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1

Determination of persistent organochlorine compounds in blood by solid phase micro extraction and GC-ECD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring of persistent organochlorine compounds in blood using the solid phase microextraction technique (SPME) and\\u000a gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) is described. Polar substances as tri-, tetra- and penta-chlorophenols\\u000a are analyzed simultaneously with less polar compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-, ?-, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane\\u000a (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivatives and with some important congeners of the polychlorinated

Lars Röhrig; Michael Püttmann; Hans-Ulrich Meisch

1998-01-01

2

Persistent organochlorine compounds in soils and sediments of European high altitude mountain lakes.  

PubMed

The composition of persistent organochlorine compounds (OC) in soils and sediments from two high altitude European mountain lakes, Redon in the Pyrenees and Ladove in the Tatra mountains, has been studied. Sediment cores from two additional lakes in the Tatra mountains, Starolesnianske Pleso and Dlugi Staw, have also been examined. DDTs (1.7-13 ng g(-1)) were the most abundant OC in soils followed by total polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs; 0.41-1.5 ng g(-1)) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB; 0.15-0.91 ng g(-1)). In sediments, the dominant OC were also DDTs (3.3-28 ng g(-1)) and PCBs (2.3-15 ng g(-1)). These concentrations are low, involving absence of major pollution sources in these high mountain regions. The downcore OC profiles in soils and sediments were similar but higher concentrations and steeper vertical gradients were observed in the latter. Radiometric determinations showed absence of significant OC transport from catchment to lake. The sediment-soil difference points therefore to a better retention of the OC load in sediments than soils which may be related to the low temperatures that are currently encountered at the bottom of the lake water column and the depletion of sediment bioturbation in these cold environments. Significant qualitative changes in the soil PCB distributions are observed downcore. These involve a dominance of the high molecular weight congeners in the top core sections and those of lower weight (i.e. less chlorinated) in the bottom. Anaerobic dechlorination of higher molecular weight congeners occurring in microsites, e.g. as observed in flooded or poorly drained soils, could be responsible for these changes. This process could be concurrent to bioturbation. PMID:14659957

Grimalt, Joan O; van Drooge, Barend L; Ribes, Alejandra; Vilanova, Rosa M; Fernandez, Pilar; Appleby, Peter

2004-03-01

3

Residue pattern and dietary intake of persistent organochlorine compounds in foodstuffs from Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), DDT compounds (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide were determined in foodstuffs collected from different locations in Vietnam. Elevated levels of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and aldrin and dieldrin were found in animal fat, butter, meat, and seafood. Caviar and butter samples imported from the Soviet Union contained considerably higher amounts

Kurunthachalam Kannan; Shinsuke Tanabe; Hoang Trong Quynh; Nguyen Duc Hue; Ryo Tatsukawa

1992-01-01

4

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and menstrual cycle characteristics.  

PubMed

An evolving body of evidence suggests an adverse relation between persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) and menstruation, though prospective longitudinal measurement of menses is limited and served as the impetus for study. We prospectively assessed the relation between a mixture of persistent organochlorine compounds and menstrual cycle length and duration of bleeding in a cohort of women attempting to become pregnant. Eighty-three (83%) women contributing 447 cycles for analysis provided a blood specimen for the quantification of 76 polychlorinated biphenyls and seven organochlorine pesticides, and completed daily diaries on menstruation until a human chorionic gonadotropin confirmed pregnancy or 12 menstrual cycles without conception. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection was used to quantify concentrations (ng g(-1)serum); enzymatic methods were used to quantify serum lipids (mg dL(-1)). A linear regression model with a mixture distribution was used to identify chemicals grouped by purported biologic activity that significantly affected menstrual cycle length and duration of bleeding adjusting for age at menarche and enrollment, body mass index, and cigarette smoking. A significant 3-d increase in cycle length was observed for women in the highest tertile of estrogenic PCB congeners relative to the lowest tertile (?=3.20; 95% CI 0.36, 6.04). A significant reduction in bleeding (<1 d) was observed among women in the highest versus lowest tertile of aromatic fungicide exposure (?=-0.15; 95% CI -0.29, -0.00). Select POPs were associated with changes in menstruation underscoring the importance of assessing chemical mixtures for female fecundity. PMID:22018858

Buck Louis, Germaine M; Rios, Lisbeth Iglesias; McLain, Alexander; Cooney, Maureen A; Kostyniak, Paul J; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

2011-12-01

5

Persistent organochlorine and organobromine compounds in mother's milk from Sweden 1996-2006: compound-specific temporal trends.  

PubMed

High body burdens of persistent halogenated organic pollutants (POPs) among pregnant and nursing women are of concern because of exposure of the growing foetus and breast-feeding infant. We examined the temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in milk samples from Swedish women. POPs were analysed in individual mother's milk samples from randomly recruited primiparas (N=335) who lived in Uppsala County and delivered between 1996 and 2006. Results were adjusted for life-style factors that are associated with POP body burdens. PCB levels declined 3.9-8.6% per year. The levels of PCDDs decreased faster (6-9% per year) than the levels of PCDFs (3-6% per year). Temporal trends of PBDEs did not follow any consistent pattern. Concentrations of BDE-47 and BDE-99 decreased, while the concentrations of BDE-153 increased. No change in BDE-100 concentrations was observed. In most samples, concentrations of HBCD were below the quantification limit (<0.20 ng/g lipid). Generally, adjustment of the temporal trends of PCBs and PCDD/Fs for personal characteristics of the mothers (age, body mass index (BMI), weight changes during and after pregnancy) resulted in faster declining rates, with age having the greatest influence. The age of the participating mothers increased during the study period, and since the POP levels increased with increasing age, this counteracted the decreasing temporal trends in the unadjusted model. It is consequently important to include personal characteristics in the analysis of temporal trends of POPs. Compound-specific temporal trends are probably caused by differences in sources of exposure, as well as by differences in persistence between compounds. PMID:19477439

Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Darnerud, Per Ola; Cnattingius, Sven; Glynn, Anders

2009-08-01

6

Persistent organochlorines and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Although there is indirect evidence to suggest that persistent organochlorines might increase risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, there are no epidemiologic studies directly addressing this question. In this cohort study, sampled from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, 1933 women had complete data on organochlorine measurements, covariates, and pregnancy outcomes. Exposures to organochlorines were divided into quintiles, and levels were much higher in these patients recruited from 1959 to 1965 compared to levels in the general population at present. Among included women, 364 developed gestational hypertension (hypertension without proteinuria) and 131 developed preeclampsia (hypertension with proteinuria). We found essentially no association between serum DDE and total PCBs and risk of either gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. Results for other organochlorines showed varying patterns of results: DDT was inversely associated with risk of gestational hypertension (p for trend <0.001), B-Hexachlorocyclohexane and heptachlor epoxide were inversely related to gestational hypertension (p trend <0.01 and 0.10, respectively), dieldrin had a modestly positive association with gestational hypertension (p for trend=0.12), and hexachlorobenzene, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane yielded results close to the null. Hexachlorobenzene showed an inverse association with preeclampsia (p for trend <0.001). The study suggests that persistent organochlorines present at historically high level are not likely to increase the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, suggesting that other toxicants that have similar biologic effects are also unlikely to do so. PMID:24742720

Savitz, David A; Klebanoff, Mark A; Wellenius, Gregory A; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Longnecker, Matthew P

2014-07-01

7

Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003.  

PubMed

Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 were analysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl tricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs and DDT (including metabolites) were by far the most abundant OC groups, with median concentrations of 55 and 40 microg/g lw, respectively. The concentrations were high in an Arctic context, but similar to previously reported levels from Alaska and Norway and slightly lower than concentrations measured in eggs from industrialised regions. Geographical differences may be of importance, considering the migration of peregrine falcons and their prey. SigmaHCH and HCB had median concentrations of 0.39 and 0.17 microg/g lw, respectively. On average, DDE accounted for 97% of SigmaDDT, but was below critical levels for eggshell thinning. All compound groups showed a weak decreasing trend over the study period, which was statistically significant for HCB and close to being significant for SigmaHCH. The weak decrease of SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT is different from other time trend studies from Greenland, usually showing a more pronounced decrease in the beginning of the study period, followed by a certain stabilisation in recent years. PMID:18823663

Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Møller, Søren; Falk, Knud; Sørensen, Peter B

2009-02-01

8

Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in animal feed.  

PubMed

Animal products like milk and meat are often found to be contaminated with residues of persistent pesticides and other toxic substances. The major source of entry of these compounds to animal body is the contaminated feed and fodder. So, unless the residues are managed at this stage, it is very difficult to prevent contamination in milk and meat. Therefore, the status of residue level of most persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) in feed and fodder should be monitored regularly. The frequency of occurrence and contamination levels of OCP residues in different kinds of animal concentrate feed and straw samples collected from Bundelkhand region of India were determined. Out of 533 total samples, 301 i.e. 56.47% samples were positive containing residues of different OCPs like hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) complex, endosulfan and dicofol. Among different HCH isomers, the mean concentration of ?-HCH was highest, and total HCH varied from 0.01 to 0.306 mg kg(-1). In case of DDT complex, i.e. DDD, DDE and DDT, the concentration ranged between 0.016 and 0.118 mg kg(-1) and the pp(|) isomers were more frequently encountered than their op(|) counterparts. Endosulfan was also found in some samples in concentration ranging from 0.009 to 0.237 mg/kg, but dicofol could be recorded in very few samples. Although feed samples were found to contain OC residues, after comparing their levels in positive samples with the limiting values of respective pesticides, only very few were found to exceed the threshold level. Otherwise, they were mostly within safe limits. PMID:20443138

Nag, Subir Kumar; Raikwar, Mukesh K

2011-03-01

9

Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

10

Organochlorine compounds and testicular dysgenesis syndrome: human data  

PubMed Central

Cryptorchidism, hypospadias, subfertility, and testicular germ-cell tumor have been suggested to comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) based on the premise that each may derive from perturbations of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to be associated with these disorders given the importance of sex steroid hormones in urogenital development and homeostasis. Organochlorines are one such set of compounds which are defined as containing between one and ten covalently bonded chlorine atoms. These compounds are persistent pollutants with long half-lives, accumulate in adipose tissue when ingested, bioaccumulate and biomagnify, and have complex and variable toxicological profiles. Examples of organochlorines include dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlordane. In this comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies which have tested for associations between organochlorines and facets of TDS, we find evidence for associations between the exposures p,p?-DDE, cis-nonachlor, and trans-nonachlor with TGCT. The sum of the evidence from human epidemiologic studies does not indicate any association between specific organochlorines studied and cryptorchidism, hypospadias, or fertility. Many other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including additional organochlorines, have yet to be assessed in relation to disorders associated with TDS, yet study of such chemicals has strong scientific merit given the relevance of such hypotheses to urogenital development.

Cook, Michael B.; Trabert, Britton; McGlynn, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

11

Persistent organochlorine compounds in fetal and maternal tissues: evaluation of their potential influence on several indicators of fetal growth and health.  

PubMed

Some organochlorine compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have a tendency to bioaccumulate in humans and predators at the top of the food chain. We have recently confirmed the transplacental transfer of these compounds and the present study has been designed on the same material with the aim of investigating their potential health effects on newborns from 70 pregnant women, resident in a Northern Italy industrial town. Organochlorine compounds [namely, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and PCBs] have been analyzed both in cord and maternal serum, placenta, and maternal subcutaneous adipose tissue by GC-MSD. p,p'-DDT levels in the adipose tissue resulted significantly (p<0.05) related to birth length. Mothers of neonates born by preterm programmed caesarean delivery showed significantly (p<0.005 for both) higher serum p,p'-DDE serum concentrations and p,p'-DDT levels in the adipose tissue, as compared to mothers delivering at term. PMID:21669324

Bergonzi, Roberto; De Palma, Giuseppe; Specchia, Cristina; Dinolfo, Mariadaniela; Tomasi, Cesare; Frusca, Tiziana; Apostoli, Pietro

2011-07-01

12

Organochlorinated compounds in Caspian Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several organochlorinated contaminants, including numerous pesticides, were determined in coastal sediments from the Caspian Sea. The most important contaminants were p,p?-DDT (up to 7400 pgg?1) and its breakdown products, p,p?-DDD (up to 3400 pgg?1) and p,p?-DDE (up to 1300 pgg?1). Although the contamination was most severe in Azerbaijan, the sediment concentrations and percentage distribution of the three DDT-related compounds indicated

Stephen de Mora; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Mohammad Reza Sheikholeslami; Chantal Cattini; Imma Tolosa

2004-01-01

13

Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments from the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of contamination of the Black Sea by selected organochlorine compounds has been assessed through the analysis of surficial sediments taken from throughout the region. Concentrations of HCHs at sites influenced by the Danube delta are among the highest recorded on a global basis (up to 40ngg?1 dry wt). The ratio between the ?- and ?-isomers was relatively low

G Fillmann; J. W Readman; I Tolosa; J Bartocci; J.-P Villeneuve; C Cattini; L. D Mee

2002-01-01

14

Temporal Trends of Persistent Organochlorine Contamination in Russia: A Case Study of Baikal and Caspian Seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) contamination in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea, concentrations of persistent\\u000a OCs, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordane compounds\\u000a (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), in the blubber of female seals were determined. Collections were made in 1992, 1993, 1995\\u000a and 1998. DDT concentrations in Baikal

Shinsuke Tanabe; Satoko Niimi; Tu Binh Minh; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Evgeny A. Petrov

2003-01-01

15

Persistent organochlorine pesticides in serum and risk of Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Pesticides have been implicated as likely environmental risk factors for Parkinson disease (PD), but assessment of past exposure to pesticides can be difficult. No prior studies of pesticide exposure and PD used biomarkers of exposure collected before the onset of PD. Our investigation examined the association between prospective serum biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides and PD. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, with serum samples collected during 1968–1972, and analyzed in 2005–2007 for organochlorine pesticides. Incident PD cases were identified through the Social Insurance Institution's nationwide registry and were confirmed by review of medical records (n = 101). Controls (n = 349) were matched for age, sex, municipality, and vital status. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of PD were estimated using logistic regression. Results: Little association emerged with a summary score of the 5 organochlorine pesticides found at high levels, and only increasing dieldrin concentrations trended toward a higher risk of PD (OR per interquartile range [IQR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97–1.69, p = 0.08). Because of possible strong confounding by cigarette smoking among smokers, we ran additional analyses restricted to never smokers (n = 68 cases, 183 controls). In these analyses, increasing dieldrin concentrations were associated with increased odds of PD (OR per IQR 1.95, 95% CI 1.26–3.02, p = 0.003). None of the other organochlorine pesticides were associated with PD in these analyses. Conclusions: These results provide some support for an increased risk of Parkinson disease with exposure to dieldrin, but chance or exposure correlation with other less persistent pesticides could contribute to our findings. GLOSSARY AHS = Agricultural Health Study\\?3b; ?-HCH = ?-hexachlorocyclohexane; BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; 2-4-D = 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; FMC = Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey; HCB = hexachlorobenzene; IQR = interquartile range; MPP+ = 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium; MPTP = 1-methyl,-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; NHANES = US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; OR = odds ratio; PCB = polychlorinated biphenyl; PD = Parkinson disease; p,p'-DDD = p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane; p,p'-DDE = p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene; p,p'-DDT = p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane; SSI = Social Insurance Institution; 2,4,5-T = 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

Weisskopf, M.G.; Knekt, P.; O'Reilly, E.J.; Lyytinen, J.; Reunanen, A.; Laden, F.; Altshul, L.; Ascherio, A.

2010-01-01

16

Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows:

Tatsuya Kunisue; Mafumi Watanabe; Annamalai Subramanian; Alagappan Sethuraman; Alexei M Titenko; Vo Qui; Maricar Prudente; Shinsuke Tanabe

2003-01-01

17

Uptake of metals and persistent organochlorines in crabs ( Cancer pagurus) and flounder ( Platichthys flesus) from contaminated sediments: Mesocosm and field experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mesocosm experiment, the crabs and flounders were exposed to sediments strongly contaminated with persistent organochlorine compounds (OCs). Uptake of OCs in fillet of flounder and crab hepatopancreas was observed. The final concentrations of PCDF\\/D, given as toxic equivalency factors (TEQ) in flounder and crabs were more than one order of magnitude below levels in the recipient area. In

J. A. Berge; E. M. Brevik

1996-01-01

18

Specific accumulation and elimination kinetics of tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and other persistent organochlorines in humans from Japan.  

PubMed Central

We examined human adipose tissue, liver, and bile from humans in Japan to understand the contamination status, specific accumulation, and elimination of two newly identified environmental contaminants, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs). TCPMe and TCPMOH concentrations in Japanese human adipose tissue were slightly higher than those reported previously, indicating widespread exposure to these compounds in humans. Elevated residues of PCBs and DDTs are found in adipose tissue and liver. Concentrations in bile strongly correlated with concentrations in adipose fat and liver, which may suggest an equilibration in adipose fat/bile and liver/bile and possible biliary excretion of persistent organochlorines in humans. Composition of the organochlorines accumulated further indicates a metabolic capacity in humans higher than that of marine mammals. We observed age-dependent accumulation for TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other organochlorines, but there were no significant gender differences. p,p'-DDE and TCPMe were estimated to have low biliary excretion rate. Elimination potential of persistent organochlorines may be related to their octanol-water partition coefficient. The relationship between excretion rate and octanol-water partition coefficient may be used to predict the biliary excretion potential of some other lipophilic organochlorines such as dioxins and dibenzofurans in humans. The presence of organochlorines in bile suggests that the hepatic excretory system plays a major role in the elimination of xenobiotics in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study of accumulation and elimination of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans.

Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

2001-01-01

19

PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

20

Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants in Liver and Fat of Birds of Prey from Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers\\u000a (HCHs), cyclodienes (Cycls), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were measured in livers and subcutaneous fat tissues of\\u000a six Accipitridae and four Falconidae bird species from different areas in Greece. This is the first report of persistent organochlorine\\u000a (OC) pollutants in birds of prey tissues presented for

D. G. Hela; I. K. Konstantinou; T. M. Sakellarides; D. A. Lambropoulou; T. Akriotis; T. A. Albanis

2006-01-01

21

Differential estrogenic effects of the persistent organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, endosulfan, and lindane in primary neuronal cultures.  

PubMed

The organochlorine chemicals endosulfan, dieldrin, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) are persistent pesticides to which people are exposed mainly via diet. Their antagonism of the ?-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) receptor makes them convulsants. They are also endocrine disruptors because of their interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER). Here, we study the effects of dieldrin, endosulfan, and lindane on ERs in primary cultures of cortical neurons (CN) and cerebellar granule cells (CGC). All the compounds tested inhibited the binding of [(3)H]-estradiol to the ER in both CN and CGC, with dieldrin in CGC showing the highest affinity. We also determined the effects of the pesticides on protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Dieldrin and endosulfan increased Akt phosphorylation in CN, which was inhibited by the ER? antagonist 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]phenol. Instead, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by dieldrin in CGC was mediated by multiple activation of ER?, ER?, and G protein-coupled receptor 30. Lindane did not activate these pathways, but it inhibited estradiol-mediated Akt and ERK1/2 activation. In CN, all the chemicals activated ERK1/2 through a mechanism involving GABA(A) and glutamate receptors. Long-term exposure to these pesticides reduced the levels of ER?, but not of ER?. Moreover, extracts of CN treated with endosulfan, dieldrin, or lindane induced cell proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer-derived cells, whereas only extracts of CGC treated with dieldrin induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. Overall, the observed alterations on ER-mediated signaling and ER levels in neurons might contribute to the neurotoxicity of these organochlorine pesticides. PMID:21278053

Briz, Víctor; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Sánchez-Redondo, Sara; Fernández, Mariana F; Grimalt, Joan O; Olea, Nicolás; Rodríguez-Farré, Eduard; Suñol, Cristina

2011-04-01

22

Prenatal Exposure to Persistent Organochlorines and Childhood Obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project  

PubMed Central

Background: In some previous studies, prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines such as 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p´-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in children. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of maternal serum levels of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), p,p´-DDE, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p´-DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs with offspring obesity during childhood. Methods: The analysis was based on a subsample of 1,915 children followed until 7 years of age as part of the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). The CPP enrolled pregnant women in 1959–1965; exposure levels were measured in third-trimester maternal serum that was collected before these organochlorines were banned in the United States. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using age- and sex-specific cut points for BMI as recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Results: Adjusted results did not show clear evidence for an association between organochlorine exposure and obesity; however, a suggestive finding emerged for dieldrin. Compared with those in the lowest quintile (dieldrin, < 0.57 ?g/L), odds of obesity were 3.6 (95% CI: 1.3, 10.5) for the fourth and 2.3 (95% CI: 0.8, 7.1) for the highest quintile. Overweight and BMI were unrelated to organochlorine exposure. Conclusions: In this population with relatively high levels of exposure to organochlorines, no clear associations with obesity or BMI emerged. Citation: Cupul-Uicab LA, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Longnecker MP. 2013. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorines and childhood obesity in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1103–1109;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205901

Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2013-01-01

23

Organochlorines and dioxin-like compounds in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong mariculture zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-like compounds were measured in green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, collected from seven mariculture zones in Hong Kong between September and October in 2002 in order to evaluate the status, spatial distribution and potential sources of pollution in these areas. Concentrations ranged from 300 to 4400ng\\/g lipid weight

M. K. So; X. Zhang; J. P. Giesy; C. N. Fung; H. W. Fong; J. Zheng; M. J. Kramer; H. Yoo; P. K. S. Lam

2005-01-01

24

Organochlorines and dioxin-like compounds in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong mariculture zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-like compounds were measured in green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, collected from seven mariculture zones in Hong Kong between September and October in 2002 in order to evaluate the status, spatial distribution and potential sources of pollution in these areas. Concentrations ranged from 300 to 4400 ng\\/g lipid

X. Zhang; J. P. Giesy; C. N. Fung; H. W. Fong; J. Zheng; M. J. Kramer; H. Yoo; P. K. S. Lam

2005-01-01

25

Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds during pregnancy and the newborn  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of organochlorine compounds as insecticides during the past few decades has led to their ubiqitous presence in the environment. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced for use as coolant and insulator fluids for transformers and capacitors, as heat transfer fluids and as fire retardants for wood products; heavy industrial usage has led to widespread contamination of the environment with the PCBs. Organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and PCBs are highly lipid soluble and are resistant to environmental degradation. In human beings these compounds are stored in adipose tissue and are resistant to metabolism. These substances are present in women and the fetus is exposed during utero development by transplacental transfer. Relatively high serum levels of OCIs and PCBs have been found in women with premature delivery. Also, DDT and PCB residue levels were higher in California sea lions which gave birth prematurely than in those with full-term pups. OCIs may disturb the hormonal balance of pregnancy and perhaps precipitate labor. Some DDT analogs are reported to have estrogenic effects and PCBs were also estrogenically active. Limited data exist on the levels and kinetics of OCIs and PCBs during pregnancy and in newborns.

Roncevic, N.; Pavkov, S.; Galetin-Smith, R.; Vukavic, T.; Vojinovic, M.; Djordjevic, M.

1987-01-01

26

Epidemiology of Breast Cancer and Serum Organochlorine and Serum Organochlorine Compounds and Breast Cancer on Long Island  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Steven D. Stellman, of the American Health Foundation, New York, NY, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk for breast cancer in relation to levels of organochlorine compounds, such as DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB).

27

Organochlorine compounds: Risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer?  

PubMed

Organochlorines (i.e., synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds) are widespread, environmental contaminants that are present throughout the United States. Strong epidemiological evidence has linked occupational exposure to a high incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Recently, it has been postulated that exposure to organochlorines increases the risk of developing breast cancer. Human data on this issue remain insufficient, but recent results are very consistent. Observations in human populations of the immunotoxic and hormone-mimicking properties of some organochlorines add biological plausibility to the epidemiologic findings. Limitations in our ability to measure organochlorine exposure still preclude a quantitative risk assessment, relative to these cancer endpoints. Public health action with respect to restriction of ongoing production and use of organochlorines, however, appears warranted for purposes of prevention. PMID:8687239

Hoffman, W

1996-01-01

28

Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men  

PubMed Central

Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern is predictive of the subsequent occurrence of disease.

Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

2013-01-01

29

Temporal trends of persistent organochlorine contamination in Russia: a case study of Baikal and Caspian Seal.  

PubMed

To examine temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) contamination in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea, concentrations of persistent OCs, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), in the blubber of female seals were determined. Collections were made in 1992, 1993, 1995 and 1998. DDT concentrations in Baikal and Caspian seals showed a rapid decline during 1992 to 1998, while the concentrations of PCBs declined slowly. Elevated concentrations of HCHs were found in Caspian seals and there was no decline in their concentrations during 1993 to 1998, which could be due to extensive usage of HCHs around Caspian Sea in recent years. Trends of TCPMe and TCPMOH residues in Caspian seals were similar to that of DDTs. The pattern of PCB isomers in both Baikal seals and Caspian seals exhibited little temporal variations. Concentrations of non- ortho coplanar PCBs have declined at a faster rate than those of mono- ortho congeners. Compilation of available data on OC contamination in the North Pacific, Antarctic, Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, and India suggested that the time trend of residues of contaminants during the 1990s were different among these regions. Residue levels of OC insecticides have declined slowly while PCBs remained at a steady state in the open oceans and the Antarctic. The magnitude of temporal variation in Lake Baikal seemed to be higher than that in the Caspian Sea. Residue concentrations of OCs have increased in Ganges River dolphins from 1989-92 to 1994-96, suggesting that tropical, developing countries are potential emission source of OCs. PMID:12712284

Tanabe, Shinsuke; Niimi, Satoko; Minh, Tu Binh; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Petrov, Evgeny A

2003-05-01

30

Engineering bacteria for bioremediation of persistent organochlorine pesticide lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane).  

PubMed

Strategies were designed for bioremediation of the highly persistent toxic pesticide ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) or lindane from the environment. Lindane caused the loss of stress-protective chaperone GroEL, and inhibited photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen-fixation in Anabaena, resulting in growth arrest. To alleviate lindane toxicity, the linA2 gene, encoding HCH dehydrochlorinase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis B90, was knocked-in at an innocuous locus in Anabaena genome and over-expressed from an eco-friendly light-inducible PpsbA1 promoter. The recombinant Anabaena degraded >98% of 10 ppm lindane within 6-10 days. A LinA2 overexpressing Escherichia coli strain could degrade 10 ppm of all the isomers of lindane within 1h and displayed a visual degradation zone on a newly designed histochemical plate containing 50mg lindane within 12h. The study demonstrates (a) bioremediation of traces of lindane prevalent in paddy fields, using bioengineered photoautotrophic Anabaena, and, (b) biodegradation of huge stockpiles of lindane, by employing recombinant live/dead E. coli. PMID:24135568

Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Adhya, Tapan Kumar; Apte, Shree Kumar

2013-12-01

31

Influence of drying of biosludge on organochlorine compounds from pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed

Pulp and paper industry is one of the major sources of man-made generation of organochlorine compounds. During biological treatment of wastewater, part of organochlorine compounds is discharged with treated effluent and part is retained on biomass and disposed of as waste activated sludge. Due to presence of these compounds, the disposal of biosludge from pulp and paper industry has become an issue. The estimation of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) compounds after drying and grinding resulted in 49% lower concentration of AOX due to stripping of purgeable compounds. These purgeable compounds are not released at 60 degrees C in aqueous medium during estimation of purgeable organic halogen (POX) compounds. Dispersion of sludge by sonication overcomes the loss of POX compounds and results in higher concentration ofAOX compounds. The drying of biosludge samples at 45, 100 degrees C and in presence of sun light resulted in 20.1, 49.0 and 29.6% removal of purgeable AOX compounds, respectively. The lab scale sorption study using dichloromethane (as volatile organochlorine compound) reveal that biosludge from pulp and paper industry is a good adsorbent of volatile organochlorine compounds and results in poor release of these compounds during estimation of POX compounds. PMID:23033648

Gupta, S; Purwar, M; Chakrabarti, S K; Singh, Satnam

2012-01-01

32

Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples were collected from three mid-lake stations and at the mouth of two major tributaries. Average air concentrations of chlorinated bornanes (14 pg m{sup -3}), chlordanes (4.9 pg m{sup -3}), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (194 pg m{sup -3}) were similar to global backgound of Arctic levels. However, air concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, and PCBs were closer to those observed in the Great Lakes region. Significantly higher levels of these three compound classes in air over Irkutsk suggests that regional atmospheric transport and deposition may be an important source of these persistent compounds to Lake Baikal. Air-water gas exchange calculations resulted in net depositional flux values for {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, DDTs, and chlorinated bornanes at 112, 23, 3.6, and 2.4 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The total net flux of 22 PCB congeners, chlordanes, and HCB was from water to air (volatilization) at 47, 1.8, and 32 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. 50 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

McConnell, L.L. [USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States)] [USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States); Kucklick, J.R. [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States)] [National Marine Fisheries Service, Charleston, SC (United States); Bidleman, T.F. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Ivanov, G.P. [Limnological Inst., Irkutsk (Russian Federation)] [Limnological Inst., Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Chernyak, S.M. [Inst. of Fisheries, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Inst. of Fisheries, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-10-01

33

Emissions of Some Organochlorine Compounds in Experimental Aluminum Degassing with Hexachloroethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degassing agents based on hexachloroethane (HCE) are used to remove hydrogen gas from molten aluminum, particularly in foundries and remelting plants. Previously considered fairly innocuous, recent studies of the emissions from this process have shown high yields of some toxic organochlorine compounds. To determine a wider spectrum of such compounds, a series of experimental degassings was carried out in a

Håkan B. Westberg; Anders I. Seldén; Tom Bellander

1997-01-01

34

Organochlorine and organobromine compounds in a benthic fish (Solea solea) from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia): implications for human exposure.  

PubMed

Information on the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish from Tunisia is scarce. In this study, thirty one persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (dichlorodihenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in solea solea muscle, from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia) and from the Mediterranean Sea (reference area) (northern Mediterranean). In the Bizerte Lagoon, contaminant concentrations generally followed this order: PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>MeO-PBDEs>HCB>HCHs; while in the Mediterranean Sea, pollutant concentration followed this order: MeO-PBDEs>PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>HCB>HCHs. Mean levels of organochlorine compounds were 1018 and 380 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw) in fish from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Mean concentrations of organobromine compounds were 279 and 301 ng g(-1) lw in sole from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Organohalogen concentrations in fish from Bizerte Lagoon were similar or slightly lower than those reported for other marine fish species from other locations around the world. PCB, HCH, HCB and PBDE levels were negatively correlated with lipid content, while no such correlation was seen for DDTs. Assessment based on several available guidelines suggested an insignificant human health risk for dietary intake of HCB, lindane and PBDEs associated with consumption of sole. However, the estimated lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to DDTs and PCBs is a potential concern. PMID:23219662

Ben Ameur, Walid; El Megdiche, Yassine; Eljarrat, Ethel; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Badreddine, Barhoumi; Souad, Trabelsi; Bèchir, Hammami; Barceló, Damia; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

2013-02-01

35

Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer  

SciTech Connect

Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

Porta, Miquel [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)], E-mail: mporta@imim.es; Bosch de Basea, Magda [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica CIBERESP (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Benavides, Fernando G. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Tomas [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernandez, Esteve [Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala d'Oncologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Esther [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O. [CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Puigdomenech, Elisa [Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica, Barcelona (Spain); Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

2008-11-15

36

Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples

Laura L. McConnell; John R. Kucklick; Terry F. Bidleman; Genadi P. Ivanov; Sergey M. Chernyak

1996-01-01

37

Contamination by organochlorine compounds in sturgeons from Caspian Sea during 2001 and 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the five species of sturgeons collected from coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran during 2001 and 2002 to understand their status of contamination and accumulation features. Among OCs examined, concentrations of DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were predominant in all the sturgeon samples with concentrations ranging from 73 to

Natsuko Kajiwara; Daisuke Ueno; Shinsuke Tanabe; Mohammad Pourkazemi; David G. Aubrey

2003-01-01

38

Thyroid hormones in pregnancy in relation to environmental exposure to organochlorine compounds and mercury.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and mercury are global environmental contaminants that can disrupt the endocrine system in animals and humans. However, there is little evidence that they can interfere with endocrine status in pregnant women and neonates at low levels of exposure. The aim of this study was to examine thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy and in cord blood in relation to blood concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and Hg in healthy women recruited during pregnancy. We found a significant negative correlation between maternal total triiodothyronine levels and three non-coplanar congeners (PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180), three pesticides (p,p -DDE, cis-nanochlor, and hexachlorobenzene), and inorganic Hg independently, without any other changes in thyroid status. No significant relationships were observed between OCs and cord serum thyroid hormones. Cord serum free thyroxin was negatively correlated with inorganic Hg. These results suggest that at even low levels of exposure, persistent environmental contaminants can interfere with thyroid status during pregnancy. PMID:16079076

Takser, Larissa; Mergler, Donna; Baldwin, Mary; de Grosbois, Sylvie; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie

2005-08-01

39

Thyroid Hormones in Pregnancy in Relation to Environmental Exposure to Organochlorine Compounds and Mercury  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and mercury are global environmental contaminants that can disrupt the endocrine system in animals and humans. However, there is little evidence that they can interfere with endocrine status in pregnant women and neonates at low levels of exposure. The aim of this study was to examine thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy and in cord blood in relation to blood concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and Hg in healthy women recruited during pregnancy. We found a significant negative correlation between maternal total triiodothyronine levels and three non-coplanar congeners (PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180), three pesticides (p,p?-DDE, cis-nanochlor, and hexachlorobenzene), and inorganic Hg independently, without any other changes in thyroid status. No significant relationships were observed between OCs and cord serum thyroid hormones. Cord serum free thyroxin was negatively correlated with inorganic Hg. These results suggest that at even low levels of exposure, persistent environmental contaminants can interfere with thyroid status during pregnancy.

Takser, Larissa; Mergler, Donna; Baldwin, Mary; de Grosbois, Sylvie; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie

2005-01-01

40

Organochlorine compounds in bovine milk from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil.  

PubMed

Organochlorines are highly hydrophobic, synthetic organic pollutants that accumulate in the environment and in food webs. The primary route of human exposure to organochlorines is through food-mainly fat-rich food of animal origin such as meat, fish, and dairy products. Here we determined the presence and concentration of organochlorine residues in pasteurized milk from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, to monitor consumer exposure to these contaminants. Organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction in octadecyl silica-prepacked columns and identified by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. Of the 100 composite samples analyzed, more than 90% contained residues of organochlorine pesticides: aldrin was present in 44% of the samples, followed by ?DDT (36%), mirex (34%), endosulfan (32%), chlordane (17%), dicofol (14%), heptachlor (11%) and dieldrin (11%). Compared to the values established by law, the concentration of the compounds in some samples was above the reference values. Given the importance that milk and its products have in the human diet, it is essential to know whether the levels of pesticide residues are kept well below the recommended levels to minimize the risk to human health. PMID:23177004

Avancini, Régia Maria; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; de Mesquita, Sueli Alexandra

2013-03-01

41

Inhibition of E2-induced expression of BRCA1 by persistent organochlorines  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental persistent organochlorines (POCs) biomagnify in the food chain, and the chemicals are suspected of being involved in a broad range of human malignancies. It is speculated that some POCs that can interfere with estrogen receptor-mediated responses are involved in the initiation and progression of human breast cancer. The tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 plays a role in cell-cycle control, in DNA repair, and in genomic stability, and it is often downregulated in sporadic mammary cancers. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether POCs have the potential to alter the expression of BRCA1. Methods Using human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, the effect on BRCA1 expression of chemicals belonging to different classes of organochlorine chemicals (the pesticide toxaphene, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and three polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB#138, PCB#153 and PCB#180]) was measured by a reporter gene construct carrying 267 bp of the BRCA1 promoter. A twofold concentration range was analyzed in MCF-7, and the results were supported by northern blot analysis of BRCA1 mRNA using the highest concentrations of the chemicals. Results All three polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin reduced 17?-estradiol (E2)-induced expression as well as basal reporter gene expression in both cell lines, whereas northern blot analysis only revealed a downregulation of E2-induced BRCA1 mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Toxaphene, like E2, induced BRCA1 expression in MCF-7. Conclusion The present study shows that some POCs have the capability to alter the expression of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 without affecting the cell-cycle control protein p21Waf/Cip1. Some POCs therefore have the potential to affect breast cancer risk.

Rattenborg, Thomas; Gjermandsen, Irene; Bonefeld-J?rgensen, Eva C

2002-01-01

42

Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.  

PubMed Central

The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards.

Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

2003-01-01

43

Levels of organochlorine compounds, including PCDDS and PCDFS, in the blubber of cetaceans from the west coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine compounds (PCDD, PCDF, PCB and organochlorine pesticides) were determined in cetaceans collected from the west coast of North America between 1986 and 1989. The samples included gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), killer whale (Orcinus orca), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) collected in British Columbia, and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

W. M. Jarman; R. J. Norstrom; D. C. G. Muir; B. Rosenberg; M. Simon; R. W. Baird

1996-01-01

44

Organochlorine compounds and heavy metals in the soft tissue of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from Lake Faro (Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from five stations (north, south, east, west and centre) of Lake Faro to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. Quantitative determinations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were made by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. Concentrations of “essential” (Cu, Se and Zn) and “toxic” (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) metals

P Licata; D Trombetta; M Cristani; D Martino; F Naccari

2004-01-01

45

Trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) within an Arctic marine food web from the southern Beaufort–Chukchi Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope values (?13C, ?15N) and concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined to evaluate the near-shore marine trophic status of biota and biomagnification of OCs from the southern Beaufort–Chukchi Seas (1999–2000) near Barrow, AK. The biota examined included zooplankton (Calanus spp.), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and

P. F. Hoekstra; T. M. O'Hara; A. T. Fisk; K. Borgå; K. R. Solomon; D. C. G. Muir

2003-01-01

46

Contamination Levels and Specific Accumulation of Persistent Organochlorines in Caspian Seal ( Phoca caspica ) from the Caspian Sea, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including coplanar congeners, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes\\u000a (CHLs), and HCB, were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) and their fish diet (Rutilus sp.) collected in 1993 from the northern Caspian Sea, Russia. Notable concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were found at mean\\u000a values of 19 and 1.3 ?g\\/g on wet-weight

M. Watanabe; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa; M. Amano; N. Miyazaki; E. A. Petrov; S. L. Khuraskin

1999-01-01

47

Organochlorines in Black-Crowned Night Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax ) Eggs Reflect Persistent Contamination in Northeastern US Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonially nesting aquatic birds can indicate site-specific contamination because they are high-level predators and dependent upon local resources during the breeding season. We compared persistent organochlorine concentrations in black-crowned night heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs collected in 1992–93 among areas of known contamination (New York Harbor, Boston Harbor, Cape Cod, and Delaware Bay) and a reference site (Nantucket Island) in

A. C. Matz; K. C. Parsons

2004-01-01

48

Occurrence of Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and some other persistent organochlorines in Japanese human adipose tissue.  

PubMed Central

Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) are among the most recently identified environmental contaminants. Despite their widespread contamination in the marine environment, human exposure to these compounds remains relatively unknown. We determined the concentrations of TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds (CHLs) in human adipose tissue from Japan. TCPMe and TCPMOH were detected in all of the adipose samples analyzed; the concentrations ranged from 2.5-21 and 1.1-18 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans were less than those reported in marine mammals, suggesting the possibility of metabolism and elimination of these compounds by humans. Significant correlation between TCPMe and TCPMOH with concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in human adipose tissues suggested that exposure to DDT is the source of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. The age- and sex-dependent accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH as well as other organochlorines was less pronounced. Results for other organochlorines indicated that recent contamination status of PCBs in human samples from Japan was higher than that in developing countries, whereas DDT contamination is lower. Greater concentrations of CHLs in human adipose tissue from Japan than in those from other countries suggest that continuous monitoring of CHLs in humans in Japan is necessary. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH in human adipose tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

2000-01-01

49

Use of lees materials as an adsorbent for removal of organochlorine compounds or benzene from wastewater.  

PubMed

Lees materials such as wheat bran, rapeseed, linseed, okara (lees of bean curd), and sakekasu (sake lees) were found to effectively adsorb organochlorine compounds. The amounts of these compounds such as chloroform, dichloromethane, and benzene adsorbed were plotted against the equilibrium concentration of substances in solution on a logarithmic scale. A linear relationship was obtained, indicating that the adsorption reactions were of the Freundlich type. When the lees materials were applied to wastewater (pH: 10) containing 0.1 g/l of dichloromethane, dichloromethane was removed from the wastewater in the range of 70-90% efficiency after 90 min. There was a high correlation between the removal efficiency and the number of spherosomes, which are intracellular particles attributed to the uptake of organochlorine compounds. PMID:15621195

Adachi, Atsuko; Hamamoto, Hiroko; Okano, Toshio

2005-02-01

50

Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. As a consequence of environmental exposure, organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich-tissues such as maternal adipose tissue and partition to maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum. To establish their distribution in the human body, the concentration gradi- ents of organochlorine pesticides between these compart- ments were determined. Material and methods. Maternal adipose tissue, blood serum and umbilical blood

Stefan M. Waliszewski; Angel A. Aguirre; Rosa M. Infanzón; José Siliceo

2000-01-01

51

Organochlorine compound accumulation in delphinids from Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazilian coast.  

PubMed

The present study investigated organochlorine compound levels (PCBs, DDTs and HCB) in blubber samples of six delphinid species from Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazilian coast. The species analyzed inhabit the continental shelf (one killer whale, one false killer whale, two bottlenose dolphins, three rough-toothed dolphins, and four long-beaked common dolphins) and open ocean (four Fraser's dolphins). PCBs represented the greatest proportion of the sum of all measured organochlorines (from 0.60 to 257.2 ?g g(-1) lw), followed by DDTs (from 0.15 to 125.6 ?g g(-1) lw), and, at last, HCB (from

organochlorine levels in delphinids from southeastern Brazilian coast are comparable to those reported in cetaceans from highly industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Organochlorine accumulation patterns among delphinids from Rio de Janeiro State were related to habitat use. PMID:22771469

Lailson-Brito, José; Dorneles, Paulo R; Azevedo-Silva, Cláudio E; Bisi, Tatiana L; Vidal, Lara G; Legat, Leticiaá N; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Torres, João Paulo M; Malm, Olaf

2012-09-01

52

Spatial differences in persistent organochlorine pollutant concentrations between the Bering and Chukchi Seas (1993).  

PubMed

During August-September 1993, a joint Russian-United States expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas took place. Surface water samples were collected from 21 sites and separated into dissolved (duplicates) and suspended solids; 19 sediment and 6 air samples were also collected. These samples were analysed for 19 organochlorine pesticides, 11 chlorobenzenes and 113 PCB congeners. The report provides data on selected compounds which occured in > or = 75% of the water samples. Highest water concentrations were observed for HCH in open waters north and south of the Bering Strait, both regions being similar (alpha-HCH; 2.2 ng/L and lindane: 0.35 ng/L). Air levels observed were also constant (alpha-HCH; 0.041 ng/m3, lindane: 0.0093 ng/m3). Suspended solids and air particulares contributed little to the concentrations in their respective media, an observation common to all analytes except for the PCBs and the DDT residues. The sum of PCB concentrations in water were higher in the Bering Sea area compared to the Chukchi Sea (1.0 vrs 0.67 ng/L) and lower for air (0.46 vrs 0.23 ng/m3). Sum of DDT in water was higher in the Bering Sea than in the Chukchi Sea (0.23 vrs 0.15 ng/L) while in sediments and air, the Bering Sea concentrations were lower (0.95 vrs 1.6 ng/g and 36 vrs 56 pg/m3, respectively). Other organochlorine compounds for which data are presented include: pp'-DDE, pp'-DDT, dieldrin, HCB, 3 chlorobenzenes and 3 PCB congeners. Fluxes of all these chemicals through the Berin Strait are estimated; they ranged from 57 t/a (alpha-HCH) through 26 t/a (for sum of PCBs) to 0.2 t/a (pp'-DDE, dieldrin and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene). Fugacity ratios for the HCHs and PCBs indicate the alpha-HCH is degassing in both the Bering and Chukchi Seas and that the gamma-isomer is degassing in the Bering Sea and is close to equilibrium (weakly absorbing) in the Chuchi Sea; the sum of PCBs are strongly absorbing in both areas. PMID:11601531

Strachan, W M; Burniston, D A; Williamson, M; Bohdanowicz, H

2001-01-01

53

Modeling Organochlorine Compounds and the ?-Hole Effect Using a Polarizable Multipole Force Field.  

PubMed

The charge distribution of halogen atoms on organochlorine compounds can be highly anisotropic and even display a so-called ?-hole, which leads to strong halogen bonds with electron donors. In this paper, we have systematically investigated a series of chloromethanes with one to four chloro substituents using a polarizable multipole-based molecular mechanics model. The atomic multipoles accurately reproduced the ab initio electrostatic potential around chloromethanes, including CCl4, which has a prominent ?-hole on the Cl atom. The van der Waals parameters for Cl were fitted to the experimental density and heat of vaporization. The calculated hydration free energy, solvent reaction fields, and interaction energies of several homo- and heterodimer of chloromethanes are in good agreement with experimental and ab initio data. This study suggests that sophisticated electrostatic models, such as polarizable atomic multipoles, are needed for accurate description of electrostatics in organochlorine compounds and halogen bonds, although further improvement is necessary for better transferability. PMID:24484473

Mu, Xiaojiao; Wang, Qiantao; Wang, Lee-Ping; Fried, Stephen D; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Dalby, Kevin N; Ren, Pengyu

2014-06-19

54

Polycyclic aromatic and organochlorine compounds in the atmosphere of Northern Ellesmere Island, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February--April 1988 we collected air samples at Alert in the Canadian Arctic (82.5°N, 62.3°W) to determine the types, concentrations, and vapor-particle relationships for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxygenated compounds, organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Samples were taken using a glass fiber filter-polyurethane foam train and were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass selective and electron

G. W. Patton; M. D. Walla; T. F. Bidleman; L. A. Barrie

1991-01-01

55

Polycyclic aromatic and organochlorine compounds in the atmosphere of Northern Ellesmere Island, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February-April 1988 we collected air samples at Alert in the Canadian Arctic (82.5°N, 62.3°W) to determine the types, concentrations, and vapor-particle relationships for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxygenated compounds, organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Samples were taken using a glass fiber filter-polyurethane foam train and were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass selective and electron

G. W. Patton; M. D. Walla; T. F. Bidleman; L. A. Barrie

1991-01-01

56

Organochlorine Compounds in the Plasma of Peregrine Falcons and Gyrfalcons Nesting in Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine compounds in the blood plasma of after-second-year female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were determined from samples collected from southern Greenland in 1985 and western Greenland from 1983 to 1989, and from adult and nestling gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) from western Greenland in 1989 and 1990. Samples were taken during nesting. Levels of p,p'-DDE (DDE) in peregrine plasma were

W. M. JARMAN; S. A. BURNS; W. G. MATTOX; W. S. SEEGAR

1994-01-01

57

An assessment of the intestinal lumen as a site for intervention in reducing body burdens of organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine--thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

Jandacek, Ronald J; Genuis, Stephen J

2013-01-01

58

PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE POLLUTANTS AND TOXAPHENE CONGENER PROFILES IN BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS) FREQUENTING THE TURTLE\\/BRUNSWICK RIVER ESTUARY, GEORGIA, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Turtle\\/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chro-

Erin L. Pulster; Kelly L. Smalling; Eric Zolman; Lori Schwacke; Keith A. Maruya

2009-01-01

59

A cross-sectional study of the association between persistent organochlorine pollutants and diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may cause type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas there is no fully convincing epidemiological evidence for such an association. In Sweden the most important source of POP exposure is fatty fish. We have assessed the association between serum levels of POPs and prevalence of diabetes in Swedish fishermen and their wives, with high consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. Methods In 196 men (median age 60 years) and 184 women (median age 64 years), we analyzed 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) in serum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The participants were asked if they had diabetes and, if so, since which year and about medication and diet. The Odds Ratios (OR) for diabetes with respect to continuous exposure variables were analyzed with logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover trends of diabetes prevalence with respect to trichotomized exposure variables were tested with Jonckheere-Terpstra's test. Results Six percent of the men and 5% of the women had diabetes. After confounder adjustment CB-153 was significantly associated with diabetes prevalence using both categorized and continuous exposure data (an increase of 100 ng/g lipid corresponded to an OR of 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.32, p = 0.03). Similar associations were observed for p,p'-DDE (an increase of 100 ng/g lipid corresponded to an OR of 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.09, p = 0.006). Gender stratified analyses showed among men consistent positive associations with CB-153, but a more ambiguous pattern with respect to DDE. In contrast, among the women the associations with p,p'-DDE were stronger than with CB-153. Conclusion The study provides support that POP exposure might contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Hagmar, Lars

2005-01-01

60

Organochlorine compounds in mussels cultured in the Ría of Vigo: accumulation and origin.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the influence of mussel physiological conditions on bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants. A direct relationship between reproductive stage, lipid content and accumulation of PCBs, DDTs and HCHs was observed. The organochlorine compounds accumulated by mussels cultured in the Ría of Vigo show levels below the limits set by the European legislation for human consumption, ranging between 12.50-58, 2.21-10.80 and 0.50-2.69 ?g kg(-1) dry weight for PCBs, DDTs and HCHs, respectively. Other organochlorine pesticides normally present in estuarine areas, such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, chlordane and nonachlor were not detected. The proportion of PCBs, between 2 and 7 times higher than OCPs, indicates a pollution of predominantly industrial origin in the sampling area. Several molecular indices were used to identify the source of accumulated OCPs by Mytilus, showing recent inputs of technical DDT, mainly in summer-autumn, and continued discharges of lindane. On the other hand, other pesticides containing DDT impurities, such as dicofol, can contribute to DDT pollution in the Ría of Vigo. Multivariate analysis suggests the usefulness of including physiological parameters such as the gonad condition index and lipid content of sentinel organisms in environmental biomonitoring of lipophilic pollutants, as well as in the determination of their origin. PMID:22391050

Suárez, Pilar; Ruiz, Yolanda; Alonso, Ana; San Juan, Fuencisla

2013-01-01

61

Persistent of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Green Lip Mussel (Perna Viridis) From Marine Estuaries in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand has benefited from the availability of pest control chemicals for improving agricultural products and in public health like any other developing countries. in order to understand the distribution and contamination in the Gulf of Thailand, a Mussel Watch programme has been set up to monitor trace toxic substances of organochlorine pesticides along the Gulf of Thailand since 1989.This paper

Ruchaya Boonyatumanond; Monthip S. Tabucanon; Sunitra Thongklieng; Sukanya Boonchlaermkit

2000-01-01

62

Organochlorine Compounds in the North-western Black Sea Water: Distribution and Water Column Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC Nos 28, 52, 101, 118, 149, 153, 138, 180, 187 and 170), dichlorodiphenylethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene(HCB) and dieldrin were determined in 37 samples (25 surficial and three vertical profiles) of suspended particulate matter (>0·7 ?m) (SPM) and 10 dissolved phase (DP) samples (six surficial) collected in the north-western Black Sea waters. The highest concentrations of PCBs in the SPM were found at the Danube mouth (57·4 pg l -1), the north continental shelf (3·7-36·9 pg l -1) and offshore Constantza (33 1 pg l -1), while the most contaminated area (70·7-102 pg l -1) was found to be in the DP of the Danube estuary. Organochlorine compounds (DDTs, HCHs, HCB and dieldrin) were found one or two orders of magnitude higher in the DP than in the corresponding particulate phase. The high concentrations of HCHs (2·3-368 pg l -1 in the DP) as well as the distribution pattern of DDT-related compounds seem to indicate recent chlorinated pesticide use in the riparian countries of the Black Sea despite the regulations. Vertical profiles of SPM showed a general depletion of PCBs and organochlorine compounds (OCs) with depth and two accumulation zones, at the biomass maximum and the redoxcline. A bottom enrichment of OCs was observed when resuspension was favoured.

Maldonado, C.; Bayona, J. M.

2002-03-01

63

Organochlorine compounds in pine needles: Methods and trends  

SciTech Connect

During April 1989, needles from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees were collected from a network of stations in West Germany, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Samples from selected stations were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers ([alpha]-HCH and [gamma]-HCH [lindane]), DDT, and DDE. Accumulation of the investigated compounds was observed in up to four needle-year classes. [gamma]-HCH decreased from south to north; the pattern for [alpha]-HCH was uniform; DDT/DDE also decreased from south to north. HCB was uniform throughout the sample area, and PCP was high in northern Sweden. Interpretation of trends was not altered by expressing concentrations on a fresh- or dry-weight basis or on a surface-area basis. The range of concentration variation for equivalent samples was 2 to 49% relative standard deviation; averages were 20 to 23%. There were no differences among trees facing the sample open direction; among different directions, trees open to the south collected more DDT, but this was not the case with other substances. There were no differences between trees of different ages. Samples at 4 to 5 m had lower contaminant levels than from 1.5 m.

Strachan, W.M.J. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Centre for Inland Waters); Eriksson, G.; Jensen, S. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberg Lab.); Kylin, H. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberg Lab. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

1994-03-01

64

Organochlorines and dioxin-like compounds in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong mariculture zones.  

PubMed

Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-like compounds were measured in green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, collected from seven mariculture zones in Hong Kong between September and October in 2002 in order to evaluate the status, spatial distribution and potential sources of pollution in these areas. Concentrations ranged from 300 to 4400 ng/g lipid weight for total OCs and 170-1000 ng/g lipid weight for total PCBs (based on 28 congeners). Relatively smaller DDT concentrations in mussels compared with previous studies suggest reduced discharges of DDTs from nearby regions into Hong Kong waters. Detection of a mixture of HCH isomers in the mussels indicated that Hong Kong waters were predominantly contaminated by technical HCHs rather than lindane. Mussel samples from all sampling locations elicited significant dioxin-like activity in the H4IIE-luc bioassay. The greatest magnitude of dioxin-like response (39 pg TEQ/g wet wt.) was detected in mussels from Ma Wan in the western waters of Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the Pearl River discharge. Human health risk assessment was undertaken to evaluate potential risks associated with the consumption of the green-lipped mussels. Risk quotient (RQ) for dioxin-like compounds was greater than unity suggesting that adverse health effects may be associated with high mussel consumption. PMID:16023147

So, M K; Zhang, X; Giesy, J P; Fung, C N; Fong, H W; Zheng, J; Kramer, M J; Yoo, H; Lam, P K S

2005-01-01

65

DISTRIBUTION OF PERSISTENT ORGANOCHLORINE RESIDUES IN SEDIMENTS FROM THE SONGHUAJIANG RIVER, NORTHEAST CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface sediments from 10 sampling sites of the Songhuajiang River were analyzed to evaluate their potential pollution and hazards. Gas chromatography equipped with a Ni electron capture detector (GC?ECD) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometer (GC\\/MS) methods were used, respectively. The total concentrations of 13 OCPs varied from 4.26 to 18.45 ng g. ?HCH

M. He; H. Wang; C. Lin; X. Quan; W. Guo; Z. Yang

2008-01-01

66

Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in fish, sediments and water from Lake Bosomtwi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some organochlorine pesticide residues in tilapia fish (Tilapiazilli), sediment and water samples from Lake Bosomtwi (the largest natural lake in Ghana) were determined to find out the extent of pesticide contamination and accumulation in the lake. The extracted residues were analyzed on a micro-capillary gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector. DDE (p,p?-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene) was the predominant residue in all the

Godfred Darko; Osei Akoto; Caleb Oppong

2008-01-01

67

Persistent organochlorine residues in harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena) from the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of organochlorine residues were determined in the blubber of harbour porpoises from the Black Sea. Concentrations of DDTs (8.3–180 ?g g?1 wet weight) were the highest followed by PCBs (1.6–39 ?g g?1), HCHs (1.5–17 ?g g?1), CHLs (0.11 – 2.4, ?g g?1) and HCB (0.057 – 0.61 ?g g?1). The composition of DDT and its metabolites was

Shinsuke Tanabe; Bathini Madhusree; Ayaka Amaha Öztürk; Ryo Tatsukawa; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Emin Özdamar; Orhan Aral; Osman Samsun; Bayram Öztürk

1997-01-01

68

Persistent organochlorine pollutants in human serum of 50–65 years old women in the Flanders Environmental and Health Study (FLEHS). Part 1: concentrations and regional differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, a campaign of the Flemish Ministry of Health, Belgium was set up to assess pollutant concentrations and related health effect biomarkers in humans living in two regions of Flanders. The study was called the `Flemish Environment and Health Study' (FLEHS). One of the goals was to measure present concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants in a Flemish population and

G Koppen; A Covaci; R Van Cleuvenbergen; P Schepens; G Winneke; V Nelen; N van Larebeke; R Vlietinck; G Schoeters

2002-01-01

69

Hydrophobic organochlorine compounds sequestered in submersed aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla yerticillata (L.f.) Royle) from the tidal Potomac River (USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminants to be sequestered in submersed aquatic vegetation was evaluated by determining the concentrations of cis- and trans-chlordane, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in feral aquatic macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) collected from the tidal Potomac River. Similarities in mean dry-weight concentrations of the identified organochlorine compounds in H. verticillata and surrounding alluvial sediments indicated that the extent of sequestration in H. verticillata was of the same magnitude as sorption of these compounds to river sediments, but some qualitative differences in PCB congener profiles existed. The results imply that to some degree H. verticillata can influence downstream fluxes of organic contaminants in fluvial transport in the Potomac River, and, furthermore, identify this species as a viable candidate organism for hydrophobic organochlorine contaminant biomonitoring in the Chesapeake Bay estuary.

Hopple, J. A.; Foster, G. D.

1996-01-01

70

Passive sampling of atmospheric organochlorine compounds by SPMDs in a remote high mountain area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been deployed in high mountain areas (Central Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain) for the measurement of atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) over a period of 1.5 years. These devices were filled with triolein and have been deployed at three altitudes, 1600, 2240 and 2600 m above sea level. Performance reference compounds were used to calibrate their sampling rates. The SPMD results were validated by comparison to active air sampling with high-volume systems. Sampling rates between 0.55 and 1.3 m 3 d -1 were estimated from the dissipation of PCB155. Atmospheric concentrations measured by SPMDs were in good agreement with the levels obtained by high-volume sampling. These findings suggest that SPMDs can be useful monitoring systems for the atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine compounds in remote high mountain areas.

Van drooge, Barend L.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Booij, Kees; Camarero, Lluis; Catalan, Jordi

71

Distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in maternal and foetal tissues: data from an Italian polluted urban area.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate both levels and distributions of organochlorine pollutants in placenta and other maternal-foetal tissues, from women resident in an Italian highly industrialized urban area with demonstrated PCB pollution. To this end, 30 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in placenta, both maternal and cord blood serum and adipose tissue of Caucasian pregnant women (n=70) undergoing to programmed caesarean delivery. Median placental concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and HCB (0.89 ng g(-1), 0.63 ng g(-1) and 0.19 ng g(-1) on wet tissue weight basis, respectively), were lower than previously published data. p,p'-DDT could be detected in most of adipose tissue samples, but very rarely in the other compartments. Distributions of investigated compounds in biological matrices showed significant relationships, confirming their transplacental transfer. It is worthy of note that HCB tended to be transferred more easily from maternal to foetal tissues. Maternal serum levels of these pollutants can allow a reliable estimation of organochlorine compound body burden, and can be useful markers of prenatal exposure, given their relationships with placental and umbilical cord serum levels. PMID:19539348

Bergonzi, Roberto; Specchia, Cristina; Dinolfo, Mariadaniela; Tomasi, Cesare; De Palma, Giuseppe; Frusca, Tiziana; Apostoli, Pietro

2009-08-01

72

Levels of organochlorine compounds in spotted dolphins from the Coiba archipelago, Panama.  

PubMed

Blubber and skin samples from 63 spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) (18 males, 40 females and 5 of unknown sex) were collected by biopsy techniques in the waters of the Coiba archipelago. Blubber was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and skin for gender determination. Mean levels of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), tPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and tDDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were 0.064, 2.30 and 6.4 mgkg(-1), respectively. These levels are low and are not considered to represent a threat to the S. attenuata population. No significant differences either in concentrations of HCB, tPCB and tDDT or in PCB profiles were observed between males and females. The ratio tDDT/tPCB was 2.69, indicating predominantly agrarian versus industrial activities in the area. The ratio ppDDE/tDDT was 0.83, a high figure that suggests both a local reduction of DDT inputs and a high rate of DDT degradation. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed between two schools, suggesting intra-population heterogeneity in organochlorine exposure possibly due to demographic segregation. PMID:14599513

Borrell, A; Cantos, G; Pastor, T; Aguilar, A

2004-02-01

73

Sex-related levels of selenium, heavy metals, and organochlorine compounds in American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhyncos).  

PubMed

Liver tissue from male and female adult American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhyncos) were individually analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Levels of most organochlorines, specifically SigmaDDT, SigmaPCB, Sigmachlordane, Sigmamirex, dieldrin, and SigmaCBz, were significantly higher in male pelicans compared to females. Only concentrations of SigmaHCH were not significantly different between sexes. Male livers also contained higher concentrations of mercury, cadmium, and arsenic compared to females. Selenium concentrations were not different between sexes, and lead was not detected in any of the samples. Differences in residue levels between sexes were probably due to the female's ability to excrete organochlorines and some trace elements into the egg prior to laying. In addition, differences in contaminant concentrations in prey available to these birds on their breeding grounds and their wintering areas may be influencing sex-related differences. PMID:10341048

Donaldson, G M; Braune, B M

1999-07-01

74

Polycyclic aromatic and organochlorine compounds in the atmosphere of Northern Ellesmere Island, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February-April 1988 we collected air samples at Alert in the Canadian Arctic (82.5°N, 62.3°W) to determine the types, concentrations, and vapor-particle relationships for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxygenated compounds, Organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Samples were taken using a glass fiber filter-polyurethane foam train and were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass selective and electron capture detection. PAH and oxygenated compounds included dibenzofuran, biphenyl, fluorene, phenanthrene, 9-fluorenone, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthenes, pyrene, chrysene, benzopyrenes, indeno[cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, 2-methyl phenanthrene, benz[a]anthracene, and anthracene (given in order of relative abundance, highest to lowest). OC compounds included hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, PCB, polychlorocamphenes, chlordanes, and the dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) group (given as above). The concentration ratios of ?-HCH/?-HCH (5.2-9.8) and trans- to cis-chlordane (0.78-1.29) are reported. Compounds having estimated liquid-phase saturation vapor pressure (pL0) ? 10-3 Pa at the average sampling temperature (245 K) were almost entirely gaseous. Those from 10-6 ? pL0 ? 10-3 Pa were distributed between the particle and gas phases, whereas little or no gaseous component was evident for compounds having pL0 ? 10-6 Pa. The particle-vapor distribution of PAH and OC compared favorably to the Junge-Pankow model.

Patton, G. W.; Walla, M. D.; Bidleman, T. F.; Barrie, L. A.

1991-06-01

75

Theoretical models to evaluate hazard due to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in Mediterranean striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).  

PubMed

Many studies document the chemical stress related to organochlorine (OC) xenobiotics in Mediterranean cetaceans. The aim of this study was to establish a theoretical model to evaluate the hazard to Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) due to HCB, DDTs and PCB congeners. Differences in OC levels in blubber of stranded and free-ranging specimens enabled us to evaluate the hazard associated with different chlorinated xenobiotics, taking the live population as control sample, assumed to be in good health. For the most toxic compounds, with teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting capacity, we indicate levels beyond which there can be toxicological hazard for the striped dolphin. Using a mathematical formula derived from knowledge of the length and age of 62 stranded specimens, the age of dolphins was estimated and sexual maturity was identified at nine years. This evaluation was important for understanding differences in contaminant burden between males and females. PMID:15251294

Marsili, L; D'Agostino, A; Bucalossi, D; Malatesta, T; Fossi, M C

2004-08-01

76

Spatial and seasonal variations of organochlorine compounds in air on an urban-rural transect across Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

The spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine compounds (OCs) concentrations was investigated at six sites on an urban-rural transect in Tianjin, China from July 2006 to June 2008 using XAD-based passive air samplers. The samplers were deployed for six time periods. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) air concentrations were highest at Tanggu and Tuanbowa and decreased dramatically further away from these two sites. The maximum proportion of beta-HCH compared to SigmaHCHs (12.1-32.2%) was found in Hangu, suggesting its persistence. The alpha/gamma-HCH ratio was between 1.26 and 5.79 which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane related compounds (DDTs) were higher at Hangu compared with other sites which was attributed to its continuing production there. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in Hangu and Tanggu were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Polychlorinated biphenyls distribution elucidated that the urban area could be their emission source. Hexachlorobenzene, with the highest concentrations in Tanggu, showed the smallest industrial/urban-rural gradient ( approximately 4-9 times) than those of other chemicals (approximately 17-49 for SigmaHCHs, approximately 10-77 for SigmaDDTs), but comparable with PCBs (PCB28 and PCB52) (approximately 3-10). Seasonal variations of OCPs were featured by higher concentration in spring and summer and lower in winter. This was likely associated with (i) their temperature-driven re-volatilization and (ii) application of dicofol in late spring and summer and DDT-containing antifouling paints for fishing ships in summer. However seasonality of PCBs concentrations was site-specific on the Tianjin scale. PMID:19900692

Zheng, Xiaoyan; Chen, Dazhou; Liu, Xiande; Zhou, Qunfang; Liu, Yue; Yang, Wen; Jiang, Guibin

2010-01-01

77

Levels and distribution of persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in water and sediments of Gomti River (India)—a tributary of the Ganges River  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the concentration levels and distribution pattern of the persistent organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues\\u000a in the water and bed-sediments of the Gomti River collected seasonally over a period of 2 years. The water and bed-sediment\\u000a samples were collected from eight different sites and analyzed for aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, HCB, HCH isomers, DDT isomers\\/metabolites,\\u000a endosulfan isomers (? and ?), endosulfan

Amrita Malik; Priyanka Ojha; Kunwar P. Singh

2009-01-01

78

Organochlorine compounds and stable isotopes indicate bottlenose dolphin subpopulation structure around the Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic signatures and organochlorine pollutant loads of organisms reflect the characteristics of the waters in which they live and feed. To investigate population structure of bottlenose dolphins around the Iberian Peninsula we determined ?13C and ?15N in the skin and organochlorine (OC) levels in the blubber of stranded bottlenose dolphins inhabiting the Mediterranean (Catalonia, Valencia and Balearic Islands) and adjacent

A. Borrell; A. Aguilar; V. Tornero; M. Sequeira; G. Fernandez; S. Al?s

2006-01-01

79

Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in fish, sediments and water from Lake Bosomtwi, Ghana.  

PubMed

Some organochlorine pesticide residues in tilapia fish (Tilapiazilli), sediment and water samples from Lake Bosomtwi (the largest natural lake in Ghana) were determined to find out the extent of pesticide contamination and accumulation in the lake. The extracted residues were analyzed on a micro-capillary gas chromatograph equipped with electron capture detector. DDE (p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene) was the predominant residue in all the samples analyzed; detected in 82% of water samples, 98% of sediment samples and 58% of fish samples at concentrations of 0.061+/-0.03 ng g(-1), 8.342+/-2.96 ng g(-1) and 5.232+/-1.30 ng g(-1), respectively. DDT (p,p'-1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) was detected in 78% at a mean concentration 0.012+/-0.62 ng g(-1) of water samples analyzed. The mean concentrations of DDT in sediments and fish were 4.41+/-1.54 ng g(-1) and 3.645+/-1.81 ng g(-1), respectively. The detection of lower levels of DDT than its metabolite, DDE, in the samples implies that the presence of these contaminants in the lake is as result of past usage of the pesticides. PMID:18397799

Darko, Godfred; Akoto, Osei; Oppong, Caleb

2008-05-01

80

Persistent organochlorine levels in six prey species of the gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus in Iceland.  

PubMed

Our previous investigations have revealed very high levels of organochlorines (OCs) in the Icelandic gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, a resident top predator. We now examine six potential prey species of birds, both resident and migratory, in order to elucidate the most likely route of the OCs to the gyrfalcon. The ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, the most important prey of the gyrfalcon, contained very low levels of OCs. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in mallards Anas platyrhynchos, tufted ducks Aythya fuligula, golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria, purple sandpipers Calidris maritima, and black guillemots Cepphus grylle reflected their position in the foodchain. The differences in OC-levels seem nevertheless too high just to reflect the different food-chain levels of these species in Iceland. The winter grounds of the migratory golden plovers and tufted ducks appear to be more contaminated than the Icelandic terrestrial habitat of ptarmigans or the freshwater habitat as reflected in mallards, both resident species. However, spending the winter on the coast in Iceland, results in high levels of contaminants in purple sandpipers and black guillemots. Our results indicate OC contamination of the marine ecosystem in Iceland while the terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are little affected. It is postulated that gyrfalcons receive the major part of the observed contamination from prey other than ptarmigan, especially birds associated with the marine ecosystem and also from migratory birds. PMID:11234542

Olafsdóttir, K; Petersen, A E; Magnúsdóttir, E V; Björnsson, T; Jóhannesson, T

2001-01-01

81

Organochlorine Turnover in Forest Ecosystems: The Missing Link in the Terrestrial Chlorine Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

A Leri; S Myneni

2011-12-31

82

Possible effects of persistent organochlorinated pollutants cocktail on thyroid hormone levels and pituitary-thyroid interrelations.  

PubMed

In polluted district of Michalovce in East Slovakia (POLL) and two districts with background pollution (BCGR) 2046 adults (834 males and 1212 females aged 20-75 years) were examined. Serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOab) were estimated by electrochemiluminiscent assay and also these of 15 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane were measured by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition, also dioxins, furans, coplanar- and mono-ortho-PCBs as well as selected hydroxylated and methylsulphonated PCBs and DDE metabolites were measured by appropriate methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry principle. In POLL significantly higher levels of all organochlorines were found than these in BCGR. When pooled values from both areas were stratified in terms of PCBs level and treated as continuous variables, positive association of PCBs with FT4 and TT3 was found, the latter two being also mutually associated. However, within the category of PCBs level <530 ng/glipid (n=232) the association between PCBs and both the FT4 (p<0.09) and TT3 (p<0.03) was negative and any association of these was not found within the category of PCBs level of 531-1000 ng/g (n=691). In contrast, in the category of 531-2000 ng/g (n=1307) positive association appeared between PCBs and FT4 (p<0.001) as well as TT3 (p<0.05). Highly significant association of PCBs with FT4 (p<0.001) was further found in the categories with PCBs level of 1001-101414 ng/g (n=1307) and 2001-101414 (n=1123), while significant association with TT3 was observed only in the category of 531-2000 ng/g. Such findings suggest possible threshold level in positive effect of PCBs on FT4 and TT3 level which seems to be individual and located somewhere around the PCBs level of 1000 ng/g. However, highly significant negative association of both FT4 and TT3 with TSH was found in each of above indicated PCBs categories. Considerable difference in FT4 and TT3 level between large groups of subjects with the same range of PCBs level was also found suggesting different individual susceptibility to the effects of organochlorines. Among a total of 26 cases from POLL with very low TSH level (<0.5 mU l(-1)) 13 cases showed very high level of PCBs, FT4 and TT3, thus supporting a hypothesis on a novel sporadic form of high PCBs related peripheral subclinical hyperthyroidism possibly resulting from the long-term disruption of equilibrium between bound and free thyroxine in plasma by high PCBs level followed by a striking inhibition of TSH release from the pituitary. PMID:17692893

Langer, Pavel; Kocan, Anton; Tajtáková, Mária; Rádiková, Zofia; Petrík, Ján; Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Imrich, Richard; Hucková, Miloslava; Chovancová, Jana; Drobná, Beáta; Jursa, Stanislav; Bergman, Aake; Athanasiadou, Maria; Hovander, Lotta; Gasperíková, Daniela; Trnovec, Tomás; Seböková, Elena; Klimes, Iwar

2007-11-01

83

Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.  

PubMed

The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of ?20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) was the most predominant component. ?HCH and ?dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of ?20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed ?-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. ?-HCH, ?-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37?±?0.51% and 0.46?±?0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with ?20OCPs, ?-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments. PMID:24488553

Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

2014-05-01

84

Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

McCarthy, K. A.; Gale, R. W.

2001-01-01

85

Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin - and perhaps the urban area in particular - is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflows, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

2001-05-01

86

Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals ( Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were determined in the blubber and liver of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) found stranded on the coast of the Caspian Sea during an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2000. Among organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were the most dominant contaminants with concentrations ranging from 6.3 to 470 ?g\\/g on a lipid-weight basis.

N. Kajiwara; S. Niimi; M. Watanabe; Y. Ito; S. Takahashi; S. Tanabe; L. S. Khuraskin; N. Miyazaki

2002-01-01

87

Extraction and distribution of organochlorine compounds in eastern Lake Erie and Niagara River water  

SciTech Connect

A chromic acid digestion extraction technique was compared to conventional solvent extraction for recovery of a series of organochlorine compounds (chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, DDE, mirex and photomirex) from centrifuged water collected at two sites along the Niagara River, between 1/22/86 and 1/7/87. The sampling sites were located near the river's inlet at Fort Erie, Ontario and close to the river's outlet to Lake Ontario at Niagara-on-the-Lake Ontario. The digestion technique was more efficient than conventional solvent extraction. Relative recovery (undigested/digested) decreased exponentially with increasing log K[sub ow]. This implies that digestion-extraction recovers both the fraction dissolved and the fraction bound to dissolved organic matter (DOM), while conventional solvent extraction only recovers the dissolved fraction. As the time compounds equilibrated with the DOM increased, the extraction efficiencies by conventional extraction decreased while the efficiencies by digestion extraction remained 100%. Results obtained with the digestion technique were also more reproducible than those with conventional solvent extraction. the relative recoveries also varied between the two sites. Using conventional solvent extraction PCB concentrations appeared to decrease by about 13% along the length of the river while with digestion extraction the PCBs increased by approximately 33%. To study the homogeneity of water in the eastern basin of Lake Erie, uncentrifuged water samples collected from the inlet of the Niagara River at Fort Erie, Ontario, were compared to samples collected from Lake Erie at Sturgeon Point, New York for the period from 7/24/86 to 1/24/87. The average concentrations of four PCB congeners, total organic carbon, turbidity and conductance were similar at the two sampling sites. The average p,p[prime]-DDE concentration was 0.53 ng/L at Fort Erie but only 0.28 ng/L at Sturgeon Point.

Driscoll, M.S.

1992-01-01

88

A Nested Case-Control Study of Intrauterine Exposure to Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals have been suggested as a risk factor for male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) and the risk for hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings The Southern Sweden Maternity Cohort (SSMC) contains serum samples collected in early pregnancy among women in Southern Sweden. Linkages with the Medical Birth Register, the Malformation Register and the In-patient Register resulted in 390 SSMC mothers who had given birth to a boy with hypospadias in year 1986–2002 (mean 1995). For 237 of these (cases) sufficient amounts of serum for the chemical analyses were available. For each case, a control boy from the SSMC was randomly selected, matched for maternal age, birth year, parity and maternal smoking. PCB-153, p,p’-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) were used as biomarkers for POP exposure. The exposures were categorized into quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. There were no statistically significant trends between the a priori categorisation of the exposure variables and the risk for hypospadias. However, when the upper HCB quartile (>26 ng/ml) was compared to the other quartiles an odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.69) was obtained. p,p?-DDE levels above median (>1.0 ng/ml) compared to levels below 0.1 ng/ml gave an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.93). Conclusions The present study suggests that fetal exposure to HCB and p,p’-DDE may be a risk factor for hypospadias.

Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Lindh, Christian H.; Dillner, Joakim; Jonsson, Bo A. G.; Rylander, Lars

2012-01-01

89

Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Compounds in Biological Tissue and Bed Sediment From Streams in the Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in biological tissue and bed sediment from the Trinity River Basin study area of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorine compounds were determined in biological tissue and surficial bed sediment from 16 stream sites in the Trinity River Basin of east-central Texas. Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) were collected at 10 sites, and fish, including blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bluegill (Lepomis cyanellus), and yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) were collected at all mainstem and two tributary sites. Thirty of the 36 compounds analyzed in biological tissue or surficial bed sediment were detected in one or both media. Overall, more organochlorine compounds were detected in bed sediment than in biological tissue; however, various chlordane isomers, DDT metabolites, and PCBs were detected more frequently in tissue than in sediment. The chlordane isomers and PCBs that were detected more frequently in biological tissue also were detected more frequently at urban sites than at agricultural sites. Organochlorine compound concentrations generally were highest in fish tissue from Trinity River mainstem sites. Fish tissue from the mainstem sites contained a higher percentage of lipids than did fish- and clam-tissue samples from the tributary sites.

Moring, J. Bruce

1997-01-01

90

Effects of fish oil replacement and re-feeding on the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) of market size.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorinated biphenyls were determined in raw materials, fish feeds and fillets from fish exposed through the productive cycle (14 months) to experimental diets with different percentages of fish oil replacement with vegetable oils. Detectable amounts of organochlorine compounds were found in raw materials derived from fish sources with none being detected in vegetable ingredients. Fish feeds presented trace concentrations of contaminants at the ng/g level, which varied according to the contribution of the different resources used in their manufacture. Contaminants did not accumulate during the first 11 months of exposure, and low concentrations of organochlorine compounds were found both at the start and at the end of this feeding period. Fillets from fish fed the fish oil diet presented the highest concentrations of organochlorine compounds, with these decreasing in proportion to fish oil replacement. Three months of fish oil re-feeding during the finishing phase only produced significant bioaccumulation over the course of the first month. By optimizing fish meal and fish oil replacement with vegetable oils alternative feeds can contribute to significantly reduce the risk of organochlorine uptake by consumers. PMID:19450868

Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; López, Francisco J; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

2009-08-01

91

Organochlorine compounds in tissues of swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) from Mediterranean Sea and Azores islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The Italian Ministry of Environment has undertaken a program (1999–2001) to measure levels of contaminants in top marine predators and to develop sensitive biomarkers for the evaluation of toxicological risk in these species.In 1999, 15 swordfishes (Xiphias gladius) taken from the Mediterranean Sea along the Sicilian coast (Strait of Messina,

Patrizia Stefanelli; Antonella Ausili; Alfonso Di Muccio; Cristina Fossi; Stefano Di Muccio; Silvia Rossi; Andrea Colasanti

2004-01-01

92

The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants.  

PubMed

Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), odor levels and critical odorants. Ten large recycling plants were selected for analysis of odor concentration (OC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PAHs inside and outside the plants using olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, respectively. The olfactometric results showed that the melting processes used for treating polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste significantly produced malodor, and the odor levels at downwind boundaries were 100-229 OC, which all exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. Toluene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl methacrylate and acrolein accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. Sixteen organochlorinated compounds were measured in the ambient air emitted from the PVC plastic waste recycling plant and total concentrations were 245-553 microg m(-3); most were vinyl chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene. Concentrations of PAHs inside the PE/PP plant were 8.97-252.16 ng m(-3), in which the maximum level were 20-fold higher than the levels detected from boundaries. Most of these recycling plants simply used filter to treat the melting fumes, and this could not efficiently eliminate the gaseous compounds and malodor. Improved exhaust air pollution control were strongly recommended in these industries. PMID:19091382

Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Chang, Keng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Mao, I-Fang

2009-02-01

93

Evaluation of organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and their main prey (Columba livia) inhabiting central Spain.  

PubMed

The population of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus sbs. brookei) inhabiting the Regional Park of southeastern Madrid (RPSM), Spain, has experienced an increase of unsuccessful pairs (from 15% among a total of 20 pairs in 1995 to 55% among a total of 18 pairs in 2001). Traditionally, this area has been known to be contaminated with organochlorine compounds and toxic metals, which are known to be deleterious to the reproductive system of birds. During the breeding seasons of 2000 and 2001, contaminant residues were measured in unhatched eggs of peregrine falcons and liver of their main prey, to determine if they could be affecting the survival of the population. The most abundant contaminants were ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (ortho-PCBs), ranging from 202.56 to 3,335.16 ng/g (wet wt) in falcon eggs and from 10.25 to 53.51 ng/g (wet wt) in pigeon livers. In all samples, the 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected, although these levels never exceeded 20 pg/g (wet wt). The major contributor to total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) were non-ortho-PCBs. Organochlorine levels found in this study may contribute to the entire suite of stressors that are negatively affecting the peregrine population. PMID:16152983

Merino, Rubén; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña

2005-08-01

94

Concentrations, biomagnification and spatial variation of organochlorine compounds in a pelagic food web in the northern part of the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton, mysis (Mysis sp.) and herring (Clupea harengus) were collected at two pelagic locations in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, one in Bothnian Bay (BB) and the other in the Bothnian Sea (BS), in order to investigate concentrations, composition profiles, biomagnification features and spatial differences of organochlorine contaminants. Compounds included in this study are hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, hexachlorobenzene

B Strandberg; C Bandh; B van Bavel; P.-A Bergqvist; D Broman; C Näf; H Pettersen; C Rappe

1998-01-01

95

Organochlorine compounds in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) from the Atlantic and Mediterranean waters of Spain.  

PubMed

Blubber of free-ranging common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) from the northwestern coast of Spain (Atlantic), sampled in 1984 and 1996, and of common dolphins entangled in fishing nets in the southwestern Mediterranean, sampled during 1992 1994, was analysed for organochlorine pollutants. In the Atlantic, concentration of all pollutants was significantly higher in males than in females. The overall tPCB/tDDT ratio in this area was 3.35, which indicates a predominance of industrial inputs over those associated with agriculture. Individuals sampled in 1996 showed significantly lower DDT concentrations but a higher ppDDE/tDDT ratio than those sampled in 1984, which reflects the aging of the environmental load. In the same period, tPCB concentration remained constant and, as a consequence, the tPCB/tDDT ratio more than doubled. In the Mediterranean, the reduced sample size of adult individuals precluded proper statistical investigation of sex-related variation. The overall tPCB/tDDT ratio was 1.12, suggesting a higher contribution of pollutants of agricultural origin. Individuals had significantly higher levels of all DDT forms and a higher ppDDE/tDDT ratio than their counterparts from the Atlantic, but similar PCB concentrations. However, the relative frequency of the different congeners in relation to the total PCB load was different in the two areas. This indicates that the two populations do not mix, at least in the short- or medium-term. Organochlorine levels in both areas are at the mid to low end of the range of concentrations detected in other common dolphin populations and in that of other Delphinidae species from the same region. Although the impact of the organochlorine concentrations on the common dolphin populations surveyed cannot be assessed, it is considered unlikely that they have played a significant role in the decline that the species has suffered in recent decades in the western Mediterranean. PMID:11504349

Borrell, A; Cantos, G; Pastor, T; Aguilar, A

2001-01-01

96

Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.  

PubMed

This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. PMID:24568747

Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

2014-09-01

97

Target-specific action of organochlorine compounds in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of estrogen-reporter male mice.  

PubMed

Organochlorines are lipophylic molecules that accumulate in the fat where they remain for years. During weight loss, they are mobilized and their concentration increases in blood. The present work tests, in transgenic estrogen-reporter mice (ERE-tK-LUC), whether this increase is sufficient to modulate the estrogen receptors (ERs) in the whole body. Three weak estrogens were studied: p,p'DDT [1,1,1-trichloro2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane], p,p'DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and betaBHC [beta-benzene-hexachloride]. Dose-dependent analysis of reporter expression (luciferase) were performed in tissues of acutely treated mice. A body map of ER activation was obtained. All these chemicals modulated the reporter, although with a different efficiency and depending upon the tissue analyzed. Induction was confirmed in the liver by determining the expression of the endogenous progesterone receptor (PR) gene, at the dose and time point at which the luciferase gene was maximally induced. After experimental accumulation in the fat tissue, followed by a 48-h period of fasting, we tested whether these compounds could be mobilized to reach sufficient levels to activate the ERs in selected reproductive and nonreproductive tissues (testicle, prostate, liver, and lung). This experimental setting produced results that were different than those obtained following acute treatments. In loaded mice, fasting induced betaBHC mobilization resulted in strong ER activation in the liver and the lung, which was blocked by ICI-182780. p,p'DDT mobilization had no effect in these tissues, but it acted efficiently in the prostate and testis. betaBHC inhibited the ERE-mediated reporter in the testicle and induced the reporter in the prostate. In this tissue, betaBHC action was not inhibited by the anti-estrogen ICI-182780. During fasting, betaBHC, p,p'DDT, and metabolite p,p'DDE increased in blood concentration, from 2.25 +/- 0.25, 0.51 +/- 0.09, and 0.38 +/- 0.06 microg/ml to 8.24 +/- 0.95, 4.52 +/- 0.68, and 5.06 +/- 0.57 microg/ml, respectively. The effect produced by these organochlorines in the liver correlates with the modulation of the ERalpha protein. We conclude that these organochlorines modulate differently the expression of estrogen-regulated genes in male mice. Their effect is tissue- and compound-specific and is dependent on the energetic balance. PMID:15541753

Villa, R; Bonetti, E; Penza, M L; Iacobello, C; Bugari, G; Bailo, M; Parolini, O; Apostoli, P; Caimi, L; Ciana, P; Maggi, A; Di Lorenzo, D

2004-12-01

98

Concentrations of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit : Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee, 1995-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whole fish were collected at 52 sites during 1995-99 to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of selected organochlorine compounds in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit. Samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. From 5 to 8 fish were collected at each site; the fish were composited, and an aliquot of the tissue was analyzed for 28 organo-chlorine compounds, which included pesticides, pesticide degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The use of these organochlorine compounds has been discontinued or severely restricted within the United States, but the continued detection of these compounds or their degradates in the air, water, soil, and biota in national surveys, coupled with known environmental problems associated with these compounds (such as a long half-life and the propensity to accumulate in living tissue), is cause for continued interest in their environmental fate. At least one organochlorine compound was detected in every fish-tissue sample, and as many as 15 different compounds were detected in some. The most frequently detected com-pounds were the degradates of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichlo-roethane (p,p'-DDT); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected in every sample above the method reporting limit, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), was detected in 94 percent of the samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and dieldrin were detected in 83 and 78 percent of fish-tissue samples, respectively. Because these were whole fish samples, the results are not directly comparable to human health standards, which are based on fish fillets. Comparison of these results, however, to the guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife indicates that concentrations of the p,p'-DDT degradates and toxaphene continue to be of environmental concern.

Femmer, Suzanne R.; Coupe, Richard H.; Justus, Billy G.; Kleiss, Barbara A.

2004-01-01

99

Airborne organic compounds in the Canadian Arctic and development of a collection method for organochlorines in air  

SciTech Connect

Many organochlorine pollutants have saturation vapor pressures between 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup 0} torr and exist in the atmosphere as vapors and/or associated with airborne particles. Collection methods are needed for the organic pollutants having vapor pressures between 10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup 0} torr because they are too volatile to be retained by high-volume collection methods using polyurethane foam (PUF) and are usually present in ambient air at levels below the detection limit of low-volume samplers. A commercial high volume air sampler was evaluated for the collection of di- through hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), and di- through pentachlorophenol using granular solid adsorbents (Tenax-GC, XAD-2, or Florisil) sandwiched between two PUF plugs. Vapors of these compounds were diluted in a flowing stream of up to 380 m{sup 3} of filtered and scrubbed laboratory air and then pulled through front and back PUF-granular adsorbent traps. All three adsorbents are suitable for the collection of tetrachlorobenzene-HCB and HCH, and Tenax-GC is suitable for the collection di-tetrachlorophenol. The method was applied to the collection of these compounds from ambient air. The high Arctic is one of the most remote and isolated areas in the world. Despite the region's seemingly pristine character, Arctic ecosystems are exposed to anthropogenic pollutants from temperate latitudes. Long range atmospheric transport is considered to be a major pathway of organochlorine pesticides to the Arctic, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). High volume air samples were collected using a filter-PUF adsorbent train on a floating ice island (81{degree} N, 100{degree} W) during August-September 1986 and June 1987 and at Alert, Canada (82.5{degree} N, 62.3{degree} W) during February-April 1988.

Patton, G.W.

1989-01-01

100

Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic qu?bec.  

PubMed Central

Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from arctic Québec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Québec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. Images p618-a

Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Bruneau, S; Laliberte, C; Muir, D C; Norstrom, R J

1993-01-01

101

Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec  

SciTech Connect

Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from artic Quebec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Quebec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Laliberte, C. (Laval Univ. Hospital, Ste-Foy (Canada)); Bruneau, S. (Kativik Regional Council of Health, Kuujjuaq (Canada)); Muir, D.C.G. (Freshwater Institute, Winnipeg (Canada)); Norstrom, R.J. (Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull (Canada))

1993-12-01

102

Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and streambed sediment in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1998, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, a survey was conducted to determine which organochlorine compounds and trace elements occur in fish tissues and streambed sediments in the Mobile River Basin, which includes parts of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. The data collected were compared to guidelines related to wildlife, land use, and to 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program Study-Unit data.Twenty-one sites were sampled in subbasins of the Mobile River Basin. The subbasins ranged in size from about 9 to 22,000 square miles and were dominated by either a single land use or a combination of land uses. The major land-use categories were urban, agriculture, and forest.Organochlorine compounds were widespread spatially in the Mobile River Basin. At least one organochlorine compound was reported at the majority of sampling sites (84 percent) and in a majority of whole-fish (80 percent) and streambed-sediment (52 percent) samples. Multiple organochlorine compounds were reported at 75 percent of the sites where fish tissues were collected and were reported at many of the streambed-sediment sampling sites (45 percent). The majority of concentrations reported, however, were less than 5 micrograms per kilogram in fish-tissue samples and less than 1 microgram per kilogram in streambed-sediment samples.The majority of trace elements analyzed in fish-liver tissue (86 percent) and streambed-sediment (98 percent) samples were reported during this study. Multiple trace elements were reported in all samples and at all sites.Based on comparisons of concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish-tissue and streambed-sediment samples in relation to National Academy of Science and National Academy of Engineering and Canadian tissue guidelines, probable-effects concentrations, and mean probable-effects concentration quotients for streambed sediment, the potential exists for adverse effects to wildlife at 15 (72 percent) of the sites sampled. The potential for adverse effects at these sites is because of the presence of residues or breakdown products related to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chromium, lead, and zinc.The majority of compounds reported (65 percent) were chlordane, DDT, and PCB?s, or their breakdown products. Concentrations of chlordane and heptachlor epoxide in whole-fish tissue were positively correlated to the amount of urban land use in a basin. Total DDT concentrations in whole-fish tissues were positively correlated to agriculture.The relation of trace elements to land use is not as clear as the relation of organochlorine compounds to land use. This lack of clarity may be due to the possibility of geologic sources of trace elements in the Mobile River Basin and to the ubiquitous nature of many of these trace elements. However, there may be a correlation between the amount of urban land use and concentrations of antimony, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed-sediment samples from the Mobile River Basin.Fewer organochlorine compounds and trace elements were reported in samples from the Mobile River Basin than in samples collected during the 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies. Of the organochlorine compounds analyzed nationally, 57 percent were reported in whole-fish tissue samples collected locally and 41 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples collected locally, whereas 96 percent and 86 percent, respectively, were reported nationally. Of trace elements analyzed nationally, 86 percent were reported in fish-liver tissue locally and 95 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples locally, whereas 95 percent and 98 percent, respectively, were reported nationally.In general, concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements and the frequency with which they were reported in the Mobile River Basin are similar to or less than t

Zappia, Humbert

2002-01-01

103

Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Residues in Foodstuffs and Human Tissues from China: Status of Contamination, Historical Trend, and Human Dietary Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of persistent organochlorine pesticides such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs),\\u000a hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were determined in a wide variety of foodstuffs and human tissues\\u000a collected from Shanghai and its vicinity in China in 2000–2001. Among the organochlorines analyzed, DDT and its metabolites\\u000a were prominent compounds in most of the foodstuffs. In particular, mussels contained

H. Nakata; M. Kawazoe; K. Arizono; S. Abe; T. Kitano; H. Shimada; W. Li; X. Ding

2002-01-01

104

Organochlorine compounds and stable isotopes indicate bottlenose dolphin subpopulation structure around the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

Isotopic signatures and organochlorine pollutant loads of organisms reflect the characteristics of the waters in which they live and feed. To investigate population structure of bottlenose dolphins around the Iberian Peninsula we determined delta(13)C and delta(15)N in the skin and organochlorine (OC) levels in the blubber of stranded bottlenose dolphins inhabiting the Mediterranean (Catalonia, Valencia and Balearic Islands) and adjacent Atlantic waters (Huelva and Portugal). OC levels were high in all regions, reflecting the predatory habits of the species, its coastal distribution and the existence of intense agricultural and industrial activity throughout the region. PCB congeners showed a gradient from the relatively more chlorinated forms to those that are less so, and followed a northeast to northwest direction across the Iberian Peninsula. This suggests that PCB inputs are more recent in the temperate latitudes of the eastern Atlantic Ocean than in the western Mediterranean Sea. Comparatively, OC ratios and isotopic signatures proved to be more efficient ways of discriminating groups than did raw OC concentrations. Significant differences in delta(13)C and in PCB congener profiles indicate that dolphins from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean do not intermingle. In addition, the two Atlantic groups differed in delta(15)N signature, tDDT concentration, DDT/PCB ratio and the PCB congener profile, which also suggests some degree of isolation between them. In the Mediterranean, dolphins from Catalonia and Valencia were indistinguishable, suggesting a common distribution area. However, dolphins from the Balearic Islands differed from those of the Peninsula in their DDT/PCB ratio and from all the other sample groups in their PCB congener profiles, which supports the hypothesis that the deep waters between the Islands and the Peninsula represent an effective barrier for the species. PMID:16445982

Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Sequeira, M; Fernandez, G; Alis, S

2006-05-01

105

Anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health determinants of placental transfer of organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to relate placental transfer, quantified by the cord to maternal serum concentration ratio (C/M), of five organochlorine pesticides (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) , p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 52, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123(+149), 138(+163), 153, 156(+171), 157, 167, 170, 180, and 189) to anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health characteristics. We included into the study 1,134 births during the period 2002-2004 from two districts in eastern Slovakia with high organochlorine concentrations relative to other areas of the world. Only concentrations >LOD were taken into account. Variables as age, weight and height of mothers, parity, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, illness during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, hypertension, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus, and birth weight were related to C/M. Results of regression analyses showed that C/M was predicted by several factors studied. Positive associations were observed for gestational alcohol consumption, fewer illnesses during pregnancy, maternal age, and maternal weight. Caucasians had a greater C/M compared to Romani for wet weight data of congeners 170 and 180 and in contrast C/M for HCB was greater in Romani. Our results show that drinking mothers compared to abstaining expose their fetuses not only to alcohol but to an increased level of several PCB congeners. A straightforward explanation of associations between C/M shifts and factors studied is very difficult, however, with regard to the high lipophilicity of OCPs and PCBs, changes in their kinetics probably reflect lipid kinetics. PMID:23677752

Patayová, Henrieta; Wimmerová, So?a; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovi?ová, L'ubica; Drobná, Beata; Fabišiková, Anna; Ková?, Ján; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A; Trnovec, Tomáš

2013-12-01

106

Organochlorine compounds and heavy metals in the soft tissue of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from Lake Faro (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

Three hundred samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from five stations (north, south, east, west and centre) of Lake Faro to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. Quantitative determinations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were made by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. Concentrations of "essential" (Cu, Se and Zn) and "toxic" (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) metals were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained show the low residue levels of p,p'-DDE in six samples of M. galloprovincialis from southern (7.00-11.00 ng/g w.w. and 148.3-275 ng/g l.w.) and western (7.60-15.37 ng/g w.w. and 126.7-256.2 ng/g l.w.) areas of Lake Faro. No appreciable residues of PCBs were found in any of the samples examined. Zn concentrations (range 11.0-18.5 microg/g w.w.) were higher than Cu (range 188.3-396.0 ng/g w.w.) and Se (range 93.5-288.9 ng/g w.w.) in all areas of origin. Cd (range 41.9-63.8 ng/g w.w.), Pb (range 64.8-93.0 ng/g w.w.) and Hg levels (range 5.7-13.1 ng/g w.w.) showed lower concentrations than permitted MRLs. The As levels were below detection limits for the all mussel samples. In conclusion, the absence of PCBs, the low levels of p,p'-DDE, the concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb below permitted MRLs in M. galloprovincialis, used as a "biological indicator", show that Lake Faro is not at contamination risk from these contaminants and moreover is free from health problems for the consumer of mussel products. PMID:15120199

Licata, P; Trombetta, D; Cristani, M; Martino, D; Naccari, F

2004-08-01

107

Development of a high-throughput method for the determination of organochlorinated compounds, nitromusks and pyrethroid insecticides in indoor dust.  

PubMed

Investigation of chemical exposure inside the homes and offices where people spend the majority of their lives has only recently begun. These chemicals are degraded much more slowly than outdoor because they are more protected from sunlight, severe environmental conditions and microbial activity. Hence, indoor dust has been recognized as an important exposure pathway for organic contaminants. Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides widely used in domestic environment for numerous applications and also in agriculture. Chlorobenzenes are a family of compounds used as intermediates in the production of a wide range of household consumer products. Nitromusks are a kind of synthetic musks used in the production of cleaning agents, detergents, and personal care products. A high-throughput method for the determination of these compounds in indoor dust samples has been developed. Microwave-assisted solvent extraction was used as the extraction technique whereas quantification of compounds was carried out by gas chromatography with micro-electron-capture detection. Several cleanup procedures were tested and finally a non-classical "on batch" procedure was selected, which allows increasing the throughput of the analysis while decreasing sample manipulation. Extraction conditions were optimized using a multifactorial experimental design approach. Quantitative recovery (84-103%) was achieved for all compounds and method precision was satisfactory. Limits of detection ranged from 0.22 ng g(-1) for lindane to 40 ng g(-1) for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Standard reference material SRM 2585 was analyzed and the obtained values were in good agreement with the reported reference values for organochlorinated compounds and nitromusks. Pyrethroids and polychlorobenzenes have been analyzed for the first time in this reference material and some of them have been found. In addition, real samples collected in houses of north-western Spain have been analyzed by the proposed method and 17 of the 22 target compounds have been detected in the samples. PMID:17884065

Regueiro, Jorge; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Cela, Rafael

2007-12-01

108

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78.6 +/- 32.4 microg/g lipid) and toxaphene (11.7 +/- 9.3 microg/g lipid) were significantly higher in dolphins sampled in the TBRE than in dolphins stranded near Savannah (GA, USA) 80 to 100 km to the north. Levels of OCPs were several-fold lower than levels of PCBs; moreover, PCBs comprised 81 and 67% of the total POP burden in TBRE and non-TBRE dolphins, respectively. Analyses with GC-ECNI-MS revealed that 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10-octachlorobornane (P-42a), a major component in technical toxaphene and a major residue congener in local estuarine fish species, was the most abundant chlorobornane in both sets of blubber samples. Mean total POP concentrations (sum of PCBs, OCPs, and toxaphene) approached 100 microg/g lipid for the TBRE animals, well above published total PCB thresholds at which immunosuppresion and/or reproductive anomalies are thought to occur. These results indicate extended utilization of the highly contaminated TBRE as habitat for a group of coastal estuarine dolphins, and they further suggest that these animals may be at risk because of elevated POP concentrations. PMID:19203137

Pulster, Erin L; Smalling, Kelly L; Zolman, Eric; Schwacke, Lori; Maruya, Keith A

2009-07-01

109

Maternal Concentrations of Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Asthma in Offspring: Results from a Prospective Cohort with 20 Years of Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous findings suggest that developmental exposures to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may be detrimental for the development of the immune system in the offspring. Whether these suspected immunoregulatory effects persist beyond early childhood remains unclear. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal serum concentrations of POPs and the risk of asthma in offspring after 20 years of follow-up. Methods: A birth cohort with 965 women was formed in 1988–1989 in Aarhus, Denmark. Concentrations of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) were quantified in maternal serum (n = 872) collected in gestation week 30. Information about offspring use of asthma medications was obtained from the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results: Maternal serum concentrations of HCB and dioxin-like PCB-118 were positively associated with offspring asthma medication use after 20 years of follow-up (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with subjects in the first tertile of maternal concentration, those in the third tertile of PCB-118 had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.23). For HCB the HR for the third versus the first tertile of maternal concentration was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.21). Weak positive associations were also estimated for PCB-156 and the non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180). No associations were found for p,p´-DDE. Conclusions: Maternal concentrations of PCB-118 and HCB were associated with increased risk of asthma in offspring followed through 20 years of age. Citation: Hansen S, Strøm M, Olsen SF, Maslova E, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Rytter D, Bech BH, Hansen LV, Halldorsson TI. 2014. Maternal concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants and the risk of asthma in offspring: results from a prospective cohort with 20 years of follow-up. Environ Health Perspect 122:93–99;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206397

Str?m, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Maslova, Ekaterina; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil H.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

2013-01-01

110

Chapter 12 Persistent Toxic Substances in the Philippine Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the studies on persistent toxic substances (PTS) in the Philippines environment. Many of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including pesticides and industrial chemicals, which were either banned or restricted for use in most northern industrialized countries, are still in use in some developing countries. This review focuses on organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as

Maricar S. Prudente; Govindan Malarvannan; Shinsuke Tanabe

2007-01-01

111

Bioaccumulation and enantiomeric profiling of organochlorine pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters.  

PubMed

Concentrations and enantiomeric profiles for a range of organochlorine compounds are reported in blubber samples from a number of individual killer whales (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters. Elevated contaminant levels and enriched isotopic ratios were determined in one individual whale sampled in the Scottish Western Isles compared to the others suggesting marine mammal based dietary influences. The potential application of isotopic ratios to model contaminant uptake, enantioselective enrichment and accumulation is demonstrated. Data are presented which provide information on enantioselective enrichment factors (EFs) for o,p'-DDT, alpha-HCH and toxaphene congeners CHB26 and CHB 50. This dataset further improves the current database on reported levels of a number of contaminants and provides additional background information on potential metabolic processes in killer whales from British and Irish waters. PMID:17854842

McHugh, Brendan; Law, Robin J; Allchin, Colin R; Rogan, Emer; Murphy, Sinead; Foley, M Barry; Glynn, Denise; McGovern, Evin

2007-11-01

112

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

1988-09-01

113

Analysis of organochlorine compounds and extractable organic halogen in three subspecies of ringed seal from northeast Europe  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine compounds in blubber samples of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis, P. H. ladogensis, and P. h. hispida) were analyzed in order to estimate the state of pollution in three different water areas in Northeast Europe, namely, Lake Saimaa in Finland, Lake Lodoga, and the White Sea in Russia. Geographic differences in concentrations and in relative concentrations of tri- and tetrachlorocymenes, hexachlorobenzene, {alpha}-HCH, {beta}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH (Lindane), seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and p,p{prime}-DDT and its metabolites in ringed seals were compared. Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons varied between the water areas. The highest concentrations were found in Saimaa ringed seals, followed by Lodaga ringed seals, and the lowest concentrations were detected in ringed seals from the White Sea. Extractable organic halogen (EOX) concentrations in blubber were also analyzed. The concentrations showed a geographic trend similar to those for the individual compounds identified. In Lakes Ladoga and Saimaa, the concentrations of EOX and chlorinated hydrocarbons in the blubber were dependent on the age and sex of the seals, but no such relationship was observed in samples from the White Sea.

Kostamo, A.; Medvedev, N.; Pellinen, J.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

2000-04-01

114

Data on occurrence of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds in edible fish tissues from Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A public-health assessment conducted for the Texas Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concluded that exposure to contaminants through the aquatic food chain is an indeterminate human-health hazard in Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds to support a human-health risk assessment. Left-side, skin-off fillet samples were collected from 10 individuals each of channel catfish, common carp, freshwater drum (gaspergou), largemouth bass, and white crappie but only from five smallmouth buffalo. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory analyzed the samples for 22 trace metals, 40 organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, and 75 semivolatile organic compounds.

Moring, James B.

2002-01-01

115

Global Pollution Monitoring of PCBs and Organochlorine Pesticides Using Skipjack Tuna as a Bioindicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and

D. Ueno; S. Takahashi; H. Tanaka; A. N. Subramanian; G. Fillmann; H. Nakata; P. K. S. Lam; J. Zheng; M. Muchtar; M. Prudente; K. H. Chung; S. Tanabe

2003-01-01

116

Use of proficiency testing materials for the calculation of detection and quantification limits in the analysis of organochlorine compounds in human serum.  

PubMed

A method for the calculation of the limits of detection (LD) and quantification (LQ) for the analysis of organochlorine compounds in serum is described. The method is based on the analysis of proficiency testing materials, an external quality assessment for selected pollutants, and the study of the signal/noise ratio of chromatograms obtained from GC-ECD injection. This method provides representative results for matrix effects, instrumental variability and extraction recoveries in the analysis of serum samples. PMID:20361180

Garí, Mercè; Grimalt, Joan O

2010-06-01

117

Static headspace versus head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the determination of volatile organochlorine compounds in landfill leachates by gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of five volatile organochlorine compounds, VOX (chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene) in raw landfill leachates and biologically cleansed leachates by GC-MS is investigated. Two extraction and preconcentration procedures were evaluated for recovery of such analies from the samples, including static headspace (HS) and solid phase microextraction by sampling the headspace above the sample (HS-SPME). Optimisation of

J. C Flórez Menéndez; M. L Fernández Sánchez; E Fernández Mart??nez; J. E Sánchez Ur??a; A Sanz-Medel

2004-01-01

118

Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

Wentz, D. A.; Waite, I. R.; Rinella, F. A.

1998-01-01

119

Declining bioavailability and inappropriate estimation of risk of persistent compounds  

SciTech Connect

Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) assimilated decreasing amounts of atrazine, phenanthrene, and naphthalene that had been incubated for increasing periods of time in sterile soil. The amount of atrazine and phenanthrene removed from soil by mild extractants also decreased with time. The declines in bioavailability of the three compounds to earthworms and of naphthalene to bacteria were not reflected by analysis involving vigorous methods of solvent extraction; similar results for bioavailability of phenanthrene and 4-nitrophenol to bacteria were obtained in a previous study conducted at this laboratory. The authors suggest that regulations based on vigorous extractions for the analyses of persistent organic pollutants in soil do not appropriately estimate exposure or risk to susceptible populations.

Kelsey, J.W.; Alexander, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1997-03-01

120

Current-Use Pesticides and Organochlorine Compounds in Precipitation and Lake Sediment from Two High-Elevation National Parks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western U.S. to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, only chlordane, HCB, and two PCB congeners were detected. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ?g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ?g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ?g/m2 for dacthal of which over 85% occurred during summer. DDE and DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in lake sediments. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been in decline since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11-1.2 ?g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in lake sediments.

Mast, M. A.; Foreman, W. T.

2007-12-01

121

Levels and distribution of persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in water and sediments of Gomti River (India)--a tributary of the Ganges River.  

PubMed

This study reports the concentration levels and distribution pattern of the persistent organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in the water and bed-sediments of the Gomti River collected seasonally over a period of 2 years. The water and bed-sediment samples were collected from eight different sites and analyzed for aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, HCB, HCH isomers, DDT isomers/metabolites, endosulfan isomers (alpha and beta), endosulfan sulfate, heptachlor and its metabolites, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane and methoxychlor. In the river water and sediments SigmaOCPs residues ranged between 2.16 and 567.49 ng l(-1) and 0.92 and 813.59 ng g(-1), respectively. The results, further, suggested that source of DDT contamination is from the aged and weathered agricultural soils with signature of recently used DDT in the river catchments. To assess any adverse effect of OCPs contamination on river's biological component, the threshold effect level (TEL) was used. The results revealed that bed-sediments of the Gomti River are contaminated with lindane, endrin, heptachlor epoxides and DDT, particularly at site-4 and may contribute to sediment toxicity in the freshwater ecosystem of the river. PMID:18288582

Malik, Amrita; Ojha, Priyanka; Singh, Kunwar P

2009-01-01

122

Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in whole fish tissue from streams of the lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland, 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tissue samples of whole body white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were collected at 15 sites and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were collected at 5 sites during 1992 in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin to determine the occurrence and distribution of 28 selected organochlorine compounds as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Only 12 of the 28 compounds occurred at concentrations greater than the 5 mg/kg reporting limit (total PCB?s reporting limit is 50 percent) sites than in forest-dominated (>50 percent) sites with the exception of Deer Creek and Big Beaver Creek. These two sites are located more in grazing areas that lack a substantial crop-land use. Concentrations of total PCB?s were highest in basins with greater than 10 percent urban land use excluding the larger river sites. Concentrations of total chlordane were highest at sites with greater than 70 percent agricultural and 10 percent urban land use. Regional comparisons of total DDT, total PCB?s, and total chlordane in white sucker tissue from the Lower Susquehanna, Hudson (in New York), and Connecticut River Basins showed that median concentrations of total DDT were different (p=0.05), with the Lower Susquehanna Basin being the lowest. Total PCB?s and total chlordane medians were similar. Comparison of the data from national and regional studies with data from this local study showed concentrations of p,p?-DDE in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin are similar to those nationwide and lower than the concentrations measured in the Northeast. PCB concentrations in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and the Northeast were higher than those nationwide.

Bilger, Michael D.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Campbell, Harry L.

1999-01-01

123

Brain Organochlorines and Lewy Pathology: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although organochlorines have been reported more frequently in Parkinson’s disease (PD) brains than controls, the association with brain Lewy pathology is unknown. Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) participants, exposed to organochlorines from a variety of sources during mid-life, represent a population well suited to determine the relationship of brain organochlorines with Lewy pathology in decedents from the longitudinal HAAS. Methods Study design included the measurement of 21 organochlorine levels in frozen occipital lobe samples from HAAS decedents. Alpha-synuclein immunostaining performed on 225 brains was used to identify Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Results With the potential for spurious associations to appear between Lewy pathology and 17 organochlorine compounds found to be present in at least one brain, initial assessments identified heptachlor epoxide isomer b, methoxychlor, and benzene hexachloride b as being most important. Prevalence of Lewy pathology was 75% (6/8) among brains with any 2 of the 3 compounds, 48.8% (79/162) among those with 1, and 32.7% (18/55) for those with neither (P=0.007 test for trend). While findings persisted after removing cases with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, and when adjustments were made for age at death, body mass index, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and coffee intake (p=0.013), results were insignificant when correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions While consistent with earlier accounts of an association between organochlorines and clinical PD, associations with Lewy pathology warrant further study.

Ross, G. Webster; Duda, John E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Pellizzari, Edo; Petrovitch, Helen; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Noorigian, Joseph V.; Masaki, Kamal; Launer, Lenore; White, Lon R.

2012-01-01

124

Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine compounds in sea turtles from Japan.  

PubMed

Three species of sea turtles (green, hawksbill and loggerhead turtles) stranded along the coasts or caught (by-catch) around Ishigaki Island and Kochi, Japan were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for six organohalogen compounds viz., PBDEs, PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs and HCB. The present study is the first and foremost to report the occurrence of organohalogen compounds in the sea turtles from Japan. Among the compounds analyzed, concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and CHLs were the highest in all the turtle samples. PBDEs were ubiquitously present in all the turtle species. Comparing with the other two species, concentrations of organohalogens in green turtle were relatively low and decreasing trend in the concentrations were noted with increasing carapace length. Concentrations of OCs in sea turtles from the coasts of Ishigaki Island and Kochi were relatively low as compared to those from other locations in the world. PMID:21377171

Malarvannan, Govindan; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Sudaryanto, Agus; Miyagi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masaru; Yasumura, Shigeki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2011-01-01

125

Persistence of biologically active compounds in aquatic systems: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Waters collected from two study sites were tested for persistence of biologically active compounds as the waters percolated through experimental media. At the first site, the Paraho Lysimeter in Anvil Points, Colorado, two leachate samples (early and late flow in Spring 1983) were collected from each of four piles of processed oil shale overlain by different thicknesses of soil. Although water quality differed among samples, six of eight lysimeter leachates tested were acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, and five were acutely toxic to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Water collected from a modified in situ (MIS) retort was percolated through columns containing three different types of soil. Raw leachate from the MIS spent shale was acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The toxicity of samples from nine pore volumes of retort water percolating through a column containing a sandy soil increased with successive pore volumes, but leachate toxicity never equaled the toxicity of the retort water. In contrast, the first pore volumes of retort water or reconstituted water leached through a sandy loam soil were more toxic than the retort water; however, the second pore volumes of leachates were not toxic. First pore volume leachates of retort water percolating through a sandy clay loam soil were much less toxic than the retort water; second pore volume leachates were not toxic.

Boelter, A.M.; Fernandez, J.D.; Meyer, J.S.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.

1986-11-01

126

Atmospheric transport and accumulation of organochlorine compounds on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Nepal.  

PubMed

Studies have been devoted to the transport and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in mountain environments. The Himalayas have the widest altitude gradient of any mountain range, but few studies examining the environmental behavior of POPs have been performed in the Himalayas. In this study, air, soil, and leaf samples were collected along a transect on the southern slope of the Himalayas, Nepal (altitude: 135-5100 m). Local emission occurred in the lowlands, and POPs were transported by uplift along the slope. During the atmospheric transport, the HCB proportion increased from the lowlands (20%) to high elevation (>50%), whereas the proportions of DDTs decreased. The largest residue of soil POPs appeared at an altitude of approximately 2500 m, and may be related to absorption by vegetation and precipitation. The net deposition tendencies at the air-soil surface indicated that the Himalayas may be a 'sink' for DDTs and PCBs. PMID:24880535

Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Sheng-Hai; Yu, Wu-Sheng; Li, Jiu-le; Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Wang, Wei-Cai; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tan-Dong; Joswiak, Daniel R

2014-09-01

127

Correlation between the activation of Neu tyrosine kinase and promotion of foci formation induced by selected organochlorine compounds in the MCF-7 model system.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that some organochlorine compounds act like estrogen in certain animals and in vitro cell culture systems, and therefore, there is a possibility that they could promote the process of tumorigenesis in breast cancer cells. In our previous study, two representative organochlorines, 1,1,1-trichloro 2-o-chlorophenyl-2'-p-chlorophenyl ethane (o,p'-DDT) and beta-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta HCH), were found to directly activate the protein tyrosine kinase of Neu (c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene product) immunoprecipitates isolated from MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In the current study, we also found that 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) at 1 nM and alpha-HCH isomers at 100 nM could also significantly activate protein tyrosine kinase of Neu immunoprecipitates in a cell-free system. We also found that organochlorines result in an increase of Neu protein tyrosine kinase after intact cell treatment in estrogen-depleted medium. This Neu kinase activation by beta-HCH (100 nM) was blocked when the cells were pretreated with Neu mRNA antisense oligonucleotide (p < 0.07, Student's t-test). Endogenously added alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HCH, o,p'-DDT, 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl (2,2'-PCB), and 2,4,5-T at 100 nM were found to promote foci formation in postconfluent cultures of this cell line. This stimulatory effect caused by 17beta-estradiol, o,p'-DDT, and beta-HCH on foci formation was inhibited by coincubation with Neu monoclonal antibody (p < 0.05). Those two events induced by organochlorines (i.e., Neu kinase activation and foci formation) seemed causally correlated. PMID:10487416

Hatakeyama, M; Matsumura, F

1999-01-01

128

Organochlorine compounds in Baltic salmon and trout. I. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenols 1982  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorophenol compounds were analyzed in three populations of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) and one population of Bothnian Bay trout (Salmo trutta). Muscles, livers an unfertilized eggs were studied and the analysis results treated by standard statistical methods. PCB, DDT residues, HCB and lindan were detected in most, 2,3,6-t-richlorocymene in some samples at levels which are near to the global baseline. Ten chlorophenol compounds were detected, 34DCC at 0-1000 ..mu..g/kg the other 0-100 ..mu..g/kg (fresh weight) levels. Chlorohydrocarbons showed some significant positive correlations with weight, and fat contents of the fish. Significances of the differences between populations and tissues were low or negligible except that the chlorophenols in liver were at clearly higher level than in muscle or eggs.

Vuorinen, P.J.; Paasivirta, J.; Piilola, T.; Surma-Aho, K.; Tarhanen, J.

1985-01-01

129

Comparison of the residue levels of some organochlorine compounds in breast milk of the general and indigenous Canadian populations  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have shown polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organochlorine resides to be present in mothers' milk of the general Canadian population, but there has been little work done with respect to Canada's native population. A small survey was therefore undertaken to determine organochlorine resides in breast milk of Canadian Indian and Inuit mothers as a follow-up to the recent national survey of the general population. Analyses were conducted for 14 individual isomers of PCBs, photomirex, four hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, oxychlordane, ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-chlordane, trans-nonaclor, four analogs of DDT and vie isomers of chlorobenzenes. The results were compared to those of the national survey.

Davies, D.; Mes, J.

1987-11-01

130

Spatial budgetary evaluation of organochlorine contaminants in the sediments of Cochin Estuary, India.  

PubMed

This paper presents the first detailed investigation on the residual levels of organochlorine insecticide (OCI) concentrations in the Cochin estuarine sediment. It aims in elucidate their distribution and ecological impact on the aquatic system. Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compound (OC) were determined for 17 surface sediment samples which were collected from specific sites of Cochin Estuarine System (CES) over a period of November 2009 and November 2011. The contaminant levels in the CES were compared with other worldwide ecosystems. The sites bearing high concentration of organochlorine compounds are well associated with the complexities and low energy environment. Evaluation of ecotoxicological factors suggests that adverse biological effects are expected in certain areas of CES. PMID:24210223

Akhil, P S; Sujatha, C H

2014-01-15

131

Degradation of organochlorine compounds in spent sulfite bleach plant effluents by actinomycetes.  

PubMed Central

Actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples were tested for their abilities to utilize spent sulfite bleach effluents from a paper mill. Degradation and dechlorination of the chlorinated compounds in the effluents of the first two bleaching stages, i.e., chlorination stage [(C + D)red.] and alkaline extraction stage (E1O), were monitored by determining total organic carbon (TOC) and activated-carbon-adsorbable organic-bound halogen (AOX). The isolates showed increased degradation rates after repeated incubations in the effluent-containing medium. Separation of the culture supernatants by ultrafiltration into three fractions of different molecular weights revealed substantial AOX and TOC reductions in the low-molecular-weight fraction. The AOX values of the higher-molecular-weight fractions were also reduced. Extracellular peroxidase and cell wall-bound catalase activities were produced during growth of the microorganisms on bleach effluents.

Winter, B; Fiechter, A; Zimmermann, W

1991-01-01

132

Persistent halogenated compounds in aquaculture environments of South China: implications for global consumers' health risk via fish consumption.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential sources of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including organochlorine pesticides, mainly DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, to typical aquaculture environments of South China, determined the relative importance of gill diffusion and fish feeding for exposure of fish to these contaminants and assessed potential health risk for global consumers via consumption of fish from South China. Fish feed is generally a direct and important source of PHCs in both freshwater and seawater aquaculture. In addition, gill diffusion is the predominant uptake route for PHCs (except p,p'-DDMU, o,p'-DDD and -DDT) in farmed freshwater fish, whereas accumulation from the diet is the major route for farmed marine fish. Risks to health of global consumers via consumption of fish from South China are minimal. However, increased risk can be foreseen due to continuous use of brominated fire retardants and electronic waste importation to China. PMID:21570724

Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Giesy, John P; Zeng, Eddy Y

2011-10-01

133

Analytical methods for the determination of organochlorine compounds. Application to environmental samples in the Slovak Republic.  

PubMed

The paper deals with the isolation of chlorinated phenols, benzenes and insecticides from water, soil and vegetable samples. A review of the current procedures is presented. Solid-phase extraction on Empore extraction discs was experimentally evaluated for isolation of the compounds from surface and ground waters. For the isolation of chlorophenols from soil and vegetable samples, a method of simultaneous steam distillation/extraction was elaborated which proved to be also applicable for waste waters and sludges. Chlorinated insecticides and benzenes were extracted from soil and vegetable samples with the Soxhlet procedure. Final determinations were carried out by GC-electron-capture detection. The recoveries of the methods were well over 70%, with relative standard deviations below 14%. Samples of surface and ground waters, soil and vegetables, mostly from the vicinity of chemical and municipal waste dumping sites, were analysed. The highest contamination levels were found for chlorinated phenols in surface water from the vicinity of a former chemical waste dumping place where the concentrations of 2,6-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were 4.3 and 3.9 micrograms l-1, respectively. PMID:9253193

Veningerová, M; Prachar, V; Kovacicová, J; Uhnák, J

1997-07-11

134

Organochlorine compounds, nitro musks and perfluorinated substances in breast milk - results from Bavarian Monitoring of Breast Milk 2007/8.  

PubMed

The aim of the Bavarian Monitoring of Breast Milk (BAMBI) project was to examine 10 organochlorine pesticides (OPs), 3 nitro musks, 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) and several perfluorinated alkyl compounds in breast milk samples. A total of 516 breast milk samples were collected from seven regions in Bavaria and were analyzed by means of GC/ECD, GC/HRMS, and LC/MS-MS. Concerning the OPs, only hexachlorobenzene and a metabolite of DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE), could be quantified in all samples (median: 16 ngg(-1) lipid and 63 ngg(-1) lipid, respectively). Median concentrations of 150 ngg(-1) lipid (range: 3-1900 ngg(-1) lipid) were found for the sum of the indicator PCBs. The concentrations of the PCDDs/PCDFs and the dl-PCBs ranged from 0.8 to 15.1 (median 5.7) pg WHO-TEQ1998g(-1) lipid and from 1.5 to 18.9 pg (median 6.4) WHO-TEQ1998 g(-1) lipid, respectively. The median perfluorooctane sulfonate concentration was 0.05 ?gL(-1) (range: <0.02-0.26 ?gL), while the other PFCs were observed only in a subset of samples. On the basis of the median and 95th percentile concentration, "medium" and "high" intake levels were estimated for a 3-month-old exclusively breastfed infant. In particular, "medium" and "high" intake levels were calculated of 69 and 133 pg WHO1998 TEQ kg(-1) b.w. for PCDDs/PCDFs, 8 and 21 ngkg(-1) b.w. for dl-PCBs, and 6 and 25 ngkg(-1) b.w. for perfluorooctane sulfonate, respectively. The calculated intake for perfluorinated substances is clearly below the tolerable daily intake (TDI), while the established TDI values are still clearly exceeded for PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs. PMID:23856469

Raab, Ulla; Albrecht, Michael; Preiss, Ursula; Völkel, Wolfgang; Schwegler, Ursula; Fromme, Hermann

2013-09-01

135

Survey of Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants (PCDD, PCDF, and PCB) in Fish Collected from the Polish Baltic Fishing Areas  

PubMed Central

Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, and ndl-PCBs were determined in five species of edible fish from the Baltic Sea (ICES 24–27): salmon (Salmo salar), Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus), sea trout (Salmo trutta m.trutta), and cod (Gadus morhua callarias). Marker PCBs were the dominant compounds (0.07–60.84?ng/g? w.w.), followed by dl-PCBs (0.64–6.07?pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and PCDD/PCDFs (0.22–5.67?pg WHO-TEQ w.w). The concentration levels of contaminants varied between species. Salmon possessed the highest concentrations (up to 14.11 ± 2.36?pg WHO-TEQ/g? w.w.) and cod the lowest ones (0.84 ± 0.14?pg WHO-TEQ/g? w.w.). Congener profile in the fish tested had similar pattern. The largest contribution to the dioxin toxicity was caused successively by PCB 126, 118, 156, furans (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF), and two dioxins: 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although the dietary consumption of fish from southwest region of the Baltic Sea did not represent a risk for human health (because of very low consumption of marine fish), the excessive eating of some of them may be of significance importance for health of various subgroups of consumers (fishermen).

Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Maszewski, Sebastian; Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Goraj, Lukasz

2012-01-01

136

Survey of persistent organochlorine contaminants (PCDD, PCDF, and PCB) in fish collected from the Polish Baltic fishing areas.  

PubMed

Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, and ndl-PCBs were determined in five species of edible fish from the Baltic Sea (ICES 24-27): salmon (Salmo salar), Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus), sea trout (Salmo trutta m.trutta), and cod (Gadus morhua callarias). Marker PCBs were the dominant compounds (0.07-60.84 ng/g w.w.), followed by dl-PCBs (0.64-6.07 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and PCDD/PCDFs (0.22-5.67 pg WHO-TEQ w.w). The concentration levels of contaminants varied between species. Salmon possessed the highest concentrations (up to 14.11 ± 2.36 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and cod the lowest ones (0.84 ± 0.14 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.). Congener profile in the fish tested had similar pattern. The largest contribution to the dioxin toxicity was caused successively by PCB 126, 118, 156, furans (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF), and two dioxins: 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although the dietary consumption of fish from southwest region of the Baltic Sea did not represent a risk for human health (because of very low consumption of marine fish), the excessive eating of some of them may be of significance importance for health of various subgroups of consumers (fishermen). PMID:22593715

Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Maszewski, Sebastian; Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Goraj, Lukasz

2012-01-01

137

Concentration of organochlorine pesticides in wine corks.  

PubMed

Wine corks were extracted and analyzed for 23 organochlorine pesticides, including alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, DDT, DDE and DDD, chlordane, endosulfan, dieldrin, aldrin, and endrin. This was done to investigate the occurrence, concentrations, composition profiles, and possible sources of organochlorine contamination. All groups of compounds were detected in every sample investigated, with the exception of aldrin and endrin. The total concentrations of organochlorine compounds in all samples ranged from 75-120 ng/g lipid, and for most compounds, the concentrations of organochlorines in cork were consistent with published data for other plant tissues. Differences in the relative abundances of the various classes of organochlorine pesticides were substantial and were probably due to differences in the pesticide usage practices of the various regions in which the cork producing trees were grown. PMID:11482662

Strandberg, B; Hites, R A

2001-08-01

138

Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway  

SciTech Connect

Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes.

Chan, Tom S. [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada)], E-mail: chatsy@gmail.com; Wilson, John X. [Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, 14214 (United States); Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada); Poon, Raymond [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); O'Brien, Peter J. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3M2 (Canada)

2008-11-01

139

Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the Lower Columbia River using semipermeable-membrane devices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are of concern in the Columbia River Basin because of their adverse effects on fish and wildlife. Because these compounds can have important biological consequences at concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional water-sampling techniques, we used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per- quintillion detection limits. We deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. We also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our data indicate that (1) in the absence of additional sources, mechanisms such as volatilization, dilution, and settling of sus pended particles can act to significantly reduce concentrations of contami nants along the river's flow path, (2) elevated concentrations of contaminants in the Portland-Vancouver area are primarily from local rather than upstream sources, (3) elevated concentrations of many compounds tend to be diluted during periods of high discharge, (4) much higher discharge in the main stem considerably dilutes elevated concentrations entering from tributaries, (5) the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in streambed sediment is not necessarily indicative of their distribution in the dissolved-phase, and (6) SPMDs can reveal patterns of contaminant occurrence at environmentally relevant concentrations that are undetectable by conventional water-sampling techniques.

McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

1999-01-01

140

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the sewage treatment plant of Thessaloniki, northern Greece: occurrence and removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and the removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the conventional activated sludge treatment process were investigated in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. POPs of interest were seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides. Target compounds were determined at six different points across the treatment system.Most abundant compounds in raw wastewater

Athanasios Katsoyiannis; Constantini Samara

2004-01-01

141

Organochlorine Contamination in Anuran Amphibians of an Artificial Lake in the Semiarid Midwest of Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial water reservoirs are important for fauna in arid-semiarid regions, because they provide suitable habitats for species\\u000a that depend on water, such as amphibians. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are toxic, persistent compounds that tend to bioaccumulate\\u000a and bioconcentrate. We evaluated contaminant levels in anurans from an artificial lake (Embalse La Florida) in a semiarid\\u000a region of the Midwest Argentina. This lake

Mariana B. Jofré; Rosa I. Antón; Enrique Caviedes-Vidal

2008-01-01

142

Organochlorine chemicals in seafood: occurrence and health concerns.  

PubMed

The cheap availability of chlorine gas, together with the development of industrial chlorinating procedures in the 20th century, led to the production of a wide range of organochlorine compounds many with a variety of commercial applications, including usage as insecticides and defoliants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used as coolants in electricity supply transformers. However, it was soon found that many of these technologically valuable chemicals suffered from a major disadvantage in that they resisted biodegradation and that the continued use of these compounds would lead to their persistence and accumulation in the environment and thus enter the human food chain. Despite regulatory bans or strict limits on usage being imposed on organochlorine pesticides in most countries, these compounds continue to be detected in measurable amounts in the eco-system including marine life. In general, organochlorine levels in fish intended for human consumption are low and probably below levels likely to adversely affect human health. Populations at higher risk than most people are those subsisting largely on fish and other marine life. Additionally, fish oils obtained from contaminated fish, if consumed in substantial quantities by infants and young children, might present potential health problems if levels are not continually regulated. Behavioral and neurological effects have been reported in children and ascribed to the consumption of PCB contaminated diet including fish. Another current major human health concern, yet to be resolved, about organochlorine contaminants in the human diet relates to the potential ability of many of these chemicals at low doses to act as "endocrine disruptors". PMID:11983271

Smith, A G; Gangolli, S D

2002-06-01

143

Validation of user- and environmentally friendly extraction and clean-up methods for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in soils.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the potential of compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (CSIA) for tracking organochlorine pesticides in soil systems, sample pre-treatment methods have to be developed, which can provide recoveries sufficient for low detection limits without altering the isotope ratio of the target compounds. In this study we tested the compatibility of CSIA with user- and environmentally friendly extraction methods, including the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe procedure (QuEChERS), Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (USE) and Focused Ultrasonic Extraction (FUSE), as well as clean-up methods, including sulfuric acid clean-up and Florisil(®) column chromatography for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and their environmental metabolites (chlorinated benzenes, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene - DDE and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane - DDD) in soils. We optimized the extraction methods for maximum recovery and pre-concentration. At optimal conditions, all extraction methods and clean-up procedures, as well as the pre-concentration of the extract by solvent evaporation, led to insignificant changes in carbon isotope ratios of the target compounds. We modified the USE procedure to increase the volume of withdrawn organic extract, resulting in a higher pre-concentration of the target compounds by the subsequent solvent evaporation step. This Modified Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (MUSE) was the most suitable procedure, and it was validated for the determination of carbon isotope ratios of the target compounds using two different types of soil matrices. The method could be applied to analyze carbon isotope ratios of HCHs, DDT, and their chlorinated metabolites in soil samples with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 0.8mg/kg. The analytical uncertainty of MUSE, incorporating both accuracy and precision, was ?0.4‰. PMID:24980091

Ivdra, Natalija; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Fischer, Anko

2014-08-15

144

(PRESENTED AT MORIOKA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

145

Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. PMID:18851891

Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J; Orazio, Carl E; Schmitt, Christopher J; Tillitt, Donald E

2009-02-01

146

Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

Hinck, J. E.; Norstrom, R. J.; Orazio, C. E.; Schmitt, C. J.; Tillitt, D. E.

2009-01-01

147

Persistence of Preference for a Flavor Presented in Simultaneous Compound With Sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of a flavor and sucrose subsequently exhibited a preference for the flavor over water. This preference persisted across repeated testing even though the flavor was presented in the absence of sucrose. The preference did, however, extinguish if the rats were hungry when trained or tested, or if they had been reexposed to sucrose between

Justin A. Harris; Fiona L. Shand; Louisa Q. Carroll; R. Frederick Westbrook

2004-01-01

148

Organochlorine contaminants in California waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern has been expressed that the extensive use of organochlorine pesticides in California may be exposing waterfowl to hazardous contaminant levels. The objectives of our study were to: (1) determine concentrations of organochlorines in northern pintails (Anas acuta) from five important waterfowl wintering areas in California; (2) compare concentrations of organochlorines in selected species with emphasis on relationships to their diets; and (3) determine the relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in wings and carcasses of pintails. In the 1980-81 hunting season, we obtained wings of pintails, canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), and lesser scaups (A. affinis) from the Pacific Flyway survey of waterfowl productivity, and we collected additional pintails and northern shovelers (Anas clypeata) in the Sacramento Valley. Concentrations of all compounds in pintail wings were below 1 ppm (wet weight), but residues were higher in wings from pintails shot late in the hunting season than early in the season, suggesting that accumulation of chemicals occurs while ducks are wintering in California. Highest concentrations were found in pintails from the southern regions and lowest in those from the northern regions of the state. DDE was significantly higher in males than in females. Wings of diving ducks were too few to enable statistical comparisons. Carcasses of shovelers contained residues of a wide array of organochlorines and significantly (P < 0.001) higher mean concentrations of DDE (0.68 ppm) than did pintails (0.12 ppm) collected at the same time and place. On a wet-weight basis, concentrations of DDE and DDT in the wings of pintails were about half those in the carcasses. Overall, concentrations of organochlorines were relatively low in all species and probably would have no effect on population survival or reproduction. However, some individuals contained elevated and possibly harmful levels of certain chemicals.

Ohlendorf, H. M.; Miller, M. R.

1984-01-01

149

Persistent Organochlorines and Organophosphorus Compounds and Heavy Elements in Common Whale ( Balaenoptera physalus) from the Western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

On March 1998, a female specimen of common whale (Balaenoptera physalus) appeared dead in the western Mediterranean coast of Valencia (Spain). Analyses of whale tissues (blubber, liver and kidney) were carried out in order to elucidate the contamination pattern present in the whale, as indicator of the contaminants present in its habitat from the Mauretanian coast to Ligurian Sea, sited

F Hernández; R Serrano; A. F Roig-Navarro; Y Mart??nez-Bravo; F. J López

2000-01-01

150

Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Interspecies comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p?-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086ng\\/g ww. The geometric mean for ?PCB ranged from 225 to 9184ng\\/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p?-DDT is

Barend van Drooge; Rafael Mateo; Íngrid Vives; Iris Cardiel; Raimon Guitart

2008-01-01

151

Organochlorine Pesticides and the Dairy Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and use of organochlorine pesticides has been declining in recent years. This suggests that residue prob- lems will decrease, but the persistence of these materials in the environment means that some residues will be encountered for many years. The residue levels in the general food supply are low enough to pose no demonstrable adverse effect on human health. The

G. F. Fries

1970-01-01

152

Occurrence of Organochlorine Pesticides in Stream Bed Sediment and Fish From Selected Streams on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine pesticides were heavily used from the mid-1940s to the mid-1980s. The persistence of organochlorine pesticides, their tendency to accumulate in soil, sediment, and biota, and their harmful effects on wildlife brought this class of compounds into disfavor and eventually resulted in restriction or cancellation of most of them in the United States (Nowell and others, 1999). Despite use restrictions, these compounds continue to be detected in sediment and fish tissue samples. This study was undertaken as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NAWQA program assesses watersheds as integrated systems, focusing on chemical concentrations, physical conditions, and biological status in streams. One component of NAWQA is an occurrence survey of organic contaminants and trace elements in stream bed sediment and fish tissue. The goal of the Oahu stream bed sediment and fish tissue occurrence survey was to determine which organochlorine contaminants are present in streams around the island, and with which land uses they are associated. An understanding of relations between land use and organochlorine compounds will allow land management practices to be designed to reduce the loading of contaminants to streams and nearshore waters.

Brasher, Anne M.; Anthony, Stephen S.

2000-01-01

153

[Human biomonitoring investigations of organochlorine compounds -- PCB, DDE, HCB, beta- and gamma-HCH, PCDD/PCDF, Dioxin-like PCB's and polybrominated biphenyl ethers].  

PubMed

Although PCB and PCB-containing materials are not processed for a long time, PCB is under discussion again and again caused by the pollution of indoor environments. To objectify the discussion, the dates of the PCB-biomonitoring, the organochlorine-compounds (DDE, HCB, beta-/gamma -HCH, PCDD/PCDF) and the polybrominated biphenyl ethers concerning the investigations within the project "Sentinel Health Departments" in Baden-Wurttemberg are represented. Additionally results from children from Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area) and from teachers which are working in PCB polluted schools as well as from a long term investigated test person are reported. Blood concentrations of the following compounds decreased from 1996/97 to 2002/03: the sum of the concentration of PCB 138,153 and 180 decreased from 0.46 microg/L to 0.20 microg/L, DDE from 0.32 microg/L to 0.17 microg/, HCB from 0.20 microg/L to 0.08 microg/L, beta-HCH below the level of detection, I-TEQ NATO to 4.8 pg/g blood fat, TEQ WHO (without PCB) to 5.5 pg/g blood fat, PCB 126 to 18,8,pg/g blood fat and PCB 169 to 12.8 pg/g blood fat. The influence of breast feeding and the gender on the level of the pollution is conspicious. No local correlations were found in Baden-Wurttemberg, but they were found in comparison with the results of Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area). The difficulty to produce time series while the analyzing pollutants are more and more decreasing, as well as the change of the calculation base of the summation of parameters like I-TEQ NATO to TEQ WHO are discussed. PMID:15856391

Gabrio, T; Broser, S; Erdinger, L; Felder-Kennel, A; Fichtner, G; Häberle, E; Herrmann, T; Kirsch, H; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Mann, V; Päpke, O; Piechotowski, I; Rzonca, E; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schröder, S; Spöker-Maas, K; Weidner, U; Wuthe, J; Zöllner, I; Zöltzer, D

2005-04-01

154

Effect of an environmentally relevant metabolized organochlorine mixture on porcine cumulus–oocyte complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds and their metabolites bioaccumulate and have been detected in follicular and genital tract fluids of humans and animals. This study was designed to investigate the effect of a metabolised organochlorine mixture, extracted from plasma of sows treated with an environmentally relevant organochlorine mixture in the course of a previous study, on porcine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) in vitro. The

Céline Campagna; Pierre Ayotte; Marc-André Sirard; Guylène Arsenault; Jean-Paul Laforest; Janice L. Bailey

2007-01-01

155

An exploratory approach to modeling explosive compound persistence and flux using dissolution kinetics.  

PubMed

Recent advances in the description of aqueous dissolution rates for explosive compounds enhance the ability to describe these compounds as a contaminant source term and to model the behavior of these compounds in a field environment. The objective of this study is to make predictions concerning the persistence of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in solid form both as individual explosive compounds and components of octol, and the resultant concentrations of explosives in water as a result of dissolution using three exploratory modeling approaches. The selection of dissolution model and rate greatly affect not only the predicted persistence of explosive compound sources but also their resulting concentrations in solution. This study identifies the wide range in possible predictions using existing information and these modeling approaches to highlight the need for further research to ensure that risk assessment, remediation and predicted fate and transport are appropriately presented and interpreted. PMID:14568396

Lynch, Jason C; Brannon, James M; Hatfield, Kirk; Delfino, Joseph J

2003-11-01

156

Concentrations and relationships between classes of persistent halogenated organic compounds in pooled human serum samples and air from Laizhou Bay, China.  

PubMed

Persistent halogenated organic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), pentabromobenzene (PBBz), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), were analyzed in pooled human serum samples from different age groups and air samples from the south coast of Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province, China. The ?25OCP and ?8PBDE congeners were found at higher concentrations than the other compounds, with mean concentrations of 1500 and 240ng/g lipid in serum and 330 and 140,000pg/m(3) in the air, respectively. PBBz and PBT were detected in every serum and air sample, with mean concentrations of 4.9 and 1.4ng/g lipid in serum and 100 and 250pg/m(3) in air, respectively. In serum, the mean concentrations of ?14PCBs and ?DP were 7.1 and 3.6ng/g lipid, respectively, and in air, the mean concentrations of ?12dioxin-like (DL-) PCBs and ?DP were 1.7 and 1.4pg/m(3), respectively. Different relationships were observed between the concentrations of different compounds in serum and the volunteers' ages, and the concentration distributions with age were closely related to the historic production and usage volumes of each chemical in China. The ubiquity of PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, DP, PBBz, and PBT in serum and air is potentially concerning, and effective measures should be taken to control the concentrations of these chemicals in the environment and humans. Significant correlations were found between the chemical concentrations in serum and air, suggesting that inhalation may be an important exposure route for the residents of Laizhou Bay. PMID:24657373

Wang, Ying; Xu, Meng; Jin, Jun; He, Songjie; Li, Mingyuan; Sun, Yiming

2014-06-01

157

PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in ducks of Fereydoon-kenar wildlife refuge in Iran.  

PubMed

Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCB were determined in three duck species: Pintail (Anas acuta), Common Teal (Anas creaca), and Mallard (Anas platyhynchos). Both persistent organochlorines were more abundant in muscle than in the liver; Mallard had the highest levels of PCBs [84.0 +/- 39.0 ng/g wet weight (ww)], and Common Teal showed the highest levels of DDTs (561.0 +/- 220.0 ng/g ww). This exposure level is more than two orders of magnitude below provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) (0.01 mg/kg bw for DDT and its associated compounds) of The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). PMID:20419290

Rajaei, Fateme; Bahramifar, Nader; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

2010-05-01

158

Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in mammals of doñana national park (Spain), 1982–1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of 11 organochlorine compounds and five heavy metals in the liver and muscle of 57 members of 10 species of mammals, all from Doñana National Park (Spain), has been investigated. Five organochlorine compounds have been found and the five heavy metals were present in the samples. The biomagnification of organochlorines is shown. The detected concentrations for each trophic

L. M. Hernández; Ma. J. González; Ma. C. Rico; M. A. Fernández; G. Baluja

1985-01-01

159

Potential pathways and exposure to explain the human body burden of organochlorine compounds: a multivariate statistical analysis of human monitoring in Würzburg, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of multivariate statistical analysis of human monitoring in the vicinity of Würzburg it is examined whether the organochlorine levels in blood data of 309 persons can in part be explained by pollution from outdoor and\\/or indoor air. Although diet is the main source for intake this study concentrated on the remaining sources. Using 12 personal and geographical variables,

Günter Löffler; Bert van Bavel

2000-01-01

160

An evaluation of the sexual differences in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in children at birth and at the age of 4 years.  

PubMed

This study of the body burden and serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs), represents a general population in a cohort from Menorca Island (birth 1997-1998) of children at birth and at 4 years of age; the study has shown that the concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners #153, #138 and #180 and total PCBs in sera collected at 4 years are much higher in breastfed children than in those fed with formula, e.g. HCB 0.48 vs 0.21 ng/ml, beta-HCH 0.32 vs 0.24 ng/ml, total DDTs 2.2 vs 0.57 ng/ml and total PCBs 1.4 vs 0.52 ng/ml. Comparison of gender differences in 4 years old children shows higher concentrations of all examined OCs in females than in males with the exception of HCB and PeCB in breastfed children, which are higher in males than in females, e.g. beta-HCH 0.34 vs 0.28 ng/ml, total DDTs 2.6 vs 1.7 ng/ml and total PCBs 1.6 vs 1.0 ng/ml for breastfed children and beta-HCH 0.23 vs 0.19 ng/ml, total DDTs 0.59 vs 0.48 ng/ml and total PCBs 0.58 vs 0.45 ng/ml for formula fed children. Gender comparison of the body burden between children fed with breastmilk or formula also shows higher concentrations in females than in males, e.g. beta-HCH 0.47 vs 0.35 microg, total DDTs 3.0 vs 1.8 microg and total PCBs 1.9 vs 1.2 microg for breastfed children, and beta-HCH 0.39 vs 0.17 microg, total DDTs 0.48 vs 0.27 microg and total PCBs 0.66 vs 0.55 microg for formula fed children. The results may suggest a higher capacity in female children for the retention of OCs incorporated through breastfeeding. However, these results should be taken with caution because the differences of the gender averages have low statistically significance when evaluated with the Student test. PMID:20122686

Grimalt, Joan O; Carrizo, Daniel; Garí, Mercè; Font-Ribera, Laia; Ribas-Fito, Nuria; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

2010-04-01

161

A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the sorption of contaminants by different sediment size fractions. Field studies indicate that organic contaminants tend to sorb more to fine-grained sediment, and this correlates significantly with sediment organic matter content. Laboratory experiments have extended the field studies to a wider spectrum of natural particulates and anthropogenic compounds. Quantitation of isotherm results allows the comparison of different sediment sorbents as well as the estimation of field partition coefficients from laboratory-measured sediment and contaminant properties. Detailed analyses made on the basis of particle-size classes show that all sediment fractions need to be considered in evaluating the fate and distribution of manmade organic compounds. This conclusion is based on observations from field studies and on the variety of natural organic sorbents that demonstrate sorptive capabilities in laboratory isotherm experiments.

Witkowski, P. J.; Smith, J. A.; Fusillo, T. V.; Chiou, C. T.

1987-01-01

162

Persistent halogenated compounds in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from China.  

PubMed

While a number of studies have reported residual levels of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in crocodilia, there is still a dearth of information on the Chinese alligator, a critically endangered crocodilian species. In the present study, several PHCs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were detected in the adult tissues, neonates, and eggs of captive Chinese alligators from China. The concentrations of ?PBDEs, ?PCBs, and ?DDTs in Chinese alligators ranged from 0.11 to 16.1, 1.12 to 22.2, and 6.03 to 1020ngg(-1) wet weight, respectively, with higher levels of ?PCBs and ?DDTs in the neonates and eggs than in muscle tissues. The ?DDT residues in the studied Chinese alligators were at the high end of reported ranges from crocodilia around the world, and some results exceeded levels known to cause a female-biased sex ratio in crocodilians. PMID:24880595

Wu, Ting; Hong, Bing; Wu, Xiaobing; Wu, Jiangping; Wang, Xinming; Yi, Zhigang; Zhao, Juan; Zhan, Miao; Mai, Bixian

2014-09-01

163

Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediment and livers of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A preliminary assessment was made in 1992 of chlorinated organic compounds in sediments and in livers of striped bass from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. Samples of sediment and striped bass livers contained DDT (ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-) and its degradation products, DDD (ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-) and DDE (ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-); PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls); alpha and gamma chlordane, and cis and trans nonachlor. In addition, the livers of striped bass contained small concentrations of DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), a pre-emergent herbicide. Agricultural run-off from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, as well as atmospheric deposition, are probably responsible for a low chronic background of DDT in sediments throughout San Francisco Bay. Larger concentrations of DDT in sediment near Richmond in the Central Bay, and Coyote Creek in the South Bay may be derived from point sources. Ratios of pentachloro isomers of PCBs to hexachloro isomers in the South Bay sediments were different from those in the Central and North Bay, suggesting either differences in microbial activity in the sediments or different source inputs of PCBs. Concentrations of alpha chlordane in livers of striped bass were greater than those of gamma chlordane, which suggests a greater environmental stability and persistence of alpha chlordane. Trans nonachlor, a minor component of technical chlorodane, was present in greater concentrations than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor. Trans nonachlor is more resistant to metabolism than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor, and serves as an environmentally stable marker compound of chlordane contamination in the estuary. Chlorinated organic compounds have bioaccumulated in the livers of striped bass. These compounds may contribute to the decline of the striped bass in San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

Pereira, W. E.; Hostettler, F. D.; Cashman, J. R.; Nishioka, R. S.

1994-01-01

164

Persistent toxic burdens of halogenated phenolic compounds in humans and wildlife.  

PubMed

Halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs) including hydroxylated polychlorobiphenyls (OH-PCBs) and hydroxylated polybromodiphenyl-ethers (OH-PBDEs) can be persistent organic pollutant (POP) metabolites or natural marine compounds. Structurally similar to thyroid hormones (THs), they are retained in blood, transported through selective barriers, and the cause of endocrine and neuronal POP effects. This study presents a meta-analysis of HPC burdens in human and wildlife tissues, including OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs, Pentachlorophenol, and polybromophenols. HPC blood plasma levels were also compared to known in vitro and in vivo toxicological effect concentrations. Blood, highly perfused, and fetal tissues contained the highest levels of HPCs. Plasma concentrations of analyzed OH-PCBs/PBDEs ranged from 0.1 to 100 nM in humans and up to 240, 454, 800, and 7650 nM for birds, fish, cetaceans, and other mammals, respectively. These concentrations fully fall within the in vitro effect concentrations reported in literature for HPCs of 0.05-10000 nM. We strongly advise further study of HPC blood levels in the general population, children, and fetal tissue to establish background levels and the risk at sensitive development stages. As not all HPCs are, or can be, chemically analyzed, the application of additional bioanalysis might reveal an even greater toxicological relevance of HPCs. In addition, metabolic activation should always be included within in vitro hazard assessment of POPs. PMID:23635024

Montaño, Mauricio; Gutleb, Arno C; Murk, Albertinka J

2013-06-18

165

Organochlorine compound residues in muscle of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and red deer (Cervus elaphus L.): effects of age and sex.  

PubMed

Twenty-six organochlorine pesticides and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in muscle of wild boar and red deer from the Czech Republic. The concentration of DDT and its metabolites was higher (p < 0.01) in wild boar than in red deer, while PCBs and HCH were higher (p < 0.01) in red deer than in wild boar. The concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers were higher (p < 0.05) in juvenile wild boar than in adults. PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE were the most prominent pollutants in both red deer and wild boar. PMID:24097284

Maršálek, Petr; Zelní?ková, Lenka; Mikuláštíková, Jitka; Svobodová, Zde?ka; Huta?ová, Zde?ka

2013-12-01

166

(PRESENTED AT TSUKIJI, CHUO-KU, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THIS IMPORTANT NEW CLASS OF POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity....

167

PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in lake orta (Northern Italy) sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (DDT, lindane and HCB) distribution were studied in Lake Orta sediments. The results\\u000a indicated a contaminated area in the nor-them part of the sub-basin. The observed high levels of organochlorine compounds\\u000a (OCs) may he explained by the focusing phenomenon, ie. the preferential transport of lighter and smaller particles from the\\u000a emission sources to this area.

L. Guzzella

1997-01-01

168

Baseline occurrence of organochlorine pesticides and other xenobiotics in the marine environment: Caribbean and Pacific collections.  

PubMed

This ongoing survey reports the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea surface slicks collected on a global circumnavigation. Hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds such as POPs are known to accumulate on the sea surface in slicks at concentrations many fold greater than the underlying water column, raising concerns about the ecological impacts due to the high biological activity associated with this zone. Six different categories of POPs were reported: chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane related compounds, organochlorine pesticides and other cyclodiene pesticides, DDTs and metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations ranged from <1ngL(-1) to 18.45?gL(-1). Ranking analysis indicates an independence of detected concentrations for each class of compounds and their geographical locations. Although concentrations observed were normally low and below commonly accepted toxic levels to animals and humans, they fall within the effective range of concentrations of many hormones and neurotransmitters, thus could potentially act as endocrine disrupters. PMID:23597795

Menzies, Robert; Soares Quinete, Natalia; Gardinali, Piero; Seba, Douglas

2013-05-15

169

Organochlorine contaminants in coastal marine ecosystems of southern Alaska: inferences from spatial patterns in blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus).  

PubMed

We measured the concentrations and chemical structures of persistent organochlorines (OCs) in blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) from 44 sites across southwest and southeast Alaska in an effort to determine both the sources of these compounds and the extent to which this region might be contaminated. High PCB concentrations were detected at Amchitka, Adak, and Unalaska Islands (83, 430, and 2800?gkg(-1) dry weight, respectively) in the Aleutians with relatively low concentrations elsewhere (7.1-51?gkg(-1) dry weight). Heavy PCB congener profiles (indicative of localized point sources) characterized the high concentration sites whereas distinctly lighter congener profiles (indicative of atmospheric transport) characterized the lower concentration sites. Elevated PCB concentrations at Adak were restricted to a small area along the island's eastern shore, suggesting either limited dispersion or rapid dilution of these compounds. More uniform chlorinated pesticide concentrations among the collection sites suggests that these compounds are entering the Aleutian ecosystem from distant sources. Pesticide concentrations correlated significantly with seabird density across the islands we sampled, thus identifying biological transport as a delivery mechanism of these compounds to the Aleutian archipelago. Our findings do not implicate persistent organochlorines as a significant factor in the recent pinniped and sea otter population declines across southwest Alaska. PMID:22579453

Reese, Stacey L; Estes, James A; Jarman, Walter M

2012-08-01

170

Organochlorine-induced histopathology in kidney and liver tissue from Arctic fox ( Vulpes lagopus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of persistent organic pollutants on renal and liver morphology in farmed arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) were studied under experimental conditions. Control animals received a diet containing pork (Sus scrofa) fat with low amounts of persistent organic pollutants, while the diet of the exposed animals contained whale blubber, ‘naturally’ contaminated with persistent organic pollutants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine

Christian Sonne; Hans Wolkers; Pall S. Leifsson; Bjørn Munro Jenssen; Eva Fuglei; Øystein Ahlstrøm; Rune Dietz; Maja Kirkegaard; Derek C. G. Muir; Even Jørgensen

2008-01-01

171

The investigation of atmospheric deposition distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition is a significant pollution source leading to contamination of remote and clean sites, surface waters and soils. Since persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stay in atmosphere without any degradation, they can be transported and deposited to clean surfaces. Organochlorine pesticides are an important group of POPs which have toxic and harmful effects to living organisms and environment. Therefore, atmospheric deposition levels and characteristics are of importance to determine the pollution quantity of water and soil surfaces in terms of POPs. This study reports the distribution quantities of atmospheric deposition including bulk, dry, wet and air–water exchange of particle and gas phase OCPs as a result of 1-year sampling campaign. Atmospheric deposition distribution showed that the main mechanism for OCPs deposition is wet processes with percentage of 69 of total deposition. OCP compounds' deposition varied according to atmospheric concentration and deposition mechanism. HCH compounds were dominant pesticide species for all deposition mechanisms. HCH deposition constituted the 65% of ?10OCPs.

Cindoruk, S. S?dd?k; Tasdemir, Yücel

2014-04-01

172

Time series of organochlorine pesticides from ice cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport to the Arctic from lower latitudes of organochlorine compounds (OCs), including PCBs and various biocides, is a major environmental health issue. Time series of OC deposition from the atmosphere are of considerable interest for establishing a historical pattern of Arctic inputs relative to uses and regulations. Deposition rates of particular compounds may remain high for some time after

K. A. Matthews; E. J. Steig; M. H. Hermanson

2001-01-01

173

Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C(11)-C(15) PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. ?TEQ was comprised mainly of ?TEQ(PCDF). Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds. PMID:20863605

Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G

2010-12-01

174

Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residues of 6 organochlorine compds. were detected in adult carcasses, 4 in eggs, 2 in brains, and one in nestlings of Colorado tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). DDE [72-55-9]accounted for 91% of total organochlorine compound residue in each of the 4 sample types. DDE was detected in 30 samples (94%) and DDT [50-29-3] in 2 samples (6%). Carcasses of breeding females and egg clutches had residues of 6 organochlorine compds. not found in nestling samples. Only residues of DDE were found in nestlings. DDT and DDE were the only organochlorine compds. recovered in brain samples. Measurements of tree swallow eggshells showed that unattended eggs were not significantly different from those of attended or historical eggs. The implications of the observed organochlorine compound contamination are discussed.

DeWeese, L.R.; Cohen, R.R.; Stafford, C.J.

1985-01-01

175

Intensity and persistence profiles of flavor compounds in synthetic solutions. Simple model for explaining the intensity and persistence of their aftersmell.  

PubMed

Hydroalcoholic solutions containing a single aroma-active compound were evaluated by a sensory panel to determine the difference between ortho and retronasal odor intensities (DeltaI(ro)), buccal savoring, and aftersmell duration. Eight compounds were used. Buccal perception seems to be just a physiologically restricted form of retronasal perception. DeltaI(ro) values were dependent on the panel, although results from the two panels were significantly correlated. Such differences and the aftersmell persistence were also significantly correlated with different physicochemical parameters related to volatility. A simple model to explain such dependence is proposed. The model considers the mouth-throat system as a perfect mixing tank with a finite amount of odorants being progressively diluted by swallowing and purging (both taken as continuous processes). Retronasal intensity is modeled from the odor properties of the liquid in such a tank calculated from orthonasal odor intensity versus concentration (I/log C) curves. The model explains successfully experimental results and has also been successfully applied to instrumental data from other authors. PMID:16417310

Ferreira, Vicente; Pet'ka, Ján; Cacho, Juan

2006-01-25

176

Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls  

SciTech Connect

Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and -118. Conclusions: Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.

Windham, Gayle C., E-mail: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov [CA Department of Public Health, DEODC, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg. P, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Sjodin, Andreas [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Lum, Raymond [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)] [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Biro, Frank M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hiatt, Robert A. [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kushi, Lawrence H. [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)] [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

2010-04-15

177

Arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines.  

PubMed

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides through traditional food resources was examined for Arctic Indigenous women living in two cultural and environmental areas of the Canadian Arctic--one community representing Baffin Island Inuit in eastern Arctic and two communities representing Sahtú Dene/Métis in western Arctic. Polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene, chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin were determined in local food resources as normally prepared and eaten. Quantified dietary recalls taken seasonally reflected normal consumption patterns of these food resources by women in three age groups: 20-40 y, 41-60 y and > or = 61 y. There was wide variation of intake of all organochlorine contaminants in both areas and among age groups for the Sahtú. Fifty percent of the intake recalls collected from the Baffin Inuit exceeded the acceptable daily intake for chlordane-related compounds and toxaphene, and a substantial percentage of the intake records for dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls exceeded the acceptable or tolerable daily intake levels. Primary contributing foods to organochlorine contaminants intake for the Baffin Inuit were meat and blubber of ringed seal, blubber of walrus and mattak and blubber of narwal. Important foods contributing organochlorine contaminant to the Sahtú Dene/Métis were caribou, whitefish, inconnu, trout and duck. The superior nutritional benefits and potential health risks of traditional food items are reviewed, as are implications for monitoring organochlorine contaminant contents of food, clinical symptoms and food use. PMID:7562084

Kuhnlein, H V; Receveur, O; Muir, D C; Chan, H M; Soueida, R

1995-10-01

178

Bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity in southern California round stingrays (Urobatis halleri) exposed to planar aromatic compounds.  

PubMed

While contaminant concentrations have been reported for elasmobranchs around the world, no studies have examined bioaccumulation patterns across male and female age classes. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is a local benthic species that forages near areas of high organochlorine contamination and represents a good elasmobranch model. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and chlordanes were measured in juvenile and adult male and female stingrays from areas in southern California, USA (n?=?208), and a nearby offshore island, Santa Catalina (n?=?34). Both mainland juvenile male and female stingrays showed a significant dilution effect. After maturity, summed contaminant concentrations significantly increased with size for adult males (median 11.1?µg/g lipid wt) and females (5.2?µg/g lipid wt). However, the rate of bioaccumulation was substantially greater in male stingrays than in females, likely a result of the females' ability to offload contaminants to offspring during pregnancy. In addition, males and females showed significant differences in their contaminant profiles, suggesting differential habitat use. Male and female stingrays collected from Santa Catalina Island had significantly lower concentrations (0.51?µg/g and 0.66?µg/g lipid wt, respectively), approximately 5 times less than those of mainland animals. Potential toxicity effects mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor were explored through ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays. Mainland male stingrays exhibited significantly greater EROD activities than Catalina males (481?pmol/min/mg protein and 55?pmol/min/mg protein, respectively); however, activity levels in female stingrays from both locations were comparable (297?pmol/min/mg protein and 234?pmol/min/mg protein, respectively) and lower than those in mainland males. The results suggest that PCBs and/or other structurally related contaminants may be inducing a biological response in mainland males but not females, possibly the result of a dampening effect of estradiol; however, the exact physiological repercussions of exposure remain to be determined. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1380-1390. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:24838923

Lyons, Kady; Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel; Lowe, Christopher G

2014-06-01

179

Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. (National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-02-01

180

Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of Roseate Tern eggs were collected in 1981 from 5 of the largest colonies in the northeastern U.S. and from one large colony in the U.S. Virgin Islands. No organochlorine compounds were detected in eggs from the U.S. Virgin Islands. PCBs were found in all eggs and DDE was found in most eggs from the northeastern U.S., but concentrations were substantially lower than in Common Terns from the same colonies. There were no significant correlations between eggshell characteristics and organochlorine concentrations. DDE concentrations in Roseate Tern eggs were well below those reported to induce adverse effects in Common Terns.

Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1983-01-01

181

Concentrations and biomagnification of 17 chlordane compounds and other organochlorines in harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena) and herring from the Southern Baltic sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and one herring (Clupea harengus) sample from the southern Baltic Sea were analysed in an attent to study the concentration and biomagnification of 17 chlordane related compounds (CHLs) including 12 components present in technical chlordane, the toxic metabolites oxychlordane and cis-heptachlorepoxide and the photoconversion products photoheptachlor and two photo-cis-chlordanes. The concentration and biomagnification

Bo Strandberg; Lidia Strandberg; Per-Anders Bergqvist; Jerzy Falandysz; Christoffer Rappe

1998-01-01

182

Fate and assessment of persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment from Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China.  

PubMed

Persistent organochlorine compounds were analyzed in surface water, porewater and surficial sediment samples from Minjiang River Estuary, which is the first large river in Fujian Province, Southeast of China. The total concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides were 214.4-1819, 4541-13,699 ng/l, 28.79-52.07 ng/g in surface water, porewater and sediments (dry weight) respectively, and those of 21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the three phases were: 203.9-2473, 3192-10,855 ng/l, 15.14-57.93 ng/g respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of these selected organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in porewater were higher than those in surface water. It may be due to the fact that these organic hydrophobic pollutants tend to stay in the sediments, and then re-suspend from the sedimentary phase to the upper water. We have analyzed the distribution characteristics of individual organochlorine pesticide components and PCBs, and found that alpha-HCH, DDE, Heptachlor, Endosulfan II, Methoxychlor were the most common organochlorine pesticides contaminants. Considering the groups of HCHs (HCHs=alpha-HCH+beta-HCH+gamma-HCH+delta-HCH) and DDTs (DDTs=DDT+DDD+DDE), the predominance of beta-HCH, DDE in all water, porewater and sediment samples was clearly observed. This observation suggested that beta-HCH was resistant to biodegradation and the DDTs had been transformed to its metabolites, DDE and DDD, of which DDE that was more un-degradable. The PCB congeners containing 3-6 chlorines had the great preponderance in the three phase. These results were compared with those present in other estuaries and harbors. A risk assessment was evaluated for the persistent organic pollutants in the Minjiang River Estuary. PMID:12867172

Zhang, Z L; Hong, H S; Zhou, J L; Huang, J; Yu, G

2003-09-01

183

Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Stackelberg, P. E.; Furlong, E. T.; Meyer, M. T.; Zaugg, S. D.; Henderson, A. K.; Reissman, D. B.

2004-01-01

184

Bivalve, Mytilus edulis, as a test organism for bioconcentration studies. I. Designing a continuous-flow system and its application to some organochlorine compounds  

SciTech Connect

Most bioconcentration studies have previously been carried out using fish as a test organism. Equally important is the use of bivalves for this purpose, from both an ecological and an economic point of view. A continuous-flow system has thus been designed for use also with extremely hydrophobic substances and evaluated using 2,4',5-trichlorobiphenyl, methoxychlor, pentachlorobenzene, and lindane. The variation of the uptake in the individuals after 3 weeks exposure was quite small (relative standard errors varied from 10.1 to 15.3% depending on the test substance), indicating a high degree of reproducibility. The bivalves, however, are known to close their valves under unfavorable conditions, which occasionally may bias the results. To overcome this disadvantage, it is suggested that an internal standard--i.e., a chemically defined compound--be added to the water simultaneously with the test substances. Although there is a principal risk for interactive effects, unexpected variations in the uptake can thus be compensated for by relating the concentration of the test substance to the concentration of the internal standard in the organisms. Comparisons between continuous-flow systems and static systems have also been made. It is concluded that continuous-flow systems are more suitable for studying hydrophobic compounds than static systems.

Renberg, L.; Tarkpea, M.; Linden, E.

1985-04-01

185

Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in mammals of Donana National Park (Spain), 1982-1983  

SciTech Connect

The existence of 11 organochlorine compounds and five heavy metals in the liver and muscle of 57 members of 10 species of mammals, all from Donana National Park (Spain), has been investigated. Five organochlorine compounds have been found and the five heavy metals were present in the samples. The biomagnification of organochlorines is shown. The detected concentrations for each trophic rank seem not to influence unfavourably on the population stability of the species. The rabbit is proposed as a monitor species for future studies in pollution at Donana National Park.

Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Baluja, G.

1985-12-01

186

Atmospheric transport of organochlorines in the North Atlantic gyre  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) circulating over the North Atlantic were measured during 1977-78 at Barbados and during the 1977 summer at the southern tip of Newfoundland. Total organochlorines were collected using a glass fiber filter backed up by a polyurethane foam trap, and were analyzed by electron capture gas chromatography on packed and glass capillary columns. Filter-retained organochlorines were < 10% of the total. Compounds identified at both locations were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a-and y-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), high and low molecular weight PCB, cis-and trans-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, and dieldrin. A clear gas chromatography (gc) pattern for polychloroterpenes (toxaphene) was obtained in Newfoundland. Several Barbados samples had a GC pattern suggestive of polychloroterpenes, but the match with a toxaphene standard was not considered good enough for quantitation. Quantitative values could not be obtained for HCB, HCH, or low molecular weight PCB because of poor collection efficiency by polyurethane foam at the high air volumes samples (1200-3500 m/sup 3/). Collection efficiency tests in Columbia, SC indicated that the other organochlorines were effectively retained. Pesticide concentrations measured from shipboard on a cruise across the trades region agreed well with those from the land-based stations, indicating that our measurements were representative of North Atlantic background levels. Estimates of organochlorine residence times in the North Atlantic troposphere ranged from 45-70 days, based on Junge's (1974) relationship between residence time and concentration variability.

Bidleman, t.F.; Christensen, E.J.; Billings, W.N.; Leonard, R.

1981-01-01

187

Persistent Pesticides in Human Breast Milk and Cryptorchidism  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prenatal exposure to some pesticides can adversely affect male reproductive health in animals. We investigated a possible human association between maternal exposure to 27 organochlorine compounds used as pesticides and cryptorchidism among male children. Design Within a prospective birth cohort, we performed a case–control study; 62 milk samples from mothers of cryptorchid boys and 68 from mothers of healthy boys were selected. Milk was collected as individual pools between 1 and 3 months postpartum and analyzed for 27 organochlorine pesticides. Results Eight organochlorine pesticides were measurable in all samples (medians; nanograms per gram lipid) for cases/controls: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p?-DDE): 97.3/83.8; ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH): 13.6/12.3; hexachlorobenzene (HCB): 10.6/8.8; ? -endosulfan: 7.0/6.7; oxychlordane: 4.5/4.1; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p?-DDT): 4.6/4.0; dieldrin: 4.1/3.1; cis-heptachloroepoxide (cis-HE): 2.5/2.2. Five compounds [octachlorostyrene (OCS); pentachlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p?-DDD); o,p?-DDT; mirex] were measurable in most samples (detection rates 90.8–99.2%) but in lower concentrations. For methoxychlor, cis-chlordane, pentachloroanisole (PCA), ? -HCH, 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2,2(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, trans-chlordane, ? -HCH, and o,p?-DDE, both concentrations and detection rates were low (26.5–71.5%). Heptachlor, HCH (?, ? ), aldrin, ?-endosulfan and trans-heptachloroepoxide were detected at negligible concentrations and low detection rates and were not analyzed further. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides [p,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDE, p,p?-DDD, o,p?-DDT, HCH (? , ?, ? ), HCB, PCA, ? -endosulfan, cis-HE, chlordane (cis-, trans-) oxychlordane, methoxychlor, OCS, and dieldrin] were measured in higher median concentrations in case milk than in control milk. Apart from trans-chlordane (p = 0.012), there were no significant differences between cryptorchid and healthy boys for individual chemicals. However, combined statistical analysis of the eight most abundant persistent pesticides showed that pesticide levels in breast milk were significantly higher in boys with cryptorchidism (p = 0.032). Conclusion The association between congenital cryptorchidism and some persistent pesticides in breast milk as a proxy for maternal exposure suggests that testicular descent in the fetus may be adversely affected.

Damgaard, Ida N.; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma; Virtanen, Helena E.; Shen, Heqing; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Petersen, J?rgen H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Main, Katharina M.

2006-01-01

188

Spatial trends and historical profiles of organochlorine pesticides in Arctic lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores were collected from eight remote lakes in Canada, along a mid-continental transect from 49°N to 82°N, with the objective of examining latitudinal and temporal differences in deposition of a wide range of persistent, semi-volatile, organochlorine (OC) pesticides such as DDT, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and toxaphene. Samples were collected with a specially constructed ? corer (30 ×

Derek C. G. Muir; Norbert P. Grift; W. Lyle Lockhart; Paul Wilkinson; Brian N. Billeck; Gregg J. Brunskill

1995-01-01

189

Organochlorine contaminants in the Great Lakes: The risks are real and demand action  

SciTech Connect

This article supports the conclusions of the report of the International Joint Commission which includes a strategy for the virtual elimination of 11 persistent toxic substances from the Great Lakes. The author presents evidence of toxicity of organochlorine contaminants and strongly advocates a phase-out approach of certain chlorine-based industrial processes. 16 refs., 2 figs.

Eder, T.; Schmidt, W. [Great Lakes Natural Resource Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-05-01

190

Organochlorines and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Sediments of Ganges River (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine(OC) insecticides have been extensively used in India since 1954 in agriculture as well as public health sector. The use of OCs which are banned or restricted in most developed countries are still being used in this country. The major factors responsible for detrimental effects on the environment from use of these chemicals are that they are very persistent, extremely

S. Ahmad; M. Ajmal; A. A. Nomani

1996-01-01

191

Induction of microglial reactive oxygen species production by the organochlorinated pesticide dieldrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to pesticides has been speculated to contribute to the development of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) characterized by a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Activation of brain microglia that produce various neurotoxic factors including cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been increasingly associated with dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by various toxicants. Dieldrin, a highly persistent organochlorinated pesticide found

Haoyu Mao; Xi Fang; Katon M. Floyd; Jeanette E. Polcz; Ping Zhang; Bin Liu

2007-01-01

192

Time, sunlight, and the fate of biotreated kraft mill organochlorines (AOX) in nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of gas- and light-permeable sealed sample bags was employed to monitor the fate and persistence of the color and organochlorines (AOX) exiting the secondary treatment systems of three modern pulp and paper kraft mills. Placed in a remote lake at various depths, the bags of effluent showed that the “stable” biotreated AOX from elemental chlorine-free bleaching was largely

F. Archibald; L. Roy-Arcand; M. Méthot

1997-01-01

193

Organochlorine pesticides in ambient air in Durban, South Africa.  

PubMed

Despite the existence of numerous sources and continuing use, information regarding emissions and airborne concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in Africa is extremely limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in Durban, South Africa that was designed to characterize levels, trends and possible sources of pesticides in both industrial and residential areas. Three monitoring sites were established, two in an industrialized area in the southern part of the city, and the third in a northern residential area. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004-5 period and analyzed by GC/MS to estimate long-term levels of a wide range of pesticides. Based on a year of sampling, the sites had comparable levels of many pesticides with exceptions of alpha-chlordane and lindane. Levels of p,p'-DDT (42+/-27 pg m(-3)) and its derivatives were relatively high and showed an unusual mixture with high levels of p,p'-DDD (12+/-11 pg m(-3)). Other pesticides detected and quantified included aldrin, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene and dieldrin. Potential source areas, identified using concentration patterns, local and regional gradients, compositional information and trajectory analyses, suggest that chlordane and lindane arise from both local sources as well as regional/global sources; DDT from regional sources elsewhere in South Africa, Africa and India; and most of the other long-lived pesticides detected, including gamma-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and toxaphene, from global sources. This monitoring results, which represent the most detailed study to date of pesticides in air in Africa, serve several purposes, including documenting the presence and use of long-banned pesticides like aldrin, aiding the understanding of the fate of persistent compounds, identifying pollutants that may contribute to health problems, and informing decision-making aimed at reducing exposures and risks. PMID:18396319

Batterman, S A; Chernyak, S M; Gounden, Y; Matooane, M; Naidoo, R N

2008-07-01

194

Mixtures of four organochlorines enhance human breast cancer cell proliferation.  

PubMed Central

In view of the large differences between the concentrations of estrogenic chemicals needed to elicit effects in in vitro assays and their levels in human tissues, it is hard to explain possible health risks in terms of exposure to individual compounds. Human populations, however, are exposed to mixtures of estrogenic and estrogen-like agents and it is necessary to consider the impact of combined effects. We assessed the combined effects of 1-(o-chlorophenyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT), 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) on the induction of cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells. All four compounds are persistent organochlorines that can be found in human tissues. We performed extensive concentration-response analyses with the single agents to predict the effects of two mixtures of all four compounds with different mixture ratios. We calculated the predictions by using the pharmacologically well-founded models of concentration addition and independent action and then tested them experimentally. o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, beta-HCH, and p,p'-DDT acted together to produce proliferative effects in MCF-7 cells. The combined effect of the four agents could be predicted on the basis of data about single agent concentration-response relationships. Regression analysis demonstrated that there were combination effects even when each mixture component was present at levels at or below its individual no-observed-effect-concentration. We assessed combination effects in two ways: First, evaluations in relation to the proliferative responses induced by single mixture components revealed that the combination effects were stronger than the effects of the most potent constituent. Thus, according to this method of evaluation, the combined effects may be termed synergistic. Second, comparisons with the expected effects, as predicted by concentration addition and independent action, showed excellent agreement between prediction and observation. With this approach, the combined effect of all four compounds can be termed additive.

Payne, J; Scholze, M; Kortenkamp, A

2001-01-01

195

Accumulation levels of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue and blood  

SciTech Connect

Because of their persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, the use of organochlorine pesticides, technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and pp{prime}-DDT, has been prohibited since 1971 in Japan. Furthermore, chlordane which had been applied for termite control has the potential for bioaccumulation and the use of it has been also prohibited since 1986. These chemicals can enter human body through a food chain or by inhalation of vapors. However, few data on chlordane residue in human adipose tissue are available in Japan. The aims of the present study were to assess the levels of organo-chlorine chemicals in adipose tissue and blood of Japanese and to examine the relationship between them.

Sasaki, Kumiko; Ishizaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuharu; Uchiyama, Mitsuru (National Inst. of Hygenic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan))

1991-05-01

196

Chlorine isotope effects and composition of naturally produced organochlorines from chloroperoxidases, flavin-dependent halogenases, and in forest soil.  

PubMed

The use of stable chlorine isotopic signatures (?(37)Cl) of organochlorine compounds has been suggested as a tool to determine both their origins and transformations in the environment. Here we investigated the ?(37)Cl fractionation of two important pathways for enzymatic natural halogenation: chlorination by chloroperoxidase (CPO) and flavin-dependent halogenases (FDH). Phenolic products of CPO were highly (37)Cl depleted (?(37)Cl = -12.6 ± 0.9‰); significantly more depleted than all known industrially produced organochlorine compounds (?(37)Cl = -7 to +6‰). In contrast, four FDH products did not exhibit any observable isotopic shifts (?(37)Cl = -0.3 ± 0.6‰). We attributed the different isotopic effect to the distinctly different chlorination mechanisms employed by the two enzymes. Furthermore, the ?(37)Cl in bulk organochlorines extracted from boreal forest soils were only slightly depleted in (37)Cl relative to inorganic Cl. In contrast to previous suggestions that CPO plays a key role in production of soil organochlorines, this observation points to the additional involvement of either other chlorination pathways, or that dechlorination of naturally produced organochlorines can neutralize ?(37)Cl shifts caused by CPO chlorination. Overall, this study demonstrates that chlorine isotopic signatures are highly useful to understand sources and cycling of organochlorines in nature. Furthermore, this study presents ?(37)Cl values of FDH products as well of bulk organochlorines extracted from pristine forest soil for the first time. PMID:23320408

Aeppli, Christoph; Bastviken, David; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

2013-07-01

197

Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in anhingas and waders  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residues of organochlorine compounds occur commonly in environmental samples and have been associated with adverse effects in numerous avian species. The affected species are usually terminal consumers, generally those feeding on aquatic organisms (primarily fish) or birds. Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus , and certain herons are among the species that have exhibited shell thinning in some regions. In 1972, we began a study to determine: (1) geographic differences in the occurrence of environmental pollutants in Anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and waders in the eastern United States; (2) differences in environmental pollutant levels among those species nesting at the same localities; and (3) whether eggshell thickness had changed since the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides began in the mid-1940's.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

1977-01-01

198

Assessment of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in suburban soil in Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

Soil contamination with organochlorine pesticides has aroused worldwide concerns considering their high toxicities and long-term persistence. In this study, 87 representative soil samples from suburban areas (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) of Tianjin, the third biggest city in China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for organochlorine pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was revealed that p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, hexachlorobenzene, dicofol and beta-HCH were seven pesticides detected most frequently. DDTs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil. Spatial variation of these organochlorine pesticides in soil was illustrated; Pollution levels, characteristics and possible sources were also investigated. Most of other 13 kinds of pesticides were detected and the frequencies of detection were calculated to reveal the pollution status, which ranged from 0.0% (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) to 34.5% (p,p'-DDT). These data were helpful to figure out the pollution of organochlorine pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with soil pollution. PMID:20571759

Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Feng, Jimin; Zhao, Meng

2010-08-01

199

Levels and distribution of organochlorine pollutants in primary dental tissues and bone of lamb.  

PubMed

This study examined the bioconcentration of selected organochlorine pollutants, tetra- and hexa-chlorobiphenyls with planar (PCB-80, PCB-169) and non-planar (PCB-54, PCB-155) structure, and persistent organochlorine pesticides with planar [hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] and non-planar [1,1-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE)] structure in primary dental tissues (pulp, dentine, and enamel) and mandibular bone of lactationally exposed lambs, and compared it with the organochlorines distribution pattern in permanent dental tissues and bone. Also, the role of pollutants physicochemical properties and tissue specific characteristics in the bioconcentration was assessed. Residual levels of individual pollutants were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Our results showed that transfer of organochlorines to primary hard dental tissues was higher than to permanent hard dental tissues. Metabolically more stable, planar, and toxic organochlorines (e.g. PCB-169 and HCB) predominated in primary hard dental tissues, where they may represent a potential risk for developmental dental defects. PMID:24100271

Jan, Janja; Urši?, Matjaž; Vrecl, Milka

2013-11-01

200

Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. - Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on breast cancer cell growth. {yields} Weak xenoestrogens in the mixture stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. {yields} Antiandrogens increased the proliferation CAMA-1 cells grown with sex steroids. {yields} High concentrations of the mixture decreased the proliferation of all cell lines.

Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada) [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

2011-04-15

201

Three years (2008-2010) of measurements of atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Station Nord, North-East Greenland.  

PubMed

Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been measured for the first time at Station Nord, North-East Greenland, from 2008 to 2010. The data obtained are reported here. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), endosulfan I and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds detected in the atmosphere, followed by p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. Chlordane isomers and related compounds (trans- and cis-chlordanes, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor) were also detected. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in order to obtain information about their transport properties. The correlation between atmospheric concentrations and temperature was not significant for endosulfan I, ?-HCH and p,p'-DDT, which indicates that direct transport from direct sources is the dominating transport mechanism for these compounds. A significant correlation with temperature was found for all the other studied pesticides and pesticide degradation products, which indicates that re-emission of these compounds from previously contaminated surfaces is an important factor for the observed variation in concentrations. Pesticide concentrations were also correlated with sea ice cover. Concentrations of the compounds that have not been in use for decades correlated with temperature and ice cover, while concentrations of compounds still in use did not correlate with either of these parameters. These observations indicate that processes such as revolatilization from the open sea surface are important mediating factors in the dynamics of anthropogenic persistent pollutants in the Arctic environment under the expected influence of climate change processes. PMID:24132127

Bossi, Rossana; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Skov, Henrik

2013-12-01

202

Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum and their relation with age, gender, and BMI for the general population of Bizerte, Tunisia.  

PubMed

Human serum samples (n?=?113) from Bizerte, northern Tunisia, collected between 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor and 12 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners. Concentrations of these residues in serum were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and total cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TG) levels were evaluated by enzymatic colorimetric method. HCB, p,p'-DDE, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180, were the most abundant organochlorine compounds (OCs) detected in >95 % of the study subjects. The mean levels of p,p'-DDE and HCB in serum were 168.8 and 49.1 ng?g(-1) lipid, respectively. The sum PCBs concentrations ranged from 37.5 to 284.6 ng?g(-1) lipid in the samples, with mean and median value of 136.1 and 123.2 ng?g(-1) lipid, respectively. The PCB profile consisted of persistent congeners, such as PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 which contributed for approximately 82.7 % to the ?PCBs. Statistical analysis showed that most OCs correlated significantly with age, considering all samples together or with gender differentiation. The present study shows that the levels of p,p'-DDE and ?DDTs were significantly higher in females than in males (p?organochlorine pesticide or PCB congeners 153, 138, 180, or ?PCBs. PMID:23338993

Ben Hassine, Sihem; Hammami, Bechir; Ben Ameur, Walid; El Megdiche, Yassine; Barhoumi, Badriddine; El Abidi, Rached; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

2014-05-01

203

Organochlorinated contaminants in decapod crustaceans from the coasts of Brittany and Normandy (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination and distribution of organochlorinated compounds were considered in three crustacean species (edible crab, Cancer pagurus; spider crab, Maja brachydactyla; velvet swimming crab, Necora puber) from five sites along the coasts of Brittany and Normandy (Western and North-Western France). PCBs (16 single congeners), pp?-DDE and HCB were measured in hepatopancreas, gonads and muscle: in all, 175 samples were analysed.

N. Bodin; A. Abarnou; A.-M. Le Guellec; V. Loizeau; X. Philippon

2007-01-01

204

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 18, METHOD 608 - ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCB'S  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the results obtained and data analysis from an interlaboratory evaluation of EPA Method 608 (Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs). The method is designed to analyze for 16 single-compound pesticides, chlordane, toxaphene, and seven Aroclor formulations in wat...

205

Predictive Value of Serum Organochlorine Levels and Breast Cancer in Occupationally Exposed Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of environmental factors in the etiology of breast cancer is unclear but suggestive. Exposures to organochlorine compounds have been suggested as risk factors for breast cancer because of their estrogen-like effect. The objective of this study is...

P. A. Schulte

1996-01-01

206

Determinants of organochlorine levels detectable in the amniotic fluid of women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorines (OCs) tend to accumulate in human tissues and can be measured in amniotic fluid (AF). The detection of OCs in AF samples reflects intrauterine exposure of human beings to these persistent organic pollutants. The present study was performed to evaluate the level of contamination of AF by OCs in 100 pregnant women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Gas

Octavio P. Luzardo; Vikesh Mahtani; Juan M. Troyano; Margarita Álvarez de la Rosa; Ana I. Padilla-Pérez; Manuel Zumbado; Maira Almeida; Guillermo Burillo-Putze; Carlos Boada; Luis D. Boada

2009-01-01

207

Inflation Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the concept of inflation persistence in macroeconomic theory. It begins by defining persistence — emphasizing the difference between reduced-form and structural persistence. It then examines a number of empirical measures of reduced-form persistence, considering the possibility that persistence may have changed over time. The chapter then examines the theoretical sources of persistence, distinguishing “intrinsic” from “inherited” persistence,

Jeffrey C. Fuhrer

2010-01-01

208

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected organochlorines in Lake Superior fish, USA  

SciTech Connect

Walleye, whitefish and whitefish livers, lake trout, and siscowet lake trout were collected from the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior. Carp were obtained from a Lake Michigan tributary near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Each fish species was analyzed for 89 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 12 selected organochlorines, and total lipids. Congener profiles varied greatly between the fish species. Carp and whitefish contained tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyl congeners, such as 28 + 31, 63, and 66 + 95 in the highest concentrations. Siscowet trout contained the more heavily chlorinated penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyl congeners such as 153, 89, 138 + 163, 180, 182 + 187, and 170. In addition to the highly chlorinated PCB congeners routinely examined in Great Lakes fish, many lower chlorinated, ortho-substituted PCB congeners are also commonly found. These lower chlorinated congeners have known effects in laboratory animals but may be overlooked by analytical techniques in which Aroclor standards or mixtures of selected congeners are used for quantitation. A congener-specific approach including both the lower chlorinated ortho-substituted PCB congeners and the more highly chlorinated congeners should be implemented to better assess the interactions and toxicities of individual congeners and other persistent compounds.

Gerstenberger, S.L.; Dellinger, J.A. [Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Preventive Medicine; Gallinat, M.P. [Red Cliff Tribal Fisheries Dept., Bayfield, WI (United States)

1997-11-01

209

Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of Ganges river (India)  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine(OC) insecticides have been extensively used in India since 1954 in agriculture as well as public health sector. The use of OCs which are banned or restricted in most developed countries are still being used in this country. The major factors responsible for detrimental effects on the environment from use of these chemicals are that they are very persistent, extremely toxic to fish, used more as preventive measures rather than cure in controlling insects and some of them were found to biomagnify in organisms. Their accumulation about 26 mg DDT in their body through food items. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic compounds but may also be synthesized by some bacteria, algae and plants. PAHs are on the USEPA and EC priority pollutants list since some PAHs are known or suspected carcinogens/mutagens. In surface waters, they are known to be strongly adsorbed on sediment clays and other particles while their degradation in sediment also occur. Therefore, during low stream flow, fluvial materials settle down and may contain concentrations of OCs and PAHs. Hence, it is necessary to include sediment in the determination of organic contaminants in surface waters. This paper refers to a monitoring programme for screening the OCs and PAHs concentrations in the Ganges river sediments. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Ahmad, S.; Ajmal, M. [A.M.U., Aligarh (India)] [A.M.U., Aligarh (India); Nomani, A.A.

1996-12-31

210

Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from Chicago, Illinois.  

PubMed

Breast muscle samples, with or without overlying adipose tissue and skin, were obtained from Canada geese collected in northeastern illinois while undergoing feather molt. Specimens were evaluated for contaminant concentrations to determine if they would be acceptable as human food provided through government-subsidized programs. Samples were baked, allowing fat to drip free, and assayed for persistent organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. Residues of heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, DDE and PCBs (as Arochlor 1248) were detected. The specimens contained relatively low concentrations of contaminants, such that US Department of Agriculture residue limits for meat were exceeded in only 1 sample. Baking of breast muscle without the overlying skin and adipose tissue resulted in reductions in concentrations of detectable compounds. Fewer samples baked with the skin attached had detectable concentrations of heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and PCB then samples cooked without skin; however, the converse was true for DDE. Periodic monitoring for environmental contaminants such as PCBs, exclusion of geese from localities where samples have contaminants such as PCBs, exclusion of geese from localities where samples have contaminants at concentrations that exceed recommended dietary limits, the use of processing and/or cooking methods which remove large amounts of lipid, and advisories that provide information on known health risks are recommended if wild resident Canada geese from the Chicago area are provided as food for underprivileged humans. PMID:10192133

Levengood, J M; Ross, S C; Stahl, M L; Beasley, V R

1999-04-01

211

Persistent organochlorines, sedentary occupation, obesity and human male subfertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that the quality of human semen has been declining over recent decades, presumably because of lifestyle or environmental factors. METHODS: Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlor- ine pesticides were analysed in the plasma of 25 men with poor semen quality, 20 men with normal semen quality and idiopathic subfertility and 27 men with normal semen quality and female

Elin V. Magnusdottir; Tanja Thorsteinsson; Sigridur Thorsteinsdottir; Maria Heimisdottir; Kristin Olafsdottir

2005-01-01

212

Chronic effects of organochlorine exposure in sediment to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata  

SciTech Connect

Organisms exposed to organochlorinated compounds in sediments are likely to suffer chronic rather than acute effects. Thus, acute toxicity tests are unlikely to truly assess their potential impact. A 120-d toxicity test was designed to assess the impact of polychlorinated biphenyl on the marine polychaete Neanthes arenacedodentata. A two-tiered approach was used: Tier 1 involved reference sediment spiked with a range of concentrations of the organochlorine bracketing the concentrations found in natural sediments, and tier 2 involved field sediments collected from a coastal area contaminated with high concentrations of the same organochlorine. Testing measured a number of endpoints, including survival, growth, and reproduction. Survival and growth were unaffected in either tier by any of the test sediments. Reproductive endpoints, however, were depressed in both tiers relative to the reference sediment.

Murdoch, M.H.; Chapman, P.M. [EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Johns, D.M. [EVS Environment Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States); Paine, M.D. [Paine, Ledge and Associates, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1997-07-01

213

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in Falconiforme and Ciconiforme eggs (Spain)  

SciTech Connect

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls have been documented to have adverse effects of the reproduction and survival of wild birds. Also, environmental contamination from heavy metals has been shown to be a threat to the survival and reproduction of certain birds. The hazard to Falconiforme and Ciconiforme birds is high because a) they are sensitive to eggshell thinning b) they are high in the food chain. The present paper reports the levels of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals in 69 eggs of five species of the avian Falconiforme order and two species of the avian Ciconiforme order collected at Donana National Park and Castile Plateau (Spain). Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in eggs of Falconiforme and Ciconiforme birds of Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the contaminants detected on reproductive potential; (3) to evaluate regional patterns of residues.

Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Aranda, A.

1988-01-01

214

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ?DDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (?0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. PMID:24103440

Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

2014-01-01

215

Global Expression Profile of Biofilm Resistance to Antimicrobial Compounds in the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Reveals Evidence of Persister Cells  

PubMed Central

Investigations of biofilm resistance response rarely focus on plant-pathogenic bacteria. Since Xylella fastidiosa is a multihost plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilm in the xylem, the behavior of its biofilm in response to antimicrobial compounds needs to be better investigated. We analyzed here the transcriptional profile of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in response to inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of copper and tetracycline. Copper-based products are routinely used to control citrus diseases in the field, while antibiotics are more widely used for bacterial control in mammals. The use of antimicrobial compounds triggers specific responses to each compound, such as biofilm formation and phage activity for copper. Common changes in expression responses comprise the repression of genes associated with metabolic functions and movement and the induction of toxin-antitoxin systems, which have been associated with the formation of persister cells. Our results also show that these cells were found in the population at a ca. 0.05% density under inhibitory conditions for both antimicrobial compounds and that pretreatment with subinhibitory concentration of copper increases this number. No previous report has detected the presence of these cells in X. fastidiosa population, suggesting that this could lead to a multidrug tolerance response in the biofilm under a stressed environment. This is a mechanism that has recently become the focus of studies on resistance of human-pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics and, based on our data, it seems to be more broadly applicable.

Muranaka, Ligia S.; Takita, Marco A.; Olivato, Jacqueline C.; Kishi, Luciano T.

2012-01-01

216

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Human Adipose Tissue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article presents findings of selected organochlorine residues for surveys conducted on human adipose tissue during fiscal years 1970, 1971, and 1972. The residues selected for presentation in this paper were beta-benzene hexachloride, total DDT equiva...

F. W. Kutz A. R. Yobs S. C. Strassman

1976-01-01

217

Organochlorine contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (DDT, chlordane, polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), dieldrin, hexachloroheclohexanes (SigmaHCH), mirex), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and chlorobenzenes (SigmaCBz) were determined in blubber and liver of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) collected during 1982-1983 from Pond Inlet on northern Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. PCCs were the predominate organochlorines in narwhal blubber, ranging in concentration from 2990 to 13 200 ng g(-1) (wet wt) in males and from 1910 to 8390 ng g(-1) in females. PCCs consisted of two major components, an octachlorobornane and a nonachlorobornane with gas chromatographic retention times of 1.05 and 1.22, relative to 4,4'-DDE. SigmaPCB concentrations in blubber ranged from 2250 to 7290 ng g(-1) in males and from 894 to 5710 ng g(-1) in females. Seven PCB congeners (tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls) accounted for 45% of total PCB (SigmaPCB) in narwhal blubber. Narwhal had 1.4- to 8.6-fold higher ratios of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls to PCB-153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl), lower 4,4'-DDE/SigmaDDT ratios and lower proportions of trans-nonachlor to total chlordane components than reported for odontocetes living in more contaminated environments. Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in narwhal were 6- to 15-fold lower than in dolphins from the Canadian east coast and belugas from the St Lawrence River estuary, respectively, while PCC levels were from 4- to about 2-fold lower, and SigmaHCH, dieldrin and SigmaCBz differed by <2-fold. The pattern of organochlorines in narwhal tissues suggests they are exposed to proportionally more volatile compounds, and may have less capacity to metabolize some of these compounds, relative to odontocetes living nearer sources of these contaminants. PMID:15092019

Muir, D C; Ford, C A; Grift, N P; Stewart, R E; Bidleman, T F

1992-01-01

218

Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons in fish feeds manufactured in South China.  

PubMed

Persistent halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in fish feeds (including trash fish and compound feed) manufactured in South China, were analyzed. PHHs were ubiquitous in fish feeds, with the concentrations of OCPs, PBDEs, and PCBs at the upper, mid, and lower levels of the global range. Trash fish generally contained higher concentrations of DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU), especially p,p'-DDT and low-brominated PBDEs, while compound feeds had higher concentrations of highly brominated BDEs, e.g., BDE-209. In addition, no concentration difference of HCHs and PCBs was found between trash fish and compound feeds. The habit of direct use of trash fish as fish feeds has induced the accumulation of DDXs in aquatic species in China, and trash fish collected in South China seemed to be slightly hazardous to wildlife because of the concentrations of DDXs. The results from the present study suggest that the use pattern of fish feeds in China may have to be adjusted to minimize contamination of fishery products and wildlife by PHHs. Use of compound feeds produced with controlled procedures should be encouraged, whereas that of trash fish should be restricted, at least for now. PMID:19326952

Guo, Ying; Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Zeng, Eddy Y

2009-05-13

219

Predicting the probability of detecting organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in stream systems on the basis of land use in the Pacific Northwest, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We analyzed streambed sediment and fish tissue (Cottus sp.) at 30 sites in the Puget Sound and Willamette basins in Washington and Oregon, USA, respectively, for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The study was designed to determine the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in fish tissue and sediment by land use within these basins and to develop an empirical relation between land use and the probability of detecting these compounds in fish tissue or sediment. We identified 14 organochlorines in fish tissue and sediment; three compounds were unique to either fish tissue or sediment samples. The highest number of organochlorines detected in both fish tissue and streambed sediment was at those sites located in watersheds dominated by urban land uses. Using logistic regression, we found a significant relation between percentage agriculture and urban land use and organochlorines in fish tissue. The results of this study indicate that organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are still found in fish tissues and bed sediments in these two basins. In addition, we produced statistically significant models capable of predicting the probability of detecting specific organochlorines in fish on the basis of land use. Although the presented models are specific to the two study basins, the modeling approach could be applied to other basins as well.

Black, R. W.; Haggland, A. L.; Voss, F. D.

2000-01-01

220

Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

1981-01-01

221

Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine contaminants in white whales ( Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blubber was collected from live-captured, adult male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway, and analysed for levels and patterns of organochlorine (OC) contaminants. The OC compounds analysed were HCB, dieldrin, ?HCH (?-HCH, ?-HCH and ?-HCH), ?Chl (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, and cis-nonachlor), ?DDT (pp?-DDT, pp?-DDE and pp?-DDD) and ?PCB (27 PCB congeners). The major OC compounds detected in

G Andersen; K. M Kovacs; C Lydersen; J. U Skaare; I Gjertz; B. M Jenssen

2001-01-01

222

Organochlorine contamination in some marketable fish in Egypt.  

PubMed

Ten organochlorine compounds were analyzed in four species of fish (Bouri Mugil spp., Denis Sparus auratus, Moza Boops boops and Mousa Pegusa lascaris), from four Egyptian governorates (South Sinai, Suez, Port-Said and Demietta). Although all fish studied are bottom or near-bottom feeders, remarkable variations between studied species were noticed. The grand total values recorded at the studied governorates were in descending order: Bouri>Denis>Moza>Mousa. The highest concentration of pesticides was recorded in Demietta governorate fish (20-211 ng/g of wet weight) and the p,p'-DDE dominated over the other p,p'-isomers in all studied fish, while dieldrin was the dominated in the studied cyclodiene compounds. However, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) occurred at all studied governorate fish except Mousa fish from South Sinai. Toxaphene was detected only in fish (Bouri, Denis, and Mousa) from Demietta governorate. Chlordane was not detected in any studied fish. The level of organochlorine pesticides contamination in fish from the studied governorates is relatively low and should not pose a health risk to consumers. PMID:14659941

El Nemr, Ahmed; Abd-Allah, Aly M A

2004-03-01

223

Distribution and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from four lakes of Heilongjiang Province, China.  

PubMed

There is growing concern for the lake environment because polluted sediments may cause ecotoxicological effects. In the current study, persistent organochlorine compounds (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and cyclodienes, were analyzed in core sediments taken from Huoshaohei Lake, Xihulu Lake, Wanghua Lake and Keqin Lake, Heilongjiang Province, China. The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 0.92 to 7.09, 0.15 to 9.95, 0.19 to 1.84 and 0.06 to 3.52 ng/g, respectively. The most dominant pollutants were the HCHs, high proportions of ?-HCH isomer indicating the recent input of lindane. The ratios of ?-HCH/?-HCH of four lakes are all lower than that in technical HCH mixtures indicating that there was input of lindane in the past several years, and the mean ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs are all <0.5, suggesting recent release of DDT compounds. Compared with the corresponding ecological environmental quality guidelines from Ingersoll and base on the model of risk based corrective action environmental health risk assessment, the sediments from the four lakes poses a lower potential hazard to human health and the environment but still should be taken into account. PMID:24420623

Hui, Hongkuan; Zang, Shuying

2014-05-01

224

Prior exposure to immunosuppressive organophosphorus or organochlorine compounds aggravates the T(H)1- and T(H)2-type allergy caused by topical sensitization to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and trimellitic anhydride.  

PubMed

Immunosuppressive environmental chemicals may increase the potency of allergens and thereby play a role in the development of allergic diseases. This study's primary objective was to examine the mechanisms behind the relationship between allergic diseases and the immunosuppression induced by some environmental chemicals. We focused on the modulation of allergic potential in vitro and in mice by the organophosphorus pesticide O,O-diethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl-thiophosphate (parathion) and the organochlorine pesticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxy-phenyl)ethane (methoxychlor), with respect to the T(H)1-type allergen 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and the T(H)2-type allergen trimellitic anhydride (TMA). Mice (4-week-old) were orally administered parathion or methoxychlor. Four weeks after the final dosing, the mice were sensitized to DNCB or TMA, and T-lymphocyte proliferation measured in their (using a local lymph node assay [LLNA]). In addition, we analyzed T-lymphocytes via surface antigen expression and local cytokine production in auricular lymph nodes after treatment with 0.1% DNCB or 0.3% TMA. The estimated concentration of DNCB and TMA to yield a stimulation index (SI) of cell proliferation of three decreased markedly in parathion- and methoxychlor-pre-treated mice. Pesticide pre-treatment induced marked increases in the number of helper and cytotoxic T-cells, levels of T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokines, and gene expression in lymph node cells. According to our results, T(H)1- and T(H)2-type allergies are aggravated by prior exposure to immunosuppressive environmental chemicals. PMID:21534883

Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tajima, Yukari; Ueda, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichi; Kosaka, Tadashi

2011-06-01

225

Biomagnification of organochlorines along a Barents Sea food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, Boreogadus saida (polar cod) and Gadus morhua (cod)

K Borgå; G. W Gabrielsen; J. U Skaare

2001-01-01

226

Contamination by Persistent Chemical Pesticides in Livestock Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of persistent organic pesticides represents one of the major environmental problems as reported in several studies\\u000a and reflected in some mandatory actions at the inter-governmental level. In particular, isomers of Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH),\\u000a like many others Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), are of human health and environmental concern due to their persistence\\u000a in the biosphere. In industrialised countries, Lindane (the ?-isomer

Bruno Ronchi; Pier Paolo Danieli

227

Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Milk from Central Italy: Levels and Time Trends  

PubMed Central

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as HCB, p,p?-DDE, and PCBs were measured in Italian breast milk. This work is part of a study on human milk, adipose tissues, and food carried out in the same area over the last 20 years. The results showed the prevalence of p,p?-DDE and PCBs over HCB. Comparison of our results with those of previous studies carried out in the same area showed that concentrations are decreasing. No statistically significant differences in organochlorine levels were found when the samples were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories “primiparae” and “multiparae”. In order to quantify the amount of the molecules of interest transmitted by mother to child during breast feeding, we estimated the daily intake of each class of compounds: our results indicated that HCB and p,p?-DDE were several times lower than the safety thresholds.

Guerranti, Cristiana; Palmieri, Michela; Mariottini, Michela; Focardi, Silvano Ettore

2011-01-01

228

Comparative evaluation of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk: persistent organic pollutants and mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Publications produced over the past 20 years regarding the concentration of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk were evaluated, focusing primarily on persistent organic pollutants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, flame retardants), pesticides (e.g organochlorine) and mycotoxins. In general, countries of low industrialization rate present low levels of dietary milk contamination with dioxins compared to those with high rate of industrialization. According to published data, the most common persistent organic pollutants detected in breast and dietary milk are dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane compounds, hexachlorocyclohexane, and hexachlorobenzene. Even though the potential risks of persistent organic pollutants in human milk have been acknowledged, the beneficial effect of breastfeeding as the optimal food source for newborn babies should not be disregarded. Especially when sharing information with the general public, it should be made clear that the presence of dioxins and persistent organic pollutants in human milk is not an indication for avoiding breastfeeding. The implications of xenobiotics in human and dietary milk is a matter of growing importance and warrants future work given its important health effects. PMID:24200021

Tsakiris, I N; Kokkinakis, E; Dumanov, J M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Flouris, A D; Vlachou, M; Tsatsakis, A M

2013-01-01

229

Hexachlorocyclohexane: persistence, toxicity and decontamination.  

PubMed

Abstract Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), a persistent organochlorine insecticide, has been extensively used in the past for control of agricultural pests and vector borne diseases. The use of HCH has indeed accrued benefits, however the unusual production of the insecticidal isomer; ?-HCH (lindane) and unregulated disposal of HCH muck has created various dumpsites all over the world, leading to serious environmental concerns. HCH isomers have been ranked as possible human carcinogens and endocrine disruptors with proven teratogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects, hence making its decontamination mandatory. Efforts in this direction have led to the isolation of various HCH degrading bacteria from the dumpsites, reflecting their role in HCH bioremediation. This review summarizes the problem of environmental persistence of HCH isomers along with their toxicity and possible solutions for their decontamination. PMID:24622782

Nayyar, Namita; Sangwan, Naseer; Kohli, Puneet; Verma, Helianthous; Kumar, Roshan; Negi, Vivek; Oldach, Phoebe; Mahato, Nitish Kumar; Gupta, Vipin; Lal, Rup

2014-01-01

230

Organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs from the Pacific coast of Canada, 1971-1986.  

PubMed

Eggs were collected from seven seabird species at colonies on the British Columbia coast from 1983 to 1986 and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Total PCB levels (wet weight) were highest in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Fraser estuary (2.91 mg kg(-1)) and the Strait of Georgia (3.79 mg kg(-1)). Highest DDE levels were in fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) from the Queen Charlotte Islands (1.68 mg kg(-1)). Organochlorine levels were generally lower in eggs from the mid 1980s than in those collected in the early 1970s. Organochlorine levels in Pacific alcids and hydrobatids foraging in offshore locations were compared to those in the same or ecologically similar species from the Canadian Atlantic coast. DDT- and HCH-related compounds were higher in Pacific populations while levels of dieldrin, oxychlordane, and HCB were generally lower. With the exception of ?-HCH, levels of all measured organochlorines were lower in cormorants breeding in the Fraser River estuary than in cormorants from the St. Lawrence River estuary on the Atlantic coast. PMID:24249067

Elliott, J E; Noble, D G; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E

1989-04-01

231

Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.  

PubMed

A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

1982-01-01

232

Effect of an environmentally relevant metabolized organochlorine mixture on porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds and their metabolites bioaccumulate and have been detected in follicular and genital tract fluids of humans and animals. This study was designed to investigate the effect of a metabolised organochlorine mixture, extracted from plasma of sows treated with an environmentally relevant organochlorine mixture in the course of a previous study, on porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in vitro. The major component of the metabolised mixture is 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) at 15.1 mg/l, which accounts for 40.7% of the total extract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) account for 30.8% of the extract and hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs) for 11.8%. Exposure of COCs to the metabolised mixture induced a decrease of apoptotic cumulus cells at low concentrations and an increase at higher concentrations following a U-shaped curve (p=0.0106), with the intermediate treatment (3.6 microg/l OH-PCBs) significantly reducing apoptosis compared to the extraction control (p=0.05). However, the metabolised mixture did not affect cumulus expansion, oocyte maturation, penetration, development to blastocyst, or the number of cells per blastocyst. This study also indicates that organochlorine metabolites similar in concentrations to levels found in Arctic populations can affect growing cumulus-oocyte complexes without inducing an overt toxicological response. PMID:17158027

Campagna, Céline; Ayotte, Pierre; Sirard, Marc-André; Arsenault, Guylène; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Bailey, Janice L

2007-02-01

233

Scavenging amphipods: sentinels for penetration of mercury and persistent organic chemicals into food webs of the deep Arctic Ocean.  

PubMed

Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075 to 4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983 and 1998, were analyzed for total mercury (?Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median ?Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g(-1) ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of ?Hg. ?Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (?Hg r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n = 63; MeHg r(2) = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n = 25), but not significantly with ?(13)C nor ?(15)N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750 to 156,000 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with order of abundance: ?TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > ?PCBs > ?DDTs > ?chlordanes > ?mirex compounds > ?BDEs ? ?chlorobenzenes ? octachlorostyrene > ?-hexachlorocyclohexane ? hexachlorobenzene ? pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ?10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologues, whereas profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences. PMID:23627492

Bidleman, Terry F; Stern, Gary A; Tomy, Gregg T; Hargrave, Barry T; Jantunen, Liisa M; Macdonald, Robie W

2013-06-01

234

Temporal trends of organochlorines in Northern Europe, 1967–1995. Relation to global fractionation, leakage from sediments and international measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time trend monitoring of organochlorine pollution was carried out in Sweden since the late 1960s. This report presents data on concentrations of DDT, PCB, HCHs and HCB in biota samples collected and analysed annually. All the matrices and compounds studied show a significant decrease over time. The data cover severely polluted Swedish marine and fresh water in southern Sweden

Anders Bignert; Mats Olsson; Wawa Persson; Sören Jensen; Susanne Zakrisson; Kerstin Litzén; Ulla Eriksson; Lisbeth Häggberg; Tomas Alsberg

1998-01-01

235

Mussel watch: marine pollution monitoring of butyltins and organochlorines in coastal waters of Thailand, Philippines and India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination by butyltin (BTs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in green mussels collected along the coastal areas of Thailand, Philippines and India during the period of 1994–1997 was examined. The BT residues in green mussel were widely detected, suggesting a widespread contamination along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Relatively high concentrations of BTs in green mussel were found in

Shinsuke Tanabe; Maricar S Prudente; Supawat Kan-atireklap; Annamalai Subramanian

2000-01-01

236

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND ORGANOCHLORINES IN BY-CAUGHT HARBOUR PORPOISES PHOCOENA PHOCOENA AND COMMON DOLPHINS DELPHINUS DELPHIS FROM IRISH COASTAL WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of eleven organochlorine (OC) pesticides and ten individual polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in blubber and liver from twelve harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and eight common dolphins Delphinus delphis incidentally caught in fishing nets in Irish waters are presented. All animals sampled contained persistent pollutants. Female harbour porpoises had highest concen- trations of OC pesticides in blubber and male common dolphins

Maria Smyth; Simon Berrow; Eugene Nixon; Emer Rogan

237

Dramatic declines of DDE and other organochlorines in spring migrant Peregrine Falcons from Padre Island, Texas, 1978-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) captured in the spring at Padre Island, Texas, nest across the arctic and subarctic from Alaska to Greenland and winter throughout Latin America. Padre Island, located immediately north of the Mexican border, is the peregrines' first landfall in the U.S.A. after spending about 6 mo in Latin America. Blood plasma was collected from spring migrants at Padre Island between 1978 and 2004 to monitor trends in organochlorine (OC) pesticides and their metabolites. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE (??g/g, ww) decreased throughout the study: 1978-1979 (0.879), 1980 (0.617), 1984 (0.551), 1994 (0.406) and 2004 (0.013). Most other OC pesticides, with detection limits used during the earlier portion of this study, were no longer detected during the last two sampling periods. The reduced concentrations of OC pesticides suggest that other pesticides (including carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) are likely being used as replacements. These replacement compounds are not as persistent and cannot be readily evaluated at migration sites like Padre Island. However, concentrations of flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs) have recently increased in bird eggs in many regions and have been reported in blood plasma. Concentrations of PBDEs in peregrine plasma could be evaluated at Padre Island for assessment of trends in the Americas. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Henny, C. J.; Yates, M. A.; Seegar, W. S.

2009-01-01

238

COMPARISON OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RESIDUES IN HUMAN BREAST ADIPOSE TISSUE AND SERUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of organochlorine pesticides, such as p,p’-DDT[2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-l, 1,1-trichloroethane], and of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human serum and adipose tissue has been reported in many studies over the last four decades. Recently, debate has heightened concerning the link of these compounds to breast cancer. To clarify and resolve this issue, accurate analytical residue data must be obtained. Separation of the

Shannon L. Archibeque-Engle; John D. Tessari; Donna T. Winn; Thomas J. Keefe; Torrance M. Nett; Tongzhang Zheng

1997-01-01

239

Vertical profiles of organochlorine pesticides in sediment core from Nile river and Manzala lake, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, HCB and chlordane compounds) were determined in core samples collected from Nile River near by Cairo and Manzala Lake, Egypt in 1994. Regional difference and vertical profiles were discussed in view of historical reconstruction of environmental pollution by these chemicals. On the basis of estimated sedimentation rate (0.5 to 0.7 cm\\/year) in Manzala

Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Shigeki Masunaga; Mohamed S. Rizk; Yoshikuni Urushigawa

1997-01-01

240

Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and

K. Senthilkumar; K. Kannan; R. K. Sinha; S. Tanabe; J. P. Giesy

1999-01-01

241

Predictors of organochlorines in New York City pregnant women, 1998–2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been found widely in human tissues. However, levels have been rapidly declining since their virtual ban in the 1970s. We measured 1,1?-dichloro-2,2?-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and trans-nonachlor (TN) in 194 pregnant women in New York City and examined demographic and dietary predictors of their levels in serum. Serum OC levels were low (median ?g\\/L: 0.64

Mary S. Wolff; Elena Deych; Fiola Ojo; Gertrud S. Berkowitz

2005-01-01

242

Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet’s crocodile ( Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-viable eggs of Morelet’s crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n=24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and

Ted H Wu; Thomas R Rainwater; Steven G Platt; Scott T McMurry; Todd A Anderson

2000-01-01

243

Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments and mussels from the Istanbul Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the status and trends of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) compounds in the sediment and\\u000a mussel samples collected along the Istanbul Strait and from the coasts of an island in the Marmara Sea. The total concentrations\\u000a of OCPs were found in the range of 40–13,852 pg g???1 dry weight for sediments and 5,195–12,322 pg g???1 wet weight for mussels. The

Oya S. Okay; Burak Karac?k; B. Henkelmann; Karl Werner Schramm

2011-01-01

244

Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

Stewart, A. R.; Stern, G. A.; Lockhart, W. L.; Kidd, K. A.; Salki, A. G.; Stainton, M. P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G. B.; Savoie, D. A.; Billeck, B. N.; Wilkinson, P.; Muir, D. C. G.

2003-01-01

245

Organochlorinated contaminants in decapod crustaceans from the coasts of Brittany and Normandy (France).  

PubMed

The contamination and distribution of organochlorinated compounds were considered in three crustacean species (edible crab, Cancer pagurus; spider crab, Maja brachydactyla; velvet swimming crab, Necora puber) from five sites along the coasts of Brittany and Normandy (Western and North-Western France). PCBs (16 single congeners), pp'-DDE and HCB were measured in hepatopancreas, gonads and muscle: in all, 175 samples were analysed. The spider crab was the only species found in the five sampling sites, thus enabling comparison between areas. Specimens from Antifer were much more contaminated (summation operator 16 PCBs in hepatopancreas=2000-4000 ng g(-1) dry weight) than those from other sites (50-1000 ng g(-1) d.w.). Among all the three species, the spider crab appeared more contaminated by PCBs than the edible crab, by a factor 2-3, probably in relation with specific differences in their life cycle. There was no difference due to the gender of the species. Within the different analysed tissues, contamination levels increased from muscle to gonads and hepatopancreas in relation with the fat content. A very similar PCB composition was observed in all samples, PCB fingerprints being characterised by the relative importance of the more persistent PCB congeners: CB153, 138, 180, 187, and 118. Finally, these results were compared to recent food regulations first of maximum marker PCB intake and secondly of maximum dioxin-like PCB intake. By considering the muscle, all samples were far below the regulatory limits; for hepatopancreas and gonads, however, some samples were unfit for human consumption. PMID:17223177

Bodin, N; Abarnou, A; Le Guellec, A-M; Loizeau, V; Philippon, X

2007-04-01

246

Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the North Pacific Ocean). OCs were detected in livers of all of the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed, supporting the thesis that there is widespread contamination of persistent OCs in the marine environment. Within a location, no significant relationship between growth-stage (body length and weight) and OC concentrations (lipid weight basis) was observed, and the OC residue levels were rather uniform among the individuals. Interestingly, the distribution of OC concentrations in skipjack tuna was similar to those in surface seawaters from which they were taken. These results suggest that OC concentrations in skipjack tuna could reflect the pollution levels in seawater from which they are collected and that this species is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of OCs in offshore waters and the open ocean. Concentrations of PCBs and CHLs in skipjack tuna were higher in offshore waters around Japan (up to 1100 and 250 ng/g lipid wt, respectively), suggesting the presence of sources of PCBs and CHLs in Japan. High concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were observed in samples from the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal (up to 1300 and 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively). This result suggests recent use of technical DDT and HCH for agricultural and/or public health purposes in Russia, China, India, and some other developing Asian countries. Relatively high concentrations of PCBs, CHLs, HCHs, and HCB were also observed in samples collected from some locations in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, indicating the expansion of OC contamination on a global scale. Considering these facts, continuous studies monitoring these compounds in offshore waters and the open seas, using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator, are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination. PMID:14674591

Ueno, D; Takahashi, S; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Nakata, H; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K H; Tanabe, S

2003-10-01

247

Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is

Frank A. P. C. Gobas; Jim R. McCorquodale; G. D. Haffner

1993-01-01

248

Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100 × 10(3) and 50 × 10(3) dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(3) dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50 × 10(3) dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. PMID:21295777

Aubé, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre

2011-04-01

249

Air monitoring in the Arctic: Results for selected persistent organic pollutants for 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Arctic is generally considered to be a pristine environment and has few direct inputs of organochlorine compounds (OCs), including pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In spite of this, airborne concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are comparable to those in more populated and industrialized regions of North America and Europe. Atmospheric transport and condensation of compounds at low temperature conditions are important factors contributing to the presence of contaminants in the Arctic. A long-term program has been established to measure the airborne concentrations of POPs in the Arctic. The first station at Alert was established in January 1992. The concentrations measured in the first year of monitoring for 18 compounds that are representative of different compound classes are presented. Seasonal variations for PAHs are similar to those for Arctic haze and peak during winter. For example, in the coldest period, october to April, benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were found to average 20 pg/m{sup 3}, whereas, in contrast, during the relatively warm May to September period, average levels were 1.0 pg/m{sup 3}. For OCs, the seasonal cycle was not as pronounced as that for PAH compounds. For example, {alpha}-hexachlorocyclohexane was found at Alert at average concentrations of 62 and 57 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively, during cold and warm periods. It is postulated that air concentrations are influenced by advection from distant source regions as well as exchange with local (Arctic Ocean) surfaces.

Fellin, P.; Dougherty, D. [BOVAR Environmental, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Barrie, L.A.; Toom, D. [Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Muir, D.; Grift, N.; Lockhart, L.; Billeck, B. [Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

1996-03-01

250

Petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescent aromatic compounds in fish bile and organochlorine pesticides from areas surrounding the spill of the Kab121 well, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico: a case study.  

PubMed

In October 2007, a light crude oil spill took place in the off shore Kab121 oil well, 32 km north of the mouth of the Grijalva River, Tabasco, Mexico. In order to estimate the possible effects of oil spill on the biota in the area surrounding the spilled well, the level of different fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in fish, as well as the concentration of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs. The organisms examined were cat fish (Ariopsis felis), in addition fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, the contaminants above mentioned and their relationship with cyotochrome P-450 and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, Glutathion-S-Transferase and catalase activities in liver were determined. The concentration of most pollutants were low, except PAHs. Spatial distribution of these compounds, as well as most biomarkers, reflected the highest exposure of fish to pollutants in the area adjacent to well, as well as in the proximity of rivers. The profile of exposure to this environment was chronic in nature and not temporary. PMID:24579530

Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V; Chan-Cocom, E; Zapata-Perez, O

2014-01-01

251

Compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have prepared Ce-doped polycrystalline AgSbTe2.01 compounds from high-purity elements by a melt-quench technique followed by spark plasma sintering, and their thermoelectric transport properties have been investigated in the temperature range of 300 K to 625 K. The actual concentration of Ce was much less than the initial composition, but roughly proportional to it. Small additions of Ce shifted the composition of the homogeneity range from the nearly ideal atomic ratio Ag:Sb:Te = 0.98:1.02:2.01 toward Sb rich (Ag poor), and led to the reemergence of Ag2Te impurity in AgSbTe2 compound. The Ce-doped samples possessed lower electrical conductivity compared with the undoped AgSbTe2.01 compound at room temperature, but the carrier mobility and effective mass were essentially constant, indicating intact band structure near the covalent band maximum upon Ce substitution for Sb. Due to the decrease of lattice vibration anharmonicity resulting from Ce substitution for Sb, the lattice conductivity of the Ce-doped samples was about 0.1 W m-1 K-1 higher than that of the AgSbTe2.01 sample, and the magnitude spanned the range from 0.30 W m-1 K-1 to 0.55 W m-1 K-1. A ZT of 1.20 was achieved at about 615 K for the AgSb0.99Ce0.01Te2.01 sample.

Du, B.; Li, H.; Tang, X.

2014-06-01

252

Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and exposure through breastfeeding.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF), together simplified termed "dioxins", polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) and organochlorine pesticides constitute lipophilic, persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the food chain and consequently can be found in humans at considerable concentrations. During the past 30 years our institute analyzed far more than 2,000 individual human milk samples for organochlorine pesticides and PCB and over 1,000 specimens for PCDD/PCDF. The results of these analyses provide an overview and reliable basis as to contamination of human milk with these compounds, their correlations among each other, the temporal trend of exposure through breastfeeding and the predominant parameters that influence the maternal body burden. It was found that the levels of most persistent organohalogen compounds in human milk decreased significantly over the past three decades and equally did their exposure through breastfeeding. Exceptions are PBDE, which are still extensively used as flame-retardants. PBDE levels in milk samples collected in the early 2,000s are approximately 60% higher compared to specimens sampled 10 years before. Moreover, in contrast to PCB, PBDE show no significant correlation with PCDD/PCDF in human milk, which might be interpreted as an indication for another mode of human exposure. PMID:17009213

Fürst, Peter

2006-10-01

253

Concentration of organochlorines in Ganges River dolphins from Patna, Bihar.  

PubMed

Concentrations of DDT, HCH, aldrin and endosulfan were determined in river dolphins from the River Ganges, Patna. Among the organochlorines studied in the dolphins, DDT concentration was highest followed by HCH. This shows exposure of dolphins to these organochlorine pesticides. Presences of organochlorines to higher degree in tissues suggest that the river dolphins be at greater risk due to pesticidal contamination of the river system. PMID:12597572

Kumari, Anupma; Sinha, R K; Gopal, Krishna; Lata, Swarn

2002-07-01

254

Adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed

In this nested case-control study we examined the relationship between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and organochlorine pesticide exposure. We used a data set originally collected between 1969 and 1983 in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Adipose samples were randomly collected from cadavers and surgical patients, and levels of organochlorine pesticide residues were determined. From the original study population, 175 NHL cases were identified and matched to 481 controls; 173 controls were selected from accident victims, and 308 from cases with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Cases and controls were mainly from cadavers (> 96%) and were matched on sex, age, region of residence within the United States, and race/ethnicity. Conditional logistic regression showed the organochlorine pesticide residue heptachlor epoxide to be significantly associated with NHL [compared with the lowest quartile: third quartile odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.28; fourth quartile OR = 3.41, 95% CI, 1.89-6.16]. The highest quartile level of dieldrin was also associated with elevated NHL risk (OR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.58-4.61), as were higher levels of oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE [p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and ss-benzene hexachloride (ORs = 1.79, 1.99, and 2.47, respectively). The p-values for trends for these associations were significant. In models containing pairs of pesticides, only heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin remained significantly associated with risk of NHL. Limitations of this study include collection of samples after diagnosis and a lack of information on variables affecting organochlorine levels such as diet, occupation, and body mass index. Given the persistence of pesticides in the environment, these findings are still relevant today. PMID:15175172

Quintana, Penelope J E; Delfino, Ralph J; Korrick, Susan; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kutz, Frederick W; Jones, Ellen L; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

2004-06-01

255

Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. (Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada))

1993-11-01

256

Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L., Jr.; Clark, D.R., Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

1980-01-01

257

Compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 ?W/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.

Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji

2014-06-01

258

Comparison of different coatings in solid-phase microextraction for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in ground water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) procedure using three commercialised fibers (Carbowax–divinylbenzene, Carboxen–polydimethylsiloxane and divinylbenzene–Carboxen–polydimethylsiloxane) is presented for the determination of a selected group of organochlorine compounds in water samples. The extraction performances of these compounds were compared using fibers with two and three coatings. The optimal experimental procedures for the adsorption and desorption of pesticides were determined. The limits of detection

J. P Pérez-Trujillo; S Fr??as; J. E Conde; M. A Rodr??guez-Delgado

2002-01-01

259

Environmental fate and behavior of persistent organic pollutants in Shergyla Mountain, southeast of the Tibetan Plateau of China.  

PubMed

Pristine mountains are ideal settings to study transport and behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along gradients of climate and land cover. The present work investigated the concentrations and patterns of 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 25 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) isomers in the air of the Shergyla Mountain, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Endosulfan ?, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes and dichlorodibenzotrichloroethane and its degradation products (DDTs) were the predominant compounds while PBDEs and HBCDs showed the lowest background concentrations. Most of the target POPs had significantly higher concentrations in summer than those in winter. Increasing trends of the concentrations of DDTs and endosulfan were found with increasing altitude on the western slope in the Shergyla Mountain. Potential forest filter effect was observed based on the lower air concentrations of the target POPs in the forest than the ones out of the forest. PMID:24842382

Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

2014-08-01

260

A correlation study of organochlorine levels in serum, breast adipose tissue, and gluteal adipose tissue among breast cancer cases in India.  

PubMed

We used data from a breast cancer pilot study carried out in Kerala, India in 1997, for which organochlorine levels were measured in three biological media, blood serum, breast adipose tissue, and gluteal adipose tissue, of 37 fasting breast cancer cases (pretreatment). Our objective was to investigate the relationships between organochlorine concentrations in different biological media. Gas-liquid chromatography determined serum, breast adipose, and gluteal adipose tissue levels of dichlorodiphenyltricholorethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, beta-benzene hexachloride, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB-153 and PCB-180. Correlation plots were made and Spearman correlation coefficients (r) calculated for breast adipose tissue versus serum, gluteal adipose tissue versus serum, and breast adipose versus gluteal adipose tissue. We also examined paired ratios of all summary statistics. There were strong correlations among serum, breast adipose tissue, and gluteal adipose tissue concentrations for most organochlorines analyzed, one exception being gluteal versus serum for PCB-153. The correlations for all other comparisons ranged from r = 0.65 to 0.94. Serum (ng/g) versus adipose ratios approached 1:1 for most of the organochlorine pesticide comparisons and did not vary by summary statistic. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use three different media from fasting subjects and to comprehensively investigate the relationship between organochlorines measured across the three media for both organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. These data indicate that blood serum reflects the present body burden of a range of organochlorines to the same extent as adipose tissue, and they support the view that serum may be collected in lieu of adipose tissue to obtain similar information. However, such measurements are a combination of both recent exposures and past exposures, which have metabolized slowly and may still persist. Therefore, investigators should use caution when assigning a level as lifetime body burden. PMID:15894661

Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Matthews, Aleyama; Sturgeon, Susan; Sinha, Rashmi; Pellizzari, Edo; Zheng, Tongzhang; Baris, Dalsu

2005-05-01

261

Single-step LC/MS method for the simultaneous determination of GC-amenable organochlorine and LC-amenable phenoxy acidic pesticides.  

PubMed

Water pollution by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is considered as an analytical challenge, since these persistent and nonbiodegradable pollutants are not amenable by liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS). This represents a significant constraint in multiresidue analysis of real samples, when high polar, poorly volatile compounds are present as well. This paper reports the development of an innovative single-step method for the simultaneous determination of OCPs and polar pesticides belonging to the class of phenoxy acids in water samples. The method is based on an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure with Carbograph 4 followed by liquid chromatography coupled to a direct electron ionization mass spectrometer (LC/direct-EI-MS). The direct-EI capability of acquiring high-quality EI spectra and operation in selected ion monitoring mode allowed a precise quantification of OCPs and phenoxy acids in a single chromatographic run without derivatization. The instrumental response was characterized by excellent sensitivity, linearity, and precision. The SPE recovery rates in river water gave values equal or better than 80% for most of the compounds. The method limits of detection (LODs) span from 0.002 to 0.052 microg/L, allowing the detection of the selected pesticides at the limits required by the European Union (EU) legislation for drinking water. PMID:19663448

Famiglini, G; Palma, P; Termopoli, V; Trufelli, H; Cappiello, A

2009-09-01

262

Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression  

SciTech Connect

1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

Shabbir, Arsalan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); DiStasio, Susan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Zhao, Jingbo [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher P. [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Wolff, Mary S. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Caplan, Avrom J. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

2005-03-01

263

Organochlorine contaminants in sea turtles from the Eastern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent (14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of the 35 tissue samples, respectively). PCBs were detected in all but one of the 9 turtles studied, with congener 18 the most

Susan C. Gardner; M. Dawn Pier; Raymond Wesselman; J. Arturo Juárez

2003-01-01

264

ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC  

EPA Science Inventory

We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

265

Thyroid Dysfunction as a Mediator of Organochlorine Neurotoxicity in Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) can alter thyroid function in humans, and hypothyroidism during early life can adversely affect a child’s neurodevelopment. Objectives: In this study we aimed to assess the relationship between developmental organochlorine exposures and thyroid function and the relationship between thyroid function and subsequent neurodevelopment. Methods: A population-based birth cohort of 182 children was followed annually up to 5.5 years of age. The assessments included OC concentrations in maternal pregnancy serum and milk, clinical thyroid parameters in maternal and cord serum, and subsequent neuropsychological outcomes of the child, along with sociodemographic cofactors. Resin triiodothyronine uptake ratio (T3RU) was also assessed as an estimate of the amount of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) sites unsaturated by thyroxine. The T3RU is high in hyperthyroidism and low in hypothyroidism. Results: The findings showed consistent inverse and monotonic associations between organochlorine exposure and T3RU after covariate adjustments. We observed no associations with other thyroid parameters. T3RU was positively associated with improved performance on most of the neuropsychological tests. For other thyroid parameters, the findings were less consistent. Conclusions: The results suggest that OC exposures may decrease the T3RU during early life, which is a proxy measure of the binding capacity of TBG. In addition, minor decreases of the thyroid function may be inversely associated with a child’s neurodevelopment.

Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Choi, Anna L.; Grandjean, Philippe

2011-01-01

266

Monitoring of heavy metal and organic compound levels along the Eastern Aegean coast with transplanted mussels.  

PubMed

Within the framework of the MYTITURK project, heavy metals and organic compounds contaminations were assessed in transplanted mussels in eight different bays from the Eastern Aegean coast. Izmir Bay, Canakkale Strait entrance, Saros and Candarli Bay were defined low pollution extent according to Principal Component Analysis taking into metal accumulation. PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) levels in the range of 29.4-64.2 ng g(-1) (dry weight) indicated that PAH contamination level classified as low along the Aegean coast. Concentrations of Aroclor1254 and 1260 were higher in transplanted mussels from Canakkale Strait Outlet due to industrial activities was originated from Marmara Sea. The organochlorinated pesticides such as heptachlor (<0.4 ng g(-1)), aldrin (<0.30 ng g(-1)), dieldrin (<0.75 ng g(-1)), endrin (<2.3 ng g(-1)) concentrations were homogeneous however, HCB (Hexachlorobenzene) and lindane concentrations were found undetectable level along the coast. DDE/DDT ratio in the caged mussels form Gulluk and Gokova Bay indicated recent DDT (Dikloro difenil trikloroethan) usage in these areas. The residues of organochlorinated compounds in transplanted mussels confirm the long persistence of DDTs. According to world health authorities, the concentration of heavy metals in mussels for the study area can generally be considered not to be at levels posing a health risk except Zn. The levels of POPs indicated that transplanted mussels have a lack of risk for the human health. PMID:23972908

Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Pazi, Idil; Yucel-Gier, Guzel; Akcali, Baris; Galgani, François

2013-11-01

267

Effects of urbanization and long-term rainfall on the occurrence of organic compounds and trace elements in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue from the Santa Ana River basin, California, 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organcochlorine compounds, semivolatile-organic compounds (SVOC), and trace elements were analyzed in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue in the Santa Ana River Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Three reservoirs were sampled in areas that have different degrees of urbanization. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected at 12 sites were divided into two groups, urban and nonurban. More organochlorine compounds were detected in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment and fish tissue, and at higher concentrations at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of organochlorine compounds were lower than the probable-effect concentration (PEC). At the highly urbanized West Street Basin, chlordane and p,p'-DDE exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The less stringent threshold-effect concentration (TEC) was exceeded for six compounds at eight sites. Most of the organochlorine compounds detected in streambed sediment and fish tissue were at urban sites on the Santa Ana River as opposed to its tributaries, suggesting accumulation and persistence in the river. More SVOCs were detected in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment, and at higher concentrations, at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all the sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of SVOCs were lower than the PEC. At West Street Basin, chrysene, pyrene, and total polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 3 sites. Most of the SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment at urban sites on tributaries to the Santa Ana River rather than the mainstem itself. The less frequent occurrence and lower concentrations in the Santa Ana River suggest that SVOCs are less persistent than organochlorine compounds, possibly as a result of volatization, gradation, or dilution. Most trace-element detections in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment were at urban sites, and the concentrations were generally higher than at nonurban sites. Lead and zinc exceeded their PECs at West Street Basin throughout the historical record; copper exceeded its PEC at Canyon Lake, an area of urban growth. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 11 sites. Frequency of detection and concentration did not differ between tributary and Santa Ana River sites, which may be attributed to the fact that trace elements occur naturally. Four trace elements (arsenic, copper, mercury, and selenium) had higher concentrations in fish tissue at nonurban sites than at urban sites. Concentrations decreased over time for organochlorine compounds at all three reservoirs, probably a result of the discontinued use of many of the compounds. Decreasing trends in SVOCs and trace elements were observed at West Street Basin, but increasing trends were observed at Canyon Lake. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds, SVOCs, and trace elements were higher during periods of above average rainfall at both West Street Basin and Canyon Lake.

Burton, Carmen A.

2002-01-01

268

Is Bone Mineral Composition Disrupted by Organochlorines in East Greenland Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)?  

PubMed Central

We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892–2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, hexacyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene] and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds. To ensure that the BMD value in skull represented the mineral status of the skeletal system in general, we compared BMD values in femur and three lumbar vertebrae with skull in a subsample. We detected highly significant correlations between BMD in skull and femur (r = 0.99; p < 0.001; n = 13) and skull and vertebrae (r = 0.97; p < 0.001; n = 8). BMD in skulls sampled in the supposed pre-organochlorine/PBDE period (1892–1932) was significantly higher than that in skulls sampled in the supposed pollution period (1966–2002) for subadult females, subadult males, and adult males (all, p < 0.05) but not adult females (p = 0.94). We found a negative correlation between organochlorines and skull BMD for the sum of PCBs (?PCB; p < 0.04) and ?CHL (p < 0.03) in subadults and for dieldrin (p < 0.002) and ?DDT (p < 0.02) in adult males; indications for ?PBDE in subadults were also found (p = 0.06). In conclusion, the strong correlative relationships suggest that disruption of the bone mineral composition in East Greenland polar bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure.

Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W.; Riget, Frank F.; Kirkegaard, Maja; Hyldstrup, Lars; Letcher, Robert J.; Muir, Derek C. G.

2004-01-01

269

Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals.  

PubMed

The interpretation of the spatial and temporal patterns of variation in organochlorine concentrations in marine mammal populations is complex because of the lack of wide-scale, long-term surveys. Therefore the results from several surveys must be combined and this causes undesired heterogeneity due to differences in the sampling and analytical techniques used and in the biological characteristics of the individuals sampled. Moreover, information is not homogeneously distributed in either space or in time. Most research is concentrated in western Europe, northern America and certain areas of Asia, while it is extremely limited or non-existent in Africa and most regions of the southern hemisphere. Marine mammals from the temperate fringe of the northern hemisphere, particularly fish-eating species which inhabit the mid-latitudes of Europe and North America, show the greatest organochlorine loads; noteworthy are the extremely high levels found in the Mediterranean Sea and certain locations on the western coasts of the United States. Concentrations in the tropical and equatorial fringe of the northern hemisphere and throughout the southern hemisphere are low or extremely low. The polar regions of both hemispheres showed the lowest concentrations of DDTs and PCBs, although levels of HCHs, chlordanes and HCB were moderate to high in the cold waters of the North Pacific. During recent decades, concentrations have tended to decrease in the regions where pollution was initially high but they have increased in regions located far from the pollution source as a consequence of atmospheric transport and redistribution. It is expected that the Arctic and, to a lesser extent, the Antarctic, will become major sinks for organochlorines in the future; this process may already be significant for some compounds such as HCB and HCHs. Effort should be devoted to both assessment of organochlorine trends in the now highly polluted populations of the temperate fringe of the northern hemisphere and to the implementation of long-term monitoring of marine mammal populations inhabiting polar regions. PMID:12054104

Aguilar, A; Borrell, A; Reijnders, P J

2002-06-01

270

Temporal bioavailability of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs.  

PubMed

Because PCBs and organochlorine pesticides continue to be of global concern, studies that address information gaps, such as factors and influences of spatial and temporal effects on contaminant bioavailability, are valuable. The present study focused on the spatial and temporal distribution of bioavailable organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in surface waters of a contaminated harbor. Passive sampling devices were intensively deployed adjacent to various land uses on the Willamette River, OR, including Portland Harbor and McCormick and Baxter Superfund sites, during summer and fall, extreme conditions, 2001-2004. An increase of bioavailable sigmaDDTs (sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) concentrations was strongly affected bythe local historic production of DDTs and temporal changes in river conditions. The increase of bioavailable p,p'-DDD and high DDD/DDE ratios observed during summer indicates conditions favoring anaerobic reductive processes. In contrast to sigmaDDTs, the bioavailable concentrations and daily loads of dieldrin and PCBs increased during fall, especially during episodic rainstorms. On the basis of the PCB congener profiles, PCB inputs from urban runoff /sewer overflows were considered likely current sources of bioavailable PCB into the Harbor. The exceedence of the U.S. national and Oregon water quality criteria was a function of the temporal variability of each bioavailable contaminant. This illustrates the impacts associated with temporal changes of bioavailable organochlorine distributions in surface waters and the significance of considering realistic temporal, bioavailability, and site-specific conditions in risk assessment and water quality management. PMID:16830528

Sethajintanin, D; Anderson, K A

2006-06-15

271

Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organic chemicals in fish and mammals.

Gobas, F.A.P.C. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)); McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01

272

Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in

S. Ennaceur; N. Gandoura; M. R. Driss

2008-01-01

273

Contamination trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in sediments from Dagu Drainage River estuary, Tianjin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals in two sediment\\u000a cores, taken from the Dagu Drainage River, were determined. The contamination trends of these three kinds of compounds were\\u000a obtained. The results showed that concentrations of PBDEs increased in recent years; there were new contamination sources\\u000a for OCPs in this area; contamination levels of heavy

JianXia Lü; YaWei Wang; QingHua Zhang; ErLe Gao; GuiBin Jiang

2007-01-01

274

Simple solid-phase extraction method for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and selected organochlorine pesticides in human serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for isolation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from human serum has been developed. The procedure includes denaturation of serum proteins by a mixture of water–1-propanol, application of the sample by aspiration twice repeatedly through the SPE column and elution with a mixture of n-hexane–dichlormethane. After final clean-up the compounds

K. ?onka; B. Drobná; A. Ko?an; J. Petrík

2005-01-01

275

Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. (Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-07-01

276

Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing

Helmut Goerke; Kurt Weber; Horst Bornemann; Sven Ramdohr; Joachim Plötz

2004-01-01

277

Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

2014-01-01

278

Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses. PMID:24055669

Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

2014-01-15

279

Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Plasma Predict Development of Type 2 Diabetes in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), lipophilic chemicals that accumulate mainly in adipose tissue, have recently been linked to type 2 diabetes. However, evidence from prospective studies is sparse. This study was performed to evaluate prospective associations of type 2 diabetes with selected POPs among the elderly. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nineteen POPs (14 polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] congeners, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 brominated diphenyl ether, and 1 dioxin) were measured in plasma collected at baseline in 725 participants, aged 70 years, of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). RESULTS After adjusting for known type 2 diabetes risk factors, including obesity, odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) for type 2 diabetes at age 75 years (n = 36) according to the quintiles of a summary measure of concentrations of PCBs (vs. the lowest quintile) were 4.5, 5.1, 8.8 (1.8–42.7), and 7.5 (1.4–38.8) (Ptrend <0.01). Among organochlorine pesticides, adjusted ORs across concentrations of trans-nonachlor showed that Ptrend = 0.03. Adjusted ORs (95% CIs) across quintiles of the sum of three organochlorine pesticides were 1.1, 1.6, 1.5, and 3.4 (1.0–11.7) (Ptrend = 0.03). Neither brominated diphenyl ether 47 nor dioxin was significantly associated with incident diabetes. The sum of PCBs improved reclassification significantly when added to traditional risk factors for diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Despite the small number of incident cases, this study found that environmental exposure to some POPs substantially increased risk of future type 2 diabetes in an elderly population.

Lee, Duk-Hee; Lind, P. Monica; Jacobs, David R.; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, Lars

2011-01-01

280

Organochlorine contaminants in fish from an arctic lake in Alaska, USA.  

PubMed

A wide range of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in muscle tissue and livers of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Schrader Lake in Arctic Alaska. Results confirm the long-range transport of these contaminants to a US Arctic freshwater system. The most abundant group of compounds in all tissues was composed of PCBs. Mean concentrations of the sum of a selected group of PCB congeners ranged from 3.2 ng/g in grayling liver to 22.8 ng/g in trout liver and from 1.3 ng/g in grayling muscle to 6.6 ng/g in trout muscle (wet wt.). The second most abundant group was composed of chlordane-related compounds. No significant correlations of organochlorine concentrations with fish weight or length were observed for the data set as a whole. There were marked differences in sigma PCB, sigma chlordane and p,p'-DDE concentrations between species. The biomagnification factors for these compounds are similar to ratios reported for other aquatic systems. Comparisons showed that contaminant concentrations in lake trout from Schrader Lake were similar to levels found in burbot and slightly higher than levels in whitefish reported in Canadian studies from the Mackenzie River Delta. PMID:7892581

Wilson, R; Allen-Gil, S; Griffin, D; Landers, D

1995-01-15

281

Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins  

SciTech Connect

Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

1999-07-01

282

Transport of persistent organic pollutants across the human placenta.  

PubMed

Prenatal life is the most sensitive stage of human development to environmental pollutants. Early exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. The mechanisms of transference of POPs during pregnancy are still not well understood. The present study is aimed to investigate the transfer of POPs between mother and fetus. The concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 polybromodiphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners have been measured in 308 maternal serum samples, their respective umbilical cords and 50 placental tissues from a mother-infant cohort representative of Spanish general population. In general, the adjusted lipid-basis concentrations were higher in maternal serum than in cord serum and placenta. The concentrations of most pollutants between maternal serum and cord serum and between maternal serum and placenta were significantly correlated. These distributions were consistent with a predominant maternal source that transfers the pollutants into the placenta and the fetus. However, this distribution did not correspond to passive diffusion of these compounds between these tissues according to lipid content. The compounds more readily metabolized were higher in newborns, which suggest that differences in metabolic capabilities may be responsible of the observed variations in POP distributions between mother and newborns. Prenatal exposure to 4,4'-DDT and some PBDEs such as BDE 99 and BDE 209 is much higher than it could be anticipated from the composition of maternal serum. POP exposure assessment studies of newborns may overlook the effects of some of these pollutants if they only consider maternal determinations. PMID:24486968

Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

2014-04-01

283

Levels and spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants in the environment: a case study of German forest soils.  

PubMed

The Of/Oh-horizons of 447 forest stands in Germany were evaluated for concentrations and spatial distribution of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). While concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and PCBs show similar spatial distribution patterns for all measured compounds within each compound class, significantly different distributions were identified for concentrations of low-molecular-weight PAHs [2- and 3-ring PAHs plus fluoranthene (FLA) and pyrene (PYR)] in contrast to high-molecular-weight PAHs (4-6-ring PAHs without FLA and PYR). Maxima of persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations could be mostly explained by specific locatable sources. Because of the slow degradation rates of these target substances, this is especially relevant for historic contamination sources, such as extensive 1980s DDT usage in the former German Democratic Republic and industrial facilities that produced hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or PCBs. A contribution of ubiquitous background pollution derived from long-range atmospheric transport is likely for some compounds in the studied area, e.g., DDT in the western part of Germany and dieldrin. However, most target compounds appear to be mainly sourced from local or regional emissions. This is supported by the absence of clear dependencies between POP concentrations and most evaluated environmental and local parameters. We suggest that these results generally reflect the distribution of POPs in densely populated and industrialized countries located in temperate regions. PMID:24050388

Aichner, Bernhard; Bussian, Bernd; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Hein, Sebastian

2013-11-19

284

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South Asian region: a review.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are semi volatile organic compounds of global concern. During the last decades, their distribution, sources, transformation, toxicity and accumulation in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have gained significant attention. Many of these chemicals are characterized by long range atmospheric transport potential, and their occurrence in remote areas is attributed to transport of chemicals from places where OCPs are still in use. The South Asia region is a place where primarily emissions are still taking place and thus it is important to assess the status of OCPs pollution. This document provides the historical overview and country specific environmental legislation of OCPs from the South Asian region in the context of their illegal use and storage for extended periods and still until to date. In addition, the current review discusses the existing knowledge on the levels and distribution of OCPs in different environmental compartments of South Asian region. Data on OCPs also highlights the risk assessment of these organic contaminants in the regional environment and spans the long range atmospheric transport phenomena based on Himalayas and Northern mountainous glaciers. Paradoxically in the scientific literature sources, distribution and transport of these organic pollutants in South Asian region are very limited compared to the rest of the world. PMID:24522007

Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

2014-04-01

285

Reduction of organochlorine emissions from municipal and hazardous waste incinerators  

SciTech Connect

The authors have modeled some chemical processes that occur in municipal incinerators that result in the emission of organochlorine compounds by studying the high-temperature destruction of noncombustible polymers, specifically poly(vinylidene chloride), in a stream of heated, flowing, moist air. The dominant volatile products form the thermal destruction of poly(vinylidene chloride) were polychloroaromatic hydrocarbons. The thermochemistry for the reaction of calcium, oxide, chloroacetylene, and oxygen to give calcium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water is very favorable (-571 kcal/mol). Calcium oxide is available by the heat treatment of crushed limestone. Fluidized-bed technology involving calcium oxide is already in place for reduction of acidic emissions (SO/sub 2/) from coal-fired power plants. Preliminary experiments in which a fluidized bed of calcium oxide was placed above the thermal destruction zone for poly(vinyldene chloride) in a 1000/sup 0/C tube furnace results in a decrease in aromatic polychloride effluents of a factor of 3 x 10/sup 2/. 18 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

Dougherty, R.C.; Collazo-Lopez, H.

1987-06-01

286

Temporal variations of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal variations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in precipitation and monthly depositional fluxes were calculated in Beijing from February 2009 to March 2011. Compounds which were detected most often included ?-HCH and ?-HCH, and the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was 33.0 ng L-1, accounting for 72.3% of the ?OCPs in precipitation. The total concentrations of OCPs ranged from 3.73 to 152 ng L-1 (mean: 29.7 ± 3.5 ng L-1) for dissolved phase and from 1.61 to 114 ng L-1 (mean: 15.9 ± 2.0 ng L-1) for particulate phase, respectively. OCPs in dissolved phase dominated sampled concentrations in precipitation (HCHs: 71.8%, Chlordane: 77.7%, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes-DDTs: 50.1%) with an exception of hexachlorobenzene-HCB (26.3%). Furthermore, the distribution coefficient, Kpd, was generally large in low temperature, especially in spring. The abundance of ?OCPs in the precipitation fluctuated monthly, with high value in late winter and spring. The past farmland near the sampling site was under construction during sampling, which may be an important local re-emission source in this study. The elevated wet deposition flux of 11 selected OCPs was 14.9 ?g m-2 yr-1 in Beijing.

Yang, Guosheng; Ma, Lingling; Xu, Diandou; Liu, Liyan; Jia, Hongliang; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yongbao; Chai, Zhifang

2012-12-01

287

Organochlorine levels in edible fish from the Marmara Sea, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of 12 edible fish species from the Marmara Sea were analyzed for organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, HCB, HCHs, toxaphene, etc.). The results showed that the total concentrations ranged from 329.41 ng\\/g fat to 1453.87 ng\\/g fat. DDT group components made up almost half or more of organochlorine contamination. Levels in red mullet were compared with those from neighbor seas. The sum of

Mehmet Coelhan; Johanna Strohmeier; Hulusi Barlas

2006-01-01

288

De novo formation of organochlorines in a sewage treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The de novo formation of organochlorines was observed in a municipalsewage treatment plant. Due to this formation, the amount of organically boundhalogens (AOX) increased 15-fold inside the sewage treatment plant. Per day,more than 6 kg of organically-bound chlorine were produced. Thisformation is not based on a metabolism of present organochlorines, it is a denovo formation out of inorganic chloride and

V. W. Niedan; F. Keppler; B. Ahlsdorf; H. F. Schöler

2003-01-01

289

Exposure to an organochlorine pesticide (chlordecone) and development of 18-month-old infants.  

PubMed

Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that was used in the French West Indies until the early 1990s for banana weevil borer control. Human exposure to this chemical in this area still occurs nowadays due to consumption of contaminated food. Although adverse effects on neurodevelopment, including tremors and memory deficits, have been documented in experimental studies conducted with rodents exposed during the gestational and neonatal periods, no study has been conducted yet to determine if chlordecone alters child development. This study examines the relation of gestational and postnatal exposure to chlordecone to infant development at 18 months of age in a birth-cohort of Guadeloupean children. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in Guadeloupe (Timoun mother-child cohort study), exposure to chlordecone was measured at birth from an umbilical cord blood sample (n=141) and from a breast milk sample collected at 3 months postpartum (n=75). Toddlers were assessed using an adapted version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Higher chlordecone concentrations in cord blood were associated with poorer fine motor scores. When analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls, this effect was only observed among boys. These results suggest that prenatal exposure to chlordecone is associated with specific impairments in fine motor function in boys, and add to the growing evidence that exposure to organochlorine pesticides early in life impairs child development. PMID:23376090

Boucher, Olivier; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Muckle, Gina; Rouget, Florence; Kadhel, Philippe; Bataille, Henri; Chajès, Véronique; Dallaire, Renée; Monfort, Christine; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Multigner, Luc; Cordier, Sylvaine

2013-03-01

290

Organochlorine-induced histopathology in kidney and liver tissue from Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).  

PubMed

The effects of persistent organic pollutants on renal and liver morphology in farmed arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) were studied under experimental conditions. Control animals received a diet containing pork (Sus scrofa) fat with low amounts of persistent organic pollutants, while the diet of the exposed animals contained whale blubber, 'naturally' contaminated with persistent organic pollutants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the whale blubber were 488 and 395 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Animals were sacrificed and sampled when they were at their fattest (winter) as well as their lowest body weight (summer). The results show that PCB and OCP exposure causes renal (and probably also liver) lesions in arctic foxes. The prevalence of glomerular, tubular and interstitial lesions was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi-square: all p<0.05). The frequency of liver lesions (steatosis, intravascular granulocyte accumulations, interstitial cell infiltrations, lipid granulomas, portal fibrosis and bile duct hyperplasia) were also highest in the exposed group, although not significantly (chi-square: all p>0.05). The prevalence of lesions was not significantly different between lean (winter) and fat (summer) foxes for any of the lesions (chi-square: all p>0.05). We suggest that wild arctic foxes exposed to an environmental cocktail of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs and OCPs, in their natural diet are at risk for developing chronic kidney and liver damage. Whether such lesions may have an impact on age and health of the animals remains uncertain. PMID:18279914

Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans; Leifsson, Pall S; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Muir, Derek C G; Jørgensen, Even

2008-04-01

291

Can seal eating explain elevated levels of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in walrus blubber from eastern Hudson Bay (Canada)?  

PubMed

Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber samples from Inukjuak and Akulivik (East Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin (Igloolik and Hall Beach) and Loks Land (East Baffin Island) were analysed for PCB congeners (ortho and non-ortho substituted) and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes, dieldrin, mirex), as well as chlorinated dioxins/furans, to document spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian Arctic marine biota. Samples from 19 of 53 individuals had concentrations of SigmaPCBs greater than 1000 ng g(-1) (wet wt); the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations (50-600 ng g(-1)). Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where average concentrations in blubber of females (N = 9) were 1450 +/- 954 ng g(-1) toxaphene, 2750 +/- 1780 ng g(-1) SigmaCHLOR, 2160 +/- 925 ng g(-1) SigmaDDT and 4790 +/- 2380 ng g(-1) SigmaPCB. SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT concentrations greater than 1000 ng g(-1) were unexpected based on previous studies of walrus from Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because levels of all organochlorines were elevated in each animal from Inukjuak, and elevated levels were also found in animals from Akulivik and Loks Land. Walrus from Inukjuak had sigma13C and sigma15N values in muscle intermediate between those of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and those of walrus from Akulivik with low organochlorine levels. There was a weak but significant correlation between and sigma15N and (log)SigmaPCB. The Inukjuak walrus also had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, and higher DDE/SigmaDDT ratios than walrus from Igloolik or Akulivik. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals for a portion of their diet. PMID:15091467

Muir, D C; Segstro, M D; Hobson, K A; Ford, C A; Stewart, R E; Olpinski, S

1995-01-01

292

Persistent hypoglycemia.  

PubMed

Hypoglycemia is a common finding in emergency departments. In this article, we review the causes of hypoglycemia in children, the evaluation and management of a child with persistent hypoglycemia, and causes of adrenal insufficiency in children. We report a case of adrenoleukodystrophy, a type of primary adrenal insufficiency, in a 5-year-old boy who presented with altered mental status, seizures, and hypoglycemia. PMID:23823267

Levasseur, Kelly Anne; Tigchelaar, Helene; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama

2013-07-01

293

In vitro activation of cord blood mononuclear cells and cytokine production in a remote coastal population exposed to organochlorines and methyl mercury.  

PubMed Central

Remote coastal populations that rely on seafood for subsistence often receive unusually high doses of organochlorines and methyl mercury. Immunosuppression resulting from prenatal exposure to organochlorines has been reported in wildlife species and humans. In this study, we assessed lymphocyte activation and associated cytokine secretion in 47 newborns from a remote maritime population living on the Mid and Lower North Shore regions of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada; subsistence fishing group) and 65 newborns from nearby urban settings (reference group). Cord blood samples were collected for organochlorine and mercury analyses and also to isolate cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) for the in vitro assessment of cytokine production and expression of surface markers after mitogenic stimulation (CD4(+)CD45RO(+), CD8(+)CD45RO(+), CD3(+)CD25(+), and CD8(+)HLA-DR(+)). Blood mercury and plasma concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were significantly higher in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.001). No difference was observed between the two groups regarding subsets of lymphocytes showing markers of activation. In vitro secretion of cytokines by CBMCs after mitogenic stimulation was lower in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and plasma PCB, p,p'-DDE, and HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). Our data support a negative association between TNF-alpha secretion by CBMCs and prenatal organochlorine exposure. If the relationship between organochlorine and TNF-alpha secretion is causal, it would suggest a role for this important proinflammatory cytokine in mediating organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to these compounds.

Bilrha, Houda; Roy, Raynald; Moreau, Brigitte; Belles-Isles, Marthe; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre

2003-01-01

294

Spatial trends and factors affecting variation of organochlorine contaminants levels in Canadian Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were analysed in blubber from beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), or white whales, collected at 15 sites in the Canadian Arctic between 1993 and 2001. The objective of the study was to define and interpret the spatial trends of major organic contaminants in northern beluga in terms of sources and transport pathways, and the biological factors influencing accumulation. When compared on a lipid weight basis, the concentrations of beta-HCH, cis-CHL and SigmaCHL, cis-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and p,p'-DDT were significantly higher in males than females at all five sites in the eastern Arctic where the two sexes were harvested. The differences were attributed to losses from the females during fetal development and lactation as reported in previous studies. Major compounds increased with age in males at most sites, however the lack of a significant increase with age at some sites was in part due to high organochlorine concentrations in young year classes (2-5 years), particularly at eastern sites such as Iqaluit and Pangnirtung. Lower concentrations of SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT compounds in young males in 2001 relative to 1995 at Hendrickson Island could be due to declining levels in the environment, changes in the diet, or differences in organochlorine loads transferred from the female after birth. Age-corrected least square mean concentrations in males showed significantly higher levels of many compounds, such as p,p'-DDE and SigmaCHB, at south Baffin Island sites than those in the west. Two notable exceptions were HCBz and beta-HCH which were higher in the west. Methoxyclor was detected in males at Sanikiluaq (58 ng g-1) and in both sexes at Kimmirut, but at no other sites. Principal component analysis grouped the 16 sites into five major groupings based on the similarity of normalised organochlorine pesticide and PCB levels. Sites from the western Arctic were grouped by higher proportions of HCBz, beta-HCH and gamma-HCH and higher chlorinated PCBs. Endosulfan and alpha-HCH comprised a larger proportion of total organochlorine residues in the northern Hudson Bay sites, while methoxychlor, chlordane compounds and octachlorobiphenyls were enriched at Sanikiluaq in eastern Hudson Bay. The analysis showed that the relative amounts of several key compounds are similar in the beluga stocks over large spatial areas (i.e. eastern versus western sites), however, some stocks have distinct fingerprints which can be used to differentiate them from adjacent stocks. Ratios of major HCH isomers largely corresponded with air and surface water measurements conducted during the 1990s, but low alpha-/beta- and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios in all three western Arctic collections indicate rapid losses of the alpha-isomer from the food web, proportionately higher beta- and gamma-isomers in the Beaufort Sea, or a combination of the two processes. Chlordane residue patterns generally correspond to those from previous studies, however, interpretation of spatial trends are difficult due to the aging of the probable sources in the south, possible atmospheric input from new sources and complex transport pathways. PMID:16154619

Stern, G A; Macdonald, C R; Armstrong, D; Dunn, B; Fuchs, C; Harwood, L; Muir, D C G; Rosenberg, B

2005-12-01

295

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Tibetan forest soil: profile distribution and processes.  

PubMed

Tibetan forests are located in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, where the climate is dominated by the Indian monsoon. Due to the affinity to pollution sources and high organic carbon stocks, the fate of persistent organic pollutants in the Tibetan forests should be given more attention. In this study, seven soil profiles were investigated to obtain the vertical distribution of the organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Tibetan forest soil. The results indicate that the DDTs are highly stable in the soil, with limited volatilization and leaching, while the more volatile PCBs were found in the deeper mineral layer, which means that they can translocate through the organic layer and move farther downward into the deep soil. The air-to-ground fluxes (estimated by the age of the organic layer) of the DDTs are one magnitude higher than those reported in a study on the Alps, suggesting the higher accumulation of DDTs by the Tibetan forest. PMID:23996737

Wang, Xiaoping; Xue, Yonggang; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

2014-02-01

296

BURDEN OF ORGANOCHLORINE SUBSTANCES AS A RISK FACTOR OF BREAST CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Organochlorines are a various group of synthetic chemicals that include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo- p- dioxins\\/ polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs\\/ PCDFs or dioxins) and organochlorine pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), lindane, aldrin and dieldrin. As many organochlorines and their metabolites have carcinogenic and the weak hormonal (estrogenic and anti-estrogenic) effects, a possible association between breast cancer risk and exposure to

Gourounti Kleanthi; Lazaris Andreas

2009-01-01

297

Organochlorine pesticides in soils under different land usage in the Taihu Lake region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted in the Taihu Lake region, China in 2004 to reveal the organochlorine pesticide concentrations in soils after the ban of these substances in the year 1983. Thirteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in soils from paddy field, tree land and fallow land. Total organochlorine pesticide residues were higher in agricultural soils than in uncultivated fallow

Fang WANG; Xin JIANG; Yong-rong BIAN; Fen-xia YAO; Hong-jian GAO; Gui-fen YU; Jean Charles MUNCH; Reiner SCHROLL

2007-01-01

298

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Africa: Egyptian scenario.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic (carbon-based) compounds that include synthesized substances (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) and other by-product substances generated as a result of human and natural activity (dioxins and furans). Extensive scientific studies have shown that POPs are some of the most dangerous pollutants released into the environment by humans. Great efforts have been made since the early 1960s to enhance chemical management and safety issues. Various conventions have been adopted for this purpose: the Stockholm Convention (SC) is one of the well-known meetings in this context. The SC on POPs (May 2001) focuses on reducing and eliminating releases of 12 POPs coined the 'Dirty Dozen' by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). Persistence of such chemicals in soils, air, and water, together with natural processes such as evaporation to the atmosphere and washout by rain and flood, give rise to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment and eventual penetration into food chains and bio-accumulation in humans. Public concern about contamination by POPs increased recently because several of these compounds are identified as hormone disruptors, which can alter normal function of endocrine and reproductive systems in humans and wildlife. African countries are using pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, toxaphene, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, since more than 50 years for combating agricultural pests and controlling disease vectors, especially malaria. The way in which pesticides are used in Africa caused serious environmental and health problems much more than elsewhere. These problems are represented by accumulation of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in different environmental samples and hosting of at least 50,000 tons of obsolete pesticides, as well as tens of thousands of tons of contaminated soil. Within the framework of the Africa Stockpiles Program (ASP), huge quantities of pesticidal POPs have been completely or partially destroyed in a number of African countries (e.g. Egypt, Namibia, Niger, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia). At regional level (i.e. African Countries), a strategic plan for monitoring and getting rid of POPs in the continent should be set up and implemented through coordination between all governments. Among issues of top priorities are to find alternative non-combustion technologies for disposing obsolete pesticides, and to use alternative control measures for mosquitoes' management and other vector-borne diseases. PMID:19767330

Mansour, Sameeh A

2009-09-01

299

Organochlorine residues in New York waterfowl harvested by hunters in 1983-1984.  

PubMed

Thirteen organochlorine compounds were detected in fat and breast muscle tissues of Canada goose and five species of ducks that were shot by sportsman in New York. Residues of DDE and PCB occurred most frequently and were positively identified along with DDT, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene. Compounds that were detected but not positively confirmed by mass spectrometry were dieldrin, mirex, heptachlor, chlordane, oxychlordane, and endrin. Wood duck (Aix sponsa) and Canada goose (Branta canadensis) had significantly lower levels of DDE and PCB than black duck (Anas rubripes), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), scaup (Athya sp.), and bufflehead (Bucephala albeola). Birds collected from Long Island and the Hudson River-Lake Champlain corridor carried highest concentrations. PMID:24234343

Foley, R E

1992-04-01

300

Distribution and ecological risk of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt.  

PubMed

Organochlorine contamination in the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt was assessed based on 26 surface sediments samples collected from several locations on the Egyptian coast, including harbors, coastal lakes, bays, and estuaries. The distribution and potential ecological risk of contaminants is described. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were widely distributed in the coastal environment of Egypt. Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and chloropyrifos ranged from 0.29 to 377ngg(-1) dw, 0.07 to 81.5ngg(-1) dw, and below the detection limit (DL) to 288ngg(-1) dw, respectively. Other organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) studied were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower. OCP and PCBs had higher concentrations at Burullus Lake, Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Eastern Harbor, and El Max Bay compared to other sites. OCP and PCB contamination is higher in the vicinity of possible input sources such as shipping, industrial activities and urban areas. PCB congener profiles indicated they were derived from more than one commercially available mixture. The ratios of commercial chlordane and heptachlor metabolites indicate historical usage; however, DDT and HCHs inputs at several locations appear to be from recent usage. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs are similar to those observed in sediments from coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Ecotoxicological risk from DDTs and PCBs is greatest in Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Harbor, and El-Max Bay. PMID:23880242

Barakat, Assem O; Mostafa, Alaa; Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; El Sayed, Nadia B

2013-09-01

301

Razorbill (Alca torda) feathers as an alternative tool for evaluating exposure to organochlorine pesticides.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of feathers as a biomonitoring tool for organochlorine pesticides (OC) in a razorbill population (Alca torda). Fifteen OC were analyzed in feathers, including ?-, ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT, DDD, DDE, heptachlor and its epoxide. The geometric mean concentrations observed in this study were ?DDT 67.40 ng/g, ?HCH 62.88 ng/g, ?Heptachlor 61.75 ng/g, ?Endosulfan 19.70 ng/g, and ?Drins 10.17 ng/g. The higher OC levels found in this study compared with other studies are probably affected by the razorbill diet and migration status. However, levels found in the feathers of the present study are related to concentrations in internal tissues below those which cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects or other signs of organochlorine-pesticide poisoning in birds. Age does affect the concentration of OC pesticides in feathers. Thus, feathers would appear to be a promising tool for OC biomonitoring in seabirds, since it is possible to quantify OC compounds. PMID:21894567

Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

2012-01-01

302

Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

1988-09-01

303

Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > ? endosulfan > ? HCH > ? heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of ? HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ? 0.05).

Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

2014-01-01

304

Organochlorine contaminants in Swedish human milk from the Stockholm region.  

PubMed

The levels of fat-soluble organochlorine contaminants in human milk in the Stockholm region are decreasing. For p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and dieldrin a reduction has taken place during the last decade, but the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) started declining only from about 1977. Generally, the pooled samples from the Mothers' Milk Centre in Stockholm in 1980 contained lower levels of organochlorine contaminants than the current Swedish maximum acceptable limits for milk. In 2% of the samples the total DDT levels slightly exceeded the limit of 0.05 mg DDT + DDD + DDE/kg. Milk from three mothers was analysed during the nursing of two or three consecutive infants. In each case, the levels of organochlorine contaminants declined. PMID:6404125

Norén, K

1983-03-01

305

Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii ) breed in two areas in the Western Hemisphere: in northeastern North America between Long Island, New York, and Nova Scotia, and around the Caribbean Sea from the Florida Keys and the Bahamas to the Netherlands Lesser Antilles. The present paper reports the results of a survey of organochlorine residues in Roseate Terns in 1981. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the levels of organochlorine contamination in eggs of the Roseate Tern in its major colonies and to investigate whether changes in eggshell characteristics similar to those reported by Fox (1976) may have occurred in this species. A secondary objective was to determine geographic patterns of organochlorine contamination within the northeastern U.S. population of Roseate Terns and to compare them with patterns observed in Common Terns.

Custer, T. W.; Nisbet, I. C. T.; Krynitsky, A. J.

1983-01-01

306

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples.

de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Marcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

2008-01-01

307

Organochlorines in the Great Lakes ecosystem: Sources, partitioning, and control  

SciTech Connect

The authors of this article agree with many of the arguments against a complete ban on organochlorines, but they suggest that certain key point require greater emphasis and some are open to question. Because social responses are involved, it is useful first to clarify how organochlorines (OC) are generated by society and how they are or can be regulated. Discussion includes the following topics: OC synthesis: by design and by accident; partitioning and bioaccumulation; causes of hydrophobicity; known bioaccumulative OCs; social decisions on Chlorine. 10 refs. 1 fig.

Mackay, D.; Di Guardo, A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1995-05-01

308

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk of mothers living in northern Germany: Current extent of contamination, time trend from 1986 to 1997 and factors that influence the levels of contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the concentration levels of PCB, DDT, HCB and ?-HCH in the human milk of women living in northern Germany over a period of 12 years and determines factors that may influence these levels. From 1986 to 1997 more than 3500 milk samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds. A questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding personal characteristics,

G Schade; B Heinzow

1998-01-01

309

A persistent organic pollutant related with unusual high frequency of hermaphroditism in the neotropical anuran Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826.  

PubMed

Representing a reflection of anthropic activity, the level of xenobiotic compounds in aquatic ecosystems has increased in recent years, bringing severe damage to the environment. The present work reports the occurrence of malformation in gonads of Physalaemus cuvieri individuals from a population of Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil. Twenty male specimens were collected, which had their testicles removed, immersed in Karnovsky fixative solution, included in historesin for 2 ?m cuts and stained with Hematoxylin-eosin. Four specimens showed intersexual gonads condition along with the presence of sperm and oocytes. In order to test a possible contamination of water, 2L were collected from the water body to check organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate compounds. The analysis of water showed the presence of agrotoxic Dieldrin in a concentration of 0.05 ?g/L, representing a concentration above the recommended reference. This agrotoxic, in addition to acting as endocrine disrupter and commercially prohibited, has quite persistent residual effects, and may be responsible for the high frequency of P. cuvieri with intersexual gonads, which in the long term can represent a risk for this population due to the potential impact on its effective reproductive ability. PMID:24742721

Moresco, Rafaela M; Margarido, Vladimir P; de Oliveira, Classius

2014-07-01

310

The organochlorine pesticides ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane), ?-endosulfan and dieldrin differentially interact with GABA A and glycine-gated chloride channels in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotoxic organochlorine pesticides ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, ?-endosulfan and dieldrin induce in mammals a hyperexcitability syndrome accompanied by convulsions. They reduce the GABA-induced Cl? flux. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor also regulates Cl?-flux inhibitory responses. We studied the effects of these compounds on Cl? channels associated with glycine receptors in cultured cerebellar granule cells in comparison to the GABAA receptor. Both GABA (EC50:

C. Vale; E. Fonfra; J. Bujons; A. Messeguer; E. Rodrguez-Farr; C. Suol

2003-01-01

311

Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method.  

PubMed

Samples of animal origin are usually dried before solvent extraction for analysis of organic contaminants. The freeze drying technique is preferred for hydrophobic organic compounds in practice. In this study, it was shown that the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) extracted from fish muscle tissue significantly decreased after the samples were freeze dried. And the reason for this reduced extractability seemed to be the resistance of OCPs associated with freeze-dried muscle protein to solvent extraction. The extractability can be recovered by adding water prior to extraction. It suggests that the dietary exposure risk of OCPs from fish might be underestimated if freeze-dried samples are used. PMID:24838024

Zhang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

2014-08-01

312

Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines  

SciTech Connect

Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

1999-05-01

313

Organochlorines in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive survey on organochlorine (OC) contaminants in polar bears at Svalbard has been undertaken. Subcutaneous tissue, blood and milk have been sampled from anesthetized free-ranging bears of both sexes and different ages in the period from 1990 to 1994. A number of sexually mature females have been fitted with satellite transmitters which make it possible to follow their reproductive

Aksel Bernhoft; Øystein Wiig; Janneche Utne Skaare

1997-01-01

314

Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water Sources of Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 9 chlorinated pesticides in the water sources and tap waters of Istanbul, Turkey, were determined by gas chromatographic methods following the enrichment through adsorption and elution techniques. The observed organochlorine pesticides were a- and ?-HCH and aldrin which had been banned from use. The contents of a- and ?-HCH in raw waters were in the range of

Adnan Aydin; Türkan Yurdun

1999-01-01

315

Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, lo- cation, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena

T. W. Bentzen; E. H. Follmann; S. C. Amstrup; G. S. York; M. J. Wooller; D. C. G. Muir; T. M. O’Hara

2008-01-01

316

Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H. A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

1973-01-01

317

Marine mammals as global pollution indicators for organochlorines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blubber tissues of the following marine mammals differing in their geographic distribution (North Atlantic, North Pacific, Bering Sea\\/Arctic Ocean), trophic level, and feeding habits were analyzed for their organochlorine contents: two seal species (harbor seals - Phoca vitulina, northern fur seals - Callorhinus ursinus), three toothed whale species (belukha whales - Delphinapterus leucas, one common dolphin - Delphinus delphis, one

Stephanie Mössner; Karlheinz Ballschmiter

1997-01-01

318

ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS OF WINTERING DUCKS FORAGING ON DETROIT RIVER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Organochlorine analysis was performed on carcasses of 13 diving ducks from a 1981 wintering population that foraged on contaminated sediments in the lower Detroit River. Mean total PCB concentrations were 10 mg/kg for seven lesser scaups (Aythya affinis), 11 mg/kg for three great...

319

FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOOT DEPOSITS FROM NON-OPTIMUM COMBUSTION OF NO. 6 FUEL OIL WITH CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

During a full-scale hazardous waste combustion study performed for EPA, sampling and analysis was conducted on both stack gases and solid "soot" collected from a boiler's interior surfaces. wo organochlorine compounds, monochlorobenzene (MCB) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were cof...

320

Lake-wide distribution and depositional history of current- and past-use persistent organic pollutants in Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface sediment concentrations of past-use persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated napthalenes (PCNs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and current-use chemicals such as the polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), were determined in sediments from 22 sites across Lake Simcoe. PFCs were also measured in surface waters. Maximum concentrations of historical POPs,

Paul A. Helm; Jacquie Milne; Veronique Hiriart-Baer; Patrick Crozier; Terry Kolic; Rocsana Lega; Tony Chen; Karen MacPherson; Sarah Gewurtz; Jennifer Winter; Anne Myers; Chris H. Marvin; Eric J. Reiner

2011-01-01

321

Persistent organic pollutants in snow from European high mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cores were collected in the catchment area of five remote mountain lakes in Europe. They were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and organochlorine pesticides, namely DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH). PAH are found in higher amounts in the Tatra and Caledonian mountains, PCB are higher in the Alps and HCH are highest in the Alps and Pyrenees. The qualitative PAH distributions are dominated by low molecular weight compounds, phenanthrene being the most abundant PAH in all but in one site. These compounds also occur predominantly in the gas phase in the atmosphere. Their high abundance in the snowpack witness the occurrence of effective transfer mechanisms from gas to snow flakes. In Starolesnianske (Tatra mountains), a higher contribution of high molecular weight compounds is found. This site exhibits the highest snow PAH and suspended particulate levels. Transformation of the concentration values of these compounds into annual deposition rates and correction for catchment/lake area indicates that in Scandinavia and the Alps a large proportion of PAH incorporation is mediated by snowfallout whereas in the Tatra mountains snow deposition only accounts for a small fraction of the compounds stored in the lake sediments. Among organochlorine compounds, only PCB and HCH have been found above method detection limit in most of the samples. The PCB congener distributions changes significantly between sites, although a predominance of the less chlorinated congeners have generally been observed.

Carrera, Guillem; Fernández, Pilar; Vilanova, Rosa M.; Grimalt, Joan O.

322

Historical contamination of Yukon Lake sediments by PCBs and organochlorine pesticides: influence of local sources and watershed characteristics.  

PubMed

PCBs and other persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides were analyzed in sediment cores collected from six lakes in Yukon Territory and one in northern British Columbia, Canada, with the objective of establishing sources and historical trends of these contaminants. DDT was found to be the most prominent OC in the sediment profiles of most of the lakes. Maximum sigmaDDT levels (3.47-2680 ng g(-1) dw) were observed in sediment slices dated to the 1950s from lakes near populated areas. In contrast, in more remote lakes (Hanson, Kusawa and Lindeman), the maximum sigmaDDT concentrations were observed in the sediments dated to the 1970s. Highest sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations were measured in sediments from Watson Lake, near a suspected PCB waste disposal site and in a region where DDT was heavily applied in the 1950s and 1960s. Elevated sigmaPCB concentrations [16.1-93.6 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw)] were also observed in sediments from lakes situated near populated areas, relative to Kusawa and Lindeman (11.1 and 12.7 ng g(-1) dw, respectively). Recent sigmaPCB fluxes ranged from 621 ng m(-2) y(-1) in Kusawa Lake to 16400 ng m(-2) y(-1) in Little Atlin Lake. The extremely high sedimentation rate (2050 g m(-2) y(-1)) in glacial fed Lindeman Lake gave rise to elevated fluxes of sigmaPCB (2410 ng m(-2) y(-1)) and other OCs, despite much lower concentrations in the sediment. Levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (sigmaHCH), chlordane-related compounds (sigmaCHL), and chlorobenzenes (sigmaCBz) were in the low ng g(-1) (dw) range in all lake sediments, similar to concentrations previously reported for Arctic lakes in Canada, indicating that their major source was long range atmospheric transport. Contamination of the lakes with PCBs and DDT near populated areas of the Yukon Territory appears to be a result of regional activities rather than long range transport and deposition. The results also point to glacial runoff as a significant source of OCs to small, high elevation lakes (Lindeman), but not to larger lakes within the Yukon River drainage basin that are also affected by glacial sources (Kusawa, Laberge). PMID:11763265

Rawn, D F; Lockhart, W L; Wilkinson, P; Savoie, D A; Rosenberg, G B; Muir, D C

2001-12-01

323

Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of ?(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ?HCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

2012-09-01

324

Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ?DDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ?PCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

325

Selected persistent organic pollutants in human placental tissue from the United States.  

PubMed

Emerging and legacy environmental pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide metabolite DDE are found in human placenta, indicating prenatal exposure, but data from the United States are sparse. We sought to determine concentrations of these compounds in human placentae as part of a formative research project conducted by the National Children's Study Placenta Consortium. A total of 169 tissue specimens were collected at different time points post delivery from 43 human placentae at three U.S. locations, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry following extraction using matrix solid phase dispersion. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE were detected in all specimens. The concentrations of 10 PBDEs (?10PBDEs), 32 PCBs (?32PCBs) and p,p'-DDE were 43-1723, 76-856 and 10-1968pgg(-1) wet weight, respectively, in specimens collected shortly after delivery. Significant geographic differences in PBDEs were observed, with higher concentrations in placentae collected in Davis, CA than in those from Rochester, NY or Milwaukee, WI. We combined these with other published data and noted first-order declining trends for placental PCB and DDE concentrations over the past decades, with half-lives of about 5 and 8years, respectively. The effect of time to tissue collection from refrigerated placentae on measured concentrations of these three classes of persistent organic pollutants was additionally examined, with no significant effect observed up to 120h. The results of this work indicate that widespread prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the United States continues. PMID:24485817

Nanes, Jessica A; Xia, Yulin; Dassanayake, R M A Priyanthi S; Jones, Rachael M; Li, An; Stodgell, Christopher J; Walker, Cheryl K; Szabo, Sara; Leuthner, Steve; Durkin, Maureen S; Moye, Jack; Miller, Richard K

2014-07-01

326

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in environmental samples from the Shatt al-Arab River, Iraq.  

PubMed

Application of high resolution gas chromatography has confirmed relatively low residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in the Shatt al-Arab River. Thus, average concentration of these compounds in the edible portion of the cyprinid (Barbus xanthopetrus) were 21, 4 and 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively. Mean values of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin in surface sediments were 5, 40 and 20 microg kg(-1) dry weight respectively. Shrimps sampled from the Shatt al-Arab River were found to contain residues of o, p'-DDD only (average concentration was 2 microg kg(-1) wet weight). However, comparison of these samples with those from an area affected directly by a point source of organochlorine pesticides has shown that the cyprinid of the same age group contained significantly higher residue levels (average concentrations of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were 166, 20 and 7 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). Thus, it may be concluded that there was no direct input of organochlorine pesticides to the Shatt al-Arab River, and transportation via the natural processes, such as drainage, appeared to be the sole source. Based upon the observation that the original compound (p,p'-DDT) has not been detected in this river, it has also been concluded that there was no recent contribution of DDT here. Relatively higher residue levels of sumDDT, endrin and dieldrin were encountered in the muscles of the Indian shad captured from the Shatt al-Arab River (average concentrations were 163, 80 and 28 microg kg(-1) wet weight respectively). However, these elevated values were attributed to this fish being migratory and it being exposed to these pesticides elsewhere. PMID:15092796

DouAbul, A A; Al-Saad, H T; Al-Rekabi, H N

1987-01-01

327

Residues of endosulfan and other selected organochlorine pesticides in farm areas of the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

Crop soils, ditch sediments, and water flowing from several farm areas to salmon tributary streams of the Fraser River in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) of British Columbia, Canada, were sampled in 2002-2003 to quantify for residues of an organochlorine cyclodiene pesticide, endosulfan (END = alpha-endosulfan + beta-endosulfan + endosulfan sulfate). Residues from historical use of other selected organochlorine pesticides, namely, cyclodienes (aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide), hexachlorocyclohexanes [alpha-benzene-hexachloride (alpha-BHC), beta-BHC, delta-BHC, and gamma-BHC (lindane)], and DDT-related compounds (p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDE, and methoxychlor) were also determined. Reference and background levels of these pesticides in ditches leading to fish streams were obtained from pristine watershed areas. Varying amounts of END residues were detected in soils (<0.02-5.60 mg kg(-1) dry wt.) and ditch sediments (<0.02-3.33 mg kg(-1) dry wt.) in mainly three of five farm areas sampled. Likewise, residues (excluding END) of other selected organochlorine compounds such as aldrin, BHC, chlordane, endrin, p,p-DDT, methoxychlor, and their respective major transformation products (endosulfan sulfate, dieldrin, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p-DDD, and p,p-DDE) were found in crop soils (<0.02-16.2 mg kg(-1) dry wt.) and sediments (<0.02-9.73 mg kg(-1) dry wt.). Most of these pesticides (END: <0.01-1.86 microg L(-1); other selected organochlorine pesticides: <0.0.1-1.50 microg L(-1)) were also found in ditch water leading to salmon streams in several farms. The END levels of crop soils from the same LFV study farms in 1994 and 2003 indicated an estimated decline of 22% to 1.35 mg kg(-1) dry wt. during that period. This reduction was probably due to the increasing use of alternate pesticides (e.g., organophosphorus compounds). Some possible biological implications of these pesticide residues on nontarget organisms in the LFV are discussed. PMID:15942037

Wan, Michael T; Kuo, Jen-ni; Pasternak, John

2005-01-01

328

Immunomodulation of human natural killer cell cytotoxic function by organochlorine pesticides.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides are used worldwide. To our knowledge there have been no studies dealing with the effects of these agents under in vitro conditions on human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic function. NK cells play a central role in immune defense against tumor development and viral infections. Thus, any agent that interferes with the ability of NK cells to lyse their targets could increase the risk of tumor incidence and/or viral infections. In this study, we examined the effects of organochlorine pesticides and some of their breakdown products on the ability of human NK cells to lyse tumor cells. A total of 11 compounds were tested. The compounds were tested in both purified NK cells as well as a cell preparation that contained other mononuclear cells (predominantly T cells) and NK lymphocytes (referred to as T/NK cells). Lymphocytes were exposed to the compounds for periods of time ranging from 1 hour to 6 days. Exposure of highly purified NK cells to 5 microM alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, 4,4'-DDT, heptachlor, oxychlordane, or pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibited their ability to destroy K562 tumor-cells by 88+/-5, 92+/-8, 61+/-13%, 64+/-10%, 69+/-11%, 76+/-12%, respectively, after a 24 h exposure. The loss of cytotoxic function seen with alpha-and gamma-chlordane remained essentially constant out to 6 days, while that seen with 4,4'-DDT, oxychordane and PCP increased with longer exposures (6 d). PCP was the most effective of the compounds tested at decreasing NK function. Of the compounds that caused decreased lytic function when tested in purified NK cells, only PCP and oxychordane decreased the lytic function of the T/NK cell preparation after any exposure. The results provide evidence of relative toxic potential for the 11 compounds and their immunomodulatory effects on other mononuclear cells (such as T-cells, B-cells, and monocytes) as well as NK lymphocyte function. PMID:15553171

Reed, Adrian; Dzon, Leticia; Loganathan, Bommanna G; Whalen, Margaret M

2004-10-01

329

Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in Mexico.  

PubMed

The spatial and temporal variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in air across Mexico was investigated by deploying passive samplers at eleven stations across the country during 2005-2006. Integrated samples were taken over three-month periods and quantified for DDT compounds, endosulfans, toxaphenes, components of technical chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dieldrin. Enantiomers of chiral chlordanes and o,p'-DDT were determined on chiral stationary phase columns as an indicator of source and age. Results are discussed in combination with pumped air samples taken at four other stations in southern Mexico during 2002-2004. DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and toxaphene were the most abundant OCs detected in all sampling sites. Atmospheric concentrations of SigmaDDT (p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD + o,p'-DDD) ranged from 15 to 2360 pg m(-3) with the highest concentrations found in southern Mexico and the lowest found in northern and central Mexico. A fresher DDT residue was observed at sites with greater DDT use and in the southern part of the country, as shown from the higher FDDTe = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and nearly racemic o,p'-DDT. This agrees with the former heavy use of DDT in the endemic malarious area of the country. A local hotspot of endosulfan was identified at an agricultural area in Mazatlan, Sinaloa, with a annual mean concentration of SigmaENDO (endosulfans I + II + endosulfan sulfate) = 26,800 pg m(-3). At this site, higher concentrations of SigmaENDO were recorded during the winter (November to February) and spring (February to May) periods. From back trajectory analysis, this coincides with a shift in the air mass coming from the Pacific Ocean (May to November) to the inland agricultural area (November to May). The elevated SigmaENDO observed is likely due to the local agricultural usage. HCHs, chlordanes, transnonachlors, and dieldrin were more evenly distributed across the country likely due to them being aged residues and more diffuse in the environment. In contrast, hotspots of endosulfans, DDTs, and toxaphenes were observed as they were heavily used in localized agricultural or malarious regions of Mexico. PMID:19245005

Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A; Bidleman, Terry F; Alvarado, Víctor; Angeles, Felipe; Galarza, Alfredo Avila; Bandala, Erick R; Hinojosa, Idolina de la Cerda; Estrada, Ignacio Galindo; Reyes, Guillermo Galindo; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Zamora, Jose Vinicio Macías; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Espinoza, Elias Ramirez

2009-02-01

330

Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Indian flue-cured tobacco with gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

Presence of pesticide residues in tobacco increases health risk of both active and passive smokers, apart from the imminent potential health problems associated with it. Thus, monitoring of pesticide residue is an important issue in terms of formulating stringent policies, enabling global trade and safeguarding the consumer's safety. In this study, a gas chromatography-single quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method based upon quantifier-qualifier ions (m/z) ratio was employed for detecting and assessing ten organochlorine pesticide residues (?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, endrin, ?-endosulfan, ?-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate) in 152 flue-cured (FC) tobacco leave samples from two major tobacco growing states, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, of India. In the majority of samples, pesticide residue levels were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). In few samples, pesticide residues were detected and they found to comply with the guidance residue levels (GRL) specifications of the Cooperation Center for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA). Detection of the phase out pesticides like DDT/HCH might be due to transfer of persistent residues from the environmental components to the plant. This is the first report on these ten organochlorine pesticide residues in Indian FC tobacco. PMID:24687692

Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar; Khan, Zareen S; Rao, C V N; Banerjee, Kaushik; Reddy, D Damodar; Murthy, T G K; Johnson, Nalli; Ray, Deb Prasad

2014-08-01

331

Distribution of persistent organochlorine contaminants in infertile patients from Tanzania and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To test whether environmental pollutants could affect fertility in humans.\\u000a Methods: 31 women and 16 men from Tanzania and 21 couples from Germany were included (n=89). Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in serum, follicular fluid or seminal plasma by gaschromatography and related to sperm quality and pregnancy rates.\\u000a Results: Higher concentrations of DDT+DDE and dieldrin in Tanzania and

Jürgen M. Weiss; Otmar Bauer; Albrecht Blüthgen; Annika K. Ludwig; Elke Vollersen; Malise Kaisi; Safaa Al-Hasani; Klaus Diedrich; Michael Ludwig

2006-01-01

332

Aural abscesses in wild-caught box turtles (Terapene carolina): possible role of organochlorine-induced hypovitaminosis A.  

PubMed

Wild-caught box turtles (Terapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses were observed over a period of several years. Histopathologic evaluation of epithelial tissues (conjunctiva, pharynx, trachea, auditory tube) revealed mucosal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, and accumulated keratin-like material in the middle ear cavity. These manifestations suggested the possibility of vitamin A deficiency. A nonsignificant trend toward reduced serum and hepatic vitamin A levels was observed in turtles with abscesses (mean serum and hepatic vitamin A levels 71 and 49% of respective levels in turtles without abscesses). Three organochlorine (OC) compounds (alpha-benzene hexachloride, heptachlor epoxide, and oxychlordane) and total (microg/g) OC compounds were significantly higher in turtles with abscesses compared with turtles without abscesses. No OC compounds were higher in turtles without abscesses compared with turtles with abscesses. These data suggest a possible effect of environmental chemicals on metabolism or utilization of vitamin A in wild box turtles, resulting in hypovitaminosis A. PMID:11161683

Holladay, S D; Wolf, J C; Smith, S A; Jones, D E; Robertson, J L

2001-01-01

333

An Ecological Study of Organochlorine Pesticides and Breast Cancer in Rural Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have suggested that environmental contamination with organochlorine pesticides may be related to risk\\u000a of breast cancer. To investigate this association in a rural part of Australia, organochlorine contamination data from a breast\\u000a milk organochlorine study conducted in the state of Victoria in 1993 were used. The state was divided into 11 statistical\\u000a divisions. Standardized incidence ratios

Narges Khanjani; Dallas R. English; Malcolm R. Sim

2006-01-01

334

Persistent organic pollutants in ringed seals from the Russian Arctic.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds total DDT (?DDT), total HCH isomers (?HCH), toxaphenes (sum of Parlar 26, 50, 62), mirex, endrin, methoxychlor, total chlorinated benzenes (?CBz), total chlordane compounds (?CHL), polychlorinated biphenyls (total of 56 congeners; ?PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sum of 7 tri- to hepta congeners; ?PBDEs) were analysed in the blubber of adult ringed seals from the four areas of the Russian Arctic (White Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea) collected in 2001-2005. Ringed seals from the south-western part of the Kara Sea (Dikson Island - Yenisei estuary) were the most contaminated with ?DDTs, ?PCBs, ?CHL, and mirex as compared with those found in the other three areas of Russian Arctic, while the highest mean concentrations of ?HCHs and PCDD/Fs were found in the blubber of ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea and the White Sea, respectively. Among all organochlorine compounds measured in ringed seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic, concentrations of ?DDT and ?PCBs only were higher as compared with the other Arctic regions. Levels of all other organochlorine compounds were similar or lower than in seals from Svalbard, Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. ?PBDEs were found in all ringed seal samples analysed. There were no significant differences between ?PBDE concentrations found in the blubber of ringed seals from the three studied areas of the European part of the Russian Arctic, while PBDE contamination level in ringed seals from the Chukchi Sea was 30-50 times lower. ?PBDE levels in the blubber of seals from the European part of the Russian Arctic are slightly higher than in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and western Greenland but lower compared to ringed seals from Svalbard and eastern Greenland. PMID:21636111

Savinov, Vladimir; Muir, Derek C G; Svetochev, Vladislav; Svetocheva, Olga; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrey; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Reiersen, Lars-Otto; Savinova, Tatiana

2011-06-15

335

Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum ?-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of ?-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013. Organochlorine pesticides and risk of endometriosis: findings from a population-based case–control study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1319–1324;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306648

De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

2013-01-01

336

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in human milk: a biomonitoring study in rural areas of Flanders (Belgium).  

PubMed

To collect information on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the rural areas in Flanders (Belgium), 84 breastfeeding mothers were recruited in rural communities in East and West Flanders and Flemish Brabant in 2009-2010. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like PCBs were measured in individual milk samples and in a pooled milk sample, while some additional pollutants were only measured in the pooled sample. For most pollutants, the concentrations in this study were lower or comparable to the concentrations measured in the pooled Belgian sample of the WHO human milk study of 2006, except for the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DDT (+25% for ?DDT and metabolites) and trans-nonachlor (+94%), and for the brominated flame retardant hexachlorocyclododecane HBCD (+153%). Perfluorinated compounds were for the first time determined in human milk samples from Belgium and the concentrations were comparable to those from other European countries. Also, interesting associations were found between the concentrations of POPs measured in human milk and personal characteristics as well as dietary habits of the study population. PFOS en PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants compared to mothers who gave birth to their second child. Lower brominated PBDE congeners increased with increasing BMI of the mothers (p=0.01 for BDE 47, p=0.02 for BDE 99 and p=0.02 for BDE 100). Participants consuming milk or dairy products daily had significant higher concentrations of ?DDTs (p=0.03) and oxychlordane (p=0.047) in their human milk samples. PMID:22840535

Croes, K; Colles, A; Koppen, G; Govarts, E; Bruckers, L; Van de Mieroop, E; Nelen, V; Covaci, A; Dirtu, A C; Thomsen, C; Haug, L S; Becher, G; Mampaey, M; Schoeters, G; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

2012-11-01

337

The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.  

PubMed

The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of ?7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), ?3HCH (?-HCH + ?-HCH + ?-HCH) and ?3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 ?g kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ?DDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the ? isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group. PMID:23877573

Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

2013-12-01

338

Revised and new reference values for some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blood for human biomonitoring in environmental medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference values for environmental pollutants related to the German population are established continuously by the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environmental Agency. The revised and new reference values for organochlorine compounds in whole blood are derived from the German Environmental Survey 1998 (adults aged 18 – 69 years) and from a survey performed with children (age 9 –

Michael Wilhelm; Ulrich Ewers; Christine Schulz

2003-01-01

339

Organochlorine levels in edible fish from the Marmara Sea, Turkey.  

PubMed

Samples of 12 edible fish species from the Marmara Sea were analyzed for organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, HCB, HCHs, toxaphene, etc.). The results showed that the total concentrations ranged from 329.41 ng/g fat to 1453.87 ng/g fat. DDT group components made up almost half or more of organochlorine contamination. Levels in red mullet were compared with those from neighbor seas. The sum of DDTs as well as HCHs concentrations were markedly lower than in the Black Sea but higher in the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean. Thus, inflow from the Black Sea might be considered as a contamination source for DDT and HCH contamination. On the other hand, total PCB concentration (sum of congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) detected in this study was comparable or lower than those from the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean. Toxaphene was a minor contaminant. Measured values were below maximum residue levels for human consumption. PMID:16750566

Coelhan, Mehmet; Strohmeier, Johanna; Barlas, Hulusi

2006-08-01

340

Interlaboratory analysis of high molecular weight organochlorines in ambient air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High volume air samples were collected in Boston, MA, and Columbia, SC using a glass fiber filter — polyurethane foam trap, and the pooled sample extracts from each location were distributed among nine laboratories for organochlorine analysis. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were reported by all laboratories, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 26-39 % for total PCB. The total PCB concentration in Boston was 7.1 ng m -3, compared to 4.4 ng m -3 in Columbia. Other organochlorines identified by three or more laboratories included hexachlorobenzene and the pesticides DDT, DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane, and polychloroterpenes. RSDs for most pesticides ranged from 35-75% and as high as 116% for polychloroterpenes (quantified as toxaphene). In general, pesticide levels were an order of magnitude higher in Columbia than in Boston.

Bidleman, Terry F.

341

Phagocytic activity of Dictyostelium amoebae treated with an organochlorine pesticide.  

PubMed

The effect of an organochlorine pesticide benzene hexachloride (containing alpha, beta, gamma and delta isomers) on the phagocytic activity of the vegetative cells of Dictyostelium discoideum was investigated. Benzene hexachloride (BHC) at concentrations of 60 ppm and above inhibited the phagocytic activity as revealed by 3H-labelled E. coli uptake. The BHC treated cells also showed smaller and delayed plaque formation. Interactions of lipophilic pesticide with the hydrophobic cell surface presumably alters the receptor mediated phagocytosis of Dictyostelium amoebae. PMID:7685650

Gayatri, R; Chatterjee, S

1993-03-01

342

BIOCONCENTRATION OF TRACE ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES BY THE RAINBOW TROUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioaccumulation of five organochlorines pesticides [lindan, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, 4,4?-dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] by the rainbow trout was studied in a laboratory continuous flow system at concentration level more closing to that in natural environment (ca. 2 µg\\/l). Under such conditions, bioconcentration kinetics of all the pesticides by the rainbow trout was almost linearly increased during the exposure period of

Yibing Lu; Zijian Wang

2002-01-01

343

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Bottled Drinking Water from Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results\\u000a of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers,\\u000a heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p?-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization.\\u000a The concentrations of the

Gilberto Díaz; Rutilio Ortiz; Beatriz Schettino; Salvador Vega; Rey Gutiérrez

2009-01-01

344

Biomarker Measurements in a Coastal Fish-Eating Population Environmentally Exposed to Organochlorines  

PubMed Central

The Lower North Shore region of the St. Lawrence River is home to a fish-eating population that displays an unusually high body burden of several organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). We measured biomarkers indicative of liver enzyme induction and investigated the relationship with organochlorine body burden in adult volunteers from this population. We determined plasma concentrations of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) with electron capture detection. DLC concentrations were measured by the dioxin-receptor chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay and in a subset of participants, by HRGC/high-resolution mass spectrometry. We measured cotinine, d-glucaric acid, and porphyrins in morning urine samples and determined liver CYP1A2 activity in vivo using the caffeine breath test. Neither DLC concentrations as measured by the DR-CALUX nor PCB-153 concentrations, the latter representing total PCB exposure, were correlated with biomarkers of effects. Smoking (morning urinary cotinine concentration) was positively related to CYP1A2 activity as measured by the caffeine breath test (p < 0.01). Liver CYP1A2 activity was in turn negatively correlated with PCB-105:PCB-153 and PCB-118:PCB-153 congener ratios (p < 0.05). Hence, despite the relatively high body burden of PCBs and DLCs in this population, only smoking had a significant correlation with biomarkers of hepatic enzyme induction. Our data are consistent with smoking-induced liver CYP1A2 activity altering heme metabolism and increasing the biotransformation of mono-ortho PCB congeners.

Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Lambert, George H.; Perkins, Sherry L.; Poon, Raymond; Feeley, Mark; Larochelle, Christian; Pereg, Daria

2005-01-01

345

Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in wood storks and anhingas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

All 10 Wood Stork eggs collected at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in 1973 contained residues of DDE (geometric mean 4.0 ppm wet weight) and PCBs (1.2 ppm). Nine other organochlorines were found at lower frequencies in the eggs. Eggshells from the recent period were 8.9% thinner (P < 0.001) than pre-1947 samples; decrease in eggshell thickness was more closely correlated with DDE than other organochlorines and correlation of DDE and eggshell thickness approached significance (P = 0.115).....Anhinga eggs were collected at 7 localities; 45 of the 46 eggs analyzed contained DDE residues and 24 contained PCBs. Residues of other organochlorines were found less frequently. Shell thickness of recent eggs from Louisiana and Mississippi was significantly less (-7.5%; P < 0.05) than the mean for pre-1947 eggs, but there was no significant change in shell thickness of eggs from Florida. The change in clutch mean eggshell thickness was significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the concentration of DDE in the eggs.

Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

1978-01-01

346

Organochlorine residues in two Norwegian puffin (Fratercula arctica) colonies.  

PubMed

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, aldrin, and dieldrin in adult puffins (Fratercula arctica) from two colonies in Norway (Røst 67 degrees 30'N and Hornøy 70 degrees 20'N) showing differences in breeding performance were compared in 1982. Furthermore, residue levels in puffin chicks from Røst in 1982, when breeding failed totally, were compared with the corresponding levels in 1983, when breeding was successful. Residue levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons were also measured in eggs from Røst 1982. An autoradiographic study of the distribution of [14C]HCB in adult puffins and chicks from Røst 1982 was included. In general, organochlorine contamination was low, and the results are interpreted to eliminate the organochlorines as a serious factor for impaired reproduction in the Røst colony. Significant differences between the two colonies are discussed in relation to geographical and nutritional aspects. The finding of significantly higher levels of organochlorines in organ tissue from puffin chicks from Røst in 1982 compared to the corresponding levels in 1983 may reflect the dramatic difference in nutritional status between the two years. PMID:6084067

Ingebrigtsen, K; Skaare, J U; Teigen, S W

1984-01-01

347

Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in the lower Tennessee River basin, 1980-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, evaluated the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in samples collected in the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit. Fish tissue analysis provides a time-averaged measurement of contaminants as well as a direct measurement of the contaminants that bioaccumulate in fish tissue. Bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish tissue may result in concentrations that can affect human, wildlife, or aquatic health. Data for two types of tissue analyses were evaluated to assess the occurrence and distribution of contaminants: whole fish for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and fish fillets for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements. The fish tissue data analyzed for this study cover an 18-year span including data collected in 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program; data collected from 1980 through 1997 by the Tennessee Valley Authority; and data collected from 1992 through 1997 by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Concentration data for constituents that are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant List were summarized and compared against existing action levels or guidelines.From the list of organochlorine pesticide compounds analyzed, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a breakdown product of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), was the most commonly detected compound with detections at 83 percent of the sites sampled. Eleven p,p'-DDE samples exceeded action levels or guidelines with concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 12.8 milligrams per kilogram. Five other organochlorine compounds, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls, also exceeded action levels and guidelines, but the detection frequencies at sampling sites generally were less than 70 percent. Mercury, the only trace element to exceed a guideline, was detected at 51 of 102 sites sampled for trace elements. Selenium was detected in fish fillet samples from 70 of 102 sites sampled, which was more sites than for any other trace element; however, selenium did not exceed the 50 micrograms per gram U.S. Environmental Protection Agency screening criteria. Arsenic and cadmium also were detected at 44 and 54 percent of the sampling sites, respectively.

Knight, R. R.; Powell, J. R.

2001-01-01

348

Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to Organochlorines Through the Marine Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

High organochlorine concentrations have been found among the Inuit in eastern Canada and in Greenland. The present study was undertaken to assess the exposure to organochlorines in relation to age, sex, and diet in a general population sample of Inuit from Greenland. Survey data and plasma concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 16 pesticides, including 5 toxaphene congeners,

Peter Bjerregaard; Eric Dewailly; Pierre Ayotte; Tine Pars; Liliane Ferron; Gert Mulvad

2001-01-01

349

SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION OF METHOD 8080 -ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The design, execution and results of the improvement and single-laboratory evaluation of SW-846 Method 8080, 'Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs', are described. In the study, the application of the method to the analysis of aqueous and solid samples for organochlorine pesticides...

350

Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: A case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin  

PubMed Central

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3 mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August–October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17?-estradiol (E2), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E2). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E2 had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E2 may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system.

Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

2013-01-01

351

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from college school yards in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been a major environmental issue, attracting much scientific concern because of their nature of toxicity, persistence, and endocrine disrupting effects. Soil samples were collected from ten college school yards in Beijing in 2006 and analyzed to determine fifteen OCPs. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were found to be the main pollutants, accounting for 93.70% of total OCPs, followed by hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) (2.25%) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.82%). Content of chlordanes (CHLs), heptachlors (HEPTs), and endosulfans comprised 0.51%, 1.05%, and 0.79% of fifteen OCPs, respectively. The preliminary pollution assessment indicated that DDTs have caused high OCPs levels in some schools. Source identification showed that HCHs in soils were originated from an old mixed source of technical HCHs and lindane. And DDTs were mainly from mixed use of technical DDTs and dicofol containing DDT impurities. According to GB15618-1995 (guidelines of Chinese environmental quality standards for soils), HCHs and DDTs levels might be categorized as little and low polluting pesticides. This study indicated that the environmental quality of college school yards with large green land were not as good as was expected and there existed potential exposure risk of college population to OCPs. PMID:19143316

Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Dianzhong; Qin, Xiaofei; Xu, Xiaobai

2008-01-01

352

Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: a case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August-October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17?-estradiol (E(2)), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E(2)). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E(2) had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E(2) may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system. PMID:23041725

Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-01-01

353

Cell cycle disruption and apoptosis as mechanisms of toxicity of organochlorines in Zea mays roots.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widespread environmental pollutants; two of them are highly persistent: lindane (?HCH) and chlordecone (CLD). Maize plants cope with high levels of OCP-environmental pollution, however little is known about cellular mechanisms involved in plant response to such OCP-exposures. This research was aimed at understanding the physiological pathways involved in the plant response to OCPs in function of a gradient of exposure. Here we provide the evidences that OCPs might disrupt root cell cycle leading to a rise in the level of polyploidy possibly through mechanisms of endoreduplication. In addition, low-to-high doses of ?HCH were able to induce an accumulation of H2O2 without modifying NO contents, while CLD modulated neither H2O2 nor NO production. [Ca(2+)]cytosolic, the caspase-3-like activity as well as TUNEL-positive nuclei and IP-positive cells increased after exposure to low-to-high doses of OCPs. These data strongly suggest a cascade mechanism of the OCP-induced toxic effect, notably with an increase in [Ca(2+)]cytosolic and caspase-3-like activity, suggesting the activation of programmed cell death pathway. PMID:24892778

Blondel, Claire; Melesan, Marc; San Miguel, Angélique; Veyrenc, Sylvie; Meresse, Patrick; Pezet, Mylène; Reynaud, Stephane; Raveton, Muriel

2014-07-15

354

Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, heavy metals and anticoagulant rodenticides in tissues of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) from upper Loire River catchment (France).  

PubMed

In this study, tissues of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from a naturally expanding population along upper Loire River (France) catchment were used for contaminants analyses. nine organochlorine pesticides, 16 PCB congeners, five heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and arsenic) and three anticoagulant rodenticides were quantified in livers of road-traffic killed otters. Organochlorine compounds and heavy metals were found in 100% of the samples, and occasional contamination by anticoagulant rodenticides was confirmed. Total organochlorine pesticides reached a maximum of 9.4 mg kg(-1) lipid weight. Higher data were observed for other contaminants, especially total PCBs and mercury. Maximal total PCBs values reached 64.8 mg kg(-1) lipid weight, and maximal measured mercury concentration was 8.2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight. Considering the expansion noted in the study area, global contamination does not seem to threat the short-term species conservation. Nevertheless, important values at some individual scale were noticed, suggesting high inter-individual variations in populations. PMID:20594572

Lemarchand, Charles; Rosoux, René; Berny, Philippe

2010-08-01

355

Partitioning of organochlorines between water, particulate matter and some organisms in estuarine and marine systems of the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distributions of organochlorines in estuarine and marine systems, and in particular those of the individual PCB components have been analysed for the partitioning of these substances between water, particulate matter (seston), plankton, worms, shellfish, fish and some birds. The K d concept, where K d is the distribution coefficient in ml·g -1 units, has been used to investigate the distribution ratio between solid substrates and water. Additionally, an attempt has been made to determine the regression coefficient of K ds with a polarity index of the individual PCB components. Since the octanol-water partition coefficient (log K ow) is significantly proportional to the IUPAC Numbers of these components, this K d-IUPAC Number regression has been carried out for samples from the Delta region, the North Sea and the Wadden Sea. For the latter two regions, existing concentrations from unpublished reports have been taken. Two major results have been obtained, while one important question remains to be answered: (i) Organochlorine (pesticides and ?PCBs) concentrations in mussels can be successfully correlated to salinities of estuarine waters, if the sources of organochlorines are linked to the major fresh waters of the estuarine system. This correlation is independent of the seasonal changes in condition of these organisms by fat content, if the records is made for a period of two years. (ii) These results and those on K d determinations demonstrate for aquatic organisms a degree of consistency in the K d levels if concentrations in the organisms are calculated on fat basis. The K d range for ?PCBs is 10 5-10 6, independent of the area of investigation. The same is true for seston with a range of K ds of 10 4-10 5. (iii) A very interesting question involves the K d-IUPAC Number regression coefficients and the value and sign (+ or -) of this coefficient. In general 60% of all correlations seem to be significant, but the different values and in particular the negative correlations are difficult to explain even when third-degree S-shape correlations are considered. A negative correlation implies a weaker adsorption of less-polar compounds (higher chlorinated PCBs with higher IUPAC Number), which cannot be explained by hydrophobic-hydrophylic reactions. An extended study on the true-dissolved organochlorines might be necessary to exclude errors which might be due to the methodology of filtration.

Duursma, E. K.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Van Liere, J. M.; Hillebrand, M. T. J.

356

Toxic metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) and organochlorine residue levels in hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Marmara Sea, Turkey.  

PubMed

Toxic metals (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) and organochlorine residue levels were measured in hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Marmara Sea. Biota samples were collected by a trawling cruise of the R/V ARAR in August and December 2009. The concentrations of toxic metals varied between Pb, 3.23-14.4; Cd, <0.01-2.14; Hg, 0.01-0.18 and As, 0.01-0.21 [Formula: see text]g g(-1) dry wt. Pb levels in the Marmara Sea were found to be higher than the critical limits set by the both Turkish Ministry of Environment for Aquatic Products (1 ?g g(-1) wet wt.) and European countries (2.0 ?g g(-1), UNEP 1985). In contrast, As and Hg levels were found to be lower than the critical limits for two periods. Cd contents of fish from the Marmara Sea were also comparable to or slightly lower than contents of fish from the Southern Black Sea Shelf. The results of organochlorine residues ranged between total HCH, <0.05 and 99 ng g(-1); endrin, <0.001 and 381 ng g(-1); alpha-endosulphan, <0.05 and 90 ng g(-1); beta-endosulphan, <0.05 and 15.3 ng g(-1); o,p DDE, 3.5 and 52.4 ng g(-1); p,p DDE, 7.4 and 139 ng g(-1); o,p DDD, 1.5 and 90.2 ng g(-1) and p,p DDD, 2.7 and 86 ng g(-1) wet weight. The rivers for the distribution of organochlorine levels in the Marmara Sea ordered from highest to lowest as Dil R. > Susurluk R. > Biga R. > Gönen R. The high levels of o,p and p,p DDE, and o,p and p,p DDD compounds, which are metabolites of DDT, indicate its illegal use. Toxic metal and organochlorine residue levels of fish are significantly higher than levels from the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21336486

Aksu, Abdullah; Balkis, Nuray; Ta?kin, Omer S; Er?an, Mahmut S

2011-11-01

357

Assessment of organochlorine pesticide exposure in a wintering population of razorbills (Alca torda) from the southwestern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

Sixteen organochlorine pesticides (OC) were analyzed in several tissue types (abdominal and subcutaneous fat, liver and brain) from juvenile (n=14), immature (n=9), subadult (n=7) and adult (n=20) razorbill (Alca torda) collected from the southwestern Mediterranean coastline, in the East of Spain (La Marina, Elche, Alicante, Spain). These razorbills had drowned in fishing nets (most probably) while searching for food. The objective was to assess the exposure to organochlorine pesticide residues in this wintering population of marine birds. This paper presents, as far as we are aware, the first published data on OC concentrations in razorbills. The highest levels were found in abdominal fat followed by subcutaneous fat, liver and brain. A significant positive relationship was found between age and OC levels in tissues, and with the highest levels in adults. The group of sigma Drins had the highest concentrations, followed by sigma DDT, sigma Endosulfan, sigma HCH and sigma Heptachlor, with endrin aldehyde being the compound which reached the highest levels. The p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in fatty tissues suggests exposure to non-degraded DDT and thus is present in the environment despite its prohibition. The OC levels detected were higher than those found in other studies on Alcidae, which may be explained by the Mediterranean habitat in which the birds were found. However, these levels are below concentrations for which any observable effect has been described. PMID:20619440

Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; Gómez-Ramírez, Pilar; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

2010-08-01

358

Significance of organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wintering shorebirds at Corpus Christi, Texas, 1976-77  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues were determined in 103 shorebirds of seven species collected at Corpus Christi, Texas, during the winter of 1976-77 to evaluate their potential effects on population survival, DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in most samples. Chlordane isomers, dieldrin, toxaphene, and heptachlor epoxide also occurred, but less frequently. In general, organochlorine residues were low in skinned carcasses. Geometric means on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.25 ppm to 4.76 ppm for DDE and from 0.67 ppm to 6.64 ppm for PCBs; residues of the other compounds averaged less than 1 ppm in all instances. Mercury, lead, arsenic and vanadium occurred in all shorebird livers, and selenium and cadmium were detected in all kidneys. Residues of these metals, except selenium, were low in most tissue samples. Selenium averages varied from 1.77 ppm to 5.62 ppm (wet weight) in kidneys; residues in this range may be sufficient to inhibit reproduction or to induce other forms of toxicity, especially at the higher levels.

White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Prouty, R.M.

1980-01-01

359

Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p´-DDT followed by ,p,p´-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and ?-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p´-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p´-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 ?g kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region. PMID:24813984

Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

2014-07-01

360

Distribution, sources, and ecological risks of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China.  

PubMed

Thirty-four surface sediment samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in order to provide information on levels, distribution and sources of these compounds in the Yellow River Estuary, China. The levels of the organochlorine pesticides in samples were detected by the technique of soxhlet extraction followed by analysis by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with a mass selective detector. Total concentrations of OCPs ranged widely from 0.06 to 53.4 ng g(-1), with a mean value of 44.84 ng g(-1), at the mid level of pesticide concentrations compared to those reported in other regions worldwide. HCHs were the predominant species in the study area. The ratios of ?-HCH/?-HCH indicated that the technical HCH contamination was mainly due to a recent input of lindane in upper reach of Yellow River Estuary. The ratios of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs and DDD/DDE suggested that DDTs in sediments came mainly from the degradation of historical DDT in the environment, and DDT could be much easier to degrade into DDD under anaerobic conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) could conclude that most of the OCPs came from early input and historical degradation products in the study area. Based on the sediment quality guidelines, ?-HCH and p'p-DDE would be of more concern for the ecotoxicological risk in this study area. PMID:24158319

Da, Chunnian; Liu, Guijian; Tang, Quan; Liu, Jingjing

2013-12-01

361

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.  

PubMed

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago. PMID:21529852

Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

2011-06-01

362

Organochlorine residues in brown pelican eggs: Relation to reproductive success  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was conducted to determine the influence of residues of organochlorine pollutants on reproductive success in the brown pelican. A sample egg was taken from each of 93 marked nests in the nesting colony in South Carolina. Periodic visits were made to determine the fate of marked nests. Each sample egg was analysed for residues of organochlorine pollutants. Nest success in the brown pelican was related to residues of DDE and dieldrin in sample eggs. DDE seemed primarily responsible for nest failure; however, deleterious effects of this pollutant on nest success were not satisfactorily separated from those induced by dieldrin. Significant intercorrelation of all five organochlorine residues identified in the eggs complicated the relationship of residues to nest success. Maximum DDE residues in an egg from a successful nest were 2.37 ?g/g and 8.48 ?g/g in an egg from an unsuccessful nest. Comparable maximum residues for dieldrin in sample eggs were 0.54 ?g/g (successful) and 0.99 ?g/g (unsuccessful). Nineteen of the 26 eggs from unsuccessful nests contained DDE residues that exceeded 2.37 ?g/g, and 14 of these 26 eggs contained dieldrin residues that exceeded O.54 ?g/g. Residues of DDD, DDT or PCBs in sample eggs were not significantly related to nest success. Reproductive success in the brown pelican colony was subnormal in the years of study--1971 and 1972--but reproductive success was normal in those nests in which the sample egg contained either <2,5 ?g/g of DDE or 0.54 ?g/g of dieldrin.

Blus, L.J.; Neely, B.S., Jr.; Belisle, A.A.; Prouty, R.M.

1974-01-01

363

Staphylococcus aureus persisters tolerant to bactericidal antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Bacterial persister cells are non- or slow growing reversible phenotypic variants of the wild type, tolerant to bactericidal antibiotics. We here analyzed Staphylococcus aureus persister levels by monitoring colony forming unit (CFU) counts of planktonically grown cells treated with six different antimicrobials over time. Model laboratory strains HG001-HG003, SA113 and small colony variant (SCV) strains hemB and menD were challenged by the compounds at different logs of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in exponential or stationary growth phase. Antibiotic tolerance was usually elevated in SCV strains compared to normally growing cells and in stationary vs. exponential phase cultures. Biphasic killing kinetics, typical for persister cell enrichment, were observed in both growth phases under different selective conditions. Treatment of exponential phase cultures of HG001-HG003 with 10-fold MIC of tobramycin resulted in the isolation of persisters which upon cultivation on plates formed either normal or phenotypically stable small colonies. Trajectories of different killing curves indicated physiological heterogeneity within persister subpopulations. Daptomycin added at 100-fold MIC to stationary phase SA113 cells rapidly isolated very robust persisters. Fractions of antibiotic tolerant cells were observed with all S. aureus strains and mutants tested. Our results refute the hypothesis that S. aureus stationary phase cells are equivalent to persisters, as not all of these cells showed antibiotic tolerance. Isolation of S. aureus persisters of different robustness seems to dependent on the kind and concentration of the antibiotic, as well as on the strain used.

Lechner, Sabrina; Lewis, Kim; Bertram, Ralph

2012-01-01

364

An environmentally relevant mixture of organochlorines, their metabolites and effects on preimplantation development of porcine embryos.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure of human populations to organochlorines is still widespread despite several international regulations banning or restricting their use. This study tested the hypothesis that an environmentally relevant complex mixture of organochlorines comprising polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), technical chlordane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and 12 other components is toxic for porcine embryos (at relative concentrations of 1-10000-fold the environmental organochlorine levels of contamination or 4.2 microg/l total PCBs). We also tested the embryotoxicity of a metabolised organochlorine mixture (relative concentrations of 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6 and 4.5 microg/l hydroxy-PCBs (OH-PCBs)) obtained by extracting plasma samples from sows treated with the native mixture. Embryos produced in vitro were exposed to either the organochlorine mixture or the metabolised extract for 9 days. The organochlorine mixture reduced embryonic development at the 10000x concentration (relative concentration of 42 mg/l PCBs; p=0.05). The organochlorine mixture also reduced the mean number of blastomeres per expanded blastocyst in a dose-dependent manner (p=0.038) but did not induce blastomere apoptosis (p>0.05). In contrast, the metabolised extract did not affect development or blastomere number at the concentrations tested, although the highest level of this mixture (4.5 microg/l OH-PCBs) was still very low (i.e. similar to the 1x concentration of the organochlorine mixture, which also did not alter embryo parameters). These data lead to the conclusion that while high concentrations of the native organochlorine mixture are toxic for porcine embryos, concentrations of either the native or the metabolised mixture that bear some relevance to exposure of human populations in the Arctic were without observable effect. PMID:18479888

Campagna, Céline; Ayotte, Pierre; Sirard, Marc-André; Bailey, Janice L

2008-04-01

365

Limit of detection and limit of quantification development procedures for organochlorine pesticides analysis in water and sediment matrices  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable values for method validity of organochlorine pesticides determination were investigated, in water by solid phase extraction and in sediment by Soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides are categorized as Persistent Organic Pollutants. Hence, critical decisions to control exposure to these chemicals in the environment are based on their levels in different media; it is important to find valid qualitative and quantitative results for these components. In analytical chemistry, internal quality procedures are applied to produce valid logical results. Result In this study, 18 organochlorine pesticides were targeted for analysis and determination in water and river sediment. Experiments based on signal-to-noise ratio, calibration curve slope and laboratory fortified blank methods were conducted to determine the limits of qualification and quantification. The data were compared with each other. The limitation values, following Laboratory Fortified Blank, showed significant differences in the signal-to-noise ratio and calibration curve slope methods, which are assumed in the results for the sample concentration factor to be 1,000 times in water and 10 times in sediment matrices. The method detection limit values were found to be between 0.001 and 0.005 ?g/L (mean of 0.002?±?0.001) and 0.001 and 0.005 ?g/g (mean of 0.001?±?0.001). The quantification limits were found to be between 0.002 and 0.016 ?g/L (mean of 0.006?±?0.004) and 0.003 and 0.017 ?g/g (mean of 0.005?±?0.003 ?g/L) for water and sediment, respectively, based on the laboratory fortified blank method. Because of different slopes in the calibration methods, it was also found that the limitation values for some components from the internal standard were higher than from external standard calibration, because in the latter a factor for injection efficiency is applied for calibration. Conclusion Technically, there are differentiations between detection limits for quality and quantity from component to component, resulting from noise, response factors of instruments and matrix interference. However, the calculation method is the cause of differentiation for each component of the different methods. The results show that for no matter what component, the relationship between these levels in different methods is approximately: Signal to Noise : Calibration Slope?=?1:10. Therefore, due to different methods to determine LOD and LOQ, the values will be different. In the current study, laboratory fortified blank is the best method, with lower limitation values for Soxhlet and solid phase extraction of OCPs from sediment and water, respectively.

2013-01-01

366

A model to resolve organochlorine pharmacokinetics in migrating humpback whales.  

PubMed

Humpback whales are iconic mammals at the top of the Antarctic food chain. Their large reserves of lipid-rich tissues such as blubber predispose them to accumulation of lipophilic contaminants throughout their lifetime. Changes in the volume and distribution of lipids in humpback whales, particularly during migration, could play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic contaminants such as the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Previous models have examined constant feeding and nonmigratory scenarios. In the present study, the authors develop a novel heuristic model to investigate HCB dynamics in a humpback whale and its environment by coupling an ecosystem nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model takes into account the seasonal feeding pattern of whales, their energy requirements, and fluctuating contaminant burdens in the supporting plankton food chain. It is applied to a male whale from weaning to maturity, spanning 20 migration and feeding cycles. The model is initialized with environmental HCB burdens similar to those measured in the Southern Ocean and predicts blubber HCB concentrations consistent with empirical concentrations observed in a southern hemisphere population of male, migrating humpback whales. Results show for the first time some important details of the relationship between energy budgets and organochlorine pharmacokinetics. PMID:24733631

Cropp, Roger; Nash, Susan Bengtson; Hawker, Darryl

2014-07-01

367

Determination of 21 organochlorine pesticides in tree leaves using solid-phase extraction clean-up cartridges.  

PubMed

A method to determine 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tree leaves [chestnut (Castanea sativa), hazel (Corylus avellana), oak (Quercus robur) and walnut tree (Juglans regia)] based on microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up is described. After extraction with hexane:acetone (50:50), four different sorbents (Florisil, tandem Florisil + alumina, silica and ENVI-Carb) were assayed for the clean-up step. Pesticides were eluted with 5 mL of hexane:ethyl acetate (80:20) and determined by gas chromatography and electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Carbon was the sorbent, which provided colourless eluates and chromatograms with less interferent compounds. Analytical recoveries obtained were ca. 100% for all the studied pesticides with this sorbent. PMID:15641355

Barriada-Pereira, M; González-Castro, M J; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Fernández-Fernández, E

2004-12-24

368

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.  

PubMed

The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523

de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

2010-12-01

369

The Role of Canine Distemper Virus and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Mortality Patterns of Caspian Seals (Pusa caspica)  

PubMed Central

Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971–2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n?=?67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971–2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s–1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126–129 cm (n?=?111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low frequency of epizootics suggest they are of secondary importance compared to anthropogenic sources of mortality such as fishing by-catch.

Wilson, Susan C.; Eybatov, Tariel M.; Amano, Masao; Jepson, Paul D.; Goodman, Simon J.

2014-01-01

370

[Ubiquitous perfluorinated compounds].  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds are derivatives of hydrocarbons, in which all or most of hydrogen atoms are substitiuted by fluorine atoms. These compounds are commonly used in many branches of industry. Perfluorinated compounds are in the limelight because of numerous reports concerning their toxicity and negative effects on human health as well as contradictory information about their cancerogenic effect. The above compounds are used in production of many commonly used products including such brand names as Gore-Tex, Teflon, Stainmaster. The most common ways of penetrating these compounds into a human organism are: via food, inhalation and skin contact. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been added to the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PMID:21980858

Kucharska, Agnieszka; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Struci?ski, Pawe?; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Snopczy?iski, Tomasz; Ludwicki, Jan K

2011-01-01

371

Microwave-assisted steam distillation for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and pyrethroids in Chinese teas.  

PubMed

In this work, microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD) extraction method followed by gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) was developed for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and pyrethroids in the Chinese teas. MASD is a combination of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and steam distillation techniques. Water vapor generated by microwave irradiation is used to accelerate desorption of the analytes from the sample, and the nonpolar organic solvent used for trapping the analytes is kept from direct contact with the sample by the water. Therefore, relatively clean extracts were obtained compared to the method directly using organic solvent as extraction solvent, such as ultrasonic extraction (USE). Microwave power of 200W and irradiation time of 2min was found to be the optimum conditions for the MASD process, and n-heptane was chosen as the analyte-trapping solvent in the study. Five OCPs (alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, dicofol, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT) and two pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenvalate) were determined using this extraction method in the tea samples. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the analytes varied from 2.2 to 8.4%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) found were lower than 0.23mug/kg. The recoveries of the seven compounds in the Jasmine tea sample were between 84.04 and 110.1%. Comparative results obtained by MASD and USE were also discussed in the study. PMID:19071414

Ji, Jie; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Huiqin; Wu, Yunyun; Zhang, Xiangmin

2007-02-28

372

Organochlorine pesticides in bird species and their prey (fish) from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and stable isotopes were measured in muscle from 4 bird and 5 fish species from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region where DDT is used for malaria control and vast agricultural activities are carried out. We investigated the bioaccumulation of OCPs such as DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, and heptachlors between the species, and examined the potential risk posed by these compounds for bird species. Significant differences in contaminant profiles and levels were observed within the species. Levels of total OCPs ranged from 3.7 to 148.7 ?g/g lipid in bird and 0.04 to 10.9 ?g/g lipid in fish species. DDTs were the predominant contaminant, and a positive relationship between ?(15)N and ?DDT concentrations was found. The main DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant and significantly greater concentrations in bird species (up to 138.5 ?g/g lipid), which could have deleterious effects on survival and/or reproduction of birds. PMID:24907858

Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2014-09-01

373

Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in black duck eggs from the Atlantic Flyway, 1978  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black duck (Anas rubripes) eggs were collected during 1978 in the Atlantic Flyway. One egg from each of 49 clutches was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and mercury. DDE was detected in 39 eggs, ranging from 0.09 ppm to 3.4 ppm, wet weight. DDE residues were highest in eggs from Delaware, where the mean DDE level was 2.0 ppm. DDT and TDE were present at Iow levels in only five and four eggs, respectively. PCBs resembling Aroclor 1260 were detected in 24 eggs and ranged from 0.43 ppm to 2.9 ppm. Eggs from Massachusetts and Rhode Island contained an average of >1.0 ppm PCBs, but eggs from Nova Scotia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia contained no detectable PCBs. Dieldrin, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were present in a few samples at low levels. Mercury was detected in 31 eggs, ranging from 0.07 ppm to 0.34 ppm, wet weight. Twenty eggs analyzed for chromium, copper, and arsenic contained averages of 0.64 ppm, 1.7 ppm, and 0.18 ppm, respectively. No geographic pattern was observed in these metal residue levels. Eggshell thickness (0.347 mm) was identical to the pre-1946 norm.

Haseltine, S.D.; Mulhern, B.M.; Stafford, C.

1980-01-01

374

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal flat surface sediments from coastal zone of Jiangsu Province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected and analysed to evaluate the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from intertidal flat in Jiangsu Province. Overall, 22 OCPs were detected with total concentrations of OCPs ranging widely from 0.96 to 12.14 ng/g (dry wt). Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels varied from <0.01 to 0.67 ng/g and from 0.23 to 4.85 ng/g, respectively. DDTs were the predominant compounds. The dominance of ?-HCH indicated a history of HCH pollution. According to the ratios of (p, p'-DDD+p,p'-DDE)/p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT/p, p'-DDT, new input of DDTs did not occur in most sites, and the main sources were historical usage of technical DDTs. OCPs such as dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDT exceeded the effects range low, showing adverse biological effects that would occasionally occur at some sites of the study area.

Han, Xiumei; Zheng, Rong; Zhao, Jiale; Ma, Chao; Gao, Xiaojiang

2014-05-01

375

Historical contamination and ecological risk of organochlorine pesticides in sediment core in northeastern Chinese river.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight surface sediment samples and one sediment core were analyzed for 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in order to provide extensive information of distribution, sources, pollution history and ecological risk of these OCP compounds in Daling River area, China. The results showed that hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most frequently detected contaminants in the surface sediment samples with concentrations (in ngg(-1) dry weight (dw)) from 1.1 to 30 and from 2.2 to 45, respectively. Analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.05) differences between HCHs and DDTs residues in surface sediment sampled from the various locations. Residues of HCHs and DDTs in sediment core (in ngg(-1)dw) ranged from 2.1 to 18 and 9.1 to 53, respectively. The temporal trends of HCHs and DDTs concentrations in the sediment core were affected by application history, emission and soil residues. Compositional analysis of HCHs and DDTs indicated that new sources were lindane and dicofol mainly due to agricultural activities. Additionally, based on the available sediment quality guidelines, slight potential health risks of DDTs may exist to benthic organisms in Daling River and Bohai Sea. PMID:23683900

Wang, Luo; Jia, Hongliang; Liu, Xianjie; Sun, Yeqing; Yang, Meng; Hong, Wenjun; Qi, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan

2013-07-01

376

PERSISTENT, BIOACCUMULATIVE, AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS (PBTS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Article describes the class of compounds known as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutants (known as PBTs), including the mechanisms responsible for ability to build up the food chain and for causing adverse health effects and ecosystem damage. Exposure to numerous PBTs ...

377

Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from veracruz, puebla and tabasco, Mexico.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, ?-?-?-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher ?-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue. PMID:24928094

Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

2014-08-01

378

Levels, Seasonal Patterns, and Potential Sources of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Urban Atmosphere of Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air samples collected monthly on the roof of a building in Beijing were analyzed for the levels, seasonal patterns, and potential\\u000a sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A high-volume air sampler with polyurethane foam and quartz fiber filters was\\u000a used to collect monthly samples from November 2005 to April 2009. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT isomers were the most abundant\\u000a organochlorinated pesticides

Lifei ZhangYeru; Yeru Huang; Liang Dong; Shuangxin Shi; Li Zhou; Ting Zhang; Fangzhuo Mi; Liangzi Zeng; Dingding Shao

2011-01-01

379

Organochlorine Pesticides in Water, Sediment and Fish from the Nile River and Manzala Lake in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the risks of organochlorine pesticides discharged into the hydrospheric environment of Egypt, river and lake water, drinking water, suspended solids, sediments and fish were collected during 1993—1994 from the Nile River and Manzala Lake in Egypt and were transported to Japan for chemical analysis. Among different organochlorine pesticides analyzed, p,p?-DDE was the most predominant in fish (7.6 to

Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Yoshikuni Urushigawa; Shigeki Masunaga; Mohamed I. Walash; Akira Miyazaki

2000-01-01

380

Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine\\u000a pesticides (?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, o, p?-DDT, p, p?-DDT and p, p?-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found\\u000a that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 gg?1 to 0.004 gg?1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques

Yinhai Lang; Zhengmei Cao; Xinhua Nie

2005-01-01

381

Human milk as a bioindicator for body burden of PCDDs, PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides, and PCBs.  

PubMed

In the State Laboratory of North Rhine-Westphalia for Food, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Chemistry (Chemisches Landesuntersuchungsamt), more than 600 individual human milk samples have been analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and more than 1400 individual milk samples have been analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) since 1984. All samples were collected on a voluntary basis from nursing mothers mostly living in North Rhine Westphalia, a federal state in Germany. The samples analyzed so far show a typical pattern of PCDDs and PCDFs. Out of the 210 possible congeners, only those with 2,3,7,8-chlorine substitution were found. While OCDD normally shows the highest concentration, the levels of the other dioxin congeners decrease with decreasing number of chlorine atoms. A different pattern was found for PCDFs. Within this group 2,3,4,7,8-P5CDF is the most abundant congener, followed by the hexachlorodibenzofurans. The mean level of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) was found to be of 3.2 pg/g on a fat basis and for total PCDDs and PCDFs, calculated as I-TEq (NATO/CMMS), 29.3 pg/g on a fat basis. The investigations of the past 2 years have revealed somewhat lower levels compared to former years. This might be an indication that the efforts undertaken to minimize dioxin emissions and to shut down known sources have already had an effect on the body burden of humans. Although mostly banned for a considerable period of time now, some lipophilic persistent pesticides such as DDT, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) can still be found in human milk.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187707

Fürst, P; Fürst, C; Wilmers, K

1994-01-01

382

Contents and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in vegetable soils of Guangzhou, China.  

PubMed

We investigated contents, distribution and possible sources of PAHs and organochlorine pesticides (Ops) in 43 surface and subsurface soils around the urban Guangzhou where variable kinds of vegetables are grown. The results indicate that the contents of PAHs (16 US EPA priority PAHs) range from 42 to 3077 microg/kg and the pollution extent is classified as a moderate level in comparison with other investigations and soil quality standards. The ratios of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene(MP/P), anthracene to anthracene plus phenanthrene (An/178), benz[a]anthracene to benz[a]anthracene plus chrysene (BaA/228), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene to indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene plus benzo[ghi]perylene (In/In+BP) suggest that the sources of PAHs in the soil samples are mixed with a dominant contribution from petroleum and combustion of fossil fuel. The correlation analysis shows that the PAHs contents are significantly related to total organic carbon contents (TOC) (R2=0.75) and black carbon contents (BC) (R2=0.62) in the soil samples. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes and metabolites (HCHs) account largely for the contaminants of OPs. The concentrations of DDTs range from 3.58 to 831 microg/kg and the ratios for DDT/(DDD+DDE) are higher than 2 in some soil samples, suggesting that DDT contamination still exists and may be caused by its persistence in soils and/or impurity in the pesticide dicofol. The concentrations of HCHs are 0.19-42.3 microg/kg. PMID:15992594

Chen, Laiguo; Ran, Yong; Xing, Baoshan; Mai, Bixian; He, Jianghua; Wei, Xiuguo; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

2005-08-01

383

Organochlorines accumulate in heron and egret chicks sampled in the Houston Ship Channel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Contaminant Monitoring Program (NCBP) is an effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to measure concentrations of DDT and other persistent chemicals in the environment and to quantify changes in these levels. The NCBP has established a network of sampling stations in segments of the environment for which Federal agencies have authority. The wildlife component of this program, administered by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, includes the periodic sampling of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American black ducks (Anas rubripes). In order to include an estuarine component into the NCBP, herons and egrets are being evaluated. Eggs and chicks (five, ten, and 15 days of age) of snowy egrets (Egretta thula), and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) were collected in Naragansett Bay, RI; the Houston Ship Channel (HSC), TX; and San Francisco Bay, CA. Great egret (Casmerodius albus) eggs and chicks also were collected at the Texas colony. Eggs and chicks were analyzed for organochlorines; trace element and petroleum hydrocarbon analyses are pending. DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in all eggs and chicks, and they accumulated as the chicks grew. At each location, black-crowned nightheron chicks accumulated both DDE and PCBs more rapidly than snowy egrets or great egrets. PCBs accumulated more rapidly in night-heron chicks in Rhode Island than California; however, PCB accumulation for snowy egret chicks did not differ among locations. Contaminant accumulation rates in heron and egret chicks could be used as a new wetland component of the NCBP.

Custer, T.W.

1991-01-01

384

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in soils surrounding the Tanggu Chemical Industrial District of Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was examined in soils surrounding the Tanggu Chemical Industrial District in Tianjin, China. The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzenes (HCBs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 70 surface soils using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The results showed that the ranges of ?HCH, ?DDT, ?HCB, and ?PCB concentrations in soils were 2.1-12,549 ?g kg(-1) (average, 965 ?g kg(-1)), n.d.-2,033 ?g kg(-1) (average, 88.4 ?g kg(-1)), n.d.-1,924 ?g kg(-1) (average, 349 ?g kg(-1)), and n.d.-373 ?g kg(-1) (average, 46.2 ?g kg(-1)), respectively. Of these, HCHs were the dominant POPs, accounting for 75 % of the total organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues. Overall, the spatial distribution of OCP concentrations showed a decreasing trend from the center of the Tanggu District to the surrounding areas. Two major pollution sources were Tianjin Dagu Chemical Co., Ltd. in the district center and the Tianjin Chemical Plant in Hangu District. In contrast, PCB concentrations were relatively high in the Haihe estuary to the east and low to the west of the study area. Component analysis of OCPs in these soils showed that they mainly came from industrial point sources. Compared with soils in other regions, soil DDT pollution was at a medium level in the Tanggu Chemical Industrial District, but associated HCH, HCB, and PCB pollution was relatively heavy. By multivariate statistical analyses, Tianjin Dagu Chemical Co., Ltd. was recognized as the main source of POPs, and soil properties were clarified to play an important role on the distribution and composition of POPs, especially the organic carbon content. PMID:23108756

Hou, Hong; Zhao, L; Zhang, J; Xu, Y F; Yan, Z G; Bai, L P; Li, F S

2013-05-01

385

Organochlorine accumulation on a highly consumed bivalve (Scrobicularia plana) and its main implications for human health.  

PubMed

Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated along a spatial gradient in water, sediments and in commercially important bivalve species Scrobicularia plana, from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Organochlorines dissolved in water were below detection limit and concerning suspended particulate matter, only PCBs were quantified, ranging from 3.8 to 5.8 ng?g(-1) DW (?13PCBs). There was a distinct spatial gradient regarding PCB accumulation in sediments. The highest concentrations were found in deeper layers and closest to the pollution source, decreasing gradually along a 3 km area. Contamination in sediments exceeded the Canadian and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines, inducing potential toxic effects in related biota. PCBs tended to bioaccumulate throughout S. plana lifespan but with different annual rates along the spatial gradient. The maximum values were found in older individuals up to 3+ years old, reaching 19.4 ng?g(-1) DW. HCB concentrations were residual and no bioaccumulation pattern was evident. Congeners 138, 153 and 180 were the most accumulated due to their abundance and long-term persistence in the environment. In the inner area of the Laranjo Bay (0.6 km(2)), the species was able to remove up to 0.4 g of PCBs annually from sediments into their own tissues, which is consequently free for trophic transfer (biomagnification). Concerning human health, and despite the high concentrations found in sediments, PCB levels in bivalves do not exceed the limit established by the European Union for fishery products and are largely below tolerable daily intake. Although PCBs in Scrobicularia plana are present at low levels, their impact to human health after consumption over many years might be harmful and should be monitored in future studies. PMID:23727603

Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

2013-09-01