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1

Determination of persistent organochlorine compounds in blood by solid phase micro extraction and GC-ECD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring of persistent organochlorine compounds in blood using the solid phase microextraction technique (SPME) and\\u000a gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) is described. Polar substances as tri-, tetra- and penta-chlorophenols\\u000a are analyzed simultaneously with less polar compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-, ?-, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane\\u000a (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivatives and with some important congeners of the polychlorinated

Lars Röhrig; Michael Püttmann; Hans-Ulrich Meisch

1998-01-01

2

Persistent Organochlorine Compounds in Human Breast Milk from Mothers Living in Penang and Kedah, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins\\/dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk samples collected in 2003 from primipara mothers living in Penang, Malaysia. OCs were detected in all the samples analyzed with DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and PCBs as the major contaminants followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB),

Agus Sudaryanto; Tatsuya Kunisue; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mami Niida; Hatijah Hashim

2005-01-01

3

Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon ( Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: Levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 were analysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl tricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs and DDT (including metabolites) were by far the most abundant OC groups, with median concentrations of 55 and 40 ?g\\/g lw, respectively.

Katrin Vorkamp; Marianne Thomsen; Søren Møller; Knud Falk; Peter B. Sørensen

2009-01-01

4

Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 were analysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl tricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs and DDT (including metabolites) were by far the most abundant OC groups, with median concentrations of 55 and 40 microg/g lw, respectively. The concentrations were high in an Arctic context, but similar to previously reported levels from Alaska and Norway and slightly lower than concentrations measured in eggs from industrialised regions. Geographical differences may be of importance, considering the migration of peregrine falcons and their prey. SigmaHCH and HCB had median concentrations of 0.39 and 0.17 microg/g lw, respectively. On average, DDE accounted for 97% of SigmaDDT, but was below critical levels for eggshell thinning. All compound groups showed a weak decreasing trend over the study period, which was statistically significant for HCB and close to being significant for SigmaHCH. The weak decrease of SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT is different from other time trend studies from Greenland, usually showing a more pronounced decrease in the beginning of the study period, followed by a certain stabilisation in recent years. PMID:18823663

Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Møller, Søren; Falk, Knud; Sørensen, Peter B

2009-02-01

5

Persistent organochlorines and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Although there is indirect evidence to suggest that persistent organochlorines might increase risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, there are no epidemiologic studies directly addressing this question. In this cohort study, sampled from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, 1933 women had complete data on organochlorine measurements, covariates, and pregnancy outcomes. Exposures to organochlorines were divided into quintiles, and levels were much higher in these patients recruited from 1959 to 1965 compared to levels in the general population at present. Among included women, 364 developed gestational hypertension (hypertension without proteinuria) and 131 developed preeclampsia (hypertension with proteinuria). We found essentially no association between serum DDE and total PCBs and risk of either gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. Results for other organochlorines showed varying patterns of results: DDT was inversely associated with risk of gestational hypertension (p for trend <0.001), B-Hexachlorocyclohexane and heptachlor epoxide were inversely related to gestational hypertension (p trend <0.01 and 0.10, respectively), dieldrin had a modestly positive association with gestational hypertension (p for trend=0.12), and hexachlorobenzene, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane yielded results close to the null. Hexachlorobenzene showed an inverse association with preeclampsia (p for trend <0.001). The study suggests that persistent organochlorines present at historically high level are not likely to increase the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, suggesting that other toxicants that have similar biologic effects are also unlikely to do so. PMID:24742720

Savitz, David A; Klebanoff, Mark A; Wellenius, Gregory A; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Longnecker, Matthew P

2014-07-01

6

Selected persistent organochlorine pollutants in Romania.  

PubMed

Selected persistent organochlorine pollutants, including PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) were determined in soil, animal fat and human serum samples from Romania. All methods were rigorously tested and adequate quality control was ensured. Soil samples from lassy County showed a lower contamination with organochlorines than samples from other Romanian regions. While DDTs concentrations in soil were significantly higher at rural sites, only few samples (three out of 47) exceeded the official Romanian norms for DDTs. PCBs concentrations were low in rural sites (< 8 ng/g soil), but rather high (up to 134 ng/g soil) in urban soils collected mostly from parks (Bucharest, Arad, Baia Mare, Pitesti and Ploicsti). Animal fat samples from lassy showed high concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (HCHs concentrations up to 12370 ng/g fat), but similar PCB concentrations when compared with Arad samples. Two samples (from 24) exceeded the EU norms (1000 ng/g fat) for HCHs and DDTs in animal fat. Organochlorines were found in higher concentrations in some samples of human serum from Timisoara due to a broader age range. Samples of human serum from lassy mothers showed higher HCHs and DDTs concentrations than samples from a similar group from Antwerp, Belgium. HCB and PCBs were higher in Antwerp cohort. Romanian samples showed a higher ratio DDT/sigmaDDTs, but similar ratios PCB 153/sigmaPCBs. PMID:11763262

Covaci, A; Hura, C; Schepens, P

2001-12-01

7

Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

8

Risk to breeding success of fish-eating Ardeids due to persistent organic contaminants in Hong Kong: evidence from organochlorine compounds in eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs of two Ardeid species, the Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), were collected from two egretries located in the New Territories of Hong Kong with one located near the internationally acclaimed wetland reserve, the Mai Po Marshes, and the other in a remote site (A Chau). The eggs were analysed for organochlorine (OC) compounds

D. W Connell; C. N Fung; T. B Minh; S Tanabe; P. K. S Lam; B. S. F Wong; M. H. W Lam; L. C Wong; R. S. S Wu; B. J Richardson

2003-01-01

9

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and human reproductive health.  

PubMed

The present dissertation focuses on the reproductive health effects in humans from four diverse populations, including an Inuit population from Greenland, a Swedish population of fishermen and fishermen's wives, and urban populations from the cities of Warsaw in Poland and Kharkiv in Ukraine, representing populations with considerable variations in organochlorine exposure levels due to differences in the consumption of contaminated food items and the period since banning the use of the organochlorines selected in the present study. Due to bioaccumulation and their long half-lives in humans, these compounds are still ubiquitously detected in humans. The study included a total of 2,269 women who provided information via detailed questionnaires and 798 men who provided semen samples. Time to pregnancy varied between the populations included, whereas semen quality was remarkably similar with only minor differences in motility between countries and within regions in Greenland. An extensive quality control programme ensured a low level of variation between analysers in the evaluation of semen quality during semen sample collection. Sperm concentration and morphology were not associated with PCB-153 or DDE exposure, but sperm motility was consistently associated with PCB-153 exposure across populations. Xeno-estrogen, -androgen and dioxin-like activity in serum samples were not consistently associated with semen quality measures, indicating that the associations observed with sperm motility were not caused via direct effects on these receptors. The sperm chromatin structure assay showed a higher level of DNA fragmentation under higher PCB-153 exposure levels in the European populations, but not in the Greenlandic population. Disturbances in the female menstrual cycle were not consistently associated with PCB-153 or DDE exposure across the countries, but our results suggested a higher probability of ever having a spontaneous abortion among women with high PCB-153 or DDE exposure levels. Overall, the results suggest that PCB-153, but probably not DDE, may affect aspects of male and female reproductive functioning in European and Arctic populations at the levels of exposure currently experienced in these populations, although the associations observed did not seem to be a major cause of reduced human fertility. PMID:25370968

Toft, Gunnar

2014-11-01

10

ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS PLATORYNCHUS)  

E-print Network

ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS Mississippi River Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus): Bioaccumulation and Reproductive and organochlorine pesticides, were used on lands adjacent to the Middle Mississippi River (MMR) from 1930 through

11

Organochlorinated compounds in Caspian Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several organochlorinated contaminants, including numerous pesticides, were determined in coastal sediments from the Caspian Sea. The most important contaminants were p,p?-DDT (up to 7400 pgg?1) and its breakdown products, p,p?-DDD (up to 3400 pgg?1) and p,p?-DDE (up to 1300 pgg?1). Although the contamination was most severe in Azerbaijan, the sediment concentrations and percentage distribution of the three DDT-related compounds indicated

Stephen de Mora; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Mohammad Reza Sheikholeslami; Chantal Cattini; Imma Tolosa

2004-01-01

12

Specific pattern of persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human breast milk samples collected from four locations in Tamil Nadu state, South India, were analyzed for understanding the levels of persistent organochlorines such as 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH (BHC)) isomers, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). On the basis of the overall concentrations of these compounds, ΣHCH (sum of α, β, γ, and δ isomers) levels were higher than the

Shinsuke Tanabe; Futoshi Gondaira; A. Ramesh; Ryo Tatsukawa; A. Subramanian; D. Mohan; P. Kumaran; V. K. Venugopalan

1990-01-01

13

Risk to breeding success of fish-eating Ardeids due to persistent organic contaminants in Hong Kong: evidence from organochlorine compounds in eggs.  

PubMed

Eggs of two Ardeid species, the Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), were collected from two egretries located in the New Territories of Hong Kong with one located near the internationally acclaimed wetland reserve, the Mai Po Marshes, and the other in a remote site (A Chau). The eggs were analysed for organochlorine (OC) compounds including the DDTs, PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and the chlordanes (CHLs). All of the OCs under investigation were detected in the eggs of both species with significantly higher levels in the Little Egret (DDTs, 560-2200; PCBs, 270-1700; CHLs, 81-470 ng g(-1) wet weight) than the Night Heron (DDTs, 210-1200; PCBs, 85-600; CHLs 59-75 ng g(-1) wet weight). The DDTs consisted mainly of DDE with levels ranging from 85% to 95% of the total. The HCHs were at about the same levels in both species (8.4-30 ng g(-1) wet weight). All of the OCs had linear concentration probability distributions on a log-normal basis which were used to evaluate exposure associated with these compounds as part of a probabilistic risk analysis. A linear dose/response relationship for the percentage reduction in the survival of young associated with DDE in eggs was developed. This probabilistic relationship was used to establish the threshold level (1000 ng g(-1) wet weight) at which there was a significant level of reduction in the survival of young above zero and the variability in DDE concentrations at this effect level. Using a threshold level of 1000 ng g(-1), the calculated Risk Quotient (RQ) had a 12.4% probability of RQ exceeding unity with the Night Heron, and 40.9% with the Little Egret. These results indicate that the DDTs in eggs would be expected to be associated with adverse effects on the survival of young of both species, particularly the Little Egret. PMID:12502075

Connell, D W; Fung, C N; Minh, T B; Tanabe, S; Lam, P K S; Wong, B S F; Lam, M H W; Wong, L C; Wu, R S S; Richardson, B J

2003-01-01

14

Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments from the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of contamination of the Black Sea by selected organochlorine compounds has been assessed through the analysis of surficial sediments taken from throughout the region. Concentrations of HCHs at sites influenced by the Danube delta are among the highest recorded on a global basis (up to 40ngg?1 dry wt). The ratio between the ?- and ?-isomers was relatively low

G Fillmann; J. W Readman; I Tolosa; J Bartocci; J.-P Villeneuve; C Cattini; L. D Mee

2002-01-01

15

Temporal Trends of Persistent Organochlorine Contamination in Russia: A Case Study of Baikal and Caspian Seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) contamination in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea, concentrations of persistent\\u000a OCs, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordane compounds\\u000a (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), in the blubber of female seals were determined. Collections were made in 1992, 1993, 1995\\u000a and 1998. DDT concentrations in Baikal

Shinsuke Tanabe; Satoko Niimi; Tu Binh Minh; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Evgeny A. Petrov

2003-01-01

16

Persistent organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and whole blood  

SciTech Connect

Since organochlorine pesticides were introduced for plant protection and sanitation, they have been of great benefit in the control of pest populations and in combating the spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, they accumulate in the environment and this has resulted in a ban on their use. Nevertheless, they are still widely used in tropical countries as the insecticides of choice. An analytical procedure was elaborated to find out the extent of contamination of the human body by persistent residues of organochlorine pesticides and to determine the gradient between adipose tissue and biological fluids, which correlates with bioaccumulation and dissipation processes. The method has two important advantages: it is a simple, low-cost semi-micro, and it makes it possible to determine free and bound pesticides.

Waliszewski, S.M. (Univ. of Veracruz, (Mexico)); Szymczynski, G.A. (Medical Academy, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

1991-06-01

17

Persistent organochlorines in air and water from East Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In order to assess the east Siberia for persistent organochlorine (POC) contaminations such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs, the residue levels in air and water collected from Chaun, Magadan, Khabarovsk and Listvyanka during 1992--1993 have been determined. The levels of atmospheric PCBs and DDTs concentrations in Magadan and Khabarovsk were one to two orders of magnitude higher than the global baseline levels, while the prominent contaminations in water were found in Listvyanka which is in the southwest coast of Lake Baikal. The results suggest that these areas are exposed by different local sources. Chaun, located in the coast of Chaunskaya Guba (Gulf) facing the East Siberian Sea, exhibited the lowest POCs residues. Apart from the concentrations, aerial PCB congener compositions varied with the total concentration levels. Khabarovsk air, where the highest PCB levels (2,860 pg/M{sup 3}) were found, contained mainly tetra and pentachlorobiphenyls. In contrast, samples from Chaun (36--160 pg/M{sup 3}) showed the higher predominance of di and trichlorinated congeners and Magadan air (320--880 pg/M{sup 3}) was a mixed type for both the air. Regarding DDTs composition, high percentages of p,p{prime}-DDT to total DDT compounds in the air from Magadan and Khabarovsk indicate the recent usage. Annual concentrations of aerial POCs in Listvyanka were strongly dependent on air temperature. Hence, heats of vaporization (desorption) for POCs were calculated from the relationships between logarithmic concentrations (partial pressure) and inverse temperatures. The values ranged from 26 kJ/mol to 43 kJ/mol in order of HCB < {alpha}-HCH < {gamma}-HCH < p,p{prime}DDE < total PCBs < p,p{prime}DDT. In addition, highly chlorinated PCBs tended to show higher values than the less chlorinated PCBs. The heats of vaporization estimated from the field survey were lower than those from the laboratory experiments previously reported.

Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S.; Ouchi, E.; Tatsukawa, R. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Timonin, A.

1995-12-31

18

Distribution of some organochlorine compounds (PCB, CBz, and DDE) in beeswax and honey  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Jan, J. [Public Health Institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cerne, K. [Chemical Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1993-11-01

19

TOXAPHENE AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THREE SPECIES OF ALBATROSSES FROM THE NORTH AND SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxaphene and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides (chlordane-related compounds ( SCHL), DDT-related compounds (SDDT), hexachlorocyclohexanes (SHCH), tris(p-chloro-phenyl)methane, hexachlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, diel- drin) were determined in fat of Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) and in fat and eggs of blackfooted albatross (Diomedea nigripes) from the central north Pacific Ocean. The HCH isomers and chlordane- and DDT-related compounds were also determined in eggs of

Derek C. G. Muir; Paul D. Jones; Heidi Karlsson; Krystina Koczansky; Gary A. Stern; Kurunthachalam Kannan; James P. Ludwig; Hamish Reid; Chris J. R. Robertson; John P. Giesy

2002-01-01

20

Persistent organochlorine pesticides in serum and risk of Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Pesticides have been implicated as likely environmental risk factors for Parkinson disease (PD), but assessment of past exposure to pesticides can be difficult. No prior studies of pesticide exposure and PD used biomarkers of exposure collected before the onset of PD. Our investigation examined the association between prospective serum biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides and PD. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, with serum samples collected during 1968–1972, and analyzed in 2005–2007 for organochlorine pesticides. Incident PD cases were identified through the Social Insurance Institution's nationwide registry and were confirmed by review of medical records (n = 101). Controls (n = 349) were matched for age, sex, municipality, and vital status. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of PD were estimated using logistic regression. Results: Little association emerged with a summary score of the 5 organochlorine pesticides found at high levels, and only increasing dieldrin concentrations trended toward a higher risk of PD (OR per interquartile range [IQR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97–1.69, p = 0.08). Because of possible strong confounding by cigarette smoking among smokers, we ran additional analyses restricted to never smokers (n = 68 cases, 183 controls). In these analyses, increasing dieldrin concentrations were associated with increased odds of PD (OR per IQR 1.95, 95% CI 1.26–3.02, p = 0.003). None of the other organochlorine pesticides were associated with PD in these analyses. Conclusions: These results provide some support for an increased risk of Parkinson disease with exposure to dieldrin, but chance or exposure correlation with other less persistent pesticides could contribute to our findings. GLOSSARY AHS = Agricultural Health Study\\?3b; ?-HCH = ?-hexachlorocyclohexane; BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; 2-4-D = 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; FMC = Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey; HCB = hexachlorobenzene; IQR = interquartile range; MPP+ = 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium; MPTP = 1-methyl,-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; NHANES = US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; OR = odds ratio; PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl; PD = Parkinson disease; p,p'-DDD = p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane; p,p'-DDE = p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene; p,p'-DDT = p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane; SSI = Social Insurance Institution; 2,4,5-T = 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. PMID:20350979

Weisskopf, M.G.; Knekt, P.; O'Reilly, E.J.; Lyytinen, J.; Reunanen, A.; Laden, F.; Altshul, L.; Ascherio, A.

2010-01-01

21

Cord serum immunoglobulin E related to the environmental contamination of human placentas with organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed Central

Allergic diseases are on the rise in both prevalence and severity, especially in industrialized countries. The process of allergic sensitization needs an understanding of the role environmental factors play in its development. In addition to traditionally considered air pollutants, various persistent organochlorine pollutants, which accumulate in the human body over a lifetime via food intake, are toxic in humans. Placental contamination by chemicals may act as a biologic marker for the exposure of the mother or for the fetus via transplacental transfer. Placentas were collected from term deliveries in two Slovak regions. The samples were then analyzed for 21 selected organochlorine compounds. Specimens of cord blood from 2,050 neonates were gathered for the determination of levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE). The regions were chosen according to their environmental characteristics: a city polluted with organic chemical industry versus a rural region devoid of industrial sources of pollution. In addition, data regarding the incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the regions were considered. Comparisons between regions revealed that both the placental contamination with 16 of 21 organochlorine compounds and the cord serum IgE levels were significantly higher in the industrial region. The findings pointed to an association between organochlorine compounds and the higher levels of total IgE in newborns, signaling a higher allergic sensitization in the industrial region. This association was supported by the higher incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the population registered in the industrial region. Images Figure 1 PMID:10544157

Reichrtova, E; Ciznar, P; Prachar, V; Palkovicova, L; Veningerova, M

1999-01-01

22

Heavy metal and organochlorine compound concentrations in tissues of raccoons from east-central Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and related compounds and heavy metals are persistent contaminants in the environment. Bioconcentration and biomagnification are well reported for organochlorine compounds. These compounds have a great potential for causing wildlife mortality or serious behavioral, reproductive, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects, along with specific organ toxicity. The pervasive nature of toxic substances in the environment necessitates some knowledge for potential exposure of wildlife species. Without baseline values of contaminant loads for selected indicator species it is impossible to determine when abnormal or pathological conditions exist in wild populations. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline values for selected environmental contaminants in the raccoon (Procyon lotor), a potential indicator species for wildlife and to see if heavy metal accumulation was related to age or sex.

Herbert, G.B.; Peterle, T.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-02-01

23

Residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ), 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starlings were collected for the National Pesticides Monitoring Program from 112 sites throughout the contiguous United States and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Starling samples from 14 sites had greater than 1.0 ppm DDE residues with the highest DDE level being 15.8 ppm in a sample taken near Roswell, New Mexico. The occurrence of PCBs and chlordane isomers increased since the

Brian W. Cain; Christine M. Bunck

1983-01-01

24

PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

25

Residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1979  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Starlings were collected for the National Pesticides Monitoring Program from 112 sites throughout the contiguous United States and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Starling samples from 14 sites had greater than 1.0 ppm DDE residues with the highest DDE level being 15.8 ppm in a sample taken near Roswell, New Mexico. The occurrence of PCBs and chlordane isomers increased since the 1976 collection, but DDT, and dieldrin occurrences decreased. DDE and dieldrin levels decreased since the 1976 collection, but the level of PCBs has increased

Cain, B.W.; Bunck, C.M.

1983-01-01

26

SOLID PHASE DISK EXTRACTION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE POLLUTANTS IN HUMAN BODY FLUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-phase disk extraction (SPDE) was developed and evaluated for the isolation and concentration of trace levels of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) from human body fluids (serum, cord blood, milk, follicular and seminal fluid). Similar methodology could be used for each matrix, the only restricting factor being the viscosity of the fluid. An Empore™ C18 bonded silica extraction disk cartridge

A. Covaci; P. Schepens

2001-01-01

27

Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organochlorines and Childhood Obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project  

PubMed Central

Background: In some previous studies, prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines such as 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p´-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in children. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), p,p´-DDE, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs with offspring obesity during childhood. Methods: The analysis was based on a subsample of 1,915 children followed until 7 years of age as part of the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). The CPP enrolled pregnant women in 1959–1965; exposure levels were measured in third-trimester maternal serum that was collected before these organochlorines were banned in the United States. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for BMI as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results: Adjusted results did not show clear evidence for an association between organochlorine exposure and obesity; however, a suggestive finding emerged for dieldrin. Compared with those in the lowest quintile (dieldrin, < 0.57 ?g/L), odds of obesity were 3.6 (95% CI: 1.3, 10.5) for the fourth and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.8, 7.1) for the highest quintile. Overweight and BMI were unrelated to organochlorine exposure. Conclusions: In this population with relatively high levels of exposure to organochlorines, no clear associations with obesity or BMI emerged. Citation: Cupul-Uicab LA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Longnecker MP. 2013. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines and childhood obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1103–1109;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205901 PMID:23799652

Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2013-01-01

28

Epidemiology of Breast Cancer and Serum Organochlorine and Serum Organochlorine Compounds and Breast Cancer on Long Island  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Steven D. Stellman, of the American Health Foundation, New York, NY, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk for breast cancer in relation to levels of organochlorine compounds, such as DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB).

29

Immune function biomarkers in children exposed to lead and organochlorine compounds: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different organochlorines and lead (Pb) have been shown to have immunomodulating properties. Children are at greater risk for exposure to these environmental toxicants, but very little data exist on simultaneous exposures to these substances. METHODS: We investigated whether the organochlorine compounds (OC) dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (?PCBs) and Pb were associated with

Wilfried Karmaus; Kevin R Brooks; Thomas Nebe; Jutta Witten; Nadia Obi-Osius; Hermann Kruse

2005-01-01

30

Persistent organochlorine residues in soils from tropical and sub-tropical Asian countries.  

PubMed

Soil samples from paddy fields, uplands, and urban areas (gardens and roadsides) collected from Vietnam, Thailand, and Taiwan were analysed to determine the residual levels of persistent organochlorine compounds such as DDTs, HCHs, and PCBs. DDT concentration in soil samples from Vietnam were found to be highest, with a mean value of 110 ng g(-1), and were followed by those in Taiwanese soils with a mean value of 20 ng g(-1). HCH concentrations were highest in soil samples from Vietnam (a mean value of 4.8 ng g(-1)) and were followed by those from Taiwan (a mean value of 1.4 ng g(-1)). Concentrations of PCBs were found to be highest in Taiwanese soil samples, with a mean of 95 ng g(-1). Interestingly, relatively high concentrations of PCBs in rural cultivated-soil samples from Vietnam were recorded with a mean value of 25 ng g(-1), probably suggesting PCB release from different kinds of weapons used during the Second Indochina war. The lowest concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and PCBs were obtained in soil samples from Thailand, with mean values of 8.3 ng g(-1), 0.4 ng g(-1), and 2.7 ng g(-1), respectively. PMID:15091838

Thao, V D; Kawano, M; Tatsukawa, R

1993-01-01

31

Age and accumulation of persistent organochlorines: a study of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus).  

PubMed

We studied the relationship between increasing age and blood concentrations of four persistent organochlorines (OCs), hexachlorbenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorbiphenyl (PCB-153), in arctic-breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We measured OC concentrations in 31 individuals of known age and took repeated blood samples of 64 individuals in different years, either one year apart or three or four years apart. The age of individuals was not related to the blood concentrations for any of the four compounds, and in birds whose values were measured repeatedly, there was no effect of the length of time (number of years) between sampling events on the relative change in OC concentration. This indicates that steady-state levels were reached before the age of first breeding. However, breeding area significantly influenced the changes in OC concentration between sampling events. In areas in which birds fed on prey from higher trophic levels, the OC concentrations showed large increases between sampling events; in areas in which birds fed at lower trophic levels, OC concentrations increased relatively little or not at all. This indicates that individual birds had different equilibrium concentrations, which are reached at different ages depending on the intake of OCs through the food. It also indicates that some individuals had not reached steady-state concentrations at the onset of reproduction. Changes in body condition and amount of blood lipids were of lesser importance than trophic level and influenced the concentrations of HCB and oxychlordane more strongly than DDE and PCB-153. In conclusion, this study indicates that steady-state concentrations of persistent OCs are reached early in life in most glaucous gulls, considering the long life span of the species. PMID:12959547

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Bakken, Vidar; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar

2003-09-01

32

In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/ml), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

2014-12-01

33

Organochlorine compounds in bottom sediments, benthos, and fish in the volga pool of the Rybinsk Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of three groups of organochlorine compounds (HCCH, DDT, and PCB) in bottom sediments, zebra mussel, and\\u000a two fish species—zope and roach—in the Volga Pool of the Rybinsk Reservoir. The concentrations of the examined toxicants can\\u000a be ranked in the ascending order as follows: HCCHorganochlorine compounds (OCC) and their\\u000a metabolites are very low, thus

A. V. German; V. V. Zakonnov; A. A. Mamontov

2010-01-01

34

Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men  

PubMed Central

Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern is predictive of the subsequent occurrence of disease. PMID:23785499

Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

2013-01-01

35

Influence of drying of biosludge on organochlorine compounds from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper industry is one of the major sources of man-made generation of organochlorine compounds. During biological treatment of wastewater, part of organochlorine compounds is discharged with treated effluent and part is retained on biomass and disposed of as waste activated sludge. Due to presence of these compounds, the disposal of biosludge from pulp and paper industry has become an issue. The estimation of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) compounds after drying and grinding resulted in 49% lower concentration of AOX due to stripping of purgeable compounds. These purgeable compounds are not released at 60 degrees C in aqueous medium during estimation of purgeable organic halogen (POX) compounds. Dispersion of sludge by sonication overcomes the loss of POX compounds and results in higher concentration ofAOX compounds. The drying of biosludge samples at 45, 100 degrees C and in presence of sun light resulted in 20.1, 49.0 and 29.6% removal of purgeable AOX compounds, respectively. The lab scale sorption study using dichloromethane (as volatile organochlorine compound) reveal that biosludge from pulp and paper industry is a good adsorbent of volatile organochlorine compounds and results in poor release of these compounds during estimation of POX compounds. PMID:23033648

Gupta, S; Purwar, M; Chakrabarti, S K; Singh, Satnam

2012-01-01

36

Organochlorine compounds and their metabolites in seven Icelandic seabird species - a comparative study.  

PubMed

The present study is designed to assess the occurrence of a few organochlorine contaminants and their metabolites in eggs of different marine bird species in Iceland, a country located in the sub-Arctic of the North-Western Atlantic. Previous investigations from e.g. Sweden and The Netherlands have shown some obvious differences in contaminant concentrations, including e.g. hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) in guillemot (Uria aalge) and other bird species. Eggs from seven marine bird species, Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), common eider (Somateria mollissima), guillemot, fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), and great skua (Stercorarius skua), that all breed in Iceland, were collected and analyzed for several persistent organic compounds and their metabolites. The contaminant levels varied between the species investigated. The highest concentrations were found in eggs from the great skua (18 and 23 microg/g l.w. of CB-153 and 4,4'-DDE, respectively). The concentration difference was generally 2 orders of magnitude higher in great skua for all organochlorine compounds analyzed with the exception of HCB. HCB did not vary as much between the seven species (ranging from 34 to 710 ng/g l.w). OH-PCB and MeSO(2)-PCB metabolites congener concentrations and patterns showed differences in metabolic capacity between bird species. Guillemot and great skua seem to distinguish themselves most from other species i.e. with the absence of 4-OH-CB187 and low relative levels of 4-OH-CB146 in guillemot and the low abundance of OH-PCBs in great skua. PMID:20356092

Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn; Löfstrand, Karin; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Ake

2010-05-01

37

Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples were collected from three mid-lake stations and at the mouth of two major tributaries. Average air concentrations of chlorinated bornanes (14 pg m{sup -3}), chlordanes (4.9 pg m{sup -3}), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (194 pg m{sup -3}) were similar to global backgound of Arctic levels. However, air concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, and PCBs were closer to those observed in the Great Lakes region. Significantly higher levels of these three compound classes in air over Irkutsk suggests that regional atmospheric transport and deposition may be an important source of these persistent compounds to Lake Baikal. Air-water gas exchange calculations resulted in net depositional flux values for {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, DDTs, and chlorinated bornanes at 112, 23, 3.6, and 2.4 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The total net flux of 22 PCB congeners, chlordanes, and HCB was from water to air (volatilization) at 47, 1.8, and 32 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. 50 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

McConnell, L.L. [USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States)] [USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States); Kucklick, J.R. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States)] [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Bidleman, T.F. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Ivanov, G.P. [Limnological Inst., Irkutsk (Russian Federation)] [Limnological Inst., Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Chernyak, S.M. [Inst. of Fisheries, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Inst. of Fisheries, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-10-01

38

Prenatal exposure to organochlorine compounds and neuropsychological development up to two years of life.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (pp'DDE) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic environmental pollutants with potential neurotoxic effects. Despite a growing body of studies investigating the health effects associated with these compounds, their specific effects on early neuropsychological development remain unclear. We investigated such neuropsychological effects in a population-based birth cohort based in three regions in Spain (Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia) derived from the INMA [Environment and Childhood] Project. The main analyses in this report were based on 1391 mother-child pairs with complete information on maternal levels of organochlorine compounds and child neuropsychological assessment (Bayley Scales of Infant Development) at age 14 months. We found that prenatal PCB exposure, particularly to congeners 138 and 153, resulted in impairment of psychomotor development (coefficient=-1.24, 95% confidence interval=-2.41, -0.07), but found no evidence for effects on cognitive development. Prenatal exposure to pp'DDE or HCB was not associated with early neuropsychological development. The negative effects of exposure to PCBs on early psychomotor development suggest that the potential neurotoxic effects of these compounds may be evident even at low doses. PMID:22575806

Forns, Joan; Lertxundi, Nerea; Aranbarri, Aritz; Murcia, Mario; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Grellier, James; Lertxundi, Aitana; Julvez, Jordi; Fano, Eduardo; Goñi, Fernando; Grimalt, Joan O; Ballester, Ferran; Sunyer, Jordi; Ibarluzea, Jesus

2012-09-15

39

Temporal trends of persistent organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue from Japan, 1928-1985.  

PubMed

Trend monitoring of organochlorine contaminants, viz. PCBs, DDTs, HCHs and CHLs, was carried out by using formalin-preserved adipose tissue of Japanese males from 1928 through 1985 for understanding the long-term trends in their contamination levels. The highest residual concentrations were observed during the periods of maximum production (or import) and usage of these compounds in Japan. Time trends of the contaminants varied with the usage pattern and their physico-chemical properties. Effectiveness of government regulations on the production and use of organochlorines was seen faster in the case of DDTs and HCHs, which showed a prominent declining trend in their residues, whereas PCB levels exhibited a continuing increase and maintained a steady state even after two decades of a ban on their production, indicating that the exposure to PCBs is still prevailing. Generally, in terms of the spatial view, unlike aquatic fauna from the point-source environment (aquatic ecosystem) humans in the non-point-source environment (terrestrial habitat) revealed a slower rate of reduction in organochlorine residue burdens. PMID:15091834

Loganathan, B G; Tanabe, S; Hidaka, Y; Kawano, M; Hidaka, H; Tatsukawa, R

1993-01-01

40

ENANTIOMERIC OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. RIVER SEDIMENT AND BIOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

River sediment and biota (fish, bivalves) from throughout the continental U.S. were analyzed for chiral organochlorine compounds (o,p'-DDT and DDD, some chlordane compounds, PCB atropisomers) to assess spatial trends in environmental chirality. Chiral PCB enantiomers were racemic...

41

Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p?- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants. PMID:20146964

Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Papke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

2010-01-01

42

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues in starlings from 126 sites within the contiguous 48 states were monitored during fall 1976. The average nationwide level of DDE and PCBs has increased significantly since 1974, but the number of sites reporting PCB residues has decreased fivefold. Dieldrin residues have remained unchanged since 1974. Highest DDE levels occurred in samples from parts of Arizona, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, and New Mexico.

White, D.H.

1979-01-01

43

Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

Porta, Miquel [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)], E-mail: mporta@imim.es; Bosch de Basea, Magda [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica CIBERESP (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Benavides, Fernando G. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Tomas [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernandez, Esteve [Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Esther [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Puigdomenech, Elisa [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

2008-11-15

44

NEW ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATOR LINKING ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS AND TYPE 2 DIABETES  

EPA Science Inventory

The project will develop an environmental public health indicator (EPHI) by linking soil residues of organochlorine (OC) insecticides and metabolites/degradates, OC compound levels in people and a disease with which they are implicated, type 2 diabetes (T2D). The proposed E...

45

Sublethal effects of chronic exposure to an organochlorine compound on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global contamination with organochlorine compounds OCs has posed developmental and reproductive problems in wildlife worldwide. However, little is known about the impact of OCs or other pollutants on amphibians, despite mounting concerns about amphibian population declines and developmental deformities in the wild. Wildlife populations may be affected critically by sublethal impacts of anthropogenic disturbances, yet little research has focused on

Karen A. Glennemeier; Robert J. Denver

2001-01-01

46

Organochlorine compound and trace metal contaminants in fish near Sydney's ocean outfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sydney's inshore sewage outfalls were significant contributors to organochlorine contamination of inshore sedentary fish such as red morwong. Diversion of the sewage to deepwater outfalls has resulted in marked declines in the concentrations of these compounds in inshore red morwong. Apart from lead, however, similar trends did not occur for concentrations of trace metals. A wide variety of trace metals

Martin Krogh; Peter Scanes

1996-01-01

47

Contamination by organochlorine compounds in sturgeons from Caspian Sea during 2001 and 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the five species of sturgeons collected from coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran during 2001 and 2002 to understand their status of contamination and accumulation features. Among OCs examined, concentrations of DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were predominant in all the sturgeon samples with concentrations ranging from 73 to

Natsuko Kajiwara; Daisuke Ueno; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mohammad Pourkazemi; David G. Aubrey

2003-01-01

48

Organochlorine compounds in bovine milk from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil.  

PubMed

Organochlorines are highly hydrophobic, synthetic organic pollutants that accumulate in the environment and in food webs. The primary route of human exposure to organochlorines is through food-mainly fat-rich food of animal origin such as meat, fish, and dairy products. Here we determined the presence and concentration of organochlorine residues in pasteurized milk from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, to monitor consumer exposure to these contaminants. Organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction in octadecyl silica-prepacked columns and identified by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. Of the 100 composite samples analyzed, more than 90% contained residues of organochlorine pesticides: aldrin was present in 44% of the samples, followed by ?DDT (36%), mirex (34%), endosulfan (32%), chlordane (17%), dicofol (14%), heptachlor (11%) and dieldrin (11%). Compared to the values established by law, the concentration of the compounds in some samples was above the reference values. Given the importance that milk and its products have in the human diet, it is essential to know whether the levels of pesticide residues are kept well below the recommended levels to minimize the risk to human health. PMID:23177004

Avancini, Régia Maria; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; de Mesquita, Sueli Alexandra

2013-03-01

49

Accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines in liver and fat tissues of various waterbird species from Greece.  

PubMed

Waterbirds are particularly subject to accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been shown to constitute a major hazard for this group of birds. Liver and fat tissue from ten species belonging to the orders Ciconiformes (Ardeidae, Ciconiidae, Phoenicopteridae) and Pelicaniformes (Pelecanidae, Phalacrocoracidae) were used as bioindicators in order to assess environmental pollution by POPs (HCHs, DDTs, cyclodienes, PCBs) in Greek wetlands. To our knowledge, this is the first study on POPs in livers of water birds in Greece and Eastern Mediterranean area. The DDTs consisted mainly of p,p'-DDE with percentages over 60% in the great majority of the samples. The highest summation SigmaDDT concentrations were measured in the liver and subcutaneous fat of Phoenicopterus rubber and in Ardea purpurea liver (15565, 24706 and 10406 ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively). Low concentrations of cyclodienes (Cycls) and HCHs were detected occasionally and the contamination pattern of OCPs in most species of waterbirds followed the order summation SigmaDDTs> summation SigmaCycls> summation SigmaHCHs. Individual values of total PCBs reached the levels of 4468 and 3252 ng g(-1) wet weight, for Nycticorax nycticorax and Egretta garzetta samples respectively. Some of the recorded differences in organochlorine concentrations could be due to different causes of death, with a subsequent effect on body lipid levels. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs residues were lower than those commonly associated with mortality and reduced reproductive success in most species. However, low level exposure to these contaminants may constitute one of the many stressors that in combination could adversely affect bird populations. PMID:16289289

Sakellarides, T M; Konstantinou, I K; Hela, D G; Lambropoulou, D; Dimou, A; Albanis, T A

2006-05-01

50

Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?  

SciTech Connect

Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Gubala, C.P. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Ford, J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife

1995-12-31

51

Organochlorines in Black-Crowned Night Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax ) Eggs Reflect Persistent Contamination in Northeastern US Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonially nesting aquatic birds can indicate site-specific contamination because they are high-level predators and dependent upon local resources during the breeding season. We compared persistent organochlorine concentrations in black-crowned night heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs collected in 1992–93 among areas of known contamination (New York Harbor, Boston Harbor, Cape Cod, and Delaware Bay) and a reference site (Nantucket Island) in

A. C. Matz; K. C. Parsons

2004-01-01

52

Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal ( Phoca caspica ) from the Caspian Sea, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes\\u000a (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean\\u000a values of 19 and 1.3 ?g\\/g on wet-weight

M. Watanabe; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; M. Amano; N. Miyazaki; E. A. Petrov; S. L. Khuraskin

1999-01-01

53

Association of Thyroid Hormone Concentrations with Levels of Organochlorine Compounds in Cord Blood of Neonates  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones are important regulators of brain development. During critical periods of development, even transient disorders in thyroid hormone availability may lead to profound neurologic impairment. Animal experiments have shown that certain environmental pollutants, including heavy metals and organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, can interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. Whether these contaminants can affect circulating levels of thyroid hormones in humans is unclear, however, because the results of available studies are inconsistent. Objectives The aim of the present study is to examine the possible relationships between concentrations of environmental pollutants and thyroid hormone levels in human umbilical cord blood. Methods We measured concentrations of environmental pollutants [including selected PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, hexachlorobenzene, p,p?-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), cadmium, lead] and thyroid hormones in the cord blood of 198 neonates. Results A statistically significant inverse relationship between concentrations of organochlorine compounds and levels of both free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4), but not thyroid-stimulating hormone, was observed. We found no association between concentrations of heavy metals and thyroid hormone levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that environmental chemicals may affect the thyroid system of human neonates. Although the differences in fT3 and fT4 levels associated with the organochlorine compounds were within the normal range, the observed interferences may still have detrimental effects on the neurologic development of the individual children, given the importance of thyroid hormones in brain development. PMID:18087600

Maervoet, Johan; Vermeir, Griet; Covaci, Adrian; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Schepens, Paul; Viaene, Maria K.

2007-01-01

54

Organochlorine Compounds in the Plasma of Peregrine Falcons and Gyrfalcons Nesting in Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine compounds in the blood plasma of after-second-year female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were determined from samples collected from southern Greenland in 1985 and western Greenland from 1983 to 1989, and from adult and nestling gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) from western Greenland in 1989 and 1990. Samples were taken during nesting. Levels of p,p'-DDE (DDE) in peregrine plasma were

W. M. JARMAN; S. A. BURNS; W. G. MATTOX; W. S. SEEGAR

1994-01-01

55

An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds  

PubMed Central

Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

Jandacek, Ronald J.; Genuis, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

56

Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (?-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

2013-11-01

57

Spatial differences in persistent organochlorine pollutant concentrations between the Bering and Chukchi Seas (1993).  

PubMed

During August-September 1993, a joint Russian-United States expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas took place. Surface water samples were collected from 21 sites and separated into dissolved (duplicates) and suspended solids; 19 sediment and 6 air samples were also collected. These samples were analysed for 19 organochlorine pesticides, 11 chlorobenzenes and 113 PCB congeners. The report provides data on selected compounds which occured in > or = 75% of the water samples. Highest water concentrations were observed for HCH in open waters north and south of the Bering Strait, both regions being similar (alpha-HCH; 2.2 ng/L and lindane: 0.35 ng/L). Air levels observed were also constant (alpha-HCH; 0.041 ng/m3, lindane: 0.0093 ng/m3). Suspended solids and air particulares contributed little to the concentrations in their respective media, an observation common to all analytes except for the PCBs and the DDT residues. The sum of PCB concentrations in water were higher in the Bering Sea area compared to the Chukchi Sea (1.0 vrs 0.67 ng/L) and lower for air (0.46 vrs 0.23 ng/m3). Sum of DDT in water was higher in the Bering Sea than in the Chukchi Sea (0.23 vrs 0.15 ng/L) while in sediments and air, the Bering Sea concentrations were lower (0.95 vrs 1.6 ng/g and 36 vrs 56 pg/m3, respectively). Other organochlorine compounds for which data are presented include: pp'-DDE, pp'-DDT, dieldrin, HCB, 3 chlorobenzenes and 3 PCB congeners. Fluxes of all these chemicals through the Berin Strait are estimated; they ranged from 57 t/a (alpha-HCH) through 26 t/a (for sum of PCBs) to 0.2 t/a (pp'-DDE, dieldrin and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene). Fugacity ratios for the HCHs and PCBs indicate the alpha-HCH is degassing in both the Bering and Chukchi Seas and that the gamma-isomer is degassing in the Bering Sea and is close to equilibrium (weakly absorbing) in the Chuchi Sea; the sum of PCBs are strongly absorbing in both areas. PMID:11601531

Strachan, W M; Burniston, D A; Williamson, M; Bohdanowicz, H

2001-01-01

58

Sociodemographic, reproductive and dietary predictors of organochlorine compounds levels in pregnant women in Spain.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are consistently found in human tissues. Serum levels of organochlorine compounds (OC) in pregnant women in particular have raised concern about possible harm to humans in the early phases of physical and behavioural development. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between concentration of OCs in serum of two cohorts of pregnant women from Gipuzkoa and Sabadell in Spain and socioeconomic, reproductive and dietary variables. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH and ?-HCH), heptachlor epoxide, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) were measured in the serum of 1259 pregnant women. Associations between OCs and potential predictor variables were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The compounds most commonly found in the serum were p,p'-DDE (99% of the samples) and PCB-153 (95% of the samples). Geometric means of serum concentrations (ng g?¹ lipid) of organochlorine pesticides were 110.0, 19.1, and 33.5 for p,p'-DDE, ?-HCH, and HCB respectively, while the geometric means of PCBs were 21.8, 38.9 and 26.9 for PCB 138, 153, and 180 respectively. The levels of all OCs increased with age. BMI was positively associated with the concentration of organochlorine pesticides but inversely related to PCB concentrations. The serum levels of OCs fell only after a cumulative period of breastfeeding of over a year. Levels of PCBs were related to fish intake, but in general dietary factors did not improve the explained variability of the concentrations of OCs. Overall, the levels of OCs found in the study are at the lower end of the range reported in Spain and other countries. PMID:20965545

Ibarluzea, J; Alvarez-Pedrerol, M; Guxens, M; Marina, L Santa; Basterrechea, M; Lertxundi, A; Etxeandia, A; Goñi, F; Vioque, J; Ballester, F; Sunyer, J

2011-01-01

59

PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE POLLUTANTS AND TOXAPHENE CONGENER PROFILES IN BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FREQUENTING THE TURTLE\\/BRUNSWICK RIVER ESTUARY, GEORGIA, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Turtle\\/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chro-

Erin L. Pulster; Kelly L. Smalling; Eric Zolman; Lori Schwacke; Keith A. Maruya

2009-01-01

60

Cancer Mortality in Workers Exposed to Organochlorine Compounds in the Pulp and Paper Industry: An International Collaborative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate cancer mortality in pulp and paper industry workers exposed to chlorinated organic compounds. We assembled a multinational cohort of workers employed between 1920 and 1996 in 11 countries. Exposure to both volatile and nonvolatile organochlorine compounds was estimated at the department level using an exposure matrix. We conducted a standardized mortality ratio

David McLean; Neil Pearce; Hilde Langseth; Paavo Jäppinen; Irena Szadkowska-Stanczyk; Bodil Persson; Pascal Wild; Reiko Kishi; Elsebeth Lynge; Paul Henneberger; Maria Sala; Kay Teschke; Timo Kauppinen; Didier Colin; Manolis Kogevinas; Paolo Boffetta

2006-01-01

61

Organochlorines in black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs reflect persistent contamination in northeastern US estuaries.  

PubMed

Colonially nesting aquatic birds can indicate site-specific contamination because they are high-level predators and dependent upon local resources during the breeding season. We compared persistent organochlorine concentrations in black-crowned night heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) eggs collected in 1992-93 among areas of known contamination (New York Harbor, Boston Harbor, Cape Cod, and Delaware Bay) and a reference site (Nantucket Island) in the northeastern United States (7-16 eggs/site). Total PCBs, p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and trans-nonachlor were detected in most eggs and were significantly higher in New York Harbor compared to all other sites (ANOVA on factor scores from the first principal component, which accounted for 75% of data variance, p < 0.0001). New York also had the highest contamination index (the number of Superfund sites within 20 km of the colony) among the sites. Nantucket, the reference site, had consistently low contamination in eggs, and the lowest contamination index. We conclude that black-crowned night heron eggs are useful indicators of site-specific persistent organochlorine contamination, as indexed by the number of nearby Superfund sites. PMID:15106680

Matz, A C; Parsons, K C

2004-02-01

62

Persistent organochlorine levels in six prey species of the gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus in Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous investigations have revealed very high levels of organochlorines (OCs) in the Icelandic gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, a resident top predator. We now examine six potential prey species of birds, both resident and migratory, in order to elucidate the most likely route of the OCs to the gyrfalcon. The ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, the most important prey of the gyrfalcon, contained

K. Ólafsdóttir; Æ. Petersen; E. V. Magnúsdóttir; T. Björnsson; T. Jóhannesson

2001-01-01

63

Persistent organochlorine contaminants in eggs of northern goshawk and Eurasian buzzard from northeastern Spain: temporal trends related to changes in the diet.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 24 northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and eight Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) samples of eggs collected between 1988 and 1999 in La Segarra (northeast Spain), in order to evaluate the changes in exposure and detrimental effects during this period. In the study area, both species exhibited similar levels of contamination, which may be related to their similar diet, mainly based on European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in terms of biomass. The buzzard showed contamination levels similar to those found in other Spanish areas, but the levels found in the goshawk were much lower. The shell index in goshawk eggs was inversely correlated to concentration of p,p'-DDE. In late eighties, the concentrations of p,p'-DDE and heptachlor-epoxide in goshawk eggs were positively correlated to the biomass percentage of passeriforms in the diet. In goshawk samples, a decline in HCB concentration in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s was detected. Surprisingly, p,p'-DDE concentrations did not decline, as could be expected from the ban on DDT use. On the contrary, the highest p,p'-DDE concentrations were detected in some samples from the nineties, which also showed the lowest shell indices. This may be related to a severe reduction of rabbit population after 1989 that produced an increase in the consumption of passeriformes, which are known to accumulate higher levels of organochlorine compounds. Our study suggests that monitoring programs aiming to detect temporal trends in chemical contamination should take into account changes in diet composition before any conclusion can be drawn. PMID:12547524

Mañosa, Santi; Mateo, Rafael; Freixa, Cristina; Guitart, Raimon

2003-01-01

64

Persistent organochlorine residues in harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena) from the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of organochlorine residues were determined in the blubber of harbour porpoises from the Black Sea. Concentrations of DDTs (8.3–180 ?g g?1 wet weight) were the highest followed by PCBs (1.6–39 ?g g?1), HCHs (1.5–17 ?g g?1), CHLs (0.11 – 2.4, ?g g?1) and HCB (0.057 – 0.61 ?g g?1). The composition of DDT and its metabolites was

Shinsuke Tanabe; Bathini Madhusree; Ayaka Amaha Öztürk; Ryo Tatsukawa; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Emin Özdamar; Orhan Aral; Osman Samsun; Bayram Öztürk

1997-01-01

65

A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Relation to Risk of Type 1 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe incidence of type 1 diabetes in Europe is increasing at a rate of about 3% per year and there is also an increasing incidence throughout the world. Type 1 diabetes is a complex disease caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) have been suggested as a triggering factor for developing childhood type 1 diabetes. The

Anna Rignell-Hydbom; Maria Elfving; Sten A. Ivarsson; Christian Lindh; Bo A. G. Jönsson; Per Olofsson; Lars Rylander; Baohong Zhang

2010-01-01

66

The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic

Chung-Jung Tsai; Mei-Lien Chen; Keng-Fu Chang; Fu-Kuei Chang; I-Fang Mao

2009-01-01

67

Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)  

SciTech Connect

The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

Jacobs, Miriam N. [Molecular Toxicology Group, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom); Hood, Steven R. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom)

2005-12-01

68

Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DOT (DDT+DDD+DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat bogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.

Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

1997-01-01

69

Spatial and seasonal variations of organochlorine compounds in air on an urban-rural transect across Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

The spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine compounds (OCs) concentrations was investigated at six sites on an urban-rural transect in Tianjin, China from July 2006 to June 2008 using XAD-based passive air samplers. The samplers were deployed for six time periods. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) air concentrations were highest at Tanggu and Tuanbowa and decreased dramatically further away from these two sites. The maximum proportion of beta-HCH compared to SigmaHCHs (12.1-32.2%) was found in Hangu, suggesting its persistence. The alpha/gamma-HCH ratio was between 1.26 and 5.79 which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane related compounds (DDTs) were higher at Hangu compared with other sites which was attributed to its continuing production there. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in Hangu and Tanggu were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Polychlorinated biphenyls distribution elucidated that the urban area could be their emission source. Hexachlorobenzene, with the highest concentrations in Tanggu, showed the smallest industrial/urban-rural gradient ( approximately 4-9 times) than those of other chemicals (approximately 17-49 for SigmaHCHs, approximately 10-77 for SigmaDDTs), but comparable with PCBs (PCB28 and PCB52) (approximately 3-10). Seasonal variations of OCPs were featured by higher concentration in spring and summer and lower in winter. This was likely associated with (i) their temperature-driven re-volatilization and (ii) application of dicofol in late spring and summer and DDT-containing antifouling paints for fishing ships in summer. However seasonality of PCBs concentrations was site-specific on the Tianjin scale. PMID:19900692

Zheng, Xiaoyan; Chen, Dazhou; Liu, Xiande; Zhou, Qunfang; Liu, Yue; Yang, Wen; Jiang, Guibin

2010-01-01

70

Recalcitrant organochlorine compounds in captive bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus): Biomagnification or bioaccumulation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine residues were measured in the diet, blood, faeces and exhaled air of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to evaluate the absorption efficiency from food and the eliminatory potential via faeces and exhaled air. Differences between air-breathing and water-breathing animals feeding on similar prey are briefly discussed. It is concluded that high concentrations of recalcitrant organochlorines currently found in marine

L. Marsili; C. Gaggi; A. Bortolotto; L. Stanzani; A. Franchi; A. Renzoni; E. Bacci

1995-01-01

71

Persulfate Persistence and Treatability of Gasoline Compounds.  

E-print Network

??Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) such as gasoline are ubiquitous organic compounds present at contaminated sites throughout the world. Accidental spills and leakage from underground storage tanks… (more)

Sra, Kanwartej Singh

2010-01-01

72

Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin - and perhaps the urban area in particular - is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflows, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

2001-05-01

73

Improved sample preparation method for selected persistent organochlorine pollutants in human serum using solid-phase disk extraction with gas chromatographic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed to isolate and concentrate trace levels of selected POPs (persistent organochlorine pollutants) in human serum prior to GC–MS in SIM mode or GC–ECD quantitation. The extraction involves denaturation of serum proteins with formic acid, SPE using C18 Empore™ disk cartridges, followed by elimination of lipid interferences using a sulfuric acid wash of

A. Pauwels; D. A. Wells; A. Covaci; P. J. C. Schepens

1999-01-01

74

Persistent organochlorine levels in six prey species of the gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus in Iceland.  

PubMed

Our previous investigations have revealed very high levels of organochlorines (OCs) in the Icelandic gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, a resident top predator. We now examine six potential prey species of birds, both resident and migratory, in order to elucidate the most likely route of the OCs to the gyrfalcon. The ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, the most important prey of the gyrfalcon, contained very low levels of OCs. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in mallards Anas platyrhynchos, tufted ducks Aythya fuligula, golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria, purple sandpipers Calidris maritima, and black guillemots Cepphus grylle reflected their position in the foodchain. The differences in OC-levels seem nevertheless too high just to reflect the different food-chain levels of these species in Iceland. The winter grounds of the migratory golden plovers and tufted ducks appear to be more contaminated than the Icelandic terrestrial habitat of ptarmigans or the freshwater habitat as reflected in mallards, both resident species. However, spending the winter on the coast in Iceland, results in high levels of contaminants in purple sandpipers and black guillemots. Our results indicate OC contamination of the marine ecosystem in Iceland while the terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are little affected. It is postulated that gyrfalcons receive the major part of the observed contamination from prey other than ptarmigan, especially birds associated with the marine ecosystem and also from migratory birds. PMID:11234542

Olafsdóttir, K; Petersen, A E; Magnúsdóttir, E V; Björnsson, T; Jóhannesson, T

2001-01-01

75

Altitudinal and chiral signature of persistent organochlorine pesticides in air, soil, and spruce needles (Picea abies) of the Alps.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the distribution, transportation, and biodegradation of the selected chiral persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in the Alps. In the complex environment, we found the movement and fate of OCP could be defined by many factors. Taking HCE as an example, below the timberline its accumulation from air into SPMD increased with altitude and seasonally changed, but the trends reversed above the timberline. In soil, the tendency of HCE concentrations vs organic materials followed a sigmoid curve, and HCE concentration-altitude correlations are positive in central Alps but negative in southern Alps. The HCE enantiomeric ratios (ERs) in soil correlated to HCE isomers concentrations, the humus pH values, and the sampling site altitudes. HCE shift from humus to mineral soil can also be traced by ERs. The altitudinal and longitudinal trends in needles suggested that alpha-HCH has a more complex movementthan HCE in Alps. In conclusion, altitude conducted condensation, plant canopies, organic material in soil, and geographic specific precipitations may affect OCP distributions and transportation, whereas altitude conducted temperature and soil pH could dictate their fate in the environment. PMID:19452900

Shen, Heqing; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Levy, Walkiria; Zsolnay, Adam; Weiss, Peter; Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Moche, Wolfgang; Braun, Katharina; Schramm, Karl-Werner

2009-04-01

76

Accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines in liver and fat tissues of various waterbird species from Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterbirds are particularly subject to accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have been shown to constitute a major hazard for this group of birds. Liver and fat tissue from ten species belonging to the orders Ciconiformes (Ardeidae, Ciconiidae, Phoenicopteridae) and Pelicaniformes (Pelecanidae, Phalacrocoracidae) were used as bioindicators in order to assess environmental pollution by POPs (HCHs, DDTs, cyclodienes, PCBs)

T. M. Sakellarides; I. K. Konstantinou; D. G. Hela; D. Lambropoulou; A. Dimou; T. A. Albanis

2006-01-01

77

Persistent organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues in surface sediments of Lake Qarun, a protected area of Egypt.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediment samples collected from 34 locations in Lake Qarun, Egypt to elucidate their concentrations, distribution, possible sources and potential ecological risk. A total of 25 OCPs and 29 PCBs were identified and quantified. OCPs and PCBs were found to be ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment of Lake Qarun, particular near urban areas reflecting the local usage and input of these pollutants. Total concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in sediments ranged from 1.01 to 164.8 ng g(-1) and 1.48 to 137.2 ng g(-1), respectively. Among OCPs, ?-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endrin, p,p'-DDE, oxy-chlordane and endosulfan I and II were the most abundant compounds. The composition of PCB congeners was dominated by the tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. The ratios of certain metabolites (isomers) to their parent compounds (mixtures) indicated there are still new inputs of lindane, endrin, heptachlor and technical endosulfan to Qarun Lake, while the ratios of (p,p'-DDE+p,p'-DDD)/?p,p'-DDTs indicate earlier usage of DDT. Contamination levels of PCBs and HCHs can be categorized as moderate to high compared to other urbanized regions worldwide. According to established sediment quality guidelines, ?-HCH, endrin and chlordanes would be more concerned OCP species for the ecotoxicological risk in Lake Qarun. PMID:23237301

Barakat, Assem O; Khairy, Mohammed; Aukaily, Inas

2013-03-01

78

Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.  

PubMed

The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of ?20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) was the most predominant component. ?HCH and ?dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of ?20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed ?-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. ?-HCH, ?-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37?±?0.51% and 0.46?±?0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with ?20OCPs, ?-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments. PMID:24488553

Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

2014-05-01

79

The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA  

SciTech Connect

The authors analyzed streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls ({Sigma}PCB). The objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. The authors detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was {Sigma}DDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and {Sigma}chlordane. Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, {Sigma}DDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although {Sigma}DDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, the study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J. [Geological Survey, Tacoma, WA (United States). Water Resources Div.

1997-09-01

80

Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals ( Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were determined in the blubber and liver of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) found stranded on the coast of the Caspian Sea during an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2000. Among organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 470 ?g\\/g on a lipid-weight basis.

N. Kajiwara; S. Niimi; M. Watanabe; Y. Ito; S. Takahashi; S. Tanabe; L. S. Khuraskin; N. Miyazaki

2002-01-01

81

Improved sample preparation method for selected persistent organochlorine pollutants in human serum using solid-phase disk extraction with gas chromatographic analysis.  

PubMed

An improved solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed to isolate and concentrate trace levels of selected POPs (persistent organochlorine pollutants) in human serum prior to GC-MS in SIM mode or GC-ECD quantitation. The extraction involves denaturation of serum proteins with formic acid, SPE using C18 Empore disk cartridges, followed by elimination of lipid interferences using a sulfuric acid wash of the eluate. Use of the SPE disk improved assay throughput and gave a cleaner analytical matrix compared with previously reported solid-phase and liquid-liquid extraction techniques. The extraction method provided consistent recoveries at three fortification levels using 13C12 PCB 149 as internal standard. Recoveries ranged from 48 to 140% for organochlorine pesticides (6.25, 12.5 and 25 ng/ml) and 71 to 126% for polychlorinated biphenyls (0.625, 1.25 and 2.5 ng/ml). PMID:10080639

Pauwels, A; Wells, D A; Covaci, A; Schepens, P J

1999-02-19

82

Fertility in four regions spanning large contrasts in serum levels of widespread persistent organochlorines: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may interfere with reproductive function but direct evidence in humans is very limited. Methods Fertility was examined in four regions with contrasting blood levels of POPs. Pregnant women and their partners in Warsaw (Poland), Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Greenland were consecutively enrolled during antenatal visits. Swedish fishermen and their spouses were recruited separately and independently of current pregnancy. Lipid adjusted serum concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE) were available for both partners. Time to pregnancy interviews were obtained among 2269 women and 798 men provided a semen sample. Results Inuits had high levels of both POP markers, Swedish fishermen were high in CB-153 but low in DDE, men from Kharkiv were high in DDE and low in CB-153 while men from Warsaw were low in CB-153 and had intermediate DDE levels. Compared to Warsaw couples, fecundability was reduced among couples from Kharkiv [adjusted fecundability ratio (FR) 0.64 (95% CI 0.5–0.8)] and elevated in Swedish fishermen families [FR 1.26 (95% CI 1.0–1.6)]. Adjusted geometric means of sperm counts and morphology did not differ between regions while sperm motility was higher in men living in Warsaw. Conclusion We observed regional differences in time to pregnancy and sperm motility that may be related to regional differences in POP blood levels, but other interpretations are also plausible. In particular, differences in access to safe contraception and in the prevalence of contraceptive failures are most likely to bias comparisons of time to pregnancy. PMID:16280075

Toft, Gunnar; Axmon, Anna; Giwercman, Aleksander; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Ludwicki, Jan K; Zvyezday, Valentina; Zinchuk, Andery; Spano, Marcello; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Bonefeld-J?rgensen, Eva C; Hagmar, Lars; Bonde, Jens Peter

2005-01-01

83

A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p?-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias. PMID:23028613

Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jonsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars

2012-01-01

84

Trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) within an Arctic marine food web from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas.  

PubMed

Stable isotope values (13C, 15N) and concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined to evaluate the near-shore marine trophic status of biota and biomagnification of OCs from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas (1999-2000) near Barrow, AK. The biota examined included zooplankton (Calanus spp.), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), along with marine mammals, including bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). The isotopically derived trophic position of biota from the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas marine food web, avian fauna excluded, is similar to other coastal food webs in the Arctic. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals were significantly greater than in fish and corresponded with determined trophic level. In general, OCs with the greatest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were those either formed due to biotransformation (e.g. p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane) or considered recalcitrant (e.g. -HCH, 2,4,5-Cl substituted PCBs) in most biota, whereas concentrations of OCs that are considered to be readily eliminated (e.g. -HCH) did not correlate with trophic level. Differences in physical-chemical properties of OCs, feeding strategy and possible biotransformation were reflected in the variable biomagnification between fish and marine mammals. The FWMFs in the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas region were consistent with reported values in the Canadian Arctic and temperate food webs, but were statistically different than FWMFs from the Barents and White Seas, indicating that the spatial variability of OC contamination in top-level marine Arctic predators is attributed to differences in regional sources of contamination rather than trophic position. PMID:12758030

Hoekstra, P F; O'Hara, T M; Fisk, A T; Borgå, K; Solomon, K R; Muir, D C G

2003-01-01

85

Potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption in humans: interaction of organochlorine compounds with thyroid receptor, transthyretin, and thyroid-binding globulin.  

PubMed Central

Organochlorine compounds, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alter serum thyroid hormone levels in humans. Hydroxylated organochlorines have relatively high affinities for the serum transport protein transthyretin, but the ability of these compounds to interact with the human thyroid receptor is unknown. Using a baculovirus expression system in insect cells (Sf9 cells), we produced recombinant human thyroid receptor ss (hTRss). In competitive binding experiments, the recombinant receptor had the expected relative affinity for thyroid hormones and their analogs. In competitive inhibition experiments with PCBs, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and several organochlorine herbicides, only the OH-PCBs competed for binding. The affinity of hTRss for OH-PCBs was 10,000-fold lower (Ki = 20-50 microM) than its affinity for thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine, T3; Ki = 10 nM). Because their relative affinity for the receptor was low, we tested the ability of OH-PCBs to interact with the serum transport proteins--transthyretin and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). With the exception of one compound, the OH-PCBs had the same affinity (Ki = 10-80 nM) for transthyretin as thyroid hormone (thyroxine; T4). Only two of the OH-PCBs bound TBG (Ki = 3-7 microM), but with a 100-fold lower affinity than T4. Hydroxylated PCBs have relatively low affinities for the human thyroid receptor in vitro, but they have a thyroid hormonelike affinity for the serum transport protein transthyretin. Based on these results, OH-PCBs in vivo are more likely to compete for binding to serum transport proteins than for binding to the thyroid receptor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10090705

Cheek, A O; Kow, K; Chen, J; McLachlan, J A

1999-01-01

86

Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain.  

PubMed

To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod) were selected to represent the lower trophic levels in the food web. Four seabird species were chosen at the higher trophic levels, Uria lomvia (Brünnich's guillemot), Cepphus grylle (black guillemot), Rissa tridactyla (black-legged kittiwake) and Larus hyperboreus (glaucous gull). We found low concentrations of the organochlorines sigma hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigma HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), sigma Chlordanes, sigma DDTs and sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (sigma PCBs) in crustaceans (11-50 ng g-1 lipid wt.) and fish (15-222 ng g-1 lipid wt.). In seabirds, the organochlorine concentrations biomagnified one to three orders of magnitude dependent on species and compound class. Glaucous gulls had the highest concentrations of all organochlorines. The organochlorine levels in all taxa except glaucous gull were comparable to those recorded in similar species in the Canadian Arctic. The organochlorine pattern changed from crustaceans and fish to seabirds. Moving up the food chain, the relative contribution of sigma HCHs, HCB and sigma Chlordanes decreased, and the relative contribution of sigma DDTs, sigma PCBs, persistent compounds and metabolites increased. The results reflected trophic transfer of organochlorines along the food chain as well as different elimination potentials due to direct diffusion in crustaceans and fish, and higher contaminant metabolic activity in seabirds. PMID:11383336

Borgå, K; Gabrielsen, G W; Skaare, J U

2001-01-01

87

Monitoring of evaporating organochlorine compounds from compost and soil using semipermeable membrane device (SPMD)  

SciTech Connect

The organisms are exposed for contaminants in soil via skin uptake, gut uptake or inhalation. The compounds evaporating from the soil surface is easily sequestered with a SPMD deployed above the surface, In this case a 90 cm long 1 inch layflat polyethylene tubing filled with 1 mL triolein situated 15 cm above the ground were used. The SPMD were placed inside a semi-enclosed container with a bottom hole of 660 CM{sup 2} and a container volume of 13 dM{sup 3}. The final sample, were taken 28 days after deployment on the soil surface and the content of persistent compounds in the SPMD lipid (triolein) were used for the analysis using HRGC/LRMS. A limited clean up were required before analysis e.g. dialysis and HRGPC. Before GPC, labelled internal standards and before sample injection, labelled recovery standards were added. Several PCBs and other persistent OCs including DDTS, chlordane`s, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlorobenzenes and dieldrin were monitored in this study. Since the air sampling rate of SPMD is approx. 10 m{sup 3} air per day essentially all air in the enclosure were continuously sampled during the 28 day sampling period. The sequestering of compounds in the SPMD will be compared with soil/compost concentrations for natural and spiked household compost matrices. Soil/compost extraction were performed with toluene in a Soxhlet apparatus followed by an extensive clean up. For surface soil monitoring, the study design including SPM D suggest to be an efficient and simple sampling and analysis methodology but still precise utilizing GC/MS as detector instrument.

Bergqvist, P.A.; Strandberg, B.; Wagman, N.; Rappe, C. [Umea Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry

1995-12-31

88

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and metals residues in sediment and freshwater fish species cultured in a shallow lagoon, Egypt.  

PubMed

Six freshwater fish species cultured in Lake Edku fish farm, one of the northern Nile Delta lakes in Egypt that receives input from numerous anthropogenic activities in addition to agriculture wastes through several huge drains, were collected for the detection and evaluation of residues of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1 -trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), total cyclodienes (TC), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) in their edible parts. In all fish and sediment samples, PCBs were found in higher concentrations than pesticides; the edible parts of Mugil capito, Tilapia galilaeus, Tilapia zilli and Clarias lazera had the highest PCBs (3.49, 0.83, 1.06 and 4.29 ng/g wet weight respectively), PCB 28 being most prevalent in Mugilcapito and Clarias lazera with ratios 86 and 62%, respectively, of the total PCBs. PCB 180 was most prevalent in Tilapia zilli (about 56% of the total PCBs). In these four fish species OCs were found in the order: PCBs > DDTs > HCHs > TC. The other two species (Tilapia nilotica and Tilapia aureus) had the highest concentrations of pesticides (7.58 and 1.13 ng/g wet weight, respectively) with HCHs being most prevalent (96% and 74% of the total pesticides, respectively). OCs were found in the order: HCHs > PCBs > DDTs > TC in the edible Tilapia nilotica, and in the order: PCBs > HCHs > DDTs > TC in the other species. The mean concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in sediments are 539.66 +/- 48.8 and 259.17 +/- 81.2 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Among the studied metals in the edible parts of the fish samples, about 67% of the samples contained marginally higher Pb content in the edible parts, above the European Community's legal limit. About 50% of the samples contained marginally higher Cd content (N.D to 0.88 microg/g) above the permissible level of Cd in fish edible parts; the Cu content ranged from 0.37-2.36 microg/g, with a marginally higher content in the fish but below the maximum permissible limits. As for the concentration of the studied metals in sediments of Edku lagoon, results showed that copper had the highest concentration (2.2 +/- 0.37 microg/g) in the lake sediment. PMID:24350495

Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed; Morsy, Fadia Abu Elmagd

2013-01-01

89

Recent changes in levels of persistent organochlorines and mercury in eggs of seabirds from the Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs of ten seabird species were collected from six regions in North Norway, Svalbard and NW Russia in 1993, and were analyzed for organochlorines (OCs) and mercury. Significant declines in levels of PCBs, p,p?-DDE, HCB, ?-HCH, ?-HCH and oxychlordane were documented in nearly half the data set since a similar study in 1983 in six of the seabird species breeding

R. T. Barrett; J. U. Skaare; G. W. Gabrielsen

1996-01-01

90

Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants in Liver of Birds of Different Trophic Levels from Coastal Areas of Campania, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver samples of 12 species of birds of different trophic levels, collected during the period 1998–2000 from coastal areas of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocycloexane (?-HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and the seven PCB “target” congeners, IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and

B. Naso; D. Perrone; M. C. Ferrante; A. Zaccaroni; A. Lucisano

2003-01-01

91

Evaluation of organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and their main prey (Columba livia) inhabiting central Spain.  

PubMed

The population of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus sbs. brookei) inhabiting the Regional Park of southeastern Madrid (RPSM), Spain, has experienced an increase of unsuccessful pairs (from 15% among a total of 20 pairs in 1995 to 55% among a total of 18 pairs in 2001). Traditionally, this area has been known to be contaminated with organochlorine compounds and toxic metals, which are known to be deleterious to the reproductive system of birds. During the breeding seasons of 2000 and 2001, contaminant residues were measured in unhatched eggs of peregrine falcons and liver of their main prey, to determine if they could be affecting the survival of the population. The most abundant contaminants were ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (ortho-PCBs), ranging from 202.56 to 3,335.16 ng/g (wet wt) in falcon eggs and from 10.25 to 53.51 ng/g (wet wt) in pigeon livers. In all samples, the 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected, although these levels never exceeded 20 pg/g (wet wt). The major contributor to total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) were non-ortho-PCBs. Organochlorine levels found in this study may contribute to the entire suite of stressors that are negatively affecting the peregrine population. PMID:16152983

Merino, Rubén; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña

2005-08-01

92

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

White, D.H.

1979-01-01

93

Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic qu?bec.  

PubMed Central

Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from arctic Québec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Québec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. Images p618-a PMID:8143594

Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Bruneau, S; Laliberte, C; Muir, D C; Norstrom, R J

1993-01-01

94

Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec  

SciTech Connect

Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from artic Quebec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Quebec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Laliberte, C. (Laval Univ. Hospital, Ste-Foy (Canada)); Bruneau, S. (Kativik Regional Council of Health, Kuujjuaq (Canada)); Muir, D.C.G. (Freshwater Institute, Winnipeg (Canada)); Norstrom, R.J. (Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull (Canada))

1993-12-01

95

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1979-80.  

PubMed

Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes) were monitored nationwide from birds harvested during the 1979-80 hunting season. DDE residues were found in all samples. DDT residues had declined from levels reported in 1976 on a flyway basis but the decline was significant (P less than 0.05) only in the Pacific Flyway. Levels of DDT, DDE, TDE, and dieldrin were low on a flyway basis, and all but DDE declined significantly (P less than 0.05) in the percent occurrence. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels were lower in mallard wings from all flyways compared with 1976 data, but percent occurrence had significantly (P less than 0.05) increased. Pools from Alabama and New Mexico continued to show higher DDE residues than pools from other areas. PMID:6817294

Cain, B W

1981-12-01

96

Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1979-80  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes) were monitored nationwide from birds harvested during the 1979-80 hunting season. DDE residues were found in all samples. DDT residues had declined from levels reported in 1976 on a flyway basis but the decline was significant (P less than 0.05) only in the Pacific Flyway. Levels of DDT, DDE, TDE, and dieldrin were low on a flyway basis, and all but DDE declined significantly (P less than 0.05) in the percent occurrence. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels were lower in mallard wings from all flyways compared with 1976 data, but percent occurrence had significantly (P less than 0.05) increased. Pools from Alabama and New Mexico continued to show higher DDE residues than pools from other areas.

Cain, B.W.

1981-01-01

97

Organochlorines in crocodile eggs from Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive use of persistent organochlorine chemicals (OCs), both in agriculture and industry, has lead to widespread pollution of the environment, and residues of for instance DDT and PCBs are found at all levels of the food chain. Most industrialized countries have imposed restrictions on their use and disposal. In most developing countries, however, persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are still

J. U. Skaare; K. Ingebrigtsen; A. Aulie; T. I. Kanui

1991-01-01

98

Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.  

PubMed

High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as DXNs, from MSWI flue gas at approximately 300 degrees C. More than half of the clays used in this study showed the decomposition characteristics of MCB. The presence of Cl atoms in the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C proved the occurrence of MCB decomposition. The results of this study suggest a novel flue gas treatment method to establish high-energy efficient MSWI systems. PMID:25282999

Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

2014-09-01

99

Analysis of organochlorine compounds and extractable organic halogen in three subspecies of ringed seal from northeast Europe  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine compounds in blubber samples of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis, P. H. ladogensis, and P. h. hispida) were analyzed in order to estimate the state of pollution in three different water areas in Northeast Europe, namely, Lake Saimaa in Finland, Lake Lodoga, and the White Sea in Russia. Geographic differences in concentrations and in relative concentrations of tri- and tetrachlorocymenes, hexachlorobenzene, {alpha}-HCH, {beta}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH (Lindane), seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and p,p{prime}-DDT and its metabolites in ringed seals were compared. Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons varied between the water areas. The highest concentrations were found in Saimaa ringed seals, followed by Lodaga ringed seals, and the lowest concentrations were detected in ringed seals from the White Sea. Extractable organic halogen (EOX) concentrations in blubber were also analyzed. The concentrations showed a geographic trend similar to those for the individual compounds identified. In Lakes Ladoga and Saimaa, the concentrations of EOX and chlorinated hydrocarbons in the blubber were dependent on the age and sex of the seals, but no such relationship was observed in samples from the White Sea.

Kostamo, A.; Medvedev, N.; Pellinen, J.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

2000-04-01

100

Data on occurrence of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds in edible fish tissues from Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A public-health assessment conducted for the Texas Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concluded that exposure to contaminants through the aquatic food chain is an indeterminate human-health hazard in Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds to support a human-health risk assessment. Left-side, skin-off fillet samples were collected from 10 individuals each of channel catfish, common carp, freshwater drum (gaspergou), largemouth bass, and white crappie but only from five smallmouth buffalo. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory analyzed the samples for 22 trace metals, 40 organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, and 75 semivolatile organic compounds.

Moring, James B.

2002-01-01

101

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78.6 +/- 32.4 microg/g lipid) and toxaphene (11.7 +/- 9.3 microg/g lipid) were significantly higher in dolphins sampled in the TBRE than in dolphins stranded near Savannah (GA, USA) 80 to 100 km to the north. Levels of OCPs were several-fold lower than levels of PCBs; moreover, PCBs comprised 81 and 67% of the total POP burden in TBRE and non-TBRE dolphins, respectively. Analyses with GC-ECNI-MS revealed that 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a), a major component in technical toxaphene and a major residue congener in local estuarine fish species, was the most abundant chlorobornane in both sets of blubber samples. Mean total POP concentrations (sum of PCBs, OCPs, and toxaphene) approached 100 microg/g lipid for the TBRE animals, well above published total PCB thresholds at which immunosuppresion and/or reproductive anomalies are thought to occur. These results indicate extended utilization of the highly contaminated TBRE as habitat for a group of coastal estuarine dolphins, and they further suggest that these animals may be at risk because of elevated POP concentrations. PMID:19203137

Pulster, Erin L; Smalling, Kelly L; Zolman, Eric; Schwacke, Lori; Maruya, Keith A

2009-07-01

102

Maternal Concentrations of Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Asthma in Offspring: Results from a Prospective Cohort with 20 Years of Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous findings suggest that developmental exposures to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may be detrimental for the development of the immune system in the offspring. Whether these suspected immunoregulatory effects persist beyond early childhood remains unclear. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal serum concentrations of POPs and the risk of asthma in offspring after 20 years of follow-up. Methods: A birth cohort with 965 women was formed in 1988–1989 in Aarhus, Denmark. Concentrations of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) were quantified in maternal serum (n = 872) collected in gestation week 30. Information about offspring use of asthma medications was obtained from the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results: Maternal serum concentrations of HCB and dioxin-like PCB-118 were positively associated with offspring asthma medication use after 20 years of follow-up (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with subjects in the first tertile of maternal concentration, those in the third tertile of PCB-118 had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.23). For HCB the HR for the third versus the first tertile of maternal concentration was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.21). Weak positive associations were also estimated for PCB-156 and the non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180). No associations were found for p,p´-DDE. Conclusions: Maternal concentrations of PCB-118 and HCB were associated with increased risk of asthma in offspring followed through 20 years of age. Citation: Hansen S, Strøm M, Olsen SF, Maslova E, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Rytter D, Bech BH, Hansen LV, Halldorsson TI. 2014. Maternal concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants and the risk of asthma in offspring: results from a prospective cohort with 20 years of follow-up. Environ Health Perspect 122:93–99;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206397 PMID:24162035

Str?m, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Maslova, Ekaterina; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil H.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

2013-01-01

103

Profile of persistent chlorinated contaminants, including selected chiral compounds, in wolverine ( Gulo gulo) livers from the Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are circumpolar omnivores that live throughout the alpine and arctic tundra ecosystem. Wolverine livers were collected at Kugluktuk (Coppermine), NU (n=12) in the western Canadian Arctic to report, for the first time, the residue patterns of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in this species. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of several chiral OCs, including PCB atropisomers, in wolverines were

P. F. Hoekstra; B. M. Braune; C. S. Wong; M. Williamson; B. Elkin; D. C. G. Muir

2003-01-01

104

Bioaccumulation and enantiomeric profiling of organochlorine pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters.  

PubMed

Concentrations and enantiomeric profiles for a range of organochlorine compounds are reported in blubber samples from a number of individual killer whales (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters. Elevated contaminant levels and enriched isotopic ratios were determined in one individual whale sampled in the Scottish Western Isles compared to the others suggesting marine mammal based dietary influences. The potential application of isotopic ratios to model contaminant uptake, enantioselective enrichment and accumulation is demonstrated. Data are presented which provide information on enantioselective enrichment factors (EFs) for o,p'-DDT, alpha-HCH and toxaphene congeners CHB26 and CHB 50. This dataset further improves the current database on reported levels of a number of contaminants and provides additional background information on potential metabolic processes in killer whales from British and Irish waters. PMID:17854842

McHugh, Brendan; Law, Robin J; Allchin, Colin R; Rogan, Emer; Murphy, Sinead; Foley, M Barry; Glynn, Denise; McGovern, Evin

2007-11-01

105

Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

Wentz, D. A.; Waite, I. R.; Rinella, F. A.

1998-01-01

106

Air monitoring at Alert in the high Arctic: Results of one year of monitoring of organochlorine compounds and PAH  

SciTech Connect

In January 1992, an air toxics sampler was set up at Alert, on Northern Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic (82.5{degree} N, 62.3{degree} W) as part of an arctic air toxics monitoring and assessment program. Since then, three more sites were added to the network: Tagish, Yukon Territory near Whitehorse, Dunai Island in the former Soviet Union, and Cape Dorset on Baffin Island. Organochlorines (OCs) and PAHs were sampled weekly to determine the types, concentrations and vapor-particle relationships. High volume samplers with a 10 micrometer size selective inlet were used with a collection cartridge consisting of glass fiber filter(s) for particulates followed by two 20 cm diameter 5 cm thick polyurethane foam plugs for vapors, with a weekly sample volume of approximately 11,000 m{sup 3}. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography using electron capture detection and confirmation by GC/MS. This paper will focus on selected compounds for 1992 at Alert: a volatile OC hexachlorobenzene, a semi-volatile OC DDT, and the PAHs, pyrene, benzo(e) and benzo(a)pyrene. The authors will present annual average concentrations as well as weekly integrated values to look for potential seasonal variation through temporal profiles and their distribution between the particle and gas phases.

Toom, D.; Barrie, L. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario (Canada); Fellin, P.; Dougherty, D. [Concord Environmental, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Muir, D.; Grift, B.; Lockhart, L.; Billick, B. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

1994-12-31

107

Alternative tissue analysis method developed for organochlorine contaminants in aquatic organisms  

SciTech Connect

The exposure of aquatic life to organochlorine contaminants has been investigated during the past two decades because of human and ecosystem health concerns related to the bioaccumulation of hazardous, lipophilic substances. The toxic effects of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known, and recent evidence also suggests that low level exposure to lipophilic organochlorines may interfere with normal development during sensitive early life history stages. As the use of lipophilic organochlorines, such as DDT, in third world countries continues and with the purported global cycling and food chain accumulation of persistent organochlorines, the occurrence of these compounds in aquatic organisms is a critical global environmental issue. An understanding of the fate of organochlorines in the environmental clearly remains an extremely important subject related to water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently gained congressional approval in the United States to track nation wide trends in water quality through the establishment of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Among the goals defined by NAWQA, aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, and plants, collected from major drainage basins will be analyzed for, along with other contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine insecticides, and chlorobenzenes. The purpose of this report is to present quality assurance data obtained from the development of a PCB, chlorobenzene, and organochlorine insecticide tissue analysis method in support of NAWQA and other large-scale water quality programs conducted through our laboratory. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Shan, T.H.; Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))

1994-09-01

108

Interspecific comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organochlorines bioaccumulation in bivalves from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized in cockle, oyster and noble pen shell from nine areas in the Mar Menor lagoon with different hydrodynamic and pollutant sources. Biota, sediment and water samples were simultaneously collected in the spring and autumn of 2010. Considering all bivalve samples, PAH concentrations ranged from 8.98 to 370 ?g·kg(-1) d.w., those of PCBs from 0.15 to 42.36 ?g·kg(-1) d.w. and those of DDXs from below detection limit to 240.6 ?g·kg(-1) d.w., where p,p'-DDE was the main fraction. The bioaccumulation of PAHs was similar for cockle, oyster and noble pen shell, being higher close to ports and wastewater effluents. However, DDX and PCB bioaccumulations in oyster and noble pen shell were significantly higher than in cockle in spring (p=0.02). The first organic pollutant bioaccumulation data for noble pen shell were obtained in this study, showing a preferential accumulation of pyrene. The increase of PAH bioaccumulation in autumn, as compared to spring, was low, due to high water temperatures during the summer, which favoured PAH dissipation processes. No significant seasonal variations were detected for OCPs and PCBs, except in some specific areas. The PAH, PCB and OCP levels detected in these bivalves were lower than OSPAR/MED POL environmental assessment criteria, except for p,p'-DDE in bivalves sited close to El Albujón watercourse mouth. PMID:23872249

León, Víctor M; Moreno-González, Rubén; González, Emilia; Martínez, Fulgencio; García, Víctor; Campillo, Juan A

2013-10-01

109

Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

Rignell-Hydbom, A., E-mail: anna.rignell-hydbom@med.lu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Elmstahl, S. [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden)] [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Malmue University Hospital (Sweden); Bjellerup, P. [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden)] [Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Vaesteras (Sweden); Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Akesson, A. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-11-15

110

Atmospheric transport and accumulation of organochlorine compounds on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Nepal.  

PubMed

Studies have been devoted to the transport and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in mountain environments. The Himalayas have the widest altitude gradient of any mountain range, but few studies examining the environmental behavior of POPs have been performed in the Himalayas. In this study, air, soil, and leaf samples were collected along a transect on the southern slope of the Himalayas, Nepal (altitude: 135-5100 m). Local emission occurred in the lowlands, and POPs were transported by uplift along the slope. During the atmospheric transport, the HCB proportion increased from the lowlands (20%) to high elevation (>50%), whereas the proportions of DDTs decreased. The largest residue of soil POPs appeared at an altitude of approximately 2500 m, and may be related to absorption by vegetation and precipitation. The net deposition tendencies at the air-soil surface indicated that the Himalayas may be a 'sink' for DDTs and PCBs. PMID:24880535

Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Li, Sheng-hai; Yu, Wu-sheng; Li, Jiu-le; Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Wang, Wei-cai; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tan-dong; Joswiak, Daniel R

2014-09-01

111

Organochlorine compounds in Baltic salmon and trout. I. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenols 1982  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenol compounds were analyzed in three populations of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and one population of Bothnian Bay trout (Salmo trutta). Muscles, livers an unfertilized eggs were studied and the analysis results treated by standard statistical methods. PCB, DDT residues, HCB and lindan were detected in most, 2,3,6-t-richlorocymene in some samples at levels which are near to the global baseline. Ten chlorophenol compounds were detected, 34DCC at 0-1000 ..mu..g/kg the other 0-100 ..mu..g/kg (fresh weight) levels. Chlorohydrocarbons showed some significant positive correlations with weight, and fat contents of the fish. Significances of the differences between populations and tissues were low or negligible except that the chlorophenols in liver were at clearly higher level than in muscle or eggs.

Vuorinen, P.J.; Paasivirta, J.; Piilola, T.; Surma-Aho, K.; Tarhanen, J.

1985-01-01

112

Persistent halogenated compounds in aquaculture environments of South China: implications for global consumers' health risk via fish consumption.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential sources of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including organochlorine pesticides, mainly DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, to typical aquaculture environments of South China, determined the relative importance of gill diffusion and fish feeding for exposure of fish to these contaminants and assessed potential health risk for global consumers via consumption of fish from South China. Fish feed is generally a direct and important source of PHCs in both freshwater and seawater aquaculture. In addition, gill diffusion is the predominant uptake route for PHCs (except p,p'-DDMU, o,p'-DDD and -DDT) in farmed freshwater fish, whereas accumulation from the diet is the major route for farmed marine fish. Risks to health of global consumers via consumption of fish from South China are minimal. However, increased risk can be foreseen due to continuous use of brominated fire retardants and electronic waste importation to China. PMID:21570724

Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Giesy, John P; Zeng, Eddy Y

2011-10-01

113

Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

2008-01-01

114

Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

2009-01-01

115

Organochlorine compounds, nitro musks and perfluorinated substances in breast milk - results from Bavarian Monitoring of Breast Milk 2007/8.  

PubMed

The aim of the Bavarian Monitoring of Breast Milk (BAMBI) project was to examine 10 organochlorine pesticides (OPs), 3 nitro musks, 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) and several perfluorinated alkyl compounds in breast milk samples. A total of 516 breast milk samples were collected from seven regions in Bavaria and were analyzed by means of GC/ECD, GC/HRMS, and LC/MS-MS. Concerning the OPs, only hexachlorobenzene and a metabolite of DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE), could be quantified in all samples (median: 16 ngg(-1) lipid and 63 ngg(-1) lipid, respectively). Median concentrations of 150 ngg(-1) lipid (range: 3-1900 ngg(-1) lipid) were found for the sum of the indicator PCBs. The concentrations of the PCDDs/PCDFs and the dl-PCBs ranged from 0.8 to 15.1 (median 5.7) pg WHO-TEQ1998g(-1) lipid and from 1.5 to 18.9 pg (median 6.4) WHO-TEQ1998 g(-1) lipid, respectively. The median perfluorooctane sulfonate concentration was 0.05 ?gL(-1) (range: <0.02-0.26 ?gL), while the other PFCs were observed only in a subset of samples. On the basis of the median and 95th percentile concentration, "medium" and "high" intake levels were estimated for a 3-month-old exclusively breastfed infant. In particular, "medium" and "high" intake levels were calculated of 69 and 133 pg WHO1998 TEQ kg(-1) b.w. for PCDDs/PCDFs, 8 and 21 ngkg(-1) b.w. for dl-PCBs, and 6 and 25 ngkg(-1) b.w. for perfluorooctane sulfonate, respectively. The calculated intake for perfluorinated substances is clearly below the tolerable daily intake (TDI), while the established TDI values are still clearly exceeded for PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs. PMID:23856469

Raab, Ulla; Albrecht, Michael; Preiss, Ursula; Völkel, Wolfgang; Schwegler, Ursula; Fromme, Hermann

2013-09-01

116

Survey of Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants (PCDD, PCDF, and PCB) in Fish Collected from the Polish Baltic Fishing Areas  

PubMed Central

Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, and ndl-PCBs were determined in five species of edible fish from the Baltic Sea (ICES 24–27): salmon (Salmo salar), Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus), sea trout (Salmo trutta m.trutta), and cod (Gadus morhua callarias). Marker PCBs were the dominant compounds (0.07–60.84?ng/g? w.w.), followed by dl-PCBs (0.64–6.07?pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and PCDD/PCDFs (0.22–5.67?pg WHO-TEQ w.w). The concentration levels of contaminants varied between species. Salmon possessed the highest concentrations (up to 14.11 ± 2.36?pg WHO-TEQ/g? w.w.) and cod the lowest ones (0.84 ± 0.14?pg WHO-TEQ/g? w.w.). Congener profile in the fish tested had similar pattern. The largest contribution to the dioxin toxicity was caused successively by PCB 126, 118, 156, furans (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF), and two dioxins: 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although the dietary consumption of fish from southwest region of the Baltic Sea did not represent a risk for human health (because of very low consumption of marine fish), the excessive eating of some of them may be of significance importance for health of various subgroups of consumers (fishermen). PMID:22593715

Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Maszewski, Sebastian; Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Goraj, Lukasz

2012-01-01

117

The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 ?m and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species. PMID:24054891

Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

2013-12-01

118

Profile of persistent chlorinated contaminants, including selected chiral compounds, in wolverine (Gulo gulo) livers from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are circumpolar omnivores that live throughout the alpine and arctic tundra ecosystem. Wolverine livers were collected at Kugluktuk (Coppermine), NU (n=12) in the western Canadian Arctic to report, for the first time, the residue patterns of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in this species. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of several chiral OCs, including PCB atropisomers, in wolverines were also determined. Results were compared to OC concentrations and EFs of chiral contaminants in arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from Ulukhaqtuuq (Holman), NT (n=20); a closely related species that scavenges the marine and terrestrial arctic environment. The rank order of hepatic concentrations for sum ( summation operator ) OC groups in wolverines were polychlorinated biphenyls ( summation operator PCB)>chlordane-related components ( summation operator CHLOR)>DDT-related compounds ( summation operator DDT)>hexachlorocyclohexane isomers ( summation operator HCHs). The most abundant OC analytes detected in wolverine liver were PCB-153, PCB-180, and oxychlordane (OXY). Wolverine age and gender did not influence OC concentrations, which were comparable to lipid-normalized values in arctic fox. The EFs of several chiral OCs (alpha-HCH, cis- and trans-chlordane, OXY, heptachlor exo-epoxide) and PCB atropisomers (PCB-136, 149) were nonracemic in arctic fox and wolverine liver and similar to those previously calculated in arctic fox and polar bears from Iceland and the Canadian Arctic. Results suggest that these species have similar ability to biotransform OCs. As well, contaminant profiles suggest that terrestrial mammals do not represent the major source of OC exposure to wolverines and that wolverines are scavenging more contaminated prey items, such as marine mammals. While summation operator PCB did not exceed the concentrations associated with mammalian reproductive impairment, future research is required to properly evaluate the potential affect of other OCs on the overall health of wolverines. PMID:12948539

Hoekstra, P F; Braune, B M; Wong, C S; Williamson, M; Elkin, B; Muir, D C G

2003-11-01

119

Concentration of Organochlorine Pollutants in Surface Waters of the Central European Biosphere Reserve Krivoklatsko (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a \\u000a The article is focused on dioxin, furan, PCB and organochlorine pesticide monitoring in the surface waters of the Central\\u000a European, protected natural reserve Krivoklatsko, under the UNESCO programme Man and Biosphere. Persistent compounds are presently\\u000a transported via different means throughout the entire world. This contamination varies significantly between sites. This raises\\u000a the question of what constitutes

Vladimír Ko?; Tomáš Ocelka; Darek Dragoun; Michael Vít; Roman Grabic; Marek Šváb

2007-01-01

120

Organochlorine Contamination in Anuran Amphibians of an Artificial Lake in the Semiarid Midwest of Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial water reservoirs are important for fauna in arid-semiarid regions, because they provide suitable habitats for species\\u000a that depend on water, such as amphibians. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are toxic, persistent compounds that tend to bioaccumulate\\u000a and bioconcentrate. We evaluated contaminant levels in anurans from an artificial lake (Embalse La Florida) in a semiarid\\u000a region of the Midwest Argentina. This lake

Mariana B. Jofré; Rosa I. Antón; Enrique Caviedes-Vidal

2008-01-01

121

(PRESENTED AT TSUKUBA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS METHOD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

122

(PRESENTED AT MATSUYAMA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS METHOD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

123

Identification of anti-virulence compounds that disrupt quorum-sensing regulated acute and persistent pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Etiological agents of acute, persistent, or relapsing clinical infections are often refractory to antibiotics due to multidrug resistance and/or antibiotic tolerance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes recalcitrant and severe acute chronic and persistent human infections. Here, we target the MvfR-regulated P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) virulence pathway to isolate robust molecules that specifically inhibit infection without affecting bacterial growth or viability to mitigate selective resistance. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen (HTS) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, we identify compounds that block the synthesis of both pro-persistence and pro-acute MvfR-dependent signaling molecules. These compounds, which share a benzamide-benzimidazole backbone and are unrelated to previous MvfR-regulon inhibitors, bind the global virulence QS transcriptional regulator, MvfR (PqsR); inhibit the MvfR regulon in multi-drug resistant isolates; are active against P. aeruginosa acute and persistent murine infections; and do not perturb bacterial growth. In addition, they are the first compounds identified to reduce the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. As such, these molecules provide for the development of next-generation clinical therapeutics to more effectively treat refractory and deleterious bacterial-human infections. PMID:25144274

Starkey, Melissa; Lepine, Francois; Maura, Damien; Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Lesic, Biljana; He, Jianxin; Kitao, Tomoe; Righi, Valeria; Milot, Sylvain; Tzika, Aria; Rahme, Laurence

2014-08-01

124

Identification of Anti-virulence Compounds That Disrupt Quorum-Sensing Regulated Acute and Persistent Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Etiological agents of acute, persistent, or relapsing clinical infections are often refractory to antibiotics due to multidrug resistance and/or antibiotic tolerance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes recalcitrant and severe acute chronic and persistent human infections. Here, we target the MvfR-regulated P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) virulence pathway to isolate robust molecules that specifically inhibit infection without affecting bacterial growth or viability to mitigate selective resistance. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen (HTS) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, we identify compounds that block the synthesis of both pro-persistence and pro-acute MvfR-dependent signaling molecules. These compounds, which share a benzamide-benzimidazole backbone and are unrelated to previous MvfR-regulon inhibitors, bind the global virulence QS transcriptional regulator, MvfR (PqsR); inhibit the MvfR regulon in multi-drug resistant isolates; are active against P. aeruginosa acute and persistent murine infections; and do not perturb bacterial growth. In addition, they are the first compounds identified to reduce the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. As such, these molecules provide for the development of next-generation clinical therapeutics to more effectively treat refractory and deleterious bacterial-human infections. PMID:25144274

Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Lesic, Biljana; He, Jianxin; Kitao, Tomoe; Righi, Valeria; Milot, Sylvain; Tzika, Aria; Rahme, Laurence

2014-01-01

125

Organochlorine pesticide contamination of ground water in the city of Hyderabad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitous and persistent organic pollutants used widely throughout the world. Due to the extensive use in agriculture, organic environmental contaminants such as HCH, DDT along with other organochlorine pesticides are distributed globally by transport through air and water. The main aim of present study is to determine contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides in the ground water of

Gangesh Shukla; Anoop Kumar; Mayank Bhanti; P. E. Joseph; Ajay Taneja

2006-01-01

126

Validation of user- and environmentally friendly extraction and clean-up methods for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in soils.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the potential of compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (CSIA) for tracking organochlorine pesticides in soil systems, sample pre-treatment methods have to be developed, which can provide recoveries sufficient for low detection limits without altering the isotope ratio of the target compounds. In this study we tested the compatibility of CSIA with user- and environmentally friendly extraction methods, including the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe procedure (QuEChERS), Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (USE) and Focused Ultrasonic Extraction (FUSE), as well as clean-up methods, including sulfuric acid clean-up and Florisil(®) column chromatography for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and their environmental metabolites (chlorinated benzenes, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene - DDE and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane - DDD) in soils. We optimized the extraction methods for maximum recovery and pre-concentration. At optimal conditions, all extraction methods and clean-up procedures, as well as the pre-concentration of the extract by solvent evaporation, led to insignificant changes in carbon isotope ratios of the target compounds. We modified the USE procedure to increase the volume of withdrawn organic extract, resulting in a higher pre-concentration of the target compounds by the subsequent solvent evaporation step. This Modified Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (MUSE) was the most suitable procedure, and it was validated for the determination of carbon isotope ratios of the target compounds using two different types of soil matrices. The method could be applied to analyze carbon isotope ratios of HCHs, DDT, and their chlorinated metabolites in soil samples with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 0.8mg/kg. The analytical uncertainty of MUSE, incorporating both accuracy and precision, was ?0.4‰. PMID:24980091

Ivdra, Natalija; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Fischer, Anko

2014-08-15

127

Evaluation of organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) in two raptor species inhabiting a Mediterranean island in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Species that are at high levels of the food web have often been used as bioindicators to evaluate the presence of persistent\\u000a contaminants in ecosystems. Most of these species are long-lived, so pollutant burdens may be integrated in some complex way\\u000a over time. This makes them particularly sensitive to deleterious effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Birds have\\u000a been suggested

Begoña Jiménez; Rubén Merino; Esteban Abad; Josep Rivera; Kees Olie

2007-01-01

128

Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

2009-01-01

129

Modeling the overall persistence and environmental mobility of sulfur-containing polychlorinated organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Experimental data on partition coefficients and environmental half-lives of sulfur analogs of polychlorinated organic compounds\\u000a are scarce. Consequently, little is known about their overall persistence and long-range transport potential, which are the\\u000a most vital measures in the environmental exposure assessment. We performed Multimedia Modeling of environmental fate and transport\\u000a to complement this paucity of scientific data. The

Aleksandra Mostr?g; Tomasz Puzyn; Maciej Haranczyk

2010-01-01

130

[Human biomonitoring investigations of organochlorine compounds -- PCB, DDE, HCB, beta- and gamma-HCH, PCDD/PCDF, Dioxin-like PCB's and polybrominated biphenyl ethers].  

PubMed

Although PCB and PCB-containing materials are not processed for a long time, PCB is under discussion again and again caused by the pollution of indoor environments. To objectify the discussion, the dates of the PCB-biomonitoring, the organochlorine-compounds (DDE, HCB, beta-/gamma -HCH, PCDD/PCDF) and the polybrominated biphenyl ethers concerning the investigations within the project "Sentinel Health Departments" in Baden-Wurttemberg are represented. Additionally results from children from Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area) and from teachers which are working in PCB polluted schools as well as from a long term investigated test person are reported. Blood concentrations of the following compounds decreased from 1996/97 to 2002/03: the sum of the concentration of PCB 138,153 and 180 decreased from 0.46 microg/L to 0.20 microg/L, DDE from 0.32 microg/L to 0.17 microg/, HCB from 0.20 microg/L to 0.08 microg/L, beta-HCH below the level of detection, I-TEQ NATO to 4.8 pg/g blood fat, TEQ WHO (without PCB) to 5.5 pg/g blood fat, PCB 126 to 18,8,pg/g blood fat and PCB 169 to 12.8 pg/g blood fat. The influence of breast feeding and the gender on the level of the pollution is conspicious. No local correlations were found in Baden-Wurttemberg, but they were found in comparison with the results of Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area). The difficulty to produce time series while the analyzing pollutants are more and more decreasing, as well as the change of the calculation base of the summation of parameters like I-TEQ NATO to TEQ WHO are discussed. PMID:15856391

Gabrio, T; Broser, S; Erdinger, L; Felder-Kennel, A; Fichtner, G; Häberle, E; Herrmann, T; Kirsch, H; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Mann, V; Päpke, O; Piechotowski, I; Rzonca, E; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schröder, S; Spöker-Maas, K; Weidner, U; Wuthe, J; Zöllner, I; Zöltzer, D

2005-04-01

131

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg\\/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to

Derek C. G. Muir; Ross J. Norstrom; Mary Simon

1988-01-01

132

Natural Formation and Degradation of Chloroacetic Acids and Volatile Organochlorines in Forest Soil. Challenges to understanding (12 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background. The anthropogenic environmental emissions of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines have been under scrutiny in recent years because the two compound groups are suspected to contribute to forest dieback and stratospheric ozone destruction, respectively. The two organochlorine groups are linked because the atmospheric photochemical oxidation of some volatile organochlorine compounds is one source of phytotoxic chloroacetic

Frank Laturnus; Isabelle Fahimi; Milan Gryndler; Anton Hartmann; Mathew R. Heal; Miroslav Matucha; Heinz Friedrich Schöler; Reiner Schroll; Teresia Svensson

2005-01-01

133

PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in ducks of Fereydoon-kenar wildlife refuge in Iran.  

PubMed

Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCB were determined in three duck species: Pintail (Anas acuta), Common Teal (Anas creaca), and Mallard (Anas platyhynchos). Both persistent organochlorines were more abundant in muscle than in the liver; Mallard had the highest levels of PCBs [84.0 +/- 39.0 ng/g wet weight (ww)], and Common Teal showed the highest levels of DDTs (561.0 +/- 220.0 ng/g ww). This exposure level is more than two orders of magnitude below provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) (0.01 mg/kg bw for DDT and its associated compounds) of The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:20419290

Rajaei, Fateme; Bahramifar, Nader; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

2010-05-01

134

Organochlorine concentrations (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and MIREX) in delphinids stranded at the northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds are highly persistent in the environment, causing bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the marine food chain. To verify the bioaccumulation pattern of DDT and its metabolites, as well as PCBs, Mirex, HCHs and HCB, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), two Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), two spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), one spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) were analyzed. The collected specimens were found stranded in northeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2011. The concentrations were reported in ?g·g(-1) lip, varying from 0.02 to 17.3 for ?PCB, from 0.003 to 5.19 for ?DDT, from 0.005 to 0.16 for ?HCH, from 0.002 to 0.16 for HCB, and from 0.02 to 2.38 for Mirex. The PCBs dominated the bioaccumulation pattern for both the Guiana and spinner dolphins; for the other species, DDT was the major compound. A discriminant function analysis revealed the differences in the organochlorine accumulation patterns between the Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) and the continental shelf/oceanic dolphins (S. frontalis and S. longirostris). The results also show that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds found in the delphinids in northeastern Brazil were lower than the delphinids found in other regions of Brazil, as well as other locations worldwide with intense agroindustrial development and/or a larger population. PMID:24291562

Santos-Neto, Elitieri B; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Bisi, Tatiana L; Santos, Jessica; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Guimarães, José Eugênio; Lailson-Brito, José

2014-02-15

135

Organochlorine residues in adult mallard and black duck wings, 1981–1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten organochlorine compounds were identified in pools of black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) wings from the 1981–82 hunting season. Most organochlorine compounds occurred very infrequently. Among those compounds positively identified by mass spectrometry, DDE and, secondarily, PCB had the highest frequencies of occurrence. Other compounds, positively identified and occurring less frequently, included DDT, DDD, DDMU, dieldrin, heptachlor

Richard M. Prouty; Christine M. Bunck

1986-01-01

136

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. (Agricultural Univ., Warsaw (Poland)); Ludwicki, J. (National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-12-01

137

A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the sorption of contaminants by different sediment size fractions. Field studies indicate that organic contaminants tend to sorb more to fine-grained sediment, and this correlates significantly with sediment organic matter content. Laboratory experiments have extended the field studies to a wider spectrum of natural particulates and anthropogenic compounds. Quantitation of isotherm results allows the comparison of different sediment sorbents as well as the estimation of field partition coefficients from laboratory-measured sediment and contaminant properties. Detailed analyses made on the basis of particle-size classes show that all sediment fractions need to be considered in evaluating the fate and distribution of manmade organic compounds. This conclusion is based on observations from field studies and on the variety of natural organic sorbents that demonstrate sorptive capabilities in laboratory isotherm experiments.

Witkowski, P. J.; Smith, J. A.; Fusillo, T. V.; Chiou, C. T.

1987-01-01

138

Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters  

SciTech Connect

The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

1987-11-01

139

Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediment and livers of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary assessment was made in 1992 of chlorinated organic compounds in sediments and in livers of striped bass from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. Samples of sediment and striped bass livers contained DDT (ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-) and its degradation products, DDD (ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-) and DDE (ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-); PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls); alpha and gamma chlordane, and cis and trans nonachlor. In addition, the livers of striped bass contained small concentrations of DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), a pre-emergent herbicide. Agricultural run-off from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, as well as atmospheric deposition, are probably responsible for a low chronic background of DDT in sediments throughout San Francisco Bay. Larger concentrations of DDT in sediment near Richmond in the Central Bay, and Coyote Creek in the South Bay may be derived from point sources. Ratios of pentachloro isomers of PCBs to hexachloro isomers in the South Bay sediments were different from those in the Central and North Bay, suggesting either differences in microbial activity in the sediments or different source inputs of PCBs. Concentrations of alpha chlordane in livers of striped bass were greater than those of gamma chlordane, which suggests a greater environmental stability and persistence of alpha chlordane. Trans nonachlor, a minor component of technical chlorodane, was present in greater concentrations than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor. Trans nonachlor is more resistant to metabolism than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor, and serves as an environmentally stable marker compound of chlordane contamination in the estuary. Chlorinated organic compounds have bioaccumulated in the livers of striped bass. These compounds may contribute to the decline of the striped bass in San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Cashman, J.R.; Nishioka, R.S.

1994-01-01

140

Temporal trends of organochlorine contamination in Black Guillemots in Iceland from 1976 to 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of several different persistent organochlorines (OCs) in Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle, collected during the summers of 1976–1996 at Breiðafjörður in W-Iceland, were investigated. The levels of about 40 different organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphenes, HCH, HCB) were compared with respect to age, sex, fat content, and year of collection. The levels of PCBs correlated very closely with those

Kristín Ólafsdóttir; Ævar Petersen; Elín V. Magnúsdóttir; Thorvaldur Björnsson; Torkell Jóhannesson

2005-01-01

141

Environmental and human exposure to persistent halogenated compounds derived from e-waste in China.  

PubMed

Various classes of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) can be released into the environment due to improper handling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste), which creates severe environmental problems and poses hazards to human health as well. In this review, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are the main target contaminants for examination. As the world's largest importer and recycler of e-waste, China has been under tremendous pressure to deal with this huge e-waste situation. This review assesses the magnitude of the e-waste problems in China based on data obtained from the last several years, during which many significant investigations have been conducted. Comparative analyses of the concentrations of several classes of toxic compounds, in which e-waste recycling sites are compared with reference sites in China, have indicated that improper e-waste handling affects the environment of dismantling sites more than that of control sites. An assessment of the annual mass loadings of PBDEs, PBBs, TBBPA, PBPs, PCDD/Fs, and ClPAHs from e-waste in China has shown that PBDEs are the dominant components of PHCs in e-waste, followed by ClPAHs and PCDD/Fs. The annual loadings of PBDEs, ClPAHs, and PCDD/Fs emission were estimated to range from 76,200 to 182,000, 900 to 2,000 and 3 to 8 kg/year, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs and ClPAHs should not be neglected because they are also primarily released from e-waste recycling processes. Overall, the magnitude of human exposure to these toxics in e-waste sites in China is at the high end of the global range. PMID:20821565

Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

2010-06-01

142

Baseline occurrence of organochlorine pesticides and other xenobiotics in the marine environment: Caribbean and Pacific collections.  

PubMed

This ongoing survey reports the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea surface slicks collected on a global circumnavigation. Hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds such as POPs are known to accumulate on the sea surface in slicks at concentrations many fold greater than the underlying water column, raising concerns about the ecological impacts due to the high biological activity associated with this zone. Six different categories of POPs were reported: chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane related compounds, organochlorine pesticides and other cyclodiene pesticides, DDTs and metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations ranged from <1ngL(-1) to 18.45?gL(-1). Ranking analysis indicates an independence of detected concentrations for each class of compounds and their geographical locations. Although concentrations observed were normally low and below commonly accepted toxic levels to animals and humans, they fall within the effective range of concentrations of many hormones and neurotransmitters, thus could potentially act as endocrine disrupters. PMID:23597795

Menzies, Robert; Soares Quinete, Natalia; Gardinali, Piero; Seba, Douglas

2013-05-15

143

Human blood and environmental media screening method for pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl compounds using liquid extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening assessment methods have been developed for semi- and non-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for human blood and solid environmental media. The specific methodology is developed for measuring the presence of “native” compounds, specifically, a variety of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), and for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The method is demonstrated on anonymous Red Cross blood samples as well

Siming Liu; Joachim D Pleil

2002-01-01

144

Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark); Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard [Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark); Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie [Department of Environmental and Occupational medicine, Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn 1260, 8000 Aarhus C, DK (Denmark)], E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

2008-10-15

145

Formation of organochlorine by-products in bleached laundry.  

PubMed

Laundering fabrics with chlorine bleach plays a role in health and hygiene as well as aesthetics. However, laundry bleaching may create chlorinated by-products with potentially adverse human health effects. Studies have shown that toxic chlorinated gases are produced in the headspace of washing machines when hypochlorite-containing bleach is used. Laundry bleaching has also been implicated in contributing dissolved organochlorine to municipal wastewater. However, there have been no reports of organochlorines produced and retained in fabric as a result of laundry bleaching. We have used a chlorine-specific X-ray spectroscopic analysis to demonstrate the formation of organochlorine by-products in cotton fabrics laundered with chlorine bleach under typical household conditions. Organochlorine formation increases at higher wash temperature. At least two pools of organochlorine are produced in bleached fabric: a labile fraction that diminishes over several months of storage time as well as a more stable fraction that persists after more than 1 year. Our results also suggest that residual hypochlorite remains in fabric after laundering with bleach, presenting the possibility of direct and sustained dermal contact with reactive chlorine. This study provides a first step toward identifying a new risk factor for elevated organochlorine body burdens in humans. PMID:23261123

Leri, Alessandra C; Anthony, Laura N

2013-02-01

146

Chlorinated and brominated persistent organic compounds in biological samples from the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven selected biological samples representing different ecosystems, trophic levels, and areas mainly in Sweden have been analyzed for 31 halogenated organic compounds or compound groups. The multiresidue analytical method provides a good opportunity to compare the concentrations of the different compounds in the investigated samples. By the use of ratios of these concentrations, comparisons can be done between species and

Bo Jansson; Renate Andersson; Lillemor Asplund; K. Litzen; Kerstin Nylund; U. Sellstroem; Ulla-Britt Uvemo; Cajsa Wahlberg; Ulla Wideqvist; T. Odsjoe; Mats Olsson

1993-01-01

147

Effect of persistent trace compounds in landfill gas on engine performance during energy recovery: a case study.  

PubMed

Performances of gas engines operated with landfill gas (LFG) are affected by the impurities in the LFG, reducing the economic viability of energy recovery. The purpose of this study was to characterize the trace compounds in the LFG at the Odayeri Landfill, Istanbul, Turkey which is used for energy recovery. Composite gas samples were collected and analyzed for trace compounds (hydrocarbons, siloxanes, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons) over a 3-year period. Trace compounds entering the gas engines, their impact on the engine performance were evaluated. The operational problems included deposit formation in the combustion chamber, turbocharger, and intercooler of engine before the scheduled maintenance times. High levels of hydrogen sulfide, as well as chlorinated and fluorinated compounds cause corrosion of the engine parts and decrease life of the engine oils. Persistence of siloxanes results in deposit formation, increasing engine maintenance costs. Pretreatment of LFG is necessary to protect the engines at the waste-to-energy facilities with persistence levels of siloxanes and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons. PMID:23063306

Sevimo?lu, Orhan; Tansel, Berrin

2013-01-01

148

Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls  

SciTech Connect

Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and -118. Conclusions: Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.

Windham, Gayle C., E-mail: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov [CA Department of Public Health, DEODC, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg. P, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Sjodin, Andreas [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Lum, Raymond [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)] [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Biro, Frank M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hiatt, Robert A. [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kushi, Lawrence H. [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

2010-04-15

149

Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974–79  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974–79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found

Rey C. Stendell; David S. Gilmer; Nancy A. Coon; Douglas M. Swineford

1988-01-01

150

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in southern California round stingrays (Urobatis halleri) exposed to planar aromatic compounds.  

PubMed

While contaminant concentrations have been reported for elasmobranchs around the world, no studies have examined bioaccumulation patterns across male and female age classes. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is a local benthic species that forages near areas of high organochlorine contamination and represents a good elasmobranch model. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and chlordanes were measured in juvenile and adult male and female stingrays from areas in southern California, USA (n?=?208), and a nearby offshore island, Santa Catalina (n?=?34). Both mainland juvenile male and female stingrays showed a significant dilution effect. After maturity, summed contaminant concentrations significantly increased with size for adult males (median 11.1?µg/g lipid wt) and females (5.2?µg/g lipid wt). However, the rate of bioaccumulation was substantially greater in male stingrays than in females, likely a result of the females' ability to offload contaminants to offspring during pregnancy. In addition, males and females showed significant differences in their contaminant profiles, suggesting differential habitat use. Male and female stingrays collected from Santa Catalina Island had significantly lower concentrations (0.51?µg/g and 0.66?µg/g lipid wt, respectively), approximately 5 times less than those of mainland animals. Potential toxicity effects mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor were explored through ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays. Mainland male stingrays exhibited significantly greater EROD activities than Catalina males (481?pmol/min/mg protein and 55?pmol/min/mg protein, respectively); however, activity levels in female stingrays from both locations were comparable (297?pmol/min/mg protein and 234?pmol/min/mg protein, respectively) and lower than those in mainland males. The results suggest that PCBs and/or other structurally related contaminants may be inducing a biological response in mainland males but not females, possibly the result of a dampening effect of estradiol; however, the exact physiological repercussions of exposure remain to be determined. PMID:24838923

Lyons, Kady; Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel; Lowe, Christopher G

2014-06-01

151

Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residues of 6 organochlorine compds. were detected in adult carcasses, 4 in eggs, 2 in brains, and one in nestlings of Colorado tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). DDE [72-55-9]accounted for 91% of total organochlorine compound residue in each of the 4 sample types. DDE was detected in 30 samples (94%) and DDT [50-29-3] in 2 samples (6%). Carcasses of breeding females and egg clutches had residues of 6 organochlorine compds. not found in nestling samples. Only residues of DDE were found in nestlings. DDT and DDE were the only organochlorine compds. recovered in brain samples. Measurements of tree swallow eggshells showed that unattended eggs were not significantly different from those of attended or historical eggs. The implications of the observed organochlorine compound contamination are discussed.

DeWeese, L.R.; Cohen, R.R.; Stafford, C.J.

1985-01-01

152

Arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines.  

PubMed

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides through traditional food resources was examined for Arctic Indigenous women living in two cultural and environmental areas of the Canadian Arctic--one community representing Baffin Island Inuit in eastern Arctic and two communities representing Sahtú Dene/Métis in western Arctic. Polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene, chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin were determined in local food resources as normally prepared and eaten. Quantified dietary recalls taken seasonally reflected normal consumption patterns of these food resources by women in three age groups: 20-40 y, 41-60 y and > or = 61 y. There was wide variation of intake of all organochlorine contaminants in both areas and among age groups for the Sahtú. Fifty percent of the intake recalls collected from the Baffin Inuit exceeded the acceptable daily intake for chlordane-related compounds and toxaphene, and a substantial percentage of the intake records for dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls exceeded the acceptable or tolerable daily intake levels. Primary contributing foods to organochlorine contaminants intake for the Baffin Inuit were meat and blubber of ringed seal, blubber of walrus and mattak and blubber of narwal. Important foods contributing organochlorine contaminant to the Sahtú Dene/Métis were caribou, whitefish, inconnu, trout and duck. The superior nutritional benefits and potential health risks of traditional food items are reviewed, as are implications for monitoring organochlorine contaminant contents of food, clinical symptoms and food use. PMID:7562084

Kuhnlein, H V; Receveur, O; Muir, D C; Chan, H M; Soueida, R

1995-10-01

153

PCBs and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ducks of Fereydoon-kenar Wildlife Refuge in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCB were determined in three duck species: Pintail (Anas acuta), Common Teal (Anas creaca), and Mallard (Anas platyhynchos). Both persistent organochlorines were more abundant in muscle than in the liver; Mallard had the highest levels of PCBs\\u000a [84.0 ± 39.0 ng\\/g wet weight (ww)], and Common Teal showed the highest levels of DDTs (561.0 ± 220.0 ng\\/g ww). This exposure

Fateme Rajaei; Nader Bahramifar; Abbas Esmaili Sari; Seyed Mahmoud Ghasempouri

2010-01-01

154

Organochlorine residues in booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) eggs from southeastern Spain.  

PubMed

Most organochlorine (OC) use has been banned in Spain, but these compounds are persistent and may still adversely affect predatory birds. Data generally are lacking, however. Residues of hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 22 failed eggs of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from southeastern Spain; both species are declining in this region. Hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDE, and sum PCB congener concentrations were significantly higher in booted eagle than in goshawk eggs, and an inverse relationship was found between shell thickness and DDE concentrations in booted eagles. Organochlorides may have been associated with the failure of some booted eagle eggs, but concentrations in booted eagle and goshawk eggs decreased over the period during which populations have dwindled. Thus, although OCs may be a contributory factor, they are unlikely to be the primary cause of the recent population declines in southeastern Spain. PMID:17941741

Martinez-Lopez, Emma; Maria-Mojica, Pedro; Martinez, Jose E; Calvo, Jose F; Wright, Julian; Shore, Richard F; Romero, Diego; Garcia-Fernandez, Antonio J

2007-11-01

155

Occurrence and bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in fishes from Siskiwit Lake, Isle Royale, Lake Superior. [Salvelinus namaycush namaycush; Coregonus culpeaformis neohantoniensus  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of chlorinated organic compounds was measured in different size classes of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) and whitefish (Coregonus culpeaformis neohantoniensus) from Siskiwit Lake, a remote lake on Isle Royale in Lake Superior. Our results confirm the long-range transport of several chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in addition, indicate that technical chlordane constituents, octachlorostyrene, pentachloroanisole, and decachlorodiphenyl ether also are transported to remote locations. Chemical concentrations as a function of fish age (size) were not similar between species and were not consistent among compounds. Differences in bioaccumulation with age between species for a given compound indicated that physical-chemical properties alone do not determine bioaccumulation in a species; fish characteristics are also important. The relationship of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the octanol-water partition coefficient (K{sub OW}) was examined. The correlation was weak for pesticides and poor for PCB congeners when compared to published relationships based on laboratory data.

Swackhamer, D.L.; Hites, R.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA))

1988-05-01

156

Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. (National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-02-01

157

Organochlorine contamination in bird's eggs from the Danube Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we report the levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of aquatic birds from the Danube Delta, a major European wetland. The eggs were collected in 1997 and belonged to the following species: the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the greylag goose (Anser anser), the mute swan (Cygnus olor), the coot (Fulica atra), the glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), the spoonbill

S Aurigi; S Focardi; D Hulea; A Renzoni

2000-01-01

158

Temperature and organic matter dependence of the distribution of organochlorine compounds in mountain soils from the subtropical Atlantic (Teide, Tenerife Island).  

PubMed

Surface soil samples from Teide mountain (Canary Islands) have been analyzed for polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and pentachlorobenzene. The samples were situated between 10 and 3400 m above sea level being distributed below, at, and above the permanent inversion layer system characteristic of the subtropical Atlantic. All OC concentrations were, in general, low when compared with the data from urban, agricultural, or woodland soils reported elsewhere. Typical ranges were 0.04-9.2, 0.01-40, 0.001-1, or 0.01-3.2 ng x g(-1) dry weight for total PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, or HCB, respectively. These compounds exhibited a high dependence from the soil total organic carbon (TOC), showing high coefficients in the log(OC) versus log(TOC) correlations. The slopes of the curve fitted straight lines were, in turn, highly correlated to the log-transformed octanol-air coefficients of the compounds. This overall OC distribution points to steady-state conditions for the concentrations of these compounds in these mountain soils, in equilibrium with TOC. The equilibrium conditions are reached, despite the restrictions to convective air movement associated to the permanent atmospheric inversion layer at these latitudes. In addition, the log-transformed TOC-normalized concentrations of most PCBs, HCB, and pentachlorobenzene exhibit a good correlation with the reciprocal of average annual atmospheric temperatures also showing a temperature dependence for their distribution in the high mountain system. The calculated pseudo-enthalpies for this dependence, 120-160 kJ x mol(-1), exhibit higher values than those of octanol-air phase change calculated from laboratory experiments in previous studies, 66-93 kJ x mol(-1). The difference suggests a higher affinity of OC to soils than that corresponding to simple adsorption mechanisms. PMID:12026965

Ribes, Alejandra; Grimalt, Joan O; Torres García, Carlos J; Cuevas, Emilio

2002-05-01

159

Organochlorine compounds in liver and concentrations of vitellogenin and 17beta-estradiol in plasma of sea bass fed with a commercial or with a natural diet.  

PubMed

Results from previous experiments directed to determine the effect of different nutritional factors or the effect of xenobiotics on hormonal control of reproduction, lead to the hypothesis that hormonal perturbations repeatedly observed in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) broodstock feeding commercial diets could have been caused by the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, such as dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the diet. To evaluate this hypothesis, dioxins and related compounds were analysed in liver of female sea bass fed with a commercial or with a natural diet consisting of trash fish (bogue, Boops boops), and concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) were determined in plasma obtained previously in monthly samplings of these animals. As observed in other experiments, females fed with a commercial diet exhibited lower VTG and higher E2 plasma levels than females fed with the natural diet. In liver, sea bass fed with the commercial diet exhibited a profile clearly dominated by high-chlorinated dioxins while in fish fed with the natural diet this profile was dominated by low chlorinated furans. However, typical AhR ligands, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin showed no differences between groups or, as is the case of planar PCBs, showed higher concentrations in the liver of fish fed with the natural diet. These results do not permit to explain the observed hormonal alterations by a possible antiestrogenic effect caused by dioxins and related compounds. PMID:16213605

Navas, J M; Merino, R; Jiménez, B; Rivera, J; Abad, E; Zanuy, S; Carrillo, M

2005-11-30

160

Immune function and organochlorine pollutants in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls.  

PubMed

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000 and 2001 we injected two novel nonpathogenic antigens (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) into the pectoral muscle of gulls and measured the primary antibody responses. We then related these measurements to the blood concentrations of three pesticides (hexachlorobenzene [HCB], oxychlordane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) and seven different polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB 101, 99, 118, 153, 138, 180, and 170). There were significant or near significant positive relationships (0.1 > p > 0.001) between most persistent OCs and the levels of heterophils in the blood for both sexes in 1997 and for male gulls in 2001. Similarly, levels of all persistent OCs and lymphocytes were positively related (0.1 > p > 0.001) in both sexes in 1997. This suggests that OCs are causing alterations to immune systems, which may decrease their efficiency and make the birds more susceptible to parasites and diseases. In female gulls, the antibody response to the diphtheria toxoid was significant and negative for HCB (p < 0.01) and weaker, but significant, for oxychlordane (p < 0.05), suggesting that OCs were causing an impairment of the humoral immunity. Various OCs have been linked to negative effects in our study population, including decreased survival and reproduction, and this study suggests that such compounds also affect immune status and function. PMID:15499504

Bustnes, J O; Hanssen, S A; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E; Hasselquist, D; Skaare, J U

2004-11-01

161

Organochlorines, including chlordane compounds and their metabolites, in peregrine-falcon, prairie-falcon, and clapper-rail eggs from the USA.  

PubMed

Four compounds present in technical chlordane (trans- and cis-nonachlor, and tentatively MC-2 and MC-5) and three metabolites of chlordane (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, and U-4) were identified by GC/MS in peregrine-falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum) eggs. Levels of Heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were quantified by GC/ECD in peregrine-falcon eggs from the US east coast, Colorado, and California; and in prairie-falcon (Falco mexicanus) and light-footed-clapper-rail (Rallus longirostris levipes) eggs from California. The eggs were collected between 1986 and 1989. Oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor, MC-2, and MC-5 were detected in every egg analyzed. Heptachlor, trans-, and cis-chlordane were either not detected, or present at low levels in the eggs. The highest Sigmachlordane levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a geometric mean (geom. mean) concentrations of 1800 microg/kg (ppb); the lowest levels of Sigmachlordane were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 120 microg/kg (geom. mean). Of the technical chlordane compounds measured, MC-2 bioaccumulated to the greatest degree. SigmaDDT levels in the falcons ranged from 11 000 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the Colorado samples to 8800 microg/kg (geom. mean) in the East Coast and California peregrines. SigmaDDT levels in the rail eggs were 3000 microg/kg (geom. mean). The highest SigmaPCB levels were found in the East Coast peregrine-falcon eggs at a concentration of 14 000 microg/kg (geom. mean); the lowest levels of SigmaPCB were found in the prairie-falcon eggs at a concentration of 350 microg/kg (geom. mean). PMID:15091821

Jarman, W M; Norstrom, R J; Simon, M; Burns, S A; Bacon, C A; Simoneit, B R

1993-01-01

162

Photochemical Transformation of Organochlorine POPs in Frozen Aqueous Systems: Field Studies at Barrow, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile and semi-volatile organochlorine compounds such as aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan and PCBs have frequently been identified as pollutants in remote polar regions, far from their anthropogenic sources. Bioaccumulation of these compounds has been previously documented and poses a potential threat to the health of individuals in Arctic subsistence communities as well as to the broader polar ecosystem. These compounds are normally regarded as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in that they are environmentally long-lived and only undergo significant transformation once they enter living organisms. However, recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that some organochlorine POPs - including but not limited to aldrin and dieldrin - are degraded by near-ultraviolet light in both liquid and frozen aqueous media. From March - June 2008, a field campaign was conducted near Barrow, Alaska to determine whether the reactions observed in the laboratory also occurred under environmental conditions. The photochemical degradation of microgram quantities of aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan (alpha and beta), hexachlorobenzene and 3,3',4,5'- tetrachlorobiphenyl dissolved in either MilliQ purified water or locally-collected melted snow was monitored under ambient temperature and light conditions. Of these, all but the PCB are shown to be degraded by sunlight. We present decay rates and estimated half-lives for these pollutants both at the snow's surface and at nominal depths of up to 10cm into the snowpack. Further, we have data confirming that in almost all cases, degradation occurs faster in predominantly frozen systems than in liquid ones. The significance of these results and their potential implications for Arctic environmental systems will be discussed.

Rowland, G. A.; Bausch, A. R.; Grannas, A. M.

2008-12-01

163

Photochemical Transformation of Organochlorine POPs in Frozen Aqueous Systems: Field Studies at Barrow, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile and semi-volatile organochlorine compounds such as aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan and PCBs have frequently been identified as pollutants in remote polar regions, far from their anthropogenic sources. Bioaccumulation of these compounds has been previously documented and poses a potential threat to the health of individuals in Arctic subsistence communities as well as to the broader polar ecosystem. These compounds are

G. A. Rowland; A. R. Bausch; A. M. Grannas

2008-01-01

164

Levels of organochlorine insecticides in milk of mothers from urban and rural areas of Botucatu, SP, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The use of organochlorine insecticides has been common since the forties. But this has become a serious problem of public health, due to the fact that insecticides accumulate in tissues owing to their fat-soluble character, their persistence in the environment and their accumulation in the food-chain. The continuous development of gas chromatographic techniques allowed the detection of ppb levels of these insecticide residues. Studies with laboratory animals have been useful to establish the toxicity of these compounds. Human milk can be used as an evaluation index of environmental contamination by these insecticides, although the main objective of its analysis is to determine the amounts ingested by children. When evaluating the levels of organochlorine insecticides in human milk it is useful to establish where the mothers live. Theoretically, mothers who live in a rural area have much more contact with these insecticides, because they work directly in agriculture. Therefore, the risk of exposure by their nursing children will be even greater. In Brazil, farmers do not have enough knowledge to measure the risks brought about by their indiscriminate use. In addition, government programs for the control of rural endemic diseases still make use of DDT and HCH on a large scale.

Sant'Ana, L.S.; Jokl, L. (Faculty of Pharmacy, UFMG, Botucatu (Brazil)); Vassilieff, I. (Institute of Biosciences, UNESP, Botucatu (Brazil))

1989-06-01

165

Fetal heart rate and motor activity associations with maternal organochlorine levels: results of an exploratory study.  

PubMed

Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines (OCs) and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 OCs, including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development. PMID:23591698

DiPietro, Janet A; Davis, Meghan F; Costigan, Kathleen A; Barr, Dana Boyd

2014-01-01

166

Detection of persistent organic compounds from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) and their degradation by manganese peroxidase and laccase producing bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) retains dark black colour with complex persistent organic pollutants even after anaerobic treatment. The specific ratio (4:3:1:1) of Proteus mirabilis (FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (FJ581031) decolourised BMDS up to 76% within 192 hr along with degradation of persistent organic compounds in presence of glucose (1%) and peptone (0.1%). The colour removal ability was noted due to ligninolytic enzyme activity. Where the maximum manganese peroxidase was 1.93 U ml(-1) and laccase activity equalled 0.84 U ml(-1). The gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the direct correlation between colourant and persistent organic pollutants due to simultaneous reduction of colour and pollutants present in BMDS. The seed germination test showed reduction of 75% toxicity after bacterial treatment process. PMID:24640253

Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

2013-07-01

167

Organochlorine transfer in the food web of subalpine Bow Lake, Banff National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from subalpine Bow Lake, near the Continental Divide in Banff National Park, have been reported to have higher concentrations of toxaphene than other lake trout populations of the Rocky Mountains. Our original hypothesis was that unusually high biomagnification via a long food chain was responsible for elevated levels of toxaphene and other persistent organochlorines in the

Linda M. Campbell; David W. Schindler; Derek C. G. Muir; David B. Donald; Karen A. Kidd

2000-01-01

168

Spatial trends and historical profiles of organochlorine pesticides in Arctic lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores were collected from eight remote lakes in Canada, along a mid-continental transect from 49°N to 82°N, with the objective of examining latitudinal and temporal differences in deposition of a wide range of persistent, semi-volatile, organochlorine (OC) pesticides such as DDT, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and toxaphene. Samples were collected with a specially constructed ? corer (30 ×

Derek C. G. Muir; Norbert P. Grift; W. Lyle Lockhart; Paul Wilkinson; Brian N. Billeck; Gregg J. Brunskill

1995-01-01

169

Derivation of a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) related to the maximum contaminant level goal for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent water soluble compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water soluble compounds persistent in humans and the environment pose a challenge for estimating safe levels in tap water. A viable approach to estimate a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to its extensive relevant information from human and laboratory animal studies. PFOA has been identified at 3.5?g\\/L (mean) in tap water in proximity to

Robert G. Tardiff; M. Leigh Carson; Lisa M. Sweeney; Christopher R. Kirman; Yu-Mei Tan; Melvin Andersen; Christopher Bevan; Michael L. Gargas

2009-01-01

170

Passive air sampling of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides across Europe.  

PubMed

This study presents concurrently sampled ambient air data for a range of persistent organic pollutants at the continental scale. This was achieved using a passive air sampling system, deploying polyurethane foam disks, which was prepared in one laboratory, sealed to prevent contamination, sent out by courier to volunteers participating in different countries, exposed for 6 weeks, collected, resealed, and returned to the laboratory for analysis. Europe was the study area--a region with a history of extensive POPs usage and emission and with marked national differences in population density, the degree of urbanization and industrial/agricultural development. Samplers were deployed at remote/rural/urban locations in 22 countries and analyzed for PCBs, a range of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, ppDDT, ppDDE), and PBDEs. Calculated air concentrations were in line with those obtained by conventional active air sampling techniques. The geographical pattern of all compounds reflected suspected regional emission patterns and highlighted localized hotspots. PCB and PBDE levels varied by over 2 orders of magnitude; the highest values were detected in areas of high usage and were linked to urbanized areas. HCB was relatively uniformly distributed, reflecting its persistence and high degree of mixing in air. Higher gamma-HCH, ppDDT, and ppDDE levels generally occurred in South and East Europe. PMID:14740714

Jaward, Foday M; Farrar, Nick J; Harner, Tom; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

2004-01-01

171

Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine chemical residues in oxbow lakes of Northeastern Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-eight samples of 16 species of animals were collected at Lake Providence, 88 samples of 15 species at Lake Bruin, and 21 samples of 5 species at Lake St. John, Louisiana, between 15 July and 25 September 1980. Residues of 13 organochlorine compounds were identified in these samples. Substantial concentrations of many of these compounds throughout the food webs of

Kenneth R. Niethammer; Donald H. White; Thomas S. Baskett; Mark W. Sayre

1984-01-01

172

Organochlorine residues in New York waterfowl harvested by hunters in 1983–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen organochlorine compounds were detected in fat and breast muscle tissues of Canada goose and five species of ducks that were shot by sportsman in New York. Residues of DDE and PCB occurred most frequently and were positively identified along with DDT, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene. Compounds that were detected but not positively confirmed by mass spectrometry were dieldrin,

Robert E. Foley

1992-01-01

173

Organochlorine contamination (PCBs, DDTs, HCB, HCHs) in sediments from Cienfuegos bay, Cuba.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments from Cienfuegos bay, Cuba. Their concentrations appeared to be relatively low by global standards and only sediments receiving the impact from the residual waters of the city and thermoelectrical power approached the sediment quality guidelines for PCBs and DDTs. Relatively higher SigmaDDT concentrations and high DDT/DDE+DDD ratios in two sites near the outfalls of the city indicated a current DDT usage, probably linked to public health emergencies. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. PMID:20598718

Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Alonso-Hernandez, C M

2010-09-01

174

Evidence for organochlorine contamination in Lake Tahoe, California  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine pollutants were measured in mature lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Tahoe, California. This is the first report of organochlorine contamination in this lake which is considered to be pristine; Lake Tahoe, an alpine lake, located in the Sierra Nevadas, has not been subject to direct contamination by industrial discharges or agricultural runoff. Multiresidue analysis of chlorinated compounds in the belly flap tissues of lake trout revealed wet weight concentrations of PCBs and DDE in the low ppb range using EIMS and SIM. Full spectra of specific PCB congeners and DDE were obtained using extracts of fish fat tissue. The presence of these pollutants in biota suggests that atmospheric transport may be a significant source of input to the Lake Tahoe ecosystem.

Datta, S.; Matsumura, F. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

1995-12-31

175

Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in anhingas and waders  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residues of organochlorine compounds occur commonly in environmental samples and have been associated with adverse effects in numerous avian species. The affected species are usually terminal consumers, generally those feeding on aquatic organisms (primarily fish) or birds. Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus , and certain herons are among the species that have exhibited shell thinning in some regions. In 1972, we began a study to determine: (1) geographic differences in the occurrence of environmental pollutants in Anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and waders in the eastern United States; (2) differences in environmental pollutant levels among those species nesting at the same localities; and (3) whether eggshell thickness had changed since the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides began in the mid-1940's.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

1977-01-01

176

Occurrence and possible fate of organochlorine pesticide residues at Manzala Lake in Egypt as a model study.  

PubMed

Persistence of the residue of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) became a great danger to our environment long ago. In this study, the persistence of OCPs at Manzala Lake in Egypt was determined. Four different sites were investigated: the El-Gamel, El-Kowar, El-Rasoah, and Janb El-Timsah regions. Among these, the El-Kowar region had the highest concentration of total OCPs in the sediment samples when compared to other regions during both 2012 and 2013. In fact, generally, the residues of OCPs in the sediment samples were significantly higher in all tested sites in comparison with other compartments. Conversely, OCP residues were undetectable in water samples at both the El-Gamel region and the El-Rasoah site in the studied seasons. The data proved that the sediment layer plays a sourcing role in OCP persistence in the aquatic ecosystem. Data analysis also indicated that there was an external source for OCP contamination in the Manzala Lake ecosystem that most likely comes from Nile Basin countries and which extends the expected half-life of these compounds. It could be exemplified by DDT, the half-life of which increased from 30 to approximately 47 years. PMID:25424498

Kamel, Essam; Moussa, Saad; Abonorag, Mostafa A; Konuk, Muhsin

2015-01-01

177

Latitudinal patterns of organochlorine contamination in plankton  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that the high Arctic will be the final sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs). Through evaporation and deposition processes, OCs may move from warm to cool climates with air mass movements. Fundamental questions that remain unanswered are how far north do OCs travel and do the relative proportions of OCs in biota change along a latitudinal gradient? To answer these questions, zooplankton were sampled from a series of lakes along a transect from the Great Lakes (43{degree}N) to Ellesmere Island (85{degree}N). Zooplankton are useful indicators of environmental levels of OCs because they are ubiquitous, easy to sample, and form an integral part of the food chain leading to fish. Moreover, deposition patterns of OCs are more realistically reflected by zooplankton than by higher trophic level organisms because less trophic modification can occur and zooplankton do not, like fish, selectively exclude or metabolize specific OCs. Zooplankton were analyzed for a suite of OC contaminants that encompass a wide range in their respective water solubilities, vapor pressures and k{sub ow} values. Results indicate that the proportions of specific compounds, relative to the total OCs, do change with latitude. In samples from high latitudes, highly volatile compounds are found in higher proportions than compounds with low vapor pressures.

Koening, B.G.; Lean, D.R.S. [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1994-12-31

178

Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 ?g kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 ?g kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 ?g kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants. PMID:23998305

Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

2013-01-01

179

Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples

Paul E. Stackelberg; Edward T. Furlong; Michael T. Meyer; Steven D. Zaugg; Alden K. Henderson; Dori B. Reissman

2004-01-01

180

Monitoring and remediation of organochlorine residues in water.  

PubMed

This study monitored the presence of organochlorines in drinking water in Kafr-El-Sheikh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem, and Metobess in the Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (i.e., lindane) in drinking water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine residues at all water sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorines in water. Nano photo-Fenton-like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drinking water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms removed 100% of the initial concentration of lindane after 23 days of treatment. The study found that there is no remaining toxicity of lindane-contaminated water after remediation on treated rats relative to the control with respect to histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Therefore, AOPs, particularly those with nanomaterials and bioremediation, can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies for lindane in water. PMID:25112026

Derbalah, Aly; Ismail, Ahmed; Hamza, Amany; Shaheen, Sabry

2014-07-01

181

Original article Organochlorine pesticide residues in Galician  

E-print Network

Original article Organochlorine pesticide residues in Galician (NW Spain) honeys MA Fernández Mui 10 May 1994; accepted 10 October 1994) Summary — Organochlorine pesticide residues were) honey samples. Of the 101 honey sam- ples, 13 were free from detectable residues. The pesticides found

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in urban air of Konya, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in urban air samples of Konya, Turkey between August 2006 and May 2007. The concentrations of pollutants in both the gas and particulate phase were separately analysed. The average total (gas + particulate) concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs were determined as 206 ng m - 3 , 0.106 ng m - 3 , 4.78 ng m - 3 respectively. All of the investigated target compounds were dominantly found in the gas phase except OCPs. Higher air concentrations of PAHs were found at winter season while the highest concentrations of PCBs were determined in September. The highest OCPs were detected in October and in March. In urban air of Konya, PCB 28 and PCB 52 congeners represent 46% and 35% of total PCBs while Phenanthrene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene accounted for 29%, 13%, 10% of total PAHs. HCH compounds (? + ? + ? + ?-HCH), total DDTs ( p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT), Endosulfan compounds (Endosulfan I, Endosulfan II, Endosulfan sulfate) were dominantly determined as 30%, 21%, 20% of total OCPs respectively. Considering the relation between these compounds with temperature, there was no significant correlation observed. Despite banned/restricted use in Turkey, some OCPs were determined in urban air. These results demonstrated that they are either illegally being used in the course of agricultural activity and gardens in Konya or they are residues of past use in environment. According to these results, it can be suggested that Konya is an actively contributing region to persistent organic pollutants in Turkey.

Ozcan, Senar; Aydin, Mehmet Emin

2009-08-01

183

Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring gulls and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring gulls. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring gulls, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring gulls. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants. PMID:8880006

Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P

1996-01-01

184

Organochlorine pesticide residues associated with mortality: Additivity of chlordane and endrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality may be correlated with residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in the brains of exposed animals. Experimental studies have compared brain residues of animals that died with those of survivors of id› or similar exposure. Based on the results of such studies, lethal residue levels that may be used for diagnostic purposes have been established for some compounds. DALE et

J. Larry Ludke

1976-01-01

185

Organochlorine contaminants in fish from an Arctic lake in Alaska, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in muscle tissue and livers of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Schrader Lake in Arctic Alaska. Results confirm the long-range transport of these contaminants to a US Arctic freshwater system. The most abundant group of compounds in all tissues was composed of PCBs.

Rose Wilson; Susan Allen-Gil; Donald Griffin; Dixon Landers

1995-01-01

186

Organochlorine residues in animals from three Louisiana watersheds in 1978 and 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination by various chemicals is a problem of constant occurrence. In order to determine the levels of harmful chemicals in the environment, monitoring programs have been set up throughout the United States. In 1964, the National Pesticide Monitoring Program was set up to include sites in Louisiana (such as watersheds) to assess the presenc& of organochlorine compounds including insecticides

Patrick F. Dowd; George U. Mayfield; Dwayne P. Coulon; Jerry B. Graves; John D. Newsom

1985-01-01

187

Organochlorine concentrations in Laurentian Great Lakes salmonines: Implications for fisheries management  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess species-specific differences in organochlorine (OC) concentrations and sport harvest of Lake Michigan salmonines, and how this may affect human exposure to OC compounds, creel survey and OC analysis data for salmon and trout collected from the western waters of Lake Michigan in 1985 and 1990 were examined. In all species, total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) attained the

Michael A. Miller; Natasha M. Kassulke; Mark D. Walkowski

1993-01-01

188

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 18, METHOD 608 - ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCB'S  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the results obtained and data analysis from an interlaboratory evaluation of EPA Method 608 (Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs). The method is designed to analyze for 16 single-compound pesticides, chlordane, toxaphene, and seven Aroclor formulations in wat...

189

Organochlorine residues in soils and ediments from manila and nearby Rovinces, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH isomers (HCHs: hexachlorocyclohex?anes), chlordane compounds (CHLs), HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in agricultural soils, dumpsite soils, and riverine sediments collected from Manila and its nearby provinces in the Philippines. Relatively low DDT and HCH residue levels were detected in agricultural soil samples examined. These findings reflect the decline in the usage of organochlorine

Deog Bae Lee; Maricar S. Prudente; Shinsuke Tanabe; Ryo Tatsukawa

1997-01-01

190

Residues of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Eggs of Water Birds from Tai Lake in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of water birds from the colony on Tai Lake in China were studied. The eggs were collected in 2000 and belonged to the following species: 65 samples of black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), 36 samples of little egret (Egretta garzetta), 26 samples of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) from 13 clutches and 43 samples

Y. H. Dong; H. Wang; Q. An; X. Ruiz; M. Fasola; Y. M. Zhang

2004-01-01

191

CORD BLOOD LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTIONS IN NEWBORNS FROM A REMOTE MARITIME POPULATION EXPOSED TO ORGANOCHLORINES AND METHYLMERCURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of fish and sea mammals can be an important source of exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) and heavy metals in populations relying on seafood for subsistence. Exposure to these substances, especially during the prenatal period, has been shown to induce immunotoxic effects in mammals. Immunological status was assessed in 48 newborns from a remote maritime population living on

Marthe Belles-Isles; Pierre Ayotte; Eric Dewailly; Jean-Philippe Weber; Raynald Roy

2002-01-01

192

Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as perfluoroalkyl acids and brominated compounds, and type 2 diabetes. Experimental data are needed to confirm the causality of these POPs, which will shed new light on the pathogenesis of diabetes. This new information should be considered by governmental bodies involved in the regulation of environmental contaminants. PMID:23651634

Novak, Raymond F.; Anderson, Henry A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Blystone, Chad; DeVito, Michael; Jacobs, David; Köhrle, Josef; Lee, Duk-Hee; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Turyk, Mary E.; Boyles, Abee L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lind, Lars

2013-01-01

193

Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79.  

PubMed

Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974-79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks. PMID:24248525

Stendell, R C; Gilmer, D S; Coon, N A; Swineford, D M

1988-01-01

194

Organochlorine residues in adult mallard and black duck wings, 1981-1982.  

PubMed

Ten organochlorine compounds were identified in pools of black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) wings from the 1981-82 hunting season. Most organochlorine compounds occurred very infrequently. Among those compounds positively identified by mass spectrometry, DDE and, secondarily, PCB had the highest frequencies of occurrence. Other compounds, positively identified and occurring less frequently, included DDT, DDD, DDMU, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, cis-chlordane and mirex. Compounds looked for but not positively identified include oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, endrin, hexachlorobenzene and toxaphene. PCB levels in black duck wings declined between the 1979-80 and 1981-82 collections. PCB levels in black duck wings from the northern region of the Atlantic Flyway were higher than those in wings from the southern region. Mean DDE residues in mallard wings declined between collections and differed among flyways and regions. PCB levels in mallard wings differed only among flyways and regions. PMID:24254543

Prouty, R M; Bunck, C M

1986-01-01

195

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected organochlorines in Lake Superior fish, USA  

SciTech Connect

Walleye, whitefish and whitefish livers, lake trout, and siscowet lake trout were collected from the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior. Carp were obtained from a Lake Michigan tributary near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Each fish species was analyzed for 89 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 12 selected organochlorines, and total lipids. Congener profiles varied greatly between the fish species. Carp and whitefish contained tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyl congeners, such as 28 + 31, 63, and 66 + 95 in the highest concentrations. Siscowet trout contained the more heavily chlorinated penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyl congeners such as 153, 89, 138 + 163, 180, 182 + 187, and 170. In addition to the highly chlorinated PCB congeners routinely examined in Great Lakes fish, many lower chlorinated, ortho-substituted PCB congeners are also commonly found. These lower chlorinated congeners have known effects in laboratory animals but may be overlooked by analytical techniques in which Aroclor standards or mixtures of selected congeners are used for quantitation. A congener-specific approach including both the lower chlorinated ortho-substituted PCB congeners and the more highly chlorinated congeners should be implemented to better assess the interactions and toxicities of individual congeners and other persistent compounds.

Gerstenberger, S.L.; Dellinger, J.A. [Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine; Gallinat, M.P. [Red Cliff Tribal Fisheries Dept., Bayfield, WI (United States)

1997-11-01

196

Endocrine disruption induced by organochlorines (OCs): field studies and experimental models.  

PubMed

Long-range transport of persistent organic compounds by air and ocean currents from industrialized areas resulted in high levels of these pollutants in food webs in the Svalbard area. With the aim to test if organochlorine (OC) exposure in free-living polar bears from Svalbard affected their plasma steroid hormone concentrations, it was found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were associated with increased progesterone levels in females. The sum of pesticides (sigma pesticides) and sigma PCBs contributed significantly negative to the variation of the plasma testosterone in males, and the overall contribution of the OCs to the plasma cortisol variation was negative. A second objective was to study the effects of selected OCs (i.e., PCB 153 and PCB 126) on animal health as a consequence of effects on endocrine-regulated functions such as reproduction and immunity in a goat model focusing on long-term and low-level exposure during the periods of fetal development and in the neonatal period. Additionally, acute exposure was studied in adult mice. The results indicated that exposure to low doses of PCB 153 in utero and in the suckling period influenced reproductive functions and both PCB 153 and PCB 126 exerted immunomodulatory effects on the offspring, whereas acute exposure of adult mice had minor effects on male reproductive function. PMID:16291562

Ropstad, Erik; Oskam, Irma C; Lyche, Jan L; Larsen, Hans J; Lie, Elisabeth; Haave, Marte; Dahl, Ellen; Wiger, Richard; Skaare, Janneche Utne

2006-01-01

197

Assessment of the toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in clams Ruditapes philippinarum.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at evaluating the effects of endosulfan in clams (Ruditapes philippinarum). For this purpose, a study was performed on clams exposed to 0.005, 0.05 and 0.5?g/L endosulfan for 15 days. S ubsequently, the level of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA strand break was determined in gills and digestive glands. Among the parameters, endosulfan caused significant changes in induction of EROD activity and oxidative stress in clams R. philippinarum. The exposure to endosulfan increased the concentration of EROD, GST, GSH, MDA and decreased the concentration of SOD. Moreover, according to the correlation analysis results, the EROD activity and GSH content in digestive gland as well as GST activity, LPO and DNA damage in both tissues had excellent correlation with endosulfan concentration. These results provided information on potential biomarkers that could be effectively applied to the biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystem in areas susceptible to persistent organochlorine compounds contamination, and also information on toxic effects. PMID:23642779

Tao, Yanxia; Pan, Luqing; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Shuangmei

2013-07-01

198

Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from Chicago, Illinois.  

PubMed

Breast muscle samples, with or without overlying adipose tissue and skin, were obtained from Canada geese collected in northeastern illinois while undergoing feather molt. Specimens were evaluated for contaminant concentrations to determine if they would be acceptable as human food provided through government-subsidized programs. Samples were baked, allowing fat to drip free, and assayed for persistent organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. Residues of heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, DDE and PCBs (as Arochlor 1248) were detected. The specimens contained relatively low concentrations of contaminants, such that US Department of Agriculture residue limits for meat were exceeded in only 1 sample. Baking of breast muscle without the overlying skin and adipose tissue resulted in reductions in concentrations of detectable compounds. Fewer samples baked with the skin attached had detectable concentrations of heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and PCB then samples cooked without skin; however, the converse was true for DDE. Periodic monitoring for environmental contaminants such as PCBs, exclusion of geese from localities where samples have contaminants such as PCBs, exclusion of geese from localities where samples have contaminants at concentrations that exceed recommended dietary limits, the use of processing and/or cooking methods which remove large amounts of lipid, and advisories that provide information on known health risks are recommended if wild resident Canada geese from the Chicago area are provided as food for underprivileged humans. PMID:10192133

Levengood, J M; Ross, S C; Stahl, M L; Beasley, V R

1999-04-01

199

Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of Ganges river (India)  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine(OC) insecticides have been extensively used in India since 1954 in agriculture as well as public health sector. The use of OCs which are banned or restricted in most developed countries are still being used in this country. The major factors responsible for detrimental effects on the environment from use of these chemicals are that they are very persistent, extremely toxic to fish, used more as preventive measures rather than cure in controlling insects and some of them were found to biomagnify in organisms. Their accumulation about 26 mg DDT in their body through food items. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic compounds but may also be synthesized by some bacteria, algae and plants. PAHs are on the USEPA and EC priority pollutants list since some PAHs are known or suspected carcinogens/mutagens. In surface waters, they are known to be strongly adsorbed on sediment clays and other particles while their degradation in sediment also occur. Therefore, during low stream flow, fluvial materials settle down and may contain concentrations of OCs and PAHs. Hence, it is necessary to include sediment in the determination of organic contaminants in surface waters. This paper refers to a monitoring programme for screening the OCs and PAHs concentrations in the Ganges river sediments. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Ahmad, S.; Ajmal, M. [A.M.U., Aligarh (India)] [A.M.U., Aligarh (India); Nomani, A.A.

1996-12-31

200

Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seafood from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).  

PubMed

Seven target polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) and the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its related metabolites (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) were quantified in edible tissues from seven marine species (European hake, red mullet, blue whiting, Atlantic mackerel, blue and red shrimp, European flying squid, and Mediterranean mussel) from the Gulf of Naples in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). PCBs 118, 138, and 153 were the dominant congeners in all the species examined. The concentrations of all PCBs (from not detectable to 15,427 ng g(-1) fat weight) exceeded those of all the DDTs (from not detectable to 1,769 ng g(-1) fat weight) and HCB (not detectable to 150.60 ng g(-1) fat weight) in the samples analyzed. The OCP concentrations were below the maximum residue limits established for fish and aquatic products by the Decreto Ministerale 13 May 2005 in all the samples analyzed; therefore the OCPs in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea species are unlikely to be a significant health hazard. Conversely, the mean concentrations of PCBs exceeded (greatly in some cases) the current limits (200 ng(-1) fat weight) set by the European Union for terrestrial foods. Although the manufacture and use of PCBs are banned or highly restricted, these compounds still are important persistent chemical contaminants in the Gulf of Naples. PMID:17388063

Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cirillo, Teresa; Naso, Barbara; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Lucisano, Antonia; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

2007-03-01

201

Comparison of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls residues in vegetables, grain and soil from organic and conventional farming in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic and conventional crops were studied by identifying the relationship between persistent organic pollutants in cereals, vegetables and soil. The residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in grains (rye and wheat), vegetables (carrots and beets) and soil collected from the fields. PCB residues recorded in the beets from organic farming were as high as 3.71 ppb

Agata Witczak; Hassan Abdel-Gawad

2012-01-01

202

Intraspecific Variation in Trophic Feeding Levels and Organochlorine Concentrations in Glaucous Gulls ( Larus hyperboreus ) from Bjørnøya, the Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomagnification contributes to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OC) in some Arctic vertebrates. Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) on Bjørnøya in the western Barents Sea were studied to compare the intraspecific variation in OC concentration with variation in trophic feeding levels, estimated from ratios of nitrogen isotopes. Liver tissue samples from 40 adult glaucous gulls were analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane,

Kjetil Sagerup; Espen O. Henriksen; Janneche U. Skaare; Geir W. Gabrielsen

2002-01-01

203

SPATIAL TRENDS AND ASSOCIATED BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ORGANOCHLORINES AND BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS IN HATCHLINGS OF NORTH ATLANTIC KITTIWAKES (RISSA TRIDACTYLA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), some organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), were analyzed in yolk sacs of kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) hatchlings from Kongsfjorden at Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic; 798N) and from Runde, an island on the coast of Norway (628N). Retinol (vitamin A), retinyl palmitate, and a-tocopherol (vitamin E) were measured in

Kari Mette Murvoll; Janneche Utne Skaare; Børge Moe; Endre Anderssen; Bjorn Munro Jenssen

2006-01-01

204

Chronic effects of organochlorine exposure in sediment to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata  

SciTech Connect

Organisms exposed to organochlorinated compounds in sediments are likely to suffer chronic rather than acute effects. Thus, acute toxicity tests are unlikely to truly assess their potential impact. A 120-d toxicity test was designed to assess the impact of polychlorinated biphenyl on the marine polychaete Neanthes arenacedodentata. A two-tiered approach was used: Tier 1 involved reference sediment spiked with a range of concentrations of the organochlorine bracketing the concentrations found in natural sediments, and tier 2 involved field sediments collected from a coastal area contaminated with high concentrations of the same organochlorine. Testing measured a number of endpoints, including survival, growth, and reproduction. Survival and growth were unaffected in either tier by any of the test sediments. Reproductive endpoints, however, were depressed in both tiers relative to the reference sediment.

Murdoch, M.H.; Chapman, P.M. [EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Johns, D.M. [EVS Environment Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States); Paine, M.D. [Paine, Ledge and Associates, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1997-07-01

205

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in Falconiforme and Ciconiforme eggs (Spain)  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls have been documented to have adverse effects of the reproduction and survival of wild birds. Also, environmental contamination from heavy metals has been shown to be a threat to the survival and reproduction of certain birds. The hazard to Falconiforme and Ciconiforme birds is high because a) they are sensitive to eggshell thinning b) they are high in the food chain. The present paper reports the levels of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals in 69 eggs of five species of the avian Falconiforme order and two species of the avian Ciconiforme order collected at Donana National Park and Castile Plateau (Spain). Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in eggs of Falconiforme and Ciconiforme birds of Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the contaminants detected on reproductive potential; (3) to evaluate regional patterns of residues.

Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Aranda, A.

1988-01-01

206

Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds manufactured in South China.  

PubMed

Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in fish feeds (including trash fish and compound feed) manufactured in South China, were analyzed. PHHs were ubiquitous in fish feeds, with the concentrations of OCPs, PBDEs, and PCBs at the upper, mid, and lower levels of the global range. Trash fish generally contained higher concentrations of DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU), especially p,p'-DDT and low-brominated PBDEs, while compound feeds had higher concentrations of highly brominated BDEs, e.g., BDE-209. In addition, no concentration difference of HCHs and PCBs was found between trash fish and compound feeds. The habit of direct use of trash fish as fish feeds has induced the accumulation of DDXs in aquatic species in China, and trash fish collected in South China seemed to be slightly hazardous to wildlife because of the concentrations of DDXs. The results from the present study suggest that the use pattern of fish feeds in China may have to be adjusted to minimize contamination of fishery products and wildlife by PHHs. Use of compound feeds produced with controlled procedures should be encouraged, whereas that of trash fish should be restricted, at least for now. PMID:19326952

Guo, Ying; Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Zeng, Eddy Y

2009-05-13

207

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ?DDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (?0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. PMID:24103440

Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

2014-01-01

208

Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely available\\u000a and are the result of a vast amount of environmental analytical method development and research on persistent organic pollutants\\u000a (POPs) over the past 30–40 years. This review summarizes procedures and examines new approaches for extraction, isolation,\\u000a identification and quantification of individual congeners\\/isomers of the PCBs

Derek Muir; Ed Sverko

2006-01-01

209

Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (? -HCH, ? -HCH, ? -HCH, p,p?-DDT, o,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDD, p,p?-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras,

Carolina Lourencetti; Rodrigo Favoreto; Mary R. R. Marchi; Maria L. Ribeiro

2007-01-01

210

Organochlorine contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (DDT, chlordane, polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), dieldrin, hexachloroheclohexanes (SigmaHCH), mirex), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and chlorobenzenes (SigmaCBz) were determined in blubber and liver of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) collected during 1982-1983 from Pond Inlet on northern Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. PCCs were the predominate organochlorines in narwhal blubber, ranging in concentration from 2990 to 13 200 ng g(-1) (wet wt) in males and from 1910 to 8390 ng g(-1) in females. PCCs consisted of two major components, an octachlorobornane and a nonachlorobornane with gas chromatographic retention times of 1.05 and 1.22, relative to 4,4'-DDE. SigmaPCB concentrations in blubber ranged from 2250 to 7290 ng g(-1) in males and from 894 to 5710 ng g(-1) in females. Seven PCB congeners (tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls) accounted for 45% of total PCB (SigmaPCB) in narwhal blubber. Narwhal had 1.4- to 8.6-fold higher ratios of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls to PCB-153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl), lower 4,4'-DDE/SigmaDDT ratios and lower proportions of trans-nonachlor to total chlordane components than reported for odontocetes living in more contaminated environments. Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in narwhal were 6- to 15-fold lower than in dolphins from the Canadian east coast and belugas from the St Lawrence River estuary, respectively, while PCC levels were from 4- to about 2-fold lower, and SigmaHCH, dieldrin and SigmaCBz differed by <2-fold. The pattern of organochlorines in narwhal tissues suggests they are exposed to proportionally more volatile compounds, and may have less capacity to metabolize some of these compounds, relative to odontocetes living nearer sources of these contaminants. PMID:15092019

Muir, D C; Ford, C A; Grift, N P; Stewart, R E; Bidleman, T F

1992-01-01

211

Predicting the probability of detecting organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in stream systems on the basis of land use in the Pacific Northwest, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyzed streambed sediment and fish tissue (Cottus sp.) at 30 sites in the Puget Sound and Willamette basins in Washington and Oregon, USA, respectively, for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The study was designed to determine the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish tissue and sediment by land use within these basins and to develop an empirical relation between land use and the probability of detecting these compounds in fish tissue or sediment. We identified 14 organochlorines in fish tissue and sediment; three compounds were unique to either fish tissue or sediment samples. The highest number of organochlorines detected in both fish tissue and streambed sediment was at those sites located in watersheds dominated by urban land uses. Using logistic regression, we found a significant relation between percentage agriculture and urban land use and organochlorines in fish tissue. The results of this study indicate that organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are still found in fish tissues and bed sediments in these two basins. In addition, we produced statistically significant models capable of predicting the probability of detecting specific organochlorines in fish on the basis of land use. Although the presented models are specific to the two study basins, the modeling approach could be applied to other basins as well.

Black, R.W.; Haggland, A.L.; Voss, F.D.

2000-01-01

212

Organochlorine residues in roof timbers and possible implications for bats.  

PubMed

In Britain, many species of bat regularly use buildings as roosts. DDT, DDE, dieldrin (HEOD) and gamma-HCH (lindane) have been detected in carcasses of bats that had died a short while before they were found. Roof timbers may be a source of this contamination. This study reports concentrations of organochlorines in (i) roof timbers known to have been treated in the past (spot samples; n - 17) and (ii) timbers before and after treatment with commercial permethrin formulations (pre-treatment and post-treatment samples, n = 11). Gamma-HCH was detected in 13 spot samples and HEOD in 6. Where present, mean (+/-1 SE) concentrations in wood were 15.6+/-6.5 microg g-1 WW (n = 13) and 25.0+/-11.8 microg g-1 WW (n = 6), respectively. DDT was not detected in any spot samples, but permethrin was detected in four (1264+/-567 microg g(-1) WW) samples, but not in the corresponding pre-treatment samples; in one other pair of samples, concentrations of gamma-HCH increased from 74 to 2468 microg g-1 WW after treatment. Both DDT and HEOD occurred in low (<2 microg g-1 WW) concentrations in five post-treatment samples and in one and zero pre-treatment samples, respectively; the highest dieldrin concentration measured was 30.9 microg g-1 WW. Permethrin was not detectable in any pre-treatment samples but was present in ten post-treatment samples in concentrations ranging from 93 to 2995 microg g-1 WW. The spot results suggest that low concentrations of organochlorines can persist in treated roof timbers for at least 13 years post-treatment. Occasionally, these pesticide residues in timber may be of sufficient magnitude to result in bats absorbing a substantial proportion of a lethal dose. Results also suggest that there is organochlorine contamination of permethrin formulations and that the solvents used in new applications of pesticide may re-mobilise organochlorines already present in wood. PMID:15092302

Shore, R F; Boyd, I L; Leach, D V; Stebbings, R E; Myhill, D G

1990-01-01

213

Persistent Commissioning, Persistent Value  

E-print Network

) tools, diagnostic software, and O&M best practices which enable customers to make intelligent energy management choices and ensure persistent savings. PG&E's MBCx Program funds EnerNOC to provide both a software as a service (SaaS) platform, called...

Morgan, W. R.

2013-01-01

214

The occurrence of organochlorines in marine avian top predators along a latitudinal gradient.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the role of cold condensation and fractionation on the occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in avian marine top predators along a latitudinal gradient. We measured 24 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and six pesticide OCs in blood of great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) from the Norwegian Coast (58 degrees N-70 degrees N) and glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjornoya in the Norwegian Arctic (74 degrees N). Glaucous gulls had up to 3 times higher sigmaOC concentrations compared to the great black-backed gulls, and a OC pattern dominated largely by persistent and low volatile compounds such as highly chlorinated PCBs and metabolites such as oxychlordane. This was not consistent with cold condensation and fractionation theory, but probably related to diet and elevated biomagnification. Among great black-backed gulls, however, there were indications of both cold condensation and fractionation. Higher and lower chlorinated PCBs had highest absolute concentrations in the south and in the north, respectively, except for one location at an intermediate latitude, where concentrations of most OCs exceeded all other locations. In terms of proportional contribution to sigmaOC (pattern), relatively volatile OCs such as HCB, oxychlordane and tri- to penta- PCB congeners were more important at northern latitudes, while hexa- to nona-PCBs made up a larger proportion of sigmaOC in the south. The results thus showed that differences in global distribution of compounds with different physicochemical properties could be detected in avian top predators such as large gulls, even if biomagnification and biotransformation influence both the absolute concentrations and the patterns of OCs. PMID:16955919

Steffen, Cecilie; Borgå, Katrine; Skaare, Janneche U; Bustnes, Jan Ove

2006-08-15

215

Intra- and inter-species differences in persistent organic contaminants in the blubber of blue whales and humpback whales from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.  

PubMed

Biopsy samples of blubber from adult male and female blue whales, and from female and young-of-the-year humpback whales were collected during the summers of 1992-1999 in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. In blue whales, concentrations of 25 PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites and several other organochlorine compounds were present at higher concentrations in the blubber of males relative to females; reflecting maternal transfer of these persistent contaminants from females into young. Sex-related differences in concentrations were not observed with less persistent contaminants, such as HCHs. In humpback whale samples, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine compounds in the blubber of females and calves. These data indicate that calves quickly bioaccumulate contaminants by transplacental and lactational routes to concentrations that are in equilibrium with females. In comparisons between contaminant concentrations and patterns in the blubber of female blue and humpback whales, there were no significant differences in concentrations, but the proportions of some PCB congeners, HCH isomers, and DDT and its metabolites were different in the two baleen whale species. These may reflect differences in the diet of the two species, since fish comprise a large part of the diet of humpback whales and blue whales feed exclusively on euphausiid crustaceans (i.e. krill). PMID:14749058

Metcalfe, Chris; Koenig, Brenda; Metcalfe, Tracy; Paterson, Gordon; Sears, Richard

2004-05-01

216

Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod)

K Borgå; G. W Gabrielsen; J. U Skaare

2001-01-01

217

Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Milk from Central Italy: Levels and Time Trends  

PubMed Central

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as HCB, p,p?-DDE, and PCBs were measured in Italian breast milk. This work is part of a study on human milk, adipose tissues, and food carried out in the same area over the last 20 years. The results showed the prevalence of p,p?-DDE and PCBs over HCB. Comparison of our results with those of previous studies carried out in the same area showed that concentrations are decreasing. No statistically significant differences in organochlorine levels were found when the samples were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories “primiparae” and “multiparae”. In order to quantify the amount of the molecules of interest transmitted by mother to child during breast feeding, we estimated the daily intake of each class of compounds: our results indicated that HCB and p,p?-DDE were several times lower than the safety thresholds. PMID:23724278

Guerranti, Cristiana; Palmieri, Michela; Mariottini, Michela; Focardi, Silvano Ettore

2011-01-01

218

Whole blood concentrations of organochlorines as a dose metric for studies of the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus).  

PubMed

In order to examine if whole blood concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) is an appropriate dosimetric parameter for use in ecotoxicological studies of free-living birds, a number of incubating glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were repeatedly sampled within and between subsequent breeding seasons. The wet weight concentrations of selected OCs, differing in persistence and fat solubility, were compared and it was assessed to what extent present concentrations could be predicted from concentrations previously measured in the individuals. There were only a few significant differences in the blood concentrations of the selected OCs within and between seasons. The most persistent compound, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153, showed a low interindividual variability, and between seasons, 70% of the variance could be explained by the level in the previous year, while changes in body condition and blood lipid percentage were of less importance. For PCB-101, the predictability of the present blood concentration from the previous concentration was lower than for PCB-153, and changes in body condition and blood lipid percentage explained a higher proportion of the variance. The present level of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) could not be predicted from the previous level. Sex did not explain any significant proportion of the variance in OC concentrations when previous level and changes in body mass and blood lipid were included in the statistical models. Thus, for the most persistent OCs, concentration in the blood of incubating glaucous gulls is representative for the interindividual differences over time and whole blood concentrations of OCs appear adequate as a dose metric in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:11337867

Bustnes, J O; Skaare, J U; Erikstad, K E; Bakken, V; Mehlum, F

2001-05-01

219

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, ?-HCH (<2.6 ng g(-1)) and its byproducts ?-HCH (<3.5 ng g(-1)) and ?-HCH (<0.6 ng g(-1)). Among the DDT and its metabolites, only two were found: p,p'-DDT was found in a cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards. PMID:22133910

Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

2012-02-01

220

Contamination by Persistent Chemical Pesticides in Livestock Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of persistent organic pesticides represents one of the major environmental problems as reported in several studies\\u000a and reflected in some mandatory actions at the inter-governmental level. In particular, isomers of Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH),\\u000a like many others Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), are of human health and environmental concern due to their persistence\\u000a in the biosphere. In industrialised countries, Lindane (the ?-isomer

Bruno Ronchi; Pier Paolo Danieli

221

Compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared Ce-doped polycrystalline AgSbTe2.01 compounds from high-purity elements by a melt-quench technique followed by spark plasma sintering, and their thermoelectric transport properties have been investigated in the temperature range of 300 K to 625 K. The actual concentration of Ce was much less than the initial composition, but roughly proportional to it. Small additions of Ce shifted the composition of the homogeneity range from the nearly ideal atomic ratio Ag:Sb:Te = 0.98:1.02:2.01 toward Sb rich (Ag poor), and led to the reemergence of Ag2Te impurity in AgSbTe2 compound. The Ce-doped samples possessed lower electrical conductivity compared with the undoped AgSbTe2.01 compound at room temperature, but the carrier mobility and effective mass were essentially constant, indicating intact band structure near the covalent band maximum upon Ce substitution for Sb. Due to the decrease of lattice vibration anharmonicity resulting from Ce substitution for Sb, the lattice conductivity of the Ce-doped samples was about 0.1 W m-1 K-1 higher than that of the AgSbTe2.01 sample, and the magnitude spanned the range from 0.30 W m-1 K-1 to 0.55 W m-1 K-1. A ZT of 1.20 was achieved at about 615 K for the AgSb0.99Ce0.01Te2.01 sample.

Du, B.; Li, H.; Tang, X.

2014-06-01

222

Scavenging amphipods: sentinels for penetration of mercury and persistent organic chemicals into food webs of the deep Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075 to 4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983 and 1998, were analyzed for total mercury (?Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median ?Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g(-1) ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of ?Hg. ?Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (?Hg r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n = 63; MeHg r(2) = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n = 25), but not significantly with ?(13)C nor ?(15)N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750 to 156,000 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with order of abundance: ?TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > ?PCBs > ?DDTs > ?chlordanes > ?mirex compounds > ?BDEs ? ?chlorobenzenes ? octachlorostyrene > ?-hexachlorocyclohexane ? hexachlorobenzene ? pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ?10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologues, whereas profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences. PMID:23627492

Bidleman, Terry F; Stern, Gary A; Tomy, Gregg T; Hargrave, Barry T; Jantunen, Liisa M; Macdonald, Robie W

2013-06-01

223

Organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs from the Pacific coast of Canada, 1971-1986.  

PubMed

Eggs were collected from seven seabird species at colonies on the British Columbia coast from 1983 to 1986 and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Total PCB levels (wet weight) were highest in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Fraser estuary (2.91 mg kg(-1)) and the Strait of Georgia (3.79 mg kg(-1)). Highest DDE levels were in fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) from the Queen Charlotte Islands (1.68 mg kg(-1)). Organochlorine levels were generally lower in eggs from the mid 1980s than in those collected in the early 1970s. Organochlorine levels in Pacific alcids and hydrobatids foraging in offshore locations were compared to those in the same or ecologically similar species from the Canadian Atlantic coast. DDT- and HCH-related compounds were higher in Pacific populations while levels of dieldrin, oxychlordane, and HCB were generally lower. With the exception of ?-HCH, levels of all measured organochlorines were lower in cormorants breeding in the Fraser River estuary than in cormorants from the St. Lawrence River estuary on the Atlantic coast. PMID:24249067

Elliott, J E; Noble, D G; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E

1989-04-01

224

Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada). National Wildlife Research Centre; Weseloh, D.V. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

225

Organochlorine levels in viperine snake Natrix maura carcasses from the ebro delta (NE Spain): Sexual and size-related differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds (PCBs, DDTs and HCB) in carcasses from a population of the Viperine Snake (Natrix maura) living in the Ebro Delta were analyzed. This is a wetland area on the Mediterranean coast where the natural ecosystem has been partially substituted by rice fields. High levels of pollutants (mainly DDTs and PCBs) have been detected in several species living in

X. Santos; D. Pastor; G. A. Llorente; J. Albaigés

1999-01-01

226

INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE US: FOUR STUDIES, SIX STATES AND TWENTY YEARS  

EPA Science Inventory

Pesticides used to control indoor pests have transitioned across the chemicals classes of organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds from the 1980's to the present. This work summarizes the pesticide concentrations measured from the indoor air of homes from four st...

227

Organochlorine, Heavy Metal and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Pollutant Concentrations in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) Environment: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past monitoring of heavy metals, organochlorine compounds and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has found that pollutant concentrations are generally low within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and World Heritage Area and are indicative of a relatively unpolluted environment. The exceptions are sites that are adjacent to human activity such as ports and harbours, urban centres and areas adjacent to intensive

David Haynes; Johanna E Johnson

2000-01-01

228

Use of Fatty Acids to Explain Variability of Organochlorine Concentrations in Eggs and Plasma of Common Terns ( Sterna hirundo )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the breeding parameters, organochlorine compounds (OCs) concentrations, and fatty acid (FA) composition of egg yolks (n = 47) and plasma (n = 90) of common terns (Sterna hirundo) from two colonies (Banya and Fangar) in the Ebro delta, NE Spain. Terns from Banya tend to have smaller clutch size and lower hatching success than terns from Fangar.

Rafael Mateo; Càrol Gil; Montserrat Badia-Vila; Raimon Guitart; Antonio Hernández-Matías; Carola Sanpera; Xavier Ruiz

2004-01-01

229

Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in osprey eggs — 1970–79 — and their relationships to shell thinning and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected in 14 states in 1970–79 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury. Moderate shell thinning occurred in eggs from several areas. DDE was detected in all eggs, PCBs in 99%, DDD in 96%, dieldrin in 52%, and other compounds less frequently. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites declined in eggs from

Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Christine M. Bunck; Alexander J. Krynitsky

1988-01-01

230

Vertical distribution of lipids, fatty acids and organochlorine contaminants in the blubber of southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as toxic lipophilic organochlorine (OC) compounds, accumulate in the blubber tissue of marine mammals. Toxicological sampling methods most frequently target only the superficial blubber layer. Vertical distribution of these contaminants through the blubber mantle may, however, not be homogenous and could reflect any dissemination of lipids and fatty acids (FAs). It is therefore critical to assess stratification patterns in a species of interest as a quality control measure for interpretation of toxicological data. Here, we analysed and compared the distribution of lipids, FAs, and OCs in the outermost and innermost blubber layer of southern hemisphere humpback whales. FA stratification was evident for short-chain (?18) monounsaturated fatty acids (SC-MUFA), which were concentrated in the outer layer, consistent with the thermoregulatory role of this blubber layer. This stratification was, however, not reflected in OC distribution, which was similar in the inner and outer blubber layers of male humpback whales. By comparison, a noticeable gradient in total blubber lipid from the outer to the inner layer was observed in two lactating females, which coincided with higher lipid normalised contaminant levels in the inner layer. This study contains the most comprehensive assessment of humpback whale blubber stratification to date, however, further investigation of biological and ecological influencing factors is required. PMID:24315760

Waugh, Courtney A; Nichols, Peter D; Schlabach, Martin; Noad, Michael; Bengtson Nash, Susan

2014-03-01

231

Dramatic declines of DDE and other organochlorines in spring migrant Peregrine Falcons from Padre Island, Texas, 1978-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) captured in the spring at Padre Island, Texas, nest across the arctic and subarctic from Alaska to Greenland and winter throughout Latin America. Padre Island, located immediately north of the Mexican border, is the peregrines' first landfall in the U.S.A. after spending about 6 mo in Latin America. Blood plasma was collected from spring migrants at Padre Island between 1978 and 2004 to monitor trends in organochlorine (OC) pesticides and their metabolites. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE (??g/g, ww) decreased throughout the study: 1978-1979 (0.879), 1980 (0.617), 1984 (0.551), 1994 (0.406) and 2004 (0.013). Most other OC pesticides, with detection limits used during the earlier portion of this study, were no longer detected during the last two sampling periods. The reduced concentrations of OC pesticides suggest that other pesticides (including carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) are likely being used as replacements. These replacement compounds are not as persistent and cannot be readily evaluated at migration sites like Padre Island. However, concentrations of flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs) have recently increased in bird eggs in many regions and have been reported in blood plasma. Concentrations of PBDEs in peregrine plasma could be evaluated at Padre Island for assessment of trends in the Americas. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Henny, C.J.; Yates, M.A.; Seegar, W.S.

2009-01-01

232

Organochlorine Pollutants and Stable Isotopes in Resident and Migrant Passerine Birds from Northwest Michoacán, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased\\u000a over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during\\u000a migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering\\u000a area for many species. The

Miguel A. Mora

2008-01-01

233

Organochlorine Contamination in Bald Eagle Eggs and Nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Unhatched eggs and plasma samples from prefledged bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from a recovering population in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin were contaminated with organochlorine compounds at levels\\u000a comparable to those reported for eagle populations in several areas of the United States. PCBs were among the most commonly\\u000a detected contaminants and occurred at high concentrations in plasma. Plasma PCB

G. M. Donaldson; J. L. Shutt; P. Hunter

1999-01-01

234

Chloride – a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two plants, a fern (Athyrium filix-femina) and a moss (Polytrichum commune Hedw.), both commonly occurring in Northern Temperate forests, were exposed in a laboratory study to a solution of 36Cl-chloride. The uptake of 36Cl-chloride by the plants was investigated and the emission of volatile chlorine 36 by the plants was determined. Furthermore, speciation of the emitted volatile organochlorine compounds (VOCls)

Frank Laturnus; Miroslav Matucha

2008-01-01

235

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively

Ross J. Norstrom; Mary Simon; Derek C. G. Muir; Ray E. Schweinsburg

1988-01-01

236

Organochlorine Pesticides in Fishes and Mollusks from Lower Reaches of the Tumen River and of the Contiguous Part of Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content of persistent organochlorine pesticides (DDT and its metabolites, a-, ß- and ?-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane, HCH) were studied in the tissues and organs of some fish and molluskan species from the lower reaches of the Tumen River and the contiguous part of Peter the Great Bay (Sivuchya Bay and Zapadnaya Bay of the Furugelm Isl.) and Amursky bay. The

I. G. Syasina

2003-01-01

237

compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size is the key factor of nanostructured materials, since all the structural, transport, electrical, magnetic and other physical properties can be tuned by this factor of materials. Only the condition is to choose appropriate inexpensive scale-processing method for material synthesis which offers good control over the stoichiometry, morphology and particle size distribution. Present communication deals with the studies on the sol-gel grown Y0.95Ca0.05MnO3 (YCMO) nanostructured compounds for their size-induced tuning of dielectric behavior. Structural studies reveal the single phasic nature with improved crystallite size with sintering temperature. Dielectric constant (real and imaginary) is found to increase with temperature and crystallite size/sintering temperature. High dielectric loss has been observed in the present system. Size dependent activation energy ( E a), obtained from modulus measurement, showing the increase in E a with crystallite size. The variation in various dielectric parameters and E a has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystallite boundaries, oxygen vacancies and charge carrier hopping.

Shah, N. A.

2014-10-01

238

Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the North Pacific Ocean). OCs were detected in livers of all of the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed, supporting the thesis that there is widespread contamination of persistent OCs in the marine environment. Within a location, no significant relationship between growth-stage (body length and weight) and OC concentrations (lipid weight basis) was observed, and the OC residue levels were rather uniform among the individuals. Interestingly, the distribution of OC concentrations in skipjack tuna was similar to those in surface seawaters from which they were taken. These results suggest that OC concentrations in skipjack tuna could reflect the pollution levels in seawater from which they are collected and that this species is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of OCs in offshore waters and the open ocean. Concentrations of PCBs and CHLs in skipjack tuna were higher in offshore waters around Japan (up to 1100 and 250 ng/g lipid wt, respectively), suggesting the presence of sources of PCBs and CHLs in Japan. High concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were observed in samples from the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal (up to 1300 and 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively). This result suggests recent use of technical DDT and HCH for agricultural and/or public health purposes in Russia, China, India, and some other developing Asian countries. Relatively high concentrations of PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, and HCB were also observed in samples collected from some locations in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, indicating the expansion of OC contamination on a global scale. Considering these facts, continuous studies monitoring these compounds in offshore waters and the open seas, using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator, are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination. PMID:14674591

Ueno, D; Takahashi, S; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Nakata, H; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K H; Tanabe, S

2003-10-01

239

Serum Organochlorine Pesticide Residues and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 20–34. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, sub-optimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess anti-androgenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p’-DDE, and whether the p,p-DDE-TGCC association is modified by CAG or GGN repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 18–44 year-old male residents of three Washington State counties. Cases (n=246) were diagnosed during 1999–2003 with a first, primary TGCC. Controls (n=630) were men of similar age with no history of TGCC from the same population identified through random-digit telephone dialing. Questionnaires elicited information on demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A blood specimen provided serum for gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues, and DNA for genotyping. We observed no clear patterns between TGCC risk and concentrations of any of the organochlorines measured, nor did we observe that the risk associated with p,p’-DDE was modified by AR CAG (<23 vs.23+ repeats) or GGN (<17 vs.17+ repeats) genotype. This study does not provide support for the hypothesis that adult exposure to organochlorine pesticides is associated with risk of TGCC. Due to uncertainty regarding how well organochlorine levels measured in adulthood reflect exposures during early life, further research is needed using exposure measurements collected in utero or during infancy. PMID:18708392

Biggs, Mary L.; Davis, Mark D.; Eaton, David L.; Weiss, Noel S.; Barr, Dana B.; Doody, David R.; Fish, Sherianne; Needham, Larry L.; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M.

2008-01-01

240

Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in mountain soils from Tajikistan.  

PubMed

The concentrations and spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface soils of different altitudes (570–4656 m) from Tajikistan were determined. OCPs were detected in all samples with concentrations in the range 52.83–247.98 ng g(-1) dry weight (ng g(-1) dw). Aldrins were the most predominant compounds followed by chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and endosulfans, while dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and methoxychlor were detected at much lower concentrations. Composition analysis indicated that OCPs mainly came from the atmospheric transport of historically used pesticides. OCP residues in the west and northwest parts of Tajikistan were higher than the east and the southeast due to the proximity to the potential sources and anthropogenic activity intensities around. Additionally, correlation analysis between OCPs and altitudes indicated that the more volatile pollutants, such as HCH isomers, seemed to become enriched more easily in regions with higher altitudes relative to the less volatile ones, such as DDTs. PMID:23738359

Zhao, Zhonghua; Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu; Zhang, Lu

2013-03-01

241

Petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescent aromatic compounds in fish bile and organochlorine pesticides from areas surrounding the spill of the Kab121 well, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico: a case study.  

PubMed

In October 2007, a light crude oil spill took place in the off shore Kab121 oil well, 32 km north of the mouth of the Grijalva River, Tabasco, Mexico. In order to estimate the possible effects of oil spill on the biota in the area surrounding the spilled well, the level of different fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in fish, as well as the concentration of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs. The organisms examined were cat fish (Ariopsis felis), in addition fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, the contaminants above mentioned and their relationship with cyotochrome P-450 and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, Glutathion-S-Transferase and catalase activities in liver were determined. The concentration of most pollutants were low, except PAHs. Spatial distribution of these compounds, as well as most biomarkers, reflected the highest exposure of fish to pollutants in the area adjacent to well, as well as in the proximity of rivers. The profile of exposure to this environment was chronic in nature and not temporary. PMID:24579530

Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V; Chan-Cocom, E; Zapata-Perez, O

2014-01-01

242

Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)  

PubMed Central

Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR?=?1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p?=?0.024). Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk. PMID:22534004

2012-01-01

243

Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

1980-09-01

244

Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L., Jr.; Clark, D.R., Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

1980-01-01

245

Levels of persistent organic pollutant residues in human adipose and muscle tissues in Singapore.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), due to their persistence and bioconcentration in lipid-rich tissue, bioaccumulate in food chains, resulting in elevated concentrations in humans. This study was performed to determine and compare levels of POPs in human adipose and muscle tissues in the female population of Singapore. In total, 36 human adipose tissues and 8 human muscle tissues were collected from volunteer expectant mothers admitted to the National University Hospital Singapore for cesarean section delivery between August 2003 and January 2005. Samples were analyzed using a validated and quality-assured gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method in conjunction with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Analytes recoveries from certified reference materials, that is, IRMM-446 (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] in pork fat) and BCR-430 (organochlorine pesticides in pork fat), were between 70 and 130%, indicating reliable analytical precision for this methodology. MAE efficiency for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was compared to Soxhlet extraction (SE) efficiency and yielded comparable results (variation < 13%). Analytical results indicate that p,p'-DDE of the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) residues group is the predominant compound in adipose tissue, followed by beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) among HCH isomers, then hexachlorobenzene (HCB) compound and specific PCB and PBDE congeners. Among the 36 adipose tissues, the lipid contents in adipose tissue were in the range of 60% to 95%, while in the 8 muscle tissues, lipids were undetectable. However, the profile of PCBs and pesticide residues present in muscle tissues were similar to those in adipose tissues. PMID:16982531

Li, Qing Qing; Loganath, Annamalai; Chong, Yap Seng; Tan, Jing; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

2006-11-01

246

Embryonic abnormalities and organochlorine contamination in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) from the upper Great Lakes in 1988.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in eggs with normal and deformed embryos collected in 1988 from different colonies during an epizootiological survey of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) from the upper Great Lakes. PCBs and p,p'-DDE were found in the highest concentrations in eggs of both species. The residue pattern of PCB isomers and chlordane compounds suggested that double-crested cormorants have greater metabolic capacity to degrade contaminants than Caspian terns. According to the toxicity evaluation using the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQs) approach, non-ortho coplanar PCBs contributed much more toxicity than PCDDs and PCDFs. Total TEQ of dioxin-like compounds was likely associated with occurrence of live-deformed embryos in double-crested cormorants eggs. The toxic effects of these contaminants were also estimated in Caspian tern eggs, where elevated levels of coplanar PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs were observed in concordance with increased rate of anomalies in eggs during a breeding season in the Great Lakes. PMID:15091901

Yamashita, N; Tanabe, S; Ludwig, J P; Kurita, H; Ludwig, M E; Tatsukawa, R

1993-01-01

247

Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression  

SciTech Connect

1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

Shabbir, Arsalan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); DiStasio, Susan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Zhao, Jingbo [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher P. [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Wolff, Mary S. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Caplan, Avrom J. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

2005-03-01

248

Adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed Central

In this nested case-control study we examined the relationship between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and organochlorine pesticide exposure. We used a data set originally collected between 1969 and 1983 in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Adipose samples were randomly collected from cadavers and surgical patients, and levels of organochlorine pesticide residues were determined. From the original study population, 175 NHL cases were identified and matched to 481 controls; 173 controls were selected from accident victims, and 308 from cases with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Cases and controls were mainly from cadavers (> 96%) and were matched on sex, age, region of residence within the United States, and race/ethnicity. Conditional logistic regression showed the organochlorine pesticide residue heptachlor epoxide to be significantly associated with NHL [compared with the lowest quartile: third quartile odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.28; fourth quartile OR = 3.41, 95% CI, 1.89-6.16]. The highest quartile level of dieldrin was also associated with elevated NHL risk (OR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.58-4.61), as were higher levels of oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE [p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and ss-benzene hexachloride (ORs = 1.79, 1.99, and 2.47, respectively). The p-values for trends for these associations were significant. In models containing pairs of pesticides, only heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin remained significantly associated with risk of NHL. Limitations of this study include collection of samples after diagnosis and a lack of information on variables affecting organochlorine levels such as diet, occupation, and body mass index. Given the persistence of pesticides in the environment, these findings are still relevant today. PMID:15175172

Quintana, Penelope J E; Delfino, Ralph J; Korrick, Susan; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kutz, Frederick W; Jones, Ellen L; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

2004-01-01

249

Temporal trends of organochlorine contamination in Black Guillemots in Iceland from 1976 to 1996.  

PubMed

The levels of several different persistent organochlorines (OCs) in Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle, collected during the summers of 1976-1996 at Breioafjörour in W-Iceland, were investigated. The levels of about 40 different organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphenes, HCH, HCB) were compared with respect to age, sex, fat content, and year of collection. The levels of PCBs correlated very closely with those of DDE, indicating long-range transport as the major source of these contaminants in Iceland, with the ratio PCBs/DDE mostly in the range of 2-5. Unlike the Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, the organochlorine levels did not seem to accumulate substantially with age, neither in males nor females. The variation in the levels of OCs at the age of 2 years was even greater than the variation in OC levels over an age range of 12 years. In immature birds the levels of PCBs, DDE, HCB and beta-HCH declined very slowly (T(1/2) from 12 to 20 years) over the years 1976-1996, whereas the levels of alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDT declined much faster. The levels of trans-nonachlor, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, and toxaphene did not correlate with the year of collection. As the Black Guillemot is mostly a resident seabird, feeding mainly on small fish and invertebrates, this investigation should give a good indication of the temporal trends of organochlorine pollution at Breioafjörour, Iceland, during this 20 year period and is likely to reflect baseline trends in the marine environment of the North-Atlantic Ocean. PMID:15519726

Olafsdóttir, Kristín; Petersen, Aevar; Magnúsdóttir, Elín V; Björnsson, Thorvaldur; Jóhannesson, Torkell

2005-02-01

250

Organochlorine contamination in bird's eggs from the Danube Delta.  

PubMed

In this study we report the levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of aquatic birds from the Danube Delta, a major European wetland. The eggs were collected in 1997 and belonged to the following species: the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the greylag goose (Anser anser), the mute swan (Cygnus olor), the coot (Fulica atra), the glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), the spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), the little egret (Egretta garzetta), the night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), the grey heron (Ardea cinerea), the great white egret (Egretta alba), the red-necked grebe (Podiceps griseus), the Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), the Pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus) and the common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels were higher in eggs of the little egret, the great white egret, the cormorant and the Pygmy cormorant with respect to the other species (48,399, 13,613, 12,400 and 10,417 ng/g dry wt., respectively). Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) levels were lower than 1393 ng/g dry wt. in all species while polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in the Pygmy cormorant (2565 ng/g dry wt.) were higher than in the other species. The toxicity evaluation was based on 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent factors (TEF) and non-ortho PCB congeners contributed much more than mono-ortho PCBs in most of species. A further aim of this study was to evaluate the possible differences of organochlorine levels in bird eggs collected in the same area in 1982 and in 1997; generally speaking the levels detected in the latter period were lower than those detected in the earlier one. PMID:15092913

Aurigi, S; Focardi, S; Hulea, D; Renzoni, A

2000-07-01

251

Effects of urbanization and long-term rainfall on the occurrence of organic compounds and trace elements in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue from the Santa Ana River basin, California, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organcochlorine compounds, semivolatile-organic compounds (SVOC), and trace elements were analyzed in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue in the Santa Ana River Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Three reservoirs were sampled in areas that have different degrees of urbanization. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected at 12 sites were divided into two groups, urban and nonurban. More organochlorine compounds were detected in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment and fish tissue, and at higher concentrations at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of organochlorine compounds were lower than the probable-effect concentration (PEC). At the highly urbanized West Street Basin, chlordane and p,p'-DDE exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The less stringent threshold-effect concentration (TEC) was exceeded for six compounds at eight sites. Most of the organochlorine compounds detected in streambed sediment and fish tissue were at urban sites on the Santa Ana River as opposed to its tributaries, suggesting accumulation and persistence in the river. More SVOCs were detected in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment, and at higher concentrations, at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all the sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of SVOCs were lower than the PEC. At West Street Basin, chrysene, pyrene, and total polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 3 sites. Most of the SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment at urban sites on tributaries to the Santa Ana River rather than the mainstem itself. The less frequent occurrence and lower concentrations in the Santa Ana River suggest that SVOCs are less persistent than organochlorine compounds, possibly as a result of volatization, gradation, or dilution. Most trace-element detections in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment were at urban sites, and the concentrations were generally higher than at nonurban sites. Lead and zinc exceeded their PECs at West Street Basin throughout the historical record; copper exceeded its PEC at Canyon Lake, an area of urban growth. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 11 sites. Frequency of detection and concentration did not differ between tributary and Santa Ana River sites, which may be attributed to the fact that trace elements occur naturally. Four trace elements (arsenic, copper, mercury, and selenium) had higher concentrations in fish tissue at nonurban sites than at urban sites. Concentrations decreased over time for organochlorine compounds at all three reservoirs, probably a result of the discontinued use of many of the compounds. Decreasing trends in SVOCs and trace elements were observed at West Street Basin, but increasing trends were observed at Canyon Lake. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds, SVOCs, and trace elements were higher during periods of above average rainfall at both West Street Basin and Canyon Lake.

Burton, Carmen A.

2002-01-01

252

Organochlorine pesticide contamination in neotropical migrant passerines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticide levels were determined in Neotropical migrant passerines which have populations reported to be declining. Pesticide residues ranging from 0.385 to 27.4 ng\\/g were found in 19 of 21 birds, including both Hatch Year (HY) and After Hatch Year (AHY) age classes of nine different species. Eighteen of the 19 birds contained p,p'-DDE, while dieldrin was found in 16

R. G. Harper; J. A. Frick; A. P. Capparella; B. Borup; M. Nowak; D. Biesinger; C. F. Thompson

1996-01-01

253

Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) pesticide use was restricted starting in the 1970s in developed countries and the 1980s and 1990s in developing countries. Current exposure to OC pesticides - dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane (99% pure gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH)), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - occurs on a limited basis. We measured para, para' (p,p')-DDE, p,p'-DDT, ortho, para' (o,p')-DDT, HCB, beta (beta)-HCH (the most persistent isomer of technical-grade HCH) and gamma-HCH in serum from 426 low-income pregnant Latina women living in an agricultural community in California. Detection frequencies were 94% to 100%. Median levels (ng/g lipid) of p,p'-DDE (1,052), p,p'-DDT (13), beta-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than United States population levels. Multivariate analyses of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, beta-HCH and HCB indicate that time spent living outside the United States and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent use of OC pesticides were significant predictors of exposure. Time spent living in the United States was associated with increased serum levels of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH, but the increase for each year lived in the United States was lower than for each year lived outside the United States. There was no difference between the increase of HCB levels over time spent in or outside the United States, suggesting current and thus preventable exposure routes. However, we observed no associations between serum levels of any OC compound and current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some, but not all OC compounds studied. Smoking history was borderline associated with elevated HCB levels. We observed no significant associations with body mass index. Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred before moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country. PMID:17033681

Bradman, A S A; Schwartz, Jackie M; Fenster, Laura; Barr, Dana B; Holland, Nina T; Eskenazi, Brenda

2007-07-01

254

Role of Organochlorine Pesticides in Children with Idiopathic Seizures  

PubMed Central

Background. Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are persistent organic pollutants that have been implicated in causing several deleterious effects in humans. These are known neurotoxins in high doses, but the role of environmentally acquired OCPs in the body to induce seizures in children has not been investigated yet. Objectives. To assess the serum levels of OCPs in children aged 2–12 with idiopathic seizure and to find out any association between the two are our objectives. Methods. It was a cross-sectional pilot study. Twenty developmentally normal children aged 2–12, presenting with idiopathic generalized seizures, were recruited. Twenty age-matched controls without any history of seizures were also taken. Their serum levels of ?, ?, and ? hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); and aldrin; dieldrin; p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), o,p-DDT, and p,p dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); and ? and ? endosulfan were analysed using gas chromatography (GC). Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare OCP levels between the groups. Spearman correlation was used to find the correlation between individual pesticide levels with age and seizure duration. Results. Levels of ?, ?, and total HCH were significantly higher among cases as compared to the control group (P ? 0.05). Conclusion. There exists a possible association between idiopathic seizures and high serum levels of OCPs, especially HCH. PMID:24368944

Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Gupta, Sushan

2013-01-01

255

Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling  

E-print Network

Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling Sergei A. Kurta a , Alex A waste recycling. Environmentally-friendly processing and recycling methods of organochlorine waste Byproduct Recycling Dichloroethane Vinyl chloride Trichloroethane a b s t r a c t Due to environmental

Volinsky, Alex A.

256

Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes

Nicole K. MacRury; Brett M. Johnson

1999-01-01

257

Organochlorine contaminants in sea turtles from the Eastern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent (14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of the 35 tissue samples, respectively). PCBs were detected in all but one of the 9 turtles studied, with congener 18 the most

Susan C. Gardner; M. Dawn Pier; Raymond Wesselman; J. Arturo Juárez

2003-01-01

258

POTENTIAL FOR BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANO-CHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Halogenated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are the most important organic contaminants of shallow water-table aquifers. Such aquifers have recently been shown to harbor an indigenous microflora. Organisms in authentic and uncontaminated samples of unconsolidated subsurface m...

259

Coupling granular activated carbon adsorption with membrane bioreactor treatment for trace organic contaminant removal: breakthrough behaviour of persistent and hydrophilic compounds.  

PubMed

This study investigated the removal of trace organic contaminants by a combined membrane bioreactor - granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) system over a period of 196 days. Of the 22 compounds investigated here, all six hydrophilic compounds with electron-withdrawing functional groups (i.e., metronidazole, carbamazepine, ketoprofen, naproxen, fenoprop and diclofenac) exhibited very low removal efficiency by MBR-only treatment. GAC post-treatment initially complemented MBR treatment very well; however, a compound-specific gradual deterioration of the removal of the above-mentioned problematic compounds was noted. While a 20% breakthrough of all four negatively charged compounds namely ketoprofen, naproxen, fenoprop and diclofenac occurred within 1000-3000 bed volumes (BV), the same level of breakthrough of the two neutral compounds metronidazole and carbamazepine did not occur until 11,000 BV. Single-solute isotherm parameters did not demonstrate any discernible correlation individually with any of the parameters that may govern adsorption onto GAC, such as log D, number of hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor groups, dipole moment or aromaticity ratio of the compounds. The isotherm data, however, could differentiate the breakthrough behaviour between negatively charged and neutral trace organic contaminants. PMID:23500020

Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

2013-04-15

260

Evaluation of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in the upper Mississippi River  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine contaminants sequestered in lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were compared to those found in tangential-flow ultrafilter permeates as part of a pilot study at 10 sites in the Upper Mississippi River system. Caged and feral fish from three primary sites were also analyzed for comparison. Concentrated organochlorine (OC) compounds were readily extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis into hexane, and samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Fish and water samples were processed by conventional methods. Reasonable agreement was found between analyte SPMD-derived water concentrations and measured values of ultrafilter permeates; however, concentrations of the same analytes in caged fish did not appear to be proportional to water concentrations derived from SPMDs and ultrafilter permeates. The greatest number of OC compounds was detected in SPMDs; fewer were detected in caged fish and feral fish.

Ellis, G.S.; Rostad, C.E. [Geological Survey, Arvada, CO (United States). Water Resources Div.; Huckins, J.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Petty, J.D. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center; MacCarthy, P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Geochemistry

1995-11-01

261

Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds of Belgium: levels, patterns, tissue distribution and condition factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver and muscle samples from 7 species of aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds from Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PCBs were the predominant compounds in our samples, which showed highest concentrations in the liver of barn owl (Tyto alba) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (up to 1000?g\\/g lipid weight). PBDEs could

V. L. B. Jaspers; A. Covaci; S. Voorspoels; T. Dauwe; M. Eens; P. Schepens

2006-01-01

262

Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organic chemicals in fish and mammals.

Gobas, F.A.P.C. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)); McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01

263

Simple solid-phase extraction method for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and selected organochlorine pesticides in human serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for isolation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from human serum has been developed. The procedure includes denaturation of serum proteins by a mixture of water–1-propanol, application of the sample by aspiration twice repeatedly through the SPE column and elution with a mixture of n-hexane–dichlormethane. After final clean-up the compounds

K. ?onka; B. Drobná; A. Ko?an; J. Petrík

2005-01-01

264

Residues of organochlorines in mallards and blue-winged teal collected in Colombia and Wisconsin, 1984–1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the seasonal concentrations of 12 organochlorine (OC) compounds in samples of breast muscle, associated skin, and subcutaneous fat of blue-winged teal (Anas discors) collected in Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia (1987–1988), and of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and blue-winged teal collected in Wisconsin (1984–1989). Although these species have similar feeding habits and overlapping breeding distributions, their winter ranges

J. E. Botero; M. W. Meyer; S. S. Hurley; D. H. Rusch

1996-01-01

265

Two Organochlorine Pesticides, Toxaphene and Chlordane, Are Antagonists for Estrogen-related Receptor a-1 Orphan Receptor1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen-related receptor (ERR) a-1 shares a high amino acid se- quence homology with estrogen receptor a. Although estrogens are not ligands of ERRa-1, our recent results suggest that toxaphene and chlor- dane, two organochlorine pesticides with estrogen-like activity, behave as antagonists for this orphan nuclear receptor. The two compounds in- creased ERRa-1-mediated expression of the reporter enzyme b-galacto- sidase in

Chun Yang; Shiuan Chen

1999-01-01

266

Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

2014-01-01

267

Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses. PMID:24055669

Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

2014-01-15

268

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment and fish from Wetlands in the north central United States.  

PubMed

Sediment samples collected in 1980-1982 from riverine and pothole wetlands at 17 locations in the north central United States were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, certain of their metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations were above minimum detection levels (5 ng/g of organochlorines and 20 ng/g of PCBs) in less than 4% of the samples taken. Fish samples taken at 9 of these 17 locations, and analyzed for the same compounds, showed a higher frequency of detectable contaminants. The most common compound found in fish was DDE, which was found in 51% of the samples at levels up to 512 ng/g. alpha-BHC was present at concentrations of 5 to 27 ng/g in 36% of the fish samples, and DDD was found at levels of 5 to 60 ng/g in 14%. Four other compounds, DDT, dieldrin, PCB, and trans-nonachlor, were detected in fish at relatively low concentrations in less than 10% of the samples. This survey, thus, indicated little contamination by organochlorine pesticides or PCBs in the wetland habitats of this region. PMID:3928593

Martin, D B; Hartman, W A

1985-01-01

269

The slow recovery of San Francisco Bay from the legacy of organochlorine pesticides.  

PubMed

The use of organochlorine pesticides, including DDTs, chlordanes, and dieldrin, peaked in San Francisco Bay's watershed 30-40 years ago, yet residues of the pesticides remain high. Known as legacy pesticides for their persistence in the Bay decades after their uses ended, the compounds and their breakdown products occur at concentrations high enough to contribute to advisories against the consumption of sport fish from the Bay. Combined with other data sets, the long-term monitoring data collected by the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) for trace substances allow us to track recovery of the Bay from these inputs and predict its future improvement. Legacy pesticides enter the water and sediment of San Francisco Bay from a variety of sources, including runoff from California's Central Valley and local watersheds, municipal and industrial wastewater, atmospheric deposition, erosion of historically contaminated sediment deposits, and dredging and disposal of dredged material. Runoff from small-urbanized tributaries may contribute as much or more to the loads than runoff from the agricultural Central Valley, even though 90 percent of the freshwater flow comes from the Central Valley via the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. The fates of legacy pesticides in San Francisco Bay are controlled by their chemical properties, including their solubilities and partition coefficients. Degradation in the sediments, outflow through the Golden Gate, and volatilization-in that relative order-result in removal of pesticides from the Bay. A contaminant fate model was used to estimate recovery times of the Bay under various scenarios. For example, under a scenario in which no new legacy pesticides entered the Bay, model predictions suggested that concentrations of pesticides in the water and the active sediment layer would reach risk-reduction goals within one to three decades. Under scenarios of continued inputs to the Bay, recovery time would be considerably longer or not reached at all. Long-term tissue monitoring corroborates model predictions of slow declines in DDT and chlordane concentrations. Field-transplanted bivalve samples indicate declines since 1980, and lipid-weight concentrations of pesticides have declined in fishes, but the declines are slow. The critical management question for the Bay is whether there are feasible management actions that would decrease concentrations in sport fish significantly faster than the existing slow progress that has been observed. PMID:16930588

Connor, Michael S; Davis, Jay A; Leatherbarrow, Jon; Greenfield, Ben K; Gunther, Andrew; Hardin, Dane; Mumley, Thomas; Oram, John J; Werme, Christine

2007-09-01

270

Organochlorine contaminants in fish from an arctic lake in Alaska, USA.  

PubMed

A wide range of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in muscle tissue and livers of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Schrader Lake in Arctic Alaska. Results confirm the long-range transport of these contaminants to a US Arctic freshwater system. The most abundant group of compounds in all tissues was composed of PCBs. Mean concentrations of the sum of a selected group of PCB congeners ranged from 3.2 ng/g in grayling liver to 22.8 ng/g in trout liver and from 1.3 ng/g in grayling muscle to 6.6 ng/g in trout muscle (wet wt.). The second most abundant group was composed of chlordane-related compounds. No significant correlations of organochlorine concentrations with fish weight or length were observed for the data set as a whole. There were marked differences in sigma PCB, sigma chlordane and p,p'-DDE concentrations between species. The biomagnification factors for these compounds are similar to ratios reported for other aquatic systems. Comparisons showed that contaminant concentrations in lake trout from Schrader Lake were similar to levels found in burbot and slightly higher than levels in whitefish reported in Canadian studies from the Mackenzie River Delta. PMID:7892581

Wilson, R; Allen-Gil, S; Griffin, D; Landers, D

1995-01-15

271

Organochlorines in top predators at Svalbard--occurrence, levels and effects.  

PubMed

Alarmingly high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels have been found in the top predators such as glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard [Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Polder, A., Bakken, V., 1995. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). Sci. Total Environ. 160/161, 337-346; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Environ. Pollut. 95, 159-175; Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Trudeau, S., Wolkers, H., Sagerup, K., Skaare, J.U., 1999. Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Bear Island, the Barents Sea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (in press). ]. Studies of the possible toxic effects, particularly on the immune system and reproduction, of the very high PCB levels in these species are currently being investigated. Data obtained in the field (f.i. reproductive success in polar bears and intestinal nematodes in glaucous gulls), as well as levels of various biochemical and physiological parameters (f.i. thyroid hormones, retinol, EROD activity, CYP1A, IgG), have been coupled with the PCB levels [Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Bernhoft, A., 1994. Klorerte organiske miljogifter; Nivâer og effekter i isbjorn. Norwegian Polar Institute Reportseries no. 86, 1-23 (in Norwegian); Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Environ. Pollut. 95, 159-175; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Derocher, A.E., Larsen, H.J., 2000. Possible immunotoxic effects of organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard (in press); Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Skjegstad, N., Jensen, B.M., 1998a. Relationship between PCB levels, hepatic EROD activity and plasma retinol in glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus. Marine Environ. Res. 46, 45-49; Henriksen, E.O., Gabrielsen, G.W., Trudeau, S., Wolkers, H., Sagerup, K., Skaare, J.U. , 1999. Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Bear Island, the Barents Sea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (in press); Sagerup, K., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skorping, A., Skaare, J.U., 1998. Association between PCB concentrations and intestinal nematodes in glaucou gulls, Larus hyperboreus, from Bear Island. Organohalogen compounds 39, 449-451; Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Bernhoft, A., 1994. Klorerte organiske miljogifter; Nivâer og effekter i isbjorn. Norwegian Polar Institute Reportseries no. 86, 1-23. (in Norwegian)]. PMID:10720718

Skaare, J U; Bernhoft, A; Derocher, A; Gabrielsen, G W; Goksøyr, A; Henriksen, E; Larsen, H J; Lie, E; Wiig

2000-03-15

272

Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers.  

PubMed

The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, k(O), estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, D(PE), and PE-water partitioning coefficients, K(PE-water,) are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. K(PE-water) values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. PMID:20398988

Hale, Sarah E; Martin, Timothy J; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Arp, Hans Peter H; Werner, David

2010-07-01

273

Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs

Kurunthachalam Kannan; Hyo-Bang Moon; Se Hun Yun; Tetsuro Agusa; Nancy J. Thomas; Shinsuke Tanabe

2008-01-01

274

Organochlorine poisoning of ring-billed gulls in southern Ontario.  

PubMed

Clinical, necropsy, bacteriologic, parasitologic, histopathologic, toxicologic and animal inoculation studies suggest that organochlorine (PBC, dieldrin and DDE) poisoning was an important factor in causing deaths of free-flying ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) in southern Ontario in 1969 and 1973. The brains of gulls dying with clinical signs of neurologic involvement, and dead gulls with no other apparent cause of death, contained organochlorine residues of significantly greater levels than those found in healthy gulls shot for comparison. PMID:410957

Sileo, L; Karstad, L; Frank, R; Holdrinet, M V; Addison, E; Braun, H E

1977-07-01

275

Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain).  

PubMed

Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of organochlorine pollutants, thus reflecting different pollution origins. PMID:24380771

Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D

2014-03-01

276

Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?  

PubMed

Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from 19 of 53 individuals had concentrations of SigmaPCBs greater than 1000 ng g(-1) (wet wt); the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations (50-600 ng g(-1)). Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where average concentrations in blubber of females (N = 9) were 1450 +/- 954 ng g(-1) toxaphene, 2750 +/- 1780 ng g(-1) SigmaCHLOR, 2160 +/- 925 ng g(-1) SigmaDDT and 4790 +/- 2380 ng g(-1) SigmaPCB. SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT concentrations greater than 1000 ng g(-1) were unexpected based on previous studies of walrus from Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because levels of all organochlorines were elevated in each animal from Inukjuak, and elevated levels were also found in animals from Akulivik and Loks Land. Walrus from Inukjuak had sigma13C and sigma15N values in muscle intermediate between those of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and those of walrus from Akulivik with low organochlorine levels. There was a weak but significant correlation between and sigma15N and (log)SigmaPCB. The Inukjuak walrus also had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, and higher DDE/SigmaDDT ratios than walrus from Igloolik or Akulivik. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals for a portion of their diet. PMID:15091467

Muir, D C; Segstro, M D; Hobson, K A; Ford, C A; Stewart, R E; Olpinski, S

1995-01-01

277

Atmospheric burden of organochlorine pesticides in Ghana.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are subject to the Stockholm Convention on POPs and have been banned or restricted globally. In Ghana, concerns of illicit applications of some OCPs have been raised in recent times. Applying polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS), the levels of OCPs in the atmosphere and their spatial resolution were investigated. It was the first nationwide coverage of OCPs monitoring in Ghana. ?DDTs and endusulfans constituted the highest burden of atmospheric OCPs in Ghana, at average concentrations of 156±36 and 153±28 pg m(-3), respectively. Mirex had the lowest concentration (0.2±0.01 pg m(-3)). From the chemical signatures of the various OCPs, we deduced that DDT, endosulfans and heptachlor were freshly applied at certain sites, which were all agricultural sites. The OCPs were spatially resolved as a function of the types of crops cultivated in different areas, legacy issues and recent applications. PMID:24210596

Hogarh, J N; Seike, N; Kobara, Y; Ofosu-Budu, G K; Carboo, D; Masunaga, S

2014-05-01

278

Bioaccumulation of organochlorines in the Arctic marine food web  

SciTech Connect

Five classes of organochlorine (OC) compounds (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCB and HCHs), cyclodienes, isomers of DDT and its metabolites and congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene (CHBs)) have been detected in under-ice epontic particulate matter and tissue samples of marine biota from lower trophic levels of the Arctic Ocean at sites in Barrow Strait within the Canadian archipelago (75{degree}N), coastal (79{degree}N) and central Arctic basin (85{degree}N) locations. HCBs, PCBs, isomers of DDT and DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, alpha-endosulphan, HCB and {alpha}-HCH were present in quantifiable amounts in all samples. {beta}- and {gamma}-HCH and the cyclodienes aldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, methoxychlor and mirex were detected but could not be quantified. All OCs measured in biota were also present in the Arctic atmosphere, particulate and dissolved fractions of snow, ice melt water and seawater, Small bodied marine organisms such as zooplankton and amphipods which are short-lived have a lower lipid content for storage of OCs than larger animals such as fish and mammals. Biomagnification factors calculated from presumed predator-prey links in the marine food web varied over two orders of magnitude for different OCs. Ratios for epontic particulates and plankton (< 10) were generally lower than values for trophic links between amphipods and published values for arctic marine fish and mammals (10--100). PCBs, DDT and chlordanes are biomagnified in the Arctic marine food web to a far greater degree than more abundant OC compounds such as HCHs and HCB that have a higher water solubility.

Hargrave, B.; Phillips, G.; Vass, W.; Harding, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography; Welch, H. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

1995-12-31

279

Transplacental transfer of organochlorines in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

PubMed

The transplacental transfer of organochlorines (OCs) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was investigated by analyzing blubber samples from 20 female sea lions and their fetuses during the last trimester of pregnancy. A rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic, photodiode-array method was used to measure blubber concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including dioxin-like congeners, as well as DDTs and hexachlorobenzene. Summed values of PCBs (sigmaPCBs), of DDTs (sigmaDDTs), and of PCB toxic equivalents (sigmaPCB TEQs) were calculated from these data. The ratios of mean blubber concentrations of fetal sigmaPCBs to maternal blubber concentrations of sigmaPCBs were 0.45 by wet weight and 0.97 by lipid weight, but these ratios varied widely among mother-fetus pairs. Mean ratios of fetal sigmaDDTs to maternal sigmaDDTs were 0.53 by wet weight and 1.12 by lipid weight. Fetuses were classified into two age groups, based on date of recovery, to examine differences in OC transfer because of gestational age. Fetal to maternal ratios for individual PCB congeners, DDT compounds, and sigmaPCBs, sigmaDDTs, and sigmaPCB TEQs were lower among premature compared with late-term fetuses. These ratios increased for both groups as the logarithmic n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) for each compound decreased. Linear predictions for sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in fetal blubber could be obtained using the sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in maternal blubber, maternal and fetal blubber lipid content, maternal mass, and maternal age. Fetal TEQ was explained by maternal TEQ and maternal age. The ability to predict contaminant concentrations in fetal blubber from maternal parameters is important for developing risk assessment models for marine mammals. PMID:17269457

Greig, Denise J; Ylitalo, Gina M; Hall, Ailsa J; Fauquier, Deborah A; Gulland, Frances

2007-01-01

280

Organochlorine pesticide contamination of ground water in the city of Hyderabad.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitous and persistent organic pollutants used widely throughout the world. Due to the extensive use in agriculture, organic environmental contaminants such as HCH, DDT along with other organochlorine pesticides are distributed globally by transport through air and water. The main aim of present study is to determine contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides in the ground water of Hyderabad City. Water samples were collected from 28 domestic well supplies of the city. For this study, random sampling technique was applied, all the samples were collected in high purity glass bottles and refrigerated at 4 degrees C until analysis. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is used for the extraction of organochlorine pesticide residues in water sample. The collected water samples were pre-filtered through a 0.45 microg glass fiber filter (Wattman GF/F) to remove particulate matter and were acidified with hydrochloric acid (6N) to pH 2.5. Methanol modifier (BDH, for pesticide residue analysis, 10 mL) was added to water sample for better extraction. SPE using pre-packed reversed phase octadecyl (C-18 bonded silica) contained in cartridges was used for sample preparation. Prior to the extraction, the C-18 bonded phase, which contains 500 mg of bonded phase, was washed with 20 mL methanol. The sample was mixed well and allowed to percolate through the cartridges with flow rate of 10-15 mL/min under vacuum. After sample extraction, suction continued for 15 min to dry the packing material and pesticides trapped in the C-18 bonded phases were eluted by passing 10 mL hexane and fraction was evaporated in a gentle steam of Nitrogen. In all samples pesticide residues were analyzed by GC (Chemito-8510) with Ni63 ECD detector. Helium was used as carrier gas and nitrogen was used as make up gas. The injection technique was split/split less. All the samples analyzed were found to be contaminated with four pesticides i.e. DDT, beta-Endosulfan, alpha-Endosulfan and Lindane. DDT was found to range between 0.15 and 0.19 microg L(-1), beta-Endosulfan ranges between 0.21 and 0.87 microg L(-1), alpha-Endosulfan ranges between 1.34 and 2.14 microg L(-1) and Lindane ranges between 0.68 and 1.38 microg L(-1) respectively. These concentrations of pesticides in the water samples were found to be above their respective Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values for Humans. PMID:16183122

Shukla, Gangesh; Kumar, Anoop; Bhanti, Mayank; Joseph, P E; Taneja, Ajay

2006-02-01

281

Persistent Organic Pollutants in gull eggs of two species (Larus michahellis and Larus audouinii) from the Ebro delta Natural Park.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of priority and emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in gull eggs from two species, the scavenger Larus michahellis and the protected species, Larus audouinii. These two species share habitat in the Natural Park of the Ebro delta (Catalonia, Spain). Compounds studied are included or under consideration in the Stockholm Convention and comprise polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated compounds (OCs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). Four methods based in selective extraction and gas or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry were used and quality parameters are provided. OC pesticides and marker PCBs were the most abundant chemical families detected in eggs from the two species, followed by PFCs, PBDEs (especially BDE 209) and SCCPs. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were also detected in all samples. The overall widespread presence of POPs is discussed in terms of feeding habits, bird ecology and anthropogenic pressures in the protected Ebro delta breeding area. PMID:22564454

Morales, Laura; Martrat, Maria Generosa; Olmos, Jorge; Parera, Jordi; Vicente, Joana; Bertolero, Albert; Abalos, Manuela; Lacorte, Silvia; Santos, Francisco Javier; Abad, Esteban

2012-09-01

282

In vitro activation of cord blood mononuclear cells and cytokine production in a remote coastal population exposed to organochlorines and methyl mercury.  

PubMed

Remote coastal populations that rely on seafood for subsistence often receive unusually high doses of organochlorines and methyl mercury. Immunosuppression resulting from prenatal exposure to organochlorines has been reported in wildlife species and humans. In this study, we assessed lymphocyte activation and associated cytokine secretion in 47 newborns from a remote maritime population living on the Mid and Lower North Shore regions of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada; subsistence fishing group) and 65 newborns from nearby urban settings (reference group). Cord blood samples were collected for organochlorine and mercury analyses and also to isolate cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) for the in vitro assessment of cytokine production and expression of surface markers after mitogenic stimulation (CD4(+)CD45RO(+), CD8(+)CD45RO(+), CD3(+)CD25(+), and CD8(+)HLA-DR(+)). Blood mercury and plasma concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were significantly higher in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.001). No difference was observed between the two groups regarding subsets of lymphocytes showing markers of activation. In vitro secretion of cytokines by CBMCs after mitogenic stimulation was lower in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and plasma PCB, p,p'-DDE, and HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). Our data support a negative association between TNF-alpha secretion by CBMCs and prenatal organochlorine exposure. If the relationship between organochlorine and TNF-alpha secretion is causal, it would suggest a role for this important proinflammatory cytokine in mediating organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to these compounds. PMID:14644672

Bilrha, Houda; Roy, Raynald; Moreau, Brigitte; Belles-Isles, Marthe; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre

2003-12-01

283

Spatial trends and factors affecting variation of organochlorine contaminants levels in Canadian Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were analysed in blubber from beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), or white whales, collected at 15 sites in the Canadian Arctic between 1993 and 2001. The objective of the study was to define and interpret the spatial trends of major organic contaminants in northern beluga in terms of sources and transport pathways, and the biological factors influencing accumulation. When compared on a lipid weight basis, the concentrations of beta-HCH, cis-CHL and SigmaCHL, cis-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and p,p'-DDT were significantly higher in males than females at all five sites in the eastern Arctic where the two sexes were harvested. The differences were attributed to losses from the females during fetal development and lactation as reported in previous studies. Major compounds increased with age in males at most sites, however the lack of a significant increase with age at some sites was in part due to high organochlorine concentrations in young year classes (2-5 years), particularly at eastern sites such as Iqaluit and Pangnirtung. Lower concentrations of SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT compounds in young males in 2001 relative to 1995 at Hendrickson Island could be due to declining levels in the environment, changes in the diet, or differences in organochlorine loads transferred from the female after birth. Age-corrected least square mean concentrations in males showed significantly higher levels of many compounds, such as p,p'-DDE and SigmaCHB, at south Baffin Island sites than those in the west. Two notable exceptions were HCBz and beta-HCH which were higher in the west. Methoxyclor was detected in males at Sanikiluaq (58 ng g-1) and in both sexes at Kimmirut, but at no other sites. Principal component analysis grouped the 16 sites into five major groupings based on the similarity of normalised organochlorine pesticide and PCB levels. Sites from the western Arctic were grouped by higher proportions of HCBz, beta-HCH and gamma-HCH and higher chlorinated PCBs. Endosulfan and alpha-HCH comprised a larger proportion of total organochlorine residues in the northern Hudson Bay sites, while methoxychlor, chlordane compounds and octachlorobiphenyls were enriched at Sanikiluaq in eastern Hudson Bay. The analysis showed that the relative amounts of several key compounds are similar in the beluga stocks over large spatial areas (i.e. eastern versus western sites), however, some stocks have distinct fingerprints which can be used to differentiate them from adjacent stocks. Ratios of major HCH isomers largely corresponded with air and surface water measurements conducted during the 1990s, but low alpha-/beta- and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios in all three western Arctic collections indicate rapid losses of the alpha-isomer from the food web, proportionately higher beta- and gamma-isomers in the Beaufort Sea, or a combination of the two processes. Chlordane residue patterns generally correspond to those from previous studies, however, interpretation of spatial trends are difficult due to the aging of the probable sources in the south, possible atmospheric input from new sources and complex transport pathways. PMID:16154619

Stern, G A; Macdonald, C R; Armstrong, D; Dunn, B; Fuchs, C; Harwood, L; Muir, D C G; Rosenberg, B

2005-12-01

284

Eggshell Quality and Organochlorine Residues in Eggs of Merlins, Falco columbarius, in Southeastern Montana  

E-print Network

(Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) (HickeyEggshell Quality and Organochlorine Residues in Eggs of Merlins, Falco columbarius, in Southeastern and organochlorine residues in eggs of Merlins, Falco columbarius, in southeastern Montana. Canadian Field

285

Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are lipophilic compounds that travel with lipids and accumulate mainly in adipose tissue. Recent human evidence links low-dose POPs to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because humans are contaminated by POP mixtures and POPs possibly have nonmonotonic dose-response relations with T2D, critical methodological issues arise in evaluating human findings. This review summarizes epidemiological results on chlorinated POPs and T2D, and relevant experimental evidence. It also discusses how features of POPs can affect inferences in humans. The evidence as a whole suggests that, rather than a few individual POPs, background exposure to POP mixtures-including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls-can increase T2D risk in humans. Inconsistent statistical significance for individual POPs may arise due to distributional differences in POP mixtures among populations. Differences in the observed shape of the dose-response curves among human studies may reflect an inverted U-shaped association secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction or endocrine disruption. Finally, we examine the relationship between POPs and obesity. There is evidence in animal studies that low-dose POP mixtures are obesogenic. However, relationships between POPs and obesity in humans have been inconsistent. Adipose tissue plays a dual role of promoting T2D and providing a relatively safe place to store POPs. Large prospective studies with serial measurements of a broad range of POPs, adiposity, and clinically relevant biomarkers are needed to disentangle the interrelationships among POPs, obesity, and the development of T2D. Also needed are laboratory experiments that more closely mimic real-world POP doses, mixtures, and exposure duration in humans. PMID:24483949

Lee, Duk-Hee; Porta, Miquel; Jacobs, David R; Vandenberg, Laura N

2014-04-01

286

Novel Firmicutes group implicated in the dechlorination of two chlorinated xanthones, analogues of natural organochlorines.  

PubMed

Although the abundance and diversity of natural organochlorines are well established, much is still unknown about the degradation of these compounds. Triplicate microcosms were used to determine whether, and which, bacterial communities could dechlorinate two chlorinated xanthones (2,7-dichloroxanthone and 5,7-dichloro-1,3-dihydroxylxanthone), analogues of a diverse class of natural organochlorines. According to quantitative-PCR (qPCR) results, several known dechlorinating genera were either not present or not enriched during dechlorination of the xanthones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, however, indicated that several Firmicutes were enriched in the dechlorinating cultures compared to triplicate controls amended with nonchlorinated xanthones. One such group, herein referred to as the Gopher group, was further studied with a novel qPCR method that confirmed enrichment of Gopher group 16S rRNA genes in the dechlorinating cultures. The enrichment of the Gopher group was again tested with two new sets of triplicate microcosms. Enrichment was observed during chlorinated xanthone dechlorination in one set of these triplicate microcosms. In the other set, two microcosms showed clear enrichment while a third did not. The Gopher group is a previously unidentified group of Firmicutes, distinct from but related to the Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium genera; this group also contains clones from at least four unique cultures capable of dechlorinating anthropogenic organochlorines that have been previously described in the literature. This study suggests that natural chlorinated xanthones may be effective biostimulants to enhance the remediation of pollutants and highlights the idea that novel genera of dechlorinators likely exist and may be active in bioremediation and the natural cycling of chlorine. PMID:24296507

Krzmarzick, Mark J; Miller, Hanna R; Yan, Tao; Novak, Paige J

2014-02-01

287

Organochlorine contamination in shorebirds from Washington state and the significance for their falcon predators.  

PubMed

Arctic-breeding shorebirds collected in western Washington state during winter and spring, and a comparative sample collected in coastal California during the winter were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants to determine the potential impact of these residues on populations of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and merlins (F. columbarius) which prey upon shorebirds in western Washington. Dunlins (Calidris alpina), an important winter prey for falcons in western Washington, were collected between 1975 and 1981. During winter 1980-81, dunlins carried low organochlorine residues; DDE levels ranged from 0.01 to 1.2 ppm, and PCB levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.82 ppm (wet weight). Levels of other organochlorine contaminants (HCB, Chlordane compounds, Dieldrin, and Heptachlor Epoxide), analyzed in a subsample of dunlins, were consistently lower than DDE and PCB levels, and ranged from 0.001 to 0.22 ppm (wet weight). Dunlins in western Washington did not significantly increase their DDE or PCB burdens over the 1980-81 winter. A decline in DDE residues between 1978 and 1981 was noted, and declines in PCB residues from both 1975 and 1978 to 1980-81 were noted. Residues in other wintering shorebirds from western Washington were similar. Wintering sanderlings (Calidris alba) from California, revealed much higher DDE contamination than in Washington (up to 32 ppm, wet weight). Spring migrant shorebirds in western Washington contained both low and very high DDE residues (up to 417 ppm, wet weight). There is evidence suggesting these high DDE concentrations are accumulated along the Pacific coast of North America. PMID:24254183

Schick, C T; Brennan, L A; Buchanan, J B; Finger, M A; Johnson, T M; Herman, S G

1987-09-01

288

Novel Firmicutes Group Implicated in the Dechlorination of Two Chlorinated Xanthones, Analogues of Natural Organochlorines  

PubMed Central

Although the abundance and diversity of natural organochlorines are well established, much is still unknown about the degradation of these compounds. Triplicate microcosms were used to determine whether, and which, bacterial communities could dechlorinate two chlorinated xanthones (2,7-dichloroxanthone and 5,7-dichloro-1,3-dihydroxylxanthone), analogues of a diverse class of natural organochlorines. According to quantitative-PCR (qPCR) results, several known dechlorinating genera were either not present or not enriched during dechlorination of the xanthones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, however, indicated that several Firmicutes were enriched in the dechlorinating cultures compared to triplicate controls amended with nonchlorinated xanthones. One such group, herein referred to as the Gopher group, was further studied with a novel qPCR method that confirmed enrichment of Gopher group 16S rRNA genes in the dechlorinating cultures. The enrichment of the Gopher group was again tested with two new sets of triplicate microcosms. Enrichment was observed during chlorinated xanthone dechlorination in one set of these triplicate microcosms. In the other set, two microcosms showed clear enrichment while a third did not. The Gopher group is a previously unidentified group of Firmicutes, distinct from but related to the Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium genera; this group also contains clones from at least four unique cultures capable of dechlorinating anthropogenic organochlorines that have been previously described in the literature. This study suggests that natural chlorinated xanthones may be effective biostimulants to enhance the remediation of pollutants and highlights the idea that novel genera of dechlorinators likely exist and may be active in bioremediation and the natural cycling of chlorine. PMID:24296507

Krzmarzick, Mark J.; Miller, Hanna R.; Yan, Tao

2014-01-01

289

Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters  

PubMed Central

Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

2014-01-01

290

Organochlorine insecticides and heavy metals in fish from Mutek Lake, N. E. Poland  

SciTech Connect

The ability of organochlorine insecticides to accumulate in fat tissue and their stability in the environment has created threat for correct functioning of biocenoses and indirectly, for health of man. Similarly, compounds of heavy metals, due to their stability in the environment and tendency to cumulation in living organisms, cause the danger for human and animal health. The subject of our interest is the quality of food. The aim of the present work was to determine the level of residues of HCH, DDT and its metabolites and of compounds of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu) in fish which, on the one hand are the indicators of toxic substance's presence in their environment, and on the other hand they may become a food for man.

Zamojski, J.; Smoczynski, S.; Skibniewska, K.A.; Amarowicz, R.

1986-10-01

291

Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established.

Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

1985-12-01

292

Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.  

PubMed

Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (?6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ?PCB and ?DDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

Romani?, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klin?i?, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

2014-09-01

293

Distribution and ecological risk of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt.  

PubMed

Organochlorine contamination in the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt was assessed based on 26 surface sediments samples collected from several locations on the Egyptian coast, including harbors, coastal lakes, bays, and estuaries. The distribution and potential ecological risk of contaminants is described. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were widely distributed in the coastal environment of Egypt. Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and chloropyrifos ranged from 0.29 to 377ngg(-1) dw, 0.07 to 81.5ngg(-1) dw, and below the detection limit (DL) to 288ngg(-1) dw, respectively. Other organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) studied were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower. OCP and PCBs had higher concentrations at Burullus Lake, Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Eastern Harbor, and El Max Bay compared to other sites. OCP and PCB contamination is higher in the vicinity of possible input sources such as shipping, industrial activities and urban areas. PCB congener profiles indicated they were derived from more than one commercially available mixture. The ratios of commercial chlordane and heptachlor metabolites indicate historical usage; however, DDT and HCHs inputs at several locations appear to be from recent usage. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs are similar to those observed in sediments from coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Ecotoxicological risk from DDTs and PCBs is greatest in Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Harbor, and El-Max Bay. PMID:23880242

Barakat, Assem O; Mostafa, Alaa; Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; El Sayed, Nadia B

2013-09-01

294

Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.  

PubMed

Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid. PMID:22099537

Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

2012-02-01

295

Developmental exposure to the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan alters expression of proteins associated with neurotransmission in the frontal cortex.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine insecticides during critical periods of neurodevelopment has been shown to be a major contributor to several neuropsychological deficits seen in children, adolescence, and adults. Although the neurobehavioral outcomes resulting from exposure to these compounds are known the neurotransmitter circuitry and molecular targets that mediate these endpoints have not been identified. Given the importance of the frontal cortex in facilitating numerous neuropsychological processes, our current study sought to investigate the effects of developmental exposure to the organochlorine insecticide, endosulfan, on the expression of specific proteins associated with neurotransmission in the frontal cortex. Utilizing in vitro models we were able to show endosulfan reduces cell viability in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells in addition to reducing synaptic puncta and neurite outgrowth in primary cultured neurons isolated from the frontal cortex of mice. Elaborating these findings to an in vivo model we found that developmental exposure of female mice to endosulfan during gestation and lactation elicited significant alterations to the GABAergic (GAT1, vGAT, GABAA receptor), glutamatergic (vGlut and GluN2B receptor), and dopaminergic (DAT, TH, VMAT2, and D2 receptor) neurotransmitter systems in the frontal cortex of male offspring. These findings identify damage to critical neurotransmitter circuits and proteins in the frontal cortex, which may underlie the neurobehavioral deficits observed following developmental exposure to endosulfan and other organochlorine insecticides. Synapse 68:485-497, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25042905

Wilson, W Wyatt; Onyenwe, Wellington; Bradner, Joshua M; Nennig, Sadie E; Caudle, W Michael

2014-11-01

296

Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.  

PubMed

Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. PMID:25043888

Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

2015-01-01

297

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Marcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

2008-01-01

298

Organochlorine pesticides in squamate reptiles from southern Arizona, USA.  

PubMed

Despite recognition of the lack of reptile ecotoxicology data, the taxon remains poorly studied. Contaminant body burdens are useful in demonstrating exposures to contaminants do occur and may provide insight regarding risks. The purpose of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticide burdens in various tissues of terrestrial reptiles opportunistically collected in Arizona. Heptachlor, DDE, and endrin were the most common analytes detected in fat samples. Liver samples contained methoxychlor and heptachlor at greater frequency than other organochlorines. Investigations into chronic low-level exposures are rare for reptiles and research is needed to determine critical body residues associated with adverse impacts. PMID:23546687

Weir, Scott M; Dobrovolny, Marianne; Torres, Chelsea; Torres, Cassie; Goode, Matt; Rainwater, Thomas R; Salice, Christopher J; Anderson, Todd A

2013-06-01

299

FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOOT DEPOSITS FROM NON-OPTIMUM COMBUSTION OF NO. 6 FUEL OIL WITH CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

During a full-scale hazardous waste combustion study performed for EPA, sampling and analysis was conducted on both stack gases and solid "soot" collected from a boiler's interior surfaces. wo organochlorine compounds, monochlorobenzene (MCB) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were cof...

300

Development of pressurized subcritical water extraction combined with stir bar sorptive extraction for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and chlorobenzenes in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for the determination of several organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), cyclodiene derivates (dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, endosulfan and ensodulfan sulphate) and DDX compounds (p,p?-DDE, p,p?-DDD and p,p?-DDT) as well as chlorobenzenes in soils has been developed. The procedure is based on pressurized subcritical water extraction (PSWE) followed by stir bar sorptive extraction

Rosario Rodil; Peter Popp

2006-01-01

301

Organochlorine and Heavy-Metal Contaminants in Wild Mammals and Birds of Urbino-Pesaro Province, Italy: An Analytic Overview for Potential Bioindicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue samples from 56 bird and 11 mammal species of different trophic levels, collected from 1994 to 1995 from the Urbino–Pesaro\\u000a area in the Marche region of central Italy, were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls\\u000a and p,p?-DDE) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg). Results revealed interspecies differences in pollutant residue concentrations.\\u000a A clear relationship

E. Alleva; N. Francia; M. Pandolfi; A. M. De Marinis; F. Chiarotti; D. Santucci

2006-01-01

302

Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method.  

PubMed

Samples of animal origin are usually dried before solvent extraction for analysis of organic contaminants. The freeze drying technique is preferred for hydrophobic organic compounds in practice. In this study, it was shown that the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) extracted from fish muscle tissue significantly decreased after the samples were freeze dried. And the reason for this reduced extractability seemed to be the resistance of OCPs associated with freeze-dried muscle protein to solvent extraction. The extractability can be recovered by adding water prior to extraction. It suggests that the dietary exposure risk of OCPs from fish might be underestimated if freeze-dried samples are used. PMID:24838024

Zhang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

2014-08-01

303

Organochlorine pesticide residues: an extensive monitoring of Italian fishery and aquaculture.  

PubMed

A sampling campaign from 21 sites in Italy was carried out to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in different fish species. Samples came from marine fishery and either from sea- or freshwater aquaculture. Fish feed used in some fish farms were also analyzed. Pesticides studied belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants widely used in the past such as DDT, chlordane, heptachlor, and others. To ensure good quality results and proper data validation the main existing guidelines in the field were applied. The instrumental technique was a Dual column-Dual detector Gas Chromatography (GC-ECD and Ion Trap GC-MS) which allowed that complementary data on the same sample were acquired. Results for fishery showed a wide range of concentrations depending from the area and species examined. DDT, the major OC pesticide detected, varied from 0.02 to 130.03 ng g(-1) edible portion. As regards the products of aquaculture we observed slightly lower average levels of pollutants in a more narrow range of concentration: this is probably due to fish feed used as shown by some measures performed in the present study. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in all samples examined but they were generally well below the existing tolerance or action levels. Also the estimated daily intakes are well below than those recommended by WHO. This is a good indication about OCPs in the areas investigated but some further considerations on fish safety must be taken into account. An example on how fishes may act as bioindicators is reported. PMID:24184045

Masci, Maurizio; Orban, Elena; Nevigato, Teresina

2014-01-01

304

Maternally derived testosterone and 17?-estradiol in the eggs of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls in relation to persistent organic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is largely unknown if and how persistent organic pollutants (POPs) affect the transfer of maternal hormones to eggs. This occurs despite an increasing number of studies relating environmental conditions experienced by female birds at the time of egg formation to maternal hormonal effects. Here we report the concentrations of maternal testosterone, 17?-estradiol and major classes of POPs (organochlorines, brominated

Nanette Verboven; Jonathan Verreault; Robert J. Letcher; Geir W. Gabrielsen; Neil P. Evans

2008-01-01

305

Organochlorine contaminants in common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs and young from the river Rhine area (France)  

SciTech Connect

Common terns (Sterna hirundo) exhibit a remarkable range of variation in reproductive success. Several factors are known to contribute to reproductive failure either before hatching or between the time of hatching and fledging : predation pressure, food availability, flooding, competition for nesting sites, and toxic chemicals. Contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), mercury and selenium were proved to significantly impair tern reproduction. During the reproductive period of 1988, an important mortality of common terns was observed in french colonies around the river Rhine. Approximately 50% of the young died a few days after hatching. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the intoxication by chlorinated compounds could have been responsible for the observed reproductive failure. 25 refs., 1 tab.

Castillo, L. (Heredia National Univ., San Jose (Costa Rica)); Thybaud, E. (National Institute of Environmental and Industrial Risk, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)); Caquet, T.; Ramade, F. (Univ. of Paris-Sud, Orsay (France))

1994-11-01

306

Changes in levels of organochlorines in woodcock wings from 1971 to 1975  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wings from woodcock (Philohela minor) were first monitored for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the eastern U.S. in 1971. Regional differences in these compounds were clearly demonstrated and baseline residue levels were obtained for later comparisons. An expanded sampling of wings in 1972 revealed that residues in wings of adult woodcock may differ significantly from those in immatures, and that residues of several important agricultural insecticides and PCBs had declined significantly. More extensive sampling was undertaken in 1975 to determine if changes in residue levels had taken place in the intervening years. PCBs, mirex, and heptachlor epoxide increased significantly between 1972 and 1975 in adult woodcock wings. In immature woodcock wings mirex, dieldrin, and PCBs increased significantly between 1972 and 1975, but DDT residues decreased significantly.

McLane, M.A.R.; Hughes, D.L.; Heinz, G.H.

1984-01-01

307

Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ?DDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ?PCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

308

Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations  

SciTech Connect

PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

1987-12-01

309

Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

1999-05-01

310

Immune Function and Organochlorine Pollutants in Arctic Breeding Glaucous Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000

J. O. Bustnes; S. A. Hanssen; I. Folstad; K. E. Erikstad; D. Hasselquist; J. U. Skaare

2004-01-01

311

Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

1973-01-01

312

ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS OF WINTERING DUCKS FORAGING ON DETROIT RIVER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Organochlorine analysis was performed on carcasses of 13 diving ducks from a 1981 wintering population that foraged on contaminated sediments in the lower Detroit River. Mean total PCB concentrations were 10 mg/kg for seven lesser scaups (Aythya affinis), 11 mg/kg for three great...

313

Organochlorine pesticides in the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon, 1988-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine pesticides were detected in unfiltered samples from Johnson Creek that were collected during a storm in March, 2002. Total DDT (the sum of DDT and its metabolites), as well as dieldrin, potentially exceeded Oregon chronic, freshwater criteria at all four Johnson Creek stream-sampling sites. The total DDT criterion was also potentially exceeded at a storm drain at SE 45th Avenue and Umatilla Street. The concentration of total DDT in water samples has decreased by an order of magnitude since previous sampling was done on Johnson Creek in 1989?1990. This decrease was probably due to the movement of these compounds out of the basin and to degradation processes. Concentrations and loads of the organochlorine pesticides were largest at the most upstream sampling site, Johnson Creek at Palmblad Road, which has historically been primarily affected by agricultural land cover. Concentrations and loads were smaller at downstream locations, and there were only a few detections from storm drains. For the purposes of assessing trends in total DDT concentration in Johnson Creek, data for total suspended solids (TSS) were examined, because TSS is often correlated with DDT concentrations, and TSS data are collected routinely by regulatory agencies. As an intermediate step, linear regression was used to relate TSS (measured in the recent study) and turbidity (measured both in the earlier and in the recent studies). For 77 samples, TSS (in mg/L [milligrams per liter]) = 0.88 x Turbidity (in nephleometric turbidity units). The r2 value was 0.82. The TSS concentration (measured, or estimated by the regression) was compared to the concentration of total DDT using linear regression. The TSS concentration associated with meeting the Oregon water-quality criterion for total DDT was 15 to 18 mg/L in the lower and middle part of the basin and 8 mg/L in the upper reaches of the basin. This TSS/DDT relationship is based on only one storm and may not be valid for other conditions of streamflow and runoff. Dieldrin concentration was not well correlated with TSS. Organochlorine compounds also were detected in significant concentrations in Kelley Creek, an important tributary to Johnson Creek, but quality-control considerations made it difficult to interpret some of the data. It does appear, however, that some of the metabolites of DDT were positively associated with TSS. The high concentrations of the DDT metabolites and dieldrin were correlated with agricultural areas.

Tanner, Dwight Q.; Lee, Karl K.

2004-01-01

314

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in environmental samples from the Shatt al-Arab River, Iraq.  

PubMed

Application of high resolution gas chromatography has confirmed relatively low residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in the Shatt al-Arab River. Thus, average concentration of these compounds in the edible portion of the cyprinid (Barbus xanthopetrus) were 21, 4 and 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively. Mean values of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in surface sediments were 5, 40 and 20 microg kg(-1) dry weight respectively. Shrimps sampled from the Shatt al-Arab River were found to contain residues of o, p'-DDD only (average concentration was 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight). However, comparison of these samples with those from an area affected directly by a point source of organochlorine pesticides has shown that the cyprinid of the same age group contained significantly higher residue levels (average concentrations of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were 166, 20 and 7 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). Thus, it may be concluded that there was no direct input of organochlorine pesticides to the Shatt al-Arab River, and transportation via the natural processes, such as drainage, appeared to be the sole source. Based upon the observation that the original compound (p,p'-DDT) has not been detected in this river, it has also been concluded that there was no recent contribution of DDT here. Relatively higher residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were encountered in the muscles of the Indian shad captured from the Shatt al-Arab River (average concentrations were 163, 80 and 28 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). However, these elevated values were attributed to this fish being migratory and it being exposed to these pesticides elsewhere. PMID:15092796

DouAbul, A A; Al-Saad, H T; Al-Rekabi, H N

1987-01-01

315

Persistent organic pollutants in ringed seals from the Russian Arctic.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds total DDT (?DDT), total HCH isomers (?HCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (?CBz), total chlordane compounds (?CHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total of 56 congeners; ?PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sum of 7 tri- to hepta congeners; ?PBDEs) were analysed in the blubber of adult ringed seals from the four areas of the Russian Arctic (White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea) collected in 2001-2005. Ringed seals from the south-western part of the Kara Sea (Dikson Island - Yenisei estuary) were the most contaminated with ?DDTs, ?PCBs, ?CHL, and mirex as compared with those found in the other three areas of Russian Arctic, while the highest mean concentrations of ?HCHs and PCDD/Fs were found in the blubber of ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea and the White Sea, respectively. Among all organochlorine compounds measured in ringed seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic, concentrations of ?DDT and ?PCBs only were higher as compared with the other Arctic regions. Levels of all other organochlorine compounds were similar or lower than in seals from Svalbard, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. ?PBDEs were found in all ringed seal samples analysed. There were no significant differences between ?PBDE concentrations found in the blubber of ringed seals from the three studied areas of the European part of the Russian Arctic, while PBDE contamination level in ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea was 30-50 times lower. ?PBDE levels in the blubber of seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic are slightly higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and western Greenland but lower compared to ringed seals from Svalbard and eastern Greenland. PMID:21636111

Savinov, Vladimir; Muir, Derek C G; Svetochev, Vladislav; Svetocheva, Olga; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrey; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Reiersen, Lars-Otto; Savinova, Tatiana

2011-06-15

316

Persistent organochlorines in the serum of the non-occupationally exposed New Zealand population  

E-print Network

and Research Ltd., P.O. Box 50-348, Porirua, New Zealand b School of Public Health, University of California pesticides, such as DDT and dieldrin, are prominent among the * Corresponding author. Address: School of Public Health, University of California, 140, Warren Hall, Berkeley, Califor- nia, CA 94720-7360, USA

California at Berkeley, University of

317

Chromatographic aspects of the analysis of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants in human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Different incubation and extraction methods have been evaluated for determination of isomers of PCBs, DDT, and HCH in human\\u000a hair. The best method was found to be overnight incubation in 3 M HCl at 40C and liquid-liquid extraction with 4:1 hexane-dichloromethane.\\u000a After clean-up on basic alumina and acid silica, the extract was analysed by GC-ECD or GC-MS. Recoveries of internal

A. Covaci; P. Schepens

2001-01-01

318

Persistent organochlorine pollutants in eggs of colonial waterbirds from Galveston Bay and East Texas, USA.  

PubMed

Eggs of neotropic cormorants (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April-May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency factors (TEQs) or the H4IIE-luc bioassay TCDD-EQs. Concentrations of 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 1,040 ng/g wet wt) in the Houston Ship Channel (Houston, TX, USA) and in those from Telfair Island (mean = 1,460 ng/g wet wt), a reference location outside the bay, than in most locations inside the bay (mean range = 119-453 ng/g wet wt). Mean PCB concentrations were greater in eggs of neotropic cormorants from Alexander Island (mean = 5,720 ng/g wet wt) than in eggs of cormorants from areas farther away from the ship channel, including two reference sites outside the bay (mean range = 404-3,140 ng/g wet wt). The TCDD was the main dioxin congener detected in eggs from all locations within Galveston Bay. Instrumental TEQs in eggs ranged from 67 pg/g wet weight at control sites to 452 pg/g wet weight at Alexander Island. Concentrations of TCDD-EQs determined in the H4IIE assay were correlated with instrumental TEQs and were greater in eggs of cormorants from islands within the bay, although these were farther away from the ship channel. Overall, concentrations of DDE, PCBs, TCDD, and TCDD-EQs were less than the threshold levels known to affect reproduction. However, some eggs contained concentrations of total PCBs or DDE greater than what would elicit adverse effects on birds. No identifiable deformities or abnormalities were detected in embryos collected from all sites. PMID:11349863

Frank, D S; Mora, M A; Sericano, J L; Blankenship, A L; Kannan, K; Giesy, J P

2001-03-01

319

PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE POLLUTANTS IN EGGS OF COLONIAL WATERBIRDS FROM GALVESTON BAY AND EAST TEXAS, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Eggs of neotropic cormorants ( Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and great egrets (Ardea alba) nesting on several locations in Galveston Bay (TX, USA) and at two control sites outside the bay were collected during April?May 1996 and analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlor- inated dibenzofurans. Additionally, concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) were determined by use of relative potency

Donell S. Frank; Miguel A. Mora; Jose L. Sericano; Alan L. Blankenship; Kurunthachalam Kannan; John P. Giesy

2001-01-01

320

Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-  

E-print Network

, dehydroepiandros- terone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in amphipods (Gammarus lacustris) along an elevation gradient in mountain lakes of western Canada.  

PubMed

Populations of the amphipod Gammarus lacustris were examined for their concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from seven lakes spanning a 1,300-m elevation gradient in Alberta, Canada. The concentrations of several of the semivolatile organochlorine compounds ([SVOCs], vapor pressure > 0.03 Pa at 20 degrees C) increased at higher altitudes. This pattern was generally not observed among the less volatile organochlorines ([LVOCs]. vapor pressure < 0.03 Pa at 20 degrees C). These same SVOC compounds have been previously shown to increase at high latitudes as a result of their long-range transport and preferential deposition in cold climates. We also show that populations of G. lacustris at high elevations have slower growth rates and store more lipids than populations at lower elevations. To resolve the colinearity of independent variables, we used multiple regression to identify patterns of contaminant concentrations in this data set. Multiple regressions showed that the effect of elevation, lipid content, and temperature on contaminant concentrations was no longer significant once the growth rate of Gammarus was included as an independent variable. This study shows that enrichment of SVOCs occurs in Gammarus at high altitudes in Alberta, Canada, and that growth rate (biodilution) appears to be the primary influence. Because Gammarus is an important trophic link in aquatic foodwebs in these environments, enhanced concentrations of toxicants in prey may increase their biomagnification in top predators of high-altitude lakes. PMID:14587899

Blais, Jules M; Wilhelm, Frank; Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Donald, David B; Schindler, David W

2003-11-01

322

The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.  

PubMed

The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of ?7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), ?3HCH (?-HCH + ?-HCH + ?-HCH) and ?3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ?DDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the ? isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group. PMID:23877573

Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

2013-12-01

323

Spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and River Ganga in India.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged in surface water by various point and nonpoint sources thereby degrading the functioning of the ecosystem and threatening human health. Chlorinated pesticides such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) are effective pest control chemicals, used in agriculture and public health activities (malaria eradication, etc.) in India for the past several decades and are still in use. POPs can cause endocrine disruption and food chain biomagnification because of their lipophilicity and environmental persistence. This study aims to assess the environmental occurrence and spatial distribution of OCPs, PAHs and PCBs in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and Ganga ending at the of the Bay of Bengal.The order of organochlorine pesticides is as: heptachlor>HCHs>DDTs>dieldrin>aldrin>endosulfan. Diamond Harbour and Bakkhali were the two places with elevated level of all individual HCH isomers compared to all other sites. ?-Endosulfan and ?-Endosulfan were high at Dibrugarh than other sampling sites. This is due to the ongoing use of Endosulfan in the tea estates in Assam especially the estates close to the town of Dibrugarh. p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT levels indicate the fresh input of DDT in all the sampling sites. Heptachlor has been observed in 57% of the total samples reported in the present study.These reasons may attribute to high deposition of pesticides in the surface water of Ganga and Brahmaputra.In addition the catchments area of the Ganga River is surrounded by agricultural lands so a relatively higher residue of pesticides was prevalent. ?27 PCBs varied from BDL to 142 (Avg±SD, 3.96±6.71) ng L-1. PCB-18, PCB-52 & PCB-44 showed the highest concentration levels for all the sampling sites. PCB-126 was observed in samples taken from sites close to the city limit of Kolkata and Assam which is an indication of higher toxic effect from this highly toxic congener. PCB-169 was prevalent in most of the sites. The total concentrations of PAHs varied from BDL to 31 (Avg±SD, 0.2±1.5) µg L-1. PAHs concentrations were very low as PAHs are particle bound compounds. PMID:24659603

Chakraborty, Paromita; Sakthivel, S; Kumar, Bhupander; Kumar, Sanjay; Mishra, Meenu; Verma, V K; Gaur, Richa

2014-01-01

324

Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older.

Thomas W. Custer; Christine M. Custer

1995-01-01

325

Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum ?-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of ?-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013. Organochlorine pesticides and risk of endometriosis: findings from a population-based case–control study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1319–1324;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306648 PMID:24192044

De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

2013-01-01

326

Fine-scale spatial variation of persistent organic pollutants in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Biscayne Bay, Florida.  

PubMed

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are long-term residents and apex predators in southeast U.S. estuaries and are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Dart biopsy samples were collected from 45 dolphins in Biscayne Bay (Miami, FL), 34 of which were matched using fin markings to a photo identification catalogue. Blubber samples were analyzed for 73 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and organochlorine pesticides including dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, chlordanes, and dieldrin. Total PCBs (sigma 73PCBs) were present in the highest concentrations and were 5 times higher in males with sighting histories in the northern, metropolitan area of Biscayne Bay than males with sighting histories in the southern, more rural area [geometric mean: 43.3 (95% confidence interval: 28.0-66.9) vs 8.6 (6.3-11.9) microg/g wet mass, respectively]. All compound classes had higher concentrations in northern animals than southern. The differences in POP concentrations found on this small geographic scale demonstrate that differential habitat use can strongly influence pollutant concentrations and should be considered when interpreting bottlenose dolphin POP data. The PCB concentrations in northern Bay dolphins are high as compared to other studies of estuarine dolphins and may place these animals at risk of reproductive failure and decreased immune function. PMID:18044492

Litz, Jenny A; Garrison, Lance P; Fieber, Lynne A; Martinez, Anthony; Contillo, Joseph P; Kucklick, John R

2007-11-01

327

Ultra-trace determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Arctic ice using stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This study presents the optimization and application of an analytical method based on the use of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the ultra-trace analysis of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) in Arctic ice. In a first step, the mass-spectrometry conditions were optimized to quantify 48 compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated diphenyl ethers, chlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorinated pesticides) at the low pg/L level. In a second step, the performance of this analytical method was evaluated to determine POPs in Arctic cores collected during an oceanographic campaign. Using a calibration range from 1 to 1800 pg/L and by adjusting acquisition parameters, limits of detection at the 0.1-99 and 102-891 pg/L for organohalogenated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively, were obtained by extracting 200 mL of unfiltered ice water. alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, DDTs, chlorinated biphenyl congeners 28, 101 and 118 and brominated diphenyl ethers congeners 47 and 99 were detected in ice cores at levels between 0.5 to 258 pg/L. We emphasise the advantages and disadvantages of in situ SBSE in comparison with traditional extraction techniques used to analyze POPs in ice. PMID:19879587

Lacorte, S; Quintana, J; Tauler, R; Ventura, F; Tovar-Sánchez, A; Duarte, C M

2009-12-01

328

Residues of organochlorinated pesticides in eggs of water birds from Tai Lake in China.  

PubMed

The levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of water birds from the colony on Tai Lake in China were studied. The eggs were collected in 2000 and belonged to the following species: 65 samples of black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), 36 samples of little egret (Egretta garzetta), 26 samples of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) from 13 clutches and 43 samples of Chinese pond heron (Ardeola bacchus) from 17 clutches. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivates (DDE and DDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its isomers (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate were determined in the laboratory by gas chromatography. The data showed that DDE had the highest levels in all the samples, followed by beta-HCH. The mean levels of DDE among the water bird species were in the order as follows: black-crowned night heron (5464.26 ng/g, dry weight) > Chinese pond heron (2791.12 ng/g, dry weight) > little egret (1979.97 ng/g, dry weight) > cattle egret (660.11 ng/g, dry weight). DDT and its metabolites accounted for 90% of the total organochlorines, except that it was only 73% for cattle egret. The differences of the residue among the bird species were statistically significant and could be attributed to their variations in prey and habitat. Although the DDE burdens in Tai Lake were much lower than 8 microg/g (wet weight) which are thought to have significant adverse effects on black-crowned night herons, they would be expected to increase the risk of adverse effects on survival of chicks of herons and egrets, particularly black-crowned night heron, based on the critical value of 1 microg/g (wet weight) DDE. The burdens of HCHs in this study were higher and the cyclodienes were lower than those found elsewhere. PMID:15499782

Dong, Y H; Wang, H; An, Q; Ruiz, X; Fasola, M; Zhang, Y M

2004-01-01

329

Using blood plasma for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the lower Columbia River.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in blood plasma samples from 88 juvenile white sturgeon collected from the lower Columbia River were measured and compared to plasma sex steroid and OC tissue levels previously measured in corresponding fish. Significant squared correlation coefficients between summation operator DDT concentrations in sturgeon plasma and gonads and livers were 0.37 and 0.32, respectively. Significant negative correlations between plasma testosterone concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in male fish (r(2)=0.26), plasma 17beta estradiol concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in female fish (r(2)=0.38) and condition factor and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in all fish were found (r(2)=0.17). These results suggest that blood plasma may be a suitable nondestructive method for monitoring adult sturgeon population for persistent OC contaminants. PMID:18421403

Gundersen, D T; Webb, M A H; Fink, A K; Kushner, L R; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B

2008-09-01

330

Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is

Donald R. Clark; Arnulfo Moreno-Valdez; Miguel A. Mora

1995-01-01

331

Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491ngg?1) and plastic fragments (243–418ngg?1). Among the OCPs, p,p?-DDE had the highest concentrations,

Fernanda Imperatrice Colabuono; Satie Taniguchi; Rosalinda Carmela Montone

2010-01-01

332

Organochlorines in top predators at Svalbard — occurrence, levels and effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarmingly high polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels have been found in the top predators such as glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard [Gabrielsen, G.W., Skaare, J.U., Polder, A., Bakken, V., 1995. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). Sci. Total Environ. 160\\/161, 337–346; Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, Ø., 1997. Organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

Janneche Utne Skaare; Aksel Bernhoft; Andrew Derocher; Geir Wing Gabrielsen; Anders Goksøyr; Espen Henriksen; Hans Jørgen Larsen; Elisabeth Lie; Øystein Wiig

2000-01-01

333

Feeding Ecology and the Concentration of Organochlorines in Glaucous Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the blood concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and the diet of glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus breeding in two neighbouring areas at Bear Island in the Barents Sea, north-eastern Atlantic. One area was situated on the edge of the large seabird cliff, about 100–150 m above sea level. The second area was about 1–2 km from the seabird cliff, and

J. O. Bustnes; K. E. Erikstad; V. Bakken; F. Mehlum; J. U. Skaare

2000-01-01

334

Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters  

SciTech Connect

The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

Mason, C.F. (Univ. of Essex, Colchester (England))

1989-10-01

335

Areas of localized organochlorine contamination in Arizona and New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wings from mallard ducks harvested in 1980 in Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, and New Mexico were pooled into county aggregates and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCB's. Organochlorine concentrations in duck wings were compared among counties comprising major river drainages within each state. DDE concentrations in the wings of mallards collected from the Verde River and the lower portion of the Gila River drainages in Arizona ranged up to 6 ppm (wet weight basis), which was 17 times higher than the 1979 Pacific Flyway average. DDE at these high levels may be hazardous to wildlife. In combination with other published data, our findings indicate a serious DDT problem in portions of the Verde River and Gila River drainages. High levels of heptachlor (up to 1.7 ppm) and PCB's (3.7 ppm, 61 times the 1979 Central Flyway average) were found in mallard wings from the upper Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages, respectively. We did not detect areas of heavy local organochlorine pesticide or PCB contamination in Arkansas and Louisiana.

Fleming, W.J.; Cain, B.W.

1985-01-01

336

Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in wood storks and anhingas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

All 10 Wood Stork eggs collected at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in 1973 contained residues of DDE (geometric mean 4.0 ppm wet weight) and PCBs (1.2 ppm). Nine other organochlorines were found at lower frequencies in the eggs. Eggshells from the recent period were 8.9% thinner (P < 0.001) than pre-1947 samples; decrease in eggshell thickness was more closely correlated with DDE than other organochlorines and correlation of DDE and eggshell thickness approached significance (P = 0.115).....Anhinga eggs were collected at 7 localities; 45 of the 46 eggs analyzed contained DDE residues and 24 contained PCBs. Residues of other organochlorines were found less frequently. Shell thickness of recent eggs from Louisiana and Mississippi was significantly less (-7.5%; P < 0.05) than the mean for pre-1947 eggs, but there was no significant change in shell thickness of eggs from Florida. The change in clutch mean eggshell thickness was significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the concentration of DDE in the eggs.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

1978-01-01

337

Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study  

PubMed Central

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

2013-01-01

338

Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

Genuis, Stephen J; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

2013-01-01

339

Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas  

PubMed Central

Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes. PMID:23343981

Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Gowen, Rose M. Z.; Miller, Rebecca P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

2013-01-01

340

Application of micro-solid-phase extraction for the determination of persistent organic pollutants in tissue samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, simple and efficient method for determining persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tissue samples has been developed. This technique involves the use of simultaneous microwave-assisted digestion (MAD) and micro-solid-phase extraction (?-SPE), in which the sorbent is held within a propylene membrane envelope, with gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric (GC–MS) analysis. The POPs studied included eleven organochlorine pesticides and five polychlorinated biphenyl

Chanbasha Basheer; Kothandaraman Narasimhan; Meihui Yin; Changqing Zhao; Mahesh Choolani; Hian Kee Lee

2008-01-01

341

Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (alpha -HCH, beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras, Araraquara and São Paulo (Vila Leopoldinha). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Ion Trap, electron impact ionization), respectively. The samples were analyzed in triplicate and the target POPs were not detected by GC-ECD. Twelve pollutants were identified in two samples when qualitative analysis (GC-MS) was used (beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE, PCBs 28, 118, 138, 153 and 180). The composting process has advantages such as urban solid waste reduction and landfill life-span increase, however the MSW compost quality, which can be utilized for agricultural purposes, should be evaluated and be controlled. This kind of study is the first step in making available information to answer questions regarding MSW compost for sustainable agricultural use, such as the pollutants accumulation in soil and in groundwater, and plants uptake. PMID:17701705

Lourencetti, Carolina; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

2007-08-01

342

Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, heavy metals and anticoagulant rodenticides in tissues of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from upper Loire River catchment (France).  

PubMed

In this study, tissues of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from a naturally expanding population along upper Loire River (France) catchment were used for contaminants analyses. nine organochlorine pesticides, 16 PCB congeners, five heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and arsenic) and three anticoagulant rodenticides were quantified in livers of road-traffic killed otters. Organochlorine compounds and heavy metals were found in 100% of the samples, and occasional contamination by anticoagulant rodenticides was confirmed. Total organochlorine pesticides reached a maximum of 9.4 mg kg(-1) lipid weight. Higher data were observed for other contaminants, especially total PCBs and mercury. Maximal total PCBs values reached 64.8 mg kg(-1) lipid weight, and maximal measured mercury concentration was 8.2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight. Considering the expansion noted in the study area, global contamination does not seem to threat the short-term species conservation. Nevertheless, important values at some individual scale were noticed, suggesting high inter-individual variations in populations. PMID:20594572

Lemarchand, Charles; Rosoux, René; Berny, Philippe

2010-08-01

343

Organochlorines in pleuronectidae: Comparison between three tissues of three species inhabiting the Northwest Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle, liver, and gonad from three species of flatfish, turbot, American plaice, and yellowtail flounder collected in the Northwest Atlantic were analyzed for a variety of organochlorine contaminants. Female flounder and plaice had lower concentrations of organochlorines than males, in all tissues. Comparing values to those previously obtained for Atlantic cod showed that concentrations in liver, the organ most often

J. Hellou; W. G. Warren; G. Mercer

1995-01-01

344

Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Tabriz, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human breast milk samples, collected during April 2007 in Tabriz, Iran, were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?, ?, and ?-hexachlorocycloexane (HCH) isomers and six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners (IUPAC Nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180). Organochlorine pesticides and OCB were both prevalent in the samples of human breast

R. Dahmardeh Behrooz; A. Esmaili Sari; N. Bahramifar; F. Naghdi; A. R. Shahriyari

2009-01-01

345

Temporal accumulation of Organochlorine pesticides in shorebirds wintering on the south Texas coast, 1979–80  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in 168 shorebirds of three species collected at approximate bimonthly intervals during the fall and winter months of 1979–80 near Port Mansfield on the south Texas coast. The study was conducted to determine if shorebirds wintering on mudflats at the outlets of agricultural drains in Texas accumulated pesticides during this period. The predominant Organochlorine residues

Donald H. White; Christine A. Mitchell; T. Earl Kaiser

1983-01-01

346

Alternative tissue analysis method developed for organochlorine contaminants in aquatic organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of aquatic life to organochlorine contaminants has been investigated during the past two decades because of human and ecosystem health concerns related to the bioaccumulation of hazardous, lipophilic substances. The toxic effects of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known, and recent evidence also suggests that low level exposure to lipophilic organochlorines may interfere with normal development

T.-H. Shan; J. A. Hopple; G. D. Foster

1994-01-01

347

Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and ?-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 ?g kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region. PMID:24813984

Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

2014-01-01

348

Polychlorinated biphenyls pattern analysis: Potential nondestructive biomarker in vertebrates for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Biomarkers are valuable instruments to assess the risks from exposure of organisms to organochlorines. In general, however, these biomarkers are either destructive to the animal of interest or extremely difficult to obtain otherwise. In this paper, the authors present a nondestructive biomarker for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines. This marker is based on a pattern analysis of metabolizable and nonmetabolizable polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, which occur in several kinds of tissues (and even blood) that can be obtained without serious effects on the organism involved. The fraction of metabolizable PCB congeners is negatively correlated with exposure to PCBs, which are known to induce specific P450 isoenzymes. This relation can be modeled by a logistic curve, which can be used to define critical levels of exposure. In addition, this method creates an opportunity to analyze biomarker responses in archived tissues stored at standard freezing temperatures ({minus}20 C), at which responses to established biomarkers deteriorate. Furthermore, this method facilitates attribution of the enzyme induction to certain classes of compounds.

Brink, N.W. van den; Ruiter-Dijkman, E.M. De; Broekhuizen, S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

2000-03-01

349

Significance of organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wintering shorebirds at Corpus Christi, Texas, 1976-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues were determined in 103 shorebirds of seven species collected at Corpus Christi, Texas, during the winter of 1976-77 to evaluate their potential effects on population survival, DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in most samples. Chlordane isomers, dieldrin, toxaphene, and heptachlor epoxide also occurred, but less frequently. In general, organochlorine residues were low in skinned carcasses. Geometric means on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.25 ppm to 4.76 ppm for DDE and from 0.67 ppm to 6.64 ppm for PCBs; residues of the other compounds averaged less than 1 ppm in all instances. Mercury, lead, arsenic and vanadium occurred in all shorebird livers, and selenium and cadmium were detected in all kidneys. Residues of these metals, except selenium, were low in most tissue samples. Selenium averages varied from 1.77 ppm to 5.62 ppm (wet weight) in kidneys; residues in this range may be sufficient to inhibit reproduction or to induce other forms of toxicity, especially at the higher levels.

White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Prouty, R.M.

1980-01-01

350

Heavy metal, organochlorine pesticide, and PCB residues in eggs and feathers of herons breeding in northern Italy.  

PubMed

We report on organochlorine pesticide and PCB concentrations in eggs of the little egret, Egretta garzetta, and the black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, collected in 1993-1994, and on mercury, cadmium, and lead concentrations in feathers of 20-day-old nestlings collected from the same nests in 1994, from heronries near Pavia, northern Italy. Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were lower than those commonly associated with mortality and reduced reproductive success. As population levels of the species studied are not declining, these contaminants appear to have no significant adverse effect on reproduction in the heronries studied. DDE levels have decreased markedly in heron eggs since 1978. However, the presence of both DDT and beta-HCH, albeit at low levels, is notable, given that these compounds were banned in Italy in 1978 and 1988, respectively. Relatively high levels of Hg, Cd, and Pb in feathers suggest birds in their colonies are exposed to these contaminants, although both Cd and Pb may relate more to external than to internal contamination. PMID:9419277

Fasola, M; Movalli, P A; Gandini, C

1998-01-01

351

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and biota from four US Arctic lakes.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene, HCB), and p,p'-DDT were the primary analytes detected (max = 0.7 ng/g dry wt), while individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were always below 0.1 ng/g. A wider range of compounds and higher concentrations were found in lake trout, the top predatory fish species in the same lakes. The concentration ranges for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLORs), DDTs, and PCBs in lake trout and grayling were similar to those reported for other arctic freshwater fish (1-100 ng/g wet wt), but one to two orders of magnitude lower than Great Lakes salmonids. Nitrogen isotope analysis confirmed that differences in OC concentrations between grayling and lake trout are explained partly by differences in food web position. PMID:9419256

Allen-Gil, S M; Gubala, C P; Wilson, R; Landers, D H; Wade, T L; Sericano, J L; Curtis, L R

1997-11-01

352

Organochlorine contamination in bald eagle eggs and nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Unhatched eggs and plasma samples from prefledged bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from a recovering population in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin were contaminated with organochlorine compounds at levels comparable to those reported for eagle populations in several areas of the United States. PCBs were among the most commonly detected contaminants and occurred at high concentrations in plasma. Plasma PCB concentrations in Lake Erie nestlings were significantly higher than in chicks from Lake Nipigon (0.130 and 0.047 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Blood levels of mirex were higher in nestlings from Lake Superior compared to those from Lake Erie (0.0012 and 0.0006 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Migration routes and over-winter locations of avian prey that constitute a part of the bald eagle chick's diet are likely to contribute to these spatial contaminant patterns in plasma. Atmospheric deposition and a cold condensation effect for chlordane compounds may have produced higher levels of these compounds in plasma samples from Lake Superior compared to samples from Lake Erie (0.020 and 0.008 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Levels of DDE in plasma were generally low, ranging in concentration from 0.02 mg/kg wet weight for lakes Erie and Nipigon to 0.06 mg/kg wet weight for Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorines in eaglet plasma remained relatively stable between 1990 and 1996; no significant trends associated with year of sampling were detected. The data from Lake Erie showed no correlation between productivity and plasma levels of PCBs or DDE during this time period. There were no indications that the concentrations of contaminants detected were adversely affecting productivity in Canadian Great Lakes bald eagle populations. Residue levels in eggs from Lake Erie eagle territories were equally or more contaminated than eggs from other highly contaminated environments in the United States such as the Great Lakes and Columbia River estuary. Concentrations of DDE and PCBs in Lake Erie eggs declined significantly between 1974 and 1994. Although dieldrin and chlordane levels showed a similar decline, these relationships were not statistically significant. Mirex concentrations were relatively stable. Eggs from Lake of the Woods were significantly less contaminated than those from Lake Erie (PCBs: 3 and 84 mg/kg wet weight, respectively; DDE: 3 and 24 mg/kg wet weight, respectively). Reproductive success (number of young produced/active nest) remained constant between 1982 and 1996 and productivity is sufficient to maintain an increasing population. The number of active nests has increased during this period indicating that the population is expanding and might be expected to do so until suitable habitat becomes limiting. Reductions in organochlorine levels, reintroduction efforts, immigration from other populations, and changes in habitat quality have likely contributed to the observed growth in the number of breeding pairs. PMID:9828264

Donaldson, G M; Shutt, J L; Hunter, P

1999-01-01

353

Dietary intake of persistent organic pollutants and potential health risks via consumption of global aquatic products.  

PubMed

The concentration levels of typical persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in global aquatic products from major producing countries were summarized. Daily intakes of these compounds via consumption of various aquatic products for global consumers were also estimated based on available literature data. Risk assessment based upon existing criteria for OCPs and PBDEs shows that there is minimal risk to global consumers from consumption of aquatic products, with the exception of products from specific regions located around known heavy-point sources. Exposure to dioxins through consumption of aquatic products, excluding marine fish, is also in the range of the acceptable level, lower than 4 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ)/kg bw/d; however, dioxin intake via marine fish may cause hazards to human health, especially for Europeans. Regarding PCBs, there is cancer risk for global consumers via consumption of aquatic products, especially marine fish, based on cancer and noncancer hazard ratio assessment. Generally, European consumers have higher exposure levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, while Americans and Asians have relatively higher exposure levels of OCPs and PCBs. In contrast, all global populations are found to have lower exposure levels of PBDEs, which may be attributed to its relatively shorter history of use compared with PCBs and OCPs. Finally, the estimated total amounts of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs stored in global aquatic products constitute only a small portion of the total amount that has been used, and the majority obviously occurs in other environmental media or even remains in commercial products. PMID:20872674

Yu, Huan-Yun; Guo, Ying; Zeng, Eddy Y

2010-10-01

354

Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) at Bjørnøya (Svalbard).  

PubMed

Dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were collected on Bjørnøya in the Barents Sea in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Autopsies of the seabirds only explained a clear cause of death for three (14%) of the 21 birds. A total of 71% of the birds were emaciated. Liver and brain samples were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and mercury (Hg). High levels of SigmaOCPs, SigmaPCBs, SigmaPBDEs and alpha-HBCD were found in liver and brain. Compared to the dead and dying glaucous gulls found 1989, the congeners' composition tended to change toward more persistent compounds in the 2003-2005 samples. The brain levels of OCPs and PCBs did not differ between 1989 and 2003-2005, while the liver levels were significantly lower. The brain/liver ratio for PCB and PBDE significantly decreased with halogenations of the molecule, indicating a clear discrimination of highly halogenated PCBs and PBDEs entering the brain. There was further a clear negative correlation between contaminant concentrations and body condition. The brain levels were not as high as earlier published lethal levels of p,p'-DDE or PCB. However, more recent studies reported a range of sub-lethal OCP- and PCB-related effects in randomly sampled glaucous gulls. An additional elevation of pollutants due to emaciation may increase the stress of the already affected birds. The high brain levels of OCP, PCB and PBDE of present study might therefore have contributed to the death of weakened individuals of glaucous gull. PMID:19735935

Sagerup, Kjetil; Helgason, Lisa B; Polder, Anuschka; Strøm, Hallvard; Josefsen, Terje D; Skåre, Janneche U; Gabrielsen, Geir W

2009-11-15

355

Observations on persistent organic pollutants in indoor and outdoor air using passive polyurethane foam samplers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) indoors and outdoors are sparse or lacking in several parts of the world, often hampered by the cost and inconvenience of active sampling techniques. Cheap and easy passive air sampling techniques are therefore helpful for reconnaissance surveys. As a part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) project in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in 2006, a range of POPs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) were analyzed in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks used as passive samplers in indoor and outdoor air. Results were compared to those from samplers deployed simultaneously in Gothenburg (Sweden) and Lancaster (United Kingdom). Using sampling rates suggested in the literature, the sums of 13 PAHs in the different sites were estimated to be 6.1-180 ng m -3, with phenanthrene as the predominant compound. Indoor PAH levels tended to be higher in Gothenburg and outdoor levels higher in Mexico City. The sum of PCBs ranged 59-2100 ng m -3, and seemed to be highest indoors in Gothenburg and Lancaster. PBDE levels (sum of seven) ranged 0.68-620 ng m -3, with the highest levels found in some indoor locations. OCPs (i.e. DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes) were widely dispersed both outdoors and indoors at all three studied areas. In Gothenburg all POPs tended to be higher indoors than outdoors, while indoor and outdoor levels in Mexico City were similar. This could be due to the influence of indoor and outdoor sources, air exchange rates, and lifestyle factors. The study demonstrates how passive samplers can provide quick and cheap reconnaissance data simultaneously at many locations which can shed light on sources and other factors influencing POP levels in air, especially for the gaseous fractions.

Bohlin, Pernilla; Jones, Kevin C.; Tovalin, Horacio; Strandberg, Bo

356

Staphylococcus aureus persisters tolerant to bactericidal antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Bacterial persister cells are non- or slow growing reversible phenotypic variants of the wild type, tolerant to bactericidal antibiotics. We here analyzed Staphylococcus aureus persister levels by monitoring colony forming unit (CFU) counts of planktonically grown cells treated with six different antimicrobials over time. Model laboratory strains HG001-HG003, SA113 and small colony variant (SCV) strains hemB and menD were challenged by the compounds at different logs of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in exponential or stationary growth phase. Antibiotic tolerance was usually elevated in SCV strains compared to normally growing cells and in stationary vs. exponential phase cultures. Biphasic killing kinetics, typical for persister cell enrichment, were observed in both growth phases under different selective conditions. Treatment of exponential phase cultures of HG001-HG003 with 10-fold MIC of tobramycin resulted in the isolation of persisters which upon cultivation on plates formed either normal or phenotypically stable small colonies. Trajectories of different killing curves indicated physiological heterogeneity within persister subpopulations. Daptomycin added at 100-fold MIC to stationary phase SA113 cells rapidly isolated very robust persisters. Fractions of antibiotic tolerant cells were observed with all S. aureus strains and mutants tested. Our results refute the hypothesis that S. aureus stationary phase cells are equivalent to persisters, as not all of these cells showed antibiotic tolerance. Isolation of S. aureus persisters of different robustness seems to dependent on the kind and concentration of the antibiotic, as well as on the strain used. PMID:22986269

Lechner, Sabrina; Lewis, Kim; Bertram, Ralph

2012-01-01

357

China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.  

PubMed

Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. PMID:22325437

Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-04-01

358

International Pellet Watch: Global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in coastal waters. 1. Initial phase data on PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of polyethylene pellets were collected at 30 beaches from 17 countries and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. PCB concentrations in the pellets were highest on US coasts, followed by western Europe and Japan, and were lower in tropical Asia, southern Africa and Australia. This spatial pattern reflected regional differences in the usage of PCBs and was positively correlated with data

Yuko Ogata; Hideshige Takada; Kaoruko Mizukawa; Hisashi Hirai; Satoru Iwasa; Satoshi Endo; Yukie Mato; Mahua Saha; Keiji Okuda; Arisa Nakashima; Michio Murakami; Nico Zurcher; Ruchaya Booyatumanondo; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Le Quang Dung; Miriam Gordon; Carlos Miguez; Satoru Suzuki; Charles Moore; Hrissi K. Karapanagioti; Steven Weerts; Tim McClurg; Erick Burres; Wally Smith; Michael Van Velkenburg; Judith Selby Lang; Richard C. Lang; Duane Laursen; Brenda Danner; Nickol Stewardson; Richard C. Thompson

2009-01-01

359

Discrete Morse Theory Persistent Homology  

E-print Network

Discrete Morse Theory Persistent Homology Persistence vs. DMT Discrete Morse Theory and Persistent://www.math.ufl.edu/kknudson/ February 23, 2013 Kevin P. Knudson DMT vs. Persistence #12;Discrete Morse Theory Persistent Homology Persistence vs. DMT Overview 1 Discrete Morse Theory Definitions Gradients Kevin P. Knudson DMT vs

360

Results and evaluation of the first study of organochlorine contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs), heavy metals and metalloids in birds from Baja California, México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p-p?-DDE), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu), and arsenic were measured in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and common ground doves (Columbina passerina) from Baja California Sur, México. Concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs were low, with 21pg\\/g for house sparrows, and 7.7pg\\/g for common ground doves. Non-ortho-PCB concentrations in

Begoña Jiménez; Ricardo Rodríguez-Estrella; Rubén Merino; Gema Gómez; Laura Rivera; María José González; Esteban Abad; Josep Rivera

2005-01-01

361

Limit of detection and limit of quantification development procedures for organochlorine pesticides analysis in water and sediment matrices  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable values for method validity of organochlorine pesticides determination were investigated, in water by solid phase extraction and in sediment by Soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides are categorized as Persistent Organic Pollutants. Hence, critical decisions to control exposure to these chemicals in the environment are based on their levels in different media; it is important to find valid qualitative and quantitative results for these components. In analytical chemistry, internal quality procedures are applied to produce valid logical results. Result In this study, 18 organochlorine pesticides were targeted for analysis and determination in water and river sediment. Experiments based on signal-to-noise ratio, calibration curve slope and laboratory fortified blank methods were conducted to determine the limits of qualification and quantification. The data were compared with each other. The limitation values, following Laboratory Fortified Blank, showed significant differences in the signal-to-noise ratio and calibration curve slope methods, which are assumed in the results for the sample concentration factor to be 1,000 times in water and 10 times in sediment matrices. The method detection limit values were found to be between 0.001 and 0.005 ?g/L (mean of 0.002?±?0.001) and 0.001 and 0.005 ?g/g (mean of 0.001?±?0.001). The quantification limits were found to be between 0.002 and 0.016 ?g/L (mean of 0.006?±?0.004) and 0.003 and 0.017 ?g/g (mean of 0.005?±?0.003 ?g/L) for water and sediment, respectively, based on the laboratory fortified blank method. Because of different slopes in the calibration methods, it was also found that the limitation values for some components from the internal standard were higher than from external standard calibration, because in the latter a factor for injection efficiency is applied for calibration. Conclusion Technically, there are differentiations between detection limits for quality and quantity from component to component, resulting from noise, response factors of instruments and matrix interference. However, the calculation method is the cause of differentiation for each component of the different methods. The results show that for no matter what component, the relationship between these levels in different methods is approximately: Signal to Noise : Calibration Slope?=?1:10. Therefore, due to different methods to determine LOD and LOQ, the values will be different. In the current study, laboratory fortified blank is the best method, with lower limitation values for Soxhlet and solid phase extraction of OCPs from sediment and water, respectively. PMID:23561579

2013-01-01

362

Organochlorine pesticide levels in breast milk in Guerrero, Mexico.  

PubMed

In Mexico, organochlorine pesticides were used in public health and agriculture programs, causing chronic exposure to the population. Human breast milk samples were collected from 171 mothers who were residents from Guerrero, Mexico. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. Median concentrations (mg/kg on fat basis) for the following pesticides were: HCB, 0.009; ?-HCH, 0.004; pp'DDE, 0.760; op'DDT, 0.016; pp'DDT, 0.045; and ?-DDT, 0.833. These values are lower than in other States in Mexico, and in some countries where the use of these pesticides was banned more than 30 years ago. Differences were found in HCB, pp'DDE and pp'DDT concentrations in groups divided according to age (p < 0.05). The older age groups had higher concentrations, except for the comparison between groups 21-23/24-28 years, which were 0.913 and 0.530 mg/kg of pp'DDE, respectively. Given the restrictions on use, a greater decrease in organochlorine pesticide levels in human milk is expected in a few years. PMID:24891143

Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Dávila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan M

2014-09-01

363

A model to resolve organochlorine pharmacokinetics in migrating humpback whales.  

PubMed

Humpback whales are iconic mammals at the top of the Antarctic food chain. Their large reserves of lipid-rich tissues such as blubber predispose them to accumulation of lipophilic contaminants throughout their lifetime. Changes in the volume and distribution of lipids in humpback whales, particularly during migration, could play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic contaminants such as the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Previous models have examined constant feeding and nonmigratory scenarios. In the present study, the authors develop a novel heuristic model to investigate HCB dynamics in a humpback whale and its environment by coupling an ecosystem nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model takes into account the seasonal feeding pattern of whales, their energy requirements, and fluctuating contaminant burdens in the supporting plankton food chain. It is applied to a male whale from weaning to maturity, spanning 20 migration and feeding cycles. The model is initialized with environmental HCB burdens similar to those measured in the Southern Ocean and predicts blubber HCB concentrations consistent with empirical concentrations observed in a southern hemisphere population of male, migrating humpback whales. Results show for the first time some important details of the relationship between energy budgets and organochlorine pharmacokinetics. PMID:24733631

Cropp, Roger; Nash, Susan Bengtson; Hawker, Darryl

2014-07-01

364

Persistent organic pollutants at the base of the Antarctic marine food web.  

PubMed

Various organochlorine pesticides and brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-47, -99, and -100) were measured in sea ice algae, water column plankton, and juvenile and adult krill collected in the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) region west of the Antarctic Peninsula during late austral winter and midsummer, 2001-2002. BDEs were 100-1000 times higher in ice algae and 2-10 times higher in phytoplankton than the most abundant organochlorine pesticide, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), reflecting the current production and use of BDEs versus organochlorine pesticides. However, concentrations of HCB and BDEs were significantly lower in summer plankton than in ice algae indicating lower atmospheric inputs, removal from the water column, and/or biodilution of persistent organic pollutants at the base of the food web during summer. Concentrations of HCB (juvenile and adult krill) and BDEs (juvenile krill) were not significantly different from their primary food source (ice algae, phytoplankton), and BDEs were significantly lower in adult krill versus phytoplankton, indicating no biomagnification of HCB or BDEs during transfer from plankton to krill. The high concentrations of BDEs and HCB in ice algae and associated juvenile krill illustrate the importance of sea ice as a vector for entry of POPs into the Antarctic marine ecosystem. PMID:15296304

Chiuchiolo, Amy L; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Cochran, Michele A; Ducklow, Hugh W

2004-07-01

365

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.  

PubMed

The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523

de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

2010-12-01

366

Assessment of organochlorine pesticide pollution in Upper Awash Ethiopian state farm soils using selective pressurised liquid extraction.  

PubMed

Upper Awash Agro Industry Enterprises (UAAIE) is one of the major state farms in Ethiopia with known large-scale pesticide use. Although organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been applied for about three decades, no studies have been carried out on levels of residue in the region. In this work a fast selective pressurised liquid extraction (SPLE) methodology has successfully been applied for screening of 13 OCPs in 12 soil samples from different fields in UAAIE, which further strengthen this methodology. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were done using a dual column gas chromatography-electron capture detection system (GC-ECD) and a GC equipped with a mass spectrometer (MS), respectively. The main contaminants identified comprised of previously used persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and currently used insecticides. Low concentrations or non-detectable levels of certain OCPs (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and heptachlor) indicate a positive phasing out of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Similarly HCHs were found in few soils and at low concentrations. Endosulfans and DDTs were detected in substantial amounts in the soils with Sigmaendosulfans up to 56000 and SigmaDDTs up to 230 ng g(-1) dry weight, which is a threat to the surrounding and downstream ecosystems, especially considering that the investigated OCPs constituted 29000 l of the 63000 l of pesticide applied annually on the fields. Additional concerns must be raised concerning synergistic effects of all pesticides added. PMID:18479726

Westbom, Rikard; Hussen, Ahmed; Megersa, Negussie; Retta, Negussie; Mathiasson, Lennart; Björklund, Erland

2008-07-01

367

Assessment of health risk from organochlorine pesticides residues in high-fat spreadable foods produced in Poland.  

PubMed

Currently, butter and margarine are food products attracting wide customer interest. Every day, consumers around the world buy these products for human consumption. Butter is obtained from milk fat, while margarine is derived from vegetable oils. The content of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues was examined in both types of these high fatty products. A gas chromatograph with MSD (HP 5973) detector was used for the determination of pesticides such as ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. The examined products had diverse concentrations of the analyzed compounds. Visible was the division based on the origin of the product, which might be composed of animal or vegetable fats. The research has revealed the presence of OCP residues in all examined spreads. Quantities of organochlorine compounds did not pose an immediate danger to the consumers' health. Human and environmental health risk assessment was carried out by the estimation of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and non-carcinogenic health hazard quotient (HQ). Total estimated LADD ranged between 1.3 × 10(-5) and 3.1 × 10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for butter, and 1.9 × 10(-6) and 4.6 × 10(-6) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for margarine and mix spread. The HQ ranged between 1.1 × 10(-4) and 3.7 × 10(-4) for butter, and 1.4 × 10(-5) and 9.0 × 10(-6) for margarine and mix spread for adults. These estimated HQs were within the safe acceptable limits, indicating a negligible risk to the residents of the study area. PMID:25310807

Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

2014-12-01

368

Concentration and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticide residues in herons and their prey in wetlands of Thermaikos Gulf, Macedonia, Greece.  

PubMed

Concentrations of the principal organochlorine insecticides were determined in eggs and freshly dead chicks of the Squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), as well as in frogs (Rana sp.), the main heron prey. Material was collected from the wetlands of the Thermaikos Gulf (Macedonia, northern Greece) in 1992 and 1993. Residues of the organochlorine pesticides alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, heptachlor and dieldrin were found in the eggs, chicks and prey of the herons. alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, and lindane had highest concentration in the Night Heron and lowest in the Little Egret. In all samples examined, the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of these compounds had very high values. BCF of pollutants for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were at lower levels than those of its chicks. BCF for frogs were in almost all cases lower than those for the other samples. Biomagnification factor (BMF) for 4,4'-DDE and beta-BHC had the highest values of all other compounds (except in the Night Heron). BMF for the eggs of the Squacco Heron were greater than for its chicks. Variation in the pesticide contents in the different heron species is attributed to different feeding habits; the exception being the occurrence of dieldrin in eggs only and 4,4'-DDE as a remnant of past spraying. Amounts of pesticides detected in this study are too low to affect eggshell thickness in the Squacco Heron or have other effects on the wildlife of the area. PMID:8854937

Albanis, T A; Hela, D; Papakostas, G; Goutner, V

1996-04-01

369

Alkylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorines in sediment from Lake Shihwa, Korea: Instrumental and bioanalytical characterization  

SciTech Connect

Lake Shihwa is an artificial lake, located on the west coast of Korea, that has experienced environmental deterioration since 1994, when it was formed by construction of a sea dike. This study used instrumental analysis and in vitro bioassays to characterize organic contaminants in sediment collected from 11 stations on Lake Shihwa. Alkylphenol (AP) concentrations in Lake Shihwa sediment ranged from 20.2 to 1,820 ng/g nonylphenol and from 4.69 to 50.5 ng/g octylphenol, on a dry weight basis. Maximum concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were 30.8, 2.26, and 12.3 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. Significant estrogenic activity was associated with fractions containing APs. Mass-balance analysis suggested that reported concentrations of APs account for less than 20% of the estrogenic activity observed. No significant dioxin like activity was associated with fractions containing classic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, such as PCBs, but the mid-polarity fractions containing PAHs and most polar fractions yielded significant dioxin like activity. Overall, most of the in vitro bioassay responses appear to have been caused by unidentified and/or undetectable compounds associated with Lake Shihwa sediment.

Khim, J.S.; Villeneuve, D.L.; Kannan, K.; Lee, K.T.; Snyder, S.A.; Koh, C.H.; Giesy, J.P.

1999-11-01

370

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in black duck eggs from the Atlantic Flyway, 1978.  

PubMed

Black duck (Anas rubripes) eggs were collected during 1978 in the Atlantic Flyway. One egg from each of 49 clutches was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and mercury. DDE was detected in 39 eggs, ranging from 0.09 ppm to 3.4 ppm, wet weight. DDE residues were highest in eggs from Delaware, where the mean DDE level was 2.0 ppm. DDT and TDE were present at low levels in only five and four eggs, respectively. PCBs resembling Aroclor 1260 were detected in 24 eggs and ranged from 0.43 ppm to 2.9 ppm. Eggs from Massachusetts and Rhode Island contained an average of greater than 1.0 ppm PCBs, but eggs from Nova Scotia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia contained no detectable PCBs. Dieldrin, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were present in a few samples at low levels. Mercury was detected in 31 eggs, ranging from 0.07 ppm to 0.34 ppm, wet weight. Twenty eggs analyzed for chromium, copper, and arsenic contained averages of 0.64 ppm, 1.7 ppm, and 0.18 ppm, respectively. No geographic pattern was observed in these metal residue levels. Eggshell thickness (0.347 mm) was identical to the pre-1946 norm. PMID:7232104

Haseltine, S D; Mulhern, B M; Stafford, C

1980-09-01

371

Organochlorine pesticides in bird species and their prey (fish) from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and stable isotopes were measured in muscle from 4 bird and 5 fish species from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region where DDT is used for malaria control and vast agricultural activities are carried out. We investigated the bioaccumulation of OCPs such as DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, and heptachlors between the species, and examined the potential risk posed by these compounds for bird species. Significant differences in contaminant profiles and levels were observed within the species. Levels of total OCPs ranged from 3.7 to 148.7 ?g/g lipid in bird and 0.04 to 10.9 ?g/g lipid in fish species. DDTs were the predominant contaminant, and a positive relationship between ?(15)N and ?DDT concentrations was found. The main DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant and significantly greater concentrations in bird species (up to 138.5 ?g/g lipid), which could have deleterious effects on survival and/or reproduction of birds. PMID:24907858

Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2014-09-01

372

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal flat surface sediments from coastal zone of Jiangsu Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected and analysed to evaluate the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from intertidal flat in Jiangsu Province. Overall, 22 OCPs were detected with total concentrations of OCPs ranging widely from 0.96 to 12.14 ng/g (dry wt). Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels varied from <0.01 to 0.67 ng/g and from 0.23 to 4.85 ng/g, respectively. DDTs were the predominant compounds. The dominance of ?-HCH indicated a history of HCH pollution. According to the ratios of ( p, p'-DDD+ p, p'-DDE)/ p, p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT, new input of DDTs did not occur in most sites, and the main sources were historical usage of technical DDTs. OCPs such as dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDT exceeded the effects range low, showing adverse biological effects that would occasionally occur at some sites of the study area.

Han, Xiumei; Zheng, Rong; Zhao, Jiale; Ma, Chao; Gao, Xiaojiang

2014-09-01

373

Seasonal and geographical variation of organochlorine residues in birds from northwest Mexico.  

PubMed

Eight species of birds (129 individuals) were collected from three agricultural areas with long histories of pesticide use in northwestern Mexico. Plucked carcasses were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). DDE was found in all of the samples and at higher levels than other OCs. Mean (geometric) DDE concentrations varied from 0.04 (microgram/g) ppm in mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) to 5.05 ppm in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) was detected in 95% of the samples, but at lower levels than DDE. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) residues were detected more frequently in birds from Mexicali (62%, p less than 0.05) than in those from Yaqui and Culiacan. HCH and HCB concentrations were significantly higher in birds from Mexicali during the winter than in the summer (p less than 0.05), indicating accumulation of these compounds during that period. Other OCs such as DDT, DDD, dieldrin, oxychlordane, heptachlor expoxide, endosulfan, and endrin were found at lower levels and less frequently. PCBs (quantitated as Aroclor 1260) were found mostly in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and cormorants at the three locations. Overall, concentrations of OCs were higher for Mexicali than for Yaqui and Culiacan (p less than 0.01). In a few cases, DDE levels were above those that might adversely affect birds. PMID:1722080

Mora, M A; Anderson, D W

1991-11-01

374

Organochlorine contaminants in endangered Hawaiian monk seals from four subpopulations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

We analyzed blubber and blood samples for organochlorines (OCs) from 158 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) at four of their six primary breeding colonies in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Levels of OCs in blubber were lower in adult females compared to juveniles or adult males, evidently owing to the transfer of these lipophilic compounds to pups by pregnant and lactating females. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs and p,p'-DDE in blubber generally increased with age until seals were sexually mature and then continued to increase with age in males after puberty. Average levels of PCBs and PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) in blubber were significantly higher in adult male and juvenile seals at Midway Atoll than the same age class of seals at the other colonies. Unlike concentrations of OCs in blubber, circulating levels of OCs in blood did not vary consistently among age classes of seals or among breeding colonies. Though the concentrations of OCs measured in Hawaiian monk seals were generally equal to or lower than those reported for other pinniped species in the North Pacific Ocean, they were high enough in a few seals to potentially affect their health. PMID:18031765

Ylitalo, Gina M; Myers, Matthew; Stewart, Brent S; Yochem, Pamela K; Braun, Robert; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Boyd, Daryle; Antonelis, George A; Atkinson, Shannon; Aguirre, A Alonso; Krahn, Margaret M

2008-02-01

375

Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, China.  

PubMed

Fifty-five surface sediment samples covering virtually the entire Bohai Sea (Bohai) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in order to provide the extensive information of recent occurrence levels, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of these compounds in this area. Concentrations of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in Bohai ranged widely from 0.24 to 5.67ngg(-1) (mean 1.36+/-0.93ngg(-1)) and 0.16 to 3.17ngg(-1) (mean 0.83+/-0.57ngg(-1)), respectively. High concentrations of DDTs were observed in the coastal areas especially at the isolated sites neighboring the harbor or port regions. The recent DDT inputs could be mainly attributed to the agricultural activity (e.g. dicofol), wastewater of chemical plants and the usage of antifouling paint. The distribution pattern of HCHs was different from that of DDTs due to their different physical-chemical properties and amounts of production and usage in the past. (DDE+DDD)/DDT ratios indicated that the degradation of the parent DDT occurred significantly. The contributions of previous and current inputs of pesticides in the coastal areas were distinguished by means of principal component analysis, suggesting that the recent usage of DDT and technical chlordane could serve as important fresh input sources for OCPs. DDTs and chlordanes are the two-main species of OCPs with more ecotoxicological concern in Bohai. PMID:19709715

Hu, Limin; Zhang, Gan; Zheng, Binhui; Qin, Yanwen; Lin, Tian; Guo, Zhigang

2009-10-01

376

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in black duck eggs from the Atlantic Flyway, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black duck (Anas rubripes) eggs were collected during 1978 in the Atlantic Flyway. One egg from each of 49 clutches was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and mercury. DDE was detected in 39 eggs, ranging from 0.09 ppm to 3.4 ppm, wet weight. DDE residues were highest in eggs from Delaware, where the mean DDE level was 2.0 ppm. DDT and TDE were present at Iow levels in only five and four eggs, respectively. PCBs resembling Aroclor 1260 were detected in 24 eggs and ranged from 0.43 ppm to 2.9 ppm. Eggs from Massachusetts and Rhode Island contained an average of >1.0 ppm PCBs, but eggs from Nova Scotia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia contained no detectable PCBs. Dieldrin, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were present in a few samples at low levels. Mercury was detected in 31 eggs, ranging from 0.07 ppm to 0.34 ppm, wet weight. Twenty eggs analyzed for chromium, copper, and arsenic contained averages of 0.64 ppm, 1.7 ppm, and 0.18 ppm, respectively. No geographic pattern was observed in these metal residue levels. Eggshell thickness (0.347 mm) was identical to the pre-1946 norm.

Haseltine, S.D.; Mulhern, B.M.; Stafford, C.

1980-01-01

377

Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?  

PubMed

Two plants, a fern (Athyrium filix-femina) and a moss (Polytrichum commune Hedw.), both commonly occurring in Northern Temperate forests, were exposed in a laboratory study to a solution of (36)Cl-chloride. The uptake of (36)Cl-chloride by the plants was investigated and the emission of volatile chlorine 36 by the plants was determined. Furthermore, speciation of the emitted volatile organochlorine compounds (VOCls) was investigated. For the fern and the moss a rapid uptake of (36)Cl-chloride was observed within a 1-h exposure period. The uptake rates for the fern and the moss, respectively, were 16 microg (36)Cl-chloride g(-1) fresh weight (FW) h(-1) and 3.0 microg (36)Cl-chloride g(-1) FW h(-1), respectively. The study also suggested that after uptake by the plants (36)Cl-chloride is incorporated into VOCls, which were emitted by the plants into the atmosphere. Speciation analysis of the VOCls revealed the emission of chloroform, tetrachloromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. PMID:17850934

Laturnus, Frank; Matucha, Miroslav

2008-01-01

378

Historical contamination and ecological risk of organochlorine pesticides in sediment core in northeastern Chinese river.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight surface sediment samples and one sediment core were analyzed for 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in order to provide extensive information of distribution, sources, pollution history and ecological risk of these OCP compounds in Daling River area, China. The results showed that hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most frequently detected contaminants in the surface sediment samples with concentrations (in ngg(-1) dry weight (dw)) from 1.1 to 30 and from 2.2 to 45, respectively. Analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.05) differences between HCHs and DDTs residues in surface sediment sampled from the various locations. Residues of HCHs and DDTs in sediment core (in ngg(-1)dw) ranged from 2.1 to 18 and 9.1 to 53, respectively. The temporal trends of HCHs and DDTs concentrations in the sediment core were affected by application history, emission and soil residues. Compositional analysis of HCHs and DDTs indicated that new sources were lindane and dicofol mainly due to agricultural activities. Additionally, based on the available sediment quality guidelines, slight potential health risks of DDTs may exist to benthic organisms in Daling River and Bohai Sea. PMID:23683900

Wang, Luo; Jia, Hongliang; Liu, Xianjie; Sun, Yeqing; Yang, Meng; Hong, Wenjun; Qi, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan

2013-07-01

379

Coupling passive air sampling with emission estimates and chemical fate modeling for persistent organic pollutants (POPs): a feasibility study for Northern Europe.  

PubMed

Passive air samplers (polyurethane foam disks) were deployed at 23 background locations along a broadly west-east transect in 8 northern European countries and analyzed for PCBs, PBDEs, PAHs, and a range of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDTs, and DDEs). PCBs and PAHs were highest at the center of the transect (Denmark) and lowest in northern Norway. HCB was relatively uniformly distributed, reflecting its persistence and high degree of mixing in air. Higher DDE and DDT levels occurred in Eastern Europe and at several sites in Central Europe. PBDE levels were generally similar at all sites, but lower for some locations in Eastern Europe and Ireland. Emissions information for PCBs, HCB, and PBDEs was used as input for a multi-media chemical fate model, to generate predicted air concentrations and compare with these measured values. Different scenarios were highlighted by this exercise: (i) country and compound combinations where the national inventory gave predicted air concentrations in close agreement with those measured (e.g., PCBs in the UK); (ii) country and compound combinations where predicted concentrations were well below those measured, but where advection of emissions from elsewhere is likely to be important (e.g., PCBs in Norway); (iii) consistent underestimation of compound concentrations by the emissions modeling (i.e., HCB); and (iv) general overestimation of ambient concentrations (i.e., PBDEs). Air mass trajectory analysis showed the likely role of long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) on national levels. In general, advection from the south and west of Europe appeared to contribute to ambient POPs levels for countries in the center and northeast of the transect. Guidelines are presented as to how countries that want to assess their POPs source inventories can do so with this relatively cheap initial screening approach. PMID:17438758

Gioia, Rosalinda; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

2007-04-01

380

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA FROM FOUR US ARCTIC LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including...

381

Organochlorine residues in females and nursing young of the big brown bat ( Eptesicus fuscus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Carcasses and brains of 18 big brown bats from Gaithersburg, Maryland, were analyzed for residues of organochlorine insecticides and PCB's. Eleven bats were adult females, and six of these had seven nursing young associated with them.

Donald R. Clark; Thair G. Lamont

1976-01-01

382

Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, ?-?-?-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher ?-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue. PMID:24928094

Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

2014-08-01

383

Transfer and accumulation of organochlorines from black-crowned night-heron eggs to chicks  

SciTech Connect

Eggs and sibling 1-, 3-, and 5-d-old chicks from seven black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) broods were collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin, and analyzed for organochlorines. The concentration of nine organochlorines either decreased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. In contrast, the total mass of these nine organochlorines increased or remained the same as the chicks grew older. Accumulation rates of mass between egg and 5-d-old chicks for each of the nine organochlorines were positive and varied from 0.2 {mu}g/d (p,p{prime}-DDT) to 42 {mu}g/d (PCBs). These results suggest that the loss of contaminant mass from eggs to chicks reported in some earlier studies was because the entire carcass was not analyzed. These results also support the use of contaminant accumulation rates as an indicator of local contamination.

Custer, T.W.; Custer, C.M. [National Biological Survey, LaCrosse, WI (United States)

1995-03-01

384

Persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in adipose tissues of patients with uterine leiomyomas and the association of these pollutants with seafood diet, BMI, and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals can cause diseases in women, however, the relationships of these pollutants\\u000a and uterine leiomyomas (UL), which are non-cancerous tumors of the uterus, are unclear. This study focused on the quantification\\u000a of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated\\u000a diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and heavy metals in subcutaneous and

Yan Yan Qin; Clement Kai Man Leung; Anna Oi Wah Leung; Sheng Chun Wu; Jin Shu Zheng; Ming Hung Wong

2010-01-01

385

Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from the Uganda side of Lake Victoria.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) residues were analysed in 117 sediment samples collected from four bays of the Uganda side of Lake Victoria. The sediments were collected with a corer at a depth of 0-20 cm, and extracted for OC residues using a solid dispersion method. The extracts were cleaned using gel permeation chromatography and analysed for pesticide residues using a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector. The results were confirmed using a GC equipped with a mass spectrometer (MS). A total of 16 OC residues, most of them persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were identified and quantified. The OC residue levels were expressed on an oven dry weight (d.w.) basis. Endosulphan sulphate, in the range of 0.82-5.62 ?g kg?¹ d.w., was the most frequently detected residue. Aldrin and dieldrin were in the ranges of 0.22-15.96 and 0.94-7.18 ?g kg?¹ d.w., respectively. DDT and its metabolites lay between 0.11-3.59 for p,p'-DDE, 0.38-4.02 for p,p'-DDD, 0.04-1.46 for p,p'-DDT, 0.07-2.72 for o,p'-DDE and 0.01-1.63 ?g kg?¹ d.w. for o,p'-DDT. The levels of ?-HCH varied from 0.05 to 5.48 ?g kg?¹ d.w. Heptachlor was detected only once at a level of 0.81 ?g kg?¹ d.w., while its photo-oxidation product, heptachlor epoxide, ranged between non-detectable (ND) to 3.19 ?g kg?¹ d.w. Chlordane ranged from ND to 0.76 ?g kg?¹ d.w. Based on the threshold effect concentration (TEC) for fresh water ecosystems, aldrin and dieldrin were the only OCs that seemed to be a threat to the lake environment. PMID:20947127

Wasswa, John; Kiremire, Bernard T; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Mbabazi, Jolocam; Ssebugere, Patrick

2011-01-01

386

Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed

Analytical methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely available and are the result of a vast amount of environmental analytical method development and research on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the past 30-40 years. This review summarizes procedures and examines new approaches for extraction, isolation, identification and quantification of individual congeners/isomers of the PCBs and OCPs. Critical to the successful application of this methodology is the collection, preparation, and storage of samples, as well as specific quality control and reporting criteria, and therefore these are also discussed. With the signing of the Stockholm convention on POPs and the development of global monitoring programs, there is an increased need for laboratories in developing countries to determine PCBs and OCPs. Thus, while this review attempts to summarize the current best practices for analysis of PCBs and OCPs, a major focus is the need for low-cost methods that can be easily implemented in developing countries. A "performance based" process is described whereby individual laboratories can adapt methods best suited to their situations. Access to modern capillary gas chromatography (GC) equipment with either electron capture or low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) detection to separate and quantify OCP/PCBs is essential. However, screening of samples, especially in areas of known use of OCPs or PCBs, could be accomplished with bioanalytical methods such as specific commercially available enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays and thus this topic is also reviewed. New analytical techniques such two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) and "fast GC" using GC-ECD may be well-suited for broader use in routine PCB/OCP analysis in the near future given their relatively low costs and ability to provide high-resolution separations of PCB/OCPs. Procedures with low environmental impact (SPME, microscale, low solvent use, etc.) are increasingly being used and may be particularly suited to developing countries. PMID:17047943

Muir, Derek; Sverko, Ed

2006-10-01

387

Organochlorine accumulation on a highly consumed bivalve (Scrobicularia plana) and its main implications for human health.  

PubMed

Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated along a spatial gradient in water, sediments and in commercially important bivalve species Scrobicularia plana, from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Organochlorines dissolved in water were below detection limit and concerning suspended particulate matter, only PCBs were quantified, ranging from 3.8 to 5.8 ng?g(-1) DW (?13PCBs). There was a distinct spatial gradient regarding PCB accumulation in sediments. The highest concentrations were found in deeper layers and closest to the pollution source, decreasing gradually along a 3 km area. Contamination in sediments exceeded the Canadian and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines, inducing potential toxic effects in related biota. PCBs tended to bioaccumulate throughout S. plana lifespan but with different annual rates along the spatial gradient. The maximum values were found in older individuals up to 3+ years old, reaching 19.4 ng?g(-1) DW. HCB concentrations were residual and no bioaccumulation pattern was evident. Congeners 138, 153 and 180 were the most accumulated due to their abundance and long-term persistence in the environment. In the inner area of the Laranjo Bay (0.6 km(2)), the species was able to remove up to 0.4 g of PCBs annually from sediments into their own tissues, which is consequently free for trophic transfer (biomagnification). Concerning human health, and despite the high concentrations found in sediments, PCB levels in bivalves do not exceed the limit established by the European Union for fishery products and are largely below tolerable daily intake. Although PCBs in Scrobicularia plana are present at low levels, their impact to human health after consumption over many years might be harmful and should be monitored in future studies. PMID:23727603

Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

2013-09-01

388

Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination and its Potential Effects on Eggshell Characteristics of Dickcissels (Spiza americana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dickcissels (Spiza americana) are small, sparrow-like songbirds that nest in grasslands in the U.S. and winter in Venezuela. Fanners in Venezuela intentionally spray dickcissel flocks with organochlorine (DC) and other illegal pesticides in an attempt to kill them when they feed in both rice and sorghum fields. Previous studies have shown that organochlorine (DC) pesticide' contaminants (e.g., DDT) have significantly

BridgetWall

2008-01-01

389

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum and adipose tissue from Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that are highly resistant to biodegradation and have proven adverse health effects. The objectives of this study were to determine concentrations of three selected organochlorine pesticides (p,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDE, HCB) and three specific PCB congeners (PCB 138, 153, 180) in adipose tissue and serum samples from an urban adult population (n=112) in

J. P. Arrebola; M. Cuellar; E. Claure; M. Quevedo; S. R. Antelo; E. Mutch; E. Ramirez; M. F. Fernandez; N. Olea; L. A. Mercado

390

Distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in food web of Nansi Lake, China.  

PubMed

The concentration of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in water, sediment, aquatic plant, and animal (shrimp and fish) of Nansi Lake by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. The total OCPs concentrations were 65.31-100.31 ng L(-1) in water, 2.9-6.91 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 1.29-6.42 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants and 7.57-17.22 ng g(-1) dw in animals. The OCPs composition profiles showed that heptachlor compounds was also the predominant OCPs contaminants in addition to hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in Nansi Lake. According to the source of HCHs and DDTs in sediment samples, there was no new input and the HCHs pollution mainly came from the use of Lindane in Nansi Lake. Bioaccumulation of OCPs in aquatic biota indicated that DDTs and heptachlor compounds had a strong accumulation, followed by HCHs and drins. The accumulation abilities of fish for OCPs were higher than those of plants and shrimps. The OCPs biota-sediment accumulation factor values of Channa argus was the highest in fish samples, followed by Carassius auratus, and Cyprinus caspio. Risk assessment of sediment showed that heptachlor epoxide had a higher occurrence possibility of adverse ecological effects to benthic species. Based on the calculation of acceptable daily intake and hazard ratio, HCHs in fish and shrimps from Nansi Lake had a lifetime cancer risk of greater than one per million. The risk assessment of water, sediment, and fish indicated the water environment of Nansi Lake is at a safe level at present. PMID:24213638

Zhang, Guizhai; Pan, Zhaoke; Bai, Aiying; Li, Jing; Li, Xiaoming

2014-04-01

391

Rapid method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish muscle samples by microwave-assisted extraction and analysis of extracts by GC-ECD.  

PubMed

A procedure for the multiresidue determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fish muscle samples has been developed. The method is based on the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of food samples from an acetonitrile-water (95 + 5, v/v) mixture followed by SPE cleanup of the extracts and analysis by GC with an electron capture detector. MAE operational parameters, such as the extraction solvent, temperature, and time, were optimized with respect to the extraction efficiency of the target compounds from food samples with 10-13% fat content. The chosen extraction technique allows reduction of the solvent consumption and extraction time when compared with methods already used. Acetonitrile is a good extraction solvent for low-fat matrixes (2-20% fat content), such as fish samples, because it does not significantly dissolve the highly polar proteins, salts, and sugars commonly found in food and gives high recoveries of a wide polarity range of analytes. For purification, SPE using LC-Florisil was shown to be sufficient for the removal of coextracted substances. Recoveries > 78% with RSD values < 15% were obtained for all compounds under the selected conditions. Method quantification limits were in the 5-10 microg/kg range. The method was applied to the analysis of samples of herring (Clupea harengus) purchased at the local fish market. The method is rapid and reliable for the determination of organochlorine analytes in fish muscle. PMID:21313829

Wilkowska, Angelika M; Biziuk, Marek

2010-01-01

392

Persistence of civil wars  

E-print Network

A notable feature of post-World War II civil wars is their very long average duration. We provide a theory of the persistence of civil wars. The civilian government can successfully defeat rebellious factions only by ...

Acemoglu, Daron

393

Persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  More than 95% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) will be cured at initial operation by an experienced surgeon.\\u000a Despite this success rate, persistent and recurrent HPT remain challenging clinical entities. The most cost effective and\\u000a safest treatment for persistent and recurrent HPT is avoidance by successful first operation. The contributors to treatment\\u000a failure can be categorized into factors

Nadine R. Caron; Cord Sturgeon; Orlo H. Clark

2004-01-01

394

Are exploited mangrove molluscs exposed to Persistent Organic Pollutant contamination in Senegal, West Africa?  

PubMed

The surface sediments, two bivalves (Arca senilis and Crassostera gasar) and three gastropods (Conus spp., Hexaplex duplex and Pugilina morio) from two Senegalese stations, Falia (Sine-Saloum Estuary) and Fadiouth (Petite Côte), were analyzed for their pollutant organic persistent contamination (polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs; organochlorinated pesticides OCPs; polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs). Results revealed significant levels of PCBs, DDTs and lindane in mangrove sediments ranging from 0.3 to 19.1, 0.3 to 15.9, and 0.1 to 1.9 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively. Among the other POPs analysed, only hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor and trans-nonachlor for OCPs, as well as BDE47 and BDE99 congeners for PBDEs were detected at very low concentrations, generally not of concern. POP levels and patterns were in good accordance with literature data available for other tropical developing countries. A seasonal quantitative difference was highlighted with higher levels of PCBs and DDTs in sediments after the wet season, likely due to the strong wash-out of residues from inland to the marine ecosystems during the rainy season. The observed pattern of DDT and its metabolites pointed out probable recent applications of DDT for public health emergencies in Senegal. Exploited molluscs were exposed to the same POP compounds as those measured in sediments. They presented OCP levels within the same range as in sediments, while significant higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in shellfish soft tissues revealing a higher bioaccumulation potential mainly due to the lipophilicity of these compounds. Finally, the influence of the reproduction cycle on POP levels through lipid content variations was highlighted, minimizing potential differences in POP bioaccumulation between shellfish species. From an ecotoxicological and public health point of view, results from this study revealed that POPs in sediments from the Petite Côte and the Sine-Saloum Estuary would not cause toxic effects and impairments in molluscs from these regions, and that no potential risk exists for human, especially local populations, through mangrove shellfish consumption. PMID:21550627

Bodin, N; N'Gom Ka, R; Le Loc'h, F; Raffray, J; Budzinski, H; Peluhet, L; Tito de Morais, L

2011-06-01

395

Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects.  

PubMed

Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed. PMID:23079509

Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming

2012-01-01

396

Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.  

PubMed

Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. PMID:25020099

Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iaco