coreceptor. This interaction also appeared to be persistent, since HIV-1 infection was inhibited even when the virus was introduced subsequent to the removal of NB325 from the cell culture medium. The present studies were conducted to determine the extent and mechanism of this prolonged antiviral activity. Persistent inhibition of HIV-1 infection by NB325 was concentration dependent and was apparent up to 8 h after removal of the compound. Flow cytometric analyses of stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes exposed to NB325 demonstrated concentration-dependent reductions in CXCR4 extracellular loop 2 epitope recognition that were maintained up to 24 h after removal of the compound. CXCL12-induced chemotaxis was also persistently inhibited following pre-exposure to NB325. These results demonstrate that persistent inhibition of X4 HIV-1 infection by NB325 involves extended perturbation of the viral coreceptor CXCR4. PMID:20231400

Thakkar, Nina; Pirrone, Vanessa; Passic, Shendra; Keogan, Shawn; Zhu, Wei; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Welsh, William; Rando, Robert; Labib, Mohamed; Wigdahl, Brian; Krebs, Fred C.

2010-01-01

139

Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in mammals of Donana National Park (Spain), 1982-1983  

SciTech Connect

The existence of 11 organochlorine compounds and five heavy metals in the liver and muscle of 57 members of 10 species of mammals, all from Donana National Park (Spain), has been investigated. Five organochlorine compounds have been found and the five heavy metals were present in the samples. The biomagnification of organochlorines is shown. The detected concentrations for each trophic rank seem not to influence unfavourably on the population stability of the species. The rabbit is proposed as a monitor species for future studies in pollution at Donana National Park.

Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Baluja, G.

1985-12-01

140

Detection of persistent organic compounds from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) and their degradation by manganese peroxidase and laccase producing bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) retains dark black colour with complex persistent organic pollutants even after anaerobic treatment. The specific ratio (4:3:1:1) of Proteus mirabilis (FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (FJ581031) decolourised BMDS up to 76% within 192 hr along with degradation of persistent organic compounds in presence of glucose (1%) and peptone (0.1%). The colour removal ability was noted due to ligninolytic enzyme activity. Where the maximum manganese peroxidase was 1.93 U ml(-1) and laccase activity equalled 0.84 U ml(-1). The gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the direct correlation between colourant and persistent organic pollutants due to simultaneous reduction of colour and pollutants present in BMDS. The seed germination test showed reduction of 75% toxicity after bacterial treatment process. PMID:24640253

Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

2013-07-01

141

Organochlorine transfer in the food web of subalpine Bow Lake, Banff National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from subalpine Bow Lake, near the Continental Divide in Banff National Park, have been reported to have higher concentrations of toxaphene than other lake trout populations of the Rocky Mountains. Our original hypothesis was that unusually high biomagnification via a long food chain was responsible for elevated levels of toxaphene and other persistent organochlorines in the

Linda M. Campbell; David W. Schindler; Derek C. G. Muir; David B. Donald; Karen A. Kidd

2000-01-01

142

Spatial trends and historical profiles of organochlorine pesticides in Arctic lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores were collected from eight remote lakes in Canada, along a mid-continental transect from 49°N to 82°N, with the objective of examining latitudinal and temporal differences in deposition of a wide range of persistent, semi-volatile, organochlorine (OC) pesticides such as DDT, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and toxaphene. Samples were collected with a specially constructed ? corer (30 ×

Derek C. G. Muir; Norbert P. Grift; W. Lyle Lockhart; Paul Wilkinson; Brian N. Billeck; Gregg J. Brunskill

1995-01-01

143

Organochlorine Concentrations in Bonnethead Sharks ( Sphyrna tiburo ) from Four Florida Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their persistence in aquatic environments and ability to impair reproduction and other critical physiological processes, organochlorine (OC) contaminants pose significant health risks to marine organisms. Despite such concerns, few studies have investigated levels of OC exposure in sharks, which are fish particularly threatened by anthropogenic pollution because of their tendency to bioaccumulate and biomagnify environmental contaminants. The present

J. Gelsleichter; C. A. Manire; N. J. Szabo; E. Cortés; J. Carlson; L. Lombardi-Carlson

2005-01-01

144

Interseasonal variation in blood concentrations of organochlorines in great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus).  

PubMed

In two subsequent breeding seasons (2001 and 2002), we measured 12 organochlorines (OCs), including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), oxychlordane, and eight polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), in the blood of the same 25 great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus). The wet-weight concentrations of different OCs in the blood decreased between 45 and 60% from 2001 to 2002. The main reasons for this were lower blood-lipid concentrations and higher body condition in 2002 compared to 2001. The differences in blood lipids and body condition probably resulted from changes in the availability of different prey types between the years. Despite the variation in the blood concentrations of OCs, there was a high predictability of the relative relationship among individuals between the years, especially for the most-persistent compounds (persistent PCBs, oxychlordane, and DDE); that is, individuals with high levels in 2001 still had relatively high levels compared to other individuals in 2002. This suggests that a concentration obtained from a single blood sample is a relatively reliable measurement of OC burdens for individual great black-backed gulls compared to other individuals, independent of changes in mean OC levels within the population. However, by including information about the nutritional status of individuals, more precise interference from samples in different years and locations may be made. Moreover, the great seasonal variation in OC levels within individuals may have implications for how OC monitoring should be conducted in gull populations. PMID:16050599

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Berg, Vidar; Tveraa, Torkild

2005-07-01

145

Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychloribiphenyls [sic] in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), from the continental United States, 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Starlings were collected from 129 sites throughout the contiguous United States in the fall of 1982 and analyzed for organochlorine compounds as part of a nationwide monitoring program. Residues of 14 organochlorine compounds were found. Only DDE, polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide occurred in more than 50% of the lO-starling pools. Geographical variation in the occurrence of seven organochlorine compounds was noted. Mean DDE levels were higher in the southwestern United States. Mean PCB levels were higher in the eastern United States. The occurrence frequency of most organochlorines in 1982 was similar to that which was reported in the previous nationwide study in 1979. A slight increase in occurrence was noted for trans-nonachlor. Mean DDE level I in 1982 was similar to that of 1979. Mean PCB level in 1982 was lower than the 1979 mean, but this change may not reflect a decrease in environmental PCB levels.

Bunck, C.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1987-01-01

146

Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota.  

PubMed

Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient>5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination. PMID:14972581

Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Plötz, Joachim

2004-02-01

147

Occurrence and possible fate of organochlorine pesticide residues at Manzala Lake in Egypt as a model study.  

PubMed

Persistence of the residue of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) became a great danger to our environment long ago. In this study, the persistence of OCPs at Manzala Lake in Egypt was determined. Four different sites were investigated: the El-Gamel, El-Kowar, El-Rasoah, and Janb El-Timsah regions. Among these, the El-Kowar region had the highest concentration of total OCPs in the sediment samples when compared to other regions during both 2012 and 2013. In fact, generally, the residues of OCPs in the sediment samples were significantly higher in all tested sites in comparison with other compartments. Conversely, OCP residues were undetectable in water samples at both the El-Gamel region and the El-Rasoah site in the studied seasons. The data proved that the sediment layer plays a sourcing role in OCP persistence in the aquatic ecosystem. Data analysis also indicated that there was an external source for OCP contamination in the Manzala Lake ecosystem that most likely comes from Nile Basin countries and which extends the expected half-life of these compounds. It could be exemplified by DDT, the half-life of which increased from 30 to approximately 47 years. PMID:25424498

Kamel, Essam; Moussa, Saad; Abonorag, Mostafa A; Konuk, Muhsin

2015-01-01

148

Evidence for organochlorine contamination in Lake Tahoe, California  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine pollutants were measured in mature lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Tahoe, California. This is the first report of organochlorine contamination in this lake which is considered to be pristine; Lake Tahoe, an alpine lake, located in the Sierra Nevadas, has not been subject to direct contamination by industrial discharges or agricultural runoff. Multiresidue analysis of chlorinated compounds in the belly flap tissues of lake trout revealed wet weight concentrations of PCBs and DDE in the low ppb range using EIMS and SIM. Full spectra of specific PCB congeners and DDE were obtained using extracts of fish fat tissue. The presence of these pollutants in biota suggests that atmospheric transport may be a significant source of input to the Lake Tahoe ecosystem.

Datta, S.; Matsumura, F. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

1995-12-31

149

Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in anhingas and waders  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residues of organochlorine compounds occur commonly in environmental samples and have been associated with adverse effects in numerous avian species. The affected species are usually terminal consumers, generally those feeding on aquatic organisms (primarily fish) or birds. Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus , and certain herons are among the species that have exhibited shell thinning in some regions. In 1972, we began a study to determine: (1) geographic differences in the occurrence of environmental pollutants in Anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and waders in the eastern United States; (2) differences in environmental pollutant levels among those species nesting at the same localities; and (3) whether eggshell thickness had changed since the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides began in the mid-1940's.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

1977-01-01

150

The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water  

PubMed Central

Background The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (?,ß,?,?) HCH, (?, ß) endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD. Materials and Methods Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v. Results In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 – 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively. Conclusions Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05), which could pose a risk to aquatic life. PMID:24624185

Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad Hassan; Raeesi, Gholamreza; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz

2013-01-01

151

Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. - Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on breast cancer cell growth. {yields} Weak xenoestrogens in the mixture stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. {yields} Antiandrogens increased the proliferation CAMA-1 cells grown with sex steroids. {yields} High concentrations of the mixture decreased the proliferation of all cell lines.

Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada) [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

2011-04-15

152

Three years (2008-2010) of measurements of atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Station Nord, North-East Greenland.  

PubMed

Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been measured for the first time at Station Nord, North-East Greenland, from 2008 to 2010. The data obtained are reported here. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), endosulfan I and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds detected in the atmosphere, followed by p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. Chlordane isomers and related compounds (trans- and cis-chlordanes, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor) were also detected. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in order to obtain information about their transport properties. The correlation between atmospheric concentrations and temperature was not significant for endosulfan I, ?-HCH and p,p'-DDT, which indicates that direct transport from direct sources is the dominating transport mechanism for these compounds. A significant correlation with temperature was found for all the other studied pesticides and pesticide degradation products, which indicates that re-emission of these compounds from previously contaminated surfaces is an important factor for the observed variation in concentrations. Pesticide concentrations were also correlated with sea ice cover. Concentrations of the compounds that have not been in use for decades correlated with temperature and ice cover, while concentrations of compounds still in use did not correlate with either of these parameters. These observations indicate that processes such as revolatilization from the open sea surface are important mediating factors in the dynamics of anthropogenic persistent pollutants in the Arctic environment under the expected influence of climate change processes. PMID:24132127

Bossi, Rossana; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Skov, Henrik

2013-12-01

153

[Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in soils in Poland].  

PubMed

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, HCBz and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 59 soil samples collected in Poland in 1990-1994 to understand the scale of contamination, spatial distribution and sources of these compounds. Identification and quantification of organochlorines were carried out using HRGC-ECD (63Ni) and HRGC-LRMS. All soil samples were contaminated by DDTs, PCBs and HCHs, while HCBz and CHLs were absent in a few samples. DDTs dominated as organochlorine residues in Polish soil and on the concentration of other insecticides was two orders of magnitude lower. Percentage composition of DDTs (about 60% of p,p'-DDT) indicates a very slow metabolism of DDT in Polish soils. Spatial distribution of HCHs in Poland is similar to distribution of DDTs, while HCBz and CHLs are rather evenly distributed. PCBs concentrations in soil of the Former Soviet Union Army Base are 10 times higher then in urban soils, and 100 times higher then in cultivated and forests soils. PMID:10846932

Kawano, M; Brudnowska, B; Falandysz, J; Wakimoto, T

2000-01-01

154

Original article Organochlorine pesticide residues in Galician  

E-print Network

Original article Organochlorine pesticide residues in Galician (NW Spain) honeys MA Fernández Mui 10 May 1994; accepted 10 October 1994) Summary — Organochlorine pesticide residues were) honey samples. Of the 101 honey sam- ples, 13 were free from detectable residues. The pesticides found

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring gulls and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring gulls. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring gulls, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring gulls. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants. PMID:8880006

Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P

1996-01-01

156

Organochlorine contaminants in fish from an Arctic lake in Alaska, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in muscle tissue and livers of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Schrader Lake in Arctic Alaska. Results confirm the long-range transport of these contaminants to a US Arctic freshwater system. The most abundant group of compounds in all tissues was composed of PCBs.

Rose Wilson; Susan Allen-Gil; Donald Griffin; Dixon Landers

1995-01-01

157

Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are one of the flame retardants widely used in plastics, textiles, electronic appliances, and electrical household appliances. In this study, PBDEs and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the archived samples from the Environmental Specimen Bank for Global Monitoring (es-BANK) at Ehime University. The blubber of cetaceans found stranded along the coasts of Japan, Hong Kong,

Natsuko Kajiwara; Satoko Kamikawa; Karri Ramu; Daisuke Ueno; Tadasu K. Yamada; Annamalai Subramanian; Paul K. S. Lam; Thomas A. Jefferson; Maricar Prudente; Kyu-Hyuck Chung; Shinsuke Tanabe

2006-01-01

158

Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79.  

PubMed

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974-79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks. PMID:24248525

Stendell, R C; Gilmer, D S; Coon, N A; Swineford, D M

1988-01-01

159

SPATIAL TRENDS AND ASSOCIATED BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ORGANOCHLORINES AND BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS IN HATCHLINGS OF NORTH ATLANTIC KITTIWAKES (RISSA TRIDACTYLA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), some organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), were analyzed in yolk sacs of kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) hatchlings from Kongsfjorden at Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic; 798N) and from Runde, an island on the coast of Norway (628N). Retinol (vitamin A), retinyl palmitate, and a-tocopherol (vitamin E) were measured in

Kari Mette Murvoll; Janneche Utne Skaare; Børge Moe; Endre Anderssen; Bjorn Munro Jenssen

2006-01-01

160

Intraspecific Variation in Trophic Feeding Levels and Organochlorine Concentrations in Glaucous Gulls ( Larus hyperboreus ) from Bjørnøya, the Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomagnification contributes to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OC) in some Arctic vertebrates. Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) on Bjørnøya in the western Barents Sea were studied to compare the intraspecific variation in OC concentration with variation in trophic feeding levels, estimated from ratios of nitrogen isotopes. Liver tissue samples from 40 adult glaucous gulls were analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane,

Kjetil Sagerup; Espen O. Henriksen; Janneche U. Skaare; Geir W. Gabrielsen

2002-01-01

161

Inflation Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the concept of inflation persistence in macroeconomic theory. It begins by defining persistence — emphasizing the difference between reduced-form and structural persistence. It then examines a number of empirical measures of reduced-form persistence, considering the possibility that persistence may have changed over time. The chapter then examines the theoretical sources of persistence, distinguishing “intrinsic” from “inherited” persistence,

Jeffrey C. Fuhrer

2010-01-01

162

Predicting the probability of detecting organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in stream systems on the basis of land use in the Pacific Northwest, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyzed streambed sediment and fish tissue (Cottus sp.) at 30 sites in the Puget Sound and Willamette basins in Washington and Oregon, USA, respectively, for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The study was designed to determine the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish tissue and sediment by land use within these basins and to develop an empirical relation between land use and the probability of detecting these compounds in fish tissue or sediment. We identified 14 organochlorines in fish tissue and sediment; three compounds were unique to either fish tissue or sediment samples. The highest number of organochlorines detected in both fish tissue and streambed sediment was at those sites located in watersheds dominated by urban land uses. Using logistic regression, we found a significant relation between percentage agriculture and urban land use and organochlorines in fish tissue. The results of this study indicate that organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are still found in fish tissues and bed sediments in these two basins. In addition, we produced statistically significant models capable of predicting the probability of detecting specific organochlorines in fish on the basis of land use. Although the presented models are specific to the two study basins, the modeling approach could be applied to other basins as well.

Black, R.W.; Haggland, A.L.; Voss, F.D.

2000-01-01

163

Persistent Commissioning, Persistent Value  

E-print Network

This case study showcases the energy savings, operational insights, and continuous economic benefits that end-use customers realize by employing persistent commissioning (PCx) tools and practices through a strategic utility program. Ener...

Morgan, W. R.

2013-01-01

164

Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

1981-01-01

165

Distribution and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from four lakes of Heilongjiang Province, China.  

PubMed

There is growing concern for the lake environment because polluted sediments may cause ecotoxicological effects. In the current study, persistent organochlorine compounds (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and cyclodienes, were analyzed in core sediments taken from Huoshaohei Lake, Xihulu Lake, Wanghua Lake and Keqin Lake, Heilongjiang Province, China. The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 0.92 to 7.09, 0.15 to 9.95, 0.19 to 1.84 and 0.06 to 3.52 ng/g, respectively. The most dominant pollutants were the HCHs, high proportions of ?-HCH isomer indicating the recent input of lindane. The ratios of ?-HCH/?-HCH of four lakes are all lower than that in technical HCH mixtures indicating that there was input of lindane in the past several years, and the mean ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs are all <0.5, suggesting recent release of DDT compounds. Compared with the corresponding ecological environmental quality guidelines from Ingersoll and base on the model of risk based corrective action environmental health risk assessment, the sediments from the four lakes poses a lower potential hazard to human health and the environment but still should be taken into account. PMID:24420623

Hui, Hongkuan; Zang, Shuying

2014-05-01

166

Organochlorine pesticide residues in fish from southern Italian rivers  

SciTech Connect

Extensive use of pesticides in agricultural and municipal fields contributed all over the world to an effective increase of production and to a limitation of the vector injuries to health. However the large quantities of synthetic chemical products employed to achieve these purposes have resulted in an extended environmental pollution, especially worrying about the organochlorine insecticides that are very persistent and suspected of carcinogenicity. For these reasons, this group of pesticides has been banned or strongly restricted in many countries including Italy, where just Lindane and Endosulfan are now allowed in agriculture, representing only 7% of the annual use of synthetic pesticides. In order to control the amount of contamination of surface water from organochlorine pesticides, some surveys were carried out in northern and central Italy, but information regarding situation in southern Italy is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and the magnitude of chlorinated pesticide aquatic pollution in southern Italy by the analysis of some permanent freshwater fish species.

Amodio-Cocchieri, R.; Arnese, A.

1988-02-01

167

Prior exposure to immunosuppressive organophosphorus or organochlorine compounds aggravates the T(H)1- and T(H)2-type allergy caused by topical sensitization to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and trimellitic anhydride.  

PubMed

Immunosuppressive environmental chemicals may increase the potency of allergens and thereby play a role in the development of allergic diseases. This study's primary objective was to examine the mechanisms behind the relationship between allergic diseases and the immunosuppression induced by some environmental chemicals. We focused on the modulation of allergic potential in vitro and in mice by the organophosphorus pesticide O,O-diethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl-thiophosphate (parathion) and the organochlorine pesticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxy-phenyl)ethane (methoxychlor), with respect to the T(H)1-type allergen 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and the T(H)2-type allergen trimellitic anhydride (TMA). Mice (4-week-old) were orally administered parathion or methoxychlor. Four weeks after the final dosing, the mice were sensitized to DNCB or TMA, and T-lymphocyte proliferation measured in their (using a local lymph node assay [LLNA]). In addition, we analyzed T-lymphocytes via surface antigen expression and local cytokine production in auricular lymph nodes after treatment with 0.1% DNCB or 0.3% TMA. The estimated concentration of DNCB and TMA to yield a stimulation index (SI) of cell proliferation of three decreased markedly in parathion- and methoxychlor-pre-treated mice. Pesticide pre-treatment induced marked increases in the number of helper and cytotoxic T-cells, levels of T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokines, and gene expression in lymph node cells. According to our results, T(H)1- and T(H)2-type allergies are aggravated by prior exposure to immunosuppressive environmental chemicals. PMID:21534883

Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tajima, Yukari; Ueda, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichi; Kosaka, Tadashi

2011-06-01

168

Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

1981-01-01

169

Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons.  

PubMed

Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain. PMID:6793997

Ohlendorf, H M; Swineford, D M; Locke, L N

1981-03-01

170

Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides in prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, during 1978-2000.  

PubMed

Temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides such as beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE), were determined in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) collected from Lake Kasumigaura in 1978 to 2000. The organochlorine pesticides elucidated a 72.4% decrease in beta-HCH, from 42 (1978) to 11.6 ng/g fat (2000); an 89.6% decrease in HCB, from 1.64 (1978) to 0.17 ng/g fat (2000); and an 87.3% decrease in p,p'-DDE, from 97.5 (1978) to 12.4 ng/g fat (1992). After organochlorine pesticide prohibition in 1971, the declining trend of beta-HCH, HCB, and p,p'-DDE concentrations persisting in the prawns could be approximated by exponential equations. PMID:15346782

Sunardi; Kumar, K Senthil; Masunaga, S; Iseki, N; Kasuga, S; Nakanishi, J

2004-07-01

171

Intra- and inter-species differences in persistent organic contaminants in the blubber of blue whales and humpback whales from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.  

PubMed

Biopsy samples of blubber from adult male and female blue whales, and from female and young-of-the-year humpback whales were collected during the summers of 1992-1999 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In blue whales, concentrations of 25 PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites and several other organochlorine compounds were present at higher concentrations in the blubber of males relative to females; reflecting maternal transfer of these persistent contaminants from females into young. Sex-related differences in concentrations were not observed with less persistent contaminants, such as HCHs. In humpback whale samples, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine compounds in the blubber of females and calves. These data indicate that calves quickly bioaccumulate contaminants by transplacental and lactational routes to concentrations that are in equilibrium with females. In comparisons between contaminant concentrations and patterns in the blubber of female blue and humpback whales, there were no significant differences in concentrations, but the proportions of some PCB congeners, HCH isomers, and DDT and its metabolites were different in the two baleen whale species. These may reflect differences in the diet of the two species, since fish comprise a large part of the diet of humpback whales and blue whales feed exclusively on euphausiid crustaceans (i.e. krill). PMID:14749058

Metcalfe, Chris; Koenig, Brenda; Metcalfe, Tracy; Paterson, Gordon; Sears, Richard

2004-05-01

172

Comparison and analysis of organochlorine pesticides and hexabromobiphenyls in environmental samples by gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two analytical methods, gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS), were evaluated and compared for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants, specifically for 26 organochlorine pesticides and two hexabromobiphenyls, in atmospheric particulate matter and soil samples. The hypothesis tested was that the coelution of non-target compounds may lead to false positives when analyzed by GC-ECD, and that the overestimation associated with these false positives can be eliminated using GC-NCI-MS. The study showed that both methods had satisfactory linearity and reproducibility for the target compounds. Although the sensitivities of GC-ECD for most of the compounds investigated were higher than those observed with the GC-NCI-MS method, the matrices interference was obvious with GC-ECD. There was indeed an apparently high false-positive rate or overestimate when GC-ECD was used for environmental samples, implying that the GC-ECD method has been used with care and that GC-NCI-MS is generally superior for the analysis of trace amounts of these compounds in environmental samples. Based on these results, the sample extraction and cleanup procedures of the GC-NCI-MS method were optimized for achieving acceptable recoveries and less matrices interference. PMID:24872522

Liu, Yu; Fu, Xiaofang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Liang; Li, Wei; Meng, Bingjun

2015-02-01

173

The occurrence of organochlorines in marine avian top predators along a latitudinal gradient.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the role of cold condensation and fractionation on the occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in avian marine top predators along a latitudinal gradient. We measured 24 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and six pesticide OCs in blood of great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) from the Norwegian Coast (58 degrees N-70 degrees N) and glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjornoya in the Norwegian Arctic (74 degrees N). Glaucous gulls had up to 3 times higher sigmaOC concentrations compared to the great black-backed gulls, and a OC pattern dominated largely by persistent and low volatile compounds such as highly chlorinated PCBs and metabolites such as oxychlordane. This was not consistent with cold condensation and fractionation theory, but probably related to diet and elevated biomagnification. Among great black-backed gulls, however, there were indications of both cold condensation and fractionation. Higher and lower chlorinated PCBs had highest absolute concentrations in the south and in the north, respectively, except for one location at an intermediate latitude, where concentrations of most OCs exceeded all other locations. In terms of proportional contribution to sigmaOC (pattern), relatively volatile OCs such as HCB, oxychlordane and tri- to penta- PCB congeners were more important at northern latitudes, while hexa- to nona-PCBs made up a larger proportion of sigmaOC in the south. The results thus showed that differences in global distribution of compounds with different physicochemical properties could be detected in avian top predators such as large gulls, even if biomagnification and biotransformation influence both the absolute concentrations and the patterns of OCs. PMID:16955919

Steffen, Cecilie; Borgå, Katrine; Skaare, Janneche U; Bustnes, Jan Ove

2006-08-15

174

Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) population has decreased in their primary breeding grounds in the Bering Sea; contamination is among suspected causes. Our\\u000a goal was to better understand the extent of contamination of seal tissues with certain organochlorine compounds by measuring\\u000a the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in fur seal tissues from St. Paul\\u000a Island, to

Dongli WangWeilin; Weilin L. Shelver; Shannon Atkinson; Jo-Ann Mellish; Qing X. Li

2010-01-01

175

Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.  

PubMed

The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution. PMID:20189196

Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

2010-04-01

176

Persistent organic pollutants and semen quality: The LIFE Study.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that persistent environmental chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls may adversely affect human fecundity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples discontinuing contraception for purposes of becoming pregnant. Men provided a blood specimen and two fresh semen samples collected approximately a month apart that underwent next day analysis for 35 semen quality endpoints. Serum samples were analyzed for 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners #18, 28, 44, 49, 52, 66, 74, 87, 99, 101, 114, 118, 128, 138, 146, 149, 151, 153, 156, 157, 167, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, 183, 187, 189, 194, 195, 196, 201, 206, 209); 1 polybrominated biphenyl (#153); 9 organochlorine pesticides; and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners #17, 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154183) using high resolution mass spectrometry. To estimate the effect of chemicals on semen quality, we regressed each semen marker on each chemical while adjusting for research site, age, body mass index, serum lipids, and cotinine levels. Males with chemical concentrations in the fourth quartile, as compared to the first quartile, showed significant associations for several individual chemicals in each chemical class and type of semen quality parameter indicating negative and positive associations with semen quality. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in particular were associated with several measures of increased abnormal morphology. These exploratory results highlight the role of environmental influences on male fecundity, and are of particular interest given the ubiquitous exposures to these compounds. PMID:25441930

Mumford, Sunni L; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Gore-Langton, Robert E; Boyd Barr, Dana; Buck Louis, Germaine M

2014-11-28

177

Whole blood concentrations of organochlorines as a dose metric for studies of the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus).  

PubMed

In order to examine if whole blood concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) is an appropriate dosimetric parameter for use in ecotoxicological studies of free-living birds, a number of incubating glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were repeatedly sampled within and between subsequent breeding seasons. The wet weight concentrations of selected OCs, differing in persistence and fat solubility, were compared and it was assessed to what extent present concentrations could be predicted from concentrations previously measured in the individuals. There were only a few significant differences in the blood concentrations of the selected OCs within and between seasons. The most persistent compound, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153, showed a low interindividual variability, and between seasons, 70% of the variance could be explained by the level in the previous year, while changes in body condition and blood lipid percentage were of less importance. For PCB-101, the predictability of the present blood concentration from the previous concentration was lower than for PCB-153, and changes in body condition and blood lipid percentage explained a higher proportion of the variance. The present level of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) could not be predicted from the previous level. Sex did not explain any significant proportion of the variance in OC concentrations when previous level and changes in body mass and blood lipid were included in the statistical models. Thus, for the most persistent OCs, concentration in the blood of incubating glaucous gulls is representative for the interindividual differences over time and whole blood concentrations of OCs appear adequate as a dose metric in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:11337867

Bustnes, J O; Skaare, J U; Erikstad, K E; Bakken, V; Mehlum, F

2001-05-01

178

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, ?-HCH (<2.6 ng g(-1)) and its byproducts ?-HCH (<3.5 ng g(-1)) and ?-HCH (<0.6 ng g(-1)). Among the DDT and its metabolites, only two were found: p,p'-DDT was found in a cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards. PMID:22133910

Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

2012-02-01

179

Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod)

K Borgå; G. W Gabrielsen; J. U Skaare

2001-01-01

180

Organochlorine residues in woodcock wings, 11 states--1970-71  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A survey of organochlorine residues in woodcock wings was undertaken to determine whether these wings are suitable for showing regional differences in residues and to obtain a baseline in 1970-71 for later comparisons. Woodcock wings were obtained from the annual hunter's wing survey. Samples came from eight States (Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin) and one tri-State area (North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia). Wings from the tri-State area contained significantly higher (P<0.01) concentrations of DDT (including DDT, DDD, and DDE) than those from other States. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) also were significantly higher (P<0.05) in samples from these three States. Wings from Louisiana and the tri-State area had significantly higher (P<0.01) concentrations of dieldrin than wings from the other States, and those from Louisiana had significantly higher (P < 0.01) concentrations of mirex than those from other States. (Residues are on lipid base) The compounds detected and the ranges of residue means for all sampling areas were as follows: Total DDT (5.89--65.15 ppm); DDT (0.34 m--14.93 ppm); DDE (4.66--47.47 ppm); DDD (0.11--3.44 ppm); mirex (0.76--16.93 ppm); dieldrin (0.09--3.06 ppm); and PCB's (4.27--8.63 ppm). Woodcock wings appear to be suitable for determining regional differences in organochlorine residues in this species.

McLane, M.A.R.; Stickel, L.F.; Clark, E.R.; Hughes, D.L.

1973-01-01

181

A frequent A gamma-hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin in northern Sardinia: its molecular basis and hematologic phenotype in heterozygotes and compound heterozygotes with beta-thalassemia.  

PubMed

A survey of hemoglobinopathies in northern Sardinia revealed a high frequency (0.3%) of carriers of a hematologic condition characterized by increased expression of fetal hemoglobin during adult life (hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin or HPFH). In spite of a normal hematologic phenotype, the heterozygous carriers for this condition display about 12% HbF, almost exclusively of the A gamma type; compound heterozygotes with beta-thalassemia have 20%-26% HbF and run a very mild clinical course. The sequence analysis of the cloned A gamma gene linked to the HPFH determinant revealed the presence of a G----A substitution at position -117 of the A gamma-globin gene promoter; the same mutation occurs also in Greek HPFH, although associated with different restriction polymorphisms. Another hereditary condition characterized by increased HbF (alpha 2 A gamma 2) level and a mild thalassemia phenotype in Sardinia is associated with the -196C----T substitution in the A gamma-globin gene promoter (Sardinian delta beta-thalassemia). Population studies using oligonucleotides complementary both to the -117 G----A and -196C----T mutations and the corresponding normal sequences confirm the presence of these mutations only in HPFH and delta beta-thalassemia chromosomes and exclude these changes being common DNA polymorphisms. PMID:2452784

Ottolenghi, S; Camaschella, C; Comi, P; Giglioni, B; Longinotti, M; Oggiano, L; Dore, F; Sciarratta, G; Ivaldi, G; Saglio, G

1988-05-01

182

Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada). National Wildlife Research Centre; Weseloh, D.V. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

183

Organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs from the Pacific coast of Canada, 1971-1986.  

PubMed

Eggs were collected from seven seabird species at colonies on the British Columbia coast from 1983 to 1986 and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Total PCB levels (wet weight) were highest in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Fraser estuary (2.91 mg kg(-1)) and the Strait of Georgia (3.79 mg kg(-1)). Highest DDE levels were in fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) from the Queen Charlotte Islands (1.68 mg kg(-1)). Organochlorine levels were generally lower in eggs from the mid 1980s than in those collected in the early 1970s. Organochlorine levels in Pacific alcids and hydrobatids foraging in offshore locations were compared to those in the same or ecologically similar species from the Canadian Atlantic coast. DDT- and HCH-related compounds were higher in Pacific populations while levels of dieldrin, oxychlordane, and HCB were generally lower. With the exception of ?-HCH, levels of all measured organochlorines were lower in cormorants breeding in the Fraser River estuary than in cormorants from the St. Lawrence River estuary on the Atlantic coast. PMID:24249067

Elliott, J E; Noble, D G; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E

1989-04-01

184

Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in osprey eggs — 1970–79 — and their relationships to shell thinning and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected in 14 states in 1970–79 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury. Moderate shell thinning occurred in eggs from several areas. DDE was detected in all eggs, PCBs in 99%, DDD in 96%, dieldrin in 52%, and other compounds less frequently. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites declined in eggs from

Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Christine M. Bunck; Alexander J. Krynitsky

1988-01-01

185

INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE US: FOUR STUDIES, SIX STATES AND TWENTY YEARS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pesticides used to control indoor pests have transitioned across the chemicals classes of organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds from the 1980's to the present. This work summarizes the pesticide concentrations measured from the indoor air of homes from four st...

186

Organochlorine, Heavy Metal and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Pollutant Concentrations in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) Environment: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past monitoring of heavy metals, organochlorine compounds and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has found that pollutant concentrations are generally low within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and World Heritage Area and are indicative of a relatively unpolluted environment. The exceptions are sites that are adjacent to human activity such as ports and harbours, urban centres and areas adjacent to intensive

David Haynes; Johanna E Johnson

2000-01-01

187

Certain organochlorine and organobromine contaminants in Swedish human milk in perspective of past 20–30 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations of organochlorine compounds in breast milk from women living in the Stockholm region started in 1967. The present study summarises the investigations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), naphthalenes (PCNs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and pesticides (DDT, DDE, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin) as well as methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs and DDE in human milk sampled during different periods

Koidu Norén; Daiva Meironyté

2000-01-01

188

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has

D. Pastor; C. Sanpera; J. González-Sol??s; X. Ruiz; J. Albaigés

2004-01-01

189

Assessment of daily intake of organochlorine pesticides from milk in different regions of Poland.  

PubMed

The common occurrence of organochlorine compounds in the environment, food and human tissues may constitute a serious threat to human health. The method of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to determine the content of pesticides in 15 samples of raw cow's milk from different regions of Poland. The results revealed high levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, heptachlor and aldrin. The studied milk contained lindane in average concentrations within the maximum limits. Although in 20% of all samples tested, the concentration of lindane exceeded permissible limits, while in 15% of samples the content of ? DDT was too high. But the average daily consumption of milk containing organochlorine pesticides poses no direct threat to human health, because daily intake (DI) for all compounds were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Attention should be paid to the exposure of consumers to pesticide residues from other dairy foods. PMID:23305275

Witczak, Agata; Mituniewicz-Ma?ek, Anna; Dmytrów, Izabela

2013-01-01

190

Organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in ground water and surface waters of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey undertaken in Kanpur, northern India, has shown the presence of high concentrations of both organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in the surface and ground water samples. Liquid–liquid extraction followed by GC-ECD was used for the determination of these compounds. Among the various pesticides analyzed, high concentrations of ?-HCH (0.259 ?g\\/l) and malathion (2.618 ?g\\/l) were detected in the surface

Nalini Sankararamakrishnan; Ajit Kumar Sharma; Rashmi Sanghi

2005-01-01

191

Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet’s crocodile ( Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-viable eggs of Morelet’s crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n=24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and

Ted H Wu; Thomas R Rainwater; Steven G Platt; Scott T McMurry; Todd A Anderson

2000-01-01

192

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively

Ross J. Norstrom; Mary Simon; Derek C. G. Muir; Ray E. Schweinsburg

1988-01-01

193

Residual levels and identify possible sources of organochlorine pesticides in Korea atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nationwide monitoring program was established in 2008 to monitor of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Korea. Under this program, it was observed air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 37 sites from January to October of 2008, to determine the residue levels and identify possible sources in Korea atmosphere. Samples of OCPs including HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide were collected with high volume air sampler and analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The concentrations were in the range of 41.2-344.3 pg m -3 for HCB, ND-47.55 pg m -3 for DDTs (sum of p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD), ND-38.97 pg m -3 for chlordanes (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane), ND-9.19 pg m -3 for heptachlors (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide) and ND-4.32 pg m -3 for dieldrin. The predominant compound in air was HCB. However, HCB itself has not ever been registered and used as a pesticide in Korea. The elevated concentration of HCB in Korea might be contributed to geographical location and long range transport. For DDTs, it was found that no more fresh input occurred recently and technical type DDTs was prevailing in Korea. Higher concentration of chlordane was observed in winter, which was contributed to the fresh input technical chlordane and long range transport. Relatively lower levels of heptachlor and dieldrin despite much more consumption than other pesticides were resulted from shorter half-lives in environment.

Park, Jin Soo; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Woo Il; Kim, Byung Hoon

2011-12-01

194

compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size is the key factor of nanostructured materials, since all the structural, transport, electrical, magnetic and other physical properties can be tuned by this factor of materials. Only the condition is to choose appropriate inexpensive scale-processing method for material synthesis which offers good control over the stoichiometry, morphology and particle size distribution. Present communication deals with the studies on the sol-gel grown Y0.95Ca0.05MnO3 (YCMO) nanostructured compounds for their size-induced tuning of dielectric behavior. Structural studies reveal the single phasic nature with improved crystallite size with sintering temperature. Dielectric constant (real and imaginary) is found to increase with temperature and crystallite size/sintering temperature. High dielectric loss has been observed in the present system. Size dependent activation energy ( E a), obtained from modulus measurement, showing the increase in E a with crystallite size. The variation in various dielectric parameters and E a has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystallite boundaries, oxygen vacancies and charge carrier hopping.

Shah, N. A.

2014-10-01

195

Serum organochlorines and urinary porphyrin pattern in a population highly exposed to hexachlorobenzene  

PubMed Central

Background Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is caused by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in several species of laboratory mammals, but the human evidence is contradictory. In a study among adults of a population highly exposed to HCB (Flix, Catalonia, Spain), the prevalence of PCT was not increased. We aimed at analysing the association of individual urinary porphyrins with the serum concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine compounds in this highly exposed population. Methods A cross-sectional study on total porphyrins was carried out in 1994 on 604 inhabitants of the general population of Flix, older than 14 years. Of them, 241 subjects (comprising a random sample and the subgroup with the highest exposure) were included for the present study. The porphyrin profile was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of HCB, as well as common organochlorine compounds, were determined by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection. Results Coproporphyrin I (CPI) and coproporphyrin III (CPIII) were the major porphyrins excreted, while uroporphyrins I and III were only detected in 2% and 36% of the subjects respectively, and heptaporphyrins I and III in 1% and 6%, respectively. CPI and CPIII decreased with increasing HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). This negative association was not explained by age, alcohol, smoking, or other organochlorine compounds. No association was found between uroporphyrin I and III excretion, nor heptaporphyrin excretion, and HCB. CPIII increased with smoking (p < 0.05). Conclusion HCB exposure in this highly exposed population did not increase urinary concentrations of individual porphyrins. PMID:12495451

Sunyer, Jordi; Herrero, Carmen; Ozalla, Dolores; Sala, Maria; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier

2002-01-01

196

Seasonal and temporal trends in polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in East Greenland polar bears ( Ursus maritimus), 1990–2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs)) were determined in adipose tissue of 92 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled between 1999 and 2001 in central East Greenland (69°00?N to 74°00?N). OC data were presented from subadults (S: females: ×5 years and males: ×6 years), adult females (F: ×5 years) and adult males (M: ×6

R. Dietz; F. F. Riget; C. Sonne; R. Letcher; E. W. Born; D. C. G. Muir

2004-01-01

197

Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in mountain soils from Tajikistan.  

PubMed

The concentrations and spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface soils of different altitudes (570–4656 m) from Tajikistan were determined. OCPs were detected in all samples with concentrations in the range 52.83–247.98 ng g(-1) dry weight (ng g(-1) dw). Aldrins were the most predominant compounds followed by chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and endosulfans, while dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and methoxychlor were detected at much lower concentrations. Composition analysis indicated that OCPs mainly came from the atmospheric transport of historically used pesticides. OCP residues in the west and northwest parts of Tajikistan were higher than the east and the southeast due to the proximity to the potential sources and anthropogenic activity intensities around. Additionally, correlation analysis between OCPs and altitudes indicated that the more volatile pollutants, such as HCH isomers, seemed to become enriched more easily in regions with higher altitudes relative to the less volatile ones, such as DDTs. PMID:23738359

Zhao, Zhonghua; Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu; Zhang, Lu

2013-03-01

198

Nationwide residues of organochlorines in starlings, 1974  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from 126 collection sites were monitored during the fall of 1974. DDE, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and benzene hexachloride were present in all samples. Dieldrin, heptachlor expoxide, hexachlorobenzene, and oxychlordane were present in approximately 97% of the samples. DDE, dieldrin, and PCB residues in starlings were significantly lower than they had been in 1972.

White, D.H.

1976-01-01

199

Environmental fate and behavior of persistent organic pollutants in Shergyla Mountain, southeast of the Tibetan Plateau of China.  

PubMed

Pristine mountains are ideal settings to study transport and behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along gradients of climate and land cover. The present work investigated the concentrations and patterns of 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 25 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) isomers in the air of the Shergyla Mountain, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Endosulfan ?, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes and dichlorodibenzotrichloroethane and its degradation products (DDTs) were the predominant compounds while PBDEs and HBCDs showed the lowest background concentrations. Most of the target POPs had significantly higher concentrations in summer than those in winter. Increasing trends of the concentrations of DDTs and endosulfan were found with increasing altitude on the western slope in the Shergyla Mountain. Potential forest filter effect was observed based on the lower air concentrations of the target POPs in the forest than the ones out of the forest. PMID:24842382

Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

2014-08-01

200

Embryonic abnormalities and organochlorine contamination in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) from the upper Great Lakes in 1988.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in eggs with normal and deformed embryos collected in 1988 from different colonies during an epizootiological survey of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) from the upper Great Lakes. PCBs and p,p'-DDE were found in the highest concentrations in eggs of both species. The residue pattern of PCB isomers and chlordane compounds suggested that double-crested cormorants have greater metabolic capacity to degrade contaminants than Caspian terns. According to the toxicity evaluation using the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQs) approach, non-ortho coplanar PCBs contributed much more toxicity than PCDDs and PCDFs. Total TEQ of dioxin-like compounds was likely associated with occurrence of live-deformed embryos in double-crested cormorants eggs. The toxic effects of these contaminants were also estimated in Caspian tern eggs, where elevated levels of coplanar PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs were observed in concordance with increased rate of anomalies in eggs during a breeding season in the Great Lakes. PMID:15091901

Yamashita, N; Tanabe, S; Ludwig, J P; Kurita, H; Ludwig, M E; Tatsukawa, R

1993-01-01

201

Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression  

SciTech Connect

1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

Shabbir, Arsalan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); DiStasio, Susan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Zhao, Jingbo [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher P. [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Wolff, Mary S. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Caplan, Avrom J. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

2005-03-01

202

Temporal trends of organochlorine contamination in Black Guillemots in Iceland from 1976 to 1996.  

PubMed

The levels of several different persistent organochlorines (OCs) in Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle, collected during the summers of 1976-1996 at Breioafjörour in W-Iceland, were investigated. The levels of about 40 different organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphenes, HCH, HCB) were compared with respect to age, sex, fat content, and year of collection. The levels of PCBs correlated very closely with those of DDE, indicating long-range transport as the major source of these contaminants in Iceland, with the ratio PCBs/DDE mostly in the range of 2-5. Unlike the Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, the organochlorine levels did not seem to accumulate substantially with age, neither in males nor females. The variation in the levels of OCs at the age of 2 years was even greater than the variation in OC levels over an age range of 12 years. In immature birds the levels of PCBs, DDE, HCB and beta-HCH declined very slowly (T(1/2) from 12 to 20 years) over the years 1976-1996, whereas the levels of alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDT declined much faster. The levels of trans-nonachlor, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, and toxaphene did not correlate with the year of collection. As the Black Guillemot is mostly a resident seabird, feeding mainly on small fish and invertebrates, this investigation should give a good indication of the temporal trends of organochlorine pollution at Breioafjörour, Iceland, during this 20 year period and is likely to reflect baseline trends in the marine environment of the North-Atlantic Ocean. PMID:15519726

Olafsdóttir, Kristín; Petersen, Aevar; Magnúsdóttir, Elín V; Björnsson, Thorvaldur; Jóhannesson, Torkell

2005-02-01

203

Effects of urbanization and long-term rainfall on the occurrence of organic compounds and trace elements in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue from the Santa Ana River basin, California, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organcochlorine compounds, semivolatile-organic compounds (SVOC), and trace elements were analyzed in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue in the Santa Ana River Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Three reservoirs were sampled in areas that have different degrees of urbanization. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected at 12 sites were divided into two groups, urban and nonurban. More organochlorine compounds were detected in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment and fish tissue, and at higher concentrations at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of organochlorine compounds were lower than the probable-effect concentration (PEC). At the highly urbanized West Street Basin, chlordane and p,p'-DDE exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The less stringent threshold-effect concentration (TEC) was exceeded for six compounds at eight sites. Most of the organochlorine compounds detected in streambed sediment and fish tissue were at urban sites on the Santa Ana River as opposed to its tributaries, suggesting accumulation and persistence in the river. More SVOCs were detected in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment, and at higher concentrations, at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all the sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of SVOCs were lower than the PEC. At West Street Basin, chrysene, pyrene, and total polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 3 sites. Most of the SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment at urban sites on tributaries to the Santa Ana River rather than the mainstem itself. The less frequent occurrence and lower concentrations in the Santa Ana River suggest that SVOCs are less persistent than organochlorine compounds, possibly as a result of volatization, gradation, or dilution. Most trace-element detections in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment were at urban sites, and the concentrations were generally higher than at nonurban sites. Lead and zinc exceeded their PECs at West Street Basin throughout the historical record; copper exceeded its PEC at Canyon Lake, an area of urban growth. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 11 sites. Frequency of detection and concentration did not differ between tributary and Santa Ana River sites, which may be attributed to the fact that trace elements occur naturally. Four trace elements (arsenic, copper, mercury, and selenium) had higher concentrations in fish tissue at nonurban sites than at urban sites. Concentrations decreased over time for organochlorine compounds at all three reservoirs, probably a result of the discontinued use of many of the compounds. Decreasing trends in SVOCs and trace elements were observed at West Street Basin, but increasing trends were observed at Canyon Lake. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds, SVOCs, and trace elements were higher during periods of above average rainfall at both West Street Basin and Canyon Lake.

Burton, Carmen A.

2002-01-01

204

Monitoring of heavy metal and organic compound levels along the Eastern Aegean coast with transplanted mussels.  

PubMed

Within the framework of the MYTITURK project, heavy metals and organic compounds contaminations were assessed in transplanted mussels in eight different bays from the Eastern Aegean coast. Izmir Bay, Canakkale Strait entrance, Saros and Candarli Bay were defined low pollution extent according to Principal Component Analysis taking into metal accumulation. PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) levels in the range of 29.4-64.2 ng g(-1) (dry weight) indicated that PAH contamination level classified as low along the Aegean coast. Concentrations of Aroclor1254 and 1260 were higher in transplanted mussels from Canakkale Strait Outlet due to industrial activities was originated from Marmara Sea. The organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor (<0.4 ng g(-1)), aldrin (<0.30 ng g(-1)), dieldrin (<0.75 ng g(-1)), endrin (<2.3 ng g(-1)) concentrations were homogeneous however, HCB (Hexachlorobenzene) and lindane concentrations were found undetectable level along the coast. DDE/DDT ratio in the caged mussels form Gulluk and Gokova Bay indicated recent DDT (Dikloro difenil trikloroethan) usage in these areas. The residues of organochlorinated compounds in transplanted mussels confirm the long persistence of DDTs. According to world health authorities, the concentration of heavy metals in mussels for the study area can generally be considered not to be at levels posing a health risk except Zn. The levels of POPs indicated that transplanted mussels have a lack of risk for the human health. PMID:23972908

Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Pazi, Idil; Yucel-Gier, Guzel; Akcali, Baris; Galgani, François

2013-11-01

205

Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.  

PubMed

As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of ?-HCH/?-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no significant health risk for human consumption by eating eggs collected in this study. PMID:24862478

Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

2015-02-01

206

Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores < insectivores < omnivores < piscivores < carnivores. Although, the organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species. PMID:20571760

Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

2010-08-01

207

Characterization of Zebrafish Abcc4 as an Efflux Transporter of Organochlorine Pesticides  

PubMed Central

DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment. PMID:25478949

Lu, Xing; Long, Yong; Lin, Li; Sun, Rongze; Zhong, Shan; Cui, Zongbin

2014-01-01

208

ORGANOCHLORINE INSECTICIDE CONTAMINATION OF BOTTLED WATERS IN TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollution of organochlorine insecticides in drink- ing water poses risks for humans. Turkey is a candidate country for the European Community and should, there- fore, perform pesticide residue analyses in the near future, including that of organochlorine residues in drinking water. In 2005, bottled water samples were collected from local markets and market chains in Aydin, Turkey, and analyzed

Cafer Turgut; Cengiz Gokbulut

209

ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC  

EPA Science Inventory

We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

210

Organochlorine contaminants in sea turtles from the Eastern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent (14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of the 35 tissue samples, respectively). PCBs were detected in all but one of the 9 turtles studied, with congener 18 the most

Susan C. Gardner; M. Dawn Pier; Raymond Wesselman; J. Arturo Juárez

2003-01-01

211

Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues  

PubMed Central

Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

2013-01-01

212

Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds of Belgium: levels, patterns, tissue distribution and condition factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver and muscle samples from 7 species of aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds from Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PCBs were the predominant compounds in our samples, which showed highest concentrations in the liver of barn owl (Tyto alba) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (up to 1000?g\\/g lipid weight). PBDEs could

V. L. B. Jaspers; A. Covaci; S. Voorspoels; T. Dauwe; M. Eens; P. Schepens

2006-01-01

213

Plasma organochlorine concentrations and bone ultrasound measurements: a cross-sectional study in peri-and postmenopausal Inuit women from Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inuit women are highly exposed through their traditional seafood based diet to organochlorine compounds, some of them displaying endocrine disrupting properties. We hypothesized that this exposure might be related to bone characteristics that are altered in osteoporosis, because hormone deficiency is a known risk factor for the disease. METHODS: We measured quantitative ultrasound parameters (QUS) at the right calcaneum

Suzanne Côté; Pierre Ayotte; Sylvie Dodin; Claudine Blanchet; Gert Mulvad; Henning S Petersen; Suzanne Gingras; Éric Dewailly

2006-01-01

214

POTENTIAL FOR BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANO-CHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Halogenated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are the most important organic contaminants of shallow water-table aquifers. Such aquifers have recently been shown to harbor an indigenous microflora. Organisms in authentic and uncontaminated samples of unconsolidated subsurface m...

215

Residues of organochlorines in mallards and blue-winged teal collected in Colombia and Wisconsin, 1984–1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the seasonal concentrations of 12 organochlorine (OC) compounds in samples of breast muscle, associated skin, and subcutaneous fat of blue-winged teal (Anas discors) collected in Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia (1987–1988), and of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and blue-winged teal collected in Wisconsin (1984–1989). Although these species have similar feeding habits and overlapping breeding distributions, their winter ranges

J. E. Botero; M. W. Meyer; S. S. Hurley; D. H. Rusch

1996-01-01

216

Role of the estrogen receptor in the action of organochlorine pesticides on estrogen metabolism in human breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As interest in the properties of xenoestrogenic compounds has grown, different in vitro cell culture systems have been proposed as models, against which to gauge relative estrogenic impact. Previous research indicated that some organochlorine-based pesticides elevated the production of 16?-hydroxyestrone relative to 2-hydroxyestrone in ER+ MCF-7 breast cancer cells while phytochemicals like indole-3-carbinol reduced this ratio. That this ratio may

H. Leon Bradlow; Devra Davis; Daniel W. Sepkovic; Raj Tiwari; Michael P. Osborne

1997-01-01

217

Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data.  

PubMed

Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5ng/kgbw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970ng/kgbw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:25454223

Bu, Qingwei; MacLeod, Matthew; Wong, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mueller, Jochen F; Yu, Gang

2015-01-01

218

Persistent organic pollutants in dusts that settled indoors in lower Manhattan after September 11, 2001.  

PubMed

The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol impacting many residents, workers, and commuters after September 11, 2001. In all, 12 bulk samples of the settled dust were collected at indoor locations surrounding the epicenter of the disaster, including one sample from a residence that had been cleansed and was once again occupied. Additionally, one sample was collected from just outside a fifth story window on the sill. These samples were analyzed for many components, including inorganic and organic constituents as well as morphology of the various particles. The results of the analyses for persistent organic pollutants on dusts that settled at indoor locations are described herein, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and select organo-chlorine pesticides. The Sigma(86)-PCB concentrations, comprising less than one part per million by mass of the bulk in the two samples analyzed, indicated that PCBs were of limited significance in the dust that settled at indoor locations across lower Manhattan. Likewise, organo-chlorine pesticides, Hexachlorobenzene, Heptachlor, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDT and Mirex were found at even lower concentrations in the bulk samples. Conversely, Sigma(37)-PAHs comprised up to 0.04% (<0.005-0.036%) by mass of the bulk indoor dust in the 11 WTC impacted bulk indoor samples. Analysis of one sample of indoor dusts collected from a vacuum cleaner of a rehabilitated home shows markedly lower PAH concentrations (<0.0005 mass%), as well as differing relative contributions for individual compounds. In addition to similar concentrations, comparison of PAH concentration patterns (i.e. chemical fingerprints) shows that dusts that settled indoors are chemically similar to previously measured WTC dusts found at outdoor locations and that these PAH analyses may be used in identifying dusts of WTC origin at indoor locations, along with ascertaining further needs for cleaning. PMID:15014547

Offenberg, John H; Eisenreich, Steven J; Gigliotti, Cari L; Chen, Lung Chi; Xiong, Judy Q; Quan, Chunli; Lou, Xiaopeng; Zhong, Mianhua; Gorczynski, John; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Illacqua, Vito; Lioy, Paul J

2004-03-01

219

Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins  

SciTech Connect

Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

1999-07-01

220

Organochlorine contaminants in fish from an arctic lake in Alaska, USA.  

PubMed

A wide range of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in muscle tissue and livers of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Schrader Lake in Arctic Alaska. Results confirm the long-range transport of these contaminants to a US Arctic freshwater system. The most abundant group of compounds in all tissues was composed of PCBs. Mean concentrations of the sum of a selected group of PCB congeners ranged from 3.2 ng/g in grayling liver to 22.8 ng/g in trout liver and from 1.3 ng/g in grayling muscle to 6.6 ng/g in trout muscle (wet wt.). The second most abundant group was composed of chlordane-related compounds. No significant correlations of organochlorine concentrations with fish weight or length were observed for the data set as a whole. There were marked differences in sigma PCB, sigma chlordane and p,p'-DDE concentrations between species. The biomagnification factors for these compounds are similar to ratios reported for other aquatic systems. Comparisons showed that contaminant concentrations in lake trout from Schrader Lake were similar to levels found in burbot and slightly higher than levels in whitefish reported in Canadian studies from the Mackenzie River Delta. PMID:7892581

Wilson, R; Allen-Gil, S; Griffin, D; Landers, D

1995-01-15

221

Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine chemical residues in oxbow lakes of northeastern Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples (98) of 16 spp. of animals were collected at Lake Providence, 88 samples of 15 spp. at Lake Bruin and 21 samples of 5 spp. at Lake St. John, Louisiana, between July 15 and Sept. 25, 1980. Residues of 13 organochlorine compounds were identified in these samples. Substantial concentrations of many compounds throughout the food webs of all 3 lakes showed that the lakes acted as sumps, accumulating residues from nearby agricultural land. DDT and its metabolites (DDE, TDE and DDMU [1-chloro-2,2,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene]), toxaphene and polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) were the principal organochloride residues detected. With few exceptions, biomagnification of the principal residues was clearly illustrated. Tertiary consumers such as green-backed heron (Butorides striatus), snakes, spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) contained the highest residues. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), blacktail shiner (Notropis venustus), yellow-crowned night heron (Nycticorax violaceus) and other secondary consumers contained lower levels of residues. Primary consumers, crayfish (Orconectes lancifer) and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense), contained relatively low residue levels of most compounds. Frogs contained lower residue levels than expected based on their position in the food web. Residue levels in immature green-backed herons and .gtoreq. 1 of the longer-lived predators, e.g., snakes, gars or largemouth bass could be monitored to evaluate levels of organochlorine chemical contaminants in aquatic habitats.

Niethammer, K.R.; White, D.H.; Baskett, T.S.; Sayre, M.W.

1984-01-01

222

Photochemical Transformations of Trace Persistent Organic Pollutants in Snow and Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar snowpacks have been established as active matrices for chemical processing of atmospheric species such as molecular halogens, volatile organics and ozone. It has previously been demonstrated that photochemical transformations of anthropogenic persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in ice occur under laboratory conditions, but there is little in the published literature regarding these processes. In the study described here, we consider the effect of near ultraviolet radiation on trace amounts of various organochlorine compounds in ice; the compounds selected are of interest because of their known presence in polar regions and their detrimental effect on organisms in polar ecosystems. Both direct photochemical transformations and indirect photo-oxidation by OH radical were investigated. To differentiate between pure liquid-phase, solid phase and interfacial processes, experiments were conducted on POPs in aqueous solution, ice and crushed ice/snow at various temperatures. In all cases, the degradation of the POP was monitored by the extraction of photolyzed samples followed by GC analysis. On the basis of these degradation studies, some reactive systems were selected for more detailed investigation. Reaction products were identified from irradiated samples by SPME with GCMS analysis. On the basis of the kinetic studies and identified reaction products, mechanisms for selected photochemical transformations are proposed. Potential implications of these transformations for environmental partitioning and interactions of the selected POPs will be discussed.

Grannas, A. M.; Rowland, G. A.; Sprenkle, A.; Bausch, A.

2007-12-01

223

Organochlorines in top predators at Svalbard--occurrence, levels and effects.  

PubMed

Alarmingly high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels have been found in the top predators such as glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard [Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Polder, A., Bakken, V., 1995. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). Sci. Total Environ. 160/161, 337-346; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Environ. Pollut. 95, 159-175; Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Trudeau, S., Wolkers, H., Sagerup, K., Skaare, J.U., 1999. Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Bear Island, the Barents Sea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (in press). ]. Studies of the possible toxic effects, particularly on the immune system and reproduction, of the very high PCB levels in these species are currently being investigated. Data obtained in the field (f.i. reproductive success in polar bears and intestinal nematodes in glaucous gulls), as well as levels of various biochemical and physiological parameters (f.i. thyroid hormones, retinol, EROD activity, CYP1A, IgG), have been coupled with the PCB levels [Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Bernhoft, A., 1994. Klorerte organiske miljogifter; Nivâer og effekter i isbjorn. Norwegian Polar Institute Reportseries no. 86, 1-23 (in Norwegian); Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Environ. Pollut. 95, 159-175; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Derocher, A.E., Larsen, H.J., 2000. Possible immunotoxic effects of organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard (in press); Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Skjegstad, N., Jensen, B.M., 1998a. Relationship between PCB levels, hepatic EROD activity and plasma retinol in glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus. Marine Environ. Res. 46, 45-49; Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Trudeau, S., Wolkers, H., Sagerup, K., Skaare, J.U. , 1999. Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Bear Island, the Barents Sea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (in press); Sagerup, K., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skorping, A., Skaare, J.U., 1998. Association between PCB concentrations and intestinal nematodes in glaucou gulls, Larus hyperboreus, from Bear Island. Organohalogen compounds 39, 449-451; Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Bernhoft, A., 1994. Klorerte organiske miljogifter; Nivâer og effekter i isbjorn. Norwegian Polar Institute Reportseries no. 86, 1-23. (in Norwegian)]. PMID:10720718

Skaare, J U; Bernhoft, A; Derocher, A; Gabrielsen, G W; Goksøyr, A; Henriksen, E; Larsen, H J; Lie, E; Wiig

2000-03-15

224

Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Measures of Behavior in Infancy Using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)  

PubMed Central

Background Previous literature suggests an association between organochlorines and behavioral measures in childhood, including inattention. Objective This study was designed to assess whether prenatal organochlorine exposure is associated with measures of attention in early infancy. Methods We investigated an association between cord serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) levels and measures of attention from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) in a cohort of 788 infants born 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor and Superfund site in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Results Medians (ranges) for the sum of four prevalent PCB congeners and DDE levels were 0.19 (0.01–4.41) and 0.30 (0–10.29) ng/g serum, respectively. For the 542 subjects with an NBAS exam at 2 weeks, we observed consistent inverse associations between cord serum PCB and DDE levels and NBAS measures of alertness, quality of alert responsiveness, cost of attention, and other potential attention-associated measures including self-quieting and motor maturity. For example, the decrement in quality of alert responsiveness score was ?0.51 (95% confidence interval, ?0.99 to ?0.03) for the highest quartile of exposure to the sum of four prevalent PCB congeners compared with the lowest quartile. We found little evidence for an association with infant orientation, habituation, and regulation of state, assessed as summary cluster measures. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for an association between low-level prenatal PCB and DDE exposures and poor attention in early infancy. Further analyses will focus on whether organochlorine-associated decrements in attention and attention-related skills in infancy persist in later childhood. PMID:18470320

Sagiv, Sharon K.; Nugent, J. Kevin; Brazelton, T. Berry; Choi, Anna L.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

2008-01-01

225

Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain).  

PubMed

Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of organochlorine pollutants, thus reflecting different pollution origins. PMID:24380771

Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D

2014-03-01

226

Persistent Organic Pollutants in gull eggs of two species (Larus michahellis and Larus audouinii) from the Ebro delta Natural Park.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of priority and emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in gull eggs from two species, the scavenger Larus michahellis and the protected species, Larus audouinii. These two species share habitat in the Natural Park of the Ebro delta (Catalonia, Spain). Compounds studied are included or under consideration in the Stockholm Convention and comprise polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated compounds (OCs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). Four methods based in selective extraction and gas or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were used and quality parameters are provided. OC pesticides and marker PCBs were the most abundant chemical families detected in eggs from the two species, followed by PFCs, PBDEs (especially BDE 209) and SCCPs. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were also detected in all samples. The overall widespread presence of POPs is discussed in terms of feeding habits, bird ecology and anthropogenic pressures in the protected Ebro delta breeding area. PMID:22564454

Morales, Laura; Martrat, Maria Generosa; Olmos, Jorge; Parera, Jordi; Vicente, Joana; Bertolero, Albert; Abalos, Manuela; Lacorte, Silvia; Santos, Francisco Javier; Abad, Esteban

2012-09-01

227

Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

1988-01-01

228

Assessment of human health risk from organochlorine pesticide residues in Cidade dos Meninos, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

This article presents the results of a heath risk assessment in Cidade dos Meninos, an area contaminated with organochlorine pesticide residues located in the county (municipality) of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) risk assessment methodology was applied. The following organochlorine compounds exceeded the established limits and were considered target pollutants: HCH and its isomers (in eggs, milk, and soil); DDT and its metabolites; trichlorobenzenes; trichlorophenols; dioxins and furans (eggs and soil). For all the substances studied (with the exception of trichlorophenols), the estimated doses exceeded the minimum risk levels for chronically exposed children and adults. According to the ATSDR classification, the area was considered an "urgent public health hazard" because of its high and serious exposure to substances that are dangerous to human health. PMID:18392352

Asmus, Carmen Ildes R Fróes; Alonzo, Herling Gregorio Aguilar; Palácios, Marisa; Silva, Alexandre Pessoa da; Freitas Filhote, Maria Isabel de; Buosi, Daniela; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

2008-04-01

229

Evaluation of organochlorine contamination in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed in blubber samples collected from fifteen Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) stranded in the Pearl River Delta during the period from 2004 to 2009. In general, the magnitude of the mean concentrations is: ?DDTs>?PCBs>?HCHs>?CHLs>HCB. DDT levels found in this study were very high, with the ?DDT ranging from 845 to 179,000 ng/g wet weight. Of particular importance is the fact that new inputs from diverse sources still exist in the Pearl River Delta. ?PCBs ranged from 123 to 10,200 ng/g wet weight. More studies are necessary for a better understanding of these organochlorine contaminants and their impact on the conservation of humpback dolphins residing in the Pearl River Estuary waters. PMID:23280301

Wu, Yinglin; Shi, Jingchun; Zheng, Gene J; Li, Ping; Liang, Bo; Chen, Tufeng; Wu, Yuping; Liu, Wenhua

2013-02-01

230

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain).  

PubMed

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has been explained by two mechanisms: equilibrium partitioning and/or biomagnification through the trophic web. Nevertheless, bioaccumulation processes are by far more complex, since several biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the observed pollutant loads in the organisms. In this respect, the biological characteristics of the organisms considered (e.g. species, age, lipid contents, feeding habits, etc.), as well as ecological factors (e.g. the habitat of the species and vertical distribution), have been shown to account for the organochlorine levels observed. PMID:15006509

Pastor, D; Sanpera, C; González-Solís, J; Ruiz, X; Albaigés, J

2004-04-01

231

Organochlorine poisoning of ring-billed gulls in southern Ontario.  

PubMed

Clinical, necropsy, bacteriologic, parasitologic, histopathologic, toxicologic and animal inoculation studies suggest that organochlorine (PBC, dieldrin and DDE) poisoning was an important factor in causing deaths of free-flying ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) in southern Ontario in 1969 and 1973. The brains of gulls dying with clinical signs of neurologic involvement, and dead gulls with no other apparent cause of death, contained organochlorine residues of significantly greater levels than those found in healthy gulls shot for comparison. PMID:410957

Sileo, L; Karstad, L; Frank, R; Holdrinet, M V; Addison, E; Braun, H E

1977-07-01

232

Chiral organochlorine pesticide signatures in global background soils.  

PubMed

Chiral pesticides frequently undergo enantioselective degradation in soils. Prior studies to characterize chiral signatures have focused on treated agricultural soils, rather than background (untreated) soils, and tracking signatures in the atmosphere for source apportionment purposes. In this study, we investigated the chiral signatures in 65 background soils collected from different locations across the world. The soils were taken from different ecosystems (e.g., grasslands, forests), and the enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of chiral chlordanes, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), and o,p'-DDT were determined. Chlordanes in most of the soils showed the usual pattern of enantioselective degradation seen in agricultural soils, depletion of (+)-trans-chlordane (TC) and (-)-cis-chlordane (CC). However, some samples showed opposite enantiomer degradation patterns for TC, CC, and chlordane compound MC5. Correlations were tested between the deviation of EFs from racemic (DEVrac = absolute value of 0.500 - EF), the percent soil organic matter (% SOM), annual mean temperature, and the ratio of TC to the more stable compound trans-nonachlor (TN). Significant positive correlations were found between DEVrac and % SOM for TC and CC (p = 0.0022 and 0.0031), but not for the other OCPs. No significant correlations were found between DEVrac and annual mean temperature for any of the OCPs. DEVrac for TC was negatively correlated with the TC/TN ratio, but the regression was driven by two points with high ratios of TC/CC. Removing these two points resulted in a nonsignificant regression. The range of EFs for TC, CC, and alpha-HCH in soils was greater than in ambient air, providing evidence of in situ degradation after atmospheric deposition in some cases. Variable EFs in soil suggest that caution is needed when considering the enantiomer signatures in air as a marker of volatilization of weathered soil-derived organochlorines. PMID:16323761

Kurt-Karakus, Perihan B; Bidleman, Terry F; Jones, Kevin C

2005-11-15

233

Pollution by organochlorine pesticides in Navachiste-Macapule, Sinaloa, Mexico.  

PubMed

The lagoon system of Navachiste-Macapule is located in northern Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, with an area of 24,000 ha. The main economic activity in the area is agriculture, and the lagoon lies next to the irrigation district ID-063 which covers 116,615 ha. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of pollution generated by organochlorine pesticides (OC) in the surface sediments of the lagoon and in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 that are supposedly transported into the system as a result of agricultural activities and runoff from adjacent land. For this, between 2006 and 2007, 45 surface sediment samples were collected (warm dry, rainy and cold dry) from 15 sampling sites, during the three climatic seasons. Of these, eight were located inside the lagoon in marine conditions (salinity >31 PSU) and seven in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 in freshwater conditions (salinity <5 PSU). The average concentration of the OC in the sediments was 44.75 ng g(-1), among which the group of the alicyclic compounds presented the greatest concentrations. The average value of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the sediments of the system was 0.90%. The sediments collected inside the lagoon had an average OC concentration of 18.97 ng g(-1), and the predominant type of sediment was fine to very fine sand. The average OC concentration in the sediments collected in the agricultural drains was 75.69 ng g(-1), where fine sediments (silt) were predominant. The presence of methoxychlor, endrin and heptachlor suggested that these compounds were continuously used in the system, even though their use is forbidden in Mexico. PMID:21484297

Montes, Adriana M; González-Farias, Fernando A; Botello, Alfonso V

2012-03-01

234

Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, ?-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, ?-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

2014-10-01

235

Persistent hypoglycemia.  

PubMed

Hypoglycemia is a common finding in emergency departments. In this article, we review the causes of hypoglycemia in children, the evaluation and management of a child with persistent hypoglycemia, and causes of adrenal insufficiency in children. We report a case of adrenoleukodystrophy, a type of primary adrenal insufficiency, in a 5-year-old boy who presented with altered mental status, seizures, and hypoglycemia. PMID:23823267

Levasseur, Kelly Anne; Tigchelaar, Helene; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama

2013-07-01

236

The use of a non-lethal tool for evaluating toxicological hazard of organochlorine contaminants in Mediterranean cetaceans: new data 10 years after the first paper published in MPB.  

PubMed

In the Mediterranean Sea, top predators, and particularly cetacean odontocetes, accumulate high concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and toxic metals, incurring high toxicological risk. In this paper we investigate the use of the skin biopsies as a non-lethal tool for evaluating toxicological hazard of organochlorines in Mediterranean cetaceans, presenting new data 10 years after the paper published by Fossi and co-workers [Mar. Poll. Bull. 24 (9) (1992) 459] in which this new methodology was first presented. Some organochlorine compounds, now with worldwide distribution, are known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here the unexplored hypothesis that Mediterranean cetaceans are potentially at risk due to organochlorines with endocrine disrupting capacity is investigated. High concentrations of DDT metabolites and PCB congeners (known as EDCs) were found in the different Mediterranean species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus and Balaenoptera physalus). In this paper we also propose benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase (BPMO) activity in marine mammal skin biopsies (non-lethal biomarker) as a potential indicator of exposure to organochlorines, with special reference to the compounds with endocrine disrupting capacity. A statistically significant correlation was found between BPMO activity and organochlorine levels (DDTs, pp(')DDT, op(')DDT, PCBs and PCB99) in skin biopsies of males of B. physalus. Moreover a statistical correlation was also found between BPMO activity and DDT levels in skin biopsies of the endangered Mediterranean population of D. delphis. These results suggest that BPMO induction may be an early sign of exposure to organochlorine EDCs and can be used for periodic monitoring of Mediterranean marine mammal toxicological status. PMID:12907191

Fossi, M Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Neri, Giovanni; Natoli, Ada; Politi, Elena; Panigada, Simone

2003-08-01

237

Novel Firmicutes group implicated in the dechlorination of two chlorinated xanthones, analogues of natural organochlorines.  

PubMed

Although the abundance and diversity of natural organochlorines are well established, much is still unknown about the degradation of these compounds. Triplicate microcosms were used to determine whether, and which, bacterial communities could dechlorinate two chlorinated xanthones (2,7-dichloroxanthone and 5,7-dichloro-1,3-dihydroxylxanthone), analogues of a diverse class of natural organochlorines. According to quantitative-PCR (qPCR) results, several known dechlorinating genera were either not present or not enriched during dechlorination of the xanthones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, however, indicated that several Firmicutes were enriched in the dechlorinating cultures compared to triplicate controls amended with nonchlorinated xanthones. One such group, herein referred to as the Gopher group, was further studied with a novel qPCR method that confirmed enrichment of Gopher group 16S rRNA genes in the dechlorinating cultures. The enrichment of the Gopher group was again tested with two new sets of triplicate microcosms. Enrichment was observed during chlorinated xanthone dechlorination in one set of these triplicate microcosms. In the other set, two microcosms showed clear enrichment while a third did not. The Gopher group is a previously unidentified group of Firmicutes, distinct from but related to the Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium genera; this group also contains clones from at least four unique cultures capable of dechlorinating anthropogenic organochlorines that have been previously described in the literature. This study suggests that natural chlorinated xanthones may be effective biostimulants to enhance the remediation of pollutants and highlights the idea that novel genera of dechlorinators likely exist and may be active in bioremediation and the natural cycling of chlorine. PMID:24296507

Krzmarzick, Mark J; Miller, Hanna R; Yan, Tao; Novak, Paige J

2014-02-01

238

Novel Firmicutes Group Implicated in the Dechlorination of Two Chlorinated Xanthones, Analogues of Natural Organochlorines  

PubMed Central

Although the abundance and diversity of natural organochlorines are well established, much is still unknown about the degradation of these compounds. Triplicate microcosms were used to determine whether, and which, bacterial communities could dechlorinate two chlorinated xanthones (2,7-dichloroxanthone and 5,7-dichloro-1,3-dihydroxylxanthone), analogues of a diverse class of natural organochlorines. According to quantitative-PCR (qPCR) results, several known dechlorinating genera were either not present or not enriched during dechlorination of the xanthones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, however, indicated that several Firmicutes were enriched in the dechlorinating cultures compared to triplicate controls amended with nonchlorinated xanthones. One such group, herein referred to as the Gopher group, was further studied with a novel qPCR method that confirmed enrichment of Gopher group 16S rRNA genes in the dechlorinating cultures. The enrichment of the Gopher group was again tested with two new sets of triplicate microcosms. Enrichment was observed during chlorinated xanthone dechlorination in one set of these triplicate microcosms. In the other set, two microcosms showed clear enrichment while a third did not. The Gopher group is a previously unidentified group of Firmicutes, distinct from but related to the Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium genera; this group also contains clones from at least four unique cultures capable of dechlorinating anthropogenic organochlorines that have been previously described in the literature. This study suggests that natural chlorinated xanthones may be effective biostimulants to enhance the remediation of pollutants and highlights the idea that novel genera of dechlorinators likely exist and may be active in bioremediation and the natural cycling of chlorine. PMID:24296507

Krzmarzick, Mark J.; Miller, Hanna R.; Yan, Tao

2014-01-01

239

Organochlorine residues in New York waterfowl harvested by hunters in 1983-1984.  

PubMed

Thirteen organochlorine compounds were detected in fat and breast muscle tissues of Canada goose and five species of ducks that were shot by sportsman in New York. Residues of DDE and PCB occurred most frequently and were positively identified along with DDT, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene. Compounds that were detected but not positively confirmed by mass spectrometry were dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor, chlordane, oxychlordane, and endrin. Wood duck (Aix sponsa) and Canada goose (Branta canadensis) had significantly lower levels of DDE and PCB than black duck (Anas rubripes), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), scaup (Athya sp.), and bufflehead (Bucephala albeola). Birds collected from Long Island and the Hudson River-Lake Champlain corridor carried highest concentrations. PMID:24234343

Foley, R E

1992-04-01

240

Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid. PMID:22099537

Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

2012-02-01

241

Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.  

PubMed

Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (?6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ?PCB and ?DDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

Romani?, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klin?i?, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

2014-09-01

242

Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 (±2.5), 9.5 (±2.2), and 13 (±5.8) yr for decay-corrected 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of 137Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Callender, Edward; Fuller, Christopher C.

1998-01-01

243

Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established.

Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

1985-12-01

244

Biodegradation of perfluorinated compounds.  

PubMed

The information available in the literature provides evidence for the biodegradation of some poly- and per-fluorinated compounds, but such biodegradation is incomplete and may not result in mineralization. Recent publications have demonstrated that 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol, for example, can be degraded by bacteria from soil and wastewater treatment plants to perfluorooctanoic acid. Similarly, 2-N-ethyl(perfluorooctane sulfonamido)ethanol can be degraded by wastewater treatment sludge to perfluorooctanesulfonate. It is presently unclear whether these two products are degraded further. Therefore, the question remains as to whether there is a potential for defluorination and biodegradation of PFCs that contributes significantly to their environmental fate. The lack of mineralization observed is probably caused by the stability of the C-F bond, although there are examples of microbially catalyzed defluorination reactions. As is the case with reductive dechlorination or debromination, reductive defluorination is energetically favorable under anaerobic conditions and releases more energy than that available from sulfate reduction or methanogenesis. Consequently, we should consider the possibility that bacteria will adapt to utilize this source of energy, although evolving mechanisms to overcome the kinetic barriers to degradation of these compounds may take some time. The fact that such reactions are absent for some PFCs, to date, may be because too little time has passed for microorganisms to adapt to these potential substrates. Hence, the situation may be comparable to that of chlorinated organic compounds several decades ago. For many years, organochlorine compounds were considered to be catabolically recalcitrant; today, reductive chlorination reactions of many organochlorines, including PCBs and dioxins, are regularly observed in anaerobic environments. Hence, it is opportune and important to continue studying the potential degradation of perfluorinated compounds in carefully designed experiments with either microbial populations from contaminated sites or cultures of bacteria known to dehalogenate chlorinated compounds. PMID:19025092

Parsons, John R; Sáez, Monica; Dolfing, Jan; de Voogt, Pim

2008-01-01

245

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

1988-09-01

246

FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOOT DEPOSITS FROM NON-OPTIMUM COMBUSTION OF NO. 6 FUEL OIL WITH CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

During a full-scale hazardous waste combustion study performed for EPA, sampling and analysis was conducted on both stack gases and solid "soot" collected from a boiler's interior surfaces. wo organochlorine compounds, monochlorobenzene (MCB) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were cof...

247

Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.  

PubMed

Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. PMID:25043888

Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

2015-01-01

248

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > ? endosulfan > ? HCH > ? heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of ? HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ? 0.05). PMID:18777151

Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

2014-01-01

249

Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii ) breed in two areas in the Western Hemisphere: in northeastern North America between Long Island, New York, and Nova Scotia, and around the Caribbean Sea from the Florida Keys and the Bahamas to the Netherlands Lesser Antilles. The present paper reports the results of a survey of organochlorine residues in Roseate Terns in 1981. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the levels of organochlorine contamination in eggs of the Roseate Tern in its major colonies and to investigate whether changes in eggshell characteristics similar to those reported by Fox (1976) may have occurred in this species. A secondary objective was to determine geographic patterns of organochlorine contamination within the northeastern U.S. population of Roseate Terns and to compare them with patterns observed in Common Terns.

Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1983-01-01

250

Organochlorine and Heavy-Metal Contaminants in Wild Mammals and Birds of Urbino-Pesaro Province, Italy: An Analytic Overview for Potential Bioindicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue samples from 56 bird and 11 mammal species of different trophic levels, collected from 1994 to 1995 from the Urbino–Pesaro\\u000a area in the Marche region of central Italy, were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls\\u000a and p,p?-DDE) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg). Results revealed interspecies differences in pollutant residue concentrations.\\u000a A clear relationship

E. Alleva; N. Francia; M. Pandolfi; A. M. De Marinis; F. Chiarotti; D. Santucci

2006-01-01

251

The organochlorine pesticides ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane), ?-endosulfan and dieldrin differentially interact with GABA A and glycine-gated chloride channels in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotoxic organochlorine pesticides ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, ?-endosulfan and dieldrin induce in mammals a hyperexcitability syndrome accompanied by convulsions. They reduce the GABA-induced Cl? flux. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor also regulates Cl?-flux inhibitory responses. We studied the effects of these compounds on Cl? channels associated with glycine receptors in cultured cerebellar granule cells in comparison to the GABAA receptor. Both GABA (EC50:

C. Vale; E. Fonfra; J. Bujons; A. Messeguer; E. Rodrguez-Farr; C. Suol

2003-01-01

252

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants as potential risk factors for developing diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),\\u000a which are synthetic chemicals or by-products with an intrinsic resistance to natural degradation processes, are released into\\u000a the environment, resulting in the widespread dispersal and accumulation in the environment, as well as in human and ecological\\u000a food chains. Due to their ubiquity in the environment and

ChunXiang Wang; ShunQing Xu; ZiQuan Lv; YuanYuan Li; YouJie Wang; Tian Chen

2010-01-01

253

Selected persistent organic pollutants in human placental tissue from the United States.  

PubMed

Emerging and legacy environmental pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide metabolite DDE are found in human placenta, indicating prenatal exposure, but data from the United States are sparse. We sought to determine concentrations of these compounds in human placentae as part of a formative research project conducted by the National Children's Study Placenta Consortium. A total of 169 tissue specimens were collected at different time points post delivery from 43 human placentae at three U.S. locations, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry following extraction using matrix solid phase dispersion. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE were detected in all specimens. The concentrations of 10 PBDEs (?10PBDEs), 32 PCBs (?32PCBs) and p,p'-DDE were 43-1723, 76-856 and 10-1968pgg(-1) wet weight, respectively, in specimens collected shortly after delivery. Significant geographic differences in PBDEs were observed, with higher concentrations in placentae collected in Davis, CA than in those from Rochester, NY or Milwaukee, WI. We combined these with other published data and noted first-order declining trends for placental PCB and DDE concentrations over the past decades, with half-lives of about 5 and 8years, respectively. The effect of time to tissue collection from refrigerated placentae on measured concentrations of these three classes of persistent organic pollutants was additionally examined, with no significant effect observed up to 120h. The results of this work indicate that widespread prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the United States continues. PMID:24485817

Nanes, Jessica A; Xia, Yulin; Dassanayake, R M A Priyanthi S; Jones, Rachael M; Li, An; Stodgell, Christopher J; Walker, Cheryl K; Szabo, Sara; Leuthner, Steve; Durkin, Maureen S; Moye, Jack; Miller, Richard K

2014-07-01

254

Maternally derived testosterone and 17?-estradiol in the eggs of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls in relation to persistent organic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is largely unknown if and how persistent organic pollutants (POPs) affect the transfer of maternal hormones to eggs. This occurs despite an increasing number of studies relating environmental conditions experienced by female birds at the time of egg formation to maternal hormonal effects. Here we report the concentrations of maternal testosterone, 17?-estradiol and major classes of POPs (organochlorines, brominated

Nanette Verboven; Jonathan Verreault; Robert J. Letcher; Geir W. Gabrielsen; Neil P. Evans

2008-01-01

255

Lake-wide distribution and depositional history of current- and past-use persistent organic pollutants in Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface sediment concentrations of past-use persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated napthalenes (PCNs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and current-use chemicals such as the polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), were determined in sediments from 22 sites across Lake Simcoe. PFCs were also measured in surface waters. Maximum concentrations of historical POPs,

Paul A. Helm; Jacquie Milne; Veronique Hiriart-Baer; Patrick Crozier; Terry Kolic; Rocsana Lega; Tony Chen; Karen MacPherson; Sarah Gewurtz; Jennifer Winter; Anne Myers; Chris H. Marvin; Eric J. Reiner

2011-01-01

256

Historical contamination of Yukon Lake sediments by PCBs and organochlorine pesticides: influence of local sources and watershed characteristics.  

PubMed

PCBs and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides were analyzed in sediment cores collected from six lakes in Yukon Territory and one in northern British Columbia, Canada, with the objective of establishing sources and historical trends of these contaminants. DDT was found to be the most prominent OC in the sediment profiles of most of the lakes. Maximum sigmaDDT levels (3.47-2680 ng g(-1) dw) were observed in sediment slices dated to the 1950s from lakes near populated areas. In contrast, in more remote lakes (Hanson, Kusawa and Lindeman), the maximum sigmaDDT concentrations were observed in the sediments dated to the 1970s. Highest sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations were measured in sediments from Watson Lake, near a suspected PCB waste disposal site and in a region where DDT was heavily applied in the 1950s and 1960s. Elevated sigmaPCB concentrations [16.1-93.6 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw)] were also observed in sediments from lakes situated near populated areas, relative to Kusawa and Lindeman (11.1 and 12.7 ng g(-1) dw, respectively). Recent sigmaPCB fluxes ranged from 621 ng m(-2) y(-1) in Kusawa Lake to 16400 ng m(-2) y(-1) in Little Atlin Lake. The extremely high sedimentation rate (2050 g m(-2) y(-1)) in glacial fed Lindeman Lake gave rise to elevated fluxes of sigmaPCB (2410 ng m(-2) y(-1)) and other OCs, despite much lower concentrations in the sediment. Levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigmaHCH), chlordane-related compounds (sigmaCHL), and chlorobenzenes (sigmaCBz) were in the low ng g(-1) (dw) range in all lake sediments, similar to concentrations previously reported for Arctic lakes in Canada, indicating that their major source was long range atmospheric transport. Contamination of the lakes with PCBs and DDT near populated areas of the Yukon Territory appears to be a result of regional activities rather than long range transport and deposition. The results also point to glacial runoff as a significant source of OCs to small, high elevation lakes (Lindeman), but not to larger lakes within the Yukon River drainage basin that are also affected by glacial sources (Kusawa, Laberge). PMID:11763265

Rawn, D F; Lockhart, W L; Wilkinson, P; Savoie, D A; Rosenberg, G B; Muir, D C

2001-12-01

257

Marine mammal health: Organochlorines in blubber, blood and milk of Tursiops truncatus  

SciTech Connect

Marine mammals are potentially vulnerable organisms for the effects of hazardous man-made chemicals. Organochlorines (OCs) are suspected of causing reproductive failure and immunosuppression which may result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease. High levels of OCs have been found in victims of mass die offs of cetaceans world-wide. To determine baseline values of these organochlorine contaminants found in healthy reproductive dolphins, the authors collected samples of blood, blubber and milk from a population of Tursiops truncatus maintained by the US Navy. These animals are ideal for study because of the availability of relevant biological data which is often lacking in data from wild animals. The Navy dolphins are trained for medical behaviors like blood and milk collection. These behaviors allow them to collect data under controlled conditions preempting errors that occur when collecting similar data on dead and/or wild animals. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) the authors have quantified 10 to 25 PCBs using congener-specific analysis and 19 chlorinated pesticides from microsamples of blubber, blood and milk collected from these animals. The authors also analyzed the fish in the diets of the dolphins. Serial sample collection of milk has allowed us to track the transfer of OCs over the course of lactation. They were also able to correlate OC levels found in blubber, blood and milk. This database should reveal baseline levels relating environmental toxins and marine mammal health to provide a potentially sensitive indicator of pollution and disease in the natural ocean environment and furnish an unparalleled historical pathway toward understanding the effects and consequences of these persistent contaminants and their impact on the marine ecosystem.

Reddy, M.L.; Ridgway, S.H. [NCCOSC, San Diego, CA (United States). RDTE Division

1995-12-31

258

Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

1984-01-01

259

Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber.  

PubMed

So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g., in plastic and glass sheds), which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)). Air was sampled at 5, 15, and 30cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cylinders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges. Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs. These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air. The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed. PMID:25597683

Yang, Bing; Han, Baolu; Xue, Nandong; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng

2015-01-01

260

Immune Function and Organochlorine Pollutants in Arctic Breeding Glaucous Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000

J. O. Bustnes; S. A. Hanssen; I. Folstad; K. E. Erikstad; D. Hasselquist; J. U. Skaare

2004-01-01

261

Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations  

SciTech Connect

PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

1987-12-01

262

ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS OF WINTERING DUCKS FORAGING ON DETROIT RIVER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Organochlorine analysis was performed on carcasses of 13 diving ducks from a 1981 wintering population that foraged on contaminated sediments in the lower Detroit River. Mean total PCB concentrations were 10 mg/kg for seven lesser scaups (Aythya affinis), 11 mg/kg for three great...

263

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Human Fat in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the trend in the body load of organochlorine pesticide residues in Great Britain, between July 1965 and June 1967 samples of fat were taken during routine necropsies on 247 subjects over 3 years old and on 44 stillborn or premature babies and infants below the age of 3. The levels of the three main pesticides, B.H.C.,

D. C. Abbott; R. Goulding; J. O. G. Tatton

1968-01-01

264

Factors affecting the transfer of organochlorine pesticide residues to breastmilk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing studies monitoring organochlorine pesticide residues in breastmilk were examined to identify whether common factors determine the extent of transfer of these residues. A structured review of the English language literature was conducted. Papers were reviewed and assessed using a structured protocol. A total of 77 papers were initially identified, 46 of which contained conclusions relating to the factors which

Caroline A. Harris; Michael W. Woolridge; Alastair W. M. Hay

2001-01-01

265

Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

1999-05-01

266

Organochlorines and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

Organochlorine chemicals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been suspected as possible risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We investigated PCBs and organochlorine pesticides and risk of NHL in a population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada. Congeners of PCBs (including dioxinlike congeners) and pesticides or pesticide metabolites were measured in plasma of 422 pretreatment cases and 460 control subjects. This is so far the largest study to examine organochlorines in plasma to date. Several dioxin-like PCB congeners were associated with increased risk of NHL, including dioxin-like PCB nos. 118 and 156 with odds ratios (OR) for the highest versus lowest quartile between 1.6 and 1.8. Several non-dioxin-like congeners also showed significant associations. The PCB congener with the strongest association was no. 180 with an OR for the highest versus the lowest quartile of 1.83 (95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.84). Six pesticide analytes also showed a significant association with NHL; beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor. The strongest association was found for oxychlordane, a metabolite of the pesticide chlordane (highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 2.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.69-4.24). Our results provide further evidence that organochlorines contribute to NHL risk. PMID:17722095

Spinelli, John J; Ng, Carmen H; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Connors, Joseph M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Lai, Agnes S; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Le, Nhu D; Berry, Brian R; Gallagher, Richard P

2007-12-15

267

DEVELOPMENT OF REFERENCE MATERIAL FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN HERBAL SAMPLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of reference material for four organochlorine pesticides, namely hexachlorobenzene and three isomers (?-, ?- and ?-) of hexachlorocyclohexane, in ginseng root sample (Panax ginseng) to ascertain the quality control and validation processes was presented. A total of more than 300 bottles each containing 25g of Panax ginseng samples was prepared and the reference values were characterised using a primary

Yiu-chung Wong; Tat-ting Kam; Serena Chan

268

Organochlorines in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive survey on organochlorine (OC) contaminants in polar bears at Svalbard has been undertaken. Subcutaneous tissue, blood and milk have been sampled from anesthetized free-ranging bears of both sexes and different ages in the period from 1990 to 1994. A number of sexually mature females have been fitted with satellite transmitters which make it possible to follow their reproductive

Aksel Bernhoft; Øystein Wiig; Janneche Utne Skaare

1997-01-01

269

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

270

Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

1973-01-01

271

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in environmental samples from the Shatt al-Arab River, Iraq.  

PubMed

Application of high resolution gas chromatography has confirmed relatively low residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in the Shatt al-Arab River. Thus, average concentration of these compounds in the edible portion of the cyprinid (Barbus xanthopetrus) were 21, 4 and 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively. Mean values of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in surface sediments were 5, 40 and 20 microg kg(-1) dry weight respectively. Shrimps sampled from the Shatt al-Arab River were found to contain residues of o, p'-DDD only (average concentration was 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight). However, comparison of these samples with those from an area affected directly by a point source of organochlorine pesticides has shown that the cyprinid of the same age group contained significantly higher residue levels (average concentrations of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were 166, 20 and 7 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). Thus, it may be concluded that there was no direct input of organochlorine pesticides to the Shatt al-Arab River, and transportation via the natural processes, such as drainage, appeared to be the sole source. Based upon the observation that the original compound (p,p'-DDT) has not been detected in this river, it has also been concluded that there was no recent contribution of DDT here. Relatively higher residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were encountered in the muscles of the Indian shad captured from the Shatt al-Arab River (average concentrations were 163, 80 and 28 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). However, these elevated values were attributed to this fish being migratory and it being exposed to these pesticides elsewhere. PMID:15092796

DouAbul, A A; Al-Saad, H T; Al-Rekabi, H N

1987-01-01

272

The deep-sea as a final global sink of semivolatile persistent organic pollutants? Part I: PCBs in surface and deep-sea dwelling fish of the north and south Atlantic and the Monterey Bay Canyon (California).  

PubMed

The understanding of the global environmental multiphase distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a result of the physico-chemical properties of the respective compounds is well established. We have analysed the results of a vertical transport of POPs from upper water layers (0-200 m) to the deepwater region (> 800 m) in terms of the contamination of the biophase in both water layers. The contents of persistent organochlorine compounds like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish living in the upper water layers of the North Atlantic and the South Atlantic, and at the continental shelf of California (Marine Sanctuary Monterey Bay and its deep-sea Canyon) are compared to the levels in deep-sea or bottom dwelling fish within the same geographic area. The deep-sea biota show significantly higher burdens as compared to surface-living species of the same region. There are also indications for recycling processes of POPs--in this case the PCBs--in the biophase of the abyss as well. It can be concluded that the bio- and geo phase of the deep-sea may act similarly as the upper horizons of forest and grasslands on the continents as an ultimate global sink for POPs in the marine environment. PMID:10705541

Froescheis, O; Looser, R; Cailliet, G M; Jarman, W M; Ballschmiter, K

2000-03-01

273

An Ecological Study of Organochlorine Pesticides and Breast Cancer in Rural Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have suggested that environmental contamination with organochlorine pesticides may be related to risk\\u000a of breast cancer. To investigate this association in a rural part of Australia, organochlorine contamination data from a breast\\u000a milk organochlorine study conducted in the state of Victoria in 1993 were used. The state was divided into 11 statistical\\u000a divisions. Standardized incidence ratios

Narges Khanjani; Dallas R. English; Malcolm R. Sim

2006-01-01

274

Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides and their Metabolites in Alligator Livers from Lakes Apopka and Woodruff, Florida, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

275

Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a

John R. Kucklick; William D. J. Struntz; Paul R. Becker; Geoff W York; Todd M O'Hara; Jesssica E Bohonowych

2002-01-01

276

Persistent organochlorine pesticides in two hylidae species from the la antigua watershed, veracruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

Amphibians are good models for monitoring contaminants in ecosystems because they transfer xenobiotic substances throughout trophic networks. We quantified bioaccumulated POCs by capturing and sacrificing ninety-one frogs (Charadrahyla taeniopus and Ecnomiohyla miotympanum) from four riverine forests immersed in agriculture and pasture lands in the La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico watershed. The concentrations of ?DDTs, ?HCHs, ?Endosulphans, ?Heptachlors, ?Drines, and ?Chlordanes were measured by gas chromatography and compared between species, sites and seasons. In E. miotympanum the concentration of ?HCHs was highest at 4,746.46 ?g/g, while in C. taeniopus that of the ?DDTs was highest at 2,637.10 ?g/g. Concentrations of ?Endosulphans, ?HCHs, ?Chlordanes and ?Drines differed between the two species, and were always higher in E. miotympanum. In E. miotympanum the concentration of ?Drines differed between sites, while for C. taeniopus ?Heptachlors differed between seasons and ?Drines among sites. These findings indicate that the two frog species even bioconcentrate POCs that are banned and may disrupt their reproduction. The effect however may vary according to the site and the frog species. PMID:25304151

Valdespino, Carolina; Huerta-Peña, Aldo Israel; Pérez-Pacheco, Antonio; Rendón von Osten, Jaime

2015-01-01

277

Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study  

PubMed Central

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

2013-01-01

278

Using blood plasma for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the lower Columbia River.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in blood plasma samples from 88 juvenile white sturgeon collected from the lower Columbia River were measured and compared to plasma sex steroid and OC tissue levels previously measured in corresponding fish. Significant squared correlation coefficients between summation operator DDT concentrations in sturgeon plasma and gonads and livers were 0.37 and 0.32, respectively. Significant negative correlations between plasma testosterone concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in male fish (r(2)=0.26), plasma 17beta estradiol concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in female fish (r(2)=0.38) and condition factor and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in all fish were found (r(2)=0.17). These results suggest that blood plasma may be a suitable nondestructive method for monitoring adult sturgeon population for persistent OC contaminants. PMID:18421403

Gundersen, D T; Webb, M A H; Fink, A K; Kushner, L R; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B

2008-09-01

279

HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA  

EPA Science Inventory

Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

280

Organochlorine residues in aquatic environments in Iran, 1974.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticide residues in various organisms from different aquatic ecosystems in Iran were investigated in spring 1974. DDT levels were high in fish taken from two rivers in southern Iran, whereas low levels were detected in samples obtained from a freshwater lake in the same area. Fish from two of the reservoirs supplying Tehran with potable water contained moderate levels of DDT. The low residue level in pike collected in the Bandar-Pahlavi Mordab in northwest Iran indicates that only a small amount of organochlorine pesticides used in this area enters the pelagic food chain. Sturgeon collected at different places in the Caspian Sea showed similar accumulations of DDT in the muscles and in the eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected only in samples of sediment from the drainage systems in Tehran. PMID:82249

Södergren, A; Djirsarai, R; Gharibzadeh, M; Moinpour, A

1978-09-01

281

Organochlorines in top predators at Svalbard — occurrence, levels and effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarmingly high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels have been found in the top predators such as glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard [Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Polder, A., Bakken, V., 1995. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). Sci. Total Environ. 160\\/161, 337–346; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, Ø., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

Janneche Utne Skaare; Aksel Bernhoft; Andrew Derocher; Geir Wing Gabrielsen; Anders Goksøyr; Espen Henriksen; Hans Jørgen Larsen; Elisabeth Lie; Øystein Wiig

2000-01-01

282

Feeding Ecology and the Concentration of Organochlorines in Glaucous Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the blood concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and the diet of glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus breeding in two neighbouring areas at Bear Island in the Barents Sea, north-eastern Atlantic. One area was situated on the edge of the large seabird cliff, about 100–150 m above sea level. The second area was about 1–2 km from the seabird cliff, and

J. O. Bustnes; K. E. Erikstad; V. Bakken; F. Mehlum; J. U. Skaare

2000-01-01

283

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Bottled Drinking Water from Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results\\u000a of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers,\\u000a heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p?-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization.\\u000a The concentrations of the

Gilberto Díaz; Rutilio Ortiz; Beatriz Schettino; Salvador Vega; Rey Gutiérrez

2009-01-01

284

Estimation of vapor pressures, solubilities and Henry's law constants of selected persistent organic pollutants as functions of temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internally consistent set of temperature dependent physical-chemical property data was derived for 73 persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, diphenylethers, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans, organochlorinated pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measured data reported in the literature were expanded by different estimation and regression methods. Temperature dependent vapor pressures were estimated from relative gas chromatographic retention times and by a modified

Jaakko Paasivirta; Seija Sinkkonen; Pirjo Mikkelson; Tiina Rantio; Frank Wania

1999-01-01

285

Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas  

PubMed Central

Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes. PMID:23343981

Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Gowen, Rose M. Z.; Miller, Rebecca P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

2013-01-01

286

Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in wood storks and anhingas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

All 10 Wood Stork eggs collected at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in 1973 contained residues of DDE (geometric mean 4.0 ppm wet weight) and PCBs (1.2 ppm). Nine other organochlorines were found at lower frequencies in the eggs. Eggshells from the recent period were 8.9% thinner (P < 0.001) than pre-1947 samples; decrease in eggshell thickness was more closely correlated with DDE than other organochlorines and correlation of DDE and eggshell thickness approached significance (P = 0.115).....Anhinga eggs were collected at 7 localities; 45 of the 46 eggs analyzed contained DDE residues and 24 contained PCBs. Residues of other organochlorines were found less frequently. Shell thickness of recent eggs from Louisiana and Mississippi was significantly less (-7.5%; P < 0.05) than the mean for pre-1947 eggs, but there was no significant change in shell thickness of eggs from Florida. The change in clutch mean eggshell thickness was significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the concentration of DDE in the eggs.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

1978-01-01

287

Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, E.H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

2008-01-01

288

Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters  

SciTech Connect

The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

Mason, C.F. (Univ. of Essex, Colchester (England))

1989-10-01

289

[Ubiquitous perfluorinated compounds].  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds are derivatives of hydrocarbons, in which all or most of hydrogen atoms are substitiuted by fluorine atoms. These compounds are commonly used in many branches of industry. Perfluorinated compounds are in the limelight because of numerous reports concerning their toxicity and negative effects on human health as well as contradictory information about their cancerogenic effect. The above compounds are used in production of many commonly used products including such brand names as Gore-Tex, Teflon, Stainmaster. The most common ways of penetrating these compounds into a human organism are: via food, inhalation and skin contact. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been added to the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PMID:21980858

Kucharska, Agnieszka; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Struci?ski, Pawe?; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Snopczy?iski, Tomasz; Ludwicki, Jan K

2011-01-01

290

Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals in tissues of the mullet Liza aurata in lake Ganzirri and Straits of Messina (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in fish living in lake Ganzirri and the Straits of Messina, using the mullet Liza aurata as a "biological indicator". Different tissues of Liza aurata, which include the muscle, gill and vertebral column, were taken for analyses. Quantitative determination of the organochlorine compounds was performed by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The concentrations of "essential" and "toxic" heavy metals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. For the mullets of lake Ganzirri, the study showed DDE in three samples of gills and one of muscle, at concentrations below the MRL; no appreciable residues of PCBs (Aroclor 1232 series) were found. The concentrations of Zn and Cu were much higher than those of the "toxic" metals. No traces of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were found in the individuals from the Straits of Messina. Therefore, these results indicate that these two environments are not at toxicological risk. PMID:12729706

Licata, Patrizia; Bella, Giuseppa Di; Dugo, Giacomo; Naccari, Francesco

2003-07-01

291

Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: a case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August-October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17?-estradiol (E(2)), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E(2)). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E(2) had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E(2) may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system. PMID:23041725

Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-01-01

292

Relationships between reproductive performance and organochlorine contaminants in great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus).  

PubMed

The great black-backed gull Larus marinus is a top predator in subarctic and temperate marine ecosystems, and the aim of this study was to investigate if organochlorines (OCs) were related to reproductive performance in this species at the subarctic parts of the Norwegian Coast. We measured blood levels of various OCs in 53 breeding birds. The OC levels were relatively low compared to levels found in nearby arctic areas. In females, however, there was a significant positive relationship between blood concentrations of OCs, especially hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and egg laying date, and a positive relationship between the probability of nest predation and blood concentration of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), oxychlordane, and DDE. In females with high levels of OCs, especially persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there was also a decline in egg volume as egg laying progressed; i.e. the second and third laid egg were relatively smaller, compared to females with low OC levels. No relationships between reproductive parameters and OC levels were found in males. PMID:15620593

Helberg, Morten; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Kristiansen, Kai Ove; Skaare, Janneche Utne

2005-04-01

293

Cell cycle disruption and apoptosis as mechanisms of toxicity of organochlorines in Zea mays roots.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widespread environmental pollutants; two of them are highly persistent: lindane (?HCH) and chlordecone (CLD). Maize plants cope with high levels of OCP-environmental pollution, however little is known about cellular mechanisms involved in plant response to such OCP-exposures. This research was aimed at understanding the physiological pathways involved in the plant response to OCPs in function of a gradient of exposure. Here we provide the evidences that OCPs might disrupt root cell cycle leading to a rise in the level of polyploidy possibly through mechanisms of endoreduplication. In addition, low-to-high doses of ?HCH were able to induce an accumulation of H2O2 without modifying NO contents, while CLD modulated neither H2O2 nor NO production. [Ca(2+)]cytosolic, the caspase-3-like activity as well as TUNEL-positive nuclei and IP-positive cells increased after exposure to low-to-high doses of OCPs. These data strongly suggest a cascade mechanism of the OCP-induced toxic effect, notably with an increase in [Ca(2+)]cytosolic and caspase-3-like activity, suggesting the activation of programmed cell death pathway. PMID:24892778

Blondel, Claire; Melesan, Marc; San Miguel, Angélique; Veyrenc, Sylvie; Meresse, Patrick; Pezet, Mylène; Reynaud, Stephane; Raveton, Muriel

2014-07-15

294

Temporal accumulation of Organochlorine pesticides in shorebirds wintering on the south Texas coast, 1979–80  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in 168 shorebirds of three species collected at approximate bimonthly intervals during the fall and winter months of 1979–80 near Port Mansfield on the south Texas coast. The study was conducted to determine if shorebirds wintering on mudflats at the outlets of agricultural drains in Texas accumulated pesticides during this period. The predominant Organochlorine residues

Donald H. White; Christine A. Mitchell; T. Earl Kaiser

1983-01-01

295

Eggshell Quality and Organochlorine Residues in Eggs of Merlins, Falco columbarius, in Southeastern Montana  

E-print Network

of pesticide residues in three eggs that failed to hatch at a Montana nest (Ellis 1976). This paper presentsEggshell Quality and Organochlorine Residues in Eggs of Merlins, Falco columbarius, in Southeastern and organochlorine residues in eggs of Merlins, Falco columbarius, in southeastern Montana. Canadian Field

296

Residues of organochlorines and heavy metals in tissues and eggs of pelicans, 1969-73  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shells of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) eggs collected in South Carolina from 1969-73 were significantly thinner than shells of those collected before 1947. Residues of 10 organochlorine pollutants and 10 heavy metals were found in these eggs. Total organochlorine residues were apparently magnified 23 times from fish to pelican eggs. However, interpretation of biomagnification was complicated by the migratory habits

L. J. Blus; B. S. Neely; T. G. Lamont; B. Mulhern

1977-01-01

297

Organochlorine residues in fish oil dietary supplements: Comparison with industrial grade oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market for fish oils as dietary supplements is of global importance. Although it is widely recognised that lipophilic organic chemicals, particularly organochlorines, can accumulate in fish oils, dietary supplements are not routinely considered when estimating average daily intakes for these contaminants. This paper reports levels of organochlorine residues in 44 fish oils, collected from 15 countries between 1994 and

M. N. Jacobs; D. Santillo; P. A. Johnston; C. L. Wyatt; M. C. French

1998-01-01

298

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

2011-01-01

299

Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and ?-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 ?g kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region. PMID:24813984

Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

2014-01-01

300

Significance of organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wintering shorebirds at Corpus Christi, Texas, 1976-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues were determined in 103 shorebirds of seven species collected at Corpus Christi, Texas, during the winter of 1976-77 to evaluate their potential effects on population survival, DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in most samples. Chlordane isomers, dieldrin, toxaphene, and heptachlor epoxide also occurred, but less frequently. In general, organochlorine residues were low in skinned carcasses. Geometric means on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.25 ppm to 4.76 ppm for DDE and from 0.67 ppm to 6.64 ppm for PCBs; residues of the other compounds averaged less than 1 ppm in all instances. Mercury, lead, arsenic and vanadium occurred in all shorebird livers, and selenium and cadmium were detected in all kidneys. Residues of these metals, except selenium, were low in most tissue samples. Selenium averages varied from 1.77 ppm to 5.62 ppm (wet weight) in kidneys; residues in this range may be sufficient to inhibit reproduction or to induce other forms of toxicity, especially at the higher levels.

White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Prouty, R.M.

1980-01-01

301

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.  

PubMed

Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22?g (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts. PMID:25522853

Beníšek, Martin; Kuku?ka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Lud?k

2015-03-01

302

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and biota from four US Arctic lakes.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene, HCB), and p,p'-DDT were the primary analytes detected (max = 0.7 ng/g dry wt), while individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were always below 0.1 ng/g. A wider range of compounds and higher concentrations were found in lake trout, the top predatory fish species in the same lakes. The concentration ranges for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLORs), DDTs, and PCBs in lake trout and grayling were similar to those reported for other arctic freshwater fish (1-100 ng/g wet wt), but one to two orders of magnitude lower than Great Lakes salmonids. Nitrogen isotope analysis confirmed that differences in OC concentrations between grayling and lake trout are explained partly by differences in food web position. PMID:9419256

Allen-Gil, S M; Gubala, C P; Wilson, R; Landers, D H; Wade, T L; Sericano, J L; Curtis, L R

1997-11-01

303

Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) at Bjørnøya (Svalbard).  

PubMed

Dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were collected on Bjørnøya in the Barents Sea in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Autopsies of the seabirds only explained a clear cause of death for three (14%) of the 21 birds. A total of 71% of the birds were emaciated. Liver and brain samples were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and mercury (Hg). High levels of SigmaOCPs, SigmaPCBs, SigmaPBDEs and alpha-HBCD were found in liver and brain. Compared to the dead and dying glaucous gulls found 1989, the congeners' composition tended to change toward more persistent compounds in the 2003-2005 samples. The brain levels of OCPs and PCBs did not differ between 1989 and 2003-2005, while the liver levels were significantly lower. The brain/liver ratio for PCB and PBDE significantly decreased with halogenations of the molecule, indicating a clear discrimination of highly halogenated PCBs and PBDEs entering the brain. There was further a clear negative correlation between contaminant concentrations and body condition. The brain levels were not as high as earlier published lethal levels of p,p'-DDE or PCB. However, more recent studies reported a range of sub-lethal OCP- and PCB-related effects in randomly sampled glaucous gulls. An additional elevation of pollutants due to emaciation may increase the stress of the already affected birds. The high brain levels of OCP, PCB and PBDE of present study might therefore have contributed to the death of weakened individuals of glaucous gull. PMID:19735935

Sagerup, Kjetil; Helgason, Lisa B; Polder, Anuschka; Strøm, Hallvard; Josefsen, Terje D; Skåre, Janneche U; Gabrielsen, Geir W

2009-11-15

304

Screening for Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants in the Bosna River (Bosnia and Herzogovina).  

PubMed

The Stockholm Convention, which aspires to manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the international level, was recently ratified in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Despite this fact, there is in general a paucity of data regarding the levels of POPs in the environment in BiH. In the present study, screening for POPs was conducted in one of the country's major rivers, the Bosna. A two-pronged approach was applied using passive samplers to detect the freely dissolved and bioavailable concentrations in the water phase and sediment analysis to provide an integrated measure of historical contamination. At several places along the river, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were high and exhibited potential for both chronic and acute effects to biota. River water also showed elevated concentrations of PAH, up to 480 ng L(-1) near the city of Doboj, and diagnostic ratios suggested combustion sources for the contamination present in both types of sample. The levels of the other contaminants measured-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers--were generally low in the water phase. However, PCBs and some OCPs were present in river sediments at levels which breach the international criteria and thus suggest potential for ecological damage. Additionally, the levels of heptachlor breached these criteria in many of the sites investigated. This study presents the first screening data for some of these Stockholm Convention relevant compounds in BiH and reveals both low concentrations of some chemical groups, but significant point sources and historic contamination for others. PMID:22580747

Harman, Christopher; Grung, Merete; Djedjibegovic, Jasmina; Marjanovic, Aleksandra; Sober, Miroslav; Sinanovic, Kemo; Fjeld, Eirik; Rognerud, Sigurd; Ranneklev, Sissel Brit; Larssen, Thorjørn

2013-02-01

305

Organochlorine contamination in bald eagle eggs and nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Unhatched eggs and plasma samples from prefledged bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from a recovering population in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin were contaminated with organochlorine compounds at levels comparable to those reported for eagle populations in several areas of the United States. PCBs were among the most commonly detected contaminants and occurred at high concentrations in plasma. Plasma PCB concentrations in Lake Erie nestlings were significantly higher than in chicks from Lake Nipigon (0.130 and 0.047 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Blood levels of mirex were higher in nestlings from Lake Superior compared to those from Lake Erie (0.0012 and 0.0006 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Migration routes and over-winter locations of avian prey that constitute a part of the bald eagle chick's diet are likely to contribute to these spatial contaminant patterns in plasma. Atmospheric deposition and a cold condensation effect for chlordane compounds may have produced higher levels of these compounds in plasma samples from Lake Superior compared to samples from Lake Erie (0.020 and 0.008 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Levels of DDE in plasma were generally low, ranging in concentration from 0.02 mg/kg wet weight for lakes Erie and Nipigon to 0.06 mg/kg wet weight for Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorines in eaglet plasma remained relatively stable between 1990 and 1996; no significant trends associated with year of sampling were detected. The data from Lake Erie showed no correlation between productivity and plasma levels of PCBs or DDE during this time period. There were no indications that the concentrations of contaminants detected were adversely affecting productivity in Canadian Great Lakes bald eagle populations. Residue levels in eggs from Lake Erie eagle territories were equally or more contaminated than eggs from other highly contaminated environments in the United States such as the Great Lakes and Columbia River estuary. Concentrations of DDE and PCBs in Lake Erie eggs declined significantly between 1974 and 1994. Although dieldrin and chlordane levels showed a similar decline, these relationships were not statistically significant. Mirex concentrations were relatively stable. Eggs from Lake of the Woods were significantly less contaminated than those from Lake Erie (PCBs: 3 and 84 mg/kg wet weight, respectively; DDE: 3 and 24 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Reproductive success (number of young produced/active nest) remained constant between 1982 and 1996 and productivity is sufficient to maintain an increasing population. The number of active nests has increased during this period indicating that the population is expanding and might be expected to do so until suitable habitat becomes limiting. Reductions in organochlorine levels, reintroduction efforts, immigration from other populations, and changes in habitat quality have likely contributed to the observed growth in the number of breeding pairs. PMID:9828264

Donaldson, G M; Shutt, J L; Hunter, P

1999-01-01

306

Organochlorine residues in brown pelican eggs: Relation to reproductive success  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was conducted to determine the influence of residues of organochlorine pollutants on reproductive success in the brown pelican. A sample egg was taken from each of 93 marked nests in the nesting colony in South Carolina. Periodic visits were made to determine the fate of marked nests. Each sample egg was analysed for residues of organochlorine pollutants. Nest success in the brown pelican was related to residues of DDE and dieldrin in sample eggs. DDE seemed primarily responsible for nest failure; however, deleterious effects of this pollutant on nest success were not satisfactorily separated from those induced by dieldrin. Significant intercorrelation of all five organochlorine residues identified in the eggs complicated the relationship of residues to nest success. Maximum DDE residues in an egg from a successful nest were 2.37 ?g/g and 8.48 ?g/g in an egg from an unsuccessful nest. Comparable maximum residues for dieldrin in sample eggs were 0.54 ?g/g (successful) and 0.99 ?g/g (unsuccessful). Nineteen of the 26 eggs from unsuccessful nests contained DDE residues that exceeded 2.37 ?g/g, and 14 of these 26 eggs contained dieldrin residues that exceeded O.54 ?g/g. Residues of DDD, DDT or PCBs in sample eggs were not significantly related to nest success. Reproductive success in the brown pelican colony was subnormal in the years of study--1971 and 1972--but reproductive success was normal in those nests in which the sample egg contained either <2,5 ?g/g of DDE or 0.54 ?g/g of dieldrin.

Blus, L.J.; Neely, B.S., Jr.; Belisle, A.A.; Prouty, R.M.

1974-01-01

307

Organochlorine contaminants in Caspian and harbour seal blubber.  

PubMed

Organochlorine contaminants (pesticides and individual polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, PCBs) were measured in Caspian (Phoca caspica) seal blubber and compared with concentrations in Harbour (Phoca vitulina) seal blubber. Concentrations of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites were significantly higher in Caspian seal than Harbour seal samples, whereas PCB congeners were significantly higher in Harbour than Caspian seals. Our finding suggests that Caspian seals are exposed to high levels of DDT pesticides. In contrast, PCBs are circulating in this population at much lower levels than in marine mammals from the North Sea. PMID:15093047

Hall, A J; Duck, C D; Law, R J; Allchin, C R; Wilson, S; Eybator, T

1999-08-01

308

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.  

PubMed

Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are apex predators in the Pearl River Estuary waters (PRE) of China. PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (e.g., HCHs, HCB, mirex and dieldrin) were analysed in blubber samples of 45 dolphins and 10 prey fishes of S. chinensis collected from 2004 to 2013 in the PRE region to investigate the bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDTs were the most abundant residue in the dolphins, with an average of 6,2700 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (average: 1,790 ng g(-1) ww) and other OCPs including ?HCHs, mirex, endrin, ?chlordanes, HCB, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and pentachlorobenzene. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in male dolphins significantly increased with age and length. In contrast, female dolphins did not show obvious bioaccumulation trends with age and body length, possibly due to the lactational and parturitional transfer of these compounds. Compared with the POP residues in the prey fishes, the concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs in the dolphin blubber increased by factors of 99, 212, and 5, respectively, whereas the residue levels of the other OCPs increased 2-185 times, indicating a potentially significant biomagnification in the top predators. The potential biomagnification factors calculated for most POPs were significantly higher than those in the cetacean species from other regions. PMID:25113190

Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Chen, Laiguo; Wu, Yuping

2014-11-01

309

Variation in concentrations of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants among eggs in abandoned clutches of a terrestrial raptor.  

PubMed

Bird eggs are often used to measure various pollutants in monitoring programs. In protected species, however, it might only be possible to collect eggs abandoned by the parent birds. In order to assess the appropriateness of abandoned eggs for contaminant monitoring we examined intra-clutch variation in concentrations of 24 halogenated organic pollutants (16 organochlorines [OCs] and 8 brominated flame retardants) in six abandoned tawny owl (Strix aluco) clutches from central Norway. The variation among eggs within a clutch was low for nearly all compounds (intra-class correlation >0.9 both for lipid- and wet weight). This study suggests that abandoned eggs provide a relatively reliable measurement of lipophilic pollutants in clutches of terrestrial raptors such as the tawny owl. PMID:25463262

Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Yoccoz, Nigel G

2014-11-17

310

Spatial distributions and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in water and soil samples in Bolu, Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, a total of 75 water samples (38 groundwater and 37 surface water samples) and 54 surface soil samples were collected from the five districts of Bolu, which is located in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey in the summer season of 2009. In the autumn season, 17 water samples (surface water and groundwater samples) and 17 soil samples were collected within the city center to observe the seasonal changes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Groundwater and surface water samples were extracted using solid phase extraction. Soil samples were extracted ultrasonically. Sixteen OCP compounds in the standard solution were detected by a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Therefore, the method validation was performed for those 16 OCP compounds. However, 13 OCP compounds could be observed in the samples. The concentrations of most OCPs were higher in samples collected in the summer than those in the autumn. The most frequently observed pesticides were endosulfan sulfate and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in groundwater samples, ?-HCH in surface water samples, and endosulfan sulfate in soil samples. The average concentration of endosulfan sulfate was the highest in water and soil samples. Compared to the literature values, the average concentrations in this study were lower values. Spatial distribution of OCPs was evaluated with the aid of contour maps for the five districts of Bolu. Generally, agricultural processes affected the water and soil quality in the region. However, non-agricultural areas were also affected by pesticides. The concentrations of pesticides were below the legal limits of European directives for each pesticide. PMID:25663404

Karadeniz, Hatice; Yenisoy-Karaka?, Serpil

2015-03-01

311

A model to resolve organochlorine pharmacokinetics in migrating humpback whales.  

PubMed

Humpback whales are iconic mammals at the top of the Antarctic food chain. Their large reserves of lipid-rich tissues such as blubber predispose them to accumulation of lipophilic contaminants throughout their lifetime. Changes in the volume and distribution of lipids in humpback whales, particularly during migration, could play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic contaminants such as the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Previous models have examined constant feeding and nonmigratory scenarios. In the present study, the authors develop a novel heuristic model to investigate HCB dynamics in a humpback whale and its environment by coupling an ecosystem nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model takes into account the seasonal feeding pattern of whales, their energy requirements, and fluctuating contaminant burdens in the supporting plankton food chain. It is applied to a male whale from weaning to maturity, spanning 20 migration and feeding cycles. The model is initialized with environmental HCB burdens similar to those measured in the Southern Ocean and predicts blubber HCB concentrations consistent with empirical concentrations observed in a southern hemisphere population of male, migrating humpback whales. Results show for the first time some important details of the relationship between energy budgets and organochlorine pharmacokinetics. PMID:24733631

Cropp, Roger; Nash, Susan Bengtson; Hawker, Darryl

2014-07-01

312

Polar bear hepatic cytochrome P450: Immunochemical quantitation, EROD/PROD activity and organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are an ubiquitous mammal atop the arctic marine food chain and bioaccumulate lipophilic environmental contaminants. Antibodies prepared against purified rat liver cytochrome P450-1 Al, -1 A2, -2Bl and -3Al enzymes have been found to cross-react with structurally-related orthologues present in the hepatic microsomes of wild polar bears, immunochemically determined levels of P450-1 A and -2B proteins in polar bear liver relative to liver of untreated rats suggested enzyme induction, probably as a result of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants. Optical density quantitation of the most immunochemically responsive isozymes P450-I Al, -IA2 and -2Bi to polygonal rabbit anti-rat P450-IA/IA2 sera and -2BI antibodies in hepatic microsomes of 13 adult male polar bars from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic is presented. Correlations with EROD and PROD catalytic activities and levels of organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p-DDE) and their methyl sulfone (MeSO2-) metabolites are made to determine if compound-specific enzyme induction linkages exist. Inter-species immunochemical quantitation of isozymic P450 cytochromes can serve as an indicator of exposure to biologically active contaminant.

Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Centre for Analytical and Environmental Chemistry; [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Canadian Wildlife Service

1994-12-31

313

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in black duck eggs from the Atlantic Flyway, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black duck (Anas rubripes) eggs were collected during 1978 in the Atlantic Flyway. One egg from each of 49 clutches was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and mercury. DDE was detected in 39 eggs, ranging from 0.09 ppm to 3.4 ppm, wet weight. DDE residues were highest in eggs from Delaware, where the mean DDE level was 2.0 ppm. DDT and TDE were present at Iow levels in only five and four eggs, respectively. PCBs resembling Aroclor 1260 were detected in 24 eggs and ranged from 0.43 ppm to 2.9 ppm. Eggs from Massachusetts and Rhode Island contained an average of >1.0 ppm PCBs, but eggs from Nova Scotia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia contained no detectable PCBs. Dieldrin, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were present in a few samples at low levels. Mercury was detected in 31 eggs, ranging from 0.07 ppm to 0.34 ppm, wet weight. Twenty eggs analyzed for chromium, copper, and arsenic contained averages of 0.64 ppm, 1.7 ppm, and 0.18 ppm, respectively. No geographic pattern was observed in these metal residue levels. Eggshell thickness (0.347 mm) was identical to the pre-1946 norm.

Haseltine, S.D.; Mulhern, B.M.; Stafford, C.

1980-01-01

314

Organochlorine pesticides in chorioallantoic membranes of Morelet's crocodile eggs from belize.  

PubMed

Recent studies examined the utility of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as a nonlethal, noninvasive indicator of environmental contaminant exposure in oviparous wildlife. The CAM is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane that functions as a site for respiration, nutrient transport, and waste storage during embryonic development. After hatching, the CAM is usually discarded with the eggshell and can be used for chemical residue analysis. Chorioallantoic membranes have been used successfully to examine contaminant exposure and predict chemical concentrations in multiple species of birds and reptiles. In this study, we examined organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in CAMs from eggs of Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize. Multiple OCs were detected in crocodile CAMs, including aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), heptachlor, lindane, and methoxychlor. Number and concentrations of OC compounds in CAMs were variable. The most prevalent contaminant detected was DDE, which occurred in 69% of CAMs, with concentrations ranging from 0.3 parts per billion (ppb) to 17.0 ppb. The OC burdens in crocodile CAMs confirm contamination of eggs and suggest exposure in embryos and maternal females. These results further support the use of CAMs as qualitative indicators of OC exposure in oviparous wildlife. The efficacy of this sampling technique in the field will depend on the logistics and cost associated with CAM collection and the specific life history traits of the wildlife species. PMID:15465717

Pepper, Christopher B; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; Dever, Jennifer A; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

2004-07-01

315

Persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in adipose tissues of patients with uterine leiomyomas and the association of these pollutants with seafood diet, BMI, and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals can cause diseases in women, however, the relationships of these pollutants\\u000a and uterine leiomyomas (UL), which are non-cancerous tumors of the uterus, are unclear. This study focused on the quantification\\u000a of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated\\u000a diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals in subcutaneous and

Yan Yan Qin; Clement Kai Man Leung; Anna Oi Wah Leung; Sheng Chun Wu; Jin Shu Zheng; Ming Hung Wong

2010-01-01

316

Organochlorine residues in females and nursing young of the big brown bat ( Eptesicus fuscus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Carcasses and brains of 18 big brown bats from Gaithersburg, Maryland, were analyzed for residues of organochlorine insecticides and PCB's. Eleven bats were adult females, and six of these had seven nursing young associated with them.

Donald R. Clark; Thair G. Lamont

1976-01-01

317

Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, ?-?-?-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher ?-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue. PMID:24928094

Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

2014-08-01

318

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA FROM FOUR US ARCTIC LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including...

319

Analysis of Gulf of Mexico marine mammals for organochlorine pesticides and PCBs  

E-print Network

stranded along the U. S. coast (Kuehl et al. , 1991). Furthermore, animals involved in the mass mortality had higher concentrations of organochlorines than two species of cetaceans, white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and common dolphins...

Salata, Gregory Glen

2012-06-07

320

Associations between Organochlorine Pesticides and Vitamin D Deficiency in the U.S. Population  

PubMed Central

Background Recently low dose organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been strongly linked to various chronic diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Both field and animal studies have suggested a possibility that persistent lipophilic chemicals like OC pesticides can cause vitamin D deficiency, but there have been no human studies of exposure to any chemical as a possible cause of vitamin D deficiency. This study was performed to examine if serum concentrations of OC pesticides were associated with serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the U.S. general population. Methodology/Principal Findings Cross-sectional associations of serum OC pesticides with serum 25(OH)D were investigated in 1,275 subjects aged ?20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(NHANES), 2003–2004. We selected 7 OC pesticides detectable in ?80% of participants. Among the 7 OC pesticides, p,p?-DDT (??=??0.022, P<0.01), p,p?-DDE (??=??0.018, P?=?0.04), and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (??=??0.022, P?=?0.02) showed significant inverse associations with serum 25(OH)D levels. When study subjects were stratified by age, race, and the presence of various chronic diseases, p,p?-DDT showed consistent inverse associations in all subgroups, although stronger associations tended to be observed among subjects with old age, white race, or chronic diseases. Conclusion/Significance The current study suggests that the background exposure to some OC pesticides leads to vitamin D deficiency in human. Considering the importance of vitamin D deficiency in the development of chronic diseases, chemical exposure as a possible cause of vitamin D deficiency should be evaluated in prospective and experimental studies. PMID:22295072

Yang, Jin-Hoon; Lee, Yu-Mi; Bae, Sang-Geun; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee

2012-01-01

321

Regional distribution of organochlorine insecticide residues in human milk from Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organochlorine insecticide residues in 60 human milk samples from 20 Egyptian governorates were analyzed by gas chromatography\\/electron capture and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The results showed that the main detected organochlorine insecticides were p,p'?DDE and lindane. Other HCH isomers, p,p‘?DDT and endosulfan I residues were detected in some samples, but aldrin and endrin were not detected in most of the

Mahmoud Saleh; Alaa Kamel; Awad Ragab

1996-01-01

322

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum and adipose tissue from Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that are highly resistant to biodegradation and have proven adverse health effects. The objectives of this study were to determine concentrations of three selected organochlorine pesticides (p,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDE, HCB) and three specific PCB congeners (PCB 138, 153, 180) in adipose tissue and serum samples from an urban adult population (n=112) in

J. P. Arrebola; M. Cuellar; E. Claure; M. Quevedo; S. R. Antelo; E. Mutch; E. Ramirez; M. F. Fernandez; N. Olea; L. A. Mercado

323

Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine\\u000a pesticides (?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, o, p?-DDT, p, p?-DDT and p, p?-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found\\u000a that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 gg?1 to 0.004 gg?1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques

Yinhai Lang; Zhengmei Cao; Xinhua Nie

2005-01-01

324

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of organochlorines in a marine food web at a pristine site in Iceland.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) bioaccumulation and biomagnification were studied in a marine food web at a pristine site in Iceland. The species studied were the gastropod and grazer chink shell (Lacuna vincta), the filter feeding bivalve blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the predators butterfish (Pholis gunnellus), and the seabird black guillemot (Cepphus grylle), all sampled and analysed in 1996-1997. Individual OC levels were generally low in chink shell and blue mussels, somewhat elevated in the fish, and an order of a magnitude higher in the top predator black guillemot, except for Sigma HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and Sigma chlordane levels, which were similar in all organisms, ranging from 10 to 36 ng/g lipid weight (lw). In the molluscs and fish, mean concentrations of Sigma PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) ranged from 111 to 377 ng/g lw, Sigma DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) ranged from 19 to 65 ng/g lw, and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) ranged from 21 to 30 ng/g lw. The levels of same OCs in the black guillemot were on average 2352, 361, and 283 ng/g lw, respectively. The OC tissue concentrations in blue mussel and black guillemot are comparable to levels in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, but OC levels in blue mussel tissue were an order of magnitude lower than found in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The relative composition of OCs were generally similar among species with the PCB congeners emerging as the most abundant compounds with levels an order of magnitude higher than the other compounds in all species. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were determined for the OCs by using trophic levels determined from delta(15)N. FWMFs >1, indicating biomagnification, were found for Sigma PCB, penta- or higher chlorinated PCBs (e.g., PCB 101, 118, 138, 153, 180), beta-HCH, HCB, Sigma DDT, p,p-DDE, and transnonachlor. The highest FWMF was observed for PCB 180 at FWMF = 5.8. PMID:19711125

Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora; Gunnarsson, Karl; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Nfon, Erick

2010-04-01

325

Organochlorine residues and shell thinning in Oregon seabird eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A single egg was collected at 62 nests of 10 seabird species from Oregon in 1979. The eggs were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants; contemporary shell thickness was compared with eggshells collected during earlier time periods. Concentrations of DDE and PCB's in 1979 were generally low with the most contaminated species being the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Leach's Storm Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Forktailed Storm Petrel (O. furcata). Limited eggshell data provide evidence that shell thinning was more severe along the Oregon coast in the 1950's than in 1979. With the possible exception of the Fork-tailed Storm Petrel, the residues in 1979 posed no known threat to the welfare of the species.

Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Prouty, R.M.

1982-01-01

326

DISTRIBUTION STUDY OF PERSISTENT, BIOACCUMULATIVE & TOXICS (PBTS) AT THE CALUMET WATER RECLAMATION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will determine the fate, transport and emission characteristics of selected persistent bioaccumulative compounds passing through a municipal waste treatment plant, including the sludge drying process. Compounds of interest include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PD...

327

MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF SYNTHETIC CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS: EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental release of synthetic chlorinated compounds in the form of herbicides/pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, etc., has created major concerns with regard to their effects on human health because of the persistence of many such compounds. he persistence of these compound...

328

Glyphosate persistence in seawater.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is one of the most widely applied herbicides globally but its persistence in seawater has not been reported. Here we quantify the biodegradation of glyphosate using standard "simulation" flask tests with native bacterial populations and coastal seawater from the Great Barrier Reef. The half-life for glyphosate at 25 °C in low-light was 47 days, extending to 267 days in the dark at 25 °C and 315 days in the dark at 31 °C, which is the longest persistence reported for this herbicide. AMPA, the microbial transformation product of glyphosate, was detected under all conditions, confirming that degradation was mediated by the native microbial community. This study demonstrates glyphosate is moderately persistent in the marine water under low light conditions and is highly persistent in the dark. Little degradation would be expected during flood plumes in the tropics, which could potentially deliver dissolved and sediment-bound glyphosate far from shore. PMID:24467857

Mercurio, Philip; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Carter, Steve; Negri, Andrew P

2014-08-30

329

Foveated coding for persistics.  

E-print Network

??Persistics is an advanced framework for processing wide-area aerial surveillance video. This framework handles the tasks of data collection, stitching of multi-sensor imagery, image registration… (more)

Bernstein, Alan Aaron

2012-01-01

330

Persistent photoinduced superconductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review work done at UCSD on persistent photoconductivity and photoinduced superconductivity in REBa2Cu3Ox thin films. It is shown that the resistivity, Hall coefficient and c-axis parameter change significantly upon illumination. All these effects require the presence of oxygen vacancies. The maximum enhancement of the conductivity with illumination occurs for fully deoxygenated samples (x=6.0). The spectral dependence of the persistent

A. Hoffmann; J. Hasen; D. Lederman; T. Endo; Y. Bruynseraede; Ivan K. Schuller

1997-01-01

331

Levels and patterns of organochlorine pesticides and their degradation products in rainwater in Kibaha Coast Region, Tanzania.  

PubMed

The levels and patterns of organochlorine pesticides and degradation products in rainwater samples collected in relation to a contaminated site in Kibaha district, Tanzania were investigated. The compounds detected in the samples by GC-MS and isotope dilution methodology included DDT, DDE, DDD, HCHs, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, endrin and hexachlorobenzene. The concentrations of total DDT and total HCH ranged 0.005-3200?gL(-1) and 0.01-170?gL(-1), respectively and they indicated input of significantly non-degraded technical mixtures. The highest concentrations for other compounds ranged 0.001-1.3?gL(-1). The highest concentrations were found in samples collected in the vicinity of the contaminated site and the concentrations at other points showed a general even distribution suggesting repeated volatilization and deposition mechanisms. The strong positive correlations in the concentrations of the compounds indicated a common source. A decrease in concentrations with time was indicated, although the decrease was not significant during the period of sampling. The findings indicate risks and concerns for public and environmental health. PMID:25433398

Mahugija, John Andrew Marco; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

2015-01-01

332

Vertical distribution of AhR-activating compounds in sediments contaminated by modernized pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

Increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity is a sensitive biomarker of exposure to the chemicals which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induce the cytochrome P450 system, such as many polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pulp bleaching was one of the main sources of PCDDs and PCDFs until elemental chlorine free (ECF) and total chlorine free bleaching processes since 1990s have remarkably decreased but not completely eliminate discharges of these chemicals. In addition, historically contaminated sediments may act as a source of these persistent contaminants. In this study, the contamination history and recovery of a watercourse heavily loaded by the chemical wood industry were studied by analyzing PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs from vertical sediment samples and by measuring hepatic EROD activity from rainbow trout intraperitoneally dosed with the sediment extracts. No PCDDs or PCDFs were found above the chromatographic limit of detection from the study area and only small amounts of PCB congeners 101, 138, 153, and 180 were present. No increased EROD activity was observed in fish indicating the absence of any AhR-activating compounds in the surface sediment, to about 15 cm depth, representing about the last 20 years when kraft pulping and ECF bleaching with activated wastewater treatment have been used. It can be concluded that nowadays organochlorines and other AhR-ligands do not harm the previously heavily polluted watercourse. PMID:24361517

Ratia, H; Oikari, A

2014-03-01

333

Bioavailability to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) of retene and other mixed-function oxygenase-active compounds from sediments.  

PubMed

Retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) is a naturally formed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that causes teratogenicity in fish larvae and induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzymes. Retene occurs at high concentrations (< or =3,300 microg/g dry wt) in surface sediments contaminated by resin acids from pulp mill effluents. To assess the environmental risks of retene, it is important to evaluate conditions affecting its bioavailability and accumulation by fish. Fingerling rainbow trout were exposed to retene-spiked or naturally contaminated sediments and sampled after 4 d to determine liver CYP1A activity and concentrations of retene metabolites in bile as indicators of retene accumulation. Industrially contaminated sediments collected near a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill discharging to Lake Saimaa, Finland, significantly induced trout liver CYP1A activity, indicating accumulation of arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active ligands. Bile of these fish contained retene metabolites, providing direct evidence that retene is bioavailable, presumably via desorption from sediments. Induction of CYP1A in fish exposed to sediments spiked with retene or benzo[k]fluoranthene supported this conclusion. While the extent of CYP1A induction by spiked sediments declined after storage (i.e., aging), a portion of the spiked PAHs remained bioavailable. However, retene was not the sole CYP1A inducer in industrially contaminated sediments, as shown by induction in fish injected with sediment extracts oxidized to remove labile PAHs but not persistent organochlorine compounds such as chlorinated dioxins and furans. PMID:11804045

Oikari, Aimo; Fragoso, Nuno; Leppänen, Harri; Chan, Teresa; Hodson, Peter V

2002-01-01

334

Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.  

PubMed

Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. PMID:25020099

Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro

2014-10-01

335

Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorobiphenyl, and mercury residues in bald eagle eggs—1969–79—and their relationships to shell thinning and reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected in 14 States in 1969–79 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and mercury. Moderate shell thinning occurred in eggs from several areas. Eggs from the Chesapeake Bay area contained the highest residue levels of most organochlorines. DDE was detected in all eggs; other organochlorines were detected less frequently. Mercury levels were highest in

Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Thair G. Lamont; Christine M. Bunck; Charles R. Sindelar; Francis J. Gramlich; James D. Fraser; Mitchell A. Byrd

1984-01-01

336

Pesticide and Herbicide Residues in Sediments and Seagrasses from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and Queensland Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticides and herbicides including organochlorine compounds have had extensive current and past application by Queensland's intensive coastal agriculture industry as well as for a wide range of domestic, public health and agricultural purposes in urban areas. The persistent nature of these types of compounds together with possible continued illegal use of banned organochlorine compounds raises the potential for continued long-term

David Haynes; Jochen Müller; Steve Carter

2000-01-01

337

Intraspecific variation in trophic feeding levels and organochlorine concentrations in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjørnøya, the Barents Sea.  

PubMed

Biomagnification contributes to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OC) in some Arctic vertebrates. Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) on Bjørnøya in the western Barents Sea were studied to compare the intraspecific variation in OC concentration with variation in trophic feeding levels, estimated from ratios of nitrogen isotopes. Liver tissue samples from 40 adult glaucous gulls were analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, Mirex, and nine congeners of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). The ratios of the heavier to lighter isotope of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N), expressed as delta13C and delta15N, were measured in liver and muscle. Hepatic concentrations of the nine PCB congeners (Sigma 9 PCB) ranged from 16 microg/g lipid weight to 292 microg/g lipid weight. The delta15N ranged from 14.0/1000 to 15.3/1000 in muscle. Seven of the 14 OC measured, sigma DDT, and sigma 9 PCB were positively correlated to delta15N from muscle tissue. No correlations were found between OC and delta13C. The present results indicate that OC concentrations are partly dependent on the foraging strategy of the gull. The r2 of the linear regressions suggests that up to 18% of the variation in the OC concentrations could be explained by variation in food preference. PMID:11990768

Sagerup, Kjetil; Henriksen, Espen O; Skaare, Janneche U; Gabrielsen, Geir W

2002-04-01

338

Spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and effect of soil characters: a case study of a pesticide producing factory.  

PubMed

The distribution and concentration of some organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soil around a pesticide factory in Zibo, China, were examined, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan (ENDO). The results showed that the OCPs concentrations were extraordinary high in this region. The concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and ENDO were measured in the range of 0.775-226.711, 0.248-42.838, and 0.081-1.644 mg kg(-1), respectively. DDT and its isomers were identified to be the dominate contaminants in most of the sampling sites. In the vertical direction, the distribution pattern of the total OCPs was in order of DDTs, HCHs, and ENDO in the 0-20 cm, but in 20-40 and 40-60 cm the trends were unobvious. Although no recent input occurred in most areas, the residues of OCPs remained in deep soil due to their persistence. Unlike ENDO, DDTs and HCHs appeared to have the similar property in terms of not only the migration pattern in soil, but also the relationship to the same dominant impact factor (i.e. organic matter). DDTs and HCHs were affected positively by the organic matter, whereas ENDO was affected negatively. Due to the interrelationship among various impact factors, the spatial distribution of pesticides in the soil was considered to be a combined result. PMID:23159071

Zhao, Congcong; Xie, Huijun; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Jingtao; Liang, Shuang

2013-03-01

339

Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 1: legacy organochlorine contaminants.  

PubMed

Legacy organochlorine contaminants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Of 19 major legacy contaminants and congeners (?PCB, 4 PCB congeners (CB153, 180, 170/190), ?DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p' -DDD and p,p'-DDT, ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), HCB, octachlorostyrene, dieldrin, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and BB-153), 18 showed statistically significant average yearly declines of -4.4% (range: -2.0 to -10.8%/year) among subadult polar bears (i.e. females<5years, males<6years). For example, the ?PCB concentrations declined 2.7 fold from 22730ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 12470-32990ng/g lw) in 1983-1986 to 8473ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 6369-9776ng/g lw) in 2006-2010. Similar but fewer statistically significant trends were found for adult females and adult males likely due to smaller sample size and years. Despite declines as a result of international regulations, relatively high levels of these historic pollutants persist in East Greenland polar bear tissues. PMID:23078749

Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; Bechshøft, Thea; McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J

2013-09-01

340

Associations between Organochlorine Contaminant Concentrations and Clinical Health Parameters in Loggerhead Sea Turtles from North Carolina, USA  

PubMed Central

Widespread and persistent organochlorine (OC) contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, are known to have broad-ranging toxicities in wildlife. In this study we investigated, for the first time, their possible health effects on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Nonlethal fat biopsies and blood samples were collected from live turtles for OC contaminant analysis, and concentrations were compared with clinical health assessment data, including hematology, plasma chemistry, and body condition. Concentrations of total PCBs (?PCBs), ?DDTs, ?chlordanes, dieldrin, and mirex were determined in 44 fat biopsies and 48 blood samples. Blood concentrations of ?chlordanes were negatively correlated with red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, indicative of anemia. Positive correlations were observed between most classes of OC contaminants and white blood cell counts and between mirex and ?TCDD-like PCB concentrations and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, suggesting modulation of the immune system. All classes of OCs in the blood except dieldrin were correlated positively with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, indicating possible hepatocellular damage. Mirex and ?TCDD-like PCB blood concentrations were negatively correlated with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Significant correlations to levels of certain OC contaminant classes also suggested possible alteration of protein (?blood urea nitrogen, ?albumin:globulin ratio), carbohydrate (?glucose), and ion (?sodium, ?magnesium) regulation. These correlations suggest that OC contaminants may be affecting the health of loggerhead sea turtles even though sea turtles accumulate lower concentrations of OCs compared with other wildlife. PMID:15238280

Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R.; Stamper, M. Andrew; Harms, Craig A.; McClellan-Green, Patricia D.

2004-01-01

341

Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.  

PubMed

Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

2004-04-01

342

Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.  

PubMed Central

Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

2004-01-01

343

[Characteristics of organochlorine pesticide residues in agricultural soil of Chongming Island in Shanghai].  

PubMed

Thirty surface soil samples were collected to investigate the residue concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soil of Chongming Island in July 2008. Those samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and determined by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-microECD). Results showed that the concentrations of OCPs (dry weight) ranged between 3.11-117.47 ng x g(-1), with mean value of 26.25 ng x g(-1). Two major contaminants of OCPs were DDTs and HCHs, the concentration of which varied from 0.14 ng x g(-1) to 77.89 ng x g(-1) and from 1.14 ng x g(-1) to 22.43 ng x g(-1), respectively. At the same times, hexachlorobenzene (0.23-11.63 ng x g(-1)), aldrin (0.03-0.75 ng x g(-1)), heptachlor epoxide (0.05-1.44 ng x g(-1)), dieldrin (0.05-5.33 ng x g(-1)), endrin (ND-14.66 ng x g(-1)) and mirex (0.03-10.58 ng x g(-1)) could also be detected. Most of DDTs had been degraded to DDD and DDE, with the major compounds of DDE (about 64.7%), and the recent existed DDT was the residue of early input. All of the four isomers of HCHs were detected, and the contents of alpha-HCH (about 48.1%) and beta-HCH (about 33.4%) were the maximum. The highest OCPs residues appeared in the soil of farm cultivation compared to greenhouse cultivation and ordinary open-air cultivation. PMID:22619978

Lü, Jin-Gang; Bi, Chun-Juan; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Zhou, Jie-Cheng

2011-08-01

344

Fish contamination in Lake Erie: An examination of temporal trends of organochlorine contaminants and a Bayesian approach to  

E-print Network

Fish contamination in Lake Erie: An examination of temporal trends of organochlorine contaminants, Toronto, Ontario M9P 3V6, Canada a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 25 Keywords: Organochlorines Bayesian inference Dynamic linear modeling Lake Erie Fish contamination

Arhonditsis, George B.

345

Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments at PCB concentrations far lower than that previously associated with such activity. Widely nonracemic PCB residues in forage fish (lake herring, rainbow smelt, and slimy sculpin) and lake trout suggest a combination of both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from prey for these species. Minimum biotransformation rates, calculated from enantiomer mass balances between predators and prey, suggest metabolic half-lives on the order of 8 yr for CB 136 in lake trout and 2.6 yr for CB 95 in sculpins. This result suggests that significant biotransformation may occur for metabolizable PCB congeners over the lifespan of these biota. This study highlights the potential of chiral analysis to study biotransformation processes in food webs.

Wong, Charles S.; Mabury, Scott A.; Whittle, D. Michael; Backus, Sean M.; Teixeira, Camilla; DeVault, David S.; Bronte, Charles R.; Muir, Derek C.G.

2004-01-01

346

Spatial distribution, vertical profiles and budget of organochlorine compounds in Western Mediterranean seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual PCB congeners (IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 44, 70, 101, 118, 153, 138, 187, 128, 180, and 170), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenylethanes (DDTs) were determined in 15 samples of suspended particulate matter (> 0.7 ?m) (SPM) collected in the Catalan Sea and the Gulf of Lions. Furthermore, 6 vertical profiles were sampled at the Ebro and Rhône River mouths, Sicilian

Jordi Dachs; Josep M. Bayona; Joan Albaigés

1997-01-01

347

Detoxification enzyme activities (CYP1A1 and GST) in the skin of humpback whales as a function of organochlorine burdens and migration status.  

PubMed

The activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) enzymes were measured in freshly extracted epidermis of live-biopsied, migrating, southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The two quantified enzyme activities did not correlate strongly with each other. Similarly, neither correlated strongly with any of the organochlorine compound groups previously measured in the superficial blubber of the sample biopsy core, likely reflecting the anticipated low levels of typical aryl-hydrocarbon receptor ligands. GST activity did not differ significantly between genders or between northward (early migration) or southward (late migration) migrating cohorts. Indeed, the inter-individual variability in GST measurements was relatively low. This observation raises the possibility that measured activities were basal activities and that GST function was inherently impacted by the fasting state of the sampled animals, as seen in other species. These results do not support the implementation of CYP1A1 or GST as effective biomarkers of organochlorine contaminant burdens in southern hemisphere populations of humpback whales as advocated for other cetacean species. Further investigation of GST activity in feeding versus fasting cohorts may, however, provide some insight into the fasting metabolism of these behaviourally adapted populations. PMID:25058559

Bengtson Nash, S; Dawson, A; Burkhard, M; Waugh, C; Huston, W

2014-10-01

348

Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments, aquatic organisms, birds, bird eggs and bat collected from south India.  

PubMed

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in sediment, soil, whole body homogenates of resident and migratory birds and their prey items (including fish, green mussel, snail, earthworm, crabs, prawn, lizard and frogs), bird eggs and bats collected from southern India during 1995 and 1998. Accumulation pattern of organochlorines (OCs) in biota was, in general, in the order, HCHs > DDTs > PCBs > CHLs = HCB. Magnitude of OC concentrations increased in the order of sediments < green mussel < earthworm < from < lizard < fish < bird egg < bats < birds tissues. Biomagnification features of OCs were examined in resident and migrant birds to evaluate the exposure levels of these chemicals in wintering grounds of migrant birds. Accumulation of DDTs in migratory birds during wintering in India may be of concern due to the great biomagnification potential of DDTs. Eggs of some resident species contained noticeable concentrations of OCs. Concentrations of OCs in three species of bats analyzed in this study were lower than that found in passerine birds. In addition to OCs, butyltin compounds were also detected at low concentrations in bats. PMID:11360792

Senthilkumar, K; Kannan, K; Subramanian, A; Tanabe, S

2001-01-01

349

Metabolic concentration of lipid soluble organochlorine burdens in the blubber of southern hemisphere humpback whales through migration and fasting.  

PubMed

Southern hemisphere humpback whales undertake the longest migrations and associated periods of fasting of any mammal. Fluctuations in lipid energy stores are known to profoundly affect the toxicokinetics of lipophilic organochlorine compound (OC) burdens. Results from blubber biopsy sampling of adult, male humpback whales at two time points of the annual migration journey revealed dramatic concentration effects for the majority of OC compounds. The observed concentration effect was, however, not linear with measured average blubber lipid loss indicating significant redistribution of OCs and hence the importance of alternate lipid depots for meeting the energetic demands of the migration journey. Applying lipophilic OC burdens as novel tracers of whole-body lipid dynamics, the observed average concentration index suggests an average individual weight loss of 13% over 4 months of the migration journey. This value is based upon lipid derived energy and is in good agreement with previous weight prediction formulas. Notably, however, these estimates may greatly underestimate individual weight loss if significant protein catabolism occurs. Biomagnification factors between migrating southern hemisphere humpback whales and their principal prey item, Antarctic krill, closely resembled those of baleen whales feeding on herbivorous zooplankton in the Arctic. This study emphasizes the importance of considering prolonged periods of food deprivation when assessing chemical risks posed to wildlife. This is of particular importance for Polar biota adapted to extremes in ecosystem productivity. PMID:23859482

Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Waugh, Courtney A; Schlabach, Martin

2013-08-20

350

Distribution and trend of organochlorine pesticides in Galicia coast using mussels as bioindicator organisms. Possible relationship to biological parameters.  

PubMed

Contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as DDT and its metabolites (?DDs), ?-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), HCB (hexachlorobenzene), aldrin, endrin, isodrin and trans-nonachlor were investigated in wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Galician Rías (Rías of Ferrol, A Coruña, Muros, Arousa, Pontevedra and Vigo) during the period 1998-2012. Biological parameters, lipid content, shell length and condition index, were also studied. The OCPs levels in the wild mussel were in the order ?DDs>?-HCH>HCB. The other pesticides, aldrin, endrin, isodrin and trans-nonachlor, were not detected or were below the analytical detection limit. All concentrations found in these samples were below the allowable limits for human consumption (Regulation (EC) no. 396/2005). Univariate analysis confirmed that levels of some compounds presented significant relation with biological parameters. Multivariate analysis of the OCPs levels revealed significantly differences between studied Rías, samples from Ría of Ferrol had the highest levels of these compounds (values of ?DDs ranged from 3.9 to 4.2 ng g(-1) ww) and samples from Ría of Arousa, the lowest levels (values of ?DDs from 1.3 to 2.4 ng g(-1) ww). Temporal trends showed a decrease of OCPs levels along the studied period 1998-2012 in the Galician Rías. PMID:24374186

Carro, N; Cobas, J; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

2014-05-01

351

Residues of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in honey, an indicator of ambient environment, a pilot study.  

PubMed

Samples of honey were screened to monitor residues of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. The study meant to examine the quality of honey, and to use honey as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Residue levels were determined by gas chromatography (GC-?ECD). Samples had a wide spectrum of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroids pesticides, with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as the most frequently detected organochlorine, followed by permethrin, heptachlor epoxide. Only one sample had a concentration of ?-HCH higher than maximum residue limit of honey (0.01mgkg(-1)). Residues of organochlorines detected, indicate the presence of some fresh supplies, despite the ban imposed on their use. The study confirmed that honey bee and beehive matrices could be used as gauge for monitoring environment contamination. From public health point of view, the observed levels of pesticide residues in honey do not pose a serious health risk to the consumers, but raises questions of the source of organochlorines. PMID:25243805

Malhat, Farag M; Haggag, Mohamed N; Loutfy, Naglaa M; Osman, Mohamed A M; Ahmed, Mohamed Tawfic

2015-02-01

352

Persistent organic pollutants in the natural environments of the city of Bratsk (Irkutsk Oblast): Levels and risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contents of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)—in the natural environments of an industrial city (Bratsk) of Irkutsk oblast have been studied. Features of the spatial and seasonal distribution of the PCBs and OCPs in the soils and the atmospheric air have been revealed. The structure of the homological and congeneric composition of the PCBs in the soils and the atmospheric air has been shown. Parameters of the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks for human health from the impact of the PCBs and OCPs present in the soils and the atmospheric air have been determined.

Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Mamontov, A. A.

2014-11-01

353

Evaluating environmental persistence  

SciTech Connect

Environmental persistence is an important consideration when assigning priorities to chemical contaminants. It has been proposed that pass/fail half-life criteria be established for the media of air, water, soil, and sediment. The feasibility of applying such criteria is discussed. It is shown that there are severe problems in estimating these half-lives. Additionally, it is shown that the overall environmental half-life or persistence in a multimedia environment is also a function of the mode of entry of the chemical and its partitioning properties. Examples of potential misclassification are presented. An alternative two-tiered procedure is suggested in which the first tier considers only media half-lives and the second tier considers the overall half-life as deduced by mass-balance models. Furthermore, the overall persistence calculated in the second tier should be given as a distribution rather than a single value. This procedure enables chemicals to be compared, avoids undue reliance on relatively unimportant half-lives, and is regarded as a truer depiction of actual chemical persistence in the environment.

Webster, E.; Mackay, D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental Modelling Centre; Wania, F. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

1998-11-01

354

Shoring up persistent applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHORE (Scalable Heterogeneous Object REpository) is a persistent object system under development at the University of Wisconsin. SHORE represents a merger of object-oriented database and file system technologies. In this paper we give the goals and motivation for SHORE, and describe how SHORE provides features of both technologies. We also describe some novel aspects of the SHORE architecture, including a

Michael J. Carey; David J. DeWitt; Michael J. Franklin; Nancy E. Hall; Mark L. McAuliffe; Jeffrey F. Naughton; Daniel T. Schuh; Marvin H. Solomon; C. K. Tan; Odysseas G. Tsatalos; Seth J. White; Michael J. Zwilling

1994-01-01

355

Backward estimation of exposure to organochlorines using repeated measurements.  

PubMed Central

Great Lakes sport-caught fish are contaminated with various organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Through consumption of these fish, humans are subject to continuing levels of OC contamination. To assess potential adverse effects of past exposure, we compared three different backward extrapolation models. The data originated from OC determinations in a cohort of anglers and their families. Repeated PCB measurements collected in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s were used when testing the backward extrapolations. We applied a simple and a complex decay model based on assumptions used in previous studies; a third was a regression model incorporating markers of OC intake and loss. These techniques provided past exposure estimates. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated comparing measured and estimated PCB values. ICC values for the regression model equations were 0.77 and 0.89; ICC values for the simple and complex decay models were significantly lower, with ranges of 0.07-0.45 and -0.14-0.69, respectively. Plots showing trends of OC concentrations in fish and humans indicate comparable increases and decreases of PCB in fish and humans, with fish concentrations peaking approximately 10 years before that in humans. Our findings suggest that one should be cautious when using simple backward extrapolation techniques to estimate OC exposure in situations involving changing environmental exposures. Whenever repeated measurements are available, regression analyses seem to produce more accurate backward estimations of exposure. PMID:15121515

Karmaus, Wilfried; Fussman, Christopher; Muttineni, Jyotsna; Zhu, Xiaobei

2004-01-01

356

Organochlorinated pesticide degrading microorganisms isolated from contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Degradation of selected organochlorinated pesticides (?-hexachlorocyclohexane - ?-HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane - DDT, hexachlorobenzene - HCB) by soil microorganisms was studied. Bacterial strains isolated from contaminated soil from Klatovy-Luby, Hajek and Neratovice, Czech Republic, capable of growth on the selected pesticides were isolated and characterised. These isolates were subjected to characterisation and identification by MS MALDI-TOF of whole cells and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The isolates were screened by gas chromatography for their ability to degrade the selected pesticides. Some isolates were able to degrade pesticides, and the formation of degradation products (?-pentachlorocyclohexane (?-PCCH), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) observed in liquid culture confirmed their degradation capability. The isolates and DNA samples isolated from the contaminated soil were also screened for the bphA1 gene (encoding biphenyl-2,3-dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the PCB degradation pathway) and its occurrence was demonstrated. The isolates were also screened for the presence of linA, encoding dehydrochlorinase, the first enzyme of the HCH degradation pathway. The linA gene could not be found in any of the tested isolates, possibly due to the high specificity of the primers used. The isolates with the most effective degradation abilities could be used for further in situ bioremediation experiments with contaminated soil. PMID:25094051

Lovecka, Petra; Pacovska, Iva; Stursa, Petr; Vrchotova, Blanka; Kochankova, Lucie; Demnerova, Katerina

2015-01-25

357

Persistent Organic Pollutants and Inflammatory Markers in a Cross-Sectional Study of Elderly Swedish People: The PIVUS Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are compounds that are generated through various industrial activities and released in the surrounding environment. Different animal studies have shown effects of different POPs on various inflammatory markers. Objective: Because very few studies have been conducted in humans, we assessed the associations between different POPs and inflammatory markers in a large population-based sample of elderly men and women (all 70 years of age) from Sweden. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the concentrations of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and brominated diphenyl ether congeners and their association with a number of inflammatory markers [vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total leucocyte count, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6)] in 992 individuals. These individuals were recruited from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. We used a total toxic equivalency (TEQ) value that measures toxicological effects with the relative potencies of various POPs. Results: Following adjustment for potential confounders, the TEQ value (driven mainly by PCB-126) was significantly associated with levels of ICAM-1 (p < 10–5). A similar trend was also observed between sum of PCBs and VCAM-1 (p < 0.001). No significant associations were observed between levels of POPs and other inflammatory markers. Conclusions: TEQ values were associated with levels of ICAM-1, to a lesser degree also with VCAM-1, but not with CRP and several other inflammatory markers. These findings suggest an activation of vascular adhesion molecules by POPs, and particularly by PCB-126. Citation: Kumar J, Lind PM, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Ingelsson E, Lind L. 2014. Persistent organic pollutants and inflammatory markers in a cross-sectional study of elderly Swedish people: The PIVUS cohort. Environ Health Perspect 122:977–983;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307613 PMID:24911359

Kumar, Jitender; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Ingelsson, Erik

2014-01-01

358

REGULATORY ACTIONS - COMMUNITY RIGHT TO KNOW - PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasing worldwide attention is being focused on a group of persistent organic pollutants known as the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This class of compounds includes the now well known perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but it also includes ...

359

Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants: An update  

SciTech Connect

A mortality study of workers at four organochlorine pesticide manufacturing factories was updated through 1987. The cohorts included all white male workers employed for at least 6 months before December 31, 1964 at the four factories. The workers had been exposed to the following organochlorine pesticides: chlordane, heptachlor, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Workers at one factory had been exposed to the organobromine pesticide dibromochloropropane. The total number of deaths for the period from 1976 through 1987 was 650. Mortality for all causes and all malignant neoplasms was lower than expected at each of the factories. Cerebrovascular disease mortality was elevated for three of the four factories. The most important result was the statistically significant increase in liver/biliary tract cancer among workers at the facility where aldrin and dieldrin were the primary organochlorine pesticides produced and the nonsignificant increase at the facility where DDT was manufactured.

Brown, D.P.

1991-07-01

360

Persisters, persistent infections and the Yin–Yang model  

PubMed Central

Persisters are a small fraction of quiescent bacterial cells that survive lethal antibiotics or stresses but can regrow under appropriate conditions. Persisters underlie persistent and latent infections and post-treatment relapse, posing significant challenges for the treatment of many bacterial infections. The current definition of persisters has drawbacks, and a Yin–Yang model is proposed to describe the heterogeneous nature of persisters that have to be defined in highly specific conditions. Despite their discovery more than 70 years ago, the mechanisms of persisters are poorly understood. Recent studies have identified a number of genes and pathways that shed light on the mechanisms of persister formation or survival. These include toxin–antitoxin modules, stringent response, DNA repair or protection, phosphate metabolism, alternative energy production, efflux, anti-oxidative defense and macromolecule degradation. More sensitive single-cell techniques are required for a better understanding of persister mechanisms. Studies of bacterial persisters have parallels in other microbes (fungi, parasites, viruses) and cancer stem cells in terms of mechanisms and treatment approaches. New drugs and vaccines targeting persisters are critical for improved treatment of persistent infections and perhaps cancers. Novel treatment strategies for persisters and persistent infections are discussed.

Zhang, Ying

2014-01-01

361

Perfluorinated Compounds In The Ohio River Basin  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in waterways include pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), alkylphenols, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs). Their distributions and persistence in the aquatic environment remain p...

362

Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal  

PubMed Central

Analytical methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely available and are the result of a vast amount of environmental analytical method development and research on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the past 30–40 years. This review summarizes procedures and examines new approaches for extraction, isolation, identification and quantification of individual congeners/isomers of the PCBs and OCPs. Critical to the successful application of this methodology is the collection, preparation, and storage of samples, as well as specific quality control and reporting criteria, and therefore these are also discussed. With the signing of the Stockholm convention on POPs and the development of global monitoring programs, there is an increased need for laboratories in developing countries to determine PCBs and OCPs. Thus, while this review attempts to summarize the current best practices for analysis of PCBs and OCPs, a major focus is the need for low-cost methods that can be easily implemented in developing countries. A “performance based” process is described whereby individual laboratories can adapt methods best suited to their situations. Access to modern capillary gas chromatography (GC) equipment with either electron capture or low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) detection to separate and quantify OCP/PCBs is essential. However, screening of samples, especially in areas of known use of OCPs or PCBs, could be accomplished with bioanalytical methods such as specific commercially available enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays and thus this topic is also reviewed. New analytical techniques such two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) and “fast GC” using GC–ECD may be well-suited for broader use in routine PCB/OCP analysis in the near future given their relatively low costs and ability to provide high-resolution separations of PCB/OCPs. Procedures with low environmental impact (SPME, microscale, low solvent use, etc.) are increasingly being used and may be particularly suited to developing countries. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-0765-y and is accessible for authorized users. PMID:17047943

Sverko, Ed

2006-01-01

363

Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Rome (Italy) and surroundings  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk have been the subject of many studies. Surveys carried out in Italy are all eight years old with the exception of the latest work. Because of recent improvements in analytical methodology, the authors believe an up-to-date study would provide additional information. Thus, this paper presents a survey of the levels of human milk contamination, in Rome and surroundings, by organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. This survey is a part of a larger monitoring program covering also geographical areas outside of Rome.

Dommarco, R.; Muccio, A.D.; Camoni, I.; Gigli, B.

1987-12-01

364

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in the fish community in Lake Arungen, Norway.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pollutants in the major fish species (pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis, and roach Rutilus rutilus) of Lake Arungen, Norway, were investigated after an extensive removal of large pike in 2004. The organochlorine pollutants detected in fish liver samples in 2005 were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide (HCE). DDTs were the dominant among all analyzed OCs. Sigma PCB and HCB, detected in fish from two clearly distinct trophic levels (prey and predators), give an indication of biomagnification. All OC concentrations in female pike were significantly lower compared to males, which might be due to the removal of high concentrations of pollutants in roe during spawning. PMID:19329237

Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Almvik, Marit; Eklo, Ole Martin

2009-01-01

365

Organochlorine and mercury residues in canvasback duck eggs, 1972-73  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of canvasback ducks (Aythya valisineria) from several major breeding areas were analyzed for organochlorine and mercury residues. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in 96 of 97 eggs, in concentrations up to 29 ppm (wet wt.). DDE occurred in 79 percent of the samples with a maximum residue of 12 ppm (wet wt.). DDT, DDD, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and oxychlordane were detected less frequently. Mercury was detected in only 6 of 34 eggs analyzed. Most of the eggs contained concentrations of organochlorines and mercury below levels known to cause adverse effects on avian survival or reproduction.

Stendell, R.C.; Cromartie, E.; Wiemeyer, S.N.; Longcore, J.R.

1977-01-01

366

Persistent Environmental Pollutants and Couple Fecundity: The LIFE Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence suggesting that persistent environmental pollutants may be reproductive toxicants underscores the need for prospective studies of couples for whom exposures are measured. Objectives: We examined the relationship between selected persistent pollutants and couple fecundity as measured by time to pregnancy. Methods: A cohort of 501 couples who discontinued contraception to become pregnant was prospectively followed for 12 months of trying to conceive or until a human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) test confirmed pregnancy. Couples completed daily journals on lifestyle and provided biospecimens for the quantification of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl, 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 7 perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in serum. Using Cox models for discrete time, we estimated fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% CIs separately for each partner’s concentrations adjusting for age, body mass index, serum cotinine, serum lipids (except for PFCs), and study site (Michigan or Texas); sensitivity models were further adjusted for left truncation or time off of contraception (? 2 months) before enrollment. Results: The adjusted reduction in fecundability associated with standard deviation increases in log-transformed serum concentrations ranged between 18% and 21% for PCB congeners 118, 167, 209, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in females; and between 17% and 29% for p,p´-DDE and PCB congeners 138, 156, 157, 167, 170, 172, and 209 in males. The strongest associations were observed for PCB 167 (FOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97) in females and PCB 138 (FOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.98) in males. Conclusions: In this couple-based prospective cohort study with preconception enrollment and quantification of exposures in both female and male partners, we observed that a subset of persistent environmental chemicals were associated with reduced fecundity. PMID:23151773

Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Maisog, José; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Barr, Dana B.

2012-01-01

367

Intra- and inter-species differences in persistent organic contaminants in the blubber of blue whales and humpback whales from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsy samples of blubber from adult male and female blue whales, and from female and young-of-the-year humpback whales were collected during the summers of 1992–1999 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In blue whales, concentrations of 25 PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites and several other organochlorine compounds were present at higher concentrations in the blubber of males relative to

Chris Metcalfe; Brenda Koenig; Tracy Metcalfe; Gordon Paterson; Richard Sears

2004-01-01

368

Learning's "Weak" Link to Persistence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study advances the understanding of college persistence by examining five dimensions of student learning in relation to second-year persistence. Two of the five dimensions of learning were found to be significant predictors of persistence, and each was moderated by social integration. (Contains 5 tables and 1 figure.)

Wolniak, Gregory C.; Mayhew, Matthew J.; Engberg, Mark E.

2012-01-01

369

Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability.  

PubMed

Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (?(13)C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4-11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and ?(13)C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, ?-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of ?(13)C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. PMID:25536177

Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; König, Max; Lipasti, Inka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Routti, Heli

2015-04-01

370

Contaminants in ospreys from the Pacific Northwest: II. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury, 1991-1997.  

PubMed

Eggs of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) were collected over the period 1991 to 1997 at 111 nests in the Fraser and Columbia River drainage systems of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. Contents were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and total mercury. Blood samples were taken from nestling ospreys at two time points during the 1992 breeding season on the Thompson River and analyzed for non-ortho PCBs. Concentrations of DDE and related compounds showed high variability among individual eggs within study areas and no significant differences in mean concentrations among study areas. Some eggs contained high concentrations of DDE, up to 20 mg/kg (wet weight), for which there were no evident local sources, suggesting that exposure occurred outside of the breeding grounds. Most other OC pesticides measured in osprey eggs showed a similar distribution, although mean concentrations of chlordane-related compounds were generally, and in some cases significantly, higher in samples collected from the Columbia River sites compared to elsewhere. Significantly greater concentrations of PCBs were found in eggs from the Columbia River basin compared to the Fraser. This was attributed to extensive development of hydroelectric generation and related industries on the Columbia system. Significant differences among sites were also found in the pattern of PCB congeners, e.g., eggs from the lower Columbia River site had proportionally greater concentrations of less chlorinated, Aroclor 1242-type PCBs compared to other sites. In contrast, eggs from upper reaches of the Columbia River had relatively greater amounts of Aroclor 1254 and 1260 congeners. Mercury concentrations in osprey eggs tended to be uniform among sites and comparable to those reported in the literature for ospreys nesting on naturally formed lakes and rivers. There were no significant temporal changes in mean concentrations of any of the measured compounds at sites monitored from 1991 to 1997. PMID:10556376

Elliott, J E; Machmer, M M; Wilson, L K; Henny, C J

2000-01-01

371

Molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial persisters.  

PubMed

All bacteria form persisters, cells that are multidrug tolerant and therefore able to survive antibiotic treatment. Due to the low frequencies of persisters in growing bacterial cultures and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms, the phenomenon has been challenging to study. However, recent technological advances in microfluidics and reporter genes have improved this scenario. Here, we summarize recent progress in the field, revealing the ubiquitous bacterial stress alarmone ppGpp as an emerging central regulator of multidrug tolerance and persistence, both in stochastically and environmentally induced persistence. In several different organisms, toxin-antitoxin modules function as effectors of ppGpp-induced persistence. PMID:24766804

Maisonneuve, Etienne; Gerdes, Kenn

2014-04-24

372

Persistence of West Nile virus.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread global pathogen that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Data from animal models provide evidence of persistent renal and neurological infection from WNV; however, the possibility of persistent infection in humans and long-term neurological and renal outcomes related to viral persistence remain largely unknown. In this paper, we provide a review of the literature related to persistent infection in parallel with the findings from cohorts of patients with a history of WNV infection. The next steps for enhancing our understanding of WNV as a persistent pathogen are discussed. PMID:25499188

Garcia, Melissa N; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Murray, Kristy O

2015-02-01

373

Relationships between ecological variables and four organochlorine pollutants in an artic glaucous gull ( Larus hyperboreus) population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic has become a sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) from lower latitudes, and relatively high levels have been found in different biota. Recent studies of the glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus, a top predator in the arctic food web, have documented that high blood residues of various OCs are related to lower reproductive performance and reduced adult survival. Here we

Jan Ove Bustnes; Øystein Miland; Magnus Fjeld; Kjell Einar Erikstad; Janneche Utne Skaare

2005-01-01

374

Organochlorine contaminants in seven species of Arctic seabirds from northern Baffin Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined in liver and fat of seven species of seabirds (Alle alle, Uria lomvia, Cepphus grylle, Rissa tridactyla, Pagophila eburnea, Larus hyperboreus, and Fulmaris glacialis) collected in May\\/June 1998 from the Northwater Polynya in northern Baffin Bay. OC concentrations ranged over an order of magnitude between seabird species and OC groups, with PCBs having the highest

Andrea H. Buckman; Ross J. Norstrom; Keith A. Hobson; Nina J. Karnovsky; Jason Duffe; Aaron T. Fisk

2004-01-01

375

Contents and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in vegetable soils of Guangzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated contents, distribution and possible sources of PAHs and organochlorine pesticides (Ops) in 43 surface and subsurface soils around the urban Guangzhou where variable kinds of vegetables are grown. The results indicate that the contents of PAHs (16 US EPA priority PAHs) range from 42 to 3077?g\\/kg and the pollution extent is classified as a moderate level in comparison

Laiguo Chen; Yong Ran; Baoshan Xing; Bixian Mai; Jianghua He; Xiuguo Wei; Jiamo Fu; Guoying Sheng

2005-01-01

376

Organochlorine-induced mortality and residues in long-billed curlews from Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The range and population size of the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus ) have diminished drastically since the early 1900s; continued loss of breeding and wintering habitats has raised concern for the furture of this species (Allen 1980). The authors investigated organochlorine residues in eggs and tissues of curlews to determine how they were affecting this species.

Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1985-01-01

377

Distribution and fate of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from the selected rivers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments from selected rivers in Taiwan was investigated to evaluate the pollution potentials and hazard in river sediments. Da-han River and Erh-jen River were selected as the target rivers due to their serious pollution. A total of 40 surface sediment samples were collected at five sampling stations along the rivers. Results showed that

Ruey-An Doong; Yuh-Chang Sun; Pei-Ling Liao; Ching-Kai Peng; Shian-Chee Wu

2002-01-01

378

Continuous surveillance of organochlorine pesticides in human milk from 1983 to 1998 in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to study the accumulative levels and dynamic changes of organochlorine pesticides in human milk in Beijing from 1982 to 1998, and the effect of prohibition and restriction on the use of DDT and BHC (666) in China in 1983. The milk samples were collected from women during the lactation period in four districts of Beijing

Hui-Fang Yu; Xu-Dong Zhao; Jin-Hui Zhao; Zhi-Qin Zhu; Zhu Zhao

2006-01-01

379

Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in surface water and sediments from Qiantang River, East China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface water and sediments from Qiantang River in East China were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risks. A total of 180 surface water samples at 45 sampling sites and 48 sediment samples at 19 sampling stations were collected along the river in four seasons of 2005. Soil samples and wet

Rongbing Zhou; Lizhong Zhu; Kun Yang; Yuyun Chen

2006-01-01

380

Body burdens and tissue concentrations of organochlorines in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) vary during seasonal fasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipophilic organochlorines (OCs) are ingested by mammals through their foods and are generally stored in adipose tissue depots. For some species, such as polar bears, the size of these depots can fluctuate seasonally by several-fold. However, the effect of these fluctuations on the fate of stored OCs in an animal with such labile lipid depots is unknown. We determined the

S. C Polischuk; R. J Norstrom; M. A Ramsay

2002-01-01

381

Is Bone Mineral Composition Disrupted by Organochlorines in East Greenland Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexacyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)

Christian Sonne; Rune Dietz; Erik W. Born; Frank F. Riget; Maja Kirkegaard; Lars Hyldstrup; Robert J. Letcher; Derek C. G. Muir

2004-01-01

382

Organochlorines Affect the Major Androgenic Hormone, Testosterone, in Male Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) at Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal sexual development and subsequent reproductive function are dependent on appropriate testosterone production and action. The regulation of steroid hormones, including androgens, can be influenced by both biological and environmental factors, including environmental chemicals. Concentrations of organochlorines are considerably greater in Svalbard polar bears than in polar bears from other regions. Between 1995 and 1998, samples were collected from 121

Irma C. Oskam; Erik Ropstad; Ellen Dahl; Elisabeth Lie; Andrew E. Derocher; Stig Larsen; Richard Wiger; Janneche Utne Skaare

2003-01-01

383

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Wheat and Drinking Water Samples from Jaipur, Rajasthan, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organochlorine pesticide contamination in dietary sources has caused serious threat to the human progeny. The present studywas therefore conducted to evaluate the pesticide contaminationin wheat flour and drinking water from Jaipur City, Rajasthan,India using Gas Chromatograph. All the wheat and water sampleswere found to be contaminated with various organochlorinepesticide residues of DDT and its metabolites, HCH and itsisomers, heptachlor

Neela Bakore; P. J. John; Pradeep Bhatnagar

2004-01-01

384

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in Falconiforme and Ciconiforme eggs (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls have been documented to have adverse effects of the reproduction and survival of wild birds. Also, environmental contamination from heavy metals has been shown to be a threat to the survival and reproduction of certain birds. The hazard to Falconiforme and Ciconiforme birds is high because a) they are sensitive to eggshell thinning b) they

L. M. Hernández; Ma. J. González; Ma. C. Rico; M. A. Fernández; A. Aranda

1988-01-01

385

COMPARATIVE ENZYME INDUCTION AND LINDANE METABOLISM IN RATS PRE-TREATED WITH VARIOUS ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

The comparative effect of 7 days pre-treatment with one of seven organochlorine pesticides on the metabolism of lindane in vivo and on the metabolism of EPN, p-nitroanisole and methyl orange in vitro was investigated. Mirex was the most potent inducer of the oxidative hydrolysis ...

386

Residues of organochlorines and heavy metals in tissues and eggs of brown pelicans, 1969-73  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shells of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) eggs collected in South Carolina from 1969 through 1973 were significantly thinner than shells of those collected before 1947. Residues of 10 organochlorine pollutants and 10 heavy metals were found in these eggs. Total organochlorine residues were apparently magnified 23 times from fish to pelican eggs, but interpretation of biomagnification was complicated by the migratory habits of both the pelicans and their chief prey fish. Residues of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals were also found in tissues of brown pelicans. Dieldrin was probably involved in the death of a pelican that exhibited myocardial necrosis. Other pelicans died from gunshot wounds, various diseases, or unknown causes. From 1969 through 1973, there was a significant decline in residues of p-p'-DDE, p-p'-TDE, p-p'DDT, and dieldrin in eggs of the brown pelican in South Carolina, but the rate of decline was different for each pollutant. PCB's peaked in 1972 and then declined in 1973 to the lowest level in 5 years. In 1973, the first time in many years, South Carolina brown pelicans reproduced very well. The excellent reproductivity seemed related to lowered organochlorine residues and favorable tides, weather, and food supply.

Blus, L.J.; Neely, B.S., Jr.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.

1977-01-01

387

Residues of organochlorines and heavy metals in tissues and eggs of brown pelicans, 1969-73.  

PubMed

Shells of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) eggs collected in South Carolina from 1969 through 1973 were significantly thinner than shells of those collected before 1947. Residues of 10 organochlorine pollutants and 10 heavy metals were found in these eggs. Total organochlorine residues were apparently magnified 23 times from fish to pelican eggs, but interpretation of biomagnification was complicated by the migratory habits of both the pelicans and their chief prey fish. Residues of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals were also found in tissues of brown pelicans. Dieldrin was probably involved in the death of a pelican that exhibited myocardial necrosis. Other pelicans died from gunshot wounds, various diseases, or unknown causes. From 1969 through 1973, there was a significant decline in residues of p-p'-DDE, p-p'-TDE, p-p'DDT, and dieldrin in eggs of the brown pelican in South Carolina, but the rate of decline was different for each pollutant. PCB's peaked in 1972 and then declined in 1973 to the lowest level in 5 years. In 1973, the first time in many years, South Carolina brown pelicans reproduced very well. The excellent reproductivity seemed related to lowered organochlorine residues and favorable tides, weather, and food supply. PMID:887381

Blus, L J; Neely, B S; Lamont, T G; Mulhern, B

1977-06-01

388

Relationships between reproductive performance and organochlorine contaminants in great black-backed gulls ( Larus marinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great black-backed gull Larus marinus is a top predator in subarctic and temperate marine ecosystems, and the aim of this study was to investigate if organochlorines (OCs) were related to reproductive performance in this species at the subarctic parts of the Norwegian Coast. We measured blood levels of various OCs in 53 breeding birds. The OC levels were relatively

Morten Helberg; Jan Ove Bustnes; Kjell Einar Erikstad; Kai Ove Kristiansen; Janneche Utne Skaare

2005-01-01

389

Effects of an Organochlorine Pesticide on Different Levels of Biological Organization in Daphnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan, toDaphnia carinatawas measured at three levels of biological organization: allocation of resources to reproduction, growth and reproductive rates, and population dynamics. The mechanisms by which responses at one level of organization manifest at higher levels are discussed. Two experiments were performed: in the first experiment, groups ofDaphniawere exposed to endosulfan at one of

Michael J. Barry

1996-01-01

390

Organochlorine contaminant levels in Eskimo harvested bowhead whales of arctic Alaska.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) levels in liver and blubber of 20 bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) collected during the Eskimo subsistence harvest at Barrow (Alaska, USA) in 1992 and 1993 are presented. Liver sum DDT (lipid weight) was significantly greater in male whales than in females. Most of the organochlorines measured were at higher levels in longer (older) than in shorter (younger) males. For female bowhead whales, hexachlorobenzene and lipid levels decreased and other OC levels did not change significantly with increasing length. Most organochlorine contaminants have low concentrations in tissues of the bowhead whale compared to concentrations in tissues of other cetaceans, especially Odontocetes. Based on allowable daily intakes (ADI) levels established by the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) "safe" levels of blubber to consume were calculated. Chlordane levels in bowhead whale blubber results in the most restrictive consumption amount (50 g blubber/day). We expect no adverse effects related to these organochlorine contaminants to occur in bowhead whales or in consumers of their tissues. However, investigation of low level chronic exposure effects and a more rigorous assessment of histopathology, biomarkers, and immune status in the bowhead whale would be required to conclude "no effect" with more certainty. PMID:10574534

O'Hara, T M; Krahn, M M; Boyd, D; Becker, P R; Philo, L M

1999-10-01

391

Characterization of Spatial Repellent, Contact Irritant, and Toxicant Chemical Actions of Standard Vector Control Compounds 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 ABSTRACT. A previously described modular high-throughput screening system was used to characterize the spatial repellent, contact irritant, and toxicant chemical actions of 14 compounds historically used or under investigation for vector control. The response of F1-F4 Aedes aegypti (Thailand strain) to various concentrations of 4 organochlorines (chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, methoxychlor); 4 pyrethroids (alphacy- permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin); 3 organophosphates

Nicole L. Achee; Michael R. Sardelis; Isabelle Dusfour; Kamlesh R. Chauhan; John P. Grieco

2009-01-01

392

Fate and Transfer of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in a Multi-Compartment Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) comprise many priority pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),\\u000a organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These pollutants can be introduced into the environment\\u000a via the atmosphere, for example, in the emissions of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. PAHs), out-gassing from pollutant-containing\\u000a media such as paints, transformers and capacitors etc. (e.g. PCBs) and by

Rajasekhar Balasubramanian; Jun He

393

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDDs/DFs were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. DDTs were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 microg/g lipid. A negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. During spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due to the increased concentration of organochlorines in their bodies. TEQs in the blubber of Caspian seals (10-340 pg TEQ/g) were lower than those in seals from other locations, suggesting that toxic effects of these contaminants are a deal less in the present population and they are unlikely to be linked to mass mortality. The levels of PCBs and pesticides in Caspian seals, however, comparable to those in other aquatic mammals that have suffered from epizootics, might pose a risk of immunosuppression. PMID:17900768

Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Wilson, Susan; Eybatov, Tariel; Mitrofanov, Igor V; Aubrey, David G; Khuraskin, Lev S; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2008-03-01

394

Persistence of Salmonid Redds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of redds by spawning salmonids modifies fluvial processes in ways that are beneficial to egg and embryo survival. Redd topography induces hyporheic flow that oxygenates embryos incubating within the streambed and creates form drag that reduces bed mobility and scour of salmonid eggs. Winnowing of fine material during redd construction also coarsens the streambed, increasing bed porosity and hyporheic flow and reducing bed mobility. In addition to the biological benefits, redds may influence channel morphology by altering channel hydraulics and bed load transport rates depending on the size and extent of redds relative to the size of the channel. A key question is how long do the physical and biological effects of redds last? Field observations indicate that in some basins redds are ephemeral, with redd topography rapidly erased by subsequent floods, while in other basins, redds can persist for years. We hypothesize that redd persistence is a function of basin hydrology, sediment supply, and characteristics of the spawning fish. Hydrology controls the frequency and magnitude of bed mobilizing flows following spawning, while bed load supply (volume and caliber) controls the degree of textural fining and consequent bed mobility after spawning, as well as the potential for burial of redd features. The effectiveness of flows in terms of their magnitude and duration depend on hydroclimate (i.e., snowmelt, rainfall, or transitional hydrographs), while bed load supply depends on basin geology, land use, and natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfire). Location within the stream network may also influence redd persistence. In particular, lakes effectively trap sediment and regulate downstream flow, which may promote long-lived redds in stream reaches below lakes. These geomorphic controls are modulated by biological factors: fish species (size of fish controls size of redds and magnitude of streambed coarsening); life history (timing of spawning and incubation relative to high flows); and population size (density of redds and extent of streambed alteration within a given reach). Species and life history also control the location of spawning within the basin, dictating the flow and sediment supply regimes. A theoretical framework is developed for predicting redd persistence as a function of the above physical and biological factors. We expect that long-lived redds will indicate either that the river is not competent to re-work the effects of spawning or that spawning occurs after peak flow events that are capable of modifying redd features. The longevity of redds and their associated effects on fluvial processes also provides a measure of the degree of potential ecological conditioning for future generations of fish. Future work will test the framework in field and laboratory settings.

Buffington, J. M.; Buxton, T.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.; Yager, E.

2013-12-01

395

Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29-274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and ?-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

Liu, Hongxia; Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qu, Chengkai

2014-09-01

396

Screening for Developmental Neurotoxicity Using PC12 Cells: Comparisons of Organophosphates with a Carbamate, an Organochlorine, and Divalent Nickel  

PubMed Central

Background In light of the large number of chemicals that are potential developmental neurotoxicants, there is a need to develop rapid screening techniques. Objectives We exposed undifferentiated and differentiating neuronotypic PC12 cells to different organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, parathion), a carbamate (physostigmine), an organochlorine (dieldrin), and a metal (divalent nickel; Ni2+) and examined indices of cell replication and differentiation for both short- and long-term exposures. Results In undifferentiated cells, all the agents inhibited DNA synthesis, with the greatest effect for diazinon, but physostigmine eventually produced the largest deficits in the total number of cells after prolonged exposure. The onset of differentiation intensified the adverse effects on DNA synthesis and changed the rank order in keeping with a shift away from noncholinergic mechanisms and toward cholinergic mechanisms. Differentiation also worsened the effects of each agent on cell number after prolonged exposure, whereas cell growth was not suppressed, nor were there any effects on viability as assessed with trypan blue. Nevertheless, differentiating cells displayed signs of oxidative stress from all of the test compounds except Ni2+, as evidenced by measurements of lipid peroxidation. Finally, all of the toxicants shifted the transmitter fate of the cells away from the cholinergic phenotype and toward the catecholaminergic phenotype. Conclusions These studies point out the feasibility of developing cell-based screening methods that enable the detection of multiple end points that may relate to mechanisms associated with developmental neurotoxicity, revealing some common targets for disparate agents. PMID:17366826

Slotkin, Theodore A.; MacKillop, Emiko A.; Ryde, Ian T.; Tate, Charlotte A.; Seidler, Frederic J.

2007-01-01

397

Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in osprey eggs--1970-79--and their relationships to shell thinning and productivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected in 14 states in 1970-79 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury. Moderate shell thinning occurred in eggs from several areas. DDE was detected in all eggs, PCBs in 99%, DDD in 96%, dieldrin in 52%, and other compounds less frequently. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites declined in eggs from Cape May County, New Jersey between 1970-72 and 1978-79. Eggs .from New Jersey in the early 1970s contained the highest concentrations of DDE. Dieldrin concentrations declined in eggs from the Potomac River, Maryland during 1971-77. Five different contaminants were significantly negatively correlated with shell thickness; DDE was most closely correlated. Ten percent shell thinning was associated with 2.0 ppm DDE, 15% with 4.2 ppm, and 20% with 8.7 ppm in eggs collected from randomly selected nests before egg loss. Shell thickness could not be accurately predicted from DDE concentrations in eggs collected after failure to hatch, presumably because the eggs with the thinnest shells had been broken and were unavailable for sampling. DDE was also significantly negatively correlated with brood size. Other contaminants did not appear to adversely affect shell thickness or reproductive success.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Bunck, C.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1988-01-01

398

Further interpretation of the relation of organochlorine residues in brown pelican eggs to reproductive success  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was conducted to provide additional interpretation of the relation of organochlorine pollutants to reproductive success and population stability of brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis in the southeastern United States from 1969 to 1977. The sample egg technique was employed in South Carolina; it involved collecting an egg from each of 156 marked nests, analysing the eggs for residues and relating residue levels to nest success. All of the organochlorines appeared to induce adverse effects on reproductive success of brown pelicans, but the correlative evidence indicated that DDE was responsible for most of the pollutant-related nest failure. Close intercorrelation of each of the organochlorines presented a problem in the separation of the effects of each pollutant. The critical level of DDE in brown pelican eggs was 3 :g g-1, this level was associated with substantially impaired reproductive success and 4 :g g-1 of DDE was associated with sotal reproductive failure. The critical level for dieldrin was not determined, but it appeared to exceed 1 :g g-1. Dieldrin, DDT, DDD and the PCBs apparently exerted a minor effect on reproductive success of brown pelicans in South Carolina. Endrin seemed to induce reproductive impairment in brown pelicans in Louisiana in 1975. The critical level in eggs is only roughly estimated at <0?5 :g g-1 because it was not possible to use the sample egg technique in this small population. Significant declines in organochlorine residues in South Carolina during this study were associated with increases in eggshell thickness, reproductive success and the breeding population. Of those avian species studied, the brown pelican remains the most sensitive to organochlorine contaminants, particularly DDE and endrin; factors related to this sensitivity are poorly known.

Blus, L.J.

1982-01-01

399

Relationships between ecological variables and four organochlorine pollutants in an artic glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) population.  

PubMed

The Arctic has become a sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) from lower latitudes, and relatively high levels have been found in different biota. Recent studies of the glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus, a top predator in the arctic food web, have documented that high blood residues of various OCs are related to lower reproductive performance and reduced adult survival. Here we provide additional evidence that OCs are having ecological effects in the glaucous gull population at Bear Island in the Norwegian Arctic, and compare the effects of the four major OCs found in the glaucous gulls: HCB, oxychlordane, DDE and PCBs, which made up >95% of measured OCs. Firstly; it has previously been shown that gulls with high levels of PCBs in their blood spent more time away from the nest site during incubation than gulls with low levels. Here we reanalyzed the data and found that PCBs (P<0.02) and oxychlordane (P<0.05) were positive and significantly related to time away from the nest site, while DDE and HCB were not related to this trait. Secondly, among females which bred in an area where fish dominated the diet, and thus had high flight costs during feeding, early chick growth was negatively related to maternal levels of all four OCs, especially HCB and DDE (P<0.01). On the contrary, among females breeding in an area where the diet was dominated by eggs and young from nearby seabird colonies, and thus feeding costs were low, there were no effects of OC levels on early chick growth. This indicates that additional stress may be fundamental in causing reproductive effects of OCs in this population. Finally, during three breeding seasons we examined the probability of adults returning to the breeding grounds in the subsequent season, as a function of blood concentration of the four OCs. Overall, return rate from one year to the next was negatively related to blood residues of oxychlordane (P=0.02), but not significantly related to the other three compounds. Further support for the importance of oxychlordane was that a 60% drop in the blood levels between 1997 and 2000 led to a significant increase in return rate between these two years. PMID:15809119

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Miland, Oystein; Fjeld, Magnus; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Skaare, Janneche Utne

2005-07-01

400

Soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Southern United States.  

PubMed

Soil samples were collected from 30 farms in Alabama, Louisiana and Texas during 1999-2000 to determine residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). One or more of the DDT compounds (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE) was above the quantitation limit (0.1 ng g(-1) dry weight) in every soil, and toxaphene was above the quantitation limit (3 ng g(-1)) in 26 soils. Chlordanes, dieldrin and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers occurred less frequently (quantitation limits 0.1 ng g(-1) for dieldrin and 0.05 ng g(-1) for chlordanes and HCHs). OCPs were measured in air at 40 cm above the soil at selected farms to investigate soil-air partitioning. Concentrations of OCPs in air were positively and significantly (P<0.001-0.004) correlated to soil concentrations for toxaphene, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor. The regression was weaker (P=0.022) for cis-chlordane and not significant for trans-chlordane (P=0.43) nor gamma-HCH (P=0.80). Approach to soil-air equilibrium was assessed by calculating fugacities in the soil and air (f(s) and f(a)) for samples with quantifiable residues in both compartments. The fugacity fraction f(s)=0.5 at equilibrium and is <0.5 or >0.5 for net deposition and net volatilisation, respectively. Fugacity fractions varied greatly for different soil-air pairs, reflecting generally disequilibrium conditions. Mean fugacity fractions indicated near-equilibrium for some OCPs (p,p'-DDE, chlordanes, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin) and net volatilisation for others (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, toxaphene, gamma-HCH). Chiral analysis showed that enantioselective degradation of (+) or (-) o,p'-DDT in soil was accompanied by enrichment or depletion of the corresponding enantiomers in the overlying air, although there appeared to be some dilution by racemic o,p'-DDT from regional air transport. PMID:14667719

Bidleman, Terry F; Leone, Andi D

2004-01-01

401

Spring-harvested game birds from the western James Bay region of northern Ontario, Canada: Organochlorine concentrations in breast muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although studies have assessed organochlorine concentration in breast tissue (pectoral muscle) of fall-harvested game birds in Canada, data for spring-harvested game birds are limited, especially for remote sub-arctic areas. Taking into account that most traditional Aboriginal diets include a large number of spring-harvested game birds, there is a need to assess organochlorine concentration in spring-harvested water birds with respect to

Leonard J. S. Tsuji; Ian D. Martin; Emily S. Martin; Alain LeBlanc; Pierre Dumas

2007-01-01

402

New daily persistent headache  

PubMed Central

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. PMID:23024565

Tyagi, Alok

2012-01-01

403

Persistence and transport potential of chemicals in a multimedia environment  

SciTech Connect

Persistence in the environment and potential for long-range transport are related since time in the environment is required for transport. A persistent chemical will travel longer distances than a reactive chemical that shares similar chemical properties. Scheringer (1997) has demonstrated the correlation between persistence and transport distance for different organic chemicals. However, this correlation is not sufficiently robust to predict one property from the other. Specific chemicals that are persistent mayor may not exhibit long-range transport potential. Persistence and long-range transport also present different societal concerns. Persistence concerns relate to the undesired possibility that chemicals produced and used now may somehow negatively affect future generations. Long-range transport concerns relate to the undesired presence of chemicals in areas where these compounds have not been used. Environmental policy decisions can be based on either or both considerations depending on the aim of the regulatory program. In this chapter, definitions and methods for quantifying persistence and transport potential of organic chemicals are proposed which will assist in the development of sound regulatory frameworks.

van de Meent, D.; McKone, T.E.; Parkerton, T.; Matthies, M.; Scheringer, M.; Wania, F.; Purdy, R.; Bennett, D.H.

2000-02-01

404

Iconic memory and visible persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three senses in which a visual stimulus may be said to persist psychologically for some time after its physical\\u000a offset. First, neural activity in the visual system evoked by the stimulus may continue after stimulus offset (“neural persistence”).\\u000a Second, the stimulus may continue to be visible for some time after its offset (“visible persistence”). Finally, information\\u000a about visual

Max Coltheart

1980-01-01

405

Plasma Organochlorines and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer in Japanese Men: A Nested Case–Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may contribute to the development of prostate cancer, few investigations have used biological samples to classify exposure to specific organochlorines. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study to investigate the association between blood levels of organochlorines and prostate cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study using data from the Japan Public Health Center–based Prospective (JPHC) Study. A total of 14,203 men 40–69 years old who returned the baseline questionnaire and who provided blood samples were followed from 1990 to 2005. Using a mean follow-up period of 12.8 years, we identified 201 participants who were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. Two matched controls for each case were selected from the cohort. We used a conditional logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prostate cancer in relation to plasma levels of nine organochlorines: PCBs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), trans- and cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and mirex. Results No statistically significant association with total prostate cancer was seen for any plasma organochlorine, although we did observe an insignificant inverse association for plasma HCB and ?-HCH. Total PCB in plasma was also inversely associated with advanced prostate cancer but without statistical significance. Conclusion Our results suggest that no overall association exists between prostate cancer and organochlorines at the levels measured in our study population. PMID:20435560

Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Itoh, Hiroaki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

2010-01-01

406

Effects of polychlorobiphenyls, polybromodiphenylethers, organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites on vitamin A status in lactating grey seals.  

PubMed

Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), are considered as endocrine disruptors in laboratory and wild animals. This study investigated whether these compounds and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs and HO-PBDEs) may affect the homoeostasis of vitamin A, a dietary hormone, in the blubber and serum of twenty lactating grey seals sampled at early and late lactation on the Isle of May, Scotland. The effect of naturally produced compounds such as the methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs was also examined. Vitamin A levels in inner blubber (37±9 ?g/g wet weight (ww) and 92±32 ?g/g ww at early and late lactation, respectively) and serum (408±143 and 390±98 ng/ml at early and late lactation, respectively) appeared to be positively related to ?PCBs, ?PBDEs and several individual PCB and PBDE congeners in inner blubber and serum. These findings may suggest enhanced mobilisation of hepatic retinoid stores and redistribution in the blubber, a storage site for vitamin A in marine mammals. We have also reported that serum concentrations of ?HO-PCBs and 4-OH-CB107 tended to increase with circulating vitamin A levels. Although the direction of the relationships may sometimes differ from those reported in the literature, our results are in agreement with previous findings highlighting a disruption of vitamin A homoeostasis in the blubber and bloodstream following exposure to environmental pollutants. The fact that vitamin A and PCBs appeared to share common mechanisms of mobilisation and transfer during lactation in grey seals (Debier et al., 2004; Vanden Berghe et al., 2010) may also play a role in the different relationships observed between vitamin A and lipophilic pollutants. PMID:23051620

Vanden Berghe, Marie; Weijs, Liesbeth; Habran, Sarah; Das, Krishna; Bugli, Céline; Pillet, Stéphane; Rees, Jean-François; Pomeroy, Paddy; Covaci, Adrian; Debier, Cathy

2013-01-01

407

Concentrations and spatial variations of cyclodienes and other organochlorines in herring and perch from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Herring (Clupea harengus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were collected in the northern and southern Baltic Sea and analyzed for the presence of the cyclodiene pesticides chlordane (CHL), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan and mirex, as well as other organochlorine contaminants, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCBz) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in order to investigate concentrations, accumulation and differences in geographical distribution. In the northern part of the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, herring were collected at two pelagic stations, one in the Bothnian Bay (BB) and the other in the Bothnian Sea (BS), respectively; perch were collected at four coastal locations along the Swedish coast. All these locations were selected to represent background areas except one in the vicinity of an industrialised and contaminated area. Both specimens were also caught in the southern part of the Baltic Sea, in the Gulf of Gdansk (GG), Poland, a potentially highly polluted area. From the eight cyclodiene pesticides analyzed, three were detected in herring and perch samples, including 12 different CHL-related compounds, dieldrin and mirex. To our knowledge, it is the first time that mirex has been detected in samples from the Baltic Sea. Neither heptachlor, aldrin, endrin, isodrin nor endosulfan were found. However, HCHs, DDTs, HCBz and PCBs were found in every sample investigated, and the concentrations ranged e.g. for the cyclodiene chemicals dieldrin and CHL-related compounds from 30 to 170 ng/g lipid and for PCBs from 360 to 5400 ng/g lipid, both fish species included. Differences in contamination burden between the sites can be seen, e.g. for herring the BB and GG locals were similar, and generally lower than BS for all chemicals except that of DDT where GG was the highest. For the perch samples the industrialised location had markedly higher concentrations of HCBz and PCBs than the other locations. This species also identifies GG as the most DDT contaminated site among the three studied areas. PMID:9599457

Strandberg, B; Strandberg, L; van Bavel, B; Bergqvist, P A; Broman, D; Falandysz, J; Näf, C; Papakosta, O; Rolff, C; Rappe, C

1998-04-23

408

Effects of environmental organochlorine pesticides on human breast cancer: Putative involvement on invasive cell ability.  

PubMed

Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a certainty, even to long banned pesticides like o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), and its metabolites p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD). POPs are known to be particularly toxic and have been associated with endocrine-disrupting effects in several mammals, including humans even at very low doses. As environmental estrogens, they could play a critical role in carcinogenesis, such as in breast cancer. With the purpose of evaluating their effect on breast cancer biology, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD (50-1000 nM) were tested on two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 expressing estrogen receptor (ER) ? and MDA-MB-231 negative for ER?, regarding cell proliferation and viability in addition to their invasive potential. Cell proliferation and viability were not equally affected by these compounds. In MCF-7 cells, the compounds were able to decrease cell proliferation and viability. On the other hand, no evident response was observed in treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Concerning the invasive potential, the less invasive cell line, MCF-7, had its invasion potential significantly induced, while the more invasive cell line MDA-MB-231, had its invasion potential dramatically reduced in the presence of the tested compounds. Altogether, the results showed that these compounds were able to modulate several cancer-related processes, namely in breast cancer cell lines, and underline the relevance of POP exposure to the risk of cancer development and progression, unraveling distinct pathways of action of these compounds on tumor cell biology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 168-176, 2015. PMID:23913582

Pestana, Diogo; Teixeira, Diana; Faria, Ana; Domingues, Valentina; Monteiro, Rosário; Calhau, Conceição

2015-02-01

409

Assessment of dietary exposure to some persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Karakalpakstan of Uzbekistan.  

PubMed Central

A 1999 study heightened long-standing concerns over persistent organic pollutant contamination in the Aral Sea area, detecting elevated levels in breast milk and cord blood of women in Karakalpakstan (western Uzbekistan). These findings prompted a collaborative research study aimed at linking such human findings with evidence of food chain contamination in the area. An international team carried out analyses of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on samples of 12 foods commonly produced and consumed in Karakalpakstan. Analysis consistently detected long-lasting organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in all foods of animal origin and in some vegetables such as onions and carrots--two low-cost components of many traditional dishes. Levels of PCBs were relatively low in all samples except fish. Analyses revealed high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs (together often termed "dioxins") in sheep fat, dairy cream, eggs, and edible cottonseed oil, among other foodstuffs. These findings indicate that food traditionally grown, sold, and consumed in Karakalpakstan is a major route of human exposure to several persistent toxic contaminants, including the most toxic of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Intake estimations demonstrate that consumption of even small amounts of locally grown food may expose consumers to dioxin levels that considerably exceed the monthly tolerable dioxin intake levels set by the World Health Organization. Data presented in this study allow a first assessment of the risk associated with the consumption of certain food products in Karakalpakstan and highlight a critical public health situation. PMID:12896851

Muntean, Nigina; Jermini, Marco; Small, Ian; Falzon, Dennis; Fürst, Peter; Migliorati, Giacomo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Forti, Anna Francesca; Anklam, Elke; von Holst, Christoph; Niyazmatov, Bakhtier; Bahkridinov, Shakub; Aertgeerts, Roger; Bertollini, Roberto; Tirado, Cristina; Kolb, Anthony

2003-01-01

410

Determination of selected endocrine disrupting compounds in human fetal and newborn tissues by GC-MS.  

PubMed

Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) include organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), carbamate pesticides, and plasticizers, such as bisphenol A (BPA). They persist in the environment because of their degradation resistance and bioaccumulate in the body tissues of humans and other mammals. Many studies are focused on the possible correlation between in utero exposure to EDCs and adverse health hazards in fetuses and newborns. In the last decade, environmental pollution has been considered a possible trigger for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death Syndrome (SIUDS), the most important death-causing syndromes in fetuses and newborns in developed countries. In this work, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed to determine the level of OCPs and OPPs, carbamates, and phenols in human fetal and newborn tissues (liver and brain) and to unveil the possible presence of non-targeted compounds. The target analytes where selected on the basis of their documented presence in the Trentino-Alto Adige region, an intensive agricultural area in northern Italy. A liquid-solid extraction procedure was applied on human and animal tissues and the extracts, after a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure, were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometric detector (GC-qMS). A GC-TOFMS (time-of-flight) instrument, because of its higher full-scan sensitivity, was used for a parallel detection of non-targeted compounds. Method validation included accuracy, precision, detection, and quantification limits (LODs; LOQs), and linearity response using swine liver and lamb brain spiked at different concentrations in the range of 0.4-8000.0 ng/g. The method gave good repeatability and extraction efficiency. Method LOQs ranged from 0.4-4.0 ng/g in the selected matrices. Good linearity was obtained over four orders of magnitude starting from LOQs. Isotopically labeled internal standards were used for quantitative calculations. The method was then successfully applied to the analysis of liver and brain tissues from SIUDS and SIDS victims coming from the above mentioned region. PMID:24633505

Cappiello, Achille; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Matturri, Luigi

2014-05-01

411

Evaluation of the persistence of micropollutants through pure-oxygen activated sludge nitrification and denitrification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The persistence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and household and industrial chemicals through a pure-oxygen activated sludge, nitrification, denitrification wastewater treatment facility was evaluated. Of the 125 micropollutants that were tested in this study, 55 compounds were detected in the untreated wastewater, and 27 compounds were detected in the disinfected effluent. The persistent compounds included surfactants, fire-retardant chemicals, pesticides, fragrance compounds, hormones, and one pharmaceutical. Physical-chemical properties of micropollutants that affected partitioning onto wastewater solids included vapor pressure and octanol-water partition coefficients.

Levine, A.D.; Meyer, M.T.; Kish, G.

2006-01-01

412

Levels, compositions and distributions of organochlorine pesticide residues in soil 5-14 years after clean-up of former storage sites in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The levels, compositions and distributions of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were determined in soil samples collected 5-14years after clean-up was carried out at seven contaminated sites in Tanzania. Samples were collected from various depths (5-10cm, 30cm, and 50cm for most sites and up to 300cm for one site. Determination of the analytes was performed using a high resolution GC-MS and isotope dilution technology. DDT, DDD, DDE, HCH isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfans, chlordanes and heptachlor were the major compounds detected. The concentrations of total DDT and total HCH were up to 250000 and 164000mgkg(-1), respectively, while the highest concentrations for other compounds ranged from 29 to 3300mgkg(-1). The results indicated that there were no significant degradations/transformations of the pesticides for most of the sites. The highest concentrations of the compounds were mostly found in surface soil samples and there were variations in distribution among the sampling depths. The results indicate risks and concerns for public health and the environment. PMID:25150684

Mahugija, John Andrew Marco; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

2014-12-01

413

Assessment of the exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and PAHs in six species of predatory birds of the Canary Islands, Spain.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distributions of 57 anthropogenic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liver samples from 102 birds of prey of six species that were found dead or that had died during their stay in the Wildlife Recovery Centers of the Canary Islands (Spain) between 2009 and 2012. The dual goal of this work was to determine the occurrence of these contaminants in these six species of birds of prey, and also whether they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution in the region. We found that Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides and Falco tinnunculus were the most contaminated species. The profiles of contamination among the species were extremely similar in the case of organochlorine contaminants, with DDT and its metabolites as the most abundant compounds. The contamination by DDT and its metabolites, as well as contamination by dieldrin, could be considered high in these animals, much higher than reports from other regions of the planet, which is in agreement with previous reports from our group regarding humans, food and other animals from this area. In contrast, the contamination by PCBs could be considered extremely low and was probably below the threshold of toxicity for these contaminants. The content of carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in these animals was clearly dependent on the feeding pattern of the species; however, the levels were also well below the values that were considered toxic in predictive models. This study represents the first report of contamination by PAHs in all these species and is also the first report of PCB levels in Barbary Falcons. PMID:24291140

Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

2014-02-15

414

Persistent Criminality and Career Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an examination of persistent offending and its implications for the understanding and investigation of desistance and career length. Persistence, especially as it is operationalized using official measures, is characterized as fundamentally a measure of resistance to formal social control: continued crime in the face of increasingly…

Haapanen, Rudy; Britton, Lee; Croisdale, Tim

2007-01-01

415

Data Persistency Solution for LHCb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GAUDI software architecture, designed in the context of the LHCb experiment, main- tains separate and distinct descriptions of the transient and persistent representations of the data objects. One of the motivations for this approach has been the requirement for a multi- technology persistency solution such that the best-adapted technology can be used for each category of data: raw event

G. Barrand; I. Belyaev; P. Binko; M. Cattaneo; R. Chytracek; G. Corti; M. Frank; G. Gracia; J. Harvey; E. van Herwijnen; B. Jost; I. Last; P. Maley; P. Mato; S. Probst; F. Ranjard; A. Tsaregorodtsev

416

Reoperative Surgery for Persistent Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Persistent hyperparathyroidism is an uncommon but recognized sequela of hyperparathyroidectomy that presents difficult diagnostic and surgical challenges. The approach to such patients, particularly in the area of localizing procedures and the conduct of surgery, is reviewed. The successful management of patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism is directly proportional to the surgeon's depth of experience with this entity. PMID:3047409

Beazley, Robert M.

1988-01-01

417

Persistent organic pollutants are related to the change in circulating lipid levels during a 5 year follow-up.  

PubMed

When reporting circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), usually lipid-normalized values are given. However, animal experiments and some human data indicate that exposure to POPs may change lipid values. The aim of the present study is to investigate if POP levels can predict future changes in levels of circulating lipids. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, lipids were measured at age 70 and at age 75 in 598 subjects without lipid-lowering medication. Twenty-three different POPs, including 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), five organochlorine pesticides, one dioxin (OCDD) and one flame retardant brominated compound (BDE47) were analyzed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) at age 70. Strong relationships were seen among the baseline levels of the non-dioxin-like PCBs 194, 206 and 209 and the degree of increase in total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol during the 5 year follow-up. These relationships were generally stronger when lipid-normalized levels were used compared to wet-weight based levels. On the contrary, for two of the pesticides, hexachlorobenzene and trans-nonachlordane, levels were inversely related to the change in LDL-cholesterol, with strongest associations found using wet-weight based levels. PCBs 194, 206 and 209 were inversely related to the change in HDL-cholesterol, in particular for wet-weight based levels. However, these relationships were only significant for wet-weight PCB 194 following adjustment for multiple testing. None of the POPs was related to the change in serum triglycerides. When investigating the association between the change in total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol across different categories of change in BMI, we noted robust results especially in the group with stable BMI, suggesting that the observed relationships were not due to fluctuations in BMI over time. In conclusion, POPs are related to the change in lipids over time, especially LDL-cholesterol. This may explain why POP exposure previously has been linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25173051

Penell, Johanna; Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, P Monica

2014-10-01

418

Ecotoxicology of organochlorine chemicals in birds of the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Silent Spring was fulfilled in the United States with passage of environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Toxic Substance Control Act in the 1970s. Carson's writings, television interviews, and testimony before Congress alerted a nation and the world to the unintended effects of persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals on populations of fish, wildlife, and possibly humans. Her writings in the popular press brought attention to scientific findings that declines in populations of a variety of birds were directly linked to the widespread use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in agriculture, public health, and horticulture. By the 1970s, DDT and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were being banned or phased out, and the intent of these regulatory acts became apparent in a number of locations across the United States, including the Great Lakes. Concentrations of DDT and its major product of transformation, dichlorodiphenylchloroethane (DDE), were decreasing in top predators, such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), colonial waterbirds, and other fish-eating wildlife. Eggshell thinning and the associated mortality of bird embryos caused by DDE had decreased in the Great Lakes and elsewhere by the early 1980s.

Tillitt, Donald E.; Giesy, John P.

2013-01-01

419

Long persistent light emitting diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) coated with Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+,Nd3+ (blue), SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ (green), SrS :Eu2+,Y3+,Ce3+ (orange), and CaS :Eu2+,Tm3+,Ce3+ (red) long persistent phosphors were prepared. LEDs which have a 450nm blue emission were used as an excitation source for the coated phosphors. Blue (475nm), green (520nm), orange (606nm), and red (650nm) emissions of the phosphors were found for each coated LED. Long persistent afterglow emissions from the phosphors excited by using LEDs were obtained. The persistence time of the phosphors' afterglow emissions coated on LEDs is found in the same order of magnitude as the phosphorescence persistence time of the long persistent phosphors.

Jia, D.; Hunter, D. N.

2006-12-01