Sample records for persistent organochlorine compounds

  1. Persistent organochlorine compounds in soils and sediments of European high altitude mountain lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan O. Grimalt; Barend L. van Drooge; Alejandra Ribes; Rosa M. Vilanova; Pilar Fernandez; Peter Appleby

    2004-01-01

    The composition of persistent organochlorine compounds (OC) in soils and sediments from two high altitude European mountain lakes, Redon in the Pyrenees and Ladove in the Tatra mountains, has been studied. Sediment cores from two additional lakes in the Tatra mountains, Starolesnianske Pleso and Dlugi Staw, have also been examined. DDTs (1.7–13 ngg?1) were the most abundant OC in soils

  2. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Ueno; Shin Takahashi; Haruhiko Nakata; Agus Sudaryanto; Annamalai Subramanian; Subramanian Karuppiah; Ahmad Ismail; Muswerry Muchtar; Jinshu Zheng; Bruce J Richardson; Maricar Prudente; Ngyen Duc Hue; Touch Seang Tana; Alexander V Tkalin; Shinsuke Tanabe

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and

  3. Persistent organochlorine compounds in soils and sediments of European high altitude mountain lakes.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Joan O; van Drooge, Barend L; Ribes, Alejandra; Vilanova, Rosa M; Fernandez, Pilar; Appleby, Peter

    2004-03-01

    The composition of persistent organochlorine compounds (OC) in soils and sediments from two high altitude European mountain lakes, Redon in the Pyrenees and Ladove in the Tatra mountains, has been studied. Sediment cores from two additional lakes in the Tatra mountains, Starolesnianske Pleso and Dlugi Staw, have also been examined. DDTs (1.7-13 ng g(-1)) were the most abundant OC in soils followed by total polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs; 0.41-1.5 ng g(-1)) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB; 0.15-0.91 ng g(-1)). In sediments, the dominant OC were also DDTs (3.3-28 ng g(-1)) and PCBs (2.3-15 ng g(-1)). These concentrations are low, involving absence of major pollution sources in these high mountain regions. The downcore OC profiles in soils and sediments were similar but higher concentrations and steeper vertical gradients were observed in the latter. Radiometric determinations showed absence of significant OC transport from catchment to lake. The sediment-soil difference points therefore to a better retention of the OC load in sediments than soils which may be related to the low temperatures that are currently encountered at the bottom of the lake water column and the depletion of sediment bioturbation in these cold environments. Significant qualitative changes in the soil PCB distributions are observed downcore. These involve a dominance of the high molecular weight congeners in the top core sections and those of lower weight (i.e. less chlorinated) in the bottom. Anaerobic dechlorination of higher molecular weight congeners occurring in microsites, e.g. as observed in flooded or poorly drained soils, could be responsible for these changes. This process could be concurrent to bioturbation. PMID:14659957

  4. Persistent organochlorine compounds in human milk collected in Croatia over two decades.

    PubMed

    Krauthacker, B; Votava-Rai?, A; Herceg Romani?, S; Tjesi?-Drinkovi?, D; Tjesi?-Drinkovi?, Do; Reiner, E

    2009-10-01

    The distribution and time trend of organochlorine pesticide (OCP), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) concentrations in human milk samples from Croatia collected in 1981-2003 are presented. Between 1981/1982 and 1987/1989, the concentrations of HCB, beta-HCH, DDE, and total PCBs decreased about 50%, while for the last decade, the concentrations have been decreasing very slowly. In 2002/2003 the range of PCB congeners and OCPs was from below the limit of determination to 332 ng g(-1) milk fat. PCDD/PCDF concentrations in human milk samples collected in 1981-2000 ranged between 5.2 and 26.7 pg I-TEQ g(-1) milk fat and showed a decreasing trend. PMID:19247566

  5. Residue pattern and dietary intake of persistent organochlorine compounds in foodstuffs from Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurunthachalam Kannan; Shinsuke Tanabe; Hoang Trong Quynh; Nguyen Duc Hue; Ryo Tatsukawa

    1992-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), DDT compounds (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide were determined in foodstuffs collected from different locations in Vietnam. Elevated levels of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and aldrin and dieldrin were found in animal fat, butter, meat, and seafood. Caviar and butter samples imported from the Soviet Union contained considerably higher amounts

  6. Persistent organochlorine pollutants and menstrual cycle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Rios, Lisbeth Iglesias; McLain, Alexander; Cooney, Maureen A.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2014-01-01

    An evolving body of evidence suggests an adverse relation between persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) and menstruation, though prospective longitudinal measurement of menses is limited and served as the impetus for study. We prospectively assessed the relation between a mixture of persistent organochlorine compounds and menstrual cycle length and duration of bleeding in a cohort of women attempting to become pregnant. Eighty-three (83%) women contributing 447 cycles for analysis provided a blood specimen for the quantification of 76 polychlorinated biphenyls and seven organochlorine pesticides, and completed daily diaries on menstruation until a human chorionic gonadotropin confirmed pregnancy or 12 menstrual cycles without conception. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection was used to quantify concentrations (ng g?1 serum); enzymatic methods were used to quantify serum lipids (mg dL?1). A linear regression model with a mixture distribution was used to identify chemicals grouped by purported biologic activity that significantly affected menstrual cycle length and duration of bleeding adjusting for age at menarche and enrollment, body mass index, and cigarette smoking. A significant 3-d increase in cycle length was observed for women in the highest tertile of estrogenic PCB congeners relative to the lowest tertile (? = 3.20; 95% CI 0.36, 6.04). A significant reduction in bleeding (<1 d) was observed among women in the highest versus lowest tertile of aromatic fungicide exposure (? = ?0.15; 95% CI ?0.29, ?0.00). Select POPs were associated with changes in menstruation underscoring the importance of assessing chemical mixtures for female fecundity. PMID:22018858

  7. Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments from Chinese river\\/estuary systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Wu; Jing Zhang; Qing Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were analyzed in surficial sediment samples from seven large Chinese river\\/estuary systems. The reported concentrations of organochlorine compounds in sediments collected from Zhujiang, Minjiang and Jiulongjiang were also presented for comparison. Concentrations of HCH were low in most sediments except the Zhujiang River, where the concentrations were one order of magnitude higher than for the other rivers.

  8. Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

  9. Temporal and spatial trends of persistent organochlorines in Greenland walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. G. Muir; Erik W. Born; Krystyna Koczansky; Gary A. Stern

    2000-01-01

    Persistent organochlorines [PCBs, DDT and chlordane related compounds, dieldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), chlorobenzenes] were determined in blubber of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in 1978 and 1988 from the Avanersuaq (Thule) region of north-west Greenland and in 1989 from Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund) in east Greenland. Lowest concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) were found in the samples from the Avanersuaq region while much

  10. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Nag, Subir Kumar; Raikwar, Mukesh K

    2011-03-01

    Animal products like milk and meat are often found to be contaminated with residues of persistent pesticides and other toxic substances. The major source of entry of these compounds to animal body is the contaminated feed and fodder. So, unless the residues are managed at this stage, it is very difficult to prevent contamination in milk and meat. Therefore, the status of residue level of most persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) in feed and fodder should be monitored regularly. The frequency of occurrence and contamination levels of OCP residues in different kinds of animal concentrate feed and straw samples collected from Bundelkhand region of India were determined. Out of 533 total samples, 301 i.e. 56.47% samples were positive containing residues of different OCPs like hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) complex, endosulfan and dicofol. Among different HCH isomers, the mean concentration of ?-HCH was highest, and total HCH varied from 0.01 to 0.306 mg kg(-1). In case of DDT complex, i.e. DDD, DDE and DDT, the concentration ranged between 0.016 and 0.118 mg kg(-1) and the pp(|) isomers were more frequently encountered than their op(|) counterparts. Endosulfan was also found in some samples in concentration ranging from 0.009 to 0.237 mg/kg, but dicofol could be recorded in very few samples. Although feed samples were found to contain OC residues, after comparing their levels in positive samples with the limiting values of respective pesticides, only very few were found to exceed the threshold level. Otherwise, they were mostly within safe limits. PMID:20443138

  11. Risk to breeding success of fish-eating Ardeids due to persistent organic contaminants in Hong Kong: evidence from organochlorine compounds in eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W Connell; C. N Fung; T. B Minh; S Tanabe; P. K. S Lam; B. S. F Wong; M. H. W Lam; L. C Wong; R. S. S Wu; B. J Richardson

    2003-01-01

    Eggs of two Ardeid species, the Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), were collected from two egretries located in the New Territories of Hong Kong with one located near the internationally acclaimed wetland reserve, the Mai Po Marshes, and the other in a remote site (A Chau). The eggs were analysed for organochlorine (OC) compounds

  12. Trapping of organochlorine compounds in high mountain lakes.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, J O; Fernandez, P; Vilanova, R M

    2001-10-30

    High mountain areas have recently been observed to be polluted by organochlorine compounds (OC) despite their isolation. These persistent pollutants arrive at these remote regions through atmospheric transport. However, the mechanisms involving the accumulation of these compounds from the atmospheric pool to the lacustrine systems still need to be elucidated. These mechanisms must be related to the processes involving the transfer of these pollutant from low to high latitudes as described in the global distillation effect. PMID:12805858

  13. Organochlorine compounds and testicular dysgenesis syndrome: human data

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Trabert, Britton; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, subfertility, and testicular germ-cell tumor have been suggested to comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) based on the premise that each may derive from perturbations of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to be associated with these disorders given the importance of sex steroid hormones in urogenital development and homeostasis. Organochlorines are one such set of compounds which are defined as containing between one and ten covalently bonded chlorine atoms. These compounds are persistent pollutants with long half-lives, accumulate in adipose tissue when ingested, bioaccumulate and biomagnify, and have complex and variable toxicological profiles. Examples of organochlorines include dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordane. In this comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies which have tested for associations between organochlorines and facets of TDS, we find evidence for associations between the exposures p,p?-DDE, cis-nonachlor, and trans-nonachlor with TGCT. The sum of the evidence from human epidemiologic studies does not indicate any association between specific organochlorines studied and cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or fertility. Many other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including additional organochlorines, have yet to be assessed in relation to disorders associated with TDS, yet study of such chemicals has strong scientific merit given the relevance of such hypotheses to urogenital development. PMID:21668838

  14. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in internal organs of coypu, Myocastor coypus.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Ryszard; Beutling, Dorothea; Budzyk, Jolanta; Pietrzak, Marian; Walorczyk, Stanis?aw

    2015-08-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) to identify and quantify persistent organochlorine pesticides, (18 compounds including primary compounds and metabolites), in animal internal organs (kidneys, liver, and brain) has been developed. Tandem mass spectrometric conditions were individually optimized for each target compound in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode to obtain maximum sensitivity. Prior to instrumental analysis, a sample preparation method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by acidic digestion with sulfuric acid to reduce matrix co-extractives was employed. Analyses of real samples were carried out on coypus (Myocastor coypus) from the autumn slaughter of 19 animals. In the analyzed samples, three of the target compounds, namely DDE-pp' (DDT metabolite), HCB and lindane, were detected. Their concentration levels fell in the ranges of 0.003-0.007, 0.003-0.025, and 0.003-0.021 mg kg(-1) (0.005, 0.010, and 0.010 mg kg(-1) on average) in the case of DDE-pp', HCB and lindane, respectively. Although low quantities of organochlorine pesticides do not pose an immediate danger to consumers' health, they should be of public health concern considering long-term, low-dose exposure. PMID:26065519

  15. Persistent organochlorine pollutants and human reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Toft, Gunnar

    2014-11-01

    The present dissertation focuses on the reproductive health effects in humans from four diverse populations, including an Inuit population from Greenland, a Swedish population of fishermen and fishermen's wives, and urban populations from the cities of Warsaw in Poland and Kharkiv in Ukraine, representing populations with considerable variations in organochlorine exposure levels due to differences in the consumption of contaminated food items and the period since banning the use of the organochlorines selected in the present study. Due to bioaccumulation and their long half-lives in humans, these compounds are still ubiquitously detected in humans. The study included a total of 2,269 women who provided information via detailed questionnaires and 798 men who provided semen samples. Time to pregnancy varied between the populations included, whereas semen quality was remarkably similar with only minor differences in motility between countries and within regions in Greenland. An extensive quality control programme ensured a low level of variation between analysers in the evaluation of semen quality during semen sample collection. Sperm concentration and morphology were not associated with PCB-153 or DDE exposure, but sperm motility was consistently associated with PCB-153 exposure across populations. Xeno-estrogen, -androgen and dioxin-like activity in serum samples were not consistently associated with semen quality measures, indicating that the associations observed with sperm motility were not caused via direct effects on these receptors. The sperm chromatin structure assay showed a higher level of DNA fragmentation under higher PCB-153 exposure levels in the European populations, but not in the Greenlandic population. Disturbances in the female menstrual cycle were not consistently associated with PCB-153 or DDE exposure across the countries, but our results suggested a higher probability of ever having a spontaneous abortion among women with high PCB-153 or DDE exposure levels. Overall, the results suggest that PCB-153, but probably not DDE, may affect aspects of male and female reproductive functioning in European and Arctic populations at the levels of exposure currently experienced in these populations, although the associations observed did not seem to be a major cause of reduced human fertility. PMID:25370968

  16. Organochlorinated compounds in Caspian Sea sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen de Mora; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Mohammad Reza Sheikholeslami; Chantal Cattini; Imma Tolosa

    2004-01-01

    Several organochlorinated contaminants, including numerous pesticides, were determined in coastal sediments from the Caspian Sea. The most important contaminants were p,p?-DDT (up to 7400 pgg?1) and its breakdown products, p,p?-DDD (up to 3400 pgg?1) and p,p?-DDE (up to 1300 pgg?1). Although the contamination was most severe in Azerbaijan, the sediment concentrations and percentage distribution of the three DDT-related compounds indicated

  17. Risk to breeding success of fish-eating Ardeids due to persistent organic contaminants in Hong Kong: evidence from organochlorine compounds in eggs.

    PubMed

    Connell, D W; Fung, C N; Minh, T B; Tanabe, S; Lam, P K S; Wong, B S F; Lam, M H W; Wong, L C; Wu, R S S; Richardson, B J

    2003-01-01

    Eggs of two Ardeid species, the Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), were collected from two egretries located in the New Territories of Hong Kong with one located near the internationally acclaimed wetland reserve, the Mai Po Marshes, and the other in a remote site (A Chau). The eggs were analysed for organochlorine (OC) compounds including the DDTs, PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and the chlordanes (CHLs). All of the OCs under investigation were detected in the eggs of both species with significantly higher levels in the Little Egret (DDTs, 560-2200; PCBs, 270-1700; CHLs, 81-470 ng g(-1) wet weight) than the Night Heron (DDTs, 210-1200; PCBs, 85-600; CHLs 59-75 ng g(-1) wet weight). The DDTs consisted mainly of DDE with levels ranging from 85% to 95% of the total. The HCHs were at about the same levels in both species (8.4-30 ng g(-1) wet weight). All of the OCs had linear concentration probability distributions on a log-normal basis which were used to evaluate exposure associated with these compounds as part of a probabilistic risk analysis. A linear dose/response relationship for the percentage reduction in the survival of young associated with DDE in eggs was developed. This probabilistic relationship was used to establish the threshold level (1000 ng g(-1) wet weight) at which there was a significant level of reduction in the survival of young above zero and the variability in DDE concentrations at this effect level. Using a threshold level of 1000 ng g(-1), the calculated Risk Quotient (RQ) had a 12.4% probability of RQ exceeding unity with the Night Heron, and 40.9% with the Little Egret. These results indicate that the DDTs in eggs would be expected to be associated with adverse effects on the survival of young of both species, particularly the Little Egret. PMID:12502075

  18. A review of environmental exposure to persistent organochlorine residuals during the last fifty years.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Rosario Angulo; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Jiménez, Salud Serrano; Villarejo, Manuela Luisa Jodral

    2007-05-01

    Environmental exposure to persistent toxic organochlorines (Pesticides and Polychlorinated biphenyls) is ever changing over time and space, as a result of their agricultural and industrial use and the control measures being adopted. Scientific investigations have revealed the great toxicity of these compounds and their severe impact on human health so that it is quite important to evaluate the risk of human exposure to these toxic compounds by means of a biomarker, such as human milk. The determination of persistent organochlorine compounds in human milk permits the monitoring (time-place) of these toxicants in the human body after its environmental exposure. For this reason, we have reviewed different papers published over the past 50 years in different countries and continents to find out the dynamics of exposure to persistent organochlorine residuals. Scientific progress in analytical methods and toxicological mechanisms, which are changing due to the discovery of certain compounds together with the use and introduction of derived products and the establishment of sanitary measures, has caused a succession of publications on pesticides and PCBs in human milk. These have reflected exposure to these compounds, their great persistence, and the correlation of the levels detected with diverse epidemiological factors (age, profession, number of children, number of them breast fed, residence in rural or urban areas, etc.) with the aim of establishing their association and the effectiveness of protection measures. Our review found that the greatest number of publications on this topic were from European countries, but the trend in these determinations was seen to be similar on the other continents (America, Asia and Africa) with a clear reduction in the levels of organochlorine residuals (Pesticides and PCBs) in human milk. These levels served as biomarkers (time-place) suggesting that the control and prohibition of their use would minimize their impact on public health. PMID:18690963

  19. Temporal Trends of Persistent Organochlorine Contamination in Russia: A Case Study of Baikal and Caspian Seal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinsuke Tanabe; Satoko Niimi; Tu Binh Minh; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Evgeny A. Petrov

    2003-01-01

    To examine temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) contamination in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea, concentrations of persistent\\u000a OCs, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordane compounds\\u000a (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), in the blubber of female seals were determined. Collections were made in 1992, 1993, 1995\\u000a and 1998. DDT concentrations in Baikal

  20. EOX and organochlorine compounds in fish and ringed seal samples from Lake Ladoga, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Auli Kostamo; Markku Viljanen; Jukka Pellinen; Jussi Kukkonen

    2000-01-01

    Information about the pollution of Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe, has been controversial. Various effluents and drainage waters affect the quality of the lake water. Wastewaters have caused eutrophication of parts of Lake Ladoga, but concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the lake’s food webs are poorly understood. In this study, concentrations of some organochlorine compounds, chlorophenols (CPs),

  1. Organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue from north Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Femi Adeshina; Elizabeth L. Todd

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary study that was conducted to determine the concentrations of organochlorine compounds in the adipose tissue of residents of North Texas. Thirty?five human adipose tissue samples were obtained during autopsy between 1987 and 1988 from persons who had no known occupational exposure to organochlorine pesticides. These samples were analyzed by electron?capture gas Chromatographic methods for the

  2. Distribution of some organochlorine compounds (PCB, CBz, and DDE) in beeswax and honey

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, J. [Public Health Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cerne, K. [Chemical Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1993-11-01

    Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS PLATORYNCHUS)

    E-print Network

    Mississippi River Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus): Bioaccumulation and Reproductive (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) collected throughout the MMR during spring 2003. Gonads were observedORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS

  4. Persistent organochlorines in air and water from East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S.; Ouchi, E.; Tatsukawa, R. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Timonin, A.

    1995-12-31

    In order to assess the east Siberia for persistent organochlorine (POC) contaminations such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs, the residue levels in air and water collected from Chaun, Magadan, Khabarovsk and Listvyanka during 1992--1993 have been determined. The levels of atmospheric PCBs and DDTs concentrations in Magadan and Khabarovsk were one to two orders of magnitude higher than the global baseline levels, while the prominent contaminations in water were found in Listvyanka which is in the southwest coast of Lake Baikal. The results suggest that these areas are exposed by different local sources. Chaun, located in the coast of Chaunskaya Guba (Gulf) facing the East Siberian Sea, exhibited the lowest POCs residues. Apart from the concentrations, aerial PCB congener compositions varied with the total concentration levels. Khabarovsk air, where the highest PCB levels (2,860 pg/M{sup 3}) were found, contained mainly tetra and pentachlorobiphenyls. In contrast, samples from Chaun (36--160 pg/M{sup 3}) showed the higher predominance of di and trichlorinated congeners and Magadan air (320--880 pg/M{sup 3}) was a mixed type for both the air. Regarding DDTs composition, high percentages of p,p{prime}-DDT to total DDT compounds in the air from Magadan and Khabarovsk indicate the recent usage. Annual concentrations of aerial POCs in Listvyanka were strongly dependent on air temperature. Hence, heats of vaporization (desorption) for POCs were calculated from the relationships between logarithmic concentrations (partial pressure) and inverse temperatures. The values ranged from 26 kJ/mol to 43 kJ/mol in order of HCB < {alpha}-HCH < {gamma}-HCH < p,p{prime}DDE < total PCBs < p,p{prime}DDT. In addition, highly chlorinated PCBs tended to show higher values than the less chlorinated PCBs. The heats of vaporization estimated from the field survey were lower than those from the laboratory experiments previously reported.

  5. Polychlorobiphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in human follicular fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena De Felip; Alessandro di Domenico; Roberto Miniero; Leopoldo Silvestroni

    2004-01-01

    Based on observations in animals, there is an increasing evidence that a number of persistent organochlorine pollutants can alter the endocrine homeostasis, this resulting in toxic effects in particular in the developing organism. However, the role of these chemicals in determining endocrine-related diseases in humans, and possibly a decrease of fertility, is still controversial. Exposure data concerning the human reproductive

  6. Organochlorine compounds in blubber, liver and brain in neonatal grey seal pups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Munro Jenssen; Janneche Utne Skaare; Morten Ekker; Dag Vongraven; S.-H. Lorentsen

    1996-01-01

    The present study focuses on the distribution and accumulation of persistent organochlorine compounds in different tissues and organs of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups. Thus, levels of drins (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin), chlordanes (heptachlor, heptachlorepoxide, oxychlordane, transnonachlor), DDTs (p,p?-DDE, o,p?-DDD, p,p?-DDD, o,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDT) and 22 PCB congeners were determined in samples of brain, fat, and liver of 0–10 days old grey

  7. Dietary Exposure to Organochlorine Compounds in Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain): Health Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roser Martí-Cid; David Huertas; Martí Nadal; Victoria Linares; Marta Schuhmacher; Joan O. Grimalt; José L. Domingo

    2010-01-01

    The human health risks due to the dietary exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) were assessed in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River (Spain). The concentrations of various persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), various hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), as well as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and derivatives, were determined in samples of fish and seafood, vegetables, fruits, and

  8. Heavy metal and organochlorine compound concentrations in tissues of raccoons from east-central Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, G.B.; Peterle, T.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and related compounds and heavy metals are persistent contaminants in the environment. Bioconcentration and biomagnification are well reported for organochlorine compounds. These compounds have a great potential for causing wildlife mortality or serious behavioral, reproductive, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects, along with specific organ toxicity. The pervasive nature of toxic substances in the environment necessitates some knowledge for potential exposure of wildlife species. Without baseline values of contaminant loads for selected indicator species it is impossible to determine when abnormal or pathological conditions exist in wild populations. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline values for selected environmental contaminants in the raccoon (Procyon lotor), a potential indicator species for wildlife and to see if heavy metal accumulation was related to age or sex.

  9. Cord serum immunoglobulin E related to the environmental contamination of human placentas with organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Reichrtová, E; Ciznár, P; Prachar, V; Palkovicová, L; Veningerová, M

    1999-01-01

    Allergic diseases are on the rise in both prevalence and severity, especially in industrialized countries. The process of allergic sensitization needs an understanding of the role environmental factors play in its development. In addition to traditionally considered air pollutants, various persistent organochlorine pollutants, which accumulate in the human body over a lifetime via food intake, are toxic in humans. Placental contamination by chemicals may act as a biologic marker for the exposure of the mother or for the fetus via transplacental transfer. Placentas were collected from term deliveries in two Slovak regions. The samples were then analyzed for 21 selected organochlorine compounds. Specimens of cord blood from 2,050 neonates were gathered for the determination of levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE). The regions were chosen according to their environmental characteristics: a city polluted with organic chemical industry versus a rural region devoid of industrial sources of pollution. In addition, data regarding the incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the regions were considered. Comparisons between regions revealed that both the placental contamination with 16 of 21 organochlorine compounds and the cord serum IgE levels were significantly higher in the industrial region. The findings pointed to an association between organochlorine compounds and the higher levels of total IgE in newborns, signaling a higher allergic sensitization in the industrial region. This association was supported by the higher incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the population registered in the industrial region. Images Figure 1 PMID:10544157

  10. A Survey of Extractable Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Chinese Commercial Yogurt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zhang; Z. F. Chai; H. B. Sun; J. L. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen Chinese commercial brands of yogurt were collected from supermarkets from December 2002 to April 2003, for characterization of organochlorine pesti- cides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Be- sides monitoring OCP and PCB by gas chromatography, the levels of extractable persistent organochlorine (EPOCl; i.e., sulfuric acid-resistant EPOCl) were also determined by instrumental neutron activation analy- sis. The results indicated that

  11. Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuya Kunisue; Mafumi Watanabe; Annamalai Subramanian; Alagappan Sethuraman; Alexei M Titenko; Vo Qui; Maricar Prudente; Shinsuke Tanabe

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows:

  12. Distribution of persistent organochlorine chemical residues in blood plasma of three species of vultures from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venugopal Dhananjayan; Subramanian Muralidharan; Palanisamy Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    The presence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in blood\\u000a plasma of white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus, and griffon vulture Gyps fulvus collected from Ahmedabad, India. All the samples had varying levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. Statistically\\u000a significant (P??-HCH), ?HCH, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). The mean concentration of ?HCH, ?DDT, and ?PCBs

  13. Nondestructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): III. Hair as an indicator of endogenous organochlorine compound concentrations.

    PubMed

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Verhagen, Ron; De Coen, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine persistent pollutants were investigated in tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Road kills and carcasses from wildlife rescue centers were used to characterize organochlorine compound tissue distribution and tissue profile dissimilarities (hair, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue). The most important contaminants were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes (CHLs), and DDTs, with median concentrations of 75, 5.1, and 1.4 ng/g liver wet weight, respectively. Median levels for the remaining compounds-hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and octachlorostyrene-were less than 0.5 ng/g liver wet weight. Compared to results with other mammalian wildlife, the present results indicate that hedgehogs may accumulate considerable concentrations of organochlorine compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls and HCB preferably accumulated in liver and muscle tissue. Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were highest in muscle tissue and hair, respectively. Octachlorostyrene and CHL levels were predominant in liver. The observed positive relationships between concentrations in hair and internal tissues for PCBs, DDTs, HCB, HCHs, and CHLs (0.49 < r < 0.91) and for several individual PCB, DDT, and CHL compounds (0.31 < r < 0.76) indicate the usefulness of hair as a biomonitoring tool of organochlorine compounds. Multivariate profile analyses revealed a higher dominance of less-persistent compounds (p,p'-DDT, alpha-HCH, and PCBs 95, 101, and 149) in hair compared to internal tissues. The present study demonstrates the suitability of hedgehog hair as a nondestructive biomonitoring tool regarding pollution with organochlorine compounds and the promising role of the hedgehog as a mammalian indicator species of pollution in terrestrial environments. PMID:16494237

  14. Western mosquitofish as a bioindicator of exposure to organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Jaksi?, Zeljko; Hamer, Bojan; Landeka, Nediljko; Batel, Renato

    2008-10-01

    The evaluation of the alochthonous and cosmopolitan mosquitofish species Gambusia affinis suitability as a bioindicator species and the induction of its liver cytochrome P450-dependent mixed function oxygenase (MFO), measured as the 7-ethoxyresorfin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as changes in DNA integrity, measured by the Fast Micromethod, for the monitoring of organochlorine fresh water pesticide contamination, were the main aims of the study. The test mosquitofish were exposed under laboratory conditions to several doses (0.1, 10 and 100 microg l(-1)) of lindane in experimental basins for up to 7 days, and a subsequent field study was carried out at five natural ponds in the south-western Istrian peninsula, Croatia, where up to 10 fish were collected from each pond. Results obtained during the studies showed positive correlations between the measured biomarkers in G. affinis liver (EROD activity and DNA integrity status) and lindane (laboratory experiment) or persistent organochlorine pollutant amounts in natural pond sediments (field study). The clear dose-responses of EROD activity and DNA integrity deterioration in G. affinis were recorded after exposure to 0.1-10 microg/l lindane and 96 h exposure to lindane, respectively. The results indicate that the mosquitofish G. affinis, due to its biological-ecological characteristics and the biomarker dose-response, is suitable for the monitoring of fresh water organochlorine pesticide contamination in general and lindane in particular. PMID:18262267

  15. Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars; Hagmar, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its major metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p' -DDE) have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in recent epidemiological studies. We have analysed 2,2',4,4',5,5' -hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and p,p'-DDE in 544 serum-samples from Swedish women with a median age of 50 years. The participants were asked if they had diabetes and if so, what type of diabetes, years since diagnosis and what kind of treatment they had. Associations between exposure and T2DM were analysed by logistic regression. Moreover, trends of T2DM prevalence were tested with Jonckheere-Terpstrá test. Sixteen of the 544 women (3%) had diabetes, of which 15 were classified as T2DM. There was a significant association with T2DM for both CB-153 (an increase of 100 ng/g lipid corresponded to an odds ratio [OR] of 1. 6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1. 0, 2. 7) and p,p9-DDE (OR 1. 3, 95%CI 1. 1, 1. 6). In addition, significant positive trends between quartiles of CB-153 and T2DM (P 5 0. 004) and p,p9-DDE and T2DM (P 5 0. 002) were observed. The study shows an association between POP serum concentrations and an increased prevalence of T2DM. PMID:17623770

  16. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from Australia.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jochen F; Harden, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree; Symons, Robert; Fürst, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Human milk has been used as a surrogate for the assessment of body burden and exposure to persistent lipophilic organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). With the exception of restricted use of mirex, the use of persistent, lipophilic OCPs has been banned in Australia since the 1980s. The decline of human body burden of OCPs following their ban in many industrialised countries is well recorded worldwide from the 1970s until the 1990s though little is known on whether these trends are continuing. In this study, 157 human milk samples collected during 2002 and 2003 as well as 24 samples collected in 1993 were analysed as 20 regional pools for 17 OCPs. OCPs were detected in all pooled human milk samples from 2002/03 typically with highest concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (mean+/-standard deviation; median concentration 311+/-174; 279 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) (80+/-173; 21 ng g(-1) lipid). Other OCPs consistently detected included dieldrin (16+/-6; 17 ng g(-1) lipid), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (18+/-16; 14 ng g(-1) lipid), transnonachlor (11+/-5; 9 ng g(-1) lipid) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) (9+/-6; 7 ng g(-1) lipid). The results from this study indicated that following a substantial decline of OCP concentrations from the early 1980s to the 1990s, little decline could be observed since then. Furthermore the use of multivariate statistics indicated some regional trends with slightly higher levels of the broadly used insecticides DDT and HCH in both historic and recent samples from Melbourne, whereas, sample pools collected from mothers that lived in rural Queensland and New South Wales as well as Adelaide and Sydney showed comparatively higher levels of heptachlor and dieldrin - both of which have been used for termite treatment. These results indicate that even 20 years after the discontinuation of usage, historical use of OCPs rather than exposure via global transport of OCPs is responsible for continuous low exposure in Australia. PMID:17675211

  17. Temporal and spatial trends of persistent organochlorines in Greenland walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Muir, D C; Born, E W; Koczansky, K; Stern, G A

    2000-01-17

    Persistent organochlorines [PCBs, DDT and chlordane related compounds, dieldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), chlorobenzenes] were determined in blubber of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in 1978 and 1988 from the Avanersuaq (Thule) region of north-west Greenland and in 1989 from Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund) in east Greenland. Lowest concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) were found in the samples from the Avanersuaq region while much higher levels of all compounds, except HCH isomers and mono/dichlorobiphenyls (CB5/8), were observed in samples (all males) from Ittoqqortoormiit. Total PCBs (sigma PCB) averaged 246 ng/g (wet wt.) male walrus from Avanersuaq and 2860 ng/g in samples from Ittoqqortoormiit. DDT isomers showed the greatest difference between the two locations, 50 x for p,p'-DDE and 69 x higher for p,p'-DDT. Ittoqqortoormiit walrus showed the pattern of OCs characteristic of seal-eating animals although the consumption of other organisms cannot be ruled out. The higher levels of OCs in east Greenland compared to north-west Greenland animals were consistent with results for polar bears, seals and gulls from the same regions. Principal components analysis showed that the pattern of OCs in Ittoqqortoormiit walrus was very similar to that in walrus from Inukjuaq in east Hudson Bay, which have previously been reported to be seal eaters, and quite distinct from the Avanersuaq walrus. No significant differences in mean concentrations of any OCs were found between male walrus from 1978 and 1988. For females, there were significantly higher levels of CB5/8, trichlorobiphenyls, dieldrin, toxaphene and alpha HCH as well as sigma HCH but not for sigma PCBs or DDT compounds. The data for Greenland walrus from the 1970s and late 1980s provide a baseline for future trend monitoring in walrus. PMID:10682357

  18. Premature delivery and organochlorine compounds: polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorine insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Wassermann, M.; Ron, M.; Bercovici, B.; Wasserman, D.; Cucos, S.; Pines, A.

    1982-06-01

    Some organochlorine compounds (OCC), DDT and metabolites, ..gamma..-HCH, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide and polychlorinated biphenyls were assessed in the serum of 17 women with premature delivery (PD) and 10 women with normal, third-trimester pregnancy. Out of 17 cases of PD, 8 cases were associated with high PCB serum levels (128.0 ppb versus 19.25 ppb in the control group), and 5 cases with high DDT serum levels (119.6 ppb versus 26.5 ppb in the control group). Two of the cases with high PCB serum levels also had high total DDT serum levels. The 5 cases with high total DDT serum levels also has high ..gamma..-HCH and heptachlor epoxide serum levels and 4 out of these 5 cases also had high dieldrin serum levels. The higher chlorinated PCB isomers constituted a higher percentage of total PCBs in the study group in comparison with the control group (about 30% versus 8.94%). At the same time, the percentage of total o.p'-DDT was unusually high (50% of total DDT in the study group versus 30% in the control group). The possible role of the relatively high serum levels of the organochlorine compounds assessed in this study, in the occurrence of PD, is discussed.

  19. Persistent organochlorine pesticide levels in bovine fat from Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Waliszewski; S. Gomez-Arroyo; R. M. Infanzon; O. Carvajal; R. Villalobos-Pietrini; P. Trujillo; M. Maxwell

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in agriculture as a seed dresser, in sanitation, in malaria control programmes and in livestock to combat ectoparasites. The pesticides applied drift to areas where cattle graze and plants grow. Because of their chemical stability, they accumulate in the lipid-rich tissues of the body. In the body, they circulate throughout all compartments and

  20. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds during pregnancy and the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Roncevic, N.; Pavkov, S.; Galetin-Smith, R.; Vukavic, T.; Vojinovic, M.; Djordjevic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread use of organochlorine compounds as insecticides during the past few decades has led to their ubiqitous presence in the environment. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced for use as coolant and insulator fluids for transformers and capacitors, as heat transfer fluids and as fire retardants for wood products; heavy industrial usage has led to widespread contamination of the environment with the PCBs. Organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and PCBs are highly lipid soluble and are resistant to environmental degradation. In human beings these compounds are stored in adipose tissue and are resistant to metabolism. These substances are present in women and the fetus is exposed during utero development by transplacental transfer. Relatively high serum levels of OCIs and PCBs have been found in women with premature delivery. Also, DDT and PCB residue levels were higher in California sea lions which gave birth prematurely than in those with full-term pups. OCIs may disturb the hormonal balance of pregnancy and perhaps precipitate labor. Some DDT analogs are reported to have estrogenic effects and PCBs were also estrogenically active. Limited data exist on the levels and kinetics of OCIs and PCBs during pregnancy and in newborns.

  1. Persistent organochlorines in the serum of the non-occupationally exposed New Zealand population

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Persistent organochlorines in the serum of the non-occupationally exposed New Zealand population and Research Ltd., P.O. Box 50-348, Porirua, New Zealand b School of Public Health, University of California-362, Wellington, New Zealand d National Center of Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  2. Persistent organochlorine pesticide levels in cow's milk samples from tropical regions of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Waliszewski; R. Villalobos-Pietrini; S. Gómez-Arroyo; R. M. Infanzón

    2003-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in agriculture as a seed dresser, in sanitation, in malaria control programmes and in livestock to combat ectoparasites. Their residues accumulate in lipid-rich tissues due to their chemical stability and persistence. In the body they circulate throughout all compartments, deposit themselves in adipose fat and can be excreted during lactation. These pesticides are applied in

  3. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer and Serum Organochlorine and Serum Organochlorine Compounds and Breast Cancer on Long Island

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Steven D. Stellman, of the American Health Foundation, New York, NY, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk for breast cancer in relation to levels of organochlorine compounds, such as DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB).

  4. EOX and organochlorine compounds in fish and ringed seal samples from Lake Ladoga, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kostamo, A; Viljanen, M; Pellinen, J; Kukkonen, J

    2000-12-01

    Information about the pollution of Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe, has been controversial. Various effluents and drainage waters affect the quality of the lake water. Wastewaters have caused eutrophication of parts of Lake Ladoga, but concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the lake's food webs are poorly understood. In this study, concentrations of some organochlorine compounds, chlorophenols (CPs), and extractable organic halogen (EOX) were determined in smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), vendace (Coregonus albula), pikeperch (Lucioperca lucioperca), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), and the Ladoga seal (Phoca hispida ladogensis) from the northern part of the lake. The concentrations of organochlorine compounds in fish were low. Concentrations were between 0.07 and 0.15, 0.65 and 1.0, and 0.29 and 0.48 mg/kg lipids for hexachlorobenzene, total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p'-DDE, respectively. The results indicated biomagnification from smelt and vendace to pikeperch and ringed seal. In ringed seals, concentrations of PCB and DDT were 12 and 29 times higher than in fish used by ringed seals as major food sources. PMID:11057612

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organochlorines and Childhood Obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project

    PubMed Central

    Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In some previous studies, prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines such as 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p´-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in children. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), p,p´-DDE, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs with offspring obesity during childhood. Methods: The analysis was based on a subsample of 1,915 children followed until 7 years of age as part of the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). The CPP enrolled pregnant women in 1959–1965; exposure levels were measured in third-trimester maternal serum that was collected before these organochlorines were banned in the United States. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for BMI as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results: Adjusted results did not show clear evidence for an association between organochlorine exposure and obesity; however, a suggestive finding emerged for dieldrin. Compared with those in the lowest quintile (dieldrin, < 0.57 ?g/L), odds of obesity were 3.6 (95% CI: 1.3, 10.5) for the fourth and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.8, 7.1) for the highest quintile. Overweight and BMI were unrelated to organochlorine exposure. Conclusions: In this population with relatively high levels of exposure to organochlorines, no clear associations with obesity or BMI emerged. Citation: Cupul-Uicab LA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Longnecker MP. 2013. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines and childhood obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1103–1109;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205901 PMID:23799652

  6. Circumpolar maternal blood contaminant survey, 1994-1997 organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Van Oostdam, J C; Dewailly, E; Gilman, A; Hansen, J C; Odland, J O; Chashchin, V; Berner, J; Butler-Walker, J; Lagerkvist, B J; Olafsdottir, K; Soininen, L; Bjerregard, P; Klopov, V; Weber, J P

    2004-09-01

    During the past 20 years a number of studies have found neurological and immunological effects in the developing fetus and infants exposed to background or only slightly elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To address concerns arising from possible increased human exposure in the Arctic and possible effects of POPs, all circumpolar countries agreed in 1994 to monitoring of specific human tissues for contaminants in the Arctic under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP). Mothers in eight circumpolar countries contributed blood samples that were analysed at a single laboratory for 14 PCB congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 52, 99, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183, 187) and 13 organochlorine pesticides (aldrin, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), diphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, heptachlorepoxide, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex, and the chlordane derivatives alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor). Inuit mothers from Greenland and Canada have significantly higher levels of oxychlordane, transnonachlor and mirex than mothers from Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Russia. Inuit mothers from Greenland also have significantly higher levels of these contaminants than Inuit mothers from Canada and Alaska. These differences among Inuit groups may represent regional dietary preferences or different contaminant deposition patterns across the Arctic. Levels of PCBs are also elevated among some arctic populations due to their consumption of marine mammals and are in the range where subtle effects on learning and the immune system have been reported. The Russian mothers who consume mainly food imported from southern Russia have elevated levels of DDT, DDE, beta-HCH and a higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCB congeners. This study has allowed an assessment of the variation of contaminants such as PCBs and various organochlorine pesticides (DDT, chlordane, etc.) in human populations around the circumpolar north. PMID:15325158

  7. Age and accumulation of persistent organochlorines: a study of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus).

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Bakken, Vidar; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar

    2003-09-01

    We studied the relationship between increasing age and blood concentrations of four persistent organochlorines (OCs), hexachlorbenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorbiphenyl (PCB-153), in arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We measured OC concentrations in 31 individuals of known age and took repeated blood samples of 64 individuals in different years, either one year apart or three or four years apart. The age of individuals was not related to the blood concentrations for any of the four compounds, and in birds whose values were measured repeatedly, there was no effect of the length of time (number of years) between sampling events on the relative change in OC concentration. This indicates that steady-state levels were reached before the age of first breeding. However, breeding area significantly influenced the changes in OC concentration between sampling events. In areas in which birds fed on prey from higher trophic levels, the OC concentrations showed large increases between sampling events; in areas in which birds fed at lower trophic levels, OC concentrations increased relatively little or not at all. This indicates that individual birds had different equilibrium concentrations, which are reached at different ages depending on the intake of OCs through the food. It also indicates that some individuals had not reached steady-state concentrations at the onset of reproduction. Changes in body condition and amount of blood lipids were of lesser importance than trophic level and influenced the concentrations of HCB and oxychlordane more strongly than DDE and PCB-153. In conclusion, this study indicates that steady-state concentrations of persistent OCs are reached early in life in most glaucous gulls, considering the long life span of the species. PMID:12959547

  8. Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants associates with human sperm Y:X chromosome ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarmo Tiido; Anna Rignell-Hydbom; Yvonne Lundberg Giwercman; Lars Rylander; Lars Hagmar; Aleksander Giwercman

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last decades, there has been concern that exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), may contribute to sex ratio changes in offspring of exposed popu- lations. METHODS: To investigate whether exposure to 2,204,405,50-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and dichlorodi- phenyl dichloroethene (p,p0-DDE) affect Y:X chromosome proportion, semen of 149 Swedish fishermen, aged 27- 67 years, was investigated.

  9. Organochlorine compounds in blubber, liver and brain in neonatal grey seal pups.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, B M; Skaare, J U; Ekker, M; Vongraven, D; Lorentsen, S H

    1996-06-01

    The present study focuses on the distribution and accumulation of persistent organochlorine compounds in different tissues and organs of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups. Thus, levels of drins (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin), chlordanes (heptachlor, heptachlorepoxide, oxychlordane, transnonachlor), DDTs (p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT) and 22 PCB congeners were determined in samples of brain, fat, and liver of 0-10 days old grey seal pups from the species' main breeding site in Norway. Whereas 10 different compounds were detected in the blubber, 8 compounds were detected in the liver. The concentrations of the two major classes of OCs (PCBs and DDTs) in liver were both about 75% of that in blubber. In cerebral tissue, only two PCB congeners were detected, and sigma PCB was only about 1% of that measured in the blubber. The distribution pattern of PCB-congeners in liver and brain differed significantly from that in blood and blubber tissue, indicating that the physico-chemical properties of the individual congeners and the lipid composition of the tissue are decisive for the tissue-specific pattern of congener distribution. A significant increase of the sigma DDT/sigma PCB-ratio as a function of blubber thickness indicates that DDT compounds are more readily accumulated in older pups. PMID:8653379

  10. Determination of potentially bioaccumulating complex mixtures of organochlorine compounds in wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Contreras López, M Concepción

    2003-03-01

    Organic chlorine compounds can be persistent environmental contaminants and may be accumulated through the food chain to the aquatic organisms, to fish and humans, depending basically on their hydrophobic properties. Consequently, there is an interest to measure these organic compounds from both the scientific and regulatory communities. The analytical essays have been improved for measuring specific organic chlorine compounds that present the most toxicological potential (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], certain pesticides and dioxins), although they are tedious and time-consuming procedures. The existing tests to measure adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) or extractable organic halogens (EOX) do not distinguish the more hydrophobic organic chlorine matter. The intention of this paper is to make a review of the existing methods to measure the potentially bioaccumulating organochlorine compounds (OCs) from wastewater and propose a methodology to a standardisation procedure for complex mixtures of OCs in wastewater, such as pulp mill effluents. A new method has been proposed for determining the most hydrophobic part of the extractable organic halogens (EOX(fob)), the lowest reported value is 0.6 microg/l, expressed as chloride, and the relative standard deviation at 20 microg/l is 7% on laboratory samples and 30% on real effluents. This new procedure could be a valuable tool to complement environmental risk assessment studies of wastewater discharges. PMID:12605924

  11. Human blood monitoring program in Japan: contamination and bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorines in Japanese residents.

    PubMed

    Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Kajiwara, N; Iwata, H; Takahashi, S; Subramanian, A; Tanabe, S; Watanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs)-such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane [TCPMe]-were determined in plasma samples from residents of three sub-metropolitan locations in Japan (Miyako, Saku, and Tottori) for the purpose of studying the geographic variation and specific accumulation of OCs. Residue concentrations of PCBs and DDTs were the highest in samples collected in Saku (400 and 370 ng/g lipid wt, respectively) whereas samples from Miyako contained greater CHL residues (70 ng/g lipid wt) than those from the other two locations. This contamination pattern reflects the historic use of OCs in each area. For the first time, tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) concentrations were detected in most of the plasma sample analyzed. Concentrations of TCPMe which ranged from <0.1 to 8.1 ng/g lipid wt eight, were lower than those previouly reported in other human tissue. Larger geographic differences in OC accumulation were observed for PCBs and CHLs, whereas DDTs and HCHs exhibited little variability. PCB concentrations in samples from Saku residents were higher than those from residents of countries in the circumpolar Arctic region but lower than those reported for some populations in the United States and Western European countries. Interestingly, CHL residue concentrations in human blood from Japan are among the highest values reported for the countries examined, suggesting continued increased exposure to CHLs of the Japanese population. Time-trend analysis of CHLs in human blood samples from Miyako (Okinawa prefecture) showed that CHL residues have decreased substantially during the last decade, indicating the effect of the official ban of CHLs in 1986 in Japan. Isomer-specific analysis of PCBs revealed lower proportions of higher chlorinated congeners such as hepta- and octachlorobiphenyls in women than in men, suggesting the possibility of preferential elimination of higher chlorinated biphenyls in women. The difference in sex-dependent accumulation of OC compounds in healthy and ill persons was suggested. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the specific accumulation of persistent QCs, including TCPMe, in human blood samples from Japan. PMID:16783626

  12. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern is predictive of the subsequent occurrence of disease. PMID:23785499

  13. Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, L.L. [USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States)] [USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States); Kucklick, J.R. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States)] [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Bidleman, T.F. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Ivanov, G.P. [Limnological Inst., Irkutsk (Russian Federation)] [Limnological Inst., Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Chernyak, S.M. [Inst. of Fisheries, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Inst. of Fisheries, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples were collected from three mid-lake stations and at the mouth of two major tributaries. Average air concentrations of chlorinated bornanes (14 pg m{sup -3}), chlordanes (4.9 pg m{sup -3}), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (194 pg m{sup -3}) were similar to global backgound of Arctic levels. However, air concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, and PCBs were closer to those observed in the Great Lakes region. Significantly higher levels of these three compound classes in air over Irkutsk suggests that regional atmospheric transport and deposition may be an important source of these persistent compounds to Lake Baikal. Air-water gas exchange calculations resulted in net depositional flux values for {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, DDTs, and chlorinated bornanes at 112, 23, 3.6, and 2.4 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The total net flux of 22 PCB congeners, chlordanes, and HCB was from water to air (volatilization) at 47, 1.8, and 32 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. 50 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. A survey of extractable persistent organochlorine pollutants in Chinese commercial yogurt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Chai, Z F; Sun, H B; Zhang, J L

    2006-05-01

    Eighteen Chinese commercial brands of yogurt were collected from supermarkets from December 2002 to April 2003, for characterization of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Besides monitoring OCP and PCB by gas chromatography, the levels of extractable persistent organochlorine (EPOCl; i.e., sulfuric acid-resistant EPOCl) were also determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results indicated that the contamination pattern of the selected OCP and PCB were in the order of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDT) approximately hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) > aldrin > or = chlordanes > or = heptachlor epoxide and 4-6 chlorinated biphenyls (CB) > 7-10 CB, respectively. Furthermore, beta-HCH, and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene were the predominant isomers of HCH and DDT residues in yogurt, and PCB with 4,4'- and 2,3,5- substitution patterns were the predominant congeners of PCB residues. Also, the results indicated that the mean level of total chlorine in the identified organochlorine species was below 4% of EPOCl in yogurt, which implied that more than 96% of EPOCl measured in yogurt samples could not be accounted for by selected OCP and PCB. PMID:16606713

  15. Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p?- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants. PMID:20146964

  16. Organochlorine and organobromine compounds in a benthic fish (Solea solea) from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia): implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ben Ameur, Walid; El Megdiche, Yassine; Eljarrat, Ethel; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Badreddine, Barhoumi; Souad, Trabelsi; Bèchir, Hammami; Barceló, Damia; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2013-02-01

    Information on the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish from Tunisia is scarce. In this study, thirty one persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (dichlorodihenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in solea solea muscle, from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia) and from the Mediterranean Sea (reference area) (northern Mediterranean). In the Bizerte Lagoon, contaminant concentrations generally followed this order: PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>MeO-PBDEs>HCB>HCHs; while in the Mediterranean Sea, pollutant concentration followed this order: MeO-PBDEs>PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>HCB>HCHs. Mean levels of organochlorine compounds were 1018 and 380 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw) in fish from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Mean concentrations of organobromine compounds were 279 and 301 ng g(-1) lw in sole from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Organohalogen concentrations in fish from Bizerte Lagoon were similar or slightly lower than those reported for other marine fish species from other locations around the world. PCB, HCH, HCB and PBDE levels were negatively correlated with lipid content, while no such correlation was seen for DDTs. Assessment based on several available guidelines suggested an insignificant human health risk for dietary intake of HCB, lindane and PBDEs associated with consumption of sole. However, the estimated lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to DDTs and PCBs is a potential concern. PMID:23219662

  17. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, Miquel [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)], E-mail: mporta@imim.es; Bosch de Basea, Magda [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica CIBERESP (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Benavides, Fernando G. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Tomas [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernandez, Esteve [Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Esther [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Puigdomenech, Elisa [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

  18. NEW ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATOR LINKING ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS AND TYPE 2 DIABETES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will develop an environmental public health indicator (EPHI) by linking soil residues of organochlorine (OC) insecticides and metabolites/degradates, OC compound levels in people and a disease with which they are implicated, type 2 diabetes (T2D). The proposed E...

  19. Contamination by organochlorine compounds in sturgeons from Caspian Sea during 2001 and 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natsuko Kajiwara; Daisuke Ueno; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mohammad Pourkazemi; David G. Aubrey

    2003-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the five species of sturgeons collected from coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran during 2001 and 2002 to understand their status of contamination and accumulation features. Among OCs examined, concentrations of DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were predominant in all the sturgeon samples with concentrations ranging from 73 to

  20. Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. McConnell; John R. Kucklick; Terry F. Bidleman; Genadi P. Ivanov; Sergey M. Chernyak

    1996-01-01

    Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples

  1. Organochlorine compounds in bovine milk from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avancini, Régia Maria; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; de Mesquita, Sueli Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    Organochlorines are highly hydrophobic, synthetic organic pollutants that accumulate in the environment and in food webs. The primary route of human exposure to organochlorines is through food-mainly fat-rich food of animal origin such as meat, fish, and dairy products. Here we determined the presence and concentration of organochlorine residues in pasteurized milk from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, to monitor consumer exposure to these contaminants. Organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction in octadecyl silica-prepacked columns and identified by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. Of the 100 composite samples analyzed, more than 90% contained residues of organochlorine pesticides: aldrin was present in 44% of the samples, followed by ?DDT (36%), mirex (34%), endosulfan (32%), chlordane (17%), dicofol (14%), heptachlor (11%) and dieldrin (11%). Compared to the values established by law, the concentration of the compounds in some samples was above the reference values. Given the importance that milk and its products have in the human diet, it is essential to know whether the levels of pesticide residues are kept well below the recommended levels to minimize the risk to human health. PMID:23177004

  2. Residues of persistent organochlorine contaminants in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Elephant Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Metcalfe, Tracy L; Metcalfe, Chris D; Robaldo, Ricardo B; Muelbert, Mônica M C; Colares, Elton P; Martinez, Pablo E; Bianchini, Adalto

    2007-06-01

    Contamination of blubber tissues by organochlorine pesticides (OC) and PCBs was assessed in female and male pups and juveniles, as well as in adult females and subdominant adult males of the Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, from Elephant Island in the Antarctic Peninsula. All residues of persistent organochlorine contaminants analyzed were found in blubber samples, except for beta-HCH, endosulfan II, endrin, heptachlor, and aldrin. The relative concentrations of the analytes detected were sigmaDDT > sigmaPCB > sigmachlordane > mirex > dieldrin > HCB> sigmaendosulfan > methoxychlor > sigmaHCHs > other OC pesticides. OC and PCBs concentrations were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than those found in pinnipeds from northern hemisphere. The ratio sigmaDDT/sigmaPCB was higher in southern elephant seals. The relative importance of some OC residues indicates that pesticides used either currently or in the recent past in countries in the southern hemisphere are the sources of contamination in the Antarctic region. Data showed that concentrations of contaminants generally increased from pups < juveniles < adults and suggested that pups accumulated contaminants through transfer from the mother seals via transplacental and lactational routes. PMID:17612156

  3. Organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue in the South Platte River Basin, USA, 1992–1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Tate; J. S. Heiny

    1996-01-01

    Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected in the South Platte River Basin to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the basin. During August–November 1992 and August 1993, bed sediment (23 sites) and fish tissue (subset of 19 sites) were sampled and analyzed for 32 organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and 27 compounds in fish tissue. More types

  4. Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine pesticides in three species of albatrosses from the north and south Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Muir, Derek C G; Jones, Paul D; Karlsson, Heidi; Koczansky, Krystina; Stern, Gary A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Ludwig, James P; Reid, Hamish; Robertson, Chris J R; Giesy, John P

    2002-02-01

    Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides (chlordane-related compounds [sigmaCHL], DDT-related compounds [sigmaDDT], hexachlorocyclohexanes [sigmaHCH], tris(p-chloro-phenyl)methane, hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, dieldrin) were determined in fat of Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) and in fat and eggs of blackfooted albatross (Diomedea nigripes) from the central north Pacific Ocean. The HCH isomers and chlordane- and DDT-related compounds were also determined in eggs of northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi) collected in New Zealand. Toxaphene was detected in fat samples at mean +/- standard deviation (SD) levels ranging from 243 +/- 61 ng/g wet weight in Laysan albatross to 1,020 +/- 237 ng/g wet weight in blackfooted albatross. These levels were higher than sigmaCHL and sigmaHCH but lower than sigmaDDT. In eggs of blackfooted albatross, toxaphene was the major OC pesticide, averaging 513 ng/g wet weight in two pooled samples compared with 293 ng/g wet weight for sigmaDDT. Two toxaphene congeners, the octachloroborane B8-1413 (Parlar 26) and the nonachlorobornane B9-1679 (P50), comprised about 38% of total toxaphene in both albatross species. All OC compounds were present at significantly higher levels in blackfooted than Laysan albatross fat with the exception of sigmaHCH, dieldrin, and octachlorostyrene. Mean levels of sigmaDDT and sigmaHCH in northern royal albatross eggs from New Zealand were 4 and 60 times lower, respectively, than in blackfooted albatross eggs. The pattern of OC pesticide accumulation was consistent with differences in distribution of the three species in the Pacific Ocean, with highest levels in blackfooted albatross, which feed off the west coast of North America, intermediate levels in Laysan albatross, which frequent the western Pacific, and lowest levels in northern royal albatross, which are confined to the southern oceans surrounding the Antarctic. PMID:11837231

  5. Organochlorine pesticide residues in estuarine fish from the Athi River, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Mugachia; L. Kanja; T. E. Maitho

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds such as DDT, lindane and aldrin are agricultural and public health pesticides that persist in the environment and accumulate in fatty tissues of living organisms. In Kenya, the chemicals were widely used between the mid 1940's and late 1970's in agriculture and aerial control of mosquitoes in the Lake Victoria region. The use of persistent organochlorine pesticides was

  6. Accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines in liver and fat tissues of various waterbird species from Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakellarides, T M; Konstantinou, I K; Hela, D G; Lambropoulou, D; Dimou, A; Albanis, T A

    2006-05-01

    Waterbirds are particularly subject to accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been shown to constitute a major hazard for this group of birds. Liver and fat tissue from ten species belonging to the orders Ciconiformes (Ardeidae, Ciconiidae, Phoenicopteridae) and Pelicaniformes (Pelecanidae, Phalacrocoracidae) were used as bioindicators in order to assess environmental pollution by POPs (HCHs, DDTs, cyclodienes, PCBs) in Greek wetlands. To our knowledge, this is the first study on POPs in livers of water birds in Greece and Eastern Mediterranean area. The DDTs consisted mainly of p,p'-DDE with percentages over 60% in the great majority of the samples. The highest summation SigmaDDT concentrations were measured in the liver and subcutaneous fat of Phoenicopterus rubber and in Ardea purpurea liver (15565, 24706 and 10406 ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively). Low concentrations of cyclodienes (Cycls) and HCHs were detected occasionally and the contamination pattern of OCPs in most species of waterbirds followed the order summation SigmaDDTs> summation SigmaCycls> summation SigmaHCHs. Individual values of total PCBs reached the levels of 4468 and 3252 ng g(-1) wet weight, for Nycticorax nycticorax and Egretta garzetta samples respectively. Some of the recorded differences in organochlorine concentrations could be due to different causes of death, with a subsequent effect on body lipid levels. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs residues were lower than those commonly associated with mortality and reduced reproductive success in most species. However, low level exposure to these contaminants may constitute one of the many stressors that in combination could adversely affect bird populations. PMID:16289289

  7. Organochlorine Compounds in the Plasma of Peregrine Falcons and Gyrfalcons Nesting in Greenland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. JARMAN; S. A. BURNS; W. G. MATTOX; W. S. SEEGAR

    1994-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine compounds in the blood plasma of after-second-year female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were determined from samples collected from southern Greenland in 1985 and western Greenland from 1983 to 1989, and from adult and nestling gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) from western Greenland in 1989 and 1990. Samples were taken during nesting. Levels of p,p'-DDE (DDE) in peregrine plasma were

  8. Organochlorines in Black-Crowned Night Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax ) Eggs Reflect Persistent Contamination in Northeastern US Estuaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Matz; K. C. Parsons

    2004-01-01

    Colonially nesting aquatic birds can indicate site-specific contamination because they are high-level predators and dependent upon local resources during the breeding season. We compared persistent organochlorine concentrations in black-crowned night heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs collected in 1992–93 among areas of known contamination (New York Harbor, Boston Harbor, Cape Cod, and Delaware Bay) and a reference site (Nantucket Island) in

  9. Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal ( Phoca caspica ) from the Caspian Sea, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Watanabe; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; M. Amano; N. Miyazaki; E. A. Petrov; S. L. Khuraskin

    1999-01-01

    .   Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes\\u000a (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean\\u000a values of 19 and 1.3 ?g\\/g on wet-weight

  10. Levels of persistent organochlorine contaminants in fish from Korea and their potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Yim, U H; Hong, S H; Shim, W J; Oh, J R

    2005-04-01

    Organochlorine contaminants in the muscles of sport and market fish were determined to understand the potential risks to humans consuming fish originating in Korea's coastal waters. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; sum of 22 congeners) and DDTs were the dominant contaminants, and their concentrations were in the range of 2.96 to 96.6 and 0.84 to 27.0 ng/g (wet weight basis), respectively. The highest PCB concentrations were found in samples taken from an industrial complex. Hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane-related compounds, and hexachlorobenzene concentrations were relatively low and ranged from 0.64 to 5.6, 0.17 to 4.24, and 0.08 to 1.58, respectively. Sport fish had levels of PCBs and DDTs approximately two times higher than market fish, implying that sport fish posed high potential risk of contamination with OCs. Risk-based screening value (SV) based on U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method was calculated using the USEPA approach to identify the primary chemicals of concern. Total PCB concentrations in all sport and market fish exceeded the SV (5.04 ng/g based on total PCBs), but the other compounds were mostly below SV values. Based on the estimated SVs, PCB compounds were identified as potential chemicals of concern. PMID:15719194

  11. Bimonthly variability of persistent organochlorines in plastic pellets from four beaches in Mumbai coast, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analysed in plastic pellets collected from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. A total of 72 pools of pellets were extracted and analysed by gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni(63) electron capture detector (ECD). The median concentrations of seven ?PCBs and 16 ?OCPs were 37.08 and 104.90 ng g(-1) (n?=?72), respectively. PCB-28 was recorded at the highest concentration with a mean of 17.58?±?2.77 ng g(-1) among the seven PCBs studied, followed by PCB-52 and PCB-101. Bimonthly variation was significant for ?PCBs. The ?PCB concentration in November was at par with that of September and was significantly higher than those of the other months (p?compounds in addition to PCB, HCH and DDT. Further, pellets can be used to study the temporal variability for a range of organic micropollutants. PMID:26116196

  12. Sex-Related Levels of Selenium, Heavy Metals, and Organochlorine Compounds in American White Pelicans ( Pelecanus erythrorhyncos )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Donaldson; B. M. Braune

    1999-01-01

    .   Liver tissue from male and female adult American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhyncos) were individually analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Levels of most organochlorines, specifically\\u000a ?DDT, ?PCB, ?chlordane, ?mirex, dieldrin, and ?CBz, were significantly higher in male pelicans compared to females. Only concentrations\\u000a of ?HCH were not significantly different between sexes. Male livers also contained higher concentrations of

  13. Sociodemographic, reproductive and dietary predictors of organochlorine compounds levels in pregnant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ibarluzea, J; Alvarez-Pedrerol, M; Guxens, M; Marina, L Santa; Basterrechea, M; Lertxundi, A; Etxeandia, A; Goñi, F; Vioque, J; Ballester, F; Sunyer, J

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are consistently found in human tissues. Serum levels of organochlorine compounds (OC) in pregnant women in particular have raised concern about possible harm to humans in the early phases of physical and behavioural development. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between concentration of OCs in serum of two cohorts of pregnant women from Gipuzkoa and Sabadell in Spain and socioeconomic, reproductive and dietary variables. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH and ?-HCH), heptachlor epoxide, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) were measured in the serum of 1259 pregnant women. Associations between OCs and potential predictor variables were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The compounds most commonly found in the serum were p,p'-DDE (99% of the samples) and PCB-153 (95% of the samples). Geometric means of serum concentrations (ng g?¹ lipid) of organochlorine pesticides were 110.0, 19.1, and 33.5 for p,p'-DDE, ?-HCH, and HCB respectively, while the geometric means of PCBs were 21.8, 38.9 and 26.9 for PCB 138, 153, and 180 respectively. The levels of all OCs increased with age. BMI was positively associated with the concentration of organochlorine pesticides but inversely related to PCB concentrations. The serum levels of OCs fell only after a cumulative period of breastfeeding of over a year. Levels of PCBs were related to fish intake, but in general dietary factors did not improve the explained variability of the concentrations of OCs. Overall, the levels of OCs found in the study are at the lower end of the range reported in Spain and other countries. PMID:20965545

  14. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kucklick, John R; Struntz, William D J; Becker, Paul R; York, Geoff W; O'Hara, Todd M; Bohonowych, Jesssica E

    2002-03-15

    Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n = 8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n = 5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a variety of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs and metabolites. The geometric mean, on a wet mass basis, of sigmaPCBs (sum of 29 congeners and congener groups) were 732+/-282 ng/g (1 S.D.) in seals and 3395+/-1442 ng/g in polar bears. The geometric mean of sigmaDDTs, sigmaHCHs (alpha-, beta- and gamma- HCH) and HCB concentrations (wet mass basis) in seals and bears were 562+/-261 ng/g vs. 74.8+/-39 ng/g, 380+/-213 ng/g vs. 515 ng/g, and 17.4+/-10.1 ng/g vs. 183+/-153 ng/g, respectively. The geometric mean sum of chlordane (sigmachlordane, sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide) and dieldrin concentrations in ringed seals and polar bears were 753+/-617 ng/g vs. 720+/-315 ng/g and 38.6+/-22.8 ng/g vs. 130+/-65 ng/g, respectively. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (polar bear/ringed seal POP concentrations) were lower in the animals sampled near Barrow, Alaska than in those from locations in the Canadian Arctic. This suggests that polar bears are also preying on marine mammals from lower trophic levels than the ringed seals with correspondingly lower organochlorine levels, such as bowhead whale carcasses. PCB congener patterns in the samples demonstrated the metabolism of certain PCB congeners in the polar bear relative to the ringed seal in agreement with previous studies. Regional comparisons of animals collected in Alaska and Arctic Canada are presented. PMID:11885579

  15. Spatial differences in persistent organochlorine pollutant concentrations between the Bering and Chukchi Seas (1993).

    PubMed

    Strachan, W M; Burniston, D A; Williamson, M; Bohdanowicz, H

    2001-01-01

    During August-September 1993, a joint Russian-United States expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas took place. Surface water samples were collected from 21 sites and separated into dissolved (duplicates) and suspended solids; 19 sediment and 6 air samples were also collected. These samples were analysed for 19 organochlorine pesticides, 11 chlorobenzenes and 113 PCB congeners. The report provides data on selected compounds which occured in > or = 75% of the water samples. Highest water concentrations were observed for HCH in open waters north and south of the Bering Strait, both regions being similar (alpha-HCH; 2.2 ng/L and lindane: 0.35 ng/L). Air levels observed were also constant (alpha-HCH; 0.041 ng/m3, lindane: 0.0093 ng/m3). Suspended solids and air particulares contributed little to the concentrations in their respective media, an observation common to all analytes except for the PCBs and the DDT residues. The sum of PCB concentrations in water were higher in the Bering Sea area compared to the Chukchi Sea (1.0 vrs 0.67 ng/L) and lower for air (0.46 vrs 0.23 ng/m3). Sum of DDT in water was higher in the Bering Sea than in the Chukchi Sea (0.23 vrs 0.15 ng/L) while in sediments and air, the Bering Sea concentrations were lower (0.95 vrs 1.6 ng/g and 36 vrs 56 pg/m3, respectively). Other organochlorine compounds for which data are presented include: pp'-DDE, pp'-DDT, dieldrin, HCB, 3 chlorobenzenes and 3 PCB congeners. Fluxes of all these chemicals through the Berin Strait are estimated; they ranged from 57 t/a (alpha-HCH) through 26 t/a (for sum of PCBs) to 0.2 t/a (pp'-DDE, dieldrin and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene). Fugacity ratios for the HCHs and PCBs indicate the alpha-HCH is degassing in both the Bering and Chukchi Seas and that the gamma-isomer is degassing in the Bering Sea and is close to equilibrium (weakly absorbing) in the Chuchi Sea; the sum of PCBs are strongly absorbing in both areas. PMID:11601531

  16. PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE POLLUTANTS AND TOXAPHENE CONGENER PROFILES IN BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FREQUENTING THE TURTLE\\/BRUNSWICK RIVER ESTUARY, GEORGIA, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin L. Pulster; Kelly L. Smalling; Eric Zolman; Lori Schwacke; Keith A. Maruya

    2009-01-01

    Although the Turtle\\/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chro-

  17. Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds and neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa; Esther Vizcaino; Mario Murcia; Virginia Fuentes; Ana-Maria Garcia; Marisa Rebagliato; Joan O Grimalt; Ferran Ballester

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to some organochlorine compounds (OCs) may adversely affect thyroid function and may, therefore, impair neurodevelopment. The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship of cord serum levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4?-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4?-DDE), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), four individual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), and their sum, with

  18. Obesity and persistent organic pollutants: possible obesogenic effect of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Dirinck, Eveline; Jorens, Philippe G; Covaci, Adrian; Geens, Tinne; Roosens, Laurence; Neels, Hugo; Mertens, Ilse; Van Gaal, Luc

    2011-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In humans, little is known about their role in the potential origin of obesity. This study aims to assess the associations between serum levels of POPs and the prevalence of obesity in a cohort of obese and lean adult men and women. POP serum samples were investigated cross-sectionally in 98 obese and 47 lean participants, aged ?18 years. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 153, 138, 180, and 170 and for the organochlorine pesticides, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (pp-DDE), and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?HCH). We established a significant negative correlation between BMI, waist, fat mass percentage, total and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and serum levels of PCB 153, 180, 170, and the sumPCBs. For ?HCH, we demonstrated a positive correlation with BMI, waist, fat mass percentage, and total and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. PCBs 180, 170, and the sum of PCBs correlated significantly negative with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)). ?HCH correlated significantly positively with HOMA(IR). A strong correlation was established between all POP serum levels and age. We established a positive relationship between high serum levels of ?HCH and BMI and HOMA(IR), whereas serum PCB levels were inversely correlated with BMI and HOMA(IR). Combined, these results suggest that the diabetogenic effect of low-dose exposure to POPs might be more complicated than a simple obesogenic effect. PMID:20559302

  19. Hydrophobic organochlorine compounds sequestered in submersed aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla yerticillata (L.f.) Royle) from the tidal Potomac River (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminants to be sequestered in submersed aquatic vegetation was evaluated by determining the concentrations of cis- and trans-chlordane, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feral aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) collected from the tidal Potomac River. Similarities in mean dry-weight concentrations of the identified organochlorine compounds in H. verticillata and surrounding alluvial sediments indicated that the extent of sequestration in H. verticillata was of the same magnitude as sorption of these compounds to river sediments, but some qualitative differences in PCB congener profiles existed. The results imply that to some degree H. verticillata can influence downstream fluxes of organic contaminants in fluvial transport in the Potomac River, and, furthermore, identify this species as a viable candidate organism for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminant biomonitoring in the Chesapeake Bay estuary.

  20. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet.

    PubMed

    Mañosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

    2003-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn. PMID:12547524

  1. Organochlorines in black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs reflect persistent contamination in northeastern US estuaries.

    PubMed

    Matz, A C; Parsons, K C

    2004-02-01

    Colonially nesting aquatic birds can indicate site-specific contamination because they are high-level predators and dependent upon local resources during the breeding season. We compared persistent organochlorine concentrations in black-crowned night heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) eggs collected in 1992-93 among areas of known contamination (New York Harbor, Boston Harbor, Cape Cod, and Delaware Bay) and a reference site (Nantucket Island) in the northeastern United States (7-16 eggs/site). Total PCBs, p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and trans-nonachlor were detected in most eggs and were significantly higher in New York Harbor compared to all other sites (ANOVA on factor scores from the first principal component, which accounted for 75% of data variance, p < 0.0001). New York also had the highest contamination index (the number of Superfund sites within 20 km of the colony) among the sites. Nantucket, the reference site, had consistently low contamination in eggs, and the lowest contamination index. We conclude that black-crowned night heron eggs are useful indicators of site-specific persistent organochlorine contamination, as indexed by the number of nearby Superfund sites. PMID:15106680

  2. Prediction of biomagnification factors for some organochlorine compounds using linear free energy relationship parameters and artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Fatemi; M. H. Abraham; M. Haghdadi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANNs) as feature mapping techniques were used for the prediction of the biomagnification factor (BMF) of some organochlorine pollutants. As independent variables, or compound descriptors, the Abraham descriptors often employed in linear free energy relationships were used. Much better results were obtained from the nonlinear ANN model than from multiple linear regression. The

  3. Analysis of organochlorine compounds and extractable organic halogen in three subspecies of ringed seal from northeast Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kostamo; N. Medvedev; J. Pellinen; H. Hyvaerinen; J. V. K. Kukkonen

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds in blubber samples of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis, P. H. ladogensis, and P. h. hispida) were analyzed in order to estimate the state of pollution in three different water areas in Northeast Europe, namely, Lake Saimaa in Finland, Lake Lodoga, and the White Sea in Russia. Geographic differences in concentrations and in relative concentrations of tri-

  4. Persistence of polycyclic aromatic compounds of different molecular size and water solubility in surficial sediment of an intertidal sandflat

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcock, R.J.; Northcott, G.L. [National Inst. of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton (New Zealand); Corban, G.A.; Wilkins, A.L.; Langdon, A.G. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand). Chemistry Dept.

    1996-05-01

    The persistence of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ranging from two- to six-ring compounds, in an intertidal sandflat was studied by applying uniform amounts (0.10 g) of each to the surface of the sandflat and then monitoring concentrations over time. The mass of total PAH, after initial losses, declined slowly, so that after 256 d 12% of the applied material remained. Vertical concentration profiles indicated that little downward movement occurred and that most of the mass was concentrated in the top 2 cm, where most losses also occurred. The study has shown that anthropogenic PAHs have persistences comparable with organochlorine pesticides in aerobic sediments of intertidal sandflats. Rank correlations showed that the order of persistence may be predicted on the basis of molecular size parameters, such as molecular weight, molecular volume, and area. Persistence of PAHs in intertidal sandflats appears to be regulated by simple, physical processes.

  5. Accumulation pattern of persistent organochlorine pesticides in liver tissues of various species of birds from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal

    2013-05-01

    As part of a large study on assessing the impact of environmental contaminants in Indian avifauna, the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in liver tissues of 16 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007 was quantified. The higher concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides were detected in livers of shikra Accipiter badius (3.43 ± 0.99 ?g/g wet wt) and the lower levels in white ibis Pseudibis papillosa (0.02 ± 0.01 ?g/g wet wt). Marked differences in the concentrations of total OCPs occurred among species (p < 0.05). Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than the concentrations reported for various species of birds in India. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides in birds was, in general, in the order HCH > DDT > heptachlor epoxide > dieldrin. Among various pesticides analyzed, p,p'-DDE and ?-HCH contributed maximum towards the total OCPs and study indicates the continuous use of lindane and DDT for agriculture and public health purpose, respectively. Although no serious threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected in the present study species, continued monitoring is recommended. PMID:23054790

  6. Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Miriam N. [Molecular Toxicology Group, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom); Hood, Steven R. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

  7. Contamination by organochlorine compounds in sturgeons from Caspian Sea during 2001 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Ueno, Daisuke; Monirith, In; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Aubrey, David G

    2003-06-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the five species of sturgeons collected from coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran during 2001 and 2002 to understand their status of contamination and accumulation features. Among OCs examined, concentrations of DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were predominant in all the sturgeon samples with concentrations ranging from 73 to 31,000 ng/g on lipid weight basis, followed by PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, HCB, dieldrin, TCPMOH, and heptachlor epoxide in order. The concentrations of OCs in beluga (Huso huso) were the highest among all the five species. When comparing residue levels among same species, OC residues were highest in sturgeons from Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan and lowest in Turkmenistan. However, the concentrations of HCHs, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide in sturgeons showed less geographical variability. PMID:12787582

  8. Concentrations and enantiomer fractions of organochlorine compounds in Baltic species hit by reproductive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Karin; Bergman, Anders; Olsson, Mats; Roos, Anna; Blomkvist, Gun; Haglund, Peter

    2002-12-01

    Concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in tissues of gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) and salmon (Salmo salar) originating from the Baltic Sea. The selected seal specimens ranged from starved to unstarved animals, and some of them suffered from a disease complex, while the salmon samples originated from individuals, which were known to produce offspring with and without the M74 syndrome. Significant differences in residue levels and EFs were found between seal groups but not between M74 salmon and non-M74 salmon. The relations between chemical and biological variables of seal samples were investigated with multivariate statistics. Poor health status correlated strongly with age, while bad nutrition condition was associated mainly with high pollution loads and distinctively nonracemic chiral OC compositions. High biotransformation rate (as indicated by fraction of chlordane metabolites in relation to total level of chlordanes) was also associated with large deviations from racemic values and high contaminant levels. PMID:12463547

  9. Organochlorine compounds in soils and sediments of the mountain Andean Lakes.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Francesca; Grimalt, Joan O; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Barra, Ricardo; García, Carlos J Torres; Focardi, Silvano

    2005-07-01

    Semi-volatile organochlorine compounds (OC) were analyzed in remote Andean soils and lake sediments. The sampling sites covered a wide latitudinal gradient from 18 degrees S to 46 degrees S along Chile and an altitudinal gradient (10-4500 m). The concentrations were in the order of background levels, involving absence of major pollution sources in the high mountain areas. Significant correlations were found between log-transformed concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, alpha- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in soils and total organic content (TOC). In addition, TOC-normalized concentrations of the most volatile OC showed a significant linear dependence with air temperature. This good agreement points to temperature as a significant factor for the retention of long range transported OC in remote ecosystems such as the Andean mountains, although other variables should not be totally excluded. The highest concentrations of OCs were achieved in the sites located at highest altitude and lowest temperature of the dataset. PMID:15840533

  10. Atmospherc deposition of organochlorine compounds to remote high mountain lakes of Europe.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Guillem; Fernández, Pilar; Grimalt, Joan O; Ventura, Marc; Camarero, Lluis; Catalan, Jordi; Nickus, Ulrike; Thies, Hansjörg; Psenner, Roland

    2002-06-15

    Bulk deposition samples were taken near three mountain lakes located in the Pyrenees (Estany Redó), Alps (Gossenköllesee), and Caledonian Mountains (Ovre Neådalsvatn) for evaluation of the atmospheric deposition load of organochlorine compounds (OC), namely, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and endosulfans, in the remote European high mountain areas. The compounds of present use in agriculture, namely, endosulfans and gamma-HCH, exhibit large differences in mean deposition fluxes between the three sites. They occur in large amounts in Estany Redó (340 and 430 ng m(-2) month(-1) for endosulfans and gamma-HCH, respectively), reflecting the impact of agricultural activities in southern Europe. This lake showed also the highest proportion of the more labile endosulfan isomers (alpha and beta = 82%) whereas only the most recalcitrant species, endosulfan sulfate, was found in Ovre Neådalsvatn. In contrast, the OC whose use is now banned exhibit a more uniform geographic distribution with deposition fluxes of 31-40, 30-100, and 1.4-15 ng m(-2) month(-1) for alpha-HCH, PCBs, and HCB. Both compounds of present and past use exhibit a clear seasonal pattern, with higher deposition in the warm periods, which is consistent with enhanced volatilization at higher temperatures. In the case of the agricultural pesticides it may also reflect higher use during application periods. The OC distributions in the atmospheric deposition of the three sites are rather uniform and highly enriched in compounds with volatilities larger than 0.0032 Pa. However, more than 90% of these compounds are not retained in the lake waters or sediments. Comparison of OC composition in atmospheric and sedimentary deposition evidences a selective trapping of the less volatile compounds. Trapping efficiencies increase at decreasing air temperatures of the lacustrine systems. PMID:12099453

  11. Cancer Mortality in Workers Exposed to Organochlorine Compounds in the Pulp and Paper Industry: An International Collaborative Study

    PubMed Central

    McLean, David; Pearce, Neil; Langseth, Hilde; Jäppinen, Paavo; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Persson, Bodil; Wild, Pascal; Kishi, Reiko; Lynge, Elsebeth; Henneberger, Paul; Sala, Maria; Teschke, Kay; Kauppinen, Timo; Colin, Didier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Boffetta, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cancer mortality in pulp and paper industry workers exposed to chlorinated organic compounds. We assembled a multinational cohort of workers employed between 1920 and 1996 in 11 countries. Exposure to both volatile and nonvolatile organochlorine compounds was estimated at the department level using an exposure matrix. We conducted a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on age and calendar-period–specific national mortality rates and a Poisson regression analysis. The study population consisted of 60,468 workers. Workers exposed to volatile organochlorines experienced a deficit of all-cause [SMR = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89–0.93] and all-cancer (SMR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89–0.97) mortality, with no evidence of increased risks for any cancer of a priori interest. There was a weak, but statistically significant, trend of increasing risk of all-cancer mortality with increasing weighted cumulative exposure. A similar deficit in all-cause (SMR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91–0.96) and all-cancer (SMR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89–1.00) mortality was observed in those exposed to non-volatile organochlorines. No excess risk was observed in cancers of a priori interest, although mortality from Hodgkin disease was elevated (SMR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.02–2.82). In this study we found little evidence that exposure to organochlorines at the levels experienced in the pulp and paper industry is associated with an increased risk of cancer, apart from a weak but significant association between all-cancer mortality and weighted cumulative volatile organochlorine exposure. PMID:16835051

  12. Optimization and validation of organochlorine compounds in adipose tissue by SPE-gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Pestana, Diogo; Monteiro, Rosário; Faria, Gil; Meireles, Manuela; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Teixeira, Diana; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Scientific evidence has shown an association between organochlorine compounds (OCC) exposure and human health hazards. Concerning this, OCC detection in human adipose samples has to be considered a public health priority. This study evaluated the efficacy of various solid-phase extraction (SPE) and cleanup methods for OCC determination in human adipose tissue. Octadecylsilyl endcapped (C??-E), benzenesulfonic acid modified silica cation exchanger (SA), poly(styrene-divinylbenzene (EN) and EN/RP?? SPE sorbents were evaluated. The relative sample cleanup provided by these SPE columns was evaluated using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The C??-E columns with strong homogenization were found to provide the most effective cleanup, removing the greatest amount of interfering substance, and simultaneously ensuring good analyte recoveries higher than 70%. Recoveries?>?70% with standard deviations (SD)?compounds under the selected conditions. Method detection limits were in the 0.003-0.009?mg/kg range. The positive samples were confirmed by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The highest percentage found of the OCC in real samples corresponded to HCB, o,p'-DDT and methoxychlor, which were detected in 80 and 95% of samples analyzed respectively. PMID:22407478

  13. Concentration changes of organochlorine compounds and polybromodiphenyl ethers during metamorphosis of aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Bartrons, Mireia; Grimalt, Joan O; Catalan, Jordi

    2007-09-01

    The role of insect larvae and pupae as sources of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in freshwater food webs for high predators such as fish is evaluated. Trichoptera and diptera have been taken as organisms of choice for such comparison because they are common in benthic aquatic habitats and accumulate substantial amounts of these compounds. Hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes,4,4'-DDE,4,4'-DDT, polychlorobiphenyls, and PBDEs have been measured. The results show a nonselective enrichment of OCs and PBDEs from larvae to pupae. These concentration increases may result from the weight loss of pupae during metamorphosis as a consequence of mainly protein carbon respiration and lack of feeding. Despite the lack of change in total amount, the concentration increases from larvae to pupae are very relevant for the pollutant ingestion of the higher predators. The intakes of OCs and PBDEs by trout are between 2- and 5-fold higher per calorie gained when predating on pupae than on larvae. Since pollutant concentration, energy reward, predation susceptibility, and duration of life stage are very different between these two insect stages, and none of them is irrelevant for the incorporation of OCs or PBDEs to higher levels, bioaccumulation food-web models should distinguish between the two sources. PMID:17937293

  14. Recalcitrant organochlorine compounds in captive bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus): Biomagnification or bioaccumulation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Marsili; C. Gaggi; A. Bortolotto; L. Stanzani; A. Franchi; A. Renzoni; E. Bacci

    1995-01-01

    Organochlorine residues were measured in the diet, blood, faeces and exhaled air of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to evaluate the absorption efficiency from food and the eliminatory potential via faeces and exhaled air. Differences between air-breathing and water-breathing animals feeding on similar prey are briefly discussed. It is concluded that high concentrations of recalcitrant organochlorines currently found in marine

  15. Impacts of molt-inhibiting organochlorine compounds on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanling Meng; Enmin Zou

    2009-01-01

    Because of their chemical stability and lipophilicity, many organochlorine compounds (OCs) can readily accumulate in fatty tissues of crustaceans. Several OCs have been reported to inhibit crustacean molting. To determine whether the disruption of crustacean molting by these OCs involves interference with ecdysteroid signaling in the epidermis, the impacts of five molt-inhibiting OCs on the level of N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase (NAG, EC

  16. Assessment of bioaccumulated metal and organochlorine compounds in relation to physiological biomarkers in Kootenai River white sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. O. Kruse; D. L. Scarnecchia

    2002-01-01

    Summary This study used biomarker research in order to determine potential physiological effects of bioaccumulated metal and organochlorine compounds in juvenile and adult Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Wild adult and hatchery-reared and released juvenile sturgeon were captured using hook and line, small-mesh multi-filament gillnets, setlines and angling gear. Biomarker parameters that were assessed include whole-body tissue residues, acetylcho-

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in biota from the marine environment of East Greenland.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Christensen, Jan H; Riget, Frank

    2004-09-20

    Ten black guillemot eggs, 19 ringed seals, 20 shorthorn sculpins and 20 Arctic chars were collected around Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund, Central East Greenland) in summer 2001 and analysed for 11 brominated diphenyl ether congeners (BDEs) and organochlorine compounds. Congeners BDE85 and BDE183 were not detected in any sample. SigmaBDE was highest in black guillemot eggs, with a median value of 80 ng/g lipid weight. This was approximately three times higher than that found for black guillemot eggs from West Greenland, thus supporting the spatial trend observed for organochlorines in Greenland. The median SigmaBDE concentration in ringed seal blubber was 36 ng/g lipid weight. This was clearly higher than SigmaBDE concentrations in ringed seal from the Canadian Arctic, but slightly lower than those found in ringed seals from Svalbard collected in 1981 and approximately 10 times lower than levels in seals from the Baltic Sea. Adult ringed seals had significantly higher SigmaBDE concentrations than animals less than 5 years old. Shorthorn sculpin liver and Arctic char muscle had similar concentrations of SigmaBDE, both with a median value of 7-10 ng/g lipid weight. The levels in shorthorn sculpin were similar to those reported from a previous study in Southwest Greenland. SigmaBDE levels correlated with PCB, DDT and chlordane-concentrations in the same samples, indicating similar mechanisms of uptake, bioaccumulation and biomagnification. The summed chlorobiphenyl concentrations in the same samples exceeded the SigmaBDE concentrations by a factor of approximately 15-30. The BDE congener patterns in black guillemot eggs and ringed seals were investigated using compound ratios and multivariate data analysis. The intraspecies variance was relatively small for black guillemot eggs and larger for ringed seals. Ringed seals had higher relative levels of the lower BDE congeners, e.g. BDE28 and BDE47 than black guillemots. The reasons for these different accumulation patterns are largely unknown and may reflect species-related differences in pollutant exposure, bioavailablity and metabolism. PMID:15325146

  18. Temperature dependence of the distribution of organochlorine compounds in the mosses of the Andean mountains.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Joan O; Borghini, Francesca; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Barra, Ricardo; García, Carlos J Torres; Focardi, Silvano

    2004-10-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OC), namely pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and DDTs, have been studied in mosses distributed over three altitude gradients of the Andean mountains in Chile at 18 degrees S (3200-4500 m above sea level), 37 degrees S (345-1330 m), and 45 degrees S (10-700 m). The observed concentrations range among the lowestvalues ever reported in remote sites, but they are still higher than those found in previously studied Antarctic areas. The log transformed OC concentrations show a significant linear dependence from reciprocal of temperature independently of the origin of the compounds, e.g. industrial, agricultural, or mixed. In the case of the more volatile OC these correlations involve variance percentages higher than 50%. This good agreement gives further ground to temperature as the driving factor for the retention of long-range transported OC in remote ecosystems, including those in the southern hemisphere such as the Andean mountains. In the context of the samples selected for study, the temperature dependences in the areas of similar latitude are related to altitude. Thus, all OC in the highest altitude gradient (18 degrees S) and most compounds in the other two profiles (37 degrees S and 45 degrees S) exhibit higher concentrations with decreasing annual average temperature and thus increase with elevation above sea level. However, theoretical examination of the exponential equation relating OC concentrations to reciprocal of absolute temperatures shows that besides the temperature differences between highest and lowest elevation, the most relevant factor determining the OC concentration gradients is the lowest temperature value of each altitudinal series. That is, the point at highest elevation. PMID:15543741

  19. Structural diversity of organochlorine compounds in groundwater affected by an industrial point source.

    PubMed

    Frische, Kerstin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Ricking, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Groundwater samples contaminated by an industrial point source were analysed in order to reveal the structural diversity of halogenated organic contaminants. Particular focus was laid on the metabolites and derivatives related to the pesticides DDT (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichlorethane) and lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane). Additionally, a wide range of chlorinated and brominated xenobiotics were identified. These results represent a high degree of contamination with organochlorine compounds illustrating a considerable structural diversity in groundwater in the vicinity of the industrial plant. The polar DDT-metabolite DDA (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)acetic acid), which has been neglected in water studies widely, represents the main DDT metabolite analysed in the water samples. Besides DDA, some unknown substances with structural relation to DDA and DDT were detected and identified, in detail 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid N-methyl amide (DDAMA) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid n-butyl ester (DDABE). As an overall implication of this study it has to be demanded that analysis of industrially affected ground waters have to be based on screening analysis for a comprehensive view on the state of pollution. PMID:20810145

  20. Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds and neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vizcaino, Esther; Murcia, Mario; Fuentes, Virginia; Garcia, Ana-Maria; Rebagliato, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Ballester, Ferran

    2010-11-01

    It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to some organochlorine compounds (OCs) may adversely affect thyroid function and may, therefore, impair neurodevelopment. The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship of cord serum levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), four individual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), and their sum, with neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in blood samples in a mother-infant cohort in Valencia, Spain. This study included 453 infants born between 2004 and 2006. We measured OC concentrations in umbilical cord serum and TSH in blood of newborns shortly after birth. Associations between neonatal TSH levels and prenatal OC exposure adjusted for covariates were assessed using multivariate linear regression analyses. Neonatal TSH levels tended to be higher in newborns with ?-HCH levels in umbilical cord above 90th percentile (104 ng/g lipid) than in those with levels below the median (34 ng/g lipid), with an adjusted increment in neonatal TSH levels of 21% (95% confidence interval=-3, 51; P=0.09). No statistically significant association was found between the remaining OCs and TSH at birth. Prenatal exposure to ?-HCH may affect neonatal thyroid hormone status and its function in neurological development. PMID:19707252

  1. Immune function biomarkers in children exposed to lead and organochlorine compounds: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Brooks, Kevin R; Nebe, Thomas; Witten, Jutta; Obi-Osius, Nadia; Kruse, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Background Different organochlorines and lead (Pb) have been shown to have immunomodulating properties. Children are at greater risk for exposure to these environmental toxicants, but very little data exist on simultaneous exposures to these substances. Methods We investigated whether the organochlorine compounds (OC) dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (?PCBs) and Pb were associated with immune markers such as immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, white blood cell (WBC), counts of lymphocytes; eosinophils and their eosinophilic granula as well as IgE count on basophils. The investigation was part of a cross-sectional environmental study in Hesse, Germany. In 1995, exposure to OC and Pb were determined, questionnaire data collected and immune markers quantified in 331 children. For the analyses, exposure (OC and Pb) concentrations were grouped in quartiles (?-HCH into tertiles). Using linear regression, controlling for age, gender, passive smoking, serum lipids, and infections in the previous 12 months, we assessed the association between exposures and immune markers. Adjusted geometric means are provided for the different exposure levels. Results Geometric means were: DDE 0.32 ?g/L, ?PCBs 0.50 ?g/L, HCB 0.22 ?g/L, ?-HCH 0.02 ?g/L and Pb 26.8 ?g/L. The ?PCBs was significantly associated with increased IgM levels, whereas HCB was inversely related to IgM. There was a higher number of NK cells (CD56+) with increased ?-HCH concentrations. At higher lead concentrations we saw increased IgE levels. DDE showed the most associations with significant increases in WBC count, in IgE count on basophils, IgE, IgG, and IgA levels. DDE was also found to significantly decrease eosinophilic granula content. Conclusion Low-level exposures to OC and lead (Pb) in children may have immunomodulating effects. The increased IgE levels, IgE count on basophils, and the reduction of eosinophilic granula at higher DDE concentrations showed a most consistent pattern, which could be of clinical importance in the etiology of allergic diseases. PMID:15831097

  2. Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals ( Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kajiwara; S. Niimi; M. Watanabe; Y. Ito; S. Takahashi; S. Tanabe; L. S. Khuraskin; N. Miyazaki

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were determined in the blubber and liver of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) found stranded on the coast of the Caspian Sea during an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2000. Among organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 470 ?g\\/g on a lipid-weight basis.

  3. Extraction and distribution of organochlorine compounds in eastern Lake Erie and Niagara River water

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A chromic acid digestion extraction technique was compared to conventional solvent extraction for recovery of a series of organochlorine compounds (chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, DDE, mirex and photomirex) from centrifuged water collected at two sites along the Niagara River, between 1/22/86 and 1/7/87. The sampling sites were located near the river's inlet at Fort Erie, Ontario and close to the river's outlet to Lake Ontario at Niagara-on-the-Lake Ontario. The digestion technique was more efficient than conventional solvent extraction. Relative recovery (undigested/digested) decreased exponentially with increasing log K[sub ow]. This implies that digestion-extraction recovers both the fraction dissolved and the fraction bound to dissolved organic matter (DOM), while conventional solvent extraction only recovers the dissolved fraction. As the time compounds equilibrated with the DOM increased, the extraction efficiencies by conventional extraction decreased while the efficiencies by digestion extraction remained 100%. Results obtained with the digestion technique were also more reproducible than those with conventional solvent extraction. the relative recoveries also varied between the two sites. Using conventional solvent extraction PCB concentrations appeared to decrease by about 13% along the length of the river while with digestion extraction the PCBs increased by approximately 33%. To study the homogeneity of water in the eastern basin of Lake Erie, uncentrifuged water samples collected from the inlet of the Niagara River at Fort Erie, Ontario, were compared to samples collected from Lake Erie at Sturgeon Point, New York for the period from 7/24/86 to 1/24/87. The average concentrations of four PCB congeners, total organic carbon, turbidity and conductance were similar at the two sampling sites. The average p,p[prime]-DDE concentration was 0.53 ng/L at Fort Erie but only 0.28 ng/L at Sturgeon Point.

  4. Concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants in bowhead whale tissues and other biota from northern Alaska: implications for human exposure from a subsistence diet.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, P F; O'Hara, T M; Backus, S M; Hanns, C; Muir, D C G

    2005-07-01

    Bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus; n = 5) blubber, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, diaphragm, tongue, and uncooked maktak (bowhead whale epidermis and blubber) were collected during subsistence hunts at Barrow, AK, USA (1997-1999) to measure concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs). The exposure of humans to OCs via bowhead whales and other biota [fish, ringed (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), and beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas)] as part of a subsistence diet was evaluated. Concentrations of OCs in bowhead whale tissues were correlated with lipid content (P < 0.001) and were less than levels in other marine mammals reported herein, reflecting the lower trophic status of this cetacean. The relative proportions of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and sum (Sigma) concentrations of chlordane components (SigmaCHL), DDT-related compounds (SigmaDDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCB) were not statistically different among the tissues analyzed (P < 0.05). However, relatively higher proportions of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (SigmaHCH), particularly beta-HCH, were observed in bowhead whale heart and diaphragm (P < 0.03). Based on Canadian and World Health Organization daily intake guidelines, "safe" human consumption rates of bowhead whale tissue and other marine biota were calculated. The most restrictive limits (mean value) for daily consumption for bowhead and beluga whale were 302 and 78 g for maktak and maktaaq (beluga whale epidermis and blubber), respectively. The tolerable daily intake limits of dioxin-like compounds from the consumption of bowhead whale blubber and liver were calculated to be 199 g (approximately 600 g for maktak) and 2222 g, respectively. A detailed profile of traditional/country foods consumed by subsistence communities of northern Alaska is required to address chronic exposure in more detail. Overall, bowhead whale tissues and other biota from northern Alaska are safe to consume at, or below, the levels calculated. PMID:15910787

  5. Riverine fluxes of the persistent organochlorine pesticides hexachlorcyclohexane and DDT in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Zhulidov, A V; Headley, J V; Pavlov, D F; Robarts, R D; Korotova, L G; Vinnikov, Y Y; Zhulidova, O V

    2000-09-01

    The contribution of gross riverine organochlorine pesticide (OCP) transport to estuaries of Russian seas and Lake Baikal was determined to help understand OCP transboundary transfer and to provide a basis for estimating Russia's contribution to global pollution by these pesticides. The official OGSNK/GSN data ranks sea/ocean/lake basins in the following order based upon the amounts of total OCPs received from agricultural use: Eastern Arctic>Western Arctic>Pacific>Baltic>Caspian>Azov/Black>Baikal. A similar ranking was obtained using an independent set of data: Eastern Arctic>Pacific>Caspian>Western Arctic>Baltic>Azov/Black. In terms of riverine flow-associated discharge of HCH isomers (i.e., sum of alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH) estuaries of the Kara, Okhotsk and Beloye (White)/Barents seas received more pesticides than other seas. No HCH was discharged to estuaries of the Eastern Siberian and Bering seas. For DDT and its derivative (DDE), estuaries of the Kara, Caspian, Okhotsk and Baltic seas received the greatest amounts. During our study period (1988-1996), HCH transport was more prevalent in the majority of rivers reflecting both the official ban on the use of DDT in the former Soviet Union and the greater popularity of HCH as a pesticide. In general, it appears that Russian rivers play a significant role in OCP contamination of some estuaries of regional seas, especially those of the eastern Arctic basin, such as the Kara Sea. PMID:10864155

  6. Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Compounds in Biological Tissue and Bed Sediment From Streams in the Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in biological tissue and bed sediment from the Trinity River Basin study area of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorine compounds were determined in biological tissue and surficial bed sediment from 16 stream sites in the Trinity River Basin of east-central Texas. Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) were collected at 10 sites, and fish, including blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bluegill (Lepomis cyanellus), and yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) were collected at all mainstem and two tributary sites. Thirty of the 36 compounds analyzed in biological tissue or surficial bed sediment were detected in one or both media. Overall, more organochlorine compounds were detected in bed sediment than in biological tissue; however, various chlordane isomers, DDT metabolites, and PCBs were detected more frequently in tissue than in sediment. The chlordane isomers and PCBs that were detected more frequently in biological tissue also were detected more frequently at urban sites than at agricultural sites. Organochlorine compound concentrations generally were highest in fish tissue from Trinity River mainstem sites. Fish tissue from the mainstem sites contained a higher percentage of lipids than did fish- and clam-tissue samples from the tributary sites.

  7. Persistent organochlorine pesticides detected in blood and tissue samples of vultures from different localities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, E; Bouwman, H; van der Bank, H; Verdoorn, G H; Hofmann, D

    2001-07-01

    Gas chromatography was used to establish the presence of quantifiable residues of 14 persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in whole blood, clotted blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle samples obtained from individual African whitebacked (Pseudogyps africanus), Cape griffon (Gyps coprotheres) and Lappetfaced (Torgos tracheliotos) vultures from different localities in South Africa. The levels of pesticides measured in whole blood samples of live specimens were compared between nestlings from two natural breeding colonies, adults from a wildlife area and birds held in captivity. Statistically significant (P<0.05) differences between populations were detected in geometric means calculated for gamma-BHC (lindane), alpha(cis)-chlordane and alpha-endosulfan. Five of the organochlorine contaminants displayed significant variations between concentrations detected in the clotted blood, organs and muscles excised from vulture carcasses. This includes residues of gamma-BHC, alpha-chlordane, dieldrin, beta-endosulfan and heptachlor epoxide. Values of the respective biocides measured in vulture samples were generally low in comparison to results documented for a number of avian species. Although no threat is posed by any of the organochloride pesticides, continual monitoring of especially breeding colonies is recommended. Furthermore, the suitability of African whitebacked vulture nestlings as basic bioindicators is highly advocated. PMID:11461840

  8. Exposure of women to organochlorine pesticides in Southern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Begoña Botella; Jorge Crespo; Ana Rivas; Isabel Cerrillo; Maria Fátima Olea-Serrano; Nicolás Olea

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic compounds that persist in the environment. Because of their lipid solubility and resistance to metabolism, some of these chemicals accumulate in human tissues. The largest area of intensive greenhouse agriculture in Europe is near the Mediterranean coast of Southern Spain, where this type of farming has greatly expanded since the 1960s. We determined and compared the

  9. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organochlorine compounds and nitro musks in mother's milk from Germany (Bavaria).

    PubMed

    Raab, Ulla; Preiss, Ursula; Albrecht, Michael; Shahin, Nabil; Parlar, Harun; Fromme, Hermann

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a new spectrum of substances that will be selected for future breast milk monitoring in Bavaria, Germany. Up to now, the analysis of breast milk in Bavaria was limited to selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Information on background levels of toxicologically interesting substances, such as dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) or on flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are very limited or not available for Bavaria. We present here levels on OCP, some nitro musks, indicator PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and dl-PCB concentrations in breast milk collected at 12 weeks post-partum of 43 primiparous mothers living in Bavaria. The average concentrations of PCDD, PCDF and dl-PCB were 4.98, 4.93 and 9.92 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. The mean contribution of PCDD, PCDF, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCB to the total WHO-TEQ is consistently about 25% each. Furthermore the concentration on PBDE in breast milk at two sampling points, 12 weeks and 16 weeks after delivery, were determined. Overall, 19 PBDE congeners were analysed, however the level of 12 PBDE congeners were below the limit of detection. BDE-153 and BDE-47 were the predominant congeners accounting for about 66% of the total PBDE. The means of the total concentrations of PBDE (five congeners) at the first and second sampling point were 1.90 and 2.03 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. Based on our results the overall concentrations of the analysed substances in milk samples from Bavaria are consistent with the levels of breast milk samples of other European countries reflecting the low background body burden of these compounds. PMID:18328530

  10. Mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in a lactating cow

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. (Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    A contaminant mass balance was conducted of a lactating cow in its natural state. PCBs, HDHs, DDE, DDT, HCB, and several other chlorinated substances were investigated. It was found that virtually all of the cow's exposure was through feed. The contaminant absorption in the cow and hence the carry-over rate of persistent compounds was found to be a function of K[sub ow], with approximately constant values up to a log K[sub ow] of 6.5 and thereafter rapidly decreasing absorption with increasing lipophilicity of the contaminant. The key to PCB persistence in the cow was the 4,4[prime] substitution pattern. The 2,3,5 substitution was a less effective hindrance for PCB metabolism. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)] [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines in liver and fat tissues of various waterbird species from Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Sakellarides; I. K. Konstantinou; D. G. Hela; D. Lambropoulou; A. Dimou; T. A. Albanis

    2006-01-01

    Waterbirds are particularly subject to accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been shown to constitute a major hazard for this group of birds. Liver and fat tissue from ten species belonging to the orders Ciconiformes (Ardeidae, Ciconiidae, Phoenicopteridae) and Pelicaniformes (Pelecanidae, Phalacrocoracidae) were used as bioindicators in order to assess environmental pollution by POPs (HCHs, DDTs, cyclodienes, PCBs)

  13. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols....

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  15. Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain.

    PubMed

    Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Skaare, J U

    2001-01-01

    To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod) were selected to represent the lower trophic levels in the food web. Four seabird species were chosen at the higher trophic levels, Uria lomvia (Brünnich's guillemot), Cepphus grylle (black guillemot), Rissa tridactyla (black-legged kittiwake) and Larus hyperboreus (glaucous gull). We found low concentrations of the organochlorines sigma hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigma HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), sigma Chlordanes, sigma DDTs and sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (sigma PCBs) in crustaceans (11-50 ng g-1 lipid wt.) and fish (15-222 ng g-1 lipid wt.). In seabirds, the organochlorine concentrations biomagnified one to three orders of magnitude dependent on species and compound class. Glaucous gulls had the highest concentrations of all organochlorines. The organochlorine levels in all taxa except glaucous gull were comparable to those recorded in similar species in the Canadian Arctic. The organochlorine pattern changed from crustaceans and fish to seabirds. Moving up the food chain, the relative contribution of sigma HCHs, HCB and sigma Chlordanes decreased, and the relative contribution of sigma DDTs, sigma PCBs, persistent compounds and metabolites increased. The results reflected trophic transfer of organochlorines along the food chain as well as different elimination potentials due to direct diffusion in crustaceans and fish, and higher contaminant metabolic activity in seabirds. PMID:11383336

  16. Relations between Land Use and Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs, and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment and Fish on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, A.M.D.; Wolff, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

  17. Toxicological effects of gestational and lactational exposure to a mixture of persistent organochlorines in rats: systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ih; Bowers, Wayne J; Caldwell, Don; Nakai, Jamie; Pulido, Olga; Yagminas, Al; Wade, Michael G; Moir, David; Gill, Santokh; Mueller, Rudi

    2005-12-01

    A large multi-disciplinary study was conducted to investigate the systemic, neurodevelopmental, neurochemical, endocrine, and molecular pathological effects of a mixture of reconstituted persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) based on the blood profiles of Canadians residing in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence region. This report outlines the overall study design and describes the systemic effects in rat offspring perinatally exposed to the POP mixture. Maternal rats were administered orally 0, 0.013, 0.13, 1.3, or 13 mg/kg bw/day of the mixture from gestational day (GD) 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Positive and negative controls were given Aroclor 1254 (15 mg/kg bw/day) and corn oil (vehicle), respectively. The rat pups were reared, culled to 8 per litter, and killed on postnatal days 35, 70, and 350, at which time tissues were collected for analysis. Exposure to high doses of the mixture elicited clinical, biochemical, and pathological changes and high mortality rates in rat offspring. Aroclor 1254 produced similar effects but a lower mortality than was seen in POP mixture groups. Biochemical changes consisted of increased liver microsomal activities and elevated serum cholesterol. Hepatomegaly was observed in the highest dose group of the mixture and in the positive control. Liver, thymus, and spleen were the target organs of action. Microscopic changes in the liver consisted of vacuolation and hypertrophy, and those in the thymus were characterized by reduced cortical and medullary volume. The spleen showed a treatment-related reduction in lymphocyte density and lymphoid areas. This study demonstrates that exposure to the POP mixture up to 13 mg/kg/day perinatally produced growth suppression, elevated serum cholesterol, increased liver microsomal enzyme activities, and immunopathological changes in the thymus and spleen, and lethality. Most of the effects were seen at dose levels much higher than expected human exposure. PMID:16177236

  18. A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p?-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:23028613

  19. Metals, trace elements, and organochlorine compounds in bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake, Kansas, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom-sediment cores were used to investigate the occurrence of 44 metals and trace elements, and 15 organochlorine compounds in Tuttle Creek Lake, a reservoir with an agricultural basin in northeast Kansas, U.S.A. On the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sediment-quality guidelines, concentrations of Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn frequently or typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels for toxic biological effects. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally below the threshold-effects levels. Statistically significant positive depositional trends were determined for several elements. However, because the vertical profiles of element concentrations typically indicated a bimodal distribution and much of the variability could be attributable to analytical variance, the statistical trends may not represent actual trends. DDE concentrations reflected the history of DDT use. Substantial increases in grain corn and soybean production, irrigated land, and hog production in the basin have not had a discernible effect on sediment quality in the reservoir. Future research focused on small impoundments throughout the basin may enhance understanding of the effects of human activity on sediment quality within the Tuttle Creek Lake system and elsewhere.

  20. Distribution of Organochlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Mussels tissue from Albania coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koste Koci; Elda Marku; Aurel Nuro; Dritan Topi

    Organochlorinated compounds such as PCBs and DDTs are a class of widespread organic contaminants which are ubiquitous in the environment. They are stable lipophilic compounds which can be bioaccumulated (Lang, 1992) and have several toxic effects (Tanabe, 1988). PCBs are among the most widely known class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because of their ubiquity, potential for magnification in the

  1. Comparative assessment of endocrine modulators with oestrogenic activity. II. Persistent organochlorine pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M; Degen, Gisela H

    2002-05-01

    Risk assessments of synthetic chemicals with oestrogen-like activity must take into account the high dietary levels of natural endocrine modulators in food. In view of current regulations of the European Union, a hygiene-based margin of safety (HBMOS) for xeno-oestrogens was defined as a quotient of estimated human daily intakes weighted by relative rodent in vivo potencies of the compounds. Such comparisons of intakes and potencies of natural isoflavones, with short half-lives, with those of polychlorinated organic pollutants (POP) displaying significant toxicokinetic accumulation, deserves the special consideration of toxicokinetics. For slowly accumulating compounds such comparison is much more favourable when based on comparative blood and tissue levels, not on scenarios of daily exposures. Observing these principles, the present communication extends the HBMOS concept to POP, using o,p'-DDT, the oestrogenic component of DDT mixtures, as a prototype. An HBMOS of 137 is derived for o,p'-DDT indicative of a sufficient margin of safety to ensure the absence of risk to human health due to its hormonal action, under exposure conditions now prevailing in Western countries. PMID:12029381

  2. The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Chang, Keng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Mao, I-Fang

    2009-02-01

    Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), odor levels and critical odorants. Ten large recycling plants were selected for analysis of odor concentration (OC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PAHs inside and outside the plants using olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, respectively. The olfactometric results showed that the melting processes used for treating polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste significantly produced malodor, and the odor levels at downwind boundaries were 100-229 OC, which all exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. Toluene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl methacrylate and acrolein accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. Sixteen organochlorinated compounds were measured in the ambient air emitted from the PVC plastic waste recycling plant and total concentrations were 245-553 microg m(-3); most were vinyl chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene. Concentrations of PAHs inside the PE/PP plant were 8.97-252.16 ng m(-3), in which the maximum level were 20-fold higher than the levels detected from boundaries. Most of these recycling plants simply used filter to treat the melting fumes, and this could not efficiently eliminate the gaseous compounds and malodor. Improved exhaust air pollution control were strongly recommended in these industries. PMID:19091382

  3. The roles of food and water in the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in high mountain lake fish.

    PubMed

    Catalan, Jordi; Ventura, Marc; Vives, Ingrid; Grimalt, Joan O

    2004-08-15

    An integrated study encompassing the distribution of organochlorine compounds (OC) in water, food web (chironomids, terrestrial insects, cladocerans, mollusks, and cyanobacteria), and fish (brown trout) from a high mountain lake (Redon, Pyrenees) is reported. OC distributions in these compartments have been determined to assess theirtransport routes into fish. Food diets have been estimated by analysis of fish stomach content and food web stable isotopes (delta13C and delta15N). OCs with octanol--water partition coefficient (Kow) higher than 10(6) showed lower concentrations in food than expected from theoretical octanol--water partition, indicating thatthe distribution of these compounds does not reach equilibrium within the life span of the food web organisms (ca. 1 year). On the other hand, the degree of biomagnification in fish increased with Kow, except in the case of the largest compound analyzed (seven chlorine substituents, PCB #180). OC exchange at fish gill and gut has been evaluated using a fugacity model based on the water, food, and fish concentrations. All compounds exhibited a net gill loss and a net gut uptake. A pseudostationary state was only achieved for compounds with log(Kow) < 6. Calculation of fish average residence times for the compounds in apparent steady state gave values of days to a few weeks for HCHs, 1 year for HCB and 4,4'-DDE, and 2-3 years for 4,4'-DDT and PCB#28 and PCB#52. Residence times longer than one decade were found for the more chlorinated PCB. PMID:15382852

  4. INABILITY TO INDUCE TYMPANIC SQUAMOUS METAPLASIA USING ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN VITAMIN A-DEFICIENT RED-EARED SLIDERS (TRACHEMYS SCRIPTA ELEGANS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl R. Kroenlein; Jonathan M. Sleeman; Priscilla H. Joyner; Justin D. Brown; Mark Griffin; Geoffrey Saunders; Stephen A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we reported that wild eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses contained higher body burdens of organochlorine (OC) compounds than those without the lesion. This lesion in captive chelonians is associated with turtles that are fed diets deficient in vitamin A. To examine the pathophysiology of this lesion and evaluate the relationship between OC burdens and vitamin

  5. Prediction of biomagnification factors for some organochlorine compounds using linear free energy relationship parameters and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, M H; Abraham, M H; Haghdadi, M

    2009-07-01

    Multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANNs) as feature mapping techniques were used for the prediction of the biomagnification factor (BMF) of some organochlorine pollutants. As independent variables, or compound descriptors, the Abraham descriptors often employed in linear free energy relationships were used. Much better results were obtained from the nonlinear ANN model than from multiple linear regression. The average absolute error, average relative error and root mean square error in the calculation of log (BMF) by the ANN model were 0.055, 0.051 and 0.097 for the training set and 0.11, 0.086 and 0.175 for the internal validation set, respectively. The degree of importance of each descriptor was evaluated by carrying out a sensitivity analysis approach for the nonlinear model. The results obtained reveal that the order of importance is the pollutant volume, the pollutant dipolarity/polarizability and the pollutant excess molar refraction. In order to examine the credibility of the obtained ANN model the leave-many-out cross-validation test was applied which gave Q(2)= 0.827 and SPRESS = 0.15. Also the Y-scrambling procedure was applied to the ANN model in order to examine the effect of chance correlations. The results obtained reveal that it is possible to predict the BMFs of organochlorine pollutants using a nonlinear ANN model with Abraham descriptors as inputs. PMID:19916109

  6. Concentrations of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit : Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.; Coupe, Richard H.; Justus, Billy G.; Kleiss, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    Whole fish were collected at 52 sites during 1995-99 to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of selected organochlorine compounds in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit. Samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. From 5 to 8 fish were collected at each site; the fish were composited, and an aliquot of the tissue was analyzed for 28 organo-chlorine compounds, which included pesticides, pesticide degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The use of these organochlorine compounds has been discontinued or severely restricted within the United States, but the continued detection of these compounds or their degradates in the air, water, soil, and biota in national surveys, coupled with known environmental problems associated with these compounds (such as a long half-life and the propensity to accumulate in living tissue), is cause for continued interest in their environmental fate. At least one organochlorine compound was detected in every fish-tissue sample, and as many as 15 different compounds were detected in some. The most frequently detected com-pounds were the degradates of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichlo-roethane (p,p'-DDT); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected in every sample above the method reporting limit, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), was detected in 94 percent of the samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and dieldrin were detected in 83 and 78 percent of fish-tissue samples, respectively. Because these were whole fish samples, the results are not directly comparable to human health standards, which are based on fish fillets. Comparison of these results, however, to the guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife indicates that concentrations of the p,p'-DDT degradates and toxaphene continue to be of environmental concern.

  7. Levels and patterns of persistent organochlorines in minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) stocks from the North Atlantic and European Arctic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Hobbs; D. C. G. Muir; E. W. Born; R. Dietz; T. Haug; T Metcalfe; C Metcalfe; N Øien

    2003-01-01

    Regional variation in PCBs and organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations was examined using the blubber of 155 minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) sampled in seven regions in the North Atlantic and European Arctic, including western and southeastern Greenland, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and the Barents Sea. The levels and relative proportions of OCs were also used to examine the boundaries

  8. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Liver of Birds of Different Trophic Levels from Coastal Areas of Campania, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Naso; D. Perrone; M. C. Ferrante; A. Zaccaroni; A. Lucisano

    2003-01-01

    Liver samples of 12 species of birds of different trophic levels, collected during the period 1998–2000 from coastal areas of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocycloexane (?-HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the seven PCB “target” congeners, IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and

  9. Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.

    PubMed

    Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

    2014-09-01

    This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. PMID:24568747

  10. Physical-chemical and maternal determinants of the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in four-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Grimalt, Joan O; Ribas-Fito, Nuria; Sunyer, Jordi; Torrent, Maties

    2006-03-01

    A cohort study representing a general population (Minorca Island, birth year 1997-1998) showed that in utero transfer of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in children was strongly correlated with the age of the mother and, in the case of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 4,4'-DDE, and 4,4'-DDT, with the maternal body mass index. Some of these correlations remained significant for the serum concentrations collected in these children at four years. No significant correlations with length of gestation were observed. Breastfeeding and age of lactation were strong determinants of most OC concentrations at four years of age. At this age, the body burden of these compounds was higher than at birth irrespective of maternal or formula feeding, but they accumulated at higher extent in the former case involving concentration increments in blood that surpassed the growth dilution effects, with the only exceptions being pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), HCB, and 4,4'-DDT. 4,4'-DDE exhibited the highest increase in association with breastfeeding, pointing to a specific accumulation pathway via this mode. Compounds with low K(ow) values such as beta-hexachlorocyclohexane showed significant accumulation in four-year-old children but with small differences between the groups that had been raised on either breast milk or formula. Compounds having low K(oa) values such as HCB showed decreases in concentration and small body burden variation between birth and four years of age, which points to their preferential elimination in these initial periods of infant growth. PMID:16568751

  11. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and streambed sediment in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappia, Humbert

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 1998, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, a survey was conducted to determine which organochlorine compounds and trace elements occur in fish tissues and streambed sediments in the Mobile River Basin, which includes parts of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. The data collected were compared to guidelines related to wildlife, land use, and to 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program Study-Unit data.Twenty-one sites were sampled in subbasins of the Mobile River Basin. The subbasins ranged in size from about 9 to 22,000 square miles and were dominated by either a single land use or a combination of land uses. The major land-use categories were urban, agriculture, and forest.Organochlorine compounds were widespread spatially in the Mobile River Basin. At least one organochlorine compound was reported at the majority of sampling sites (84 percent) and in a majority of whole-fish (80 percent) and streambed-sediment (52 percent) samples. Multiple organochlorine compounds were reported at 75 percent of the sites where fish tissues were collected and were reported at many of the streambed-sediment sampling sites (45 percent). The majority of concentrations reported, however, were less than 5 micrograms per kilogram in fish-tissue samples and less than 1 microgram per kilogram in streambed-sediment samples.The majority of trace elements analyzed in fish-liver tissue (86 percent) and streambed-sediment (98 percent) samples were reported during this study. Multiple trace elements were reported in all samples and at all sites.Based on comparisons of concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish-tissue and streambed-sediment samples in relation to National Academy of Science and National Academy of Engineering and Canadian tissue guidelines, probable-effects concentrations, and mean probable-effects concentration quotients for streambed sediment, the potential exists for adverse effects to wildlife at 15 (72 percent) of the sites sampled. The potential for adverse effects at these sites is because of the presence of residues or breakdown products related to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chromium, lead, and zinc.The majority of compounds reported (65 percent) were chlordane, DDT, and PCB?s, or their breakdown products. Concentrations of chlordane and heptachlor epoxide in whole-fish tissue were positively correlated to the amount of urban land use in a basin. Total DDT concentrations in whole-fish tissues were positively correlated to agriculture.The relation of trace elements to land use is not as clear as the relation of organochlorine compounds to land use. This lack of clarity may be due to the possibility of geologic sources of trace elements in the Mobile River Basin and to the ubiquitous nature of many of these trace elements. However, there may be a correlation between the amount of urban land use and concentrations of antimony, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed-sediment samples from the Mobile River Basin.Fewer organochlorine compounds and trace elements were reported in samples from the Mobile River Basin than in samples collected during the 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies. Of the organochlorine compounds analyzed nationally, 57 percent were reported in whole-fish tissue samples collected locally and 41 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples collected locally, whereas 96 percent and 86 percent, respectively, were reported nationally. Of trace elements analyzed nationally, 86 percent were reported in fish-liver tissue locally and 95 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples locally, whereas 95 percent and 98 percent, respectively, were reported nationally.In general, concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements and the frequency with which they were reported in the Mobile River Basin are similar to or less than t

  12. Seasonal variation of persistent organochlorine accumulation in birds from Lake Baikal, Russia, and the role of the south Asian region as a source of pollution for wintering migrants.

    PubMed

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Minh, Tu Binh; Fukuda, Kayo; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Titenko, Alexei M

    2002-04-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in whole body soft tissue homogenates and in muscles of resident and migratory birds collected from Lake Baikal, Russia. The residue pattern in both resident and migratory birds was in the following order: PCBs > DDTs > HCHs > CHLs. OC concentrations in migratory birds varied, depending on the feeding habit. The maximum levels of OCs were found in piscivores, followed by insectivores, omnivores, and herbivores. OC residue levels in Lake Baikal birds were lower than those in the Great Lakes region as well as in other lakes in Europe and Japan. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in most of the migratory birds collected in the spring were higher than for those collected in the autumn, indicating a notable accumulation in wintering grounds. Compilation and analysis of the available data in fish and birds from Asia suggested that the tropical and subtropical regions in south Asian countries may be a source of pollution for the wintering accumulation of migratory birds from Lake Baikal. Relatively higher compositions of alpha- and gamma-HCH in total HCHs, p,p'-DDT in total DOTs were observed in some migratory species, indicating recent exposure to HCHs and DDTs in Lake Baikal or wintering areas. PCB isomer patterns were different between residents and migrants, with the predominance of lower chlorinated congeners in migratory species, suggesting recent PCB accumulation in stopover sites during wintering. TEQ concentrations of toxic non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs in common terns from Lake Baikal were comparable to those reported in some species from Japan, the United States, and Europe. Relative contributions of non-ortho coplanar congeners to toxic equivalents (TEQs) were predominant, in which CB-126 accounted for the highest toxicity contribution. Estimated TEQ concentrations in the common tern from Lake Baikal exceeded the levels associated with enzyme induction in bald eagles. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study showing the seasonal variations of OC accumulation in the birds from Lake Baikal. PMID:11999042

  13. Organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and in biological tissue from streams and their relations to land use, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebler, Joseph B.

    2000-01-01

    Streambed-sediment samples from 13 sites and biological-tissue samples from 11 sites in the Gila River Basin in central Arizona were analyzed for 32 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and 28 compounds in biological tissue during 1996 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The objectives of the study were to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and their relation to land use. Sampling sites were categorized on the basis of major land uses in the basin or the source of water in the stream. Because land uses were mixed or had changed over time, some land-use categories were combined. Sites were categorized as forest/rangeland (6), forest/urban (1), urban (4), or agricultural/urban (2). Thirteen organochlorine compounds were detected in streambed-sediment samples, and 10 were detected in tissue samples. The number of compounds found in streambed-sediment samples from individual sites ranged from 0 to 10, and the range for individual tissue samples was 0 to 7. Comparison of the number of detections in streambed-sediment samples to the number of detections in tissue samples from particular sites where both were sampled yielded five instances where more compounds were detected in streambed sediment, six instances where more compounds were detected in tissue, and five instances where the number of detections in streambed sediment and tissue were equal. The frequency of detection of particular compounds for sites where both streambed sediment and tissue were sampled resulted in five compounds being detected more frequently in streambed sediment, five more frequently in tissue, and three compounds that were equally frequent in streambed sediment and in tissue. Few contaminants were detected in samples from the forest/rangeland sites; greater numbers of compounds were detected at the urban sites and at the forest/urban site. The greatest number of compounds and the highest concentrations of many contaminants were detected at agriculture/urban sites. The compound detected most frequently in streambed-sediment and tissue samples was p,p'-DDE. Streambed-sediment guideline values for the protection of aquatic life for p,p'-DDE and total DDT were exceeded at both agricultural/urban sites, The streambed-sediment guideline value for the protection of aquatic life for total chlordane was exceeded at one agricultural/urban site, one urban site, and the forest/urban site. The streambed-sediment guideline value for the protection of aquatic life for total PCB’s was exceeded at one agricultural/urban site. Guideline values for the protection of fish-eating wildlife for total DDT and for toxaphene were exceeded only in samples from the two agricultural/urban sites. The guideline value for the protection of fish-eating wildlife for total PCB’s was equaled or exceeded in samples from two sites—one urban and one agricultural/urban site. Screening values established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the protection of human health for edible portions of fish were exceeded by total DDT and by toxaphene in fish-tissue samples from both agricultural/urban sites. The human-health criterion for total PCB’s was exceeded in two fish-tissue samples from an agricultural site and from an urban site. Tissue samples analyzed in this study were for whole fish, and thus, concentration data are not entirely comparable to the screening values of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Because these exceedences were an order of magnitude above the criteria, however, it is possible that concentrations in the edible portions of fish from these locations could present a human- health risk. Analyses of samples of edible portions of fish from these locations would be needed to adequately assess the presence or absence of a human-health risk. The similarity of the results of this study to the results of other studies of organochlorine compounds in the environment suggests that there is a correlation between contaminants in sediment and biological-tissue samples

  14. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV. Hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Covaci, Adrian; van den Brink, Nico W; Verhagen, Ron; De Coen, Wim

    2007-02-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), by investigating concentrations of these compounds in soils and hedgehog hair from seven study sites around the urban area of Antwerp, Belgium. No relationships were observed between organochlorine compound concentrations in soils and hair from the different study areas. Furthermore, the individual variation of contamination levels in hair within study sites was high, especially for HCHs and HCB, and hair and soil had different relative profiles for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs. Our results show that concentrations of organochlorine compounds in soils alone are not predictive of the risk of these pollutants to hedgehogs and that tissue analyses are preferred to soil analyses in exposure and risk assessment studies. PMID:16787689

  15. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health determinants of placental transfer of organochlorine compounds

    PubMed Central

    Patayová, Henrieta; Wimmerová, So?a; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovi?ová, ?ubica; Drobná, Beata; Fabišková, Anna; Ková?, Ján; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate placental transfer, quantified by the cord to maternal serum concentration ratio (C/M), of five organochlorine pesticides (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) , p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 52, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123+149, 138+163, 153, 156+171, 157, 167, 170, 180, and 189) to anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health characteristics. We included into the study 1,134 births during the period 2002–2004 from two districts in eastern Slovakia with high organochlorine concentrations relative to other areas of the world. Only concentrations >LOD were taken into account. Variables as age, weight and height of mothers, parity, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, illness during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, hypertension, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus, and birth weight were related to C/M. Results of regression analyses showed that C/M was predicted by several factors studied. Positive associations were observed for gestational alcohol consumption, fewer illnesses during pregnancy, maternal age, and maternal weight. Caucasians had a greater C/M compared to Romani for wet weight data of congeners 170 and 180 and in contrast C/M for HCB was greater in Romani. Our results show that drinking mothers compared to abstaining expose their fetuses not only to alcohol but to an increased level of several PCB congeners. A straightforward explanation of associations between C/M shifts and factors studied is very difficult, however, with regard to the high lipophilicity of OCPs and PCBs, changes in their kinetics probably reflect lipid kinetics. PMID:23677752

  16. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as DXNs, from MSWI flue gas at approximately 300 degrees C. More than half of the clays used in this study showed the decomposition characteristics of MCB. The presence of Cl atoms in the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C proved the occurrence of MCB decomposition. The results of this study suggest a novel flue gas treatment method to establish high-energy efficient MSWI systems. PMID:25282999

  17. Organochlorine pesticides residue in lakes of Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Michael R.; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Fayzieva, Dilorom; Saito, L.; Lamers, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Khorezm province in northwest Uzbekistan is a productive agricultural area within the Aral Sea Basin that produces cotton, rice and wheat. Various organochlorine pesticides were widely used for cotton production before Uzbekistan's independence in 1991. In Khorezm, small lakes have formed in natural depressions that receive inputs mostly from agricultural runoff. Samples from lake waters and sediments, as well as water from the Amu Darya River (which is the source of most of the lake water) have been analyzed to study variations in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides residues during the year. Low concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, a-HCH and y-HCH compounds were found in water and sediment samples. The concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (DDT and HCH) in water and sediment is much lower than the maximum permissible concentrations that exist for water and soil. According to these preliminary results, the investigated lakes in Khorezm appear to be suitable for recreation or for aquaculture.

  18. Global Pollution Monitoring of PCBs and Organochlorine Pesticides Using Skipjack Tuna as a Bioindicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ueno; S. Takahashi; H. Tanaka; A. N. Subramanian; G. Fillmann; H. Nakata; P. K. S. Lam; J. Zheng; M. Muchtar; M. Prudente; K. H. Chung; S. Tanabe

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and

  19. The slow recovery of San Francisco Bay from the legacy of organochlorine pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Connor; Jay A. Davis; Jon Leatherbarrow; Ben K. Greenfield; Andrew Gunther; Dane Hardin; Thomas Mumley; John J. Oram; Christine Werme

    2007-01-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides, including DDTs, chlordanes, and dieldrin, peaked in San Francisco Bay's watershed 30–40 years ago, yet residues of the pesticides remain high. Known as legacy pesticides for their persistence in the Bay decades after their uses ended, the compounds and their breakdown products occur at concentrations high enough to contribute to advisories against the consumption of

  20. Current-Use Pesticides and Organochlorine Compounds in Precipitation and Lake Sediment from Two High-Elevation National Parks in the Western United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Mast; W. T. Foreman; S. V. Skaates

    2007-01-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain)\\u000a and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in\\u000a high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations\\u000a ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng\\/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and

  1. Profile of persistent chlorinated contaminants, including selected chiral compounds, in wolverine ( Gulo gulo) livers from the Canadian Arctic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. Hoekstra; B. M. Braune; C. S. Wong; M. Williamson; B. Elkin; D. C. G. Muir

    2003-01-01

    Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are circumpolar omnivores that live throughout the alpine and arctic tundra ecosystem. Wolverine livers were collected at Kugluktuk (Coppermine), NU (n=12) in the western Canadian Arctic to report, for the first time, the residue patterns of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in this species. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of several chiral OCs, including PCB atropisomers, in wolverines were

  2. Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentz, D.A.; Waite, I.R.; Rinella, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

  3. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Tissues and Eggs of White-Backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis from Different Locations in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Muralidharan; V. Dhananjayan; Robert Risebrough; V. Prakash; R. Jayakumar; Peter H. Bloom

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in tissues of five Indian white-backed vultures and two of their eggs collected\\u000a from different locations in India. All the samples had varying levels of residues. p,p?-DDE ranged between 0.002 ?g\\/g in muscle of vulture from Mudumali and 7.30 ?g\\/g in liver of vulture from Delhi. Relatively\\u000a higher levels of p,p?-DDT and its metabolites were documented in

  4. Assessment of risk to public health posed by persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in milk and milk products in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Pandit, G G; Sahu, S K

    2002-02-01

    The risk posed by the presence of organochlorine pesticides in milk and milk products was estimated for the population of Mumbai. To determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides in milk and milk products, a monitoring study was carried out in and around Mumbai City. 520 samples of milk and milk products of different brands were considered in this study. A survey was also conducted to determine the mean daily consumption of milk and milk products by different age groups and this data was used to evaluate the daily exposure to the public. Non-cancer effects were evaluated by comparing the predicted exposure distributions to the published guidance values. For chemicals identified as potential human carcinogens, cancer risk was evaluated using standard methodology. The majority of the chlorinated pesticides identified in the milk and milk product samples studied were found to be at levels which do not pose unacceptable risks to the public, with the exception of alpha-HCH. The cancer risk estimated for this chemical slightly exceeds the US EPA guidance value. PMID:11871703

  5. Organochlorine compounds in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) and fallow deer (Dama dama L.) from inland and coastal Croatia.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romani?, Snježana; Marenjak, Terezija Silvija; Klin?i?, Darija; Janicki, Zdravko; Srebo?an, Emil; Konjevi?, Dean

    2012-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels in fat tissue of red and fallow deer (Cervus elaphus L. and Dama dama L.) from two inland and an Adriatic area were established. Of 17 analysed PCBs, PCB-28, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-180 and PCB-118 were found in all samples, whilst PCB-101 and PCB-170 were found in more than 50% of samples. They ranged between 0.03 and 5.98 ng g(-1) fat weight. Of seven analysed OCPs, HCB, ?-HCH and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were found in all samples, whilst ?-HCH was found in more than 50% of samples. They ranged between 0.17 and 22.14 ng g(-1) fat weight. The dominating compounds were DDE, PCB-138, PCB153, PCB-118 and PCB-180. According to the Duncan multistage test, the levels of PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB 170 and PCB-180 were significantly higher in perirenal fat samples of specimens taken from the Adriatic area. DDE was significantly higher in the inland deer samples. Some species differences were determined and were mostly related to higher PCB and ?-HCH levels in fallow deer samples and higher DDE levels in red deer samples. No sex difference was established. As for age, significantly higher levels of PCB-118 and PCB-52 were found in fawns. PMID:21904863

  6. Heavy metals and organochlorinated compounds in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from the Adour estuary and associated wetlands (France).

    PubMed

    Tabouret, H; Bareille, G; Mestrot, A; Caill-Milly, N; Budzinski, H; Peluhet, L; Prouzet, P; Donard, O F X

    2011-05-01

    Heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in the Adour estuary (South West France) and associated wetlands using the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) as a bioindicator. Heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, and Ag) were measured in soft tissue of yellow eels. Mercury (total Hg and MeHg) and organochlorinated compounds (7 PCBs, 11 OCPs) were analysed in muscle. Concentrations in muscle were in agreement with moderately contaminated environments in Europe and were below the norms fixed for eel consumption for heavy metals and OCPs. Analyses of liver showed a higher pressure of Ag and Zn in the downstream estuary than in the freshwater sites whereas Cd was lower in the estuary probably because of the salinity influence. According to quality classes 100% of eels from freshwater sites indicated clean or slightly polluted environments. However, total mercury concentrations were close to the thresholds fixed by the European Community in the downstream estuary, whereas the sum of PCBs was found to be greatly above the fixed value. 100% of the individuals from the estuary were classified in quality classes corresponding to polluted or highly polluted sites. These first results highlight the need of further investigations focused on mercury and PCBs in this area taking the seasonal temperature influence into account for a better understanding of the pollution distribution and the possible threat on the eel population from the Adour basin. PMID:21468402

  7. Maternal origin and other determinants of cord serum organochlorine compound concentrations in infants from the general population.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Llop, Sabrina; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran

    2010-08-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs), including pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), were determined in the serum of 499 cord blood samples from infants born during 2004-2006 in Valencia (Spain). The concentrations were found to be correlated with the region of origin of the mothers. Those from Latin-America gave birth to infants with higher 4,4'-DDE and 4,4'-DDT concentrations than those from Europe. On the contrary, European mothers had children with higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCBs than Latin-American mothers. These associations were independent of maternal period of stage in Valencia. Data examination with a multivariate model including maternal region of origin described 39-44% of the concentration variability of 4,4'-DDE and total PCBs with statistic significance. Other maternal variables found to significantly influence OC burden in newborns were age, education level, and body mass index (BMI). In general, older women, with higher education standards and higher BMI had infants with higher OC serum concentrations than younger women, with lower education scores and low BMI. The increase of 4,4'-DDT in newborns from mothers with high education levels and high BMI suggest that dissimilar maternal diets may be at the origin of some of these OC body burden differences. PMID:20666461

  8. Alternative tissue analysis method developed for organochlorine contaminants in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, T.H.; Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1994-09-01

    The exposure of aquatic life to organochlorine contaminants has been investigated during the past two decades because of human and ecosystem health concerns related to the bioaccumulation of hazardous, lipophilic substances. The toxic effects of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known, and recent evidence also suggests that low level exposure to lipophilic organochlorines may interfere with normal development during sensitive early life history stages. As the use of lipophilic organochlorines, such as DDT, in third world countries continues and with the purported global cycling and food chain accumulation of persistent organochlorines, the occurrence of these compounds in aquatic organisms is a critical global environmental issue. An understanding of the fate of organochlorines in the environmental clearly remains an extremely important subject related to water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently gained congressional approval in the United States to track nation wide trends in water quality through the establishment of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Among the goals defined by NAWQA, aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, and plants, collected from major drainage basins will be analyzed for, along with other contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine insecticides, and chlorobenzenes. The purpose of this report is to present quality assurance data obtained from the development of a PCB, chlorobenzene, and organochlorine insecticide tissue analysis method in support of NAWQA and other large-scale water quality programs conducted through our laboratory. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Maternal Concentrations of Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Asthma in Offspring: Results from a Prospective Cohort with 20 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Maslova, Ekaterina; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil H.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous findings suggest that developmental exposures to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may be detrimental for the development of the immune system in the offspring. Whether these suspected immunoregulatory effects persist beyond early childhood remains unclear. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal serum concentrations of POPs and the risk of asthma in offspring after 20 years of follow-up. Methods: A birth cohort with 965 women was formed in 1988–1989 in Aarhus, Denmark. Concentrations of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) were quantified in maternal serum (n = 872) collected in gestation week 30. Information about offspring use of asthma medications was obtained from the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results: Maternal serum concentrations of HCB and dioxin-like PCB-118 were positively associated with offspring asthma medication use after 20 years of follow-up (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with subjects in the first tertile of maternal concentration, those in the third tertile of PCB-118 had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.23). For HCB the HR for the third versus the first tertile of maternal concentration was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.21). Weak positive associations were also estimated for PCB-156 and the non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180). No associations were found for p,p´-DDE. Conclusions: Maternal concentrations of PCB-118 and HCB were associated with increased risk of asthma in offspring followed through 20 years of age. Citation: Hansen S, Strøm M, Olsen SF, Maslova E, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Rytter D, Bech BH, Hansen LV, Halldorsson TI. 2014. Maternal concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants and the risk of asthma in offspring: results from a prospective cohort with 20 years of follow-up. Environ Health Perspect 122:93–99;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206397 PMID:24162035

  10. Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Pulster, Erin L; Smalling, Kelly L; Zolman, Eric; Schwacke, Lori; Maruya, Keith A

    2009-07-01

    Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78.6 +/- 32.4 microg/g lipid) and toxaphene (11.7 +/- 9.3 microg/g lipid) were significantly higher in dolphins sampled in the TBRE than in dolphins stranded near Savannah (GA, USA) 80 to 100 km to the north. Levels of OCPs were several-fold lower than levels of PCBs; moreover, PCBs comprised 81 and 67% of the total POP burden in TBRE and non-TBRE dolphins, respectively. Analyses with GC-ECNI-MS revealed that 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a), a major component in technical toxaphene and a major residue congener in local estuarine fish species, was the most abundant chlorobornane in both sets of blubber samples. Mean total POP concentrations (sum of PCBs, OCPs, and toxaphene) approached 100 microg/g lipid for the TBRE animals, well above published total PCB thresholds at which immunosuppresion and/or reproductive anomalies are thought to occur. These results indicate extended utilization of the highly contaminated TBRE as habitat for a group of coastal estuarine dolphins, and they further suggest that these animals may be at risk because of elevated POP concentrations. PMID:19203137

  11. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high-altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté Pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Re-emission of PCBs from soils or as a consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific sources as the predominant origin of these compounds in these remote sites. In contrast, significant correlations between current-use pesticides and air masses flowing from the south were observed in Gossenköllesee, Lochnagar and Redòn. In the case of Redòn, the higher proportion of air masses from the south occurred in parallel to higher temperatures, which did not allow us to discriminate between these two determinant factors of pesticide deposition. However, in Gossenköllesee and Lochnagar, the relationship between pesticide concentration and southern air masses was univocal, reflecting the impact of regions with intensive agricultural activities.

  12. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-02-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Reemission of PCBs from soils or as consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific sources as the predominant origin of these compounds in these remote sites. In contrast, significant correlations between current-use pesticides and air masses flowing from the south were observed in Gossenköllesee, Lochnagar and Redòn. In the case of Redòn, the higher proportion of air masses from the south occurred in parallel to higher temperatures, which did not allow to discriminating between these two determinant factors of pesticide deposition. However, in Gossenköllesee and Lochnagar, the relationship between pesticide concentration and southern air masses was univocal reflecting the impact of regions with intensive agricultural activities.

  13. Influence of altitude and age in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in fish from high mountain lakes.

    PubMed

    Vives, Ingrid; Grimalt, Joan O; Catalan, Jordi; Rosseland, Björn O; Battarbee, Rick W

    2004-02-01

    The analysis of hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, polychlorobiphenyls, and DDTs in muscle of fish from high mountain lakes shows that a proportion of their concentration variance depends on fish age and lake altitude. Interestingly, the magnitude of this share corresponds linearly with the log-transformed vapor pressure (Vp) of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Thus, the distributions of OC with Vp < 10(-2.5) Pa are mostly determined by these two variables. Altitude gradients mainly respond to temperature differences, involving concentration increases of 25-150 times between 8.7 and -2.3 degrees C. The age effect encompasses concentration increments of 2.4-7.8 for average lake differences between 2 and 13 yr. However, both effects are independent since no correlation between fish age and lake altitude is observed. Fish liver concentrations exhibit the same pattern, but the correlations are only significantfor age, suggesting thatthe temperature trend is more related to long-term accumulation than episodic intake. The temperature effect is independent from compound origin. In addition, the sites situated at highest altitude, those most distant from possible ground pollution sources, are the most polluted. The results can be explained by condensation effects such as those described for the latitudinal trends that support the global distillation theory. However, in the high altitude lakes a temperature-dependent amplification mechanism, probably related to low metabolism and respiration at lowtemperatures, enhances OC accumulation in fish beyond the increases predicted from theoretical condensation and solubilization enthalpies. The observed temperature dependence suggests that a general remobilization of OC accumulated in high mountain areas could take place as a consequence of the general warming of these areas anticipated in the climatic change studies. PMID:14968852

  14. Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam N.. Jacobs; Gail T. Nolan; Steven R. Hood

    2005-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR).

  15. Impacts of molt-inhibiting organochlorine compounds on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanling; Zou, Enmin

    2009-11-01

    Because of their chemical stability and lipophilicity, many organochlorine compounds (OCs) can readily accumulate in fatty tissues of crustaceans. Several OCs have been reported to inhibit crustacean molting. To determine whether the disruption of crustacean molting by these OCs involves interference with ecdysteroid signaling in the epidermis, the impacts of five molt-inhibiting OCs on the level of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, EC 3.2.1.30) mRNA in cultured epidermal tissues from the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. The NAG mRNA was found to be inducible by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) in cultured epidermal tissues. The inducibility of NAG mRNA in cultured epidermal tissues by 20-HE is not only further direct evidence that epidermal expression of NAG gene in U. pugilator is controlled by the molting hormone but also validates the use of the NAG mRNA as a biomarker for epidermal ecdysteroid signaling. When Aroclor 1242, 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29), endosulfan or kepone was administered alone, the expression of NAG gene in cultured epidermal tissues was upregulated, while heptachlor had no effects. Under binary exposure to both 20-HE and an OC, a condition similar to the natural hormonal milieu of epidermal tissues of animals impacted by OCs, both Aroclor 1242 and endosulfan were found to be capable of antagonizing ecdysteroid signaling in cultured epidermal tissues. This antagonizing effect on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling can at least partly explain the inhibitory effects of these two agents on crustacean molting. PCB29, when given together with 20-HE, produced an additive effect on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling but such an additive effect was not observed when kepone was combined with 20-HE. PMID:19567274

  16. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in liver of birds of different trophic levels from coastal areas of Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Naso, B; Perrone, D; Ferrante, M C; Zaccaroni, A; Lucisano, A

    2003-10-01

    Liver samples of 12 species of birds of different trophic levels, collected during the period 1998-2000 from coastal areas of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), gamma-hexachlorocycloexane (gamma-HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the seven PCB "target" congeners, IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. p,p'-DDE was present in all the samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from 4 to 4504 ng/g wet wt, which were much higher than those found for HCB, dieldrin, and p,p'-DDD. The concentrations of the others OCs were below the detection limit in all the samples. PCBs were found in all the bird species at levels ranging between 6 and 8431 ng/g wet wt. The hepta-, hexa-, and penta-chlorinated congeners 180, 153, 138, and 118 were predominant since, in almost all the species, they contributed to more than 98% of the total seven determined PCBs. No significant differences in mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides are detected between single species or between species grouped according to their feeding habits (p > 0.05). However, p,p'-DDE levels were higher in carnivorous species than in omnivorous and insectivorous ones (carnivorous > omnivorous > insectivorous). Concentrations of total PCBs were significantly higher in omnivorous birds than in carnivorous (p < 0.01) and insectivorous ones (p < 0.001), whereas carnivorous birds exhibited significantly higher total PCB levels than insectivorous ones (p < 0.01). Marked differences in total PCB concentrations were found also between single species (from p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Levels of OCs and PCBs were generally below the thresholds known to affect reproduction, however, mean hepatic concentrations of total PCBs in the yellow-legged herring gull (Larus cachinnans), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), and kestrel (Falcus tinnunculus) were far higher than those estimated to elicit immunosuppressive effects and possibly increase susceptibility to parasitoses. PMID:14674594

  17. Atmospheric transport and accumulation of organochlorine compounds on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Li, Sheng-hai; Yu, Wu-sheng; Li, Jiu-le; Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Wang, Wei-cai; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tan-dong; Joswiak, Daniel R

    2014-09-01

    Studies have been devoted to the transport and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in mountain environments. The Himalayas have the widest altitude gradient of any mountain range, but few studies examining the environmental behavior of POPs have been performed in the Himalayas. In this study, air, soil, and leaf samples were collected along a transect on the southern slope of the Himalayas, Nepal (altitude: 135-5100 m). Local emission occurred in the lowlands, and POPs were transported by uplift along the slope. During the atmospheric transport, the HCB proportion increased from the lowlands (20%) to high elevation (>50%), whereas the proportions of DDTs decreased. The largest residue of soil POPs appeared at an altitude of approximately 2500 m, and may be related to absorption by vegetation and precipitation. The net deposition tendencies at the air-soil surface indicated that the Himalayas may be a 'sink' for DDTs and PCBs. PMID:24880535

  18. Organochlorine compounds in Baltic salmon and trout. I. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenols 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Vuorinen, P.J.; Paasivirta, J.; Piilola, T.; Surma-Aho, K.; Tarhanen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenol compounds were analyzed in three populations of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and one population of Bothnian Bay trout (Salmo trutta). Muscles, livers an unfertilized eggs were studied and the analysis results treated by standard statistical methods. PCB, DDT residues, HCB and lindan were detected in most, 2,3,6-t-richlorocymene in some samples at levels which are near to the global baseline. Ten chlorophenol compounds were detected, 34DCC at 0-1000 ..mu..g/kg the other 0-100 ..mu..g/kg (fresh weight) levels. Chlorohydrocarbons showed some significant positive correlations with weight, and fat contents of the fish. Significances of the differences between populations and tissues were low or negligible except that the chlorophenols in liver were at clearly higher level than in muscle or eggs.

  19. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in tissues and eggs of white-backed vulture, Gyps bengalensis from different locations in India.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, S; Dhananjayan, V; Risebrough, Robert; Prakash, V; Jayakumar, R; Bloom, Peter H

    2008-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in tissues of five Indian white-backed vultures and two of their eggs collected from different locations in India. All the samples had varying levels of residues. p,p'-DDE ranged between 0.002 microg/g in muscle of vulture from Mudumali and 7.30 microg/g in liver of vulture from Delhi. Relatively higher levels of p,p'-DDT and its metabolites were documented in the bird from Delhi than other places. Dieldrin was 0.003 and 0.015 microg/g while p,p'-DDE was 2.46 and 3.26 microg/g in egg one and two respectively. Dieldrin appeared to be lower than the threshold level of 0.5 microg/g. p,p'-DDE exceeded the levels reported to have created toxic effects in eggs of other wild birds. Although varying levels of DDT, HCH, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan residues were detected in the vulture tissues, they do not appear to be responsible for the present status of population in India. PMID:18806909

  20. [Occupational risk and evaluation of health damage in workers engaged in organochlorine compound production].

    PubMed

    Basharova, G R; Denisov, E I; Radionova, G K; Karamova, L M

    2003-01-01

    The authors analysed structure and degree of occupational risk in chlorine organic compounds production, revealed a combination of chemical, physical hazards with work burden and determined the work conditions as harmful and dangerous (3.2-3.4). With consideration of most medical and biologic parameters, high level of occupational risk appeared to correspond to significant (from medium to nearly complete) occupational conditionality of the disorders diagnosed. The suggested and approved method to determine occupational conditionality of health disorders at hazardous work conditions could serve as a basis for occupational medical standard. PMID:14593650

  1. Use of rat embryo limb bud cell cultures to screen organochlorine compounds detected in the water and sediment of rivers in Tokyo metropolis for developmental toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junzo Yonemoto; Hiroaki Shiraishi; Yuko Soma; Kazuho Inaba; Hideko Sone; Satoshi Kobayashi

    1997-01-01

    Developmental toxicity of nine organochlorine compounds commonly detected in the water and sediment of rivers in the Tokyo metropolitan area was screened by rat embryo limb bud cell culture (LBC). The chemicals were p?dichlorobenzene (pDCB), o?dichlorobenzene (oDCB), p?chloroaniline (pCA), 3,4?dichloroaniline (DCA), tris (2?chloroethyl)phosphate, 2,5?dichlorophenol (DP), 2,5?dichloro?anisole (DA), Triclosan (IR) and Triclocarban (TC).The ID50 (50% inhibitory concentration for differentiation) and the

  2. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rignell-Hydbom, A; Skerfving, S; Lundh, T; Lindh, C H; Elmståhl, S; Bjellerup, P; Jünsson, B A G; Strümberg, U; Akesson, A

    2009-11-01

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other. PMID:19733845

  3. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Elmstahl, S. [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden)] [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden); Bjellerup, P. [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden)] [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden); Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Akesson, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  4. Trace Metal and Persistent Organochlorine Levels in Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae) from the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Macneil; J. R. Patterson; A. C. Fesser; C. D. Salisbury; S. V. Tessaro; C. Gates

    1987-01-01

    Tissue samples were collected from ten healthy mature female wood bison (B. bison athabascae) for examination. Livers and kidneys were tested for toxic heavy metals and trace metals considered as essential nutrients for successful reproduction, while fat samples were analyzed for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. No elevated levels of toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury) were found and essential trace

  5. Persistent organochlorine pesticides detected in blood and tissue samples of vultures from different localities in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika van Wyk; Henk Bouwman; Herman van der Bank; Gerhard H Verdoorn; Dieter Hofmann

    2001-01-01

    Gaschromatography was used to establish the presence of quantifiable residues of 14 persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants in whole blood, clotted blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle samples obtained from individual African whitebacked (Pseudogyps africanus), Cape griffon (Gyps coprotheres) and Lappetfaced (Torgos tracheliotos) vultures from different localities in South Africa. The levels of pesticides measured in whole blood samples of live

  6. Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Mulvad, G; Pedersen, H S; Ayotte, P; Demers, A; Weber, J P; Hansen, J C

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorines are persistent lipophilic compounds that accumulate in Inuit people living in circumpolar countries. Organochlorines accumulate as a result of the Inuits' large consumption of sea mammal fat; however, available data are limited to blood lipids, milk fat, and adipose tissue. We report results of organochlorine determination in liver, brain, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples collected from deceased Greenlanders between 1992 and 1994. Eleven chlorinated pesticides and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured in tissue lipid extracts by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Mean concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, 2, 2'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane in adipose tissue samples from Greenlanders were 3-34-fold higher than those measured using the same analytical method in samples from Canadians in Quebec City, Quebec. Brain lipids contained lower concentrations of all organochlorines than lipids extracted from other tissues. Organochlorine residue levels in lipid extracts from liver, omental fat, and subcutaneous abdominal fat samples were similar, with the exception of ss-hexachlorocyclohexane, which reached a greater concentration in liver lipids than in lipids from both adipose tissues (4-fold; p < 0. 05). Comparisons with available international data on adipose tissue levels reveal that the organochlorine body burden in the Inuit population of Greenland is presently among the highest resulting from environmental exposure. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504150

  7. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  8. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  9. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in children working at a waste-disposal site and in young females with high fish consumption in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, Steven N; Linderholm, Linda; Athanasiadou, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess persistent organochlorine pollutant (POP) levels in serum collected from children (11-15 years old) working and sometimes also living at the municipal waste-disposal site in Managua, located at the shore of Lake Managua, and in nonworking children living both nearby and also far away from the waste-disposal site. The influence of fish consumption was further evaluated by assessing POPs levels in serum from young women (15-24 years old) with markedly different patterns of fish consumption from Lake Managua. 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloro-ethane (4,4'-DDT) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethene (4,4'-DDE), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorobiphenylols were quantified in all samples. In general, the levels observed were higher than those reported in children from developed countries, such as Germany and United States. Toxaphene, aldrin, dieldrin, and beta-HCH could not be identified in any sample. The children working at the waste-disposal site had higher levels of POPs compared with the nonworking reference groups. In children not working, there were also gradients for several POPs, according to vicinity to the waste-disposal site. Moreover, in children, as well as in young women, there were gradients according to fish consumption. The most abundant component was 4,4'-DDE, but at levels still lower than those reported in children from malarious areas with a history of recent or current application of 4,4'-DDT for vector control. PMID:16846198

  10. Concentration of organochlorine pesticides in wine corks.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, B; Hites, R A

    2001-08-01

    Wine corks were extracted and analyzed for 23 organochlorine pesticides, including alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, DDT, DDE and DDD, chlordane, endosulfan, dieldrin, aldrin, and endrin. This was done to investigate the occurrence, concentrations, composition profiles, and possible sources of organochlorine contamination. All groups of compounds were detected in every sample investigated, with the exception of aldrin and endrin. The total concentrations of organochlorine compounds in all samples ranged from 75-120 ng/g lipid, and for most compounds, the concentrations of organochlorines in cork were consistent with published data for other plant tissues. Differences in the relative abundances of the various classes of organochlorine pesticides were substantial and were probably due to differences in the pesticide usage practices of the various regions in which the cork producing trees were grown. PMID:11482662

  11. Determination of organochlorine compounds in fatty matrices. Application of rapid off-line normal-phase liquid chromatographic clean-up.

    PubMed

    van der Hoff, G R; van Beuzekom, A C; Brinkman, U A; Baumann, R A; van Zoonen, P

    1996-11-22

    A clean-up method for organochlorine compounds in fatty samples based on normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) is described. To this end, an existing clean-up procedure which uses column switching for the separation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the fat matrix was simplified to a single silica LC column procedure. The use of an LC column packed with 3 microns silica enables complete fat/OCP separation in a total fraction volume of 12 ml, and results in a fully automated clean-up procedure that takes only 32 min per sample. The method showed average recoveries of 80-110% in the concentration range of 1-510 micrograms/kg, with relative standard deviations of less than 10%. Limits of determination were in the range of 0.5-50 micrograms/kg. The simplified approach has shown its potential for a variety of samples, such as milk, pork fat, animal feed and cod liver oil, showing its general applicability to fatty samples. PMID:8997740

  12. Concentration of organochlorine pesticides in wine corks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Strandberg; Ronald A Hites

    2001-01-01

    Wine corks were extracted and analyzed for 23 organochlorine pesticides, including ?-, ?-, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, DDT, DDE and DDD, chlordane, endosulfan, dieldrin, aldrin, and endrin. This was done to investigate the occurrence, concentrations, composition profiles, and possible sources of organochlorine contamination. All groups of compounds were detected in every sample investigated, with the exception of aldrin and endrin.

  13. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tom S. [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada)], E-mail: chatsy@gmail.com; Wilson, John X. [Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, 14214 (United States); Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada); Poon, Raymond [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); O'Brien, Peter J. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3M2 (Canada)

    2008-11-01

    Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes.

  14. Interactions between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway and exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants affect human semen quality.

    PubMed

    Brokken, L J S; Lundberg, P J; Spanò, M; Manicardi, G C; Pedersen, H S; Struci?ski, P; Góralczyk, K; Zviezdai, V; Jönsson, B A G; Bonde, J P; Toft, G; Lundberg Giwercman, Y; Giwercman, A

    2014-07-30

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may affect male reproductive function. Many dioxin-like POPs exert their effects by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling pathway. We analysed whether gene-environment interactions between polymorphisms in AHR (R554K) and AHR repressor (AHRR P185A) and serum levels of markers of POP exposure 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) are associated with 21 parameters of male reproductive function in 581 proven-fertile European and Greenlandic men. In Greenlandic men, AHR variants significantly modified the association between serum levels of both p,p'-DDE and CB-153 and inhibin B levels, sperm chromatin integrity, and seminal zinc levels. In the total cohort, interactions between AHRR variants and serum levels of CB-153 were associated with sperm chromatin integrity and the expression of the pro-apoptotic marker protein Fas. The data indicate that susceptibility to adverse effects of POP exposure on male reproductive function is dependent on polymorphisms in genes involved in AHR signalling. PMID:25084496

  15. Profile of persistent chlorinated contaminants, including selected chiral compounds, in wolverine (Gulo gulo) livers from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, P F; Braune, B M; Wong, C S; Williamson, M; Elkin, B; Muir, D C G

    2003-11-01

    Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are circumpolar omnivores that live throughout the alpine and arctic tundra ecosystem. Wolverine livers were collected at Kugluktuk (Coppermine), NU (n=12) in the western Canadian Arctic to report, for the first time, the residue patterns of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in this species. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of several chiral OCs, including PCB atropisomers, in wolverines were also determined. Results were compared to OC concentrations and EFs of chiral contaminants in arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from Ulukhaqtuuq (Holman), NT (n=20); a closely related species that scavenges the marine and terrestrial arctic environment. The rank order of hepatic concentrations for sum ( summation operator ) OC groups in wolverines were polychlorinated biphenyls ( summation operator PCB)>chlordane-related components ( summation operator CHLOR)>DDT-related compounds ( summation operator DDT)>hexachlorocyclohexane isomers ( summation operator HCHs). The most abundant OC analytes detected in wolverine liver were PCB-153, PCB-180, and oxychlordane (OXY). Wolverine age and gender did not influence OC concentrations, which were comparable to lipid-normalized values in arctic fox. The EFs of several chiral OCs (alpha-HCH, cis- and trans-chlordane, OXY, heptachlor exo-epoxide) and PCB atropisomers (PCB-136, 149) were nonracemic in arctic fox and wolverine liver and similar to those previously calculated in arctic fox and polar bears from Iceland and the Canadian Arctic. Results suggest that these species have similar ability to biotransform OCs. As well, contaminant profiles suggest that terrestrial mammals do not represent the major source of OC exposure to wolverines and that wolverines are scavenging more contaminated prey items, such as marine mammals. While summation operator PCB did not exceed the concentrations associated with mammalian reproductive impairment, future research is required to properly evaluate the potential affect of other OCs on the overall health of wolverines. PMID:12948539

  16. Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs in a Southern Atlantic Coastal Lagoon Watershed, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Menone; J. E. Aizpún de Moreno; V. J. Moreno; A. L. Lanfranchi; T. L. Metcalfe; C. D. Metcalfe

    2001-01-01

    There recently have been increasing interest in South America on organic pollutants from the coastal marine environment. This\\u000a study intended to seek out the occurrence and distribution of persistent organochlorine compounds in the Mar Chiquita coastal\\u000a lagoon watershed. The levels were measured in sediments and associated crabs. Though a significant number of PCBs (mainly\\u000a penta- and hexachlorinated congeners) were detected,

  17. Target-specific action of organochlorine compounds in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of estrogen-reporter male mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Villa; E. Bonetti; M. L. Penza; C. Iacobello; G. Bugari; M. Bailo; O. Parolini; P. Apostoli; L. Caimi; P. Ciana; A. Maggi; D. Di Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorines are lipophylic molecules that accumulate in the fat where they remain for years. During weight loss, they are mobilized and their concentration increases in blood. The present work tests, in transgenic estrogen-reporter mice (ERE-tK-LUC), whether this increase is sufficient to modulate the estrogen receptors (ERs) in the whole body. Three weak estrogens were studied: p,p?DDT [1,1,1-trichloro2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane], p,p?DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene],

  18. (PRESENTED AT MORIOKA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

  19. Identification of Anti-virulence Compounds That Disrupt Quorum-Sensing Regulated Acute and Persistent Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Lesic, Biljana; He, Jianxin; Kitao, Tomoe; Righi, Valeria; Milot, Sylvain; Tzika, Aria; Rahme, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Etiological agents of acute, persistent, or relapsing clinical infections are often refractory to antibiotics due to multidrug resistance and/or antibiotic tolerance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes recalcitrant and severe acute chronic and persistent human infections. Here, we target the MvfR-regulated P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) virulence pathway to isolate robust molecules that specifically inhibit infection without affecting bacterial growth or viability to mitigate selective resistance. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen (HTS) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, we identify compounds that block the synthesis of both pro-persistence and pro-acute MvfR-dependent signaling molecules. These compounds, which share a benzamide-benzimidazole backbone and are unrelated to previous MvfR-regulon inhibitors, bind the global virulence QS transcriptional regulator, MvfR (PqsR); inhibit the MvfR regulon in multi-drug resistant isolates; are active against P. aeruginosa acute and persistent murine infections; and do not perturb bacterial growth. In addition, they are the first compounds identified to reduce the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. As such, these molecules provide for the development of next-generation clinical therapeutics to more effectively treat refractory and deleterious bacterial-human infections. PMID:25144274

  20. Identification of anti-virulence compounds that disrupt quorum-sensing regulated acute and persistent pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Melissa; Lepine, Francois; Maura, Damien; Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Lesic, Biljana; He, Jianxin; Kitao, Tomoe; Righi, Valeria; Milot, Sylvain; Tzika, Aria; Rahme, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    Etiological agents of acute, persistent, or relapsing clinical infections are often refractory to antibiotics due to multidrug resistance and/or antibiotic tolerance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes recalcitrant and severe acute chronic and persistent human infections. Here, we target the MvfR-regulated P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) virulence pathway to isolate robust molecules that specifically inhibit infection without affecting bacterial growth or viability to mitigate selective resistance. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen (HTS) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, we identify compounds that block the synthesis of both pro-persistence and pro-acute MvfR-dependent signaling molecules. These compounds, which share a benzamide-benzimidazole backbone and are unrelated to previous MvfR-regulon inhibitors, bind the global virulence QS transcriptional regulator, MvfR (PqsR); inhibit the MvfR regulon in multi-drug resistant isolates; are active against P. aeruginosa acute and persistent murine infections; and do not perturb bacterial growth. In addition, they are the first compounds identified to reduce the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. As such, these molecules provide for the development of next-generation clinical therapeutics to more effectively treat refractory and deleterious bacterial-human infections. PMID:25144274

  1. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  2. Exposure of women to organochlorine pesticides in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Botella, Begoña; Crespo, Jorge; Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Olea-Serrano, Maria Fátima; Olea, Nicolás

    2004-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic compounds that persist in the environment. Because of their lipid solubility and resistance to metabolism, some of these chemicals accumulate in human tissues. The largest area of intensive greenhouse agriculture in Europe is near the Mediterranean coast of Southern Spain, where this type of farming has greatly expanded since the 1960s. We determined and compared the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the adipose tissue and blood of 200 women living in Southern Spain. Aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, lindane, methoxychlor, endosulfans, and DDT and its metabolites were identified. Detectable concentrations of p,p'-DDE were found in 100% of adipose tissue and serum samples. Among the remaining DDTs, p,p'-DDT was the most common, being detected in 39% of adipose tissue and 76.5% of serum samples, followed by endosulfans I and II, which also were found in both adipose tissue and serum samples but at lower concentrations. Endosulfans were followed in frequency by lindane, aldrin, and dieldrin. Endrin and methoxychlor were present at a much lower frequency compared to those of the other organochlorines. Serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE o,p'-DDD, and endosulfan -I, -sulfate, -lactone, and -diol were significantly correlated with their adipose tissue concentrations. No significant relationships were found between the serum and adipose tissue concentrations of the remaining nine compounds determined, raising doubts about the equivalent use of fat/serum samples for the exposure assessment of some pesticides in epidemiological studies. The results suggested that women of reproductive age in Southern Spain have been and are currently exposed to organochlorine pesticides. Because many of these chemicals can mobilize during pregnancy and lactation, further research is warranted to interpret the health consequences for the children of such exposure. PMID:15261782

  3. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process. PMID:25563158

  4. Evaluation of organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) in two raptor species inhabiting a Mediterranean island in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Begoña Jiménez; Rubén Merino; Esteban Abad; Josep Rivera; Kees Olie

    2007-01-01

    Background  Species that are at high levels of the food web have often been used as bioindicators to evaluate the presence of persistent\\u000a contaminants in ecosystems. Most of these species are long-lived, so pollutant burdens may be integrated in some complex way\\u000a over time. This makes them particularly sensitive to deleterious effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Birds have\\u000a been suggested

  5. Effects of organochlorine pesticides on interleukin secretion from lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Beach, T M; Whalen, M M

    2006-11-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used worldwide primarily as insecticides. Due to their chemical stability, they often persist in the environment long after their use has ceased. In a previous study, we found that six organochlorine compounds (alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, 4,4'-DDT, heptachlor, oxychlordane, and pentachlorophenol (PCP)), at concentrations of 5 microM, were able to significantly decrease the ability of highly purified human natural killer (NK) cells to lyse tumor cells after exposures, ranging from 1 hour to 6 days. However, if T cells were present with the NK cells (T/NK cells), loss of lytic function was seen only with oxychlordane and PCP. The purpose of the current study is to begin to investigate the mechanism by which T cells may be blocking the negative effects of some organochlorine compounds on NK cell function. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that T cells could produce significant levels of NK-stimulatory interleukin(s) (ILs), and that this may account for the decreased inhibition seen with organochlorine exposures when T cells were present. Secretion of four cytokines that have a demonstrated capacity to influence NK function, and/or are secreted by T cells, was measured (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12). We measured both the baseline levels of ILs and the effects of organochlorine compound on IL secretion in T/NK cells. The results showed that baseline levels of the NK-stimulatory IL, IL-12, were 898 +/- 264 pg/mL at 24 hours and IL-10 levels were 564 +/- 337 pg/mL. In contrast, IL-2 levels were 14 +/- 10 pg/mL, and IL-4 levels were 3 +/- 2 pg/mL at 24 hours. The two compounds that retained their capacity to decrease NK lytic function in T/NK cells, oxychlordane (5 microM) and PCP (5 and 10 microM), were able to either decrease the secretion of NK-stimulatory ILs (IL-2, IL-12 and/or IL-10) and/or increase secretion of the NK-inhibitory cytokine, IL-4, at each length of exposure tested. PMID:17211983

  6. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Interspecies comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barend van Drooge; Rafael Mateo; Íngrid Vives; Iris Cardiel; Raimon Guitart

    2008-01-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p?-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086ng\\/g ww. The geometric mean for ?PCB ranged from 225 to 9184ng\\/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p?-DDT is

  7. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Maternal Adipose Tissue, Maternal Blood Serum, Umbilical Blood Serum, and Milk from Inhabitants of Veracruz, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Waliszewski; A. A. Aguirre; R. M. Infanzon; C. S. Silva; J. Siliceo

    2001-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their persistence, accumulate in food chains and cause elevated contamination in human beings.\\u000a These residues bioconcentrate in lipid-rich tissues according to the equilibrium pattern of internal transport and lipid tissue\\u000a content. The analyses of maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical blood serum, colostrum, and mature milk\\u000a indicate circulation of these compounds through all compartments of

  8. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  9. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M.A.; Foreman, W.T.; Skaates, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ??g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ??g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ??g/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 ??g/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 ??g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  10. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. G. Muir; Ross J. Norstrom; Mary Simon

    1988-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg\\/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to

  11. Environmental Indicator: Persistent Chemicals in Wildlife in British Columbia Primary Indicator: Concentration of DDE and PCBs in Great Blue Heron eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selection and Use of Indicator: The concentration of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Great Blue Heron eggs is a state or condition indicator. It shows the presence of persistent contaminants in the environment and the effects of these long-lived organochlorines. These compounds have a high fat solubility and accumulate in the tissues of some animals (bioaccumulation). As a

  12. Organochlorine Exposure and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Howsam, Mike; Grimalt, Joan O.; Guinó, Elisabet; Navarro, Matilde; Martí-Ragué, Juan; Peinado, Miguel A.; Capellá, Gabriel; Moreno, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds have been linked to increased risk of several cancers. Despite reductions in their use and fugitive release, they remain one of the most important groups of persistent pollutants to which humans are exposed, primarily through dietary intake. We designed a case–control study to assess the risk of colorectal cancer with exposure to these chemicals, and their potential interactions with genetic alterations in the tumors. A subsample of cases (n = 132) and hospital controls (n = 76) was selected from a larger case–control study in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. We measured concentrations in serum of several organochlorines by gas chromatography. We assessed point mutations in K-ras and p53 genes in tissue samples by polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism and assessed expression of p53 protein by immunohistochemical methods. An elevated risk of colorectal cancer was associated with higher serum concentrations of mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 28 and 118. The odds ratio for these mono-ortho PCBs for middle and higher tertile were, respectively, 1.82 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90–3.70] and 2.94 (95% CI, 1.39–6.20). ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, and p,p?-DDE (4,4?-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethene) showed nonsignificant increases in risk. Risk associated with mono-ortho PCBs was slightly higher for tumors with mutations in the p53 gene but was not modified by mutations in K-ras. Mono-ortho PCBs were further associated with transversion-type mutations in both genes. These results generate the hypothesis that exposure to mono-ortho PCBs contributes to human colorectal cancer development. The trend and magnitude of the association, as well as the observation of a molecular fingerprint in tumors, raise the possibility that this finding may be causal. PMID:15531428

  13. Influence of diet and other factors on the levels of organochlorine compounds in human adipose tissue in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Pyysalo, H.; Moilanen, R.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and five human adipose tissue samples were recovered during surgical operations of postmortem examinations of patients experiencing death due to traumatic injury. The sample donors were between the ages of 2 mo and 91 yr. Samples were analyzed by GLC-MS techniques for polychlorobiophenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) compounds, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and chlorinated phenols. Special attention was paid to the concentration of heptachlor epoxide, a metabolite of heptachlor, commonly used as an insecticide in the Finnish plywood industry. The mean concentrations of PCB, DDTs, HCB, and chlordanes were 0.26, 0.33, 0.02, and 0.007 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively, while the mean concentration of heptachlor epoxide was 2.3 ..mu..g/kg. The geometric means were 0.20, 0.28, 0.018, 0.0055, and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of PCB and DDT compounds in Finnish human adipose tissue has rapidly decreased during the last 10 years. The average concentrations were higher in south Finland than those in north Finland, and the results clearly indicate the prominent influence of fish meals and the age of sample donors on the pollutant concentrations in adipose tissue. The results were further analyzed and discussed with respect to sex, smoking habits, and number of childbirths of the sample donors. 44 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  14. A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkowski, P.J.; Smith, J.A.; Fusillo, T.V.; Chiou, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the sorption of contaminants by different sediment size fractions. Field studies indicate that organic contaminants tend to sorb more to fine-grained sediment, and this correlates significantly with sediment organic matter content. Laboratory experiments have extended the field studies to a wider spectrum of natural particulates and anthropogenic compounds. Quantitation of isotherm results allows the comparison of different sediment sorbents as well as the estimation of field partition coefficients from laboratory-measured sediment and contaminant properties. Detailed analyses made on the basis of particle-size classes show that all sediment fractions need to be considered in evaluating the fate and distribution of manmade organic compounds. This conclusion is based on observations from field studies and on the variety of natural organic sorbents that demonstrate sorptive capabilities in laboratory isotherm experiments.

  15. Persistent halogenated compounds in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Hong, Bing; Wu, Xiaobing; Wu, Jiangping; Wang, Xinming; Yi, Zhigang; Zhao, Juan; Zhan, Miao; Mai, Bixian

    2014-09-01

    While a number of studies have reported residual levels of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in crocodilia, there is still a dearth of information on the Chinese alligator, a critically endangered crocodilian species. In the present study, several PHCs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were detected in the adult tissues, neonates, and eggs of captive Chinese alligators from China. The concentrations of ?PBDEs, ?PCBs, and ?DDTs in Chinese alligators ranged from 0.11 to 16.1, 1.12 to 22.2, and 6.03 to 1020ngg(-1) wet weight, respectively, with higher levels of ?PCBs and ?DDTs in the neonates and eggs than in muscle tissues. The ?DDT residues in the studied Chinese alligators were at the high end of reported ranges from crocodilia around the world, and some results exceeded levels known to cause a female-biased sex ratio in crocodilians. PMID:24880595

  16. An evaluation of the sexual differences in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in children at birth and at the age of 4 years.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Joan O; Carrizo, Daniel; Garí, Mercè; Font-Ribera, Laia; Ribas-Fito, Nuria; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2010-04-01

    This study of the body burden and serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs), represents a general population in a cohort from Menorca Island (birth 1997-1998) of children at birth and at 4 years of age; the study has shown that the concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners #153, #138 and #180 and total PCBs in sera collected at 4 years are much higher in breastfed children than in those fed with formula, e.g. HCB 0.48 vs 0.21 ng/ml, beta-HCH 0.32 vs 0.24 ng/ml, total DDTs 2.2 vs 0.57 ng/ml and total PCBs 1.4 vs 0.52 ng/ml. Comparison of gender differences in 4 years old children shows higher concentrations of all examined OCs in females than in males with the exception of HCB and PeCB in breastfed children, which are higher in males than in females, e.g. beta-HCH 0.34 vs 0.28 ng/ml, total DDTs 2.6 vs 1.7 ng/ml and total PCBs 1.6 vs 1.0 ng/ml for breastfed children and beta-HCH 0.23 vs 0.19 ng/ml, total DDTs 0.59 vs 0.48 ng/ml and total PCBs 0.58 vs 0.45 ng/ml for formula fed children. Gender comparison of the body burden between children fed with breastmilk or formula also shows higher concentrations in females than in males, e.g. beta-HCH 0.47 vs 0.35 microg, total DDTs 3.0 vs 1.8 microg and total PCBs 1.9 vs 1.2 microg for breastfed children, and beta-HCH 0.39 vs 0.17 microg, total DDTs 0.48 vs 0.27 microg and total PCBs 0.66 vs 0.55 microg for formula fed children. The results may suggest a higher capacity in female children for the retention of OCs incorporated through breastfeeding. However, these results should be taken with caution because the differences of the gender averages have low statistically significance when evaluated with the Student test. PMID:20122686

  17. Persistent organochlorine contaminants and enantiomeric signatures of chiral pollutants in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) collected on the east and west side of the Northwater Polynya, Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Fisk, A T; Holst, M; Hobson, K A; Duffe, J; Moisey, J; Norstrom, R J

    2002-01-01

    To examine the influence of diet and age on organochlorine contaminant (OC) concentrations in two closely related ringed seal (Phoca hispida) populations enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of chiral contaminants and stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta15N) and carbon (delta13C) were measured along with OCs in ringed seals collected from the east and west side of the Northwater Polynya. Seals from these two locations were feeding at the same trophic level based on delta15N values in muscle but had slightly different sources of carbon based on delta13C measurements in muscle. After removing the influence of age, sex, and blubber thickness, OC concentrations did not vary between ringed seals from the east and west side of the polynya. SigmaPCB, SigmaDDT, and Sigmachlordane were found to increase with age for both male and female seals. The inclusion of older (>20 years) female seals, which may have a reduced reproductive effort, may influence the relationships in females. Stable isotopes failed to describe OC concentrations in ringed seals suggesting that diet was not a major factor in variation of OC concentrations within this ringed seal population. Cis- and trans-chlordane, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were all nonracemic in the ringed seal blubber but did not vary with age, sex, or collection site. Alpha-HCH appeared racemic (enantiomeric fraction = 0.50 +/- 0.01) in the seals, although this EF is different than those previously observed in their prey species, and was found to vary significantly with age. EF values in the ringed seals varied considerably from other Arctic marine mammals and seabirds, providing addition evidence that the type(s) and characteristic(s) of the enzymes involved in biotransformation of chiral OCs vary between these organisms. PMID:11706376

  18. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in foodstuffs and human tissues from china: status of contamination, historical trend, and human dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Nakata, H; Kawazoe, M; Arizono, K; Abe, S; Kitano, T; Shimada, H; Li, W; Ding, X

    2002-11-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were determined in a wide variety of foodstuffs and human tissues collected from Shanghai and its vicinity in China in 2000-2001. Among the organochlorines analyzed, DDT and its metabolites were prominent compounds in most of the foodstuffs. In particular, mussels contained noticeable residues of DDTs (34,000 ng/g lipid weight), which are one to three orders greater than those reported levels in bivalves from other Asian countries. Concentrations of HCHs, CHLs, HCB, and PCBs in foodstuffs were generally low, suggesting small amounts of inputs into the environment. Temporal trends examined by comparing the results of previous studies of organochlorine levels in Chinese foodstuffs in 1970s and 1992 revealed a greater amounts of declines of DDTs and HCHs residues and the average daily intakes during the past 30 years. In contrast, very high concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were detected in human tissues from Shanghai, with the maximum values as high as 19,000 ng/g lipid weight (mean: 7,600 ng/g) and 17,000 ng/g (mean: 7,400 ng/g), respectively. Considering that foodstuffs are a main source of human exposure to contaminants, the greater concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in Chinese people might be due to past extensive usage of these compounds as agricultural pesticides. Continuous monitoring and epidemiological studies of organochlorine pesticides in humans are warranted in China. To our knowledge, this is the first report to present the residue levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human tissues of China. PMID:12399919

  19. (PRESENTED AT TSUKIJI, CHUO-KU, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

  20. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Maureen A.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Hediger, Mary L.; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cc of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron-capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a five-fold risk of endometriosis (aOR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings. PMID:20580667

  2. Organochlorine pesticides in wolves from Galicia.

    PubMed

    Carril González-Barros, S T; Alvarez Piñeiro, M E; Lozano, J S; Lage Yusty, M A

    2000-03-01

    Levels of seven organochlorine pesticides (heptachlorepoxide, dieldrin, endrin, p,p'-DDE, o-p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, and methoxychlor) and DDE/DDT ratios were determined in spleen, liver, muscle, kidney and suprarenal from 12 wolves from three provinces of Galicia (eight male and four female). Analysis was carried out by GC-ECD. Heptachlorepoxide was in found only 25% of samples, while p,p'-DDE was the most dominant of the organochlorine compounds analyzed. DDE/DDT ratios higher than 1 were found in liver and muscle. PMID:10702343

  3. Temporal trends of organochlorine contamination in Black Guillemots in Iceland from 1976 to 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristín Ólafsdóttir; Ævar Petersen; Elín V. Magnúsdóttir; Thorvaldur Björnsson; Torkell Jóhannesson

    2005-01-01

    The levels of several different persistent organochlorines (OCs) in Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle, collected during the summers of 1976–1996 at Breiðafjörður in W-Iceland, were investigated. The levels of about 40 different organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphenes, HCH, HCB) were compared with respect to age, sex, fat content, and year of collection. The levels of PCBs correlated very closely with those

  4. Persistent Photoconductivity in II-Vi Based Semiconducting Compounds and Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos G. Semaltianos

    1994-01-01

    Persistent photoconductivity (PPC) is a property exhibited by certain semiconductors, where the exposure of the material to light at sufficiently low temperatures results in an increase of the carrier concentration that persists for a very long time (of the order of minutes to years) after the illumination is terminated. The PPC effect has been extensively studied in III-V materials. In

  5. [Levels of organochlorine insecticides in Polish women's breast adipose tissue, in years 1997-2001].

    PubMed

    Struci?ski, Pawe?; Ludwicki, Jan K; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Olszewski, W?odzimierz; Jethon, Józef; Bara?ska, Joanna; Hernik, Agnieszka

    2002-01-01

    Although manufacture and use of chlorinated insecticides was banned or severely restricted in most of countries in the 1970s, the residues of these compounds are still detected in various environmental matrices all over the world. Their highest levels are found in adipose tissue of beings at the top of food chain, including humans. Levels of persistent organochlorine compounds in human specimens are monitored by numerous scientific organizations in various countries, including Poland. The purpose of the study was to survey the current levels of selected organochlorine insecticides (isomers alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-HCH, o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, DDE i DDE, oxy-chlordane and heptachlor) in women's breast adipose tissue which can be an indicator of body burden. A total of 67 samples of adipose breast tissue collected between 1997 and 2001 from non-cancer patients, aged from 15 to 74 years have been analyzed. The analytical procedure included extraction, clean-up and analysis by means of GC-ECD with GC-MS confirmation. In all the samples analyzed p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and beta-HCH were present (mean values, expressed as mg/kg of fat: 0.7700, 0.0720, and 0.0635 respectively) with p,p'-DDE, found to be dominant analyte. The levels of the remaining compounds, were usually about or below the method quantification limits (from 0.0025 to 0.0060 mg/kg of fat). The results for DDTs and beta-HCH for the oldest group (above 50 years) were 2.1 to 3.6 times higher than the youngest group (below 39 years). The results obtained in this study are similar to those reported in analogous samples collected from women living in other European countries with similar climate and history or organochlorines usage as well as in the USA. The presence of some organo-chlorine insecticide residues in women's adipose tissue, even those, who were born even 10-15 years after most countries introduced severe restrictions or banned the use of these compounds may be cause for anxiety. That is due to the potential of these compounds to promote toxic effects, including disrupting the human endocrine system. PMID:12621876

  6. Short term fasting does not aggravate immunosuppression in harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) with high body burdens of organochlorines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. de Swart; P. S. Ross; H. H. Timmerman; W. C. Hijman; E. M. de Ruiter; A. K. Djien Liem; A. Brouwer; H. van Loveren; P. J. H. Reijnders; J. G. Vos; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

    1995-01-01

    Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) with different body burdens of organochlorines were subjected to an experimental 15-day fasting period, during which they lost an average 16.5% of their body weights. Blood levels of the most persistent organochlorines showed an approximate twofold increase, while levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-binding organochlorines remained largely unaffected. Few differences in immunological parameters

  7. Body burdens of persistent halogenated compounds during different development stages of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Tore C; Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Rønsholdt, Bent; Frier, Jens-Ole

    2007-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were followed through the five life stages of a wild population of anadromous brown trout and related to variations in lipid content and exposure situations. Anadromous brown trout exhibits great variations in lipid content during its life cycle in the freshwater and marine environments. The results indicated substantial differences in PBDE and organochlorine exposure, with apparently more recent sources of PBDEs in the freshwater environment relative to the marine environment. Lipid and contaminant transfer were not always identical: The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and PBDEs (ng/g lipid weight) were about 15 times lower in the eggs compared to the muscle of their mother (e.g., 823 ng PCB/g Iw vs. 12,565 ng PCB/g lw, respectively). During the starving period from maiden to spawning trout the contaminant load increased by a higher factor than the lipid use. The data suggest a decoupling between lipid content and organohalogen concentrations for anadromous brown trout, which may contribute positively to reduce any potential negative effects of the transferred contaminants on eggs and fry. PMID:17937270

  8. Organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed by cyclic steam distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso G. Ober; Inés Santa María; Jaime D. Carmi

    1987-01-01

    It is well established that organochlorine pesticides (OCP's) are among the most persistent and toxic pollutants both in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The use of these pesticides has been banned in many countries since several years, but they are still used in Chile especially to protect the large beet crops in the south of the country. Only DDT and

  9. Organochlorine residues in human adipose and hepatic tissues from autopsy sources in northern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Gallelli; Simonetta Mangini; Claudio Gerbino

    1995-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds have been analyzed in human samples from residents of Genoa, a city in Northern Italy. Twenty?eight specimens of adipose tissue from 17 males and 11 females deceased from accidental causes in March and April 1989 were examined. In 12 of the 17 males, liver tissue specimens were also analyzed. DDE was the major organochlorine pesticide (OCP) found in

  10. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human breast milk in Madrid (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Hernández; M. A. Fernández; E. Hoyas; M. J. González; J. F. García

    1993-01-01

    The intensive use of organochlorine insecticides in agriculture and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industry have lead to widespread contamination throughout the environment. Since the organochlorine compounds are lipid-soluble and tend to accumulate in the food chain and store in high concentrations in tissues and lipidrich organs such as adipose tissue and liver. Human milk is the most important and indispensable

  11. Desorption of organochlorine pesticides from historically contaminated sediments into water-biofuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero-Diaz, M.; Demond, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gasoline spills in surface waters generally volatilize due to their low miscibility and high volatility. However, biofuel blends may contain ethanol, a compound completely miscible in water. As hazardous components of gasoline are more soluble in ethanol than in water, the presence of ethanol increases the solubilization of these components, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), in surface water. Furthermore, many of these spills may occur in water bodies that have sediments that are historically contaminated with persistent organic contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides. High concentrations of ethanol in the water column, along with solubilized components of gasoline, may increase the desorption of organochlorine pesticides from the sediment. Thus spills of ethanol/gasoline fuel blends have the potential of increasing concentrations of hazardous compounds in rivers and lakes, resulting in increased risk for human and ecological exposure. Using UNIFAC to calculate activity coefficients, one can predict the enhancement of the solubility of pesticides in the aqueous phase as the ethanol fraction increases. Moreover, by predicting the solubility of pesticides in both the aqueous phase and an organic liquid phase, one can construct ternary phase diagrams that show the partitioning behavior of pesticides as a function of ethanol fraction. Such information is useful in estimating the amount of desorption from contaminated sediments that may occur in the presence of biofuel spills. In order to confirm the predicted values, experiments have been conducted to measure the impact of ethanol on the partitioning coefficients of pesticides.

  12. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974–79

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rey C. Stendell; David S. Gilmer; Nancy A. Coon; Douglas M. Swineford

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974–79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found

  13. Enantiomeric resolution of persistent compounds of technical toxaphene (CTTs) on t-butyldimethylsilylated ?-cyclodextrin phases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Vetter; U. Klobes; B. Luckas; G. Hottinger

    1997-01-01

    Summary  Eight of the most important single compounds of technical toxaphene were separated on t-butyldimethylsilylated ?-cyclodextrin\\u000a (?-BSCD) diluted in a medium polar phase using gas chromatography with electron capture detectors (GC-ECD). The enantiomeric\\u000a resolution of all compounds was obtained in one GC run. The ?-BSCD phase also separated the enantiomers of oxychlordane, cis-\\u000a and trans-chlordane as well as ?-HCH. Problems in

  14. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  15. Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Cohen, R.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Residues of 6 organochlorine compds. were detected in adult carcasses, 4 in eggs, 2 in brains, and one in nestlings of Colorado tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). DDE [72-55-9]accounted for 91% of total organochlorine compound residue in each of the 4 sample types. DDE was detected in 30 samples (94%) and DDT [50-29-3] in 2 samples (6%). Carcasses of breeding females and egg clutches had residues of 6 organochlorine compds. not found in nestling samples. Only residues of DDE were found in nestlings. DDT and DDE were the only organochlorine compds. recovered in brain samples. Measurements of tree swallow eggshells showed that unattended eggs were not significantly different from those of attended or historical eggs. The implications of the observed organochlorine compound contamination are discussed.

  16. Organochlorine residues in booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) eggs from southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, Emma; Maria-Mojica, Pedro; Martinez, Jose E; Calvo, Jose F; Wright, Julian; Shore, Richard F; Romero, Diego; Garcia-Fernandez, Antonio J

    2007-11-01

    Most organochlorine (OC) use has been banned in Spain, but these compounds are persistent and may still adversely affect predatory birds. Data generally are lacking, however. Residues of hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 22 failed eggs of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from southeastern Spain; both species are declining in this region. Hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDE, and sum PCB congener concentrations were significantly higher in booted eagle than in goshawk eggs, and an inverse relationship was found between shell thickness and DDE concentrations in booted eagles. Organochlorides may have been associated with the failure of some booted eagle eggs, but concentrations in booted eagle and goshawk eggs decreased over the period during which populations have dwindled. Thus, although OCs may be a contributory factor, they are unlikely to be the primary cause of the recent population declines in southeastern Spain. PMID:17941741

  17. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Stackelberg, Paul E; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T; Zaugg, Steven D; Henderson, Alden K; Reissman, Dori B

    2004-08-15

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. PMID:15262161

  19. Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Behaviors Associated With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bellinger, David C.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Organochlorines are environmentally persistent contaminants that readily cross the placenta, posing a potential risk to the developing fetus. Evidence for neurodevelopmental effects at low levels of these compounds is growing, though few studies have focused on behavioral outcomes. The authors investigated the association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) levels and behaviors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), measured with the Conners’ Rating Scale for Teachers (CRS-T), in a cohort of 607 children aged 7–11 years (median age, 8.2 years) born in 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford, Massachusetts. The median umbilical cord serum level of the sum of 4 prevalent PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180) was 0.19 ng/g serum (range, 0.01–4.41 ng/g serum). The authors found higher risk for ADHD-like behaviors assessed with the CRS-T at higher levels of PCBs and p,p?-DDE. For example, the authors found higher risk of atypical behavior on the Conners’ ADHD Index for the highest quartile of the sum of 4 PCB congeners versus the lowest quartile (risk ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.92) and a similar relation for p,p?-DDE. These results support an association between low-level prenatal organochlorine exposure and ADHD-like behaviors in childhood. PMID:20106937

  20. Organochlorine Residues in Vegetables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhupander Kumar; D. P. Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Vegetables are important components of the human diet, and even low levels of pesticides in vegetables may have adverse effects for consumers. A study was carried out to assess residue levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachloro-cyclohexane (HCH), and endosulfan in vegetables. The total concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) ranged from 0.29 to 106.65 ?g.kg (wet weight). All vegetable samples had some

  1. Fish intake and serum levels of organochlorines among Japanese women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tsukino; T. Hanaoka; H. Sasaki; H. Motoyama; M. Hiroshima; T. Tanaka; M. Kabuto; W. Turner; D. G. Patterson Jr.; L. Needham; S. Tsugane

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates background serum levels of selected organochlorine compounds among Japanese women of reproductive age and investigates whether lifestyle factors, especially dietary factors, may be associated with these levels. A cross-sectional study was performed on 80 Japanese women, aged 26–43 years, who complained of infertility and were confirmed not to have endometriosis. The serum levels of total toxic equivalency

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dairy products in Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nida’ M. Salem; Rafat Ahmad; Hussein Estaitieh

    2009-01-01

    The use of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been banned in Jordan officially in 1981, and of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 1995. However, residues of such compounds can still be found in the environment and in foodstuffs. Dairy products are an important exposure route for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to humans. For this reason, the presence of OCP residues

  3. Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of Roseate Tern eggs were collected in 1981 from 5 of the largest colonies in the northeastern U.S. and from one large colony in the U.S. Virgin Islands. No organochlorine compounds were detected in eggs from the U.S. Virgin Islands. PCBs were found in all eggs and DDE was found in most eggs from the northeastern U.S., but concentrations were substantially lower than in Common Terns from the same colonies. There were no significant correlations between eggshell characteristics and organochlorine concentrations. DDE concentrations in Roseate Tern eggs were well below those reported to induce adverse effects in Common Terns.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from the Garigliano River (Campania region, Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Meli, Rosaria; Fusco, Giovanna; Naccari, Clara; Lucisano, Antonia

    2010-02-01

    Measuring organochlorine compounds in muscle tissue of European eels from the Garigliano River in Campania (Italy), overall PCBs emerged as the most abundant pollutants, followed by DDTs, Dieldrin and HCB. Target PCBs, IUPAC nos. 118, 138, 153 and 180, were the dominant congeners accounting for 64.2% of total PCBs. Among OCPs, p,p'-DDE was detected in all eels, always with higher concentration levels than other OCPs; p,p'-DDT was frequently detected, about 93.3% of the sample. The high and statistically significant correlations between concentration and length as well as weight of eels suggest that the organochlorine compounds concentrations tend to increase with the size and consequently with the age. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs detected were similar to those reported in studies relative to France, UK and Sweden. As regards toxicological risk for human health, in general OCPs residual levels were below the limits established for fish and aquatic products. Conversely, the concentrations of PCBs exceeded the limit set by the EU for terrestrial foods. Our results imply that OCPs and PCBs are still important persistent chemical contaminants in Campania freshwaters, although their manufacture and use are banned or highly restricted. PMID:20022354

  5. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Gilmer, D.S.; Coon, N.C.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974?79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks.

  6. Immune function and organochlorine pollutants in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, J O; Hanssen, S A; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E; Hasselquist, D; Skaare, J U

    2004-11-01

    Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000 and 2001 we injected two novel nonpathogenic antigens (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) into the pectoral muscle of gulls and measured the primary antibody responses. We then related these measurements to the blood concentrations of three pesticides (hexachlorobenzene [HCB], oxychlordane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) and seven different polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB 101, 99, 118, 153, 138, 180, and 170). There were significant or near significant positive relationships (0.1 > p > 0.001) between most persistent OCs and the levels of heterophils in the blood for both sexes in 1997 and for male gulls in 2001. Similarly, levels of all persistent OCs and lymphocytes were positively related (0.1 > p > 0.001) in both sexes in 1997. This suggests that OCs are causing alterations to immune systems, which may decrease their efficiency and make the birds more susceptible to parasites and diseases. In female gulls, the antibody response to the diphtheria toxoid was significant and negative for HCB (p < 0.01) and weaker, but significant, for oxychlordane (p < 0.05), suggesting that OCs were causing an impairment of the humoral immunity. Various OCs have been linked to negative effects in our study population, including decreased survival and reproduction, and this study suggests that such compounds also affect immune status and function. PMID:15499504

  7. Organochlorines, including chlordane compounds and their metabolites, in peregrine-falcon, prairie-falcon, and clapper-rail eggs from the USA.

    PubMed

    Jarman, W M; Norstrom, R J; Simon, M; Burns, S A; Bacon, C A; Simoneit, B R

    1993-01-01

    Four compounds present in technical chlordane (trans- and cis-nonachlor, and tentatively MC-2 and MC-5) and three metabolites of chlordane (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, and U-4) were identified by GC/MS in peregrine-falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum) eggs. Levels of Heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were quantified by GC/ECD in peregrine-falcon eggs from the US east coast, Colorado, and California; and in prairie-falcon (Falco mexicanus) and light-footed-clapper-rail (Rallus longirostris levipes) eggs from California. The eggs were collected between 1986 and 1989. Oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were detected in every egg analyzed. Heptachlor, trans-, and cis-chlordane were either not detected, or present at low levels in the eggs. The highest Sigmachlordane levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a geometric mean (geom. mean) concentrations of 1800 microg/kg (ppb); the lowest levels of Sigmachlordane were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 120 microg/kg (geom. mean). Of the technical chlordane compounds measured, MC-2 bioaccumulated to the greatest degree. SigmaDDT levels in the falcons ranged from 11 000 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the Colorado samples to 8800 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the East Coast and California peregrines. SigmaDDT levels in the rail eggs were 3000 microg/kg (geom. mean). The highest SigmaPCB levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a concentration of 14 000 microg/kg (geom. mean); the lowest levels of SigmaPCB were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 350 microg/kg (geom. mean). PMID:15091821

  8. Organochlorine pesticides levels in Portuguese coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Rodrigues, Pedro Nuno R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2009-05-01

    Data on levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) that exhibit potentially harmful effects to the environment all over the Portuguese coastal sediments were scarce. Therefore, in 2007-2008 12 OCPs were surveyed in surface sediments from 11 coastal sites (estuarine or lagoonal) covering north, centre and south areas of Portugal. Analyzes were performed using a previously validated method, involving pre-extraction of OCPs from sediments assisted by microwave and headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection for quantification and mass spectrometry for OCPs identification. Measurable levels (0.08-26ng g(-1)) of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha -HCH), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I and methoxychlor were observed in all cases. In few cases, the found levels denote the probability of occurrence of adverse biological effects. PMID:19243810

  9. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, Barend; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-05-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for summation operator PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and summation operator PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. PMID:17889416

  10. Is there biomagnification of organochlorines in a Rocky Mountain aquatic food web?

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, L.M.; Schindler, D.W.; Kidd, K. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Donald, D.D. [Environment Canada, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Muir, D. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    In 1991--92, 14 lakes in the Canadian Rocky Mountains were surveyed for organochlorine contamination (PCBs, DDT isomers, toxaphene, and other pesticides) of water and lake trout. Lake trout from Bow Lake, near the Continental Divide, in Banff National Park, contained particularly high concentrations of organochlorines, notably toxaphene, in their tissue compared to other mountain lake trout populations. The hypothesis that the high degree of contamination in fish is caused by biomagnification is being tested by analysis of lake trout (Salveninus namaycush), mountain whitefish (Propsopium williamsoni), benthic invertebrates, and zooplankton for organochlorine compounds and stable nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N). Fish, invertebrates, sediments and water collected from Bow Lake in 1994 were all found to contain organochlorines, and the authors are investigating the apparent patterns of contamination present. The possibility that contaminants deposited in past decades on the glaciers that feed Bow Lake contributes to the high values is also being examined.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue and breast milk collected in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Poon, B H T; Leung, C K M; Wong, C K C; Wong, M H

    2005-08-01

    Contamination from persistent organic pollutants is a pervasive global problem that urgently demands global concern and action. In the present study, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 37 samples of female adipose tissue collected in Hong Kong hospitals. Among the pollutants analyzed, DDTs (2.79 ng/g fat), HCHs (0.72 ng/g fat), and PCBs (0.19 ng/g fat) were prominent compounds in most of the adipose tissue. p,p'-DDE and hexachlorinated biphenyls were found in all samples, whereas heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin were found only in some samples. An estimation of toxic equivalency concentration (TEQ) due to dioxin-like coplanar PCBs was also performed. The estimated TEQ(PCBs) was 2.01 pg/g fat. This study also compared our previous results obtained from the milk samples of the same donors. Significant correlations are obtained for DDTs and HCHs between milk and adipose tissue. Detailed review of available information concerning OC pesticides and PCBs in different ecological compartments indicated that bioconcentration and biomagnification of these contaminants are common phenomena of the Pearl River Delta region, which has undergone rapid socioeconomic change in the past 20 years. It is suggested to establish a regional organization in order to coordinate the monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in the region. PMID:16001156

  12. Levels of organochlorine insecticides in human blood from Ahmedabad (rural), India

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, V.K.; Patel, J.S.; Variya, M.R.; Venkaiah, K.; Shah, M.P.; Kashyap, S.K. (National Inst. of Occupational Health, Gujarat (India))

    1992-02-01

    Assessments of human exposure to persistent organochlorine insecticides (OCI) through biological monitoring offers a profound criteria to evaluate the magnitude of potential health risk, if any, due to use of these chemicals. Residues of these chemicals especially DDT and HCH have been identified and reviewed in man and his environment from different parts of the world however, by comparison very high levels of DDT and its metabolites have been reported in human body fat, blood and milk samples in India. Since there is a definite relationship between the amount of DDT and its residues in blood and those present in human fat depot, blood can be easily be used for assessing the total body burden of persistent OCI in various populations. In view of fragmentary reports on the levels of DDT and HCH in human blood samples from India which categorically pertain to the general population of urban areas like Delhi and Lucknow. The authors attempted to provide a database on residues of DDT and HCH including other cyclodiene compounds, e.g. heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, oxygchlordane, HCB and dieldrin in blood samples collected from general population of Ahmedabad (rural) area.

  13. Organochlorine transfer in the food web of subalpine Bow Lake, Banff National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda M. Campbell; David W. Schindler; Derek C. G. Muir; David B. Donald; Karen A. Kidd

    2000-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from subalpine Bow Lake, near the Continental Divide in Banff National Park, have been reported to have higher concentrations of toxaphene than other lake trout populations of the Rocky Mountains. Our original hypothesis was that unusually high biomagnification via a long food chain was responsible for elevated levels of toxaphene and other persistent organochlorines in the

  14. Spatial trends and historical profiles of organochlorine pesticides in Arctic lake sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. G. Muir; Norbert P. Grift; W. Lyle Lockhart; Paul Wilkinson; Brian N. Billeck; Gregg J. Brunskill

    1995-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from eight remote lakes in Canada, along a mid-continental transect from 49°N to 82°N, with the objective of examining latitudinal and temporal differences in deposition of a wide range of persistent, semi-volatile, organochlorine (OC) pesticides such as DDT, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and toxaphene. Samples were collected with a specially constructed ? corer (30 ×

  15. Organochlorine Concentrations in Bonnethead Sharks ( Sphyrna tiburo ) from Four Florida Estuaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gelsleichter; C. A. Manire; N. J. Szabo; E. Cortés; J. Carlson; L. Lombardi-Carlson

    2005-01-01

    Because of their persistence in aquatic environments and ability to impair reproduction and other critical physiological processes, organochlorine (OC) contaminants pose significant health risks to marine organisms. Despite such concerns, few studies have investigated levels of OC exposure in sharks, which are fish particularly threatened by anthropogenic pollution because of their tendency to bioaccumulate and biomagnify environmental contaminants. The present

  16. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenlys and organochlorinated pesticides in women from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uluta?, Onur Kenan; Çok, Ismet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-03-01

    The human body is not a chemically uncontaminated system. Every simple action that humans undertake, such as drinking water, eating, nursing, and even breathing air, puts the system under environmental xenobiotic exposure stress. Environmental chemicals have been shown to produce unwanted effects on health and remove the right to healthy living, starting from the first encounter in utero to geriatrics, throughout the lifespan. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, important members of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been detected before in human breast milk and also in the adipose tissue of women from different regions of Turkey; however, there was no information about the blood levels of these chemicals. This study generated the first information that evaluates OCP and PCB contamination levels in the blood of the women living in Turkey. The current study measured the blood concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in 58 healthy women (age 20-41 years; mean age 28 years) who were living in Istanbul, Turkey, in the years 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 29 OCPs and 18 PCB congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCB 153 was the predominant congener (643.2 pg/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and PCB 180. 4,4'-DDE (24872.8 pg/g lipid) was the most common organochlorinated pesticide contaminant in studied blood samples. Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds were as follows: ?PCB 2682?±?3300 pg/g lipid; ?DDT 25,938?±?28,644 pg/g lipid; and ?HCH 2930?±?2222 pg/g lipid, respectively. The mean concentration of ?WHOPCB-TEQ was 0.037 pg/g on a lipid basis. This information will be important base data during the assessment of the general health concerns of women, as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans for forthcoming studies. PMID:25701473

  17. Human hair as a potential biomonitor for assessing persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Sun, Huibin

    2007-07-01

    To explore human biomonitor of persistent organic pollutants (POP) for public health risk assessment, extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) and some selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in children hair from urban and rural regions of Beijing, China, were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that about 96% of the total halogens existed as water-soluble polar compounds; about 25 to 50% of EOX were sulfuric acid-resistant EPOX; organochlorines were the major fraction of the organohalogens; and 88 to 99.6% of extractable persistent organochlorines (EPOCl) cannot be attributed to the selected OCP and PCB. HCH, DDT and 2-5CB were the major contributors to hair OCP and PCB. Further, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and PCB-52 were the predominant individuals of HCH, DDT and 2-5CB, respectively. The concentration distributions of EPOCl, HCH, DDT and PCB in children hair were generally in the order of urban>rural and girls>boys, except for PCB congeners with random distributions between genders. Pearson positive correlations between hair lipid and the detected parameters of hair gamma-HCH (p<0.01), DDT (p<0.01), EOCl (p<0.05), as well as EPOCl (p<0.05) were observed. Also, the ratios of hair alpha/gamma and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT suggested that fresh input of HCH and DDT might exist in Beijing area. Hair can reflect body's integral exposure to POP from endogenous and exogenous sources, which, thus, can be used as a potential biomonitor in assessing POP exposure for public health purposes. PMID:17367859

  18. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next ?-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations. PMID:26116199

  19. A comparative study on the uptake and translocation of organochlorines by Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick; Raveton, Muriel

    2013-01-15

    Organochlorines (OCs) are persistent chemicals found in various environmental compartments. The differences in the uptake of (14)C-labeled 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?HCH) by Phragmites australis were investigated under hydroponic conditions. The first step in sorption appears to be correlated with the hydrophobic nature of the compounds, since log-linear correlations were obtained between root concentration factor and partition coefficient (LogK(ow)). After 7 days of exposure, plant uptake of DCB, TCB, ?HCH was significant with bioconcentration factors reaching 14, 19 and 15, respectively. Afterwards, uptake and translocation were seen to be more complex, with a loss of the simple relationship between uptake and LogK(ow). Linear correlations between the bioconcentration/translocation factors and the physico-chemical properties of OCs were shown, demonstrating that translocation from roots to shoots increases with solubility and volatility of the OCs. This suggests that OC-translocation inside plants might result from the combination of two processes, xylem sap flow and vapor fluxes. (14)C-phytovolatilization was measured and was correlated with the volatility of the compounds; the more volatile OCs being most the likely to be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces (p=0.0008). Thus, OC-uptake/translocation appears to proceed at a rate that depends mostly on the OCs hydrophobicity, solubility and volatility. PMID:23246941

  20. Occurrence and possible fate of organochlorine pesticide residues at Manzala Lake in Egypt as a model study.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Essam; Moussa, Saad; Abonorag, Mostafa A; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Persistence of the residue of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) became a great danger to our environment long ago. In this study, the persistence of OCPs at Manzala Lake in Egypt was determined. Four different sites were investigated: the El-Gamel, El-Kowar, El-Rasoah, and Janb El-Timsah regions. Among these, the El-Kowar region had the highest concentration of total OCPs in the sediment samples when compared to other regions during both 2012 and 2013. In fact, generally, the residues of OCPs in the sediment samples were significantly higher in all tested sites in comparison with other compartments. Conversely, OCP residues were undetectable in water samples at both the El-Gamel region and the El-Rasoah site in the studied seasons. The data proved that the sediment layer plays a sourcing role in OCP persistence in the aquatic ecosystem. Data analysis also indicated that there was an external source for OCP contamination in the Manzala Lake ecosystem that most likely comes from Nile Basin countries and which extends the expected half-life of these compounds. It could be exemplified by DDT, the half-life of which increased from 30 to approximately 47 years. PMID:25424498

  1. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada) [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. - Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on breast cancer cell growth. {yields} Weak xenoestrogens in the mixture stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. {yields} Antiandrogens increased the proliferation CAMA-1 cells grown with sex steroids. {yields} High concentrations of the mixture decreased the proliferation of all cell lines.

  2. Evidence for organochlorine contamination in Lake Tahoe, California

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Matsumura, F. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

    1995-12-31

    Organochlorine pollutants were measured in mature lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Tahoe, California. This is the first report of organochlorine contamination in this lake which is considered to be pristine; Lake Tahoe, an alpine lake, located in the Sierra Nevadas, has not been subject to direct contamination by industrial discharges or agricultural runoff. Multiresidue analysis of chlorinated compounds in the belly flap tissues of lake trout revealed wet weight concentrations of PCBs and DDE in the low ppb range using EIMS and SIM. Full spectra of specific PCB congeners and DDE were obtained using extracts of fish fat tissue. The presence of these pollutants in biota suggests that atmospheric transport may be a significant source of input to the Lake Tahoe ecosystem.

  3. Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in anhingas and waders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1977-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine compounds occur commonly in environmental samples and have been associated with adverse effects in numerous avian species. The affected species are usually terminal consumers, generally those feeding on aquatic organisms (primarily fish) or birds. Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus , and certain herons are among the species that have exhibited shell thinning in some regions. In 1972, we began a study to determine: (1) geographic differences in the occurrence of environmental pollutants in Anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and waders in the eastern United States; (2) differences in environmental pollutant levels among those species nesting at the same localities; and (3) whether eggshell thickness had changed since the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides began in the mid-1940's.

  4. Activation of retinoic acid receptor-dependent transcription by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Géraldine; Balaguer, Patrick; Michel, Serge; Rahmani, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Five organochlorine pesticides, namely, chlordane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and endosulfan, activate human retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated gene transcription via a retinoic acid response element (RARE). Transactivation studies were performed with stable RARalpha, beta, or gamma reporter cell lines in which the RAR DNA-binding domain (DBD) was replaced by that of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)? Five of the organochlorine pesticides tested activated RARbeta and RARgamma but not RARalpha; their half-maximal luciferase activity (EC(50)) was determined. Furthermore, that activity was RAR-specific and organochlorine pesticides did not activate the retinoid X receptor (RXR) pathway. However, competitive binding experiments with [(3)H]-CD367, a pan-RAR agonist, showed that only chlordane could bind RARbeta and RARgamma, albeit with low affinity. In addition, organochlorine pesticides strongly induce cytochrome P450RAI1 (P450RAI1), a key factor of retinoic acid level regulation in many tissues and whose expression and activity are strongly induced by retinoic acid. This study shows that organochlorine pesticides can activate two RAR homologues, with low-binding affinity. Although the agonistic potential of organochlorine pesticides is lower than that of (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-propenyl] benzoic acid (TTNPB), they are able to induce RAR-mediated gene transcription as P450RAI1 and may disrupt the retinoid signaling pathway. Because these chemicals are extremely persistent and tend to accumulate in biological tissues, these results support the hypothesis that the increase in teratogenicity observed in some developing countries could be due to prolonged exposure to organochlorine pesticides ubiquitously present in the environment. PMID:15589975

  5. Latitudinal patterns of organochlorine contamination in plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Koening, B.G.; Lean, D.R.S. [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1994-12-31

    It has been suggested that the high Arctic will be the final sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Through evaporation and deposition processes, OCs may move from warm to cool climates with air mass movements. Fundamental questions that remain unanswered are how far north do OCs travel and do the relative proportions of OCs in biota change along a latitudinal gradient? To answer these questions, zooplankton were sampled from a series of lakes along a transect from the Great Lakes (43{degree}N) to Ellesmere Island (85{degree}N). Zooplankton are useful indicators of environmental levels of OCs because they are ubiquitous, easy to sample, and form an integral part of the food chain leading to fish. Moreover, deposition patterns of OCs are more realistically reflected by zooplankton than by higher trophic level organisms because less trophic modification can occur and zooplankton do not, like fish, selectively exclude or metabolize specific OCs. Zooplankton were analyzed for a suite of OC contaminants that encompass a wide range in their respective water solubilities, vapor pressures and k{sub ow} values. Results indicate that the proportions of specific compounds, relative to the total OCs, do change with latitude. In samples from high latitudes, highly volatile compounds are found in higher proportions than compounds with low vapor pressures.

  6. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Stackelberg; Edward T. Furlong; Michael T. Meyer; Steven D. Zaugg; Alden K. Henderson; Dori B. Reissman

    2004-01-01

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples

  7. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pollutants in primary dental tissues and bone of lamb.

    PubMed

    Jan, Janja; Urši?, Matjaž; Vrecl, Milka

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the bioconcentration of selected organochlorine pollutants, tetra- and hexa-chlorobiphenyls with planar (PCB-80, PCB-169) and non-planar (PCB-54, PCB-155) structure, and persistent organochlorine pesticides with planar [hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] and non-planar [1,1-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE)] structure in primary dental tissues (pulp, dentine, and enamel) and mandibular bone of lactationally exposed lambs, and compared it with the organochlorines distribution pattern in permanent dental tissues and bone. Also, the role of pollutants physicochemical properties and tissue specific characteristics in the bioconcentration was assessed. Residual levels of individual pollutants were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Our results showed that transfer of organochlorines to primary hard dental tissues was higher than to permanent hard dental tissues. Metabolically more stable, planar, and toxic organochlorines (e.g. PCB-169 and HCB) predominated in primary hard dental tissues, where they may represent a potential risk for developmental dental defects. PMID:24100271

  8. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79.

    PubMed

    Stendell, R C; Gilmer, D S; Coon, N A; Swineford, D M

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974-79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks. PMID:24248525

  9. Organochlorine contaminants in fish from an Arctic lake in Alaska, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose Wilson; Susan Allen-Gil; Donald Griffin; Dixon Landers

    1995-01-01

    A wide range of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in muscle tissue and livers of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Schrader Lake in Arctic Alaska. Results confirm the long-range transport of these contaminants to a US Arctic freshwater system. The most abundant group of compounds in all tissues was composed of PCBs.

  10. Organochlorine residues in animals from three Louisiana watersheds in 1978 and 1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick F. Dowd; George U. Mayfield; Dwayne P. Coulon; Jerry B. Graves; John D. Newsom

    1985-01-01

    Environmental contamination by various chemicals is a problem of constant occurrence. In order to determine the levels of harmful chemicals in the environment, monitoring programs have been set up throughout the United States. In 1964, the National Pesticide Monitoring Program was set up to include sites in Louisiana (such as watersheds) to assess the presenc& of organochlorine compounds including insecticides

  11. Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natsuko Kajiwara; Satoko Kamikawa; Karri Ramu; Daisuke Ueno; Tadasu K. Yamada; Annamalai Subramanian; Paul K. S. Lam; Thomas A. Jefferson; Maricar Prudente; Kyu-Hyuck Chung; Shinsuke Tanabe

    2006-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are one of the flame retardants widely used in plastics, textiles, electronic appliances, and electrical household appliances. In this study, PBDEs and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the archived samples from the Environmental Specimen Bank for Global Monitoring (es-BANK) at Ehime University. The blubber of cetaceans found stranded along the coasts of Japan, Hong Kong,

  12. Residues of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Eggs of Water Birds from Tai Lake in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. H. Dong; H. Wang; Q. An; X. Ruiz; M. Fasola; Y. M. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of water birds from the colony on Tai Lake in China were studied. The eggs were collected in 2000 and belonged to the following species: 65 samples of black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), 36 samples of little egret (Egretta garzetta), 26 samples of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) from 13 clutches and 43 samples

  13. Organochlorine pesticide residues associated with mortality: Additivity of chlordane and endrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Larry Ludke

    1976-01-01

    Mortality may be correlated with residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in the brains of exposed animals. Experimental studies have compared brain residues of animals that died with those of survivors of id› or similar exposure. Based on the results of such studies, lethal residue levels that may be used for diagnostic purposes have been established for some compounds. DALE et

  14. Organochlorine and mercury contamination in fish tissues from the River Nestos, Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achilleas Christoforidis; Nikolaos Stamatis; Klaus Schmieder; Efstathios Tsachalidis

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, other organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs, including trans-chlordane and cis- and trans-nonachlor) and the heavy metal mercury were quantified in muscle and liver of the European chub (Leuciscus cephalus, Linnaeus, 1758) and in the muscle of the barbel (Barbus cyclolepis, Heckel, 1837) at two sampling

  15. Organochlorines and trace elements in upland game birds harvested in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit M. Braune; Brian J. Malone

    2006-01-01

    American woodcock, common snipe, two species of ptarmigan (willow and rock), and three species of grouse (ruffed, spruce, and sharp-tailed) were collected from 21 locations between 1991 and 1994 as part of a nationwide survey of contaminants in game birds harvested in Canada. Breast muscle was analysed for organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane-related compounds, DDT metabolites, mirex, dieldrin, and PCBs) and

  16. Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring gulls and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring gulls. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring gulls, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring gulls. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants. PMID:8880006

  17. SPATIAL TRENDS AND ASSOCIATED BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ORGANOCHLORINES AND BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS IN HATCHLINGS OF NORTH ATLANTIC KITTIWAKES (RISSA TRIDACTYLA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Mette Murvoll; Janneche Utne Skaare; Børge Moe; Endre Anderssen; Bjorn Munro Jenssen

    2006-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), some organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), were analyzed in yolk sacs of kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) hatchlings from Kongsfjorden at Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic; 798N) and from Runde, an island on the coast of Norway (628N). Retinol (vitamin A), retinyl palmitate, and a-tocopherol (vitamin E) were measured in

  18. Intraspecific Variation in Trophic Feeding Levels and Organochlorine Concentrations in Glaucous Gulls ( Larus hyperboreus ) from Bjørnøya, the Barents Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kjetil Sagerup; Espen O. Henriksen; Janneche U. Skaare; Geir W. Gabrielsen

    2002-01-01

    Biomagnification contributes to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OC) in some Arctic vertebrates. Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) on Bjørnøya in the western Barents Sea were studied to compare the intraspecific variation in OC concentration with variation in trophic feeding levels, estimated from ratios of nitrogen isotopes. Liver tissue samples from 40 adult glaucous gulls were analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane,

  19. Increasing serum levels of non-DDT-derivative organochlorine pesticides in the younger population of the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. P. Luzardo; M. Goethals; M. Zumbado; E. E. Álvarez-León; F. Cabrera; Ll. Serra-Majem; L. D. Boada

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are a lipophilic class of chemicals that persist in the environment and tend to accumulate in human tissues for years. They came into widespread use in the late 1940s. Because of their capacity to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food chains and their toxic effects, most of them were banned in industrialized countries, among them Spain, in the late

  20. Organochlorine pesticide contamination in three bird species of the Embalse La Florida water reservoir in the semiarid midwest of Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabricio D. Cid; Rosa I. Antón; Enrique Caviedes-Vidal

    2007-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have a variety of acute and chronic pathological effects on animals, are persistent in the environment and are accumulated in adipose tissue of animals. In Argentina there are few studies reporting the OC contamination in the fauna. Moreover, no data are available for an ecologically relevant region, the arid-semiarid midwest region of Argentina. Recently, it was reported

  1. Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. G. Muir; M. D. Segstro; K. A. Hobson; C. A. Ford; R. E. A. Stewart; S. Olpinski

    1995-01-01

    Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins\\/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from

  2. Extraction and clean-up methods for organochlorine pesticides determination in milk.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joana Gomes; Amaya Chávez, Araceli; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Colín Cruz, Arturo; García Fabila, María Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can cause environmental damage and human health risks since they are lipophilic compounds with high resistance to degradation and long half-lives in humans. As most persistent OCPs have been banned years ago, it is expected to find these compounds at trace levels in environment. Therefore, increasingly sensitive and reliable analytical techniques are required to ensure effective monitoring of these compounds. The aim of this review is to discuss extraction and clean-up methods used to monitor OCP residues in milk, reported in the last 20 years. To carry out this review, an exhaustive bibliographic review was conducted. Despite the disadvantages of conventional extraction and clean-up methods, such as liquid-liquid, solid-phase or Soxhlet extractions, these procedures are still used due to their reliability. New extraction methods, like solid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion or QuEChERS, have not been thoroughly evaluated for OCP determination in milk. Almost all the methodologies analyzed in this review presented good performance characteristics according to the performance acceptability criteria set in SANCO's procedure. Comparison between limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD), for the reported methodologies, is not always possible due to the heterogeneity of the units. Thus, researchers should take into account an homogenization of LOD and LOQ units, according to the international regulations and MRLs established. Finally, more research is necessary to obtain the ideal methodology for OCPs determination in milk, which comprises the environmentally friendly characteristics of the new techniques and the reliability of the traditional methodologies. PMID:23648324

  3. Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in milk of urban mothers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kinyamu, J K; Kanja, L W; Skaare, J U; Maitho, T E

    1998-05-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCPs) are toxic products capable of producing serious adverse health consequences. When used to control pests, certain OCPs persist in the environment and accumulate in the fatty tissues of living organisms, reaching higher levels in animals higher in the food chain. Many countries have therefore either restricted or banned the use of OCPs. DDT used to be widely used in Kenya to control pests, but is now used only to control mosquito populations. The contamination of human milk by organochlorine and other related compounds is a major concern in many parts of the world. Findings are reported from a study conducted to assess the levels of OCPs in an urban area of Kenya and to compare OCP levels in human milk from a previous study in rural areas of the country. 216 milk samples were collected from mothers aged 18-30 years in hospital maternity wards or attending postnatal clinics in selected areas in Nairobi in 1991. All mothers involved in the study were nursing either their first or second child, and had lived in Nairobi for at least 5 years before the date of sampling. Samples were collected from mothers who were up to 4 weeks postpartum and analyzed for the presence of OCP residues. 9 OCPs were detected, with p,p'DDT and p,p'DDE being the most frequently encountered contaminants in all samples analyzed. p,p'DDE was detected in 99.5% and p,p'DDT in 78.2% of all samples. Other residues detected were dieldrin (27%), beta-HCH (18.5%), lindane (12%), and alpha-HCH (8.8%). Levels of sum DDT ranged from 0.004 to 6.321 mg/kg fat. Mothers living in Nairobi have low levels of OCPs in their breast milk compared to mothers in rural areas. The relatively lower urban levels could be attributed to the restricted use of OCPs. People need to be taught how to safely use pesticides. PMID:9595188

  4. Inflation Persistence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey C. Fuhrer

    2010-01-01

    This chapter examines the concept of inflation persistence in macroeconomic theory. It begins by defining persistence — emphasizing the difference between reduced-form and structural persistence. It then examines a number of empirical measures of reduced-form persistence, considering the possibility that persistence may have changed over time. The chapter then examines the theoretical sources of persistence, distinguishing “intrinsic” from “inherited” persistence,

  5. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in Falconiforme and Ciconiforme eggs (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Aranda, A.

    1988-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls have been documented to have adverse effects of the reproduction and survival of wild birds. Also, environmental contamination from heavy metals has been shown to be a threat to the survival and reproduction of certain birds. The hazard to Falconiforme and Ciconiforme birds is high because a) they are sensitive to eggshell thinning b) they are high in the food chain. The present paper reports the levels of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals in 69 eggs of five species of the avian Falconiforme order and two species of the avian Ciconiforme order collected at Donana National Park and Castile Plateau (Spain). Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in eggs of Falconiforme and Ciconiforme birds of Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the contaminants detected on reproductive potential; (3) to evaluate regional patterns of residues.

  6. Distribution of organochlorines and PCB congeners in Korean human tissues.

    PubMed

    Park, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang-Ki; Yang, Ja-Yeol; Kim, Ki-Wook; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Won-Tae; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Young-Chan

    2005-07-01

    In order to investigate the residual amounts of organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Korean human tissues (blood, adipose tissue, liver, kidney cortex, and lung), the samples were collected from the autopsied cadavers of 40 men and 40 women (from teens to seventies of age). Alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, endrin, dieldein, aldrin, and 7 marker PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) were determined in human tissues. The levels of organochlorines and PCB congeners indicated that they have been widely distributed in Korean human body. Positive correlations in terms of age were observed for the following cases: p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, Sigma-DDT, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153, and Sigma-PCB in the adipose tissue, and p,p'-DDE in the lung. Concentration of these compounds showed a significant age-related increase. Accumulation of these compounds in aged people revealed that these compounds were more slowly eliminated in our environment and risk assessment was necessary for further proper action. Significant differences in the levels of PCBs between genders were found for PCB 118 in the adipose tissue and PCB 138 in the liver. Positive correlation coefficients between tissues were detected with p,p'-DDE and p-BHC. PMID:16114499

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Adipose Tissue and Breast Milk Collected in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. T. Poon; C. K. M. Leung; C. K. C. Wong; M. H. Wong

    2005-01-01

    Contamination from persistent organic pollutants is a pervasive global problem that urgently demands global concern and action. In the present study, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 37 samples of female adipose tissue collected in Hong Kong hospitals. Among the pollutants analyzed, DDTs (2.79 ng\\/g fat), HCHs (0.72 ng\\/g fat), and PCBs (0.19 ng\\/g

  8. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Lourencetti; Rodrigo Favoreto; Mary R. R. Marchi; Maria L. Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (? -HCH, ? -HCH, ? -HCH, p,p?-DDT, o,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDD, p,p?-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras,

  9. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Adipose Tissues of Korean Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyo-Bang MoonDuk-Hee; Duk-Hee Lee; Yoon Soon Lee; Minkyu Choi; Hee-Gu Choi; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    Studies on residue levels and accumulation profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human adipose tissues of Korean\\u000a populations are scarce. In this study, concentrations and accumulation features of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine\\u000a pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in adipose tissues of Korean women age 40–68 years.\\u000a The highest concentrations were found for PCBs and DDTs, which

  10. Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

  11. Occurrence of organochlorine contaminants in tissues of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Hale; John Greaves; Jennifer L. Gundersen; Robert F. Mothershead

    1991-01-01

    Gas chromatography coupled with electrolytic conductivity detection and electron capture negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry have been used to identify and quantify organochlorine xenobiotics in tissues from two specimens of the living coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae. Compounds identified include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), 4,4'-DDT and its metabolites 4,4'-DDD and 4,4'-DDE. Levels of these compounds in the specimens were observed to be generally

  12. Intra- and inter-species differences in persistent organic contaminants in the blubber of blue whales and humpback whales from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Chris; Koenig, Brenda; Metcalfe, Tracy; Paterson, Gordon; Sears, Richard

    2004-05-01

    Biopsy samples of blubber from adult male and female blue whales, and from female and young-of-the-year humpback whales were collected during the summers of 1992-1999 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In blue whales, concentrations of 25 PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites and several other organochlorine compounds were present at higher concentrations in the blubber of males relative to females; reflecting maternal transfer of these persistent contaminants from females into young. Sex-related differences in concentrations were not observed with less persistent contaminants, such as HCHs. In humpback whale samples, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine compounds in the blubber of females and calves. These data indicate that calves quickly bioaccumulate contaminants by transplacental and lactational routes to concentrations that are in equilibrium with females. In comparisons between contaminant concentrations and patterns in the blubber of female blue and humpback whales, there were no significant differences in concentrations, but the proportions of some PCB congeners, HCH isomers, and DDT and its metabolites were different in the two baleen whale species. These may reflect differences in the diet of the two species, since fish comprise a large part of the diet of humpback whales and blue whales feed exclusively on euphausiid crustaceans (i.e. krill). PMID:14749058

  13. Dehalogenation of persistent halogenated organic compounds: A review of computational studies and quantitative structure-property relationships.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jin; Hu, Jiwei; Wei, Xionghui; Fu, Liya; Li, Lingyun

    2015-07-01

    Dehalogenation is one of the highly important degradation reactions for halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) in the environment, which is also being developed as a potential type of the remediation technologies. In combination with the experimental results, intensive efforts have recently been devoted to the development of efficient theoretical methodologies (e.g. multi-scale simulation) to investigate the mechanisms for dehalogenation of HOCs. This review summarizes the structural characteristics of neutral molecules, anionic species and excited states of HOCs as well as their adsorption behavior on the surface of graphene and the Fe cluster. It discusses the key physiochemical properties (e.g. frontier orbital energies and thermodynamic properties) calculated at various levels of theory (e.g. semiempirical, ab initio, density functional theory (DFT) and the periodic DFT) as well as their connections to the reactivity and reaction pathway for the dehalogenation. This paper also reviews the advances in the linear and nonlinear quantitative structure-property relationship models for the dehalogenation kinetics of HOCs and in the mathematical modeling of the dehalogenation processes. Furthermore, prospects of further expansion and exploration of the current research fields are described in this article. PMID:25765260

  14. Organochlorine residues in marine mammals from the northern hemisphere--a consideration of the composition of organochlorine residues in the blubber of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Vetter, W; Luckas, B; Heidemann, G; Skírnisson, K

    1996-07-16

    Levels of organochlorines (PCBs, sigma DDT, lindane and its isomers, HCB, chlordane, and toxaphene) were determined in blubber of marine mammals from the northern hemisphere. Differences in both levels and ratios of organochlorine compounds were detected in different species of marine mammals living in the same region, e.g. blubber of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) accumulated significantly lower levels of lindane, HCB, toxaphene, and DDT and its metabolites than harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Compared to such elementary differences in the organochlorine pattern in different marine mammals, the influence of age and sex on the results was only minimal. Varying ratios of contaminants in individual harbour porpoises were explained by migration. Constant PCB/DDT ratios were measured in harbour seals. Due to the sedentariness of harbour seals, even local sources of contaminants could be recognized. Careful evaluation of the organochlorine levels and ratios in marine mammals made it possible to monitor the transport of PCBs from the European continent to European Arctic regions. PMID:8685708

  15. Development of a Compound Distribution Markov Chain Model for Stochastic Generation of Rainfall with Long Term Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Chowdhury, AFM; Lockart, Natalie; Willgoose, Garry; Kuczera, George

    2015-04-01

    One of the overriding issues in the rainfall simulation is the underestimation of observed rainfall variability in longer timescales (e.g. monthly, annual and multi-year), which usually results into under-estimation of reservoir reliability in urban water planning. This study has developed a Compound Distribution Markov Chain (CDMC) model for stochastic generation of daily rainfall. We used two parameters of Markov Chain process (transition probabilities of wet-to-wet and dry-to-dry days) for simulating rainfall occurrence and two parameters of gamma distribution (calculated from mean and standard deviation of wet-day rainfall) for simulating wet-day rainfall amounts. While two models with deterministic parameters underestimated long term variability, our investigation found that the long term variability of rainfall in the model is predominantly governed by the long term variability of gamma parameters, rather than the variability of Markov Chain parameters. Therefore, in the third approach, we developed the CDMC model with deterministic parameters of Markov Chain process, but stochastic parameters of gamma distribution by sampling the mean and standard deviation of wet-day rainfall from their log-normal and bivariate-normal distribution. We have found that the CDMC is able to replicate both short term and long term rainfall variability, when we calibrated the model at two sites in east coast of Australia using three types of daily rainfall data - (1) dynamically downscaled, 10 km resolution gridded data produced by NSW/ACT Regional Climate Modelling project, (2) 5 km resolution gridded data by Australian Water Availability Project and (3) point scale raingauge stations data by Bureau of Meteorology, Australia. We also examined the spatial variability of parameters and their link with local orography at our field site. The suitability of the model in runoff generation and urban reservoir-water simulation will be discussed.

  16. Vitellogenin in tilapia male fishes exposed to organochlorine pesticides in Ouémé River in Republic of Benin.

    PubMed

    Okoumassoun, Liliane-Eustache; Brochu, Charles; Deblois, Christian; Akponan, Simon; Marion, Michel; Averill-Bates, Diana; Denizeau, Francine

    2002-11-01

    In many African countries, the economy largely depends on agriculture. Pesticides are therefore likely to represent an important source of xenoestrogens in contaminated rivers and lagoons. The largely uncontrolled use of diverse pesticides led us to hypothesize that these agents, and particularly organochlorine compounds, may pose a serious problem in the Republic of Benin. To verify our hypothesis, tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from five sites in the southern part of the main Ouémé River were analyzed. Ouémé River drains the southern region of the country. Vitellogenin (Vtg) was used as an indicator of contaminated sites. This approach has its limitations, because there are a wide variety of man-made chemicals present in the aquatic environment likely to induce Vtg in male fish. Therefore, in this study this approach allows us to define potential contaminated target sites. In order to determine whether the presence of Vtg could be attributable to pesticides, organochlorine pesticides in the flesh of tilapia were also analyzed. Significant amounts of Vtg in fish from contaminated sites were detected, and were correlated with organochlorine pesticide levels in tissue. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are present in the Ouémé River and that these compounds can act as endocrine modulators in this ecosystem. Eating fish from contaminated rivers, such as the Ouémé River, may contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of these pesticides in the body, leading to exposure to their negative effects. PMID:12462582

  17. Organochlorine concentrations in franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei, from Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Lailson-Brito, José; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Azevedo-Silva, Cláudio Eduardo; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Vidal, Lara Gama; Marigo, Juliana; Bertozzi, Carolina; Zanelatto, Regina Célia; Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João Paulo Machado

    2011-08-01

    Blubber samples were collected from ten franciscana dolphins either incidentally captured in fishing operations or stranded on São Paulo (SP) and Paraná (PR) states littoral, Southeastern and Southern Brazilian coast, respectively. Determination of PCB, DDT and HCB concentrations were performed by capillary gas chromatograph coupled to electron capture detector (ECD). ?DDT, ?PCB and HCB concentrations ranged from 264 ng g(-1) to 5811 ng g(-1) lipid, from 909 ng g(-1) to 5849 ng g(-1) lipid and from 10 ng g(-1) to 61 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. Regarding DDTs, the distribution of the mean percentages decreased in the following order: p,p'-DDE>p,p'-DDD>p,p'-DDT. The ?DDT/?PCB ratio varied between 0.27 and 0.42 in Northern and Central SP coast, while in Southern SP and PR coast the values were 1.6 and 1.9, respectively. Dissimilarities in ?DDT/?PCB ratios point to different sources of organochlorine compounds to franciscana dolphins in the study area. Considering the endocrine disruptive action of organochlorine compounds, the concentrations found in franciscana dolphins from Brazilian waters may represent an additional obstacle to the conservation of this endangered cetacean species. PMID:21726890

  18. Removal of persistent organic pollutant hexachlorocyclohexane isomers by advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Organochlorine insecticide Lindane (gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane) and its isomers (alpha, beta, delta-HCH) are recalcitrant and toxic compounds. They were progressively banished in most of the countries, because of their persistence and toxicity. Due to their nonselective production process and widespread use, they are still occurring in the environment. These insecticides and isomers were detected in all media like soil, ground water, sediments, vegetables and even in human tissues. In this study, UV, H2O2, UV+H2O2, Fenton's reagent, UV+Fenton's reagent, Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) have been applied for degradation of HCH isomers (a, beta, gamma and delta-HCH). The results revealed that the UV+H2O2 treatment was most effective, which could do 99% degradation of all isomers of HCH within 75 minutes. The results in detail are presented and discussed in this paper. PMID:24749381

  19. Bioconcentration of lipophilic organochlorines in ovine dentine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Jan; M Vrecl; A Poga?nik; D Gašperši?

    2001-01-01

    The bioconcentration of lipophilic organochlorines in ovine dentine in comparison to adipose tissue was examined. Sheep were given a single dose (0.2–1.4 mg\\/kg body wt) of individual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners (tetrachlorobiphenyls IUPAC Nos. 54 and 80, and hexachlorobiphenyls IUPAC Nos. 155 and 169) and organochlorine pesticides 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene) (4,4?-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). They were killed 2 months after the dose and

  20. Persistent organic pollutants and semen quality: The LIFE Study.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Sunni L; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Gore-Langton, Robert E; Boyd Barr, Dana; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence suggests that persistent environmental chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls may adversely affect human fecundity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples discontinuing contraception for purposes of becoming pregnant. Men provided a blood specimen and two fresh semen samples collected approximately a month apart that underwent next day analysis for 35 semen quality endpoints. Serum samples were analyzed for 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners #18, 28, 44, 49, 52, 66, 74, 87, 99, 101, 114, 118, 128, 138, 146, 149, 151, 153, 156, 157, 167, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, 183, 187, 189, 194, 195, 196, 201, 206, 209); 1 polybrominated biphenyl (#153); 9 organochlorine pesticides; and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners #17, 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154183) using high resolution mass spectrometry. To estimate the effect of chemicals on semen quality, we regressed each semen marker on each chemical while adjusting for research site, age, body mass index, serum lipids, and cotinine levels. Males with chemical concentrations in the fourth quartile, as compared to the first quartile, showed significant associations for several individual chemicals in each chemical class and type of semen quality parameter indicating negative and positive associations with semen quality. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in particular were associated with several measures of increased abnormal morphology. These exploratory results highlight the role of environmental influences on male fecundity, and are of particular interest given the ubiquitous exposures to these compounds. PMID:25441930

  1. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  2. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, H M; Swineford, D M; Locke, L N

    1981-03-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain. PMID:6793997

  3. Whole blood concentrations of organochlorines as a dose metric for studies of the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus).

    PubMed

    Bustnes, J O; Skaare, J U; Erikstad, K E; Bakken, V; Mehlum, F

    2001-05-01

    In order to examine if whole blood concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) is an appropriate dosimetric parameter for use in ecotoxicological studies of free-living birds, a number of incubating glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were repeatedly sampled within and between subsequent breeding seasons. The wet weight concentrations of selected OCs, differing in persistence and fat solubility, were compared and it was assessed to what extent present concentrations could be predicted from concentrations previously measured in the individuals. There were only a few significant differences in the blood concentrations of the selected OCs within and between seasons. The most persistent compound, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153, showed a low interindividual variability, and between seasons, 70% of the variance could be explained by the level in the previous year, while changes in body condition and blood lipid percentage were of less importance. For PCB-101, the predictability of the present blood concentration from the previous concentration was lower than for PCB-153, and changes in body condition and blood lipid percentage explained a higher proportion of the variance. The present level of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) could not be predicted from the previous level. Sex did not explain any significant proportion of the variance in OC concentrations when previous level and changes in body mass and blood lipid were included in the statistical models. Thus, for the most persistent OCs, concentration in the blood of incubating glaucous gulls is representative for the interindividual differences over time and whole blood concentrations of OCs appear adequate as a dose metric in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:11337867

  4. Human hair as a potential biomonitor for assessing persistent organic pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Zhang; Zhifang Chai; Huibin Sun

    2007-01-01

    To explore human biomonitor of persistent organic pollutants (POP) for public health risk assessment, extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) and some selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in children hair from urban and rural regions of Beijing, China, were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and gas chromatography–electron capture detector (GC–ECD). The results indicated that

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution. PMID:20189196

  6. Fish intake and serum levels of organochlorines among Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Tsukino, H; Hanaoka, T; Sasaki, H; Motoyama, H; Hiroshima, M; Tanaka, T; Kabuto, M; Turner, W; Patterson, D G; Needham, L; Tsugane, S

    2006-04-15

    This study evaluates background serum levels of selected organochlorine compounds among Japanese women of reproductive age and investigates whether lifestyle factors, especially dietary factors, may be associated with these levels. A cross-sectional study was performed on 80 Japanese women, aged 26-43 years, who complained of infertility and were confirmed not to have endometriosis. The serum levels of total toxic equivalency (TEQ), 18 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 4 coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs), 36 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 13 chlorinated pesticides or their metabolites were measured and data were collected on the women's age, residence, occupation, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol habit and 6 dietary intakes (fish, meats, rice, vegetables, fruits and dairy products). The serum median level of total TEQ was 25.1 pg TEQ/g lipid, that of PCDDs/PCDFs/cPCBs was 11.5 pmol/g lipid, that of PCBs was 0.46 nmol/g lipid, and that of total pesticides was 1.32 nmol/g lipid. The serum levels of total TEQ, PCDDs/PCDFs/cPCBs, PCBs and pesticides were positively associated with age (P for trend=0.003, 0.01, 0.005 and 0.01, respectively) and frequent fish consumption (P for trend=0.002, 0.003, 0.0003 and 0.006, respectively). Other lifestyle factors were not associated with serum organochlorine levels. The present study suggests that Japanese women who consume fish frequently in their reproductive period tend to accumulate organochlorines in their bodies. PMID:16546516

  7. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.

    PubMed

    Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

    2012-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, ?-HCH (<2.6 ng g(-1)) and its byproducts ?-HCH (<3.5 ng g(-1)) and ?-HCH (<0.6 ng g(-1)). Among the DDT and its metabolites, only two were found: p,p'-DDT was found in a cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards. PMID:22133910

  8. Persistent Commissioning, Persistent Value

    E-print Network

    Morgan, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    ) tools, diagnostic software, and O&M best practices which enable customers to make intelligent energy management choices and ensure persistent savings. PG&E's MBCx Program funds EnerNOC to provide both a software as a service (SaaS) platform, called...

  9. Persistent Commissioning, Persistent Value 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    ) tools, diagnostic software, and O&M best practices which enable customers to make intelligent energy management choices and ensure persistent savings. PG&E's MBCx Program funds EnerNOC to provide both a software as a service (SaaS) platform, called...

  10. Distribution of organochlorine pollutants in ovine dental tissues and bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janja Jan; Vrecl Milka; Poga?nik Azra; Gašperši? Dominik; Zorko Matjaž

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of selected lipophilic organochlorine pollutants, including two pairs of tetra- and hexa-chlorobiphenyl isomers (PCB-54, -80, -155, -169) and organochlorine pesticides [hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4?-DDE)], in ovine dental pulp, dentine, enamel and mandibular bone was examined. Sheeps were given a single dose of individual organochlorine (1–4?mol\\/kg) in olive oil by intramuscular injection and sacrificed 2 months later. Organochlorine

  11. Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Borgå; G. W Gabrielsen; J. U Skaare

    2001-01-01

    To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod)

  12. Methods for determination of toxic organic compounds in air

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides environmental regulatory agencies, industry, and other interested parties with specific, standardized sampling and analysis procedures for toxic organic compounds in air. Compounds include Volatile Organic Compounds, Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs, Aldehydes and Ketones, Phosgene, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Phenol and Methylphenols (Cresols), Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Formaldehyde, Non-Methane Organic Compounds (NMOCs) and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  13. Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in blubber and liver tissue collected from Queensland (Australia) dugong ( Dugong dugon)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Haynes; Steve Carter; Caroline Gaus; Jochen Müller; William Dennison

    2005-01-01

    Tissue samples of liver and blubber were salvaged from fifty-three dugong (Dugong dugon) carcasses stranded along the Queensland coast between 1996 and 2000. Liver tissue was analysed for a range of heavy metals and blubber samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds. Metal concentrations were similar in male and female animals and were generally highest in mature animals. Liver concentrations of

  14. Organochlorine and organophosphorus residues in the fat of domestic farm animal species, Ontario, Canada 1986–1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Frank; H. E. Braun; K. I. Stonefield; J. Rasper; H. Luyken

    1990-01-01

    During the period 1986–1988 a total of 602 samples of animal products were analysed for organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and industrial organic pollutants. Samples of abdominal fat were collected from avian, bovine, caprine, lupine, ovine and porcine species together with hen eggs. The following six compounds were identified in animal tissues: DDE, dieldrin, lindane, PCB, pentachlorophenol and tetrachlorophenol. Pentachlorophenol was

  15. Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pastor; C. Sanpera; J. González-Sol??s; X. Ruiz; J. Albaigés

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has

  16. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in osprey eggs — 1970–79 — and their relationships to shell thinning and productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Christine M. Bunck; Alexander J. Krynitsky

    1988-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected in 14 states in 1970–79 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury. Moderate shell thinning occurred in eggs from several areas. DDE was detected in all eggs, PCBs in 99%, DDD in 96%, dieldrin in 52%, and other compounds less frequently. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites declined in eggs from

  17. Certain organochlorine and organobromine contaminants in Swedish human milk in perspective of past 20–30 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koidu Norén; Daiva Meironyté

    2000-01-01

    The investigations of organochlorine compounds in breast milk from women living in the Stockholm region started in 1967. The present study summarises the investigations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), naphthalenes (PCNs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and pesticides (DDT, DDE, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin) as well as methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs and DDE in human milk sampled during different periods

  18. Dramatic declines of DDE and other organochlorines in spring migrant Peregrine Falcons from Padre Island, Texas, 1978-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Yates, M.A.; Seegar, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) captured in the spring at Padre Island, Texas, nest across the arctic and subarctic from Alaska to Greenland and winter throughout Latin America. Padre Island, located immediately north of the Mexican border, is the peregrines' first landfall in the U.S.A. after spending about 6 mo in Latin America. Blood plasma was collected from spring migrants at Padre Island between 1978 and 2004 to monitor trends in organochlorine (OC) pesticides and their metabolites. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE (??g/g, ww) decreased throughout the study: 1978-1979 (0.879), 1980 (0.617), 1984 (0.551), 1994 (0.406) and 2004 (0.013). Most other OC pesticides, with detection limits used during the earlier portion of this study, were no longer detected during the last two sampling periods. The reduced concentrations of OC pesticides suggest that other pesticides (including carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) are likely being used as replacements. These replacement compounds are not as persistent and cannot be readily evaluated at migration sites like Padre Island. However, concentrations of flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs) have recently increased in bird eggs in many regions and have been reported in blood plasma. Concentrations of PBDEs in peregrine plasma could be evaluated at Padre Island for assessment of trends in the Americas. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  19. Organochlorine contaminants in human adipose tissues from China: mass balance approach for estimating historical Chinese exposure to DDTs.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Nasu, Tetsuya; Abe, Shin-Ichi; Kitano, Takeshi; Fan, Qiyuan; Li, Weihua; Ding, Xucheng

    2005-07-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in 34 human adipose tissues collected from Guizhou Province, southern China, during 2002. DDT was the predominant contaminant among OCs analyzed; concentrations ranged from 420 to 20 000 ng/g on a lipid wt basis (average +/- sd: 5700 +/- 4100 ng/g). Concentrations of DDTs and the ratio of p,p'-DDT/ sigmaDDT in humans in China were significantly higher than those reported for developed countries. DDT levels in humans in Guizhou Province were comparable to those from Shanghai City, implying the presence of significant sources of DDTs in inland and coastal areas in China. Age-dependent accumulation of HCH concentration was found in this study, possibly because of the considerable reduction in average dairy intake (ADI) of HCHs by Chinese during the recent two decades. On the basis of the information of the ADI rates, half-lives, and body burdens of DDTs, the magnitude of historical DDT exposures by Chinese was estimated. This suggested that approximately 80% of DDTs deposited in Chinese adipose tissues was accumulated before the 1990s. The monitoring of OC levels and epidemiological studies are needed in China to understand the status of contamination and the risks to humans. PMID:16053068

  20. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bringas, Laura M; Ponce-Vélez, Guadalupe; Calva, Laura G; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazamamberth; Botello, Alfonso V; Díaz González, Gilberto

    2008-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002) and organisms collected in April and July (2002) from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p'-DDD y delta-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (gamma-HCH) was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993). PMID:19419051

  1. Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada). National Wildlife Research Centre; Weseloh, D.V. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

  2. Organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs from the Pacific coast of Canada, 1971-1986.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Noble, D G; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E

    1989-04-01

    Eggs were collected from seven seabird species at colonies on the British Columbia coast from 1983 to 1986 and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Total PCB levels (wet weight) were highest in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Fraser estuary (2.91 mg kg(-1)) and the Strait of Georgia (3.79 mg kg(-1)). Highest DDE levels were in fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) from the Queen Charlotte Islands (1.68 mg kg(-1)). Organochlorine levels were generally lower in eggs from the mid 1980s than in those collected in the early 1970s. Organochlorine levels in Pacific alcids and hydrobatids foraging in offshore locations were compared to those in the same or ecologically similar species from the Canadian Atlantic coast. DDT- and HCH-related compounds were higher in Pacific populations while levels of dieldrin, oxychlordane, and HCB were generally lower. With the exception of ?-HCH, levels of all measured organochlorines were lower in cormorants breeding in the Fraser River estuary than in cormorants from the St. Lawrence River estuary on the Atlantic coast. PMID:24249067

  3. Assessment of daily intake of organochlorine pesticides from milk in different regions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Mituniewicz-Ma?ek, Anna; Dmytrów, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    The common occurrence of organochlorine compounds in the environment, food and human tissues may constitute a serious threat to human health. The method of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to determine the content of pesticides in 15 samples of raw cow's milk from different regions of Poland. The results revealed high levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, heptachlor and aldrin. The studied milk contained lindane in average concentrations within the maximum limits. Although in 20% of all samples tested, the concentration of lindane exceeded permissible limits, while in 15% of samples the content of ? DDT was too high. But the average daily consumption of milk containing organochlorine pesticides poses no direct threat to human health, because daily intake (DI) for all compounds were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Attention should be paid to the exposure of consumers to pesticide residues from other dairy foods. PMID:23305275

  4. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Aubé, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100 × 10(3) and 50 × 10(3) dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(3) dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50 × 10(3) dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. PMID:21295777

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs In Tissues from Dutch Citizens (1968–1986)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Greve; P. Van Zoonen

    1990-01-01

    Adipose tissue, milk and blood from Dutch citizens have been investigated for the occurrence of organochlorine compounds since 1968. In this paper, median values for HCB, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-Hepo (heptachlorepoxide), dieldrin, p.p?-DDE, o.p?-DDT, TDE and PCBs (first determined by the perchlorination method, later by a selection of individual congeners) are given. Time trends, influence of age and sex of

  6. Predictors of organochlorines in New York City pregnant women, 1998–2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary S. Wolff; Elena Deych; Fiola Ojo; Gertrud S. Berkowitz

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been found widely in human tissues. However, levels have been rapidly declining since their virtual ban in the 1970s. We measured 1,1?-dichloro-2,2?-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and trans-nonachlor (TN) in 194 pregnant women in New York City and examined demographic and dietary predictors of their levels in serum. Serum OC levels were low (median ?g\\/L: 0.64

  7. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Senthilkumar; K. Kannan; R. K. Sinha; S. Tanabe; J. P. Giesy

    1999-01-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and

  8. Chloride – a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Laturnus; Miroslav Matucha

    2008-01-01

    Two plants, a fern (Athyrium filix-femina) and a moss (Polytrichum commune Hedw.), both commonly occurring in Northern Temperate forests, were exposed in a laboratory study to a solution of 36Cl-chloride. The uptake of 36Cl-chloride by the plants was investigated and the emission of volatile chlorine 36 by the plants was determined. Furthermore, speciation of the emitted volatile organochlorine compounds (VOCls)

  9. Organochlorine Contamination in Bald Eagle Eggs and Nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Donaldson; J. L. Shutt; P. Hunter

    1999-01-01

    .   Unhatched eggs and plasma samples from prefledged bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from a recovering population in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin were contaminated with organochlorine compounds at levels\\u000a comparable to those reported for eagle populations in several areas of the United States. PCBs were among the most commonly\\u000a detected contaminants and occurred at high concentrations in plasma. Plasma PCB

  10. Organochlorine Pollutants and Stable Isotopes in Resident and Migrant Passerine Birds from Northwest Michoacán, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel A. Mora

    2008-01-01

    Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased\\u000a over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during\\u000a migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering\\u000a area for many species. The

  11. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross J. Norstrom; Mary Simon; Derek C. G. Muir; Ray E. Schweinsburg

    1988-01-01

    Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively

  12. Predictors of organochlorines in New YorkCity pregnant women, 1998-2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary S. Wolff; Elena Deych; Fiola Ojo; Gertrud S. Berkowitz

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been found widely in human tissues. However, levels have been rapidly declining since their virtual ban in the 1970s. We measured 1,10-dichloro-2,20-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and trans-nonachlor (TN) in 194 pregnant women in New YorkCity and examined demographic and dietary predictors of their levels in serum. Serum OC levels were low (median mg\\/L: 0.64 DDE,

  13. Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, A.R.; Stern, G.A.; Lockhart, W.L.; Kidd, K.A.; Salki, A.G.; Stainton, M.P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G.B.; Savoie, D.A.; Billeck, B.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

  14. Determination of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in adipose tissue of infertile men.

    PubMed

    Cok, Ismet; Durmaz, Tuba Calik; Durmaz, Emre; Satiroglu, M Hakan; Kabukcu, Cihan

    2010-03-01

    During the recent two decades, a remarkable drop in fertility rates has been noticed almost all over the world. A series of studies have showed that environmental factors had the primary role causing the observed adverse trends in the male reproductive health problems. Especially chlorinated hydrocarbons, for instance polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and pesticides, could mimic or antagonize the effects of steroid hormones, like estrogens and androgens and possibly interfering with male reproductive capacity. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (i.e. p.p'-DDT, endosulfan...) and PCBs are widespread used chemicals in agriculture and industry for different purposes all over the world. Although direct evidence is lacking, theoretical considerations and epidemiological evidence implicate these compounds as potential hazards to human and wildlife reproductive health. For this purpose, in this study adipose tissue samples have provided from healthy males which were diagnosed as infertile men living in Ankara, Turkey at least for 5 years. Residual levels of OCPs (alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, HCB, Endosulfan I, II, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT) and seven major persistent PCB congeners (PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) were measured in 25 infertile men and 21 healthy men's adipose tissue samples by GC-ECD. Levels of OCPs and PCBs in adipose tissue of infertile men compared with those provided from controls. When the concentrations of each of the OCP were compared between the fertile and infertile groups, no statistical significance was obtained. Concentrations of each of the PCB congeners were compared between the fertile and infertile groups, no statistical significance was obtained (p > 0.05), except for 2,2',5,5'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52) (p = 0.032) and 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 180) (p = 0.017). PMID:19252989

  15. Organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in human breast milk from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Wang, Dongli; Ni, Rong; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent organic pollutants that could cause deleterious effects on human health. Breast milk represents a noninvasive specimen source to assess maternal and infant exposure to OCPs. This study recruited 142 pregnant mothers in 2011-2012 in Shanghai, China, and their breast milk samples were collected during lactation and analyzed for 27 OCP compounds. Detection rates were in a range of 65.5 to 100 %. In particular, metabolites of 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) such as 2-chloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDMU), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (DDOH), bis(4-chlorophenyl)ketone (DBP), and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenylmethane (DDM) were detected in most milk samples. DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were dominant OCPs with mean levels of 316, 49.8, and 41.5 ng/g lipid content, respectively, whereas levels of methoxychlor, ?Drins, ?Heptachlor, ?Chlordane, and ?Endosulfan were fairly low (0.87-5.6 ng/g lipid content). Milk concentrations of OCPs were weakly correlated with maternal age, body weight, and body mass indexes (BMIs). ?OCPs in this study were much lower than those in human breast milk samples collected in 2002 and 2007. Consumption of higher amounts of fish was associated with higher milk levels of OCPs. Specific OCP patterns in breast milk samples from migrant mothers in Shanghai reflected features of OCP production, use, and exposure in their home provinces. The probabilistic exposure assessment model reveals that Shanghai infants were exposed to low levels of OCPs through breast milk consumption. However, infants as the vulnerable group might be subject to the potential additive and/or synergistic health effects from complex OCP exposure. PMID:25595932

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals and birds from Chubu region, Japan: Interspecies comparison of the residue levels and compositions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hoshi; N. Minamoto; H. Iwata; K. Shiraki; R. Tatsukawa; S. Tanabe; S. Fujita; K. Hirai; T. Kinjo

    1998-01-01

    In order to understand the residue levels of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and their accumulation patterns in wildlife inhabiting Chubu region, Japan, the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), DDT compounds (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were measured in 8 species of terrestrial mammals and 10 species of birds. In view of feeding habits, the contamination levels of OCs were

  17. Serum organochlorines and urinary porphyrin pattern in a population highly exposed to hexachlorobenzene

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Herrero, Carmen; Ozalla, Dolores; Sala, Maria; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Background Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is caused by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in several species of laboratory mammals, but the human evidence is contradictory. In a study among adults of a population highly exposed to HCB (Flix, Catalonia, Spain), the prevalence of PCT was not increased. We aimed at analysing the association of individual urinary porphyrins with the serum concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine compounds in this highly exposed population. Methods A cross-sectional study on total porphyrins was carried out in 1994 on 604 inhabitants of the general population of Flix, older than 14 years. Of them, 241 subjects (comprising a random sample and the subgroup with the highest exposure) were included for the present study. The porphyrin profile was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of HCB, as well as common organochlorine compounds, were determined by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection. Results Coproporphyrin I (CPI) and coproporphyrin III (CPIII) were the major porphyrins excreted, while uroporphyrins I and III were only detected in 2% and 36% of the subjects respectively, and heptaporphyrins I and III in 1% and 6%, respectively. CPI and CPIII decreased with increasing HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). This negative association was not explained by age, alcohol, smoking, or other organochlorine compounds. No association was found between uroporphyrin I and III excretion, nor heptaporphyrin excretion, and HCB. CPIII increased with smoking (p < 0.05). Conclusion HCB exposure in this highly exposed population did not increase urinary concentrations of individual porphyrins. PMID:12495451

  18. Determinants of organochlorine levels detectable in the amniotic fluid of women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain).

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Mahtani, Vikesh; Troyano, Juan M; Alvarez de la Rosa, Margarita; Padilla-Pérez, Ana I; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida, Maira; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Boada, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2009-07-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) tend to accumulate in human tissues and can be measured in amniotic fluid (AF). The detection of OCs in AF samples reflects intrauterine exposure of human beings to these persistent organic pollutants. The present study was performed to evaluate the level of contamination of AF by OCs in 100 pregnant women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes, including 7 polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners and 18 OC pesticides and metabolites. The majority of the AF samples (67%) showed some detectable OC-residue, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) being the most frequently detected compound (66% of the samples) and at the highest concentration (median 0.023 ng/ml). Lindane was also detected in 28% of the samples. Inverse associations were found between previous lactation and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH) and cyclodienes in the group of younger women (p = 0.037 and p = 0.027, respectively). Unexpectedly, serum values of HCB (r = -0.414; p = 0.04), gamma-HCH (r = -0.294; p = 0.035), and SigmaOCs (r = -0.350; p = 0.014) were negatively related to age. Even more, women with detectable levels of HCH isomers were younger (33.9 +/- 4.9 years) than women with undetectable levels of them (36.1 +/- 4.9 years; p = 0.035). We conclude that approximately one in two fetuses in the Canary Islands is exposed to OCs in utero, and that, therefore, the exposure of young women from these Islands to some HCH isomers persists nowadays. Because prenatal exposure to these chemicals may be a causative factor in adverse health trends, further studies are required to enhance preventive measures. PMID:19403124

  19. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Marine, Surface, Ground and Drinking Waters from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Fatoki; O. R. Awofolu

    2004-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as DDT and its metabolites (DDDs and DDEs), chlordane, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor and endosulfan were determined in drinking-, ground-, surface- and marine waters from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Percentage recoveries of the OCPs from spiked river water ranged from 71.03 ± 8.15% (dieldrin) to 101.25 ± 2.17% (?-BHC). The levels of OCPs ranged from 5.5 ng\\/L (2,4-DDD)

  20. Concentrations and Accumulation Features of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Baiyangdian Lake Freshwater Food Web of North China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guocheng Hu; Jiayin Dai; Bixian Mai; Xiaojun Luo; Hong Cao; Jianshe Wang; Fengchao Li; Muqi Xu

    2010-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), are ubiquitous\\u000a anthropogenic environmental contaminants. They are persistent, broad-spectrum toxicants that accumulate in the food web with\\u000a potential risks to the ecosystem and human health. HCHs were the predominant contaminants in Baiyangdian Lake, North China.\\u000a Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs ranged from 58 to 563 ng\\/g lipid weight (lw) and 21

  1. Single-step LC/MS method for the simultaneous determination of GC-amenable organochlorine and LC-amenable phenoxy acidic pesticides.

    PubMed

    Famiglini, G; Palma, P; Termopoli, V; Trufelli, H; Cappiello, A

    2009-09-01

    Water pollution by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is considered as an analytical challenge, since these persistent and nonbiodegradable pollutants are not amenable by liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS). This represents a significant constraint in multiresidue analysis of real samples, when high polar, poorly volatile compounds are present as well. This paper reports the development of an innovative single-step method for the simultaneous determination of OCPs and polar pesticides belonging to the class of phenoxy acids in water samples. The method is based on an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure with Carbograph 4 followed by liquid chromatography coupled to a direct electron ionization mass spectrometer (LC/direct-EI-MS). The direct-EI capability of acquiring high-quality EI spectra and operation in selected ion monitoring mode allowed a precise quantification of OCPs and phenoxy acids in a single chromatographic run without derivatization. The instrumental response was characterized by excellent sensitivity, linearity, and precision. The SPE recovery rates in river water gave values equal or better than 80% for most of the compounds. The method limits of detection (LODs) span from 0.002 to 0.052 microg/L, allowing the detection of the selected pesticides at the limits required by the European Union (EU) legislation for drinking water. PMID:19663448

  2. Embryonic abnormalities and organochlorine contamination in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) from the upper Great Lakes in 1988.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, N; Tanabe, S; Ludwig, J P; Kurita, H; Ludwig, M E; Tatsukawa, R

    1993-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in eggs with normal and deformed embryos collected in 1988 from different colonies during an epizootiological survey of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) from the upper Great Lakes. PCBs and p,p'-DDE were found in the highest concentrations in eggs of both species. The residue pattern of PCB isomers and chlordane compounds suggested that double-crested cormorants have greater metabolic capacity to degrade contaminants than Caspian terns. According to the toxicity evaluation using the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQs) approach, non-ortho coplanar PCBs contributed much more toxicity than PCDDs and PCDFs. Total TEQ of dioxin-like compounds was likely associated with occurrence of live-deformed embryos in double-crested cormorants eggs. The toxic effects of these contaminants were also estimated in Caspian tern eggs, where elevated levels of coplanar PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs were observed in concordance with increased rate of anomalies in eggs during a breeding season in the Great Lakes. PMID:15091901

  3. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR?=?1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p?=?0.024). Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk. PMID:22534004

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and hexachlorobenzene along the central coast of New South Wales: multi-scale distributions using the territorial damselfish Parma microlepis as an indicator.

    PubMed

    Tricklebank, K A; Kingsford, M J; Rose, H A

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of 10 organochlorine pesticides and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the territorial damselfish Parma microlepis at three urban locations and three reference locations centred on the Sydney region. Dieldrin, HCB and DDE were the most frequently detected organochlorines, occurring in 70-100% of samples collected. Alpha and gamma chlordane were also reasonably common and occurred in more than 30% of the samples. Each organochlorine compound investigated had a distinct spatial pattern of distribution. Related chemicals such as alpha and gamma chlordane, and DDT, DDE and DDD tended to have similar patterns of distribution. There were clear differences in patterns of distribution in organochlorines between urban and reference locations shown using non-parametric multivariate techniques. Relative variability of samples from urban locations was higher than at reference locations in 1993, but there was no consistent pattern of differences in the dispersions of samples among urban and reference locations in 1994. Age and condition indices (K) showed no association with total concentrations of organochlorine residues in fish. Significant, but weak associations were found between organochlorine residues and size, gonad somatic and liver somatic indices. PMID:11806461

  5. Organochlorine pesticides in gamebirds of Eastern Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Dean Blevins

    1979-01-01

    Muscular tissue specimens of adult grouse, quail and woodcock from the rural counties of upper East Tennessee have been analyzed by gas chromatography for the organochlorine pesticides lindane, heptachlor, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, DDT (total) and methoxychlor. Procedures for the analyses are described. The pesticidal levels in the muscle of all gamebirds exceeded the acceptable levels shown in governmental sources and

  6. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-09-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  7. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residues in pikeperch, Stizostedion lucioperca L. in Beysehir Lake (Central Anatolia).

    PubMed

    Aktumsek, A; Kara, H; Nizamlioglu, F; Dinc, I

    2002-04-01

    Fishes in Beysehir Lake were analysed to determine organochlorine pesticide residues. The more frequently detected compounds are DDT complex (DDT, DDD, DDE and isomers), total HCH complex (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH and gamma-HCH or lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlorine. Eighty five percent of the fish samples were found to be contaminated. While 75% of the total samples were contaminated by one or more HCH isomers, 63% of the organochlorinated pesticide is DDT and its metabolites. Aldrin, dieldrin and endrin are minor pesticides in samples. Heptachlorine was found in only one sample. Despite their presence high concentrations are sporadic, the mean values being less than FAO/WHO maximum recommended limits. PMID:12088365

  8. Comparison of Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Human Adipose Tissue of Inhabitants from Veracruz and Puebla, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan M. Waliszewski; R. Valencia Quintana; C. A. Corona; M. Herrero; K. Sánchez; H. Aguirre; I. A. Aldave; S. Gomez Arroyo; R. Villalobos Pietrini

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of insecticide properties of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane),\\u000a they have provided great benefits to humans in sanitary actions to combat the spread of infection-borne disease vectors. Public\\u000a Health Programs in Mexico used DDT and HCH until 1999 as the insecticides of choice to control disease-transmitting organisms.\\u000a Because of their persistence and accumulative properties, organochlorine pesticides bioconcentrate

  9. Adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Penelope J E; Delfino, Ralph J; Korrick, Susan; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kutz, Frederick W; Jones, Ellen L; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

    2004-06-01

    In this nested case-control study we examined the relationship between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and organochlorine pesticide exposure. We used a data set originally collected between 1969 and 1983 in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Adipose samples were randomly collected from cadavers and surgical patients, and levels of organochlorine pesticide residues were determined. From the original study population, 175 NHL cases were identified and matched to 481 controls; 173 controls were selected from accident victims, and 308 from cases with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Cases and controls were mainly from cadavers (> 96%) and were matched on sex, age, region of residence within the United States, and race/ethnicity. Conditional logistic regression showed the organochlorine pesticide residue heptachlor epoxide to be significantly associated with NHL [compared with the lowest quartile: third quartile odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.28; fourth quartile OR = 3.41, 95% CI, 1.89-6.16]. The highest quartile level of dieldrin was also associated with elevated NHL risk (OR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.58-4.61), as were higher levels of oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE [p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and ss-benzene hexachloride (ORs = 1.79, 1.99, and 2.47, respectively). The p-values for trends for these associations were significant. In models containing pairs of pesticides, only heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin remained significantly associated with risk of NHL. Limitations of this study include collection of samples after diagnosis and a lack of information on variables affecting organochlorine levels such as diet, occupation, and body mass index. Given the persistence of pesticides in the environment, these findings are still relevant today. PMID:15175172

  10. Temporal trends of organochlorine contamination in Black Guillemots in Iceland from 1976 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Olafsdóttir, Kristín; Petersen, Aevar; Magnúsdóttir, Elín V; Björnsson, Thorvaldur; Jóhannesson, Torkell

    2005-02-01

    The levels of several different persistent organochlorines (OCs) in Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle, collected during the summers of 1976-1996 at Breioafjörour in W-Iceland, were investigated. The levels of about 40 different organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphenes, HCH, HCB) were compared with respect to age, sex, fat content, and year of collection. The levels of PCBs correlated very closely with those of DDE, indicating long-range transport as the major source of these contaminants in Iceland, with the ratio PCBs/DDE mostly in the range of 2-5. Unlike the Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, the organochlorine levels did not seem to accumulate substantially with age, neither in males nor females. The variation in the levels of OCs at the age of 2 years was even greater than the variation in OC levels over an age range of 12 years. In immature birds the levels of PCBs, DDE, HCB and beta-HCH declined very slowly (T(1/2) from 12 to 20 years) over the years 1976-1996, whereas the levels of alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDT declined much faster. The levels of trans-nonachlor, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, and toxaphene did not correlate with the year of collection. As the Black Guillemot is mostly a resident seabird, feeding mainly on small fish and invertebrates, this investigation should give a good indication of the temporal trends of organochlorine pollution at Breioafjörour, Iceland, during this 20 year period and is likely to reflect baseline trends in the marine environment of the North-Atlantic Ocean. PMID:15519726

  11. Organochlorines and trace elements in upland game birds harvested in Canada.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Malone, Brian J

    2006-06-15

    American woodcock, common snipe, two species of ptarmigan (willow and rock), and three species of grouse (ruffed, spruce, and sharp-tailed) were collected from 21 locations between 1991 and 1994 as part of a nationwide survey of contaminants in game birds harvested in Canada. Breast muscle was analysed for organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane-related compounds, DDT metabolites, mirex, dieldrin, and PCBs) and trace elements (Hg, Cd, Se, and As). The concentrations of organochlorine compounds measured in breast muscle of the birds in this survey were very low. Median concentrations for the organochlorines measured were less than 0.001 mg kg-1 in breast muscle of all ptarmigan and grouse species sampled. Only SigmaPCB, SigmaDDT and SigmaCHL were found above trace levels in breast muscle of all of the woodcock, and only SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT were found above trace levels in the snipe. Total Hg was detected only in the woodcock and the snipe whereas Se was above detection levels in all samples of all species except one sample pool of willow ptarmigan from Nunavut. Cadmium was detected in all species except for the spruce and sharp-tailed grouse with the highest overall concentrations found in the ptarmigan species. Arsenic was detected in all of the woodcock and snipe samples but was not found in any of the grouse samples. The highest Hg and As concentrations were both found in snipe sampled from southeastern New Brunswick. Concentrations of As, Hg and Se measured in breast muscle of the birds in this survey were below toxicological threshold levels found in the literature. Concentrations of Cd, however, were elevated in some birds, particularly in willow ptarmigan from the Yukon. Health Canada determined that the organochlorine and trace element levels found in samples of breast muscle of game birds analysed in this study did not pose a health hazard to human consumers and therefore these birds were safe to eat. PMID:16055172

  12. Concentration of organochlorines in Ganges River dolphins from Patna, Bihar.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anupma; Sinha, R K; Gopal, Krishna; Lata, Swarn

    2002-07-01

    Concentrations of DDT, HCH, aldrin and endosulfan were determined in river dolphins from the River Ganges, Patna. Among the organochlorines studied in the dolphins, DDT concentration was highest followed by HCH. This shows exposure of dolphins to these organochlorine pesticides. Presences of organochlorines to higher degree in tissues suggest that the river dolphins be at greater risk due to pesticidal contamination of the river system. PMID:12597572

  13. Organochlorine pesticide contamination in neotropical migrant passerines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Harper; J. A. Frick; A. P. Capparella; B. Borup; M. Nowak; D. Biesinger; C. F. Thompson

    1996-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide levels were determined in Neotropical migrant passerines which have populations reported to be declining. Pesticide residues ranging from 0.385 to 27.4 ng\\/g were found in 19 of 21 birds, including both Hatch Year (HY) and After Hatch Year (AHY) age classes of nine different species. Eighteen of the 19 birds contained p,p'-DDE, while dieldrin was found in 16

  14. Characterization of zebrafish Abcc4 as an efflux transporter of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing; Long, Yong; Lin, Li; Sun, Rongze; Zhong, Shan; Cui, Zongbin

    2014-01-01

    DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment. PMID:25478949

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klin?i?, D; Herceg Romani?, S; Matek Sari?, M; Grzunov, J; Duki?, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. ?-HCH/?-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of ?-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly. PMID:24562053

  16. Levels and spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants in the environment: a case study of German forest soils.

    PubMed

    Aichner, Bernhard; Bussian, Bernd; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Hein, Sebastian

    2013-11-19

    The Of/Oh-horizons of 447 forest stands in Germany were evaluated for concentrations and spatial distribution of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). While concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and PCBs show similar spatial distribution patterns for all measured compounds within each compound class, significantly different distributions were identified for concentrations of low-molecular-weight PAHs [2- and 3-ring PAHs plus fluoranthene (FLA) and pyrene (PYR)] in contrast to high-molecular-weight PAHs (4-6-ring PAHs without FLA and PYR). Maxima of persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations could be mostly explained by specific locatable sources. Because of the slow degradation rates of these target substances, this is especially relevant for historic contamination sources, such as extensive 1980s DDT usage in the former German Democratic Republic and industrial facilities that produced hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or PCBs. A contribution of ubiquitous background pollution derived from long-range atmospheric transport is likely for some compounds in the studied area, e.g., DDT in the western part of Germany and dieldrin. However, most target compounds appear to be mainly sourced from local or regional emissions. This is supported by the absence of clear dependencies between POP concentrations and most evaluated environmental and local parameters. We suggest that these results generally reflect the distribution of POPs in densely populated and industrialized countries located in temperate regions. PMID:24050388

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in aquafeed and Pacific salmon smolts from fish hatcheries in British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry C. Kelly; Marc P. Fernandez; Michael G. Ikonomou; Wayne Knapp

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have reported the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in commercial feeds used by fish hatcheries and aquaculture facilities. We measured levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), as well as several organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in several aquafeeds as well as fry and smolts collected from four federal salmonid hatcheries from coastal British

  18. Organochlorine compounds in adipose tissue of greenlanders and southern danes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunde Egeskov Jensen; Jørgen Clausen

    1979-01-01

    Abdominal fat tissue samples from the general population of Greenland and from southern Denmark were analyzed for o,p'?DDE and p,p’?DDE [1,1?dichloro?2,2?bis(p?chlorophenyl)ethylene], p,p,?DDT [1,1,1?trichloro?2,2?bis(p?chlorophenyl)?ethane], o,p’?DDT and p,p'?DDD [1,1?dichloro?2,2?bis(p?chlorophenyl)ethane], lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6?hexachlorocyclohexane), aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10?hexachloro?1,4,4a,5,8,8a?hexahydro?endo?exo?1,4:5,8?dimethanonaphthalene), dieldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10?hexachloro?6, 7?epoxy?1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a?octahydro?endo? exo?1,4:5,8?dimethanonaphthalene), hepta?chlor (1,4,5,6,7,8,8?heptachloro?3a,4, 7, 7a?tetrahydro?4, 7?methanoindene), heptachlor epoxide, and poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).Fat tissue from Greenlanders contained significantly higher amounts of p,p‘?DDE (p ? 0.05), p,p’?DDT

  19. Decreased human semen quality and organochlorine compounds in blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan W. Dallinga; Edwin J. C. Moonen; John C. M. Dumoulin; Johannes L. H. Evers; Joep P. M. Geraedts; Jos C. S. Kleinjans

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various studies have been performed in which potential effects of xenoestrogens on fertility or sperm parameters were investigated by comparing groups of subjects exposed to different levels of these chemicals. METHODS: In our study we used an alternative approach, as we selected one group of men with very poor semen quality and another group with normal semen quality and

  20. Organochlorine Compounds and Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Pacific Walrus Blubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana J Seagars; Joel Garlich-Miller

    2001-01-01

    Blubber samples were collected from 8 male and 19 female Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) taken during a 1991 joint USA\\/USSR cruise traveling widely through the Bering Sea. Dieldrin was found at a level similar to that reported 10 years earlier; oxychlordane was found at a slightly higher concentration than reported previously (Taylor et al., 1989). Heptachlor epoxide was detected

  1. Organochlorine and mercury contamination in fish tissues from the River Nestos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, Achilleas; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Schmieder, Klaus; Tsachalidis, Efstathios

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, other organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs, including trans-chlordane and cis- and trans-nonachlor) and the heavy metal mercury were quantified in muscle and liver of the European chub (Leuciscus cephalus, Linnaeus, 1758) and in the muscle of the barbel (Barbus cyclolepis, Heckel, 1837) at two sampling sites of the River Nestos, Greece. PCBs in muscle and DDTs in the liver tissues were the predominant organochlorinated contaminants. Among the PCBs, congeners 47 (up to 9.60 ng g(-1) wet wt.), 180 (up to 1.15 ng g(-1) wet wt.) and 190 (up to 1.50 ng g(-1) wet wt.) were the most frequent and abundant. The contamination degree by the sum of PCBs on the fish tissue samples from the River Nestos is lower or similar to PCB levels found in other ecosystems. Among the organochlorine pesticides, essentially only p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH were found, with the former appearing at mean levels up to 30.71 ng g(-1) wet wt. From a public health standpoint, residue organochlorine pesticide levels from our work are considerably lower than the recommended tolerance limits. Finally, mean values of Hg in chub were significant lower (up to 31.04 ng g(-1) wet wt.) compared to those detected on barbel (up to 169.27 ng g(-1) wet wt.). The concentrations of Hg in fresh water fish from the River Nestos did not exceed WHO and US EPA health guidelines, and were suitable for human consumption. PMID:17688909

  2. Role of Organochlorine Pesticides in Children with Idiopathic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Gupta, Sushan

    2013-01-01

    Background. Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are persistent organic pollutants that have been implicated in causing several deleterious effects in humans. These are known neurotoxins in high doses, but the role of environmentally acquired OCPs in the body to induce seizures in children has not been investigated yet. Objectives. To assess the serum levels of OCPs in children aged 2–12 with idiopathic seizure and to find out any association between the two are our objectives. Methods. It was a cross-sectional pilot study. Twenty developmentally normal children aged 2–12, presenting with idiopathic generalized seizures, were recruited. Twenty age-matched controls without any history of seizures were also taken. Their serum levels of ?, ?, and ? hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); and aldrin; dieldrin; p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p-DDT, and p,p dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); and ? and ? endosulfan were analysed using gas chromatography (GC). Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare OCP levels between the groups. Spearman correlation was used to find the correlation between individual pesticide levels with age and seizure duration. Results. Levels of ?, ?, and total HCH were significantly higher among cases as compared to the control group (P ? 0.05). Conclusion. There exists a possible association between idiopathic seizures and high serum levels of OCPs, especially HCH. PMID:24368944

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in biological compartments of healthy mothers.

    PubMed

    Elserougy, Safaa; Beshir, Safia; Saad-Hussein, Amal; Abouarab, Assem

    2013-06-01

    The present study was conducted to detect placental and breast milk (BM) transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between biological compartments in healthy lactating mothers. The study explores the effect of parity, breast-feeding and urban/rural residence on body burden of OCP residues. The study included 38 healthy participants submitted to cesarean delivery. Sociodemographic data and specimens of maternal and umbilical sera, adipose tissue (Adp T) and BM were collected. Specimens were analyzed to detect OCP residues. The lindane in BM, o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in maternal serum (MS) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in umbilical serum were the only detected residues in significantly higher frequencies and/or means in the primigravidae than multigravidae. There was a high risk of detecting o,p'-DDD (odds ratio = 8.3) in umbilical serum of the mothers with o,p'-DDD detected in the MS. Total DDT was detected in about 65% of specimens of BM, MS and Adp T and in about 40% of the umbilical serum specimens. There was only a significant positive correlation between total DDT residues in the BM and Adp T. Total DDT residues in umbilical serum and Adp T were significantly higher in the urban than in the rural mothers. The detection of some OCPs in maternal biological compartments suggests their potential placental and BM transfer to her child during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. Furthermore, it might reflect the persistence or recent use of these pesticides in the environment. PMID:22368179

  4. The global distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in butter.

    PubMed

    Kalantzi, O I; Alcock, R E; Johnston, P A; Santillo, D; Stringer, R L; Thomas, G O; Jones, K C

    2001-03-15

    In this study we explored the use of butter as a sampling matrix to reflect the regional and global scale distribution of PCBs and selected organochlorine pesticides/metabolites in air. This was because persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentrate in dairy fats, where concentrations are controlled by feed intake (primarily from pasture/silage), which is in turn primarily controlled by atmospheric deposition. Butter sigmaPCB concentrations varied by a factor of approximately 60 in 63 samples from 23 countries. They were highest in European and North American butter and lowest in southern hemisphere (Australian, New Zealand) samples, consistent with known patterns of historical global usage and estimated emissions. Concentrations in butter reflected differences in the propensity of PCB congeners to undergo long range atmospheric transport from global source regions to remote areas and the relatively even distribution of HCB in the global atmosphere. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and HCH isomers all varied over many orders of magnitude in the butter samples, with highest levels in areas of current use (e.g. India and south/central America for DDT; India, China, and Spain for HCH). We conclude that butter is sensitive to local, regional, and global scale spatial and temporal atmospheric trends of many POPs and may therefore provide a useful sampling medium for monitoring purposes. However, to improve the quantitative information derived on air concentrations requires an awareness of climatic and livestock management factors which influence air-milk fat transfer processes. PMID:11347908

  5. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides from contaminated soil by cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sadler; A. Seawright; G. Shaw; N. Dennison; D. Connell; W. Barron; P. White

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed to quantitate the uptake by beef cattle of organochlorine pesticides in from soil. Although such uptake is known to occur, uptake rates have not been accurately measured for these animals and cannot be inferred from data obtained with dairy cattle. In this study, cattle received a diet, of a standard feedlot ration supplemented with organochlorine-pesticide (aldrin?+?dieldrin) contaminated

  6. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine contaminants in marine turtles

    E-print Network

    Exeter, University of

    Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine contaminants in marine turtles from Mediterranean (CBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in marine turtle tissues collected from the Mediterranean turtles, most likely attributable to a change in diet with age. Principal component analysis of data from

  7. Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling Sergei A. Kurta a , Alex A waste recycling. Environmentally-friendly processing and recycling methods of organochlorine waste. The possibility of joint chlorine and sulfide-containing chemical waste recycling into polysulfide oligomeric

  8. Transport and deposition of organochlorine pesticides from farmland to estuary under tropical regime and their potential risk to aquatic biota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Napaporn Leadprathom; Preeda Parkpian; Jutamaad Satayavivad; R. D. Delaune; A. Jugsujinda

    2009-01-01

    In this study, residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), sediment and oysters from the Chanthaburi estuary were monitored closely in the wet and dry seasons for determining potential environmental risks. In water samples, out of twenty OCPs measured, endosulfan and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the two predominant compounds ranging and concentrations between 0.6–13 ng\\/L and 1–12

  9. Transport of persistent organic pollutants across the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal life is the most sensitive stage of human development to environmental pollutants. Early exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. The mechanisms of transference of POPs during pregnancy are still not well understood. The present study is aimed to investigate the transfer of POPs between mother and fetus. The concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 polybromodiphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners have been measured in 308 maternal serum samples, their respective umbilical cords and 50 placental tissues from a mother-infant cohort representative of Spanish general population. In general, the adjusted lipid-basis concentrations were higher in maternal serum than in cord serum and placenta. The concentrations of most pollutants between maternal serum and cord serum and between maternal serum and placenta were significantly correlated. These distributions were consistent with a predominant maternal source that transfers the pollutants into the placenta and the fetus. However, this distribution did not correspond to passive diffusion of these compounds between these tissues according to lipid content. The compounds more readily metabolized were higher in newborns, which suggest that differences in metabolic capabilities may be responsible of the observed variations in POP distributions between mother and newborns. Prenatal exposure to 4,4'-DDT and some PBDEs such as BDE 99 and BDE 209 is much higher than it could be anticipated from the composition of maternal serum. POP exposure assessment studies of newborns may overlook the effects of some of these pollutants if they only consider maternal determinations. PMID:24486968

  10. Distribution and Potential Human Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Market Mollusks from Dalian, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongliang Jia; Yaqing Chang; Yeqing Sun; Degao Wang; Xianjie Liu; Meng Yang; Diandou Xu; Bo Meng; Yi-Fan Li

    2010-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in mollusk samples collected from markets in Dalian, China. Among\\u000a 14 OCPs screened, chlordane (Chls), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were\\u000a dominant compounds with the medians of 30.2, 5.31 and 2.03 ng\\/g wet weight (ww), respectively. Source analysis showed that,\\u000a much higher concentrations of Chls in mollusk samples were the result of usage of

  11. The slow recovery of San Francisco Bay from the legacy of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Connor, Michael S; Davis, Jay A; Leatherbarrow, Jon; Greenfield, Ben K; Gunther, Andrew; Hardin, Dane; Mumley, Thomas; Oram, John J; Werme, Christine

    2007-09-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides, including DDTs, chlordanes, and dieldrin, peaked in San Francisco Bay's watershed 30-40 years ago, yet residues of the pesticides remain high. Known as legacy pesticides for their persistence in the Bay decades after their uses ended, the compounds and their breakdown products occur at concentrations high enough to contribute to advisories against the consumption of sport fish from the Bay. Combined with other data sets, the long-term monitoring data collected by the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) for trace substances allow us to track recovery of the Bay from these inputs and predict its future improvement. Legacy pesticides enter the water and sediment of San Francisco Bay from a variety of sources, including runoff from California's Central Valley and local watersheds, municipal and industrial wastewater, atmospheric deposition, erosion of historically contaminated sediment deposits, and dredging and disposal of dredged material. Runoff from small-urbanized tributaries may contribute as much or more to the loads than runoff from the agricultural Central Valley, even though 90 percent of the freshwater flow comes from the Central Valley via the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. The fates of legacy pesticides in San Francisco Bay are controlled by their chemical properties, including their solubilities and partition coefficients. Degradation in the sediments, outflow through the Golden Gate, and volatilization-in that relative order-result in removal of pesticides from the Bay. A contaminant fate model was used to estimate recovery times of the Bay under various scenarios. For example, under a scenario in which no new legacy pesticides entered the Bay, model predictions suggested that concentrations of pesticides in the water and the active sediment layer would reach risk-reduction goals within one to three decades. Under scenarios of continued inputs to the Bay, recovery time would be considerably longer or not reached at all. Long-term tissue monitoring corroborates model predictions of slow declines in DDT and chlordane concentrations. Field-transplanted bivalve samples indicate declines since 1980, and lipid-weight concentrations of pesticides have declined in fishes, but the declines are slow. The critical management question for the Bay is whether there are feasible management actions that would decrease concentrations in sport fish significantly faster than the existing slow progress that has been observed. PMID:16930588

  12. [Persistent diarrhea

    PubMed

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding. PMID:14676915

  13. Organochlorine contaminants in fish from an arctic lake in Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R; Allen-Gil, S; Griffin, D; Landers, D

    1995-01-15

    A wide range of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in muscle tissue and livers of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Schrader Lake in Arctic Alaska. Results confirm the long-range transport of these contaminants to a US Arctic freshwater system. The most abundant group of compounds in all tissues was composed of PCBs. Mean concentrations of the sum of a selected group of PCB congeners ranged from 3.2 ng/g in grayling liver to 22.8 ng/g in trout liver and from 1.3 ng/g in grayling muscle to 6.6 ng/g in trout muscle (wet wt.). The second most abundant group was composed of chlordane-related compounds. No significant correlations of organochlorine concentrations with fish weight or length were observed for the data set as a whole. There were marked differences in sigma PCB, sigma chlordane and p,p'-DDE concentrations between species. The biomagnification factors for these compounds are similar to ratios reported for other aquatic systems. Comparisons showed that contaminant concentrations in lake trout from Schrader Lake were similar to levels found in burbot and slightly higher than levels in whitefish reported in Canadian studies from the Mackenzie River Delta. PMID:7892581

  14. Partitioning and Transport of Organochlorine Pollutants in the Arctic: From Snowfall to Snowmelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, G. A.; Torres, A.; Grannas, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Volatile and semi-volatile organochlorine (OCs) compounds such as dieldrin, endosulfan and PCBs have frequently been identified as pollutants in remote polar regions, far from their anthropogenic sources. Bioaccumulation of these compounds has been previously documented and poses a potential threat to the health of individuals in Arctic subsistence communities as well as to the broader polar ecosystem. These compounds are carried to the polar regions via atmospheric transport mechanisms, but it is less clear how they partition between air, snow/ice, water and soil. Previous studies have found quantifiable concentrations of OCs in each of these compartments, but the extent to which they interact is still largely unknown. Measurements of the concentration of several organochlorine pesticides and PCB congeners in the air, ice, snowpack, and water were made near Barrow, AK, from February-April 2009 as a project within the OASIS campaign, and again during the seasonal snowmelt in May-June 2009 in conjunction with SNOWNET. Our first dataset, when combined with atmospheric measurements and physical snowpack characterization made by other participants in OASIS, allows us to better understand the seasonal accumulation of OCs on snow and ice. Our second dataset, in which we track the movement of OCs through the snowpack and into meltwater runoff, is used in conjunction with snow deposition and hydrological data collected for the SNOWNET study to present a detailed picture of the release and ultimate fate of OCs incorporated into the snowpack during winter.

  15. Organohalogenated compounds in pine needles from Beijing city, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diandou Xu; Linlin Deng; Zhifang Chai; Xueying Mao

    2004-01-01

    Pine needles collected from 22 sites of six areas in Beijing city, China, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with organic extraction for extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX). The concentrations of EOX (EOX=EOCl+EOBr+EOI) were in the order of EOCl?EOBr>EOI. About 1.6–34% of EOCl remained as extractable persistent organochlorine (EPOCl) after treatment with concentrated sulfuric

  16. Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Gobas, F.A.P.C. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)); McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-03-01

    Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organic chemicals in fish and mammals.

  17. Organochlorines in top predators at Svalbard--occurrence, levels and effects.

    PubMed

    Skaare, J U; Bernhoft, A; Derocher, A; Gabrielsen, G W; Goksøyr, A; Henriksen, E; Larsen, H J; Lie, E; Wiig

    2000-03-15

    Alarmingly high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels have been found in the top predators such as glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard [Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Polder, A., Bakken, V., 1995. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). Sci. Total Environ. 160/161, 337-346; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Environ. Pollut. 95, 159-175; Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Trudeau, S., Wolkers, H., Sagerup, K., Skaare, J.U., 1999. Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Bear Island, the Barents Sea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (in press). ]. Studies of the possible toxic effects, particularly on the immune system and reproduction, of the very high PCB levels in these species are currently being investigated. Data obtained in the field (f.i. reproductive success in polar bears and intestinal nematodes in glaucous gulls), as well as levels of various biochemical and physiological parameters (f.i. thyroid hormones, retinol, EROD activity, CYP1A, IgG), have been coupled with the PCB levels [Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Bernhoft, A., 1994. Klorerte organiske miljogifter; Nivâer og effekter i isbjorn. Norwegian Polar Institute Reportseries no. 86, 1-23 (in Norwegian); Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Environ. Pollut. 95, 159-175; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Derocher, A.E., Larsen, H.J., 2000. Possible immunotoxic effects of organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard (in press); Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Skjegstad, N., Jensen, B.M., 1998a. Relationship between PCB levels, hepatic EROD activity and plasma retinol in glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus. Marine Environ. Res. 46, 45-49; Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Trudeau, S., Wolkers, H., Sagerup, K., Skaare, J.U. , 1999. Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Bear Island, the Barents Sea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (in press); Sagerup, K., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skorping, A., Skaare, J.U., 1998. Association between PCB concentrations and intestinal nematodes in glaucou gulls, Larus hyperboreus, from Bear Island. Organohalogen compounds 39, 449-451; Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Bernhoft, A., 1994. Klorerte organiske miljogifter; Nivâer og effekter i isbjorn. Norwegian Polar Institute Reportseries no. 86, 1-23. (in Norwegian)]. PMID:10720718

  18. Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Measures of Behavior in Infancy Using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Nugent, J. Kevin; Brazelton, T. Berry; Choi, Anna L.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous literature suggests an association between organochlorines and behavioral measures in childhood, including inattention. Objective This study was designed to assess whether prenatal organochlorine exposure is associated with measures of attention in early infancy. Methods We investigated an association between cord serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) levels and measures of attention from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) in a cohort of 788 infants born 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor and Superfund site in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Results Medians (ranges) for the sum of four prevalent PCB congeners and DDE levels were 0.19 (0.01–4.41) and 0.30 (0–10.29) ng/g serum, respectively. For the 542 subjects with an NBAS exam at 2 weeks, we observed consistent inverse associations between cord serum PCB and DDE levels and NBAS measures of alertness, quality of alert responsiveness, cost of attention, and other potential attention-associated measures including self-quieting and motor maturity. For example, the decrement in quality of alert responsiveness score was ?0.51 (95% confidence interval, ?0.99 to ?0.03) for the highest quartile of exposure to the sum of four prevalent PCB congeners compared with the lowest quartile. We found little evidence for an association with infant orientation, habituation, and regulation of state, assessed as summary cluster measures. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for an association between low-level prenatal PCB and DDE exposures and poor attention in early infancy. Further analyses will focus on whether organochlorine-associated decrements in attention and attention-related skills in infancy persist in later childhood. PMID:18470320

  19. Estrogenic effects of organochlorine pesticides on uterine leiomyoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hodges, L C; Bergerson, J S; Hunter, D S; Walker, C L

    2000-04-01

    Although benign, uterine leiomyomas occur with high frequency and significant morbidity in reproductive-age women, and they present a significant health problem. Leiomyomas develop in the uterine myometrium and are sensitive to ovarian hormones, making them potential target sites for endocrine disruptors. Here we utilize cell lines derived from rat uterine leiomyomas to determine if a panel of 7 organochlorine pesticides have potential agonist activity in myometrial cells using cellular and molecular in vitro assays. The organochlorine pesticides investigated have been previously characterized as having agonist activity in other hormonally responsive tissues, but their effects have not been studied in uterine myometrial cells. In Eker rat leiomyoma-derived cells, HPTE, kepone, and the alpha isomer of endosulfan stimulated proliferation, an effect dampened by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. In addition, these compounds stimulated transcription of the vitellogenin estrogen-response element via the ER in a transcriptional reporter gene assay and induced the expression of an endogenous estrogen-responsive gene, the progesterone receptor (PR). This contrasted with the agonist profile of methoxychlor, dieldrin, toxaphene, and endosulfan-beta. These compounds, unable to stimulate proliferation of uterine leiomyoma cells, did exhibit agonistic activity in these cells at the transcriptional level in the estrogen-sensitive reporter gene assay, and they were also able to upregulate PR message. These data demonstrate that organochlorine pesticides act as estrogen receptor agonists in Eker rat uterine myometrial cells, and they indicate a need for further investigation of the potential tissue-specific agonist activity of these pesticides and their role in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma. PMID:10774817

  20. Organochlorine detection in the shed skins of snakes.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E; Gogal, R M; Nader, P B; Holladay, S D

    2005-03-01

    Lizards and snakes eliminate heavy metals in their shed skins. There are no data with regard to reptilian skin as a depuration route for organochlorine (OC) compounds; however, birds deposit OCs in feathers. Corn snakes (Elaphe guttata) were therefore fed thawed mice that had been injected with a mixture of alpha-chlordane, Aroclor 1254 (a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture), and lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) at 2, 8, and 4 mg/kg, respectively. Feeding of contaminated mice occurred on the first weekly feeding of each month, with remaining weekly feedings consisting of noncontaminated mice, and was continued for 6 months. Shed skins were evaluated in a multiresidue OC scan by gas chromatography. All three chemical contaminants were readily detected in the shed skins: chlordane, 0.155-0.213 ppm; PCB, 3.49-7.01 ppm; lindane: 0.028-0.042 ppm. These data suggest that the shed skin of snakes may serve as an elimination route for OC contaminants and as such may have utility as a noninvasive, nondestructive indicator tissue for assessing environmental contamination. PMID:15590005

  1. Evaluation of organochlorine contamination in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinglin; Shi, Jingchun; Zheng, Gene J; Li, Ping; Liang, Bo; Chen, Tufeng; Wu, Yuping; Liu, Wenhua

    2013-02-01

    Organochlorine compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed in blubber samples collected from fifteen Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) stranded in the Pearl River Delta during the period from 2004 to 2009. In general, the magnitude of the mean concentrations is: ?DDTs>?PCBs>?HCHs>?CHLs>HCB. DDT levels found in this study were very high, with the ?DDT ranging from 845 to 179,000 ng/g wet weight. Of particular importance is the fact that new inputs from diverse sources still exist in the Pearl River Delta. ?PCBs ranged from 123 to 10,200 ng/g wet weight. More studies are necessary for a better understanding of these organochlorine contaminants and their impact on the conservation of humpback dolphins residing in the Pearl River Estuary waters. PMID:23280301

  2. Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Pastor, D; Sanpera, C; González-Solís, J; Ruiz, X; Albaigés, J

    2004-04-01

    The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has been explained by two mechanisms: equilibrium partitioning and/or biomagnification through the trophic web. Nevertheless, bioaccumulation processes are by far more complex, since several biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the observed pollutant loads in the organisms. In this respect, the biological characteristics of the organisms considered (e.g. species, age, lipid contents, feeding habits, etc.), as well as ecological factors (e.g. the habitat of the species and vertical distribution), have been shown to account for the organochlorine levels observed. PMID:15006509

  3. Accumulation patterns of organochlorines in juveniles of Arctocephalus australis found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fillmann, Gilberto; Hermanns, Luciano; Fileman, Tim W; Readman, James W

    2007-03-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the specific distributions of organochlorine (OC) compounds in various tissues and organs of juveniles of the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) found stranded on beaches in southern Brazil. The OC residue concentrations occurred in the following order: PCBs>DDTs>CHLs>HCHs>HCB. OC concentrations in blubber were higher than other tissues (e.g. PCBs, 2480 ng g(-1) wet weight; DDTs, 660 ng g(-1) wet weight) indicating a positive association with lipid content (except for HCB). However, the poor nutritional status of these animals, possibly following a starvation period, is likely to have allowed the remobilization of organochlorines stored in lipids to other tissues throughout the body, increasing their vulnerability to toxic effects and possibly affecting their survival capability. PMID:17029680

  4. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, ?-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, ?-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  5. [Pesticide bioaccumulation: measurement and levels of organochlorine residues in products of vegetable origin].

    PubMed

    Diop, Y M; Diouf, A; Fall, M; Thiam, A; Ndiaye, B; Ciss, M; Ba, D

    1999-01-01

    Because of their lipophilic properties and their persistence, organochlorine pesticides residues can be accumulated in human body by consuming regularly plants products. This study consisted of the monitoring of the contamination level of pesticides residues from various plants products, in order to assess the long- term intoxication risk to which Senegalese consumer is exposed ant identify throughout these plants some indicators of atmospheric pollution. The chromatographic analysis of medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables extracts showed that they could be contaminated by organochlorine residues. About ten of these pesticides residues were found confirming that the analysed plants were really contaminated. The residues level in medicinal plants (from 0.1 to 45 micrograms/kg) were widely below the maximum allowed concentrations and were also lower than those in fruits and vegetables (from 0.1 microgram/kg to 460 micrograms/kg). Heptachlorine residues contents of tomatoes and citrus fruits were higher than FAO/WHO norms, so that, a regular monitoring of the plants products is recommended for better protection of consumers. PMID:11957276

  6. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson's Disease in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, B. D.; Bala, Kiran; Sharma, Deepika

    2013-01-01

    The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive, but environmental chemical exposures have been postulated to be involved in the etiology of PD. We examined the association between the persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PD in the North Indian population. This case control study included 70 PD and 75 control subjects in the age group of 50 to 85 years. Blood samples were collected and high-purity grade hexane and acetone (2?:?1 ratio) were used for extraction of organochlorine residues. OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, pp?-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp?-DDE), op?-DDE, pp?- Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp?-DDT), op?-DDT, pp?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (pp?-DDD) and op?-DDD) were quantitatively estimated by using gas chromatography. The most frequently detected OCP was dieldrin, which was present in 9.3% of control and 61.4% of PD. The strongest predictor was ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), which reported an odds ratio of 2.566, indicating that for every additional one unit of ?-HCH, patients had 2.566 times more chances of presence of PD. This study indicates that increased level of ?-HCH and dieldrin may be associated with the risk of PD. PMID:23936670

  7. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  8. Levels, distribution, and risk assessment of organochlorines in surficial sediments of the Red Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Moneer, Abeer A; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany

    2013-06-01

    The analyses of environmentally persistent pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in surficial sediment samples collected from 17 locations along with the coast of the Red Sea in Egypt were carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several potential organic contaminants from agricultural (e.g., DDT and its breakdown products, lindane, endrin, dieldrin, and endosulfan) and industrial (PCBs) sources were measured. The levels of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and ten PCB congeners in sediment collected from 17 stations along ~1,200 km were investigated. Concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, and cyclodienes ranged from 0.40 to 6.17, 0.01 to 0.09, n.d. to 0.46, and 0.08 to 0.90 ppb dry weight. Two statistical programs were applied on the data (principal component analysis, PCA, and cluster analysis, CA), and it was concluded that it is impossible to predict the distribution patterns of the OCPs in a contaminated area. Risk assessment of the organochlorines contaminated in the sediments of the studied area was investigated. PMID:23054273

  9. Spatial trends and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in marine zooplankton from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Paul F; O'Hara, Todd M; Teixeira, Camilla; Backus, Sean; Fisk, Aaron T; Muir, Derek C G

    2002-03-01

    Planktonic copepods (Calanus glacialis and C. hyperboreus; n = 37) and water (n = 19) were collected to examine the spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic. The rank order of total OC (sigma OC) group concentrations in Calanus samples was toxaphene > or = sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) > sigma hexachlorcyclohexane (HCH) > sigma DDT > sigma chlordane-related compounds (CHLOR) > sigma chlorobenzenes (ClBz). The dominant analyte was alpha-HCH in all water and zooplankton samples. The most abundant toxaphene congener in water and zooplankton samples was the hexachlorobornane B6-923. Organochlorine contaminant group concentrations in Alaskan zooplankton and water samples were lower than those in samples collected from sites in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Comparison of PCB and toxaphene congener profiles in zooplankton and water samples suggests that biotransformation by cytochrome P-4502B isozymes is low in Calanus, and limited phase I metabolism may occur. The log relationship of bioaccumulation factor (log BAF) versus octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) relationship was near 1:1 for OCs within the log Kow range of 3 to 6. A curvilinear model provided a better relationship between these two variables when OC compounds with log Kow > 6 were included. These results suggest that hydrophobic OCs (log Kow 3-6) in Calanus species are at equilibrium with the water concentrations and that physical partitioning, rather than biotransformation, is the major factor governing OC profiles in marine zooplankton. PMID:11883415

  10. Elevated organochlorines in the brain-hypothalamic-pituitary complex of intersexual shovelnose sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Koch, Brian T; Garvey, James E; You, Jing; Lydy, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, were used on lands adjacent to the Middle Mississippi River (MMR; USA) from 1930 through 1988, and they continue to occur in MMR fish. These compounds are estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic, and they alter hormone production and reception within the brain and gonads of male fish, resulting in intersexuality and/or suppressed gonadal development. To assess how OCs affect reproduction of MMR fish, we quantified OC accumulation, intersexuality, and gonadal development in male shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) throughout the MMR during the spring of 2003. Gonads were observed for intersexual characteristics, weighed to calculate the gonadosomatic index (GSI), and examined histologically. Tissue accumulation of OCs was quantified in gonads, brain-hypothalamic-pituitary (BHP) complex, and fillets. Four of 48 mature males were identified macroscopically as intersexuals, and a fifth was found through histology (a 10.4% incidence). Intersexuals accumulated higher concentrations of OCs in the BHP complex compared with those of mature males. In addition, GSI and OC accumulation within the BHP complex, gonads, and fillets of mature males were negatively related. Exposure to OCs before or during sexual differentiation likely induces intersexuality in MMR shovelnose sturgeon, and exposure throughout gonadal maturation inhibits gonadal development. PMID:16833127

  11. Distribution of Persistent, Lipid-Soluble Chemicals in Breast and Abdominal Adipose Tissues: Lessons Learned from a Breast Cancer Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myrto Petreas; Daniel Smith; Susan Hurley; Stefanie S. Jeffrey; Debra Gilliss; Peggy Reynolds

    Objective: We sought to determine differences between concentrations of persistent, lipid-soluble chemical contaminants in breast and abdominal adipose tissues and to explore whether concentrations measured in one tissue could predict concentrations in the other tissue. Methods: We analyzed surgical specimens and mea- sured concentrations of prevalent dioxins, furans, poly- chlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and brominated diphenyl ethers to determine their

  12. Time Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Atmosphere over the Indian Ocean in the last 30 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Wurl; J. R. Potter; C. Durville; J. O. Obbard

    2006-01-01

    An expedition around the Indian ocean by sailboat (Jocara Indian ocean quest) in 2004\\/5 provided a novel and unusual opportunity to collect air samples for the analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The region of the Indian Ocean, and its bordering countries are considered to be a prime source of the global

  13. Increasing serum levels of non-DDT-derivative organochlorine pesticides in the younger population of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luzardo, O P; Goethals, M; Zumbado, M; Alvarez-León, E E; Cabrera, F; Serra-Majem, Ll; Boada, L D

    2006-08-15

    Organochlorine pesticides are a lipophilic class of chemicals that persist in the environment and tend to accumulate in human tissues for years. They came into widespread use in the late 1940s. Because of their capacity to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food chains and their toxic effects, most of them were banned in industrialized countries, among them Spain, in the late 1970s and 1980s. In 1998 organochlorine pesticides were determined in a representative sample of a Spanish population (around 690 serum samples from people 6 to 75years old from the Canary Islands). Serum levels of lindane aldrin, dieldrin and endrin, were determined. Our results showed that a high percentage of samples presented detectable levels of some of the organochlorines measured, endrin being the most frequently detected (72%) and at highest concentration (mean 136.7ng/g fat). Mean concentrations of the main cyclodiene evaluated, dieldrin, was lower to those found in other Western populations. However, serum levels of lindane were higher than those described in North European populations. Influence of geographical and sociodemographic factors was evaluated. Urban populations showed the highest levels of dieldrin, while non-urban population showed the highest serum values of lindane, aldrin and endrin. Unexpectedly, serum values of lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were higher in younger than in older people. Subjects under 18years showed almost twice as high serum levels of lindane, aldrin and dieldrin than subjects of 65-75years. These results may well suggest that people living in the Canary Islands have been and are currently exposed to non-DDT-organochlorine pesticides. The type and source of exposure could vary between islands and type of habitat. Contaminated food and/or the environment could be related with this situation. PMID:16580052

  14. Analytical methodology for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in vegetation.

    PubMed

    Beceiro-González, Elisa; González-Castro, María J; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2012-01-01

    Due to the extensive use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) for agricultural purposes and their high persistence and low biodegradability, they have become an important group of contaminants. Detection and quantification of pesticide residues in food, particularly fruits and vegetables, is of growing concern for producers, consumers, and governments. The most widely used pretreatment for the extraction of pesticides in plants is based on solvent extraction liquid-solid extraction (LSE). LSE can be carried out using Soxhlet, shake-flask, homogenization, sonication, and, more recently, microwave-assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction. Furthermore, new analytical procedures using the extraction with sorbents, such as solid-phase microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, and matrix solid-phase dispersion, have also been used. On the other hand, a wide range of cleanup methods (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and dispersive solid-phase extraction; and chromatographic techniques with electron capture detector and mass spectrometry detector; and HPLC with a ultraviolet detector are reported in the literature. This article reviews the applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of various sample preparation techniques (traditional and new techniques) for the analysis of OCPs in different plants and plant materials. It covers more than 15 years of published methods in which pesticide residues have been determined in a wide range of vegetation samples (fruits, horticultural samples, medicinal plants, tree leaves, etc.) by the use of chromatographic techniques after various sample preparation steps. A great number of applications in different plant material are provided. To the best of the authors' knowledge, previously published reviews have not covered as wide and exhaustive range of vegetation matrixes as presented here. A summary of pesticide levels cited in the literature is included. PMID:23175959

  15. Bioaccumulation of organochlorines in the Arctic marine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrave, B.; Phillips, G.; Vass, W.; Harding, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography; Welch, H. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Five classes of organochlorine (OC) compounds (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCB and HCHs), cyclodienes, isomers of DDT and its metabolites and congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene (CHBs)) have been detected in under-ice epontic particulate matter and tissue samples of marine biota from lower trophic levels of the Arctic Ocean at sites in Barrow Strait within the Canadian archipelago (75{degree}N), coastal (79{degree}N) and central Arctic basin (85{degree}N) locations. HCBs, PCBs, isomers of DDT and DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, alpha-endosulphan, HCB and {alpha}-HCH were present in quantifiable amounts in all samples. {beta}- and {gamma}-HCH and the cyclodienes aldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, methoxychlor and mirex were detected but could not be quantified. All OCs measured in biota were also present in the Arctic atmosphere, particulate and dissolved fractions of snow, ice melt water and seawater, Small bodied marine organisms such as zooplankton and amphipods which are short-lived have a lower lipid content for storage of OCs than larger animals such as fish and mammals. Biomagnification factors calculated from presumed predator-prey links in the marine food web varied over two orders of magnitude for different OCs. Ratios for epontic particulates and plankton (< 10) were generally lower than values for trophic links between amphipods and published values for arctic marine fish and mammals (10--100). PCBs, DDT and chlordanes are biomagnified in the Arctic marine food web to a far greater degree than more abundant OC compounds such as HCHs and HCB that have a higher water solubility.

  16. Transplacental transfer of organochlorines in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Greig, Denise J; Ylitalo, Gina M; Hall, Ailsa J; Fauquier, Deborah A; Gulland, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The transplacental transfer of organochlorines (OCs) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was investigated by analyzing blubber samples from 20 female sea lions and their fetuses during the last trimester of pregnancy. A rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic, photodiode-array method was used to measure blubber concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including dioxin-like congeners, as well as DDTs and hexachlorobenzene. Summed values of PCBs (sigmaPCBs), of DDTs (sigmaDDTs), and of PCB toxic equivalents (sigmaPCB TEQs) were calculated from these data. The ratios of mean blubber concentrations of fetal sigmaPCBs to maternal blubber concentrations of sigmaPCBs were 0.45 by wet weight and 0.97 by lipid weight, but these ratios varied widely among mother-fetus pairs. Mean ratios of fetal sigmaDDTs to maternal sigmaDDTs were 0.53 by wet weight and 1.12 by lipid weight. Fetuses were classified into two age groups, based on date of recovery, to examine differences in OC transfer because of gestational age. Fetal to maternal ratios for individual PCB congeners, DDT compounds, and sigmaPCBs, sigmaDDTs, and sigmaPCB TEQs were lower among premature compared with late-term fetuses. These ratios increased for both groups as the logarithmic n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) for each compound decreased. Linear predictions for sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in fetal blubber could be obtained using the sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in maternal blubber, maternal and fetal blubber lipid content, maternal mass, and maternal age. Fetal TEQ was explained by maternal TEQ and maternal age. The ability to predict contaminant concentrations in fetal blubber from maternal parameters is important for developing risk assessment models for marine mammals. PMID:17269457

  17. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dairy products in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Salem, Nida' M; Ahmad, Rafat; Estaitieh, Hussein

    2009-10-01

    The use of aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been banned in Jordan officially in 1981, and of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 1995. However, residues of such compounds can still be found in the environment and in foodstuffs. Dairy products are an important exposure route for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to humans. For this reason, the presence of OCP residues in 233 dairy product samples; comprising milk, butter, cheese, labaneh and yoghurt collected from Jordan was determined. All samples were analyzed for their residual contents of aldrin, DDT and metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, endosulfan isomers, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), heptachlor and HCB. Levels of these compounds were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that 9% (21/233), 8.5% (20/233), 6% (14/233) and 2.1% (5/233) of the examined samples were contaminated with beta-HCH, pp'-DDE, alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH, respectively. Heptachlor and alpha-endosulfan were only present in less than 2% of the analyzed samples. None of the samples revealed the presence of aldrin, op'-DDD, pp'-DDD, op'-DDE, op'-DDT, pp'-DDT, dieldrin, beta-endosulfan, endrin and HCB at their detection limits. The order for the contamination in the analyzed dairy products was labaneh>cheese>yoghurt>butter>milk. This study has provided the preliminary information on the concentration of OCPs in dairy products for the first time in Jordan. The results will help in a scientific assessment of the implications of pesticide residues with regards to human risks in Jordan. PMID:19695668

  18. ORGANOCHLORINE RESIDUES IN NEW ZEALAND BIRDS OF PREY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. FOX

    l and J. W. LOCK 2 SUMMARY: The effects of organochlorines on raptors are reviewed. Pectoral muscle samples from 13 New Zealand falcons, 3 Australasian harriers, 7 little owls, 7 moreporks, 1 long-tailed cuckoo and 1 New Zealand pigeon were analysed for organochlorine pesticide and poly- chlorinated biphenyls. Five juvenile falcons contained a mean level of 2.6 mg total DDT\\/kg

  19. Spatial trends and factors affecting variation of organochlorine contaminants levels in Canadian Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Stern, G A; Macdonald, C R; Armstrong, D; Dunn, B; Fuchs, C; Harwood, L; Muir, D C G; Rosenberg, B

    2005-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were analysed in blubber from beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), or white whales, collected at 15 sites in the Canadian Arctic between 1993 and 2001. The objective of the study was to define and interpret the spatial trends of major organic contaminants in northern beluga in terms of sources and transport pathways, and the biological factors influencing accumulation. When compared on a lipid weight basis, the concentrations of beta-HCH, cis-CHL and SigmaCHL, cis-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and p,p'-DDT were significantly higher in males than females at all five sites in the eastern Arctic where the two sexes were harvested. The differences were attributed to losses from the females during fetal development and lactation as reported in previous studies. Major compounds increased with age in males at most sites, however the lack of a significant increase with age at some sites was in part due to high organochlorine concentrations in young year classes (2-5 years), particularly at eastern sites such as Iqaluit and Pangnirtung. Lower concentrations of SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT compounds in young males in 2001 relative to 1995 at Hendrickson Island could be due to declining levels in the environment, changes in the diet, or differences in organochlorine loads transferred from the female after birth. Age-corrected least square mean concentrations in males showed significantly higher levels of many compounds, such as p,p'-DDE and SigmaCHB, at south Baffin Island sites than those in the west. Two notable exceptions were HCBz and beta-HCH which were higher in the west. Methoxyclor was detected in males at Sanikiluaq (58 ng g-1) and in both sexes at Kimmirut, but at no other sites. Principal component analysis grouped the 16 sites into five major groupings based on the similarity of normalised organochlorine pesticide and PCB levels. Sites from the western Arctic were grouped by higher proportions of HCBz, beta-HCH and gamma-HCH and higher chlorinated PCBs. Endosulfan and alpha-HCH comprised a larger proportion of total organochlorine residues in the northern Hudson Bay sites, while methoxychlor, chlordane compounds and octachlorobiphenyls were enriched at Sanikiluaq in eastern Hudson Bay. The analysis showed that the relative amounts of several key compounds are similar in the beluga stocks over large spatial areas (i.e. eastern versus western sites), however, some stocks have distinct fingerprints which can be used to differentiate them from adjacent stocks. Ratios of major HCH isomers largely corresponded with air and surface water measurements conducted during the 1990s, but low alpha-/beta- and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios in all three western Arctic collections indicate rapid losses of the alpha-isomer from the food web, proportionately higher beta- and gamma-isomers in the Beaufort Sea, or a combination of the two processes. Chlordane residue patterns generally correspond to those from previous studies, however, interpretation of spatial trends are difficult due to the aging of the probable sources in the south, possible atmospheric input from new sources and complex transport pathways. PMID:16154619

  20. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters.

    PubMed

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by (13)C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  1. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Nag, Subir K; Raikwar, Mukesh K

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of bovine milk of different places in Bundelkhand region of India was carried out to evaluate the status of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues. Out of a total of 325 samples 206 (63.38%) were contaminated with residues of different OCPs. The average concentration of total HCH was 0.162 mg/kg. Among the different HCH isomers the frequency of occurrence of alpha-isomer was maximum followed by delta-, gamma- and beta. Endosulfan (alpha, beta, sulfate) was detected in 89 samples with mean concentration of 0.0492 mg/kg while total DDT comprising of DDT, DDE and DDD was present in 114 samples having mean concentration of 0.1724 mg/kg. Dicofol was positive in 17 samples. PMID:17940716

  3. FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOOT DEPOSITS FROM NON-OPTIMUM COMBUSTION OF NO. 6 FUEL OIL WITH CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a full-scale hazardous waste combustion study performed for EPA, sampling and analysis was conducted on both stack gases and solid "soot" collected from a boiler's interior surfaces. wo organochlorine compounds, monochlorobenzene (MCB) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were cof...

  4. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland.

    PubMed

    Klemens, J A; Wieland, M L; Flanagin, V J; Frick, J A; Harper, R G

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere. PMID:12531313

  5. Organochlorine contamination in shorebirds from Washington state and the significance for their falcon predators.

    PubMed

    Schick, C T; Brennan, L A; Buchanan, J B; Finger, M A; Johnson, T M; Herman, S G

    1987-09-01

    Arctic-breeding shorebirds collected in western Washington state during winter and spring, and a comparative sample collected in coastal California during the winter were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants to determine the potential impact of these residues on populations of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and merlins (F. columbarius) which prey upon shorebirds in western Washington. Dunlins (Calidris alpina), an important winter prey for falcons in western Washington, were collected between 1975 and 1981. During winter 1980-81, dunlins carried low organochlorine residues; DDE levels ranged from 0.01 to 1.2 ppm, and PCB levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.82 ppm (wet weight). Levels of other organochlorine contaminants (HCB, Chlordane compounds, Dieldrin, and Heptachlor Epoxide), analyzed in a subsample of dunlins, were consistently lower than DDE and PCB levels, and ranged from 0.001 to 0.22 ppm (wet weight). Dunlins in western Washington did not significantly increase their DDE or PCB burdens over the 1980-81 winter. A decline in DDE residues between 1978 and 1981 was noted, and declines in PCB residues from both 1975 and 1978 to 1980-81 were noted. Residues in other wintering shorebirds from western Washington were similar. Wintering sanderlings (Calidris alba) from California, revealed much higher DDE contamination than in Washington (up to 32 ppm, wet weight). Spring migrant shorebirds in western Washington contained both low and very high DDE residues (up to 417 ppm, wet weight). There is evidence suggesting these high DDE concentrations are accumulated along the Pacific coast of North America. PMID:24254183

  6. Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2012-07-17

    The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

  7. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romani?, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klin?i?, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (?6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ?PCB and ?DDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

  8. Concentrations and accumulation patterns of organochlorine contaminants in the blubber of harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, from the coast of Newfoundland, the Gulf of St Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy\\/Gulf of Maine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Westgate; Derek C. G. Muir; David E. Gaskin; Michael C. S. Kingsley

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of 99 organochlorine compounds were measured in the blubber of 196 harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, killed in commercial gill net fisheries in the western North Atlantic. PCBs and chlorinated bornanes (CHB) were the dominant contaminants in all porpoises. Mean concentrations (with standard deviations) of PCBs and CHBs from the three regions were as follows: Bay of Fundy\\/Gulf of Maine,

  9. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  10. Razorbill (Alca torda) feathers as an alternative tool for evaluating exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of feathers as a biomonitoring tool for organochlorine pesticides (OC) in a razorbill population (Alca torda). Fifteen OC were analyzed in feathers, including ?-, ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT, DDD, DDE, heptachlor and its epoxide. The geometric mean concentrations observed in this study were ?DDT 67.40 ng/g, ?HCH 62.88 ng/g, ?Heptachlor 61.75 ng/g, ?Endosulfan 19.70 ng/g, and ?Drins 10.17 ng/g. The higher OC levels found in this study compared with other studies are probably affected by the razorbill diet and migration status. However, levels found in the feathers of the present study are related to concentrations in internal tissues below those which cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects or other signs of organochlorine-pesticide poisoning in birds. Age does affect the concentration of OC pesticides in feathers. Thus, feathers would appear to be a promising tool for OC biomonitoring in seabirds, since it is possible to quantify OC compounds. PMID:21894567

  11. Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, M; Topping, J J

    1985-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established. PMID:3937849

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in human milk in women from urban and rural areas in northern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su-Ju Sun; Jian-Hong Zhao; Minoru Koga; Yu-Xia Ma; Dian-Wu Liu; Masafumi Nakamura; Huai-Jun Liu; Hyogo Horiguchi; George C. Clark; Fujio Kayama

    2005-01-01

    Human milk specimens from 55 women in Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural areas in Hebei Province in northern China were collected and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, such as p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), and dioxins. We administered a questionnaire to milk donors at collection time, asking about lifestyle factors that potentially influence organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels in human

  13. Organochlorine contaminants in sea turtles from the Eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Susan C; Pier, M Dawn; Wesselman, Raymond; Juárez, J Arturo

    2003-09-01

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent (14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of the 35 tissue samples, respectively). PCBs were detected in all but one of the 9 turtles studied, with congener 18 the most commonly detected (8 (23%) of the samples). The dioxin-like congeners 118 and 180 were detected in 4 (11%) and 3 (9%) of the samples, respectively. Percent contribution of congeners was negatively correlated to their octanol-water partition coefficients, with kidney and muscle containing more lower-chlorinated congeners than liver or adipose samples. Levels of organochlorines detected in the present study were low, potentially attributable to the feeding habits of the predominant species collected in this study (herbivorous) and/or the samples obtained in an unindustrialized region. PMID:12932489

  14. Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii ) breed in two areas in the Western Hemisphere: in northeastern North America between Long Island, New York, and Nova Scotia, and around the Caribbean Sea from the Florida Keys and the Bahamas to the Netherlands Lesser Antilles. The present paper reports the results of a survey of organochlorine residues in Roseate Terns in 1981. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the levels of organochlorine contamination in eggs of the Roseate Tern in its major colonies and to investigate whether changes in eggshell characteristics similar to those reported by Fox (1976) may have occurred in this species. A secondary objective was to determine geographic patterns of organochlorine contamination within the northeastern U.S. population of Roseate Terns and to compare them with patterns observed in Common Terns.

  15. Maternally derived testosterone and 17?-estradiol in the eggs of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls in relation to persistent organic pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanette Verboven; Jonathan Verreault; Robert J. Letcher; Geir W. Gabrielsen; Neil P. Evans

    2008-01-01

    It is largely unknown if and how persistent organic pollutants (POPs) affect the transfer of maternal hormones to eggs. This occurs despite an increasing number of studies relating environmental conditions experienced by female birds at the time of egg formation to maternal hormonal effects. Here we report the concentrations of maternal testosterone, 17?-estradiol and major classes of POPs (organochlorines, brominated

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in squamate reptiles from southern Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Dobrovolny, Marianne; Torres, Chelsea; Torres, Cassie; Goode, Matt; Rainwater, Thomas R; Salice, Christopher J; Anderson, Todd A

    2013-06-01

    Despite recognition of the lack of reptile ecotoxicology data, the taxon remains poorly studied. Contaminant body burdens are useful in demonstrating exposures to contaminants do occur and may provide insight regarding risks. The purpose of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticide burdens in various tissues of terrestrial reptiles opportunistically collected in Arizona. Heptachlor, DDE, and endrin were the most common analytes detected in fat samples. Liver samples contained methoxychlor and heptachlor at greater frequency than other organochlorines. Investigations into chronic low-level exposures are rare for reptiles and research is needed to determine critical body residues associated with adverse impacts. PMID:23546687

  17. Effects of local and distant contaminant sources: polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines in bottom-dwelling animals from an Arctic estuary.

    PubMed

    Bright, D A; Dushenko, W T; Grundy, S L; Reimer, K J

    1995-01-15

    Elevated concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues of large marine predators in the Canadian Arctic are well documented. This paper presents some of the first data on the composition and distribution of chlorinated organic compounds in some arctic coastal animals found at lower levels of the marine food chain. Organisms include bottom-dwelling invertebrates: clams (Mya truncata), mussels (Mytilus edulis), sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and fish: sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis). The majority of samples were collected in the vicinity of Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada; however, samples were also collected near another inhabited area (Hall Beach, NWT) and at a reference site (Wellington Bay, NWT). PCBs and other organochlorines typically originate in more industrialized parts of the northern hemisphere, enter the Arctic, and are subsequently biomagnified. In this study, differences in the PCB congener compositions and concentrations, as well as the relative concentrations of a larger suite of organochlorines in biota, allowed the discrimination between local and distant PCB sources. Terrestrial runoff from southern Victoria Island, NWT, has resulted in localized elevation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in marine sediment and bottom-dwelling animals. The major inputs of PCBs to coastal waters within Cambridge Bay were derived from local sources (the hamlet dump and DEW Line site). In addition, transport from more distant sources via riverine input accounts for locally elevated concentrations of other organochlorines in upper Cambridge Bay. This process may also account for concentrations of all measured organochlorines that are higher in Wellington Bay than in Queen Maud Gulf. The high PCB concentrations in the whole tissue (excluding liver) or livers of four-horned sculpins in Cambridge Bay (up to 220 ng/g and 1950 ng/g, respectively) and, to a lesser extent, Wellington Bay (3.8 ng/g and 47 ng/g, respectively) reflect a strong tendency for biomagnification of PCBs in coastal benthic communities. PMID:7892574

  18. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jacob; Dao, Quy T; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Kotterman, Michiel J J; Schobben, John H M

    2010-05-01

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has delivered valuable information on trends and spatial differences of these compounds in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and other Dutch canals, rivers and lakes. Specific local PCB, HCH and dieldrin contaminations were identified. Temporal trends show a slow decrease of PCB concentrations since 1977. Eels from the rivers Rhine and Meuse still exceed present European maximum residue limits for dioxin-like PCBs. Apart from some exceptions, OCP and tetra-BDE concentrations have also decreased, and more than those of PCBs. Fat contents of eel have decreased from an average of 21 to ca. 13%. This decrease in fat contents, coincides with the strong reduction of the European eel stock. PMID:20185213

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide levels in human breast milk from the Mediterranean city Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cok, Ismet; Yelken, Ci?dem; Durmaz, Emre; Uner, Mine; Sever, Bar??; Sat?r, Funda

    2011-04-01

    In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels were determined in 100 human milk samples from the city of Antalya. The levels of seven major PCB congeners; 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 and nine OCPs, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, HCB, heptachlor epoxide, p.p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan-? and endosulfan-? were determined by gas chromatography with ECD detection. The levels of analyzed compounds were as follows: ?PCBs 27.46 ± 11.58, ?DDT 1,407 ± 123, and ?BHC 160 ± 490 ng/g lipid wt.basis. PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE were the dominant contaminants. The results have been discussed and compared with similar studies from other regions of Turkey. PMID:21340456

  20. {gamma} Irradiation-induced degradation of organochlorinated pollutants in fatty esters and in Cod

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, F.L.; Brochu, F.; Milot, S. [Institut Armand-Frappier, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The {gamma} irradiation-induced degradation of 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) dissolved in methyl myristate and methyl oleate was studied. DDT and DDE produced DDD and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)chloroethylene (DDMU) respectively, in agreement with a previous study performed with aliphatic solvents. The degradation of these two former compounds was larger in methyl myristate than in methyl oleate and addition products between methyl myristate and the organochlorines were found. While DDD, DDE, and many PCB congeners in a cod sample were not measurably degraded at 15 KGy, DDT underwent 30% degradation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Effect of organochlorine pesticides on maturation of starfish and mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Picard, André; Pahlavan, Golbahar; Palavan, Golbahar; Robert, Stéphanie; Pesando, Danielle; Ciapa, Brigitte

    2003-05-01

    Methoxychlor, lindane, and dieldrin are organochlorine pesticides that have been described as altering different reproductive functions in mammals and in invertebrates. However, few data have been published concerning the effects these pesticides have on oocyte maturation and fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine whether these compounds could affect maturation of mouse and starfish oocytes. We observed that germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in starfish oocytes was significantly inhibited by the pesticides. Furthermore, formation of the first meiotic spindle and extrusion of the first polar body were also altered in mouse as well as in starfish. Our results suggest that the three pesticides act on common intracellular targets in invertebrates as well as in vertebrates. PMID:12700411

  2. Striped weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa): a biomonitor of organochlorine pesticides in estuarine and near-coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, A L; Menone, M L; Miglioranza, K S B; Janiot, L J; Aizpún, J E; Moreno, V J

    2006-01-01

    The general goal of this study was to investigate the role of Cynoscion guatucupa as a biomonitor of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) contamination in Bahía Blanca estuary. Thus, we evaluated whether or not OCP fish distribution pattern reflects the OCP land sources, and if size-related bioaccumulation and biomagnification of these contaminants does occur by comparing different tissues of juvenile and adults of C. guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830). Size-related bioaccumulation in C. guatucupa was observed and it was more important for the more lipophilic and biomagnifying OCP, being determined over time by diet influence. Endosulfan sulfate, chlordanes, HCH isomers and DDT compounds predominated in tissues and ingested food of C. guatucupa, being alpha-chlordane, heptachlor and p,p'-DDE highly bioaccumulated and biomagnificated. Our findings also showed that male adults of C. guatucupa are biomonitors of OCP pollution so we propose this species for further investigations in other coastal zones of South America. PMID:16209878

  3. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of ?(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ?HCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

  4. Aural abscesses in wild-caught box turtles (Terapene carolina): possible role of organochlorine-induced hypovitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Holladay, S D; Wolf, J C; Smith, S A; Jones, D E; Robertson, J L

    2001-01-01

    Wild-caught box turtles (Terapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses were observed over a period of several years. Histopathologic evaluation of epithelial tissues (conjunctiva, pharynx, trachea, auditory tube) revealed mucosal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, and accumulated keratin-like material in the middle ear cavity. These manifestations suggested the possibility of vitamin A deficiency. A nonsignificant trend toward reduced serum and hepatic vitamin A levels was observed in turtles with abscesses (mean serum and hepatic vitamin A levels 71 and 49% of respective levels in turtles without abscesses). Three organochlorine (OC) compounds (alpha-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor epoxide, and oxychlordane) and total (microg/g) OC compounds were significantly higher in turtles with abscesses compared with turtles without abscesses. No OC compounds were higher in turtles without abscesses compared with turtles with abscesses. These data suggest a possible effect of environmental chemicals on metabolism or utilization of vitamin A in wild box turtles, resulting in hypovitaminosis A. PMID:11161683

  5. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in environmental samples from the Shatt al-Arab River, Iraq.

    PubMed

    DouAbul, A A; Al-Saad, H T; Al-Rekabi, H N

    1987-01-01

    Application of high resolution gas chromatography has confirmed relatively low residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in the Shatt al-Arab River. Thus, average concentration of these compounds in the edible portion of the cyprinid (Barbus xanthopetrus) were 21, 4 and 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively. Mean values of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in surface sediments were 5, 40 and 20 microg kg(-1) dry weight respectively. Shrimps sampled from the Shatt al-Arab River were found to contain residues of o, p'-DDD only (average concentration was 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight). However, comparison of these samples with those from an area affected directly by a point source of organochlorine pesticides has shown that the cyprinid of the same age group contained significantly higher residue levels (average concentrations of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were 166, 20 and 7 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). Thus, it may be concluded that there was no direct input of organochlorine pesticides to the Shatt al-Arab River, and transportation via the natural processes, such as drainage, appeared to be the sole source. Based upon the observation that the original compound (p,p'-DDT) has not been detected in this river, it has also been concluded that there was no recent contribution of DDT here. Relatively higher residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were encountered in the muscles of the Indian shad captured from the Shatt al-Arab River (average concentrations were 163, 80 and 28 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). However, these elevated values were attributed to this fish being migratory and it being exposed to these pesticides elsewhere. PMID:15092796

  6. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q T; Lee, T K M; Chen, K; Wong, H L; Zheng, J S; Giesy, J P; Lo, K K W; Yamashita, N; Lam, P K S

    2005-07-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. PMID:15809117

  7. Organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of pregnant women in Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Valencia-Quintana, R; Caba, M; Hernández-Chalate, F; García-Aguilar, E; Villalba, R

    2010-06-01

    DDT and Lindane (gamma-HCH) which were used until 1999 in Mexico, have provided great benefits in the combat of vectors that spread infection-borne diseases and in agriculture for crop protection. The persistence in the environment and their accumulative properties results in bioconcentration in lipid rich tissues of the human body that reflect the extent of environmental pollution. Human adipose tissue samples were taken during 2009 from abdominal cavities of 69 pregnant women by cesarean surgery and from 34 samples of control donors by autopsy in Veracruz State. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with ECD. The results of mean levels (mg/kg on fat basis) were higher in controls compared to pregnant women beta-HCH 0.064 vs 0.027; pp'DDE 1.187 vs. 0.745; op'DDT 0.016 vs. 0.011; pp'DDT 0.117 vs. 0.099 and Sigma-DDT 1.337 vs. 0.854. The pregnant women group was divided according to age: up to 20, 20-30, and more than 30 years, and presented an increase for the more persistent pesticides with age in terms of mean concentrations and a more pronounced higher correlation in medians levels. Pairing Body Mass Index to organochlorine pesticide mean levels revealed no correlation between these factors in pregnant women. PMID:20449723

  8. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  9. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2012-11-01

    To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ?DDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ?DDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples. PMID:22840535

  10. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of ?7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), ?3HCH (?-HCH + ?-HCH + ?-HCH) and ?3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ?DDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the ? isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group. PMID:23877573

  11. Impact of protein binding on the availability and cytotoxic potency of organochlorine pesticides and chlorophenols in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gülden, Michael; Mörchel, Sabine; Tahan, Sail; Seibert, Hasso

    2002-06-14

    In vitro toxicity data are generally based on nominal concentrations and thus depend on both activity and availability of a compound. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of protein binding on the cytotoxicity of selected organochlorine pesticides and chlorophenols in Balb/c 3T3 cell cultures and to determine parameters of protein binding which can be used to estimate protein bound fractions and to model distribution in vitro. EC(50)-values derived from concentration-effect relationships determined in the presence of various concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were linearly correlated to BSA concentration. Increasing the BSA concentration from about 1.2 to 40 mg/ml increased the EC(50)-values by factors between 3.4 and 34.4. Molar ratios of substance bound to albumin ranged from 0.11 to 2.42. Calculated fractions bound to albumin in the normal growth medium were 0.075-0.17 (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, lindane), 0.09-0.1 (4-mono- and 2,4-dichlorophenol), 0.68 (2,4,5-trichlorphenol) and almost 1.0 (pentachlorophenol). At 40 mg/ml BSA any compound was largely bound to albumin (fractions bound > or = 0.74). Distribution modelling revealed that the availability of the highly hydrophobic organochlorines additionally was significantly reduced by partitioning into lipids. The results clearly demonstrate that nominal and relative toxic potencies of organochlorine pesticides and chlorophenols determined in vitro are substantially influenced by effects of protein binding on availability. PMID:12049848

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in ringed seals from the Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Savinov, Vladimir; Muir, Derek C G; Svetochev, Vladislav; Svetocheva, Olga; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrey; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Reiersen, Lars-Otto; Savinova, Tatiana

    2011-06-15

    Organochlorine compounds total DDT (?DDT), total HCH isomers (?HCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (?CBz), total chlordane compounds (?CHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total of 56 congeners; ?PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sum of 7 tri- to hepta congeners; ?PBDEs) were analysed in the blubber of adult ringed seals from the four areas of the Russian Arctic (White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea) collected in 2001-2005. Ringed seals from the south-western part of the Kara Sea (Dikson Island - Yenisei estuary) were the most contaminated with ?DDTs, ?PCBs, ?CHL, and mirex as compared with those found in the other three areas of Russian Arctic, while the highest mean concentrations of ?HCHs and PCDD/Fs were found in the blubber of ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea and the White Sea, respectively. Among all organochlorine compounds measured in ringed seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic, concentrations of ?DDT and ?PCBs only were higher as compared with the other Arctic regions. Levels of all other organochlorine compounds were similar or lower than in seals from Svalbard, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. ?PBDEs were found in all ringed seal samples analysed. There were no significant differences between ?PBDE concentrations found in the blubber of ringed seals from the three studied areas of the European part of the Russian Arctic, while PBDE contamination level in ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea was 30-50 times lower. ?PBDE levels in the blubber of seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic are slightly higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and western Greenland but lower compared to ringed seals from Svalbard and eastern Greenland. PMID:21636111

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in fish tissue in the mid-continental great rivers of the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A. Blocksom; David M. Walters; Terri M. Jicha; James M. Lazorchak; Theodore R. Angradi; David W. Bolgrien

    2010-01-01

    Great rivers of the central United States (Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio rivers) are valuable economic and cultural resources, yet until recently their ecological condition has not been well quantified. In 2004–2005, as part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMAP-GRE), we measured legacy organochlorines (OCs) (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) and emerging compounds (polybrominated

  14. Organochlorine insecticides in rainbow trout from three North Island lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. B. Solly; Valerie Shanks

    1969-01-01

    From 12 rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) taken from each of three lakes (Rerewhakaaitu, Opouri and Okataina) in the Rotorua district, N.Z., samples of liver, skeletal muscle and, from mature fish, the gonads were examined for organochlorine insecticides.Lindane, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide were not detected in any of the samples. Traces of dieldrin were detected only in trout taken from

  15. Immune Function and Organochlorine Pollutants in Arctic Breeding Glaucous Gulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Bustnes; S. A. Hanssen; I. Folstad; K. E. Erikstad; D. Hasselquist; J. U. Skaare

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000

  16. Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk: preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Campoy; M. Jimenez; M. F. Olea-Serrano; M Moreno Frias; F Cañabate; N Olea; R Bayés

    2001-01-01

    In the face of evidence of human milk contamination by organochlorine pesticides, an analysis was performed on samples of milk obtained from healthy lactating women in the provinces of Granada and Almeria in Southern Spain. The samples were obtained by the Neonate Section of the Department of Pediatrics of Granada University Hospital (Neonatology Division) and by the Neonatal Service of

  17. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Arabian Gulf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali A. Z. Douabul; Hamid T. Al-Saad; Selma Z. Al-Obaidy; Hussain N. Al-Rekabi

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution electron capture gas chromatography was used to determine residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in 13 commercially important fish species collected from the NW Arabian Gulf. While most of the residues were below the detection limit of 1 µg kg-1 wet weight, relatively low concentrations of SDDT, endrin and dieldrin were detected in the edbile tissue of these fishes. The

  18. PCB and organochlorine pesticides in Canadian human milk — 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Harvey Newsome; David Davies; Josée Doucet

    1995-01-01

    Human milk (497 samples) representing donors from across Canada were analyzed for 24 organochlorine pesticides and industrial chemicals and 40 PCB congeners. PCBs, p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trans nonachlor were present in all samples. Compared to earlier surveys in Canada, concentrations of most residues determined declined, and were lower than those reported recently in European countries. Although regional differences were

  19. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS OF WINTERING DUCKS FORAGING ON DETROIT RIVER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organochlorine analysis was performed on carcasses of 13 diving ducks from a 1981 wintering population that foraged on contaminated sediments in the lower Detroit River. Mean total PCB concentrations were 10 mg/kg for seven lesser scaups (Aythya affinis), 11 mg/kg for three great...

  20. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  1. Marine mammals as global pollution indicators for organochlorines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Mössner; Karlheinz Ballschmiter

    1997-01-01

    Blubber tissues of the following marine mammals differing in their geographic distribution (North Atlantic, North Pacific, Bering Sea\\/Arctic Ocean), trophic level, and feeding habits were analyzed for their organochlorine contents: two seal species (harbor seals - Phoca vitulina, northern fur seals - Callorhinus ursinus), three toothed whale species (belukha whales - Delphinapterus leucas, one common dolphin - Delphinus delphis, one

  2. Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations

    SciTech Connect

    Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

    1987-12-01

    PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

  3. Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  4. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in Hong Kong soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Zhang; Y. M. Luo; Q. G. Zhao; M. H. Wong; G. L. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    It was short of research on the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in the soils of Hong Kong. Sixty-six representative soil samples were collected from the 46 sites covering five types of land uses in Hong Kong. Hexachlorohexanes (HCH) and 7 Stockholm Convention OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a Nickel 63 electronic capture detector (?ECD). The results

  5. Fine-scale spatial variation of persistent organic pollutants in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Biscayne Bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Litz, Jenny A; Garrison, Lance P; Fieber, Lynne A; Martinez, Anthony; Contillo, Joseph P; Kucklick, John R

    2007-11-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are long-term residents and apex predators in southeast U.S. estuaries and are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Dart biopsy samples were collected from 45 dolphins in Biscayne Bay (Miami, FL), 34 of which were matched using fin markings to a photo identification catalogue. Blubber samples were analyzed for 73 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and organochlorine pesticides including dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, chlordanes, and dieldrin. Total PCBs (sigma 73PCBs) were present in the highest concentrations and were 5 times higher in males with sighting histories in the northern, metropolitan area of Biscayne Bay than males with sighting histories in the southern, more rural area [geometric mean: 43.3 (95% confidence interval: 28.0-66.9) vs 8.6 (6.3-11.9) microg/g wet mass, respectively]. All compound classes had higher concentrations in northern animals than southern. The differences in POP concentrations found on this small geographic scale demonstrate that differential habitat use can strongly influence pollutant concentrations and should be considered when interpreting bottlenose dolphin POP data. The PCB concentrations in northern Bay dolphins are high as compared to other studies of estuarine dolphins and may place these animals at risk of reproductive failure and decreased immune function. PMID:18044492

  6. Partitioning of persistent organic pollutants between blubber and blood of wild bottlenose dolphins: implications for biomonitoring and health.

    PubMed

    Yordy, Jennifer E; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teri K; Kucklick, John R

    2010-06-15

    Biomonitoring surveys of wild cetaceans commonly utilize blubber as a means to assess exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but the relationship between concentrations in blubber and those in blood, a better indicator of target organ exposure, is poorly understood. To define this relationship, matched blubber and plasma samples (n = 56) were collected from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and analyzed for 61 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 5 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). With the exception of PCB 209, lipid-normalized concentrations of the major POPs in blubber and plasma were positively and significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.828 to 0.976). Plasma concentrations, however, significantly increased with declining blubber lipid content, suggesting that as lipid is utilized, POPs are mobilized into blood. Compound- and homologue- specific blubber/blood partition coefficients also differed according to lipid content, suggesting POPs are selectively mobilized from blubber. Overall, these results suggest that with the regression parameters derived here, blubber may be used to estimate blood concentrations and vice versa. Additionally, the mobilization of lipid from blubber and concomitant increase in contaminants in blood suggests cetaceans with reduced blubber lipid may be at greater risk for contaminant-associated health effects. PMID:20491435

  7. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, ?-?-?-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and ?-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p < 0.05) from the first to second and from the first to third group. At the same time, the increase of mean and medians levels from the second to third group were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants. PMID:22042501

  8. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides in human milk and risk exposure to infants from North-East India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2011-11-01

    Despite the worldwide ban on use of persistent organochlorine pesticides, their usage continued until recently in India, for vector-borne disease eradication programs and agricultural purposes. The concentrations of organochlorine contaminants, DDT and HCH, have been determined in human breast milk from Dibrugarh and Nagaon districts of Assam state, North-East India. The results demonstrated that the mean levels of total DDT were 3210 ng/g lipid wt. and 2870 ng/g lipid wt. and total HCH were 2720 ng/g lipid wt. and 2330 ng/g lipid wt. in Nagaon and Dibrugarh respectively. There was no significant difference in the levels of investigated pollutants between the two districts. Significant differences in ADI (Average daily intake) for total DDT were found between the two districts. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between OCP levels in breast milk and age of mothers. Based on OCP levels in human breast milk, the ADI by the infants has been estimated. It has been found that high daily intake of DDTs and HCHs by the infants exceeded the TDI (Tolerable daily intake) which implied that infants of the region are potentially at high risk by these contaminants. PMID:21917296

  9. Use of stable isotopes of N and C to explain unexpectedly high levels of PCBs and other organochlorines in walrus

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.; Segstro, M.; Stewart, R. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Hobson, K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Olpinski, S.

    1994-12-31

    Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber from Inukjuak and Akulivik (E. Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin and E. Baffin Is. was analyzed for PCB congeners and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes) as part of studies documenting spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian arctic marine biota. Samples from 18 of 53 individuals had wet weight concentrations of {Sigma}PCBs ranging from 1 to 20 {mu}g//g; the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations. Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where 11 of 13 animals (males and females) had high levels. {Sigma}PCB concentrations greater than 0.5 {mu}g/g were unexpected based on previous studies in Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because DDT, chlordanes and toxaphene were all elevated, and high levels were found in both males and females from 2 of 4 other locations. {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope measurements using muscle samples from the jaws of walrus and seals, showed that walrus with high EPCB had higher {delta}{sup 15}N values than those with low PCBs. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals (Phoca hispida) for a significant proportion of their diet.

  10. Estrogenic Evaluation and Organochlorine Identification in Blubber of North Sea Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Stranded on the North Sea Coast.

    PubMed

    Imazaki, Pedro Henrique; Brose, François; Jauniaux, Thierry; Das, Krishna; Muller, Marc; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000?ng/mL culture medium), as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER) activation or inhibition, using a luciferase reporter gene assay (RGA). None of the PCB 138, 153, or 180 or their mixture induced a response in the RGA. o,p'-DDT was the most potent xenoestrogen from the DDT group, inducing a response already at 80?ng/mL. From the HCH and HCB group, only ?-HCH (at 400 and 2000?ng/mL) and ?-HCH (at 2000?ng/mL) displayed estrogenic activities. These 13 organochlorines were determined by GC-MS in 12 samples of North Sea harbor porpoise blubber. The PCBs were the main contaminants. Within each group, PCB 153 (6.0 × 10(2)~4.2 × 10(4)??g/kg), p,p'-DDE (5.1 × 10(2)~8.6 × 10(3)??g/kg), and HCB (7.6 × 10(1)~1.5 × 10(3)??g/kg) were the compounds found in highest concentrations. The hormonal activity of the porpoise blubber samples was also assayed in RGA, where two samples showed estrogenic activity, seven samples showed antiestrogenic activity, and one sample showed both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Our results suggest that the 13 POPs measured by GC-MS in the samples cannot explain alone the estrogenicity of the extracts. PMID:26075240

  11. Specific accumulation and temporal trends of organochlorine contaminants in Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli) from Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nakamatsu, Ken; Amano, Masao; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2002-10-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane related compounds, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methanol were determined in the blubber of Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli) collected from Japanese coastal waters in 1998/1999. Among OCs analyzed, PCBs were the predominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 39 microg/g on a wet weight basis. OCs concentrations were relatively low and less variable in mature females possibly due to the lactational excretion from their bodies, while in males the concentrations were increased with body length. Concentrations and compositions of DDTs and HCHs showed significant differences between the truei-type population off the Pacific coast of northern Japan and dalli-type from the Sea of Japan/Okhotsk, suggesting its usefulness to discriminate different populations. OCs levels detected in truei-type porpoises collected in 1998/1999 were lower than those collected in 1984, except TCPMe. On the other hand, except DDTs, the residue levels of other organochlorines in dalli-type porpoises showed no significant decrease since 1984. PMID:12474970

  12. Estrogenic Evaluation and Organochlorine Identification in Blubber of North Sea Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Stranded on the North Sea Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brose, François; Jauniaux, Thierry; Das, Krishna; Muller, Marc; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000?ng/mL culture medium), as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER) activation or inhibition, using a luciferase reporter gene assay (RGA). None of the PCB 138, 153, or 180 or their mixture induced a response in the RGA. o,p?-DDT was the most potent xenoestrogen from the DDT group, inducing a response already at 80?ng/mL. From the HCH and HCB group, only ?-HCH (at 400 and 2000?ng/mL) and ?-HCH (at 2000?ng/mL) displayed estrogenic activities. These 13 organochlorines were determined by GC-MS in 12 samples of North Sea harbor porpoise blubber. The PCBs were the main contaminants. Within each group, PCB 153 (6.0 × 102~4.2 × 104??g/kg), p,p?-DDE (5.1 × 102~8.6 × 103??g/kg), and HCB (7.6 × 101~1.5 × 103??g/kg) were the compounds found in highest concentrations. The hormonal activity of the porpoise blubber samples was also assayed in RGA, where two samples showed estrogenic activity, seven samples showed antiestrogenic activity, and one sample showed both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Our results suggest that the 13 POPs measured by GC-MS in the samples cannot explain alone the estrogenicity of the extracts.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kutz, F W; Wood, P H; Bottimore, D P

    1991-01-01

    Halogenated organic compounds are highly lipophilic chemicals that are persistent in the environment as a result of their use and chemical stability. Some of these compounds are also present in the environment as metabolites or oxidation products of a parent compound or as by-products formed in the production of chlorinated compounds. Chronic exposure to the general population results mainly through the food chain. Because they are lipophilic, and because many are metabolized slowly, these chemicals tend to concentrate in body fat tissue. This contribution has described these halogenated organic compounds, discussed their use, regulation and prohibition throughout the world, and reviewed published studies on the levels of these chemicals found in the adipose tissue of humans and animals. For many years, residues of halogenated organic compounds have been detected in the human adipose tissue of individuals in a number of countries, including those in Europe, Asia, and Africa, as well as in the U.S. The levels detected have been used as an index of the level of general population exposure of these compounds over time. Over the past two decades, most countries have observed a steady decline of this level of exposure, reflecting a reduction in the use of these compounds, restrictions on or banning of their use, and a corresponding decrease in their environmental levels. The levels of concentrations vary from chemical to chemical as well as from isomer to isomer. Since the use of aldrin and dieldrin has now been banned or restricted in the U.S. and a number of other countries, residue levels have slowly decreased. Mean values in human adipose tissue in the U.S. and some foreign countries ranged from 0.04 to 0.40 ppm for dieldrin. Aldrin was detected only in Argentina and Poland in the 1970s and endrin was not detected anywhere at anytime. By 1978, all products containing BHC registered in the U.S. has been either discontinued or reformulated to incorporate lindane rather than BHC. The potential for exposure to BHC is virtually nonexistent in the U.S.; however, exposure to lindane is possible since products containing this chemical are still marketed, and used particularly in the manufacture of human medicine. DDT was banned for agricultural purposes in the U.S. in 1972, although it is still used elsewhere for public health vector control. Since the decline in use of DDT, however, the average levels of concentration have also declined. Heptachlor, chlordane, and trans-nonachlor (a component of both heptachlor and chlordane) are chlorinated cyclodienes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1899728

  14. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Beníšek, Martin; Kuku?ka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Lud?k

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22?g (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts. PMID:25522853

  15. Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Custer; Christine M. Custer

    1995-01-01

    Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older.

  16. Mercury, selenium, cadmium and organochlorines in eggs of three Hawaiian seabird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Harrison, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Eggs of three representative species of seabirds (wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus; red-footed booby Sula sula; and sooty tern Sterna fuscata) were collected in 1980 to determined differences in heavy metal, Se, and organochlorine residues among species nesting in the Hawaiian Archipelago and among the four nesting sites sampled (Oahu, French Frigate Shoals, Laysan, and Midway). Hg and Se were present in all eggs analysed, but Cd was not detected. Hg was usually highest in booby eggs, and there was a southeast-to-northeast trend toward higher concetrations in this species; booby eggs from Midway contained the highest mean concentration of Hg (0?36 :g g-1, wet weight). Se consistently occurred at lowest concentrations in booby eggs. When Se and Hg concentrations were expressed as nanomoles per gram, Se constituted 94?96% of the combined total at each location for shearwater and tern eggs. In booby eggs, the proportion as Se declined significantly (' = 0?05) from Oahu (93?4%) westward to Midway (85?9%). Although DDT occurred in most of the shearwater eggs from each site, it was not found in booby or tern eggs. DDE occured in all eggs, but mean concentrations did not exceed 0?6 :g g-1. DDE concentrations were higher in eggs from the two south-eastern nesting sites and were consistently highest in shearwater eggs. PCBs were found in most of the shearwater and booby eggs, but were not detected in tern eggs. Other organochlorines usually occurred more frequently in eggs of shearwaters than in other species. The only exception were '-HCH and HCB, which occurred more frequently in booby eggs. Kepone, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane compounds, and toxaphene were not detected. Differences in residue concentrations seem to reflect differences in diets and seasonal movements of the birds, and perhaps other factors such as atmospheric and oceanic transport of chemicals and physiological differences among the species.

  17. Residues of organochlorinated pesticides in eggs of water birds from Tai Lake in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y H; Wang, H; An, Q; Ruiz, X; Fasola, M; Zhang, Y M

    2004-01-01

    The levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of water birds from the colony on Tai Lake in China were studied. The eggs were collected in 2000 and belonged to the following species: 65 samples of black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), 36 samples of little egret (Egretta garzetta), 26 samples of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) from 13 clutches and 43 samples of Chinese pond heron (Ardeola bacchus) from 17 clutches. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivates (DDE and DDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its isomers (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate were determined in the laboratory by gas chromatography. The data showed that DDE had the highest levels in all the samples, followed by beta-HCH. The mean levels of DDE among the water bird species were in the order as follows: black-crowned night heron (5464.26 ng/g, dry weight) > Chinese pond heron (2791.12 ng/g, dry weight) > little egret (1979.97 ng/g, dry weight) > cattle egret (660.11 ng/g, dry weight). DDT and its metabolites accounted for 90% of the total organochlorines, except that it was only 73% for cattle egret. The differences of the residue among the bird species were statistically significant and could be attributed to their variations in prey and habitat. Although the DDE burdens in Tai Lake were much lower than 8 microg/g (wet weight) which are thought to have significant adverse effects on black-crowned night herons, they would be expected to increase the risk of adverse effects on survival of chicks of herons and egrets, particularly black-crowned night heron, based on the critical value of 1 microg/g (wet weight) DDE. The burdens of HCHs in this study were higher and the cyclodienes were lower than those found elsewhere. PMID:15499782

  18. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides and their Metabolites in Alligator Livers from Lakes Apopka and Woodruff, Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

  19. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in eggs of colonial waterbirds from Galveston Bay and East Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, D.S.; Mora, M.A.; Sericano, J.L.; Blankenship, Alan L.; Kannan, K.; Giesy, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs of neotropic cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April-May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency factors (TEQs) or the H4IIE-luc bioassay TCDD-EQs. Concentrations of 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 1,040 ng/g wet wt) in the Houston Ship Channel (Houston, TX, USA) and in those from Telfair Island (mean = 1,460 ng/g wet wt), a reference location outside the bay, than in most locations inside the bay (mean range = 119-453 ng/g wet wt). Mean PCB concentrations were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 5,720 ng/g wet wt) than in eggs of cormorants from areas farther away from the ship channel, including two reference sites outside the bay (mean range = 404-3,140 ng/g wet wt). The TCDD was the main dioxin congener detected in eggs from all locations within Galveston Bay. Instrumental TEQs in eggs ranged from 67 pg/g wet weight at control sites to 452 pg/g wet weight at Alexander Island. Concentrations of TCDD-EQs determined in the H4IIE assay were correlated with instrumental TEQs and were greater in eggs of cormorants from islands within the bay, although these were farther away from the ship channel. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, TCDD, and TCDD-EQs were less than the threshold levels known to affect reproduction. However, some eggs contained concentrations of total PCBs or DDE greater than what would elicit adverse effects on birds. No identifiable deformities or abnormalities were detected in embryos collected from all sites.

  20. Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in fatty foods: a critical review on the analytical methods and their testing capabilities.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen W C; Chen, Benedict L S

    2011-08-19

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in foods have been of concern for several decades. However, the analysis of some of the OCPs and their metabolites or derivatives, such as endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, nonachlor, etc. in fatty foods (including foods of animal and plant origin), was not commonly included in routine monitoring programme. Recently, the Stockholm Convention introduced nine plus one new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that included chlordecone and some other OCPs. Is there a method available that can analyze both traditional OCPs, together with their metabolites and derivatives in fatty foods? Furthermore, is there a suitable method that can monitor OCPs and the newly added POPs including chlordecone in fatty foods together in a pot? This review aims to provide some background information to answer these questions. PMID:21742333

  1. Biological risk, source and pollution history of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Yuan, Xin; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Li, Yang

    2015-07-15

    In the last century, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been extensively used, especially in South China, to promote crop yield. In view of their toxicity, persistence and bioavailability, however, the Chinese government has attempted to regulate their production and use. We aimed to examine the biological risk, source and pollution history of OCPs in the sediment in Nansha mangrove which is located in the industrial region in South China. Results showed that HCHs and DDTs, mainly originating from lindane and technical DDT respectively, were the dominant OCPs, but their concentrations were too low to cause adverse effects on biota. In the last decade, the total concentration of HCHs showed a decreasing trend, whereas DDTs remained stable, despite their limited input. This suggests that management of HCHs was effective, while more management efforts should be put on DDTs, especially the use of dicofol and technical DDT, in future. PMID:26021291

  2. Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Gowen, Rose M. Z.; Miller, Rebecca P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes. PMID:23343981

  3. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in the lower Tennessee River basin, 1980-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, R.R.; Powell, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, evaluated the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in samples collected in the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit. Fish tissue analysis provides a time-averaged measurement of contaminants as well as a direct measurement of the contaminants that bioaccumulate in fish tissue. Bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish tissue may result in concentrations that can affect human, wildlife, or aquatic health. Data for two types of tissue analyses were evaluated to assess the occurrence and distribution of contaminants: whole fish for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and fish fillets for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements. The fish tissue data analyzed for this study cover an 18-year span including data collected in 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program; data collected from 1980 through 1997 by the Tennessee Valley Authority; and data collected from 1992 through 1997 by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Concentration data for constituents that are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant List were summarized and compared against existing action levels or guidelines.From the list of organochlorine pesticide compounds analyzed, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a breakdown product of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), was the most commonly detected compound with detections at 83 percent of the sites sampled. Eleven p,p'-DDE samples exceeded action levels or guidelines with concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 12.8 milligrams per kilogram. Five other organochlorine compounds, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls, also exceeded action levels and guidelines, but the detection frequencies at sampling sites generally were less than 70 percent. Mercury, the only trace element to exceed a guideline, was detected at 51 of 102 sites sampled for trace elements. Selenium was detected in fish fillet samples from 70 of 102 sites sampled, which was more sites than for any other trace element; however, selenium did not exceed the 50 micrograms per gram U.S. Environmental Protection Agency screening criteria. Arsenic and cadmium also were detected at 44 and 54 percent of the sampling sites, respectively.

  4. Determination of Sources and Emissions of Persistent Organic Contaminants by Means of Sewage Sludge: Results from a Monitoring Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kupper; Luiz Felippe de Alencastro; Jean-Daniel Berset

    \\u000a Sewage sludge contains a plethora of organic pollutants. In the present chapter, the experiences with respect to the applicability\\u000a of sewage sludge as a matrix for the monitoring of persistent lipophilic contaminants released from the anthroposphere are\\u000a reported and discussed. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides,\\u000a phthalates, UV filters, biocides, synthetic fragrances, polybrominated flame retardants (BFRs) and

  5. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  6. Organochlorine insecticide residues in African Fauna: 1971-1995.

    PubMed

    Wiktelius, S; Edwards, C A

    1997-01-01

    Organochlorine insecticides (OCLs), which were introduced in the decade following World War II, were used extensively in Europe, the U.S., and other developed countries into the 1970s. However, data began to accumulate on their persistence in soils and aquatic sediments, their potential to be taken up into animal tissues and to bioconcentrate in birds and mammals in the higher tropic levels of food chains and even in humans. As a result, registration authorities phased out their use progressively, in Europe and the U.S., from 1973 onward. However, the production of OCLs in developed countries and their use in developing countries continued through the 1970s and 1980s into the 1990s because they were, no longer under patent agreement, were inexpensive to manufacture, and were very effective in pest control. In Africa, the use of OCLs continued well into the 1990s for the control of mosquitoes, tsetse flies, and desert locusts as well as to combat various crop, animal, and human pests. Some of these uses involved extensive spraying of large areas of nonagricultural land, thereby exposing many groups and species of wildlife to their residues. Although there is some evidence of a gradual decline in the use of OCLs in Africa, they are still being used in appreciable quantities. During the past 25 yr, there have been 50 published reports of OCL residues in the various groups of invertebrate and vertebrate animals constituting the African fauna. These have been based on a diverse range of surveys, target animals, sampling methods, and analytical techniques. Moreover, they are extremely regionally-biased, the most intense surveys being in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Egypt, and South Africa. DDT was the most commonly used OCL, accounting for about half the total use, followed closely by dieldrin and HCH. Birds and fish have been sampled most intensively, with relatively few studies on other taxa. We reviewed the OCL residue data on African fauna from these reports and summarized the maximum and mean residues in the various groups of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, residues in the fauna were the greatest for DDT, followed in turn by those of dieldrin, HCH, endosulfan, and endrin, with small amounts of aldrin and toxaphene being found in some animals. There were relatively few reports of OCL residues in terrestrial invertebrates and virtually none in aquatic invertebrates. Only a few reports demonstrated OCL residues in terrestrial vertebrates, although high levels of DDT, dieldrin, and HCH were found in crocodile eggs and large residues of dieldrin occurred in bats, squirrels, and monkeys. Considerable OCL residues were reported in a few species of fish, especially Barbus, Clarias, Hydrocynus, Labeo, Sarotherodon, Epiplatys, and Synodontis. These residues were at levels that could have caused chronic toxicity or behavioral changes. The calculated maximum and mean OCL residues in the various elements of the African fauna until 1995 were compared with those calculated for corresponding faunal groups in Europe and the U.S. from their development and introduction up to 1973. The OCL residues reported in African fauna between 1971 and 1975 tended to be significantly higher overall than those published for Europe and the U.S. In particular, residues of DDT and dieldrin in African birds and their eggs were greater than those that had been incriminated as causing significant eggshell thinning and reproductive failure in European and U.S. aquatic and terrestrial birds up to 1973. Additionally, high DDT and dieldrin residues were reported from some species of African fish at levels that could potentially affect their reproduction, have chronic toxic and behavioral effects, and even drastically affect populations. Holistic case studies on the use of OCLs to control tsetse flies and desert locusts were discussed. OCL levels in trophic levels of fauna associated with Lake Kariba (between Zambia and Zimbabwe) were summarized. (AB PMID:9216256

  7. Organochlorine residues in shellfish from Maryland waters, 1976-1980.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, M; Topping, J J

    1984-10-01

    Shellfish samples, including the American oyster (Craessostrea virginica), the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria), the hard shell clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) and the blue crab (callinectes sapidus), were taken from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five year period (1976-80) and analyzed to determine residue levels of various organochlorine pesticides. Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for a variety of polychlorinated hydrocarbons. The purpose of this study includes the establishment of baseline values for levels of shellfish contamination, utilization of the data as an indicator of probable levels of water and sediment contamination in the vicinity of the sampling site and ensurance that shellfish harvested for human consumption are within U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines for organochlorine contamination. All mean values and virtually all individual values were within FDA guidelines. PMID:6501793

  8. Fate of organochlorines at the plant-soil interface -- Relevance to organochlorine cycling within terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, A.A. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The plant-soil interface (the rhizosphere) has greatly altered biological, physical and chemical properties compared to bulk soil. This is because the diversity and size of the soil microbial biomass is greatly increased in the rhizosphere, roots alter the physical structure of soil at the macro and micro and the plant root will act as a sink for xenobiotics. Most studies on the rate and cycling of organochlorines (OCs) fail to take into account the influence macro biota will have on cycling--leading to over simplifications of derived models. The author presents data on the fate and behavior of chlorobenzenes in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Extensive differences in the behavior of mono, 1,2-di- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene occur in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere environments, with the rhizosphere altering degradation and retarding volatilization. Factors behind the altered behavior of chlorobenzenes in the rhizosphere were investigated including shifts in microbial biomass in the presence of roots and chlorobenzenes and partitioning of chlorobenzenes into plant roots. The results suggest that the full complexity of the soil environment must be considered when determining the fate and behavior of OCs in terrestrial environments.

  9. Extraction and recovery of organochlorine pesticides from fungal mycelia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert L Juhasz; Ravendra Naidu

    2000-01-01

    An extraction method was developed to recover organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) associated with live and mercuric chloride-treated fungal mycelia. A Cladosporium sp. was inoculated into potato dextrose broth, DDT (90 mg\\/l) added and incubated for seven days. The combination of a microextraction procedure for aqueous-phase-associated DDT and a sonication extraction for mycelia-bound DDT, using dichloromethane as the extracting solvent, resulted in

  10. Organochlorines in top predators at Svalbard — occurrence, levels and effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janneche Utne Skaare; Aksel Bernhoft; Andrew Derocher; Geir Wing Gabrielsen; Anders Goksøyr; Espen Henriksen; Hans Jørgen Larsen; Elisabeth Lie; Øystein Wiig

    2000-01-01

    Alarmingly high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels have been found in the top predators such as glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard [Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Polder, A., Bakken, V., 1995. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). Sci. Total Environ. 160\\/161, 337–346; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, Ø., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

  11. Feeding Ecology and the Concentration of Organochlorines in Glaucous Gulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Bustnes; K. E. Erikstad; V. Bakken; F. Mehlum; J. U. Skaare

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the blood concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and the diet of glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus breeding in two neighbouring areas at Bear Island in the Barents Sea, north-eastern Atlantic. One area was situated on the edge of the large seabird cliff, about 100–150 m above sea level. The second area was about 1–2 km from the seabird cliff, and

  12. Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976–1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Eisenberg; Joseph J. Topping

    1985-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five?year period (1976–80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, ??BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor?epoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone

  13. Distribution of organochlorines and PCB congeners in Korean human tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mee-Jung Park; Sang-Ki Lee; Ja-Yeol Yang; Ki-Wook Kim; Su-Yeon Lee; Won-Tae Lee; Kyu-Hyuck Chung; Yeo-Pyo Yun; Young-Chan Yoo

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the residual amounts of organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Korean human tissues\\u000a (blood, adipose tissue, liver, kidney cortex, and lung), the samples were collected from the autopsied cadavers of 40 men\\u000a and 40 women (from teens to seventies of age) ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC,p,p?-DDT,p,p?-DDD,p,p?-DDE, endrin, dieldein, aldrin, and 7 marker PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118,

  14. Macro-analytical methods used to analyze tissues of the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, G.H.; Leong, G.H.

    1981-10-01

    Among the specimens which were processed as the results of poisoning incidents, were tissues of an adult male Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, which had died while in captivity without known cause. Various tissues of the animal were analyzed to determine whether the death of the monk seal had any connection with exposures to environmental pesticides or pollutants, particularly to organochlorine compounds. The specimens included urine, parts of liver, lung and blubber, an entire testis, and an entire kidney. Solid tissues from the animal were from correspondingly large organs. Macro methods for representative analyses of these tissues for multiresidues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were devised. Results are tabulated. The death of the Hawaiian monk seal could not be attributed conclusively to the organochlorines and pentachlorophenol that were found in tissues of this mammal. Baseline (normal) data of residue levels for these pollutants in animal tissues in Hawaii are so limited that pathogenic levels in the fauna cannot be predicted. It is difficult to even speculate whether the residues detected in the monk seal tissues were due to exposures of earth's background (ambient) atmosphere or to exposures of the mammal's immediate (specific) environment.

  15. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, E.H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  16. Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F. (Univ. of Essex, Colchester (England))

    1989-10-01

    The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

  17. Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in wood storks and anhingas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    All 10 Wood Stork eggs collected at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in 1973 contained residues of DDE (geometric mean 4.0 ppm wet weight) and PCBs (1.2 ppm). Nine other organochlorines were found at lower frequencies in the eggs. Eggshells from the recent period were 8.9% thinner (P < 0.001) than pre-1947 samples; decrease in eggshell thickness was more closely correlated with DDE than other organochlorines and correlation of DDE and eggshell thickness approached significance (P = 0.115).....Anhinga eggs were collected at 7 localities; 45 of the 46 eggs analyzed contained DDE residues and 24 contained PCBs. Residues of other organochlorines were found less frequently. Shell thickness of recent eggs from Louisiana and Mississippi was significantly less (-7.5%; P < 0.05) than the mean for pre-1947 eggs, but there was no significant change in shell thickness of eggs from Florida. The change in clutch mean eggshell thickness was significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the concentration of DDE in the eggs.

  18. Neurotoxicity of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Possible Mode(s) of Action and Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2005-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-lived toxic organic compounds and are of major concern for human and ecosystem health. Although the use of most POPs is banned in most countries, some organochlorine pesticides are still being used in several parts of the world. Although environmental levels of some POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have declined, newly emerging POPs such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been increasing considerably. Exposure to POPs has been associated with a wide spectrum of effects including reproductive, developmental, immunologic, carcinogenic, and neurotoxic effects. It is of particular concern that neurotoxic effects of some POPs have been observed in humans at low environmental concentrations. This review focuses on PCBs as a representative chemical class of POPs and discusses the possible mode(s) of action for the neurotoxic effects with emphasis on comparing dose-response and structure-activity relationships (SAR) with other structurally related chemicals. There is sufficient epidemiological and experimental evidence showing that PCB exposure is associated with motor and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Although several potential mode(s) of actions were postulated for PCB-induced neurotoxic effects, changes in neurotransmitter systems, altered intracellular signalling processes, and thyroid hormone imbalance are predominant ones. These three potential mechanisms are discussed in detail in vitro and in vivo. In addition, SAR was conducted on other structurally similar chemicals to see if they have a common mode(s) of action. Relative potency factors for several of these POPs were calculated based on their effects on intracellular signalling processes. This is a comprehensive review comparing molecular effects at the cellular level to the neurotoxic effects seen in the whole animal for environmentally relevant POPs. PMID:18648619

  19. Observations on persistent organic pollutants in indoor and outdoor air using passive polyurethane foam samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Pernilla; Jones, Kevin C.; Tovalin, Horacio; Strandberg, Bo

    Air quality data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) indoors and outdoors are sparse or lacking in several parts of the world, often hampered by the cost and inconvenience of active sampling techniques. Cheap and easy passive air sampling techniques are therefore helpful for reconnaissance surveys. As a part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) project in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in 2006, a range of POPs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) were analyzed in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks used as passive samplers in indoor and outdoor air. Results were compared to those from samplers deployed simultaneously in Gothenburg (Sweden) and Lancaster (United Kingdom). Using sampling rates suggested in the literature, the sums of 13 PAHs in the different sites were estimated to be 6.1-180 ng m -3, with phenanthrene as the predominant compound. Indoor PAH levels tended to be higher in Gothenburg and outdoor levels higher in Mexico City. The sum of PCBs ranged 59-2100 ng m -3, and seemed to be highest indoors in Gothenburg and Lancaster. PBDE levels (sum of seven) ranged 0.68-620 ng m -3, with the highest levels found in some indoor locations. OCPs (i.e. DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes) were widely dispersed both outdoors and indoors at all three studied areas. In Gothenburg all POPs tended to be higher indoors than outdoors, while indoor and outdoor levels in Mexico City were similar. This could be due to the influence of indoor and outdoor sources, air exchange rates, and lifestyle factors. The study demonstrates how passive samplers can provide quick and cheap reconnaissance data simultaneously at many locations which can shed light on sources and other factors influencing POP levels in air, especially for the gaseous fractions.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) at Bjørnøya (Svalbard).

    PubMed

    Sagerup, Kjetil; Helgason, Lisa B; Polder, Anuschka; Strøm, Hallvard; Josefsen, Terje D; Skåre, Janneche U; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2009-11-15

    Dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were collected on Bjørnøya in the Barents Sea in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Autopsies of the seabirds only explained a clear cause of death for three (14%) of the 21 birds. A total of 71% of the birds were emaciated. Liver and brain samples were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and mercury (Hg). High levels of SigmaOCPs, SigmaPCBs, SigmaPBDEs and alpha-HBCD were found in liver and brain. Compared to the dead and dying glaucous gulls found 1989, the congeners' composition tended to change toward more persistent compounds in the 2003-2005 samples. The brain levels of OCPs and PCBs did not differ between 1989 and 2003-2005, while the liver levels were significantly lower. The brain/liver ratio for PCB and PBDE significantly decreased with halogenations of the molecule, indicating a clear discrimination of highly halogenated PCBs and PBDEs entering the brain. There was further a clear negative correlation between contaminant concentrations and body condition. The brain levels were not as high as earlier published lethal levels of p,p'-DDE or PCB. However, more recent studies reported a range of sub-lethal OCP- and PCB-related effects in randomly sampled glaucous gulls. An additional elevation of pollutants due to emaciation may increase the stress of the already affected birds. The high brain levels of OCP, PCB and PBDE of present study might therefore have contributed to the death of weakened individuals of glaucous gull. PMID:19735935

  1. Aggregate exposures of nine preschool children to persistent organic pollutants at day care and at home.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nancy K; Chuang, Jane C; Lyu, Christopher; Menton, Ronald; Morgan, Marsha K

    2003-05-01

    In the summer of 1997, we measured the aggregate exposures of nine preschool children, aged 2-5 years, to a suite of organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants that are commonly found in the home and school environment. The children attended either of two child day care centers in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area of North Carolina and were in day care at least 25 h/week. Over a 48-h period, we sampled indoor and outdoor air, play area soil and floor dust, as well as duplicate diets, hand surface wipes, and urine for each child at day care and at home. Our target analytes were several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); two organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon), the lawn herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), three phenols (pentachlorophenol (PCP), nonyl phenols, and bisphenol-A), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), and two phthalate esters (benzylbutyl and dibutyl phthalate). In urine, our target analytes were hydroxy-PAH, TCP, 2,4-D, and PCP. To allow estimation of each child's aggregate exposures over the 48-h sampling period, we also used time-activity diaries, which were filled out by each child's teacher at day care and the parent or other primary caregiver at home. In addition, we collected detailed household information that related to potential sources of exposure, such as pesticide use or smoking habits, through questionnaires and field observation. We found that the indoor exposures were greater than those outdoors, that exposures at day care and at home were of similar magnitudes, and that diet contributed greatly to the exposures. The children's potential aggregate doses, calculated from our data, were generally well below established reference doses (RfDs) for those compounds for which RfDs are available. PMID:12743613

  2. Reproductive transfer of organochlorines in viviparous surfperch, Ditrema temmincki.

    PubMed

    Oka, Mayuko; Arai, Takaomi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2006-08-01

    To discuss the maternal-fetal transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in viviparous fish, the whole-body burdens of POPs were determined in gravid surfperches from Otsuchi Bay, Japan, and in their fetuses. The concentrations were 2.75-15.5 times higher in the maternal tissue. To compare the characteristics of the maternal-fetal transfer between species with different gestation systems, reports on the striped dolphin and long-finned pilot whales were studied. The transfer rates of POPs in surfperches were 0.6-6.0%, while in marine mammals they were 3.0-9.4%. The difference in transfer rates may derive from the difference in their reproductive systems. On the other hand, as in marine mammals, selective transfer of POPs was seen in surfperches. The transfer rates were higher in less hydrophobic compounds such as dieldrin, and lower in more hydrophobic compounds such as DDTs. A new transfer factor is also discussed which instantly indicates the difference in the concentrations between mother and fetus. PMID:16360249

  3. Bioaccumulation and related effects of PCBs and organochlorinated pesticides in freshwater fish Hypostomus commersoni.

    PubMed

    Bussolaro, D; Filipak Neto, F; Glinski, A; Roche, H; Guiloski, I C; Mela, M; Silva de Assis, H C; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Brazilian native freshwater fish. In order to evaluate the bioavailability, potential risk to human exposure and the effects of POPs in the fish Hypostomus commersoni, muscle and liver samples of thirteen specimens were collected in a lake located in the city of Ponta Grossa (Parana State, Southern Brazil). Also, the liver and gills were considered for histopathological studies, and oxidative stress was investigated in the liver. Expressive concentrations of POPs were observed in the liver and muscle, with a total of 427 ± 78.7 and 69.2 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) dry weights of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Negative correlations between the concentration of several POPs and glutathione S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were found. Otherwise, the cholinesterase activity in the muscle and brain presented positive correlations with the concentration of POPs. The hepatic bioaccumulation of some banned pesticides like aldrin, dieldrin and DDT was associated with various histopathological findings in the liver and gills. Necrotic areas, fibrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and the absence of macrophage centers were observed in the liver, indicating both chronic exposure and immunological suppression. Neoplasic changes were observed in the gills, confirming the carcinogenic potential reported for some of the investigated pollutants. The current work was the first to study the bioaccumulation of POPs in H. commersoni, an important species in ecological aspects and as a vehicle to human exposure to PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PMID:22772567

  4. Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: A case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin

    PubMed Central

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3 mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August–October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17?-estradiol (E2), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E2). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E2 had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E2 may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system. PMID:23041725

  5. Residues and Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Surface Water in the Suburb of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, Jiawei; LIU, Chen; YANG, Zhongfang; WANG, Jiyuan

    Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT and HCH, have stable chemical properties and less biodegradability. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, they have high risk to the environment and human health. Although DDT and HCH have been prohibited in China since 1983, they are still found in some soil and water nowadays. Water resource is very important in natural environment and essential for agriculture. The existence of OCPs in some surface water in Beijing has been detected with different levels according to previous investigations. In recent years, many measures have been taken to control the pollution and to monitor the environment, and more attention has been paid to the status of surface water today. In this study, the water samples were collected from the Wenyu, Beiyun, Yanqing, Fangshan, Changping, and Shunyi Rivers in the suburb of Beijing, and the residues and characteristics of DDT and HCH were studied. The results showed that the contents of DDTs and HCHs were ND-13.98 ng/L and 3.87-146.42 ng/L, respectively. According to the indicators of the ratio values of (DDD+DDE)/DDT and ?-HCH/?-HCH, the source of pollution and its potential risk are also discussed in this article.

  6. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Beyer, W.N.; Stehn, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and biota from four US Arctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Allen-Gil, S M; Gubala, C P; Wilson, R; Landers, D H; Wade, T L; Sericano, J L; Curtis, L R

    1997-11-01

    Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene, HCB), and p,p'-DDT were the primary analytes detected (max = 0.7 ng/g dry wt), while individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were always below 0.1 ng/g. A wider range of compounds and higher concentrations were found in lake trout, the top predatory fish species in the same lakes. The concentration ranges for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLORs), DDTs, and PCBs in lake trout and grayling were similar to those reported for other arctic freshwater fish (1-100 ng/g wet wt), but one to two orders of magnitude lower than Great Lakes salmonids. Nitrogen isotope analysis confirmed that differences in OC concentrations between grayling and lake trout are explained partly by differences in food web position. PMID:9419256

  8. The estimation of consumer health risk associated with organochlorine xenobiotics in hard smoked cheese in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Pohory?o, Anna

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the health risks associated with consumption of smoked cheeses, which are popular in Poland. The analysis covered polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indicator congeners (ndl-PCBs: PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180), dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs): non-ortho (PCB 77, PCB 81, PCB 126, PCB 169) and mono-ortho (PCB 105, PCB 114, PCB 118, PCB 156, PCB 157), as well as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs: ?HCH, ?HCH, ?HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxid isomer B, dieldrin, pp'DDE op'DDD, pp'DDT, pp'DDD, op'DDT, endrin). The pesticide residues detected in the examined cheese were below the maximum residues levels. The estimated daily intake [lifetime average daily dose (LADD)] referring to the sum of the compounds varied within 4.21·10(-7)-3.92·10(-6) mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) and was significantly lower than the tolerable daily intake/acceptable daily intake (TDI/ADI) for individual compounds. The health hazard quotient, being the exact measure of the magnitude of exposure potential or a quantifiable potential for developing non-carcinogenic health effects after an averaged exposure period, was also very low, ranging from 2.87·10(-6) to 5.32·10(-5). The obtained results confirmed that the intake of rennet cheese does not pose any consumer health risk in Poland. PMID:26065520

  9. Heavy metal, organochlorine pesticide, and PCB residues in eggs and feathers of herons breeding in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fasola, M; Movalli, P A; Gandini, C

    1998-01-01

    We report on organochlorine pesticide and PCB concentrations in eggs of the little egret, Egretta garzetta, and the black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, collected in 1993-1994, and on mercury, cadmium, and lead concentrations in feathers of 20-day-old nestlings collected from the same nests in 1994, from heronries near Pavia, northern Italy. Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were lower than those commonly associated with mortality and reduced reproductive success. As population levels of the species studied are not declining, these contaminants appear to have no significant adverse effect on reproduction in the heronries studied. DDE levels have decreased markedly in heron eggs since 1978. However, the presence of both DDT and beta-HCH, albeit at low levels, is notable, given that these compounds were banned in Italy in 1978 and 1988, respectively. Relatively high levels of Hg, Cd, and Pb in feathers suggest birds in their colonies are exposed to these contaminants, although both Cd and Pb may relate more to external than to internal contamination. PMID:9419277

  10. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide exposure in a wintering population of razorbills (Alca torda) from the southwestern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Gómez-Ramírez, Pilar; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2010-08-01

    Sixteen organochlorine pesticides (OC) were analyzed in several tissue types (abdominal and subcutaneous fat, liver and brain) from juvenile (n=14), immature (n=9), subadult (n=7) and adult (n=20) razorbill (Alca torda) collected from the southwestern Mediterranean coastline, in the East of Spain (La Marina, Elche, Alicante, Spain). These razorbills had drowned in fishing nets (most probably) while searching for food. The objective was to assess the exposure to organochlorine pesticide residues in this wintering population of marine birds. This paper presents, as far as we are aware, the first published data on OC concentrations in razorbills. The highest levels were found in abdominal fat followed by subcutaneous fat, liver and brain. A significant positive relationship was found between age and OC levels in tissues, and with the highest levels in adults. The group of sigma Drins had the highest concentrations, followed by sigma DDT, sigma Endosulfan, sigma HCH and sigma Heptachlor, with endrin aldehyde being the compound which reached the highest levels. The p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in fatty tissues suggests exposure to non-degraded DDT and thus is present in the environment despite its prohibition. The OC levels detected were higher than those found in other studies on Alcidae, which may be explained by the Mediterranean habitat in which the birds were found. However, these levels are below concentrations for which any observable effect has been described. PMID:20619440

  11. Significance of organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wintering shorebirds at Corpus Christi, Texas, 1976-77.

    PubMed

    White, D H; King, K A; Prouty, R M

    1980-09-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal residues were determined in 103 shorebirds of seven species collected at Corpus Christi, Texas, during the winter of 1976-77 to evaluate their potential effects on population survival, DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in most samples. Chlordane isomers, dieldrin, toxaphene, and heptachlor epoxide also occurred, but less frequently. In general, organochlorine residues were low in skinned carcasses. Geometric means on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.25 ppm to 4.76 ppm for DDE and from 0.67 ppm to 6.64 ppm for PCBs; residues of the other compounds averaged less than 1 ppm in all instances. Mercury, lead, arsenic and vanadium occurred in all shorebird livers, and selenium and cadmium were detected in all kidneys. Residues of these metals, except selenium, were low in most tissue samples. Selenium averages varied from 1.77 ppm to 5.62 ppm (wet weight) in kidneys; residues in this range may be sufficient to inhibit reproduction or to induce other forms of toxicity, especially at the higher levels. PMID:6785717

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago. PMID:21529852

  13. Predictors of adipose tissue concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in a general Danish population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elvira V Bräuner; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; Eric Gaudreau; Alain Leblanc; Anne Tjønneland; Kim Overvad; Mette Sørensen

    2012-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitously present in the environment and suspected of carcinogenic, neurological and immunological effects. Our objective was to identify determinants of adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides experienced by a general Danish population. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. We examined

  14. Organochlorines in pleuronectidae: Comparison between three tissues of three species inhabiting the Northwest Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hellou; W. G. Warren; G. Mercer

    1995-01-01

    Muscle, liver, and gonad from three species of flatfish, turbot, American plaice, and yellowtail flounder collected in the Northwest Atlantic were analyzed for a variety of organochlorine contaminants. Female flounder and plaice had lower concentrations of organochlorines than males, in all tissues. Comparing values to those previously obtained for Atlantic cod showed that concentrations in liver, the organ most often

  15. Temporal accumulation of Organochlorine pesticides in shorebirds wintering on the south Texas coast, 1979–80

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald H. White; Christine A. Mitchell; T. Earl Kaiser

    1983-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in 168 shorebirds of three species collected at approximate bimonthly intervals during the fall and winter months of 1979–80 near Port Mansfield on the south Texas coast. The study was conducted to determine if shorebirds wintering on mudflats at the outlets of agricultural drains in Texas accumulated pesticides during this period. The predominant Organochlorine residues

  16. Activation of retinoic acid receptor-dependent transcription by organochlorine pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Géraldine Lemaire; Patrick Balaguer; Serge Michel; Roger Rahmani

    2005-01-01

    Five organochlorine pesticides, namely, chlordane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and endosulfan, activate human retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated gene transcription via a retinoic acid response element (RARE). Transactivation studies were performed with stable RAR?, ?, or ? reporter cell lines in which the RAR DNA-binding domain (DBD) was replaced by that of estrogen receptor ? (ER?)?. Five of the organochlorine pesticides tested

  17. Organochlorine residues in the adipose tissue of the population of Navarra (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gómez-Catalán; M. Lezaun; J. To-Figueras; J. Corbella

    1995-01-01

    Organochlorine residues (OCR) in adipose tissue of the general population of Navarra Region (Northem Spain) have been determined as indicators of the environmental and food related exposition to these ubiquitous pollutants. The main organochlorine insecticides, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been identified and quantified in 86 individual samples. The results have been analysed in order to determine possible

  18. Concentrations of heavy metals, organochlorines, and organotins in horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus , from Japanese coastal waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kannan; Y. Yasunaga; H. Iwata; H. Ichihashi; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and organotins were determined in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus, collected from Japanese coastal waters. Heavy metal concentrations were high in the hepatopancreas, gill and egg. Residue levels of heavy metals were comparable to those recorded in most benthic organisms from Japanese coastal waters. Organochlorine concentrations were detected at a few ng\\/g and

  19. Organochlorine contamination in bald eagle eggs and nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, G M; Shutt, J L; Hunter, P

    1999-01-01

    Unhatched eggs and plasma samples from prefledged bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from a recovering population in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin were contaminated with organochlorine compounds at levels comparable to those reported for eagle populations in several areas of the United States. PCBs were among the most commonly detected contaminants and occurred at high concentrations in plasma. Plasma PCB concentrations in Lake Erie nestlings were significantly higher than in chicks from Lake Nipigon (0.130 and 0.047 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Blood levels of mirex were higher in nestlings from Lake Superior compared to those from Lake Erie (0.0012 and 0.0006 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Migration routes and over-winter locations of avian prey that constitute a part of the bald eagle chick's diet are likely to contribute to these spatial contaminant patterns in plasma. Atmospheric deposition and a cold condensation effect for chlordane compounds may have produced higher levels of these compounds in plasma samples from Lake Superior compared to samples from Lake Erie (0.020 and 0.008 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Levels of DDE in plasma were generally low, ranging in concentration from 0.02 mg/kg wet weight for lakes Erie and Nipigon to 0.06 mg/kg wet weight for Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorines in eaglet plasma remained relatively stable between 1990 and 1996; no significant trends associated with year of sampling were detected. The data from Lake Erie showed no correlation between productivity and plasma levels of PCBs or DDE during this time period. There were no indications that the concentrations of contaminants detected were adversely affecting productivity in Canadian Great Lakes bald eagle populations. Residue levels in eggs from Lake Erie eagle territories were equally or more contaminated than eggs from other highly contaminated environments in the United States such as the Great Lakes and Columbia River estuary. Concentrations of DDE and PCBs in Lake Erie eggs declined significantly between 1974 and 1994. Although dieldrin and chlordane levels showed a similar decline, these relationships were not statistically significant. Mirex concentrations were relatively stable. Eggs from Lake of the Woods were significantly less contaminated than those from Lake Erie (PCBs: 3 and 84 mg/kg wet weight, respectively; DDE: 3 and 24 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Reproductive success (number of young produced/active nest) remained constant between 1982 and 1996 and productivity is sufficient to maintain an increasing population. The number of active nests has increased during this period indicating that the population is expanding and might be expected to do so until suitable habitat becomes limiting. Reductions in organochlorine levels, reintroduction efforts, immigration from other populations, and changes in habitat quality have likely contributed to the observed growth in the number of breeding pairs. PMID:9828264

  20. Comparison of organochlorine pesticide levels in human adipose tissue of inhabitants from Veracruz and Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Valencia Quintana, R; Corona, C A; Herrero, M; Sánchez, K; Aguirre, H; Aldave, I A; Gomez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of insecticide properties of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), they have provided great benefits to humans in sanitary actions to combat the spread of infection-borne disease vectors. Public Health Programs in Mexico used DDT and HCH until 1999 as the insecticides of choice to control disease-transmitting organisms. Because of their persistence and accumulative properties, organochlorine pesticides bioconcentrate in lipids of the human body, reflecting the rate of environmental exposure. Eighty human abdominal adipose tissue samples from Veracruz and 80 samples from Puebla were analyzed and the obtained results were compared among both populations. The results from Veracruz showed higher contamination levels (mg/kg on lipid base) compared to Puebla: beta-HCH, 0.072 vs. 0.029; pp'DDE (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), 2.364 vs. 0.726; op'DDT, 0.022 vs. 0.025; pp'DDT, 0.192 vs. 0.061; and Sigma-DDT, 2.589 vs. 0.806. The population from Veracruz and from Puebla divided by sex, origin, and cause of death presented no statistical differences. The comparison between sexes (women and men groups) at Veracruz and Puebla indicated significantly higher levels in Veracruz and statistical significant differences. Calculating possible risks (odds ratios, OR), pp'DDE (OR = 5.04) and op'DDT (OR = 2.93) revealed significantly higher risk for the Veracruz population. The study indicated prolonged DDT exposure of Mexicans caused by the past sanitary use and persistence of its residues in soils and air. PMID:19468667

  1. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine contaminants in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Andersen, G; Kovacs, K M; Lydersen, C; Skaare, J U; Gjertz, I; Jenssen, B M

    2001-01-17

    Blubber was collected from live-captured, adult male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway, and analysed for levels and patterns of organochlorine (OC) contaminants. The OC compounds analysed were HCB, dieldrin, sigmaHCH (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH and gamma-HCH), sigmaChl (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, and cis-nonachlor), sigmaDDT (pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE and pp'-DDD) and sigmaPCB (27 PCB congeners). The major OC compounds detected in the blubber were sigmaPCB (5103+/-1874 ng/g l.w.) and sigmaDDT (5108+/-1089 ng/g l.w.), which made up 70% of the sigmaOC. These compounds were followed in prevalence by sigmaChl (2872+/-1177 ng/g l.w.), which contributed 20% of the sigmaOC burden. SigmaHCH, HCB and dieldrin were present, but at low concentrations. This OC pattern is typical of top predators in Arctic marine food chains. OC levels in white whales from Svalbard are lower than white whales from the St Lawrence River in Canada and are generally similar to values reported previously for other Arctic white whale stocks. Some geographic patterns in relative prevalence of various OC compounds appear to be quite consistent among various marine mammal species in the Arctic. PCB and DDT concentrations in Svalbard's white whales are below the levels that are thought to have negative effects on reproduction or the immune system. PMID:11213197

  2. International Pellet Watch: Global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in coastal waters. 1. Initial phase data on PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuko Ogata; Hideshige Takada; Kaoruko Mizukawa; Hisashi Hirai; Satoru Iwasa; Satoshi Endo; Yukie Mato; Mahua Saha; Keiji Okuda; Arisa Nakashima; Michio Murakami; Nico Zurcher; Ruchaya Booyatumanondo; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Le Quang Dung; Miriam Gordon; Carlos Miguez; Satoru Suzuki; Charles Moore; Hrissi K. Karapanagioti; Steven Weerts; Tim McClurg; Erick Burres; Wally Smith; Michael Van Velkenburg; Judith Selby Lang; Richard C. Lang; Duane Laursen; Brenda Danner; Nickol Stewardson; Richard C. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    Samples of polyethylene pellets were collected at 30 beaches from 17 countries and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. PCB concentrations in the pellets were highest on US coasts, followed by western Europe and Japan, and were lower in tropical Asia, southern Africa and Australia. This spatial pattern reflected regional differences in the usage of PCBs and was positively correlated with data

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane before determination of organochlorines in fish tissue by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Weichbrodt, M; Vetter, W; Luckas, B

    2000-01-01

    Focused open-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (FOV-MAE), closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (CV-MAE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were used for extraction before determination of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dieldrin) in cod liver and fish fillets. Wet samples were extracted without the time-consuming step of lyophilization or other sample-drying procedures. Extractions were performed with the solvent mixture ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v), which allowed direct use of gel-permeation chromatography without solvent exchange. For FOV-MAE, the solvent mixture removed water from the sample matrix via azeotropic distillation. The status of water removal was controlled during extraction by measuring the temperature of the distillate. After water removal, the temperature of the distillate increased and the solvent mixture became less polar. Only the pure extraction solvent allowed quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds. For CV-MAE, water could not be separated during the extraction. For this reason, the extraction procedure for wet fish tissue required 2 extraction steps: the first for manual removal of coextracted water, and the second for quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds with the pure solvent. Therefore, CV-MAE is less convenient for samples with high water content. For ASE, water in the sample was bound with Na2SO4. The reproducibility for each technique was very good (relative standard deviation was typically <10%); the slightly varying levels were attributed to deviations during sample cleanup and the generally low levels. PMID:11128135

  4. Trends of persistent organic pollutants in American eel (Anguilla rostrata) from eastern Lake Ontario, Canada, and their potential effects on recruitment.

    PubMed

    Byer, Jonathan D; Lebeuf, Michel; Trottier, Steve; Raach, Meriem; Alaee, Mehran; Stephen Brown, R; Backus, Sean; Casselman, John M; Hodson, Peter V

    2015-10-01

    This study reports the history of contamination of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) from eastern Lake Ontario (LO) by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Three groups of 10 large female eels captured in eastern LO in each of 1988, 1998, and 2008 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, several organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Mean concentrations were up to 3-fold lower in 2008 compared to previous years. When combined with the results of previous studies, these data show that concentrations of POPs in American eels have declined exponentially since the early 1980s by an average of 9.1±1.9% per year. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) were calculated from fish toxic equivalency factors. Assuming an efficient transfer of DLCs to their eggs, egg TEQs prior to 2000 exceeded the threshold for chronic toxicity to embryos of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (4-5pg/gww of TEQ). These results suggest that embryotoxicity of maternally-derived DLCs from LO eels, historically a major contributor to the spawning stock of American eels, could have impaired the reproductive and recruitment success of the species. PMID:26022407

  5. Persistence of antibacterial agents in marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halvor Hektoen; John Arthur Berge; Victor Hormazabal; Magne Yndestad

    1995-01-01

    The persistence of the antibacterial agents oxytetracycline chloride (OTC), oxolinic acid (OA), flumequine (FLU), sarafloxacin (SAR), florfenicol (FLO), sulfadiazine (SDZ) and trimethoprim (TRM) were compared in marine sediments. Polyethylene boxes were filled with sediment, the antibacterial compounds added and placed on the sea bed at approximately 15 m depth for a period of 180–230 days. Sediment cores were collected by

  6. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF SYNTHETIC CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS: EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental release of synthetic chlorinated compounds in the form of herbicides/pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, etc., has created major concerns with regard to their effects on human health because of the persistence of many such compounds. he persistence of these compound...

  7. Marine mammals as global pollution indicators for organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Mössner, S; Ballschmiter, K

    1997-01-01

    Blubber tissues of the following marine mammals differing in their geographic distribution (North Atlantic, North Pacific, Bering Sea/Arctic Ocean), trophic level, and feeding habits were analyzed for their organochlorine contents: two seal species (harbor seals--Phoca vitulina, northern fur seals--Callorhinus ursinus), three toothed whale species (belukha whales--Delphinapterus leucas, one common dolphin--Delphinus delphis, one pilot whale--Globicephala melaena), and one baleen whale species (a bowhead whale--Balaena mysticetus). As xenobiotics were quantified the seven indicator congeners of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180), three isomers of the hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH) as well as six components of the DDT-group (4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 2,4'-DDD, and 2,4'-DDE). When comparing the xenobiotic levels of these marine mammals, it showed that the animals from the western North Atlantic were contaminated about 15 times more with organochlorines than the animals from the eastern North Pacific and the Bering Sea/Arctic Ocean. The total organochlorine burden, the 4,4'-DDE-percentage as well as the metabolic PCB patterns correlate with the trophic levels of the marine mammals studied. The quantitative analyses were done by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (HRGC/ECD) whereas the analyses of the metabolic PCB patterns were done by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass selective detection (HRGC/MSD). PMID:9134673

  8. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.

    PubMed

    de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

    2010-12-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523

  9. Arrested protein synthesis increases persister-like cell formation.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Brian W; Valenta, John A; Benedik, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2013-03-01

    Biofilms are associated with a wide variety of bacterial infections and pose a serious problem in clinical medicine due to their inherent resilience to antibiotic treatment. Within biofilms, persister cells comprise a small bacterial subpopulation that exhibits multidrug tolerance to antibiotics without undergoing genetic change. The low frequency of persister cell formation makes it difficult to isolate and study persisters, and bacterial persistence is often attributed to a quiescent metabolic state induced by toxins that are regulated through toxin-antitoxin systems. Here we mimic toxins via chemical pretreatments to induce high levels of persistence (10 to 100%) from an initial population of 0.01%. Pretreatment of Escherichia coli with (i) rifampin, which halts transcription, (ii) tetracycline, which halts translation, and (iii) carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, which halts ATP synthesis, all increased persistence dramatically. Using these compounds, we demonstrate that bacterial persistence results from halted protein synthesis and from environmental cues. PMID:23295927

  10. Organochlorine Insecticide Residues in African Fauna: 1971–1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Staffan Wiktelius; Clive A. Edwards

    \\u000a The organochlorine insecticides (OCLs), beginning with DDT (1,1-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane), were introduced\\u000a over a period of about 5–10 yr after the end of World War II. Their use expanded rapidly thereafter, particularly in the United\\u000a States and Europe, between their introduction and the early 1960s. Although there were no major concerns as to their environmental\\u000a effects for at least ten years,

  11. Limit of detection and limit of quantification development procedures for organochlorine pesticides analysis in water and sediment matrices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable values for method validity of organochlorine pesticides determination were investigated, in water by solid phase extraction and in sediment by Soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides are categorized as Persistent Organic Pollutants. Hence, critical decisions to control exposure to these chemicals in the environment are based on their levels in different media; it is important to find valid qualitative and quantitative results for these components. In analytical chemistry, internal quality procedures are applied to produce valid logical results. Result In this study, 18 organochlorine pesticides were targeted for analysis and determination in water and river sediment. Experiments based on signal-to-noise ratio, calibration curve slope and laboratory fortified blank methods were conducted to determine the limits of qualification and quantification. The data were compared with each other. The limitation values, following Laboratory Fortified Blank, showed significant differences in the signal-to-noise ratio and calibration curve slope methods, which are assumed in the results for the sample concentration factor to be 1,000 times in water and 10 times in sediment matrices. The method detection limit values were found to be between 0.001 and 0.005 ?g/L (mean of 0.002?±?0.001) and 0.001 and 0.005 ?g/g (mean of 0.001?±?0.001). The quantification limits were found to be between 0.002 and 0.016 ?g/L (mean of 0.006?±?0.004) and 0.003 and 0.017 ?g/g (mean of 0.005?±?0.003 ?g/L) for water and sediment, respectively, based on the laboratory fortified blank method. Because of different slopes in the calibration methods, it was also found that the limitation values for some components from the internal standard were higher than from external standard calibration, because in the latter a factor for injection efficiency is applied for calibration. Conclusion Technically, there are differentiations between detection limits for quality and quantity from component to component, resulting from noise, response factors of instruments and matrix interference. However, the calculation method is the cause of differentiation for each component of the different methods. The results show that for no matter what component, the relationship between these levels in different methods is approximately: Signal to Noise : Calibration Slope?=?1:10. Therefore, due to different methods to determine LOD and LOQ, the values will be different. In the current study, laboratory fortified blank is the best method, with lower limitation values for Soxhlet and solid phase extraction of OCPs from sediment and water, respectively. PMID:23561579

  12. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for transport of organochlorine pesticides in ground water at the North Hollywood Dump, Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.; Bradley, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data indicate that ground-water contamination is confined to shallow horizons within the unconfined aquifer underlying the North Hollywood Dump in Memphis, Tennessee. The dump is a closed municipal-industrial landfill that has been ranked as Tennessee's potentially most dangerous hazardous-waste site. Toxic constituents of concern at the dump include residues from the manufacture of organochlorine pesticides. The dump overlies an unconfined aquifer of unconsolidated sands, silts, and clays. During average hydrologic conditions, ground waterflows beneath the dump at a mean velocity of approximately 3 feet per day and discharges to the Wolf River. Leachate from the dump mixes with underlying ground water, resulting in increased concentrations of dissolved solids and organic carbon downgradient from the dump. The mobility of chlordane, a representative organochlorine pesticide, is limited by its low solubility and its strong affinity for sand, silt, and clays of the aquifer. Degradation of chlordane may occur slowly, if at all, in the aquifer. Based on estimates of mean ground-water velocity and retardation of the pesticide due to sorption, mean travel times for chlordane migrating from the dump to the ground-water discharge zone are of the order of 50 to 500 years. Simulations of chlordane concentration resulting from the discharge of contaminated ground water and complete mixing in the Wolf River are sensitive to assumptions about chlordane persistence in the unconfined aquifer. If the half life of chlordane in the aquifer is assumed to be 30 years or less, the simulated concentration of chlordane in the Wolf River under average flow conditions is less than the most stringent water-quality criterion.

  13. Concentration and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticide residues in herons and their prey in wetlands of Thermaikos Gulf, Macedonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Albanis, T A; Hela, D; Papakostas, G; Goutner, V

    1996-04-01

    Concentrations of the principal organochlorine insecticides were determined in eggs and freshly dead chicks of the Squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), as well as in frogs (Rana sp.), the main heron prey. Material was collected from the wetlands of the Thermaikos Gulf (Macedonia, northern Greece) in 1992 and 1993. Residues of the organochlorine pesticides alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, heptachlor and dieldrin were found in the eggs, chicks and prey of the herons. alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, and lindane had highest concentration in the Night Heron and lowest in the Little Egret. In all samples examined, the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of these compounds had very high values. BCF of pollutants for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were at lower levels than those of its chicks. BCF for frogs were in almost all cases lower than those for the other samples. Biomagnification factor (BMF) for 4,4'-DDE and beta-BHC had the highest values of all other compounds (except in the Night Heron). BMF for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were greater than for its chicks. Variation in the pesticide contents in the different heron species is attributed to different feeding habits; the exception being the occurrence of dieldrin in eggs only and 4,4'-DDE as a remnant of past spraying. Amounts of pesticides detected in this study are too low to affect eggshell thickness in the Squacco Heron or have other effects on the wildlife of the area. PMID:8854937

  14. The Role of Canine Distemper Virus and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Mortality Patterns of Caspian Seals (Pusa caspica)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Susan C.; Eybatov, Tariel M.; Amano, Masao; Jepson, Paul D.; Goodman, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971–2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n?=?67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971–2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s–1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126–129 cm (n?=?111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low frequency of epizootics suggest they are of secondary importance compared to anthropogenic sources of mortality such as fishing by-catch. PMID:24987857

  15. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments and mussels from the Istanbul Strait.

    PubMed

    Okay, Oya S; Karacik, Burak; Henkelmann, B; Schramm, Karl Werner

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the status and trends of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) compounds in the sediment and mussel samples collected along the Istanbul Strait and from the coasts of an island in the Marmara Sea. The total concentrations of OCPs were found in the range of 40-13,852 pg g(-1) dry weight for sediments and 5,195-12,322 pg g(-1) wet weight for mussels. The levels of OCPs in both sediments and mussels were dominated by DDTs and HCHs; ?-HCH, 4,4(')-DDD and 4,4(')-DDE were the major pollutants. The degree of sediment pesticide contamination was more severe in the inner part of the strait. OCP concentrations in sediments and mussels were compared with the sediment guideline values and legal limits for human health, respectively. The results showed that OC pesticide contamination in the strait might not pose a serious threat to the health of the marine inhabitants at most of the stations. PMID:20563639

  16. Seasonal and geographical variation of organochlorine residues in birds from northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Anderson, D W

    1991-11-01

    Eight species of birds (129 individuals) were collected from three agricultural areas with long histories of pesticide use in northwestern Mexico. Plucked carcasses were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). DDE was found in all of the samples and at higher levels than other OCs. Mean (geometric) DDE concentrations varied from 0.04 (microgram/g) ppm in mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) to 5.05 ppm in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) was detected in 95% of the samples, but at lower levels than DDE. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) residues were detected more frequently in birds from Mexicali (62%, p less than 0.05) than in those from Yaqui and Culiacan. HCH and HCB concentrations were significantly higher in birds from Mexicali during the winter than in the summer (p less than 0.05), indicating accumulation of these compounds during that period. Other OCs such as DDT, DDD, dieldrin, oxychlordane, heptachlor expoxide, endosulfan, and endrin were found at lower levels and less frequently. PCBs (quantitated as Aroclor 1260) were found mostly in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and cormorants at the three locations. Overall, concentrations of OCs were higher for Mexicali than for Yaqui and Culiacan (p less than 0.01). In a few cases, DDE levels were above those that might adversely affect birds. PMID:1722080

  17. Organochlorine pesticides in chorioallantoic membranes of Morelet's crocodile eggs from belize.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Christopher B; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; Dever, Jennifer A; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies examined the utility of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as a nonlethal, noninvasive indicator of environmental contaminant exposure in oviparous wildlife. The CAM is a highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane that functions as a site for respiration, nutrient transport, and waste storage during embryonic development. After hatching, the CAM is usually discarded with the eggshell and can be used for chemical residue analysis. Chorioallantoic membranes have been used successfully to examine contaminant exposure and predict chemical concentrations in multiple species of birds and reptiles. In this study, we examined organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in CAMs from eggs of Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize. Multiple OCs were detected in crocodile CAMs, including aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), heptachlor, lindane, and methoxychlor. Number and concentrations of OC compounds in CAMs were variable. The most prevalent contaminant detected was DDE, which occurred in 69% of CAMs, with concentrations ranging from 0.3 parts per billion (ppb) to 17.0 ppb. The OC burdens in crocodile CAMs confirm contamination of eggs and suggest exposure in embryos and maternal females. These results further support the use of CAMs as qualitative indicators of OC exposure in oviparous wildlife. The efficacy of this sampling technique in the field will depend on the logistics and cost associated with CAM collection and the specific life history traits of the wildlife species. PMID:15465717

  18. Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?

    PubMed

    Laturnus, Frank; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Two plants, a fern (Athyrium filix-femina) and a moss (Polytrichum commune Hedw.), both commonly occurring in Northern Temperate forests, were exposed in a laboratory study to a solution of (36)Cl-chloride. The uptake of (36)Cl-chloride by the plants was investigated and the emission of volatile chlorine 36 by the plants was determined. Furthermore, speciation of the emitted volatile organochlorine compounds (VOCls) was investigated. For the fern and the moss a rapid uptake of (36)Cl-chloride was observed within a 1-h exposure period. The uptake rates for the fern and the moss, respectively, were 16 microg (36)Cl-chloride g(-1) fresh weight (FW) h(-1) and 3.0 microg (36)Cl-chloride g(-1) FW h(-1), respectively. The study also suggested that after uptake by the plants (36)Cl-chloride is incorporated into VOCls, which were emitted by the plants into the atmosphere. Speciation analysis of the VOCls revealed the emission of chloroform, tetrachloromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. PMID:17850934

  19. Time trends in serum organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the general population of Biscay, Spain.

    PubMed

    Zubero, Miren Begoña; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Ibarluzea, Jesus M; Goñi, Fernando; Jiménez, Cristina; Ballester, Ferran

    2015-04-01

    Despite the measures adopted, levels of organochlorine compounds (OCs) are still being detected in the human body. This study aimed to explore factors related to changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticide OCs in blood samples obtained from a general population cohort. Two cross-sectional samples were taken from 162 adults (2-75 years of age), with a gap of 2 years, from four areas in Biscay (Spain). More than 75 % had quantifiable levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and PCBs 138 153 and 180. During this time, significant changes were observed: PCB 180 and HCB levels increased, and PCB 138 and ?-HCH levels decreased. Regarding age, this study shows a decrease suggesting a cohort effect. The period was not related to the decrease of levels in all age intervals, but a statistically significant increase of PCBs in older people was found. High body mass index was associated with lower PCB 180 levels and greater HCH levels. Inversely, greater levels of HCB and ?-HCH were in those who had lost weight before the study. Levels of HCB and ?-HCH were also greater in women who had had children, although they were lower in those who breastfed. Levels of these same OCs were greater in fish consumers, whereas those of PCBs 138 and 153 were greater in those who consumed local produce; all of these trends were close to significance. Efforts should continue to decrease exposure to these pollutants and to assess their influence on general population. PMID:25612550

  20. Determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in chicken eggs by matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Valsamaki, V I; Boti, V I; Sakkas, V A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2006-07-28

    A multiresidue method for the determination of 20 organochlorine pesticides (aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin ketone and methoxychlor) and eight PCB congeners (PCB 20, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) in chicken eggs has been developed and validated. The samples were extracted by a simple and fast matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) method using Florisil as the sorbent material and dichloromethane/hexane (1:1) as the eluting system. Further purification of the extracts was conducted using a conventional clean-up procedure with concentrated sulphuric acid. Determination and quantitation of PCBs and OCs residues was carried out using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). A mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for confirmation purposes. The method detection limits were <0.7 ng g(-1) for all PCBs and OCs and the relative standard deviations for analyses of samples fortified over the range of 10-200 ng g(-1) were <8%. All compounds provided average recoveries (spiked at five concentration levels) ranging from 82% to 110%. The proposed method was used to analyze 30 commercial products taken from local markets in the course of a 3-month sampling campaign. PMID:17723524