Science.gov

Sample records for persistent organochlorine compounds

  1. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH). A high level of ?-HCH and low ?-HCH/?-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of ?-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (?-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of ?-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region. PMID:21952469

  2. Organochlorine Compounds and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Tongzhang Zheng, of Yale University, New Haven, CT, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Connecticut to investigate risk for breast cancer associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds. Levels of organochlorine compounds are being measured in breast adipose (fatty) tissue and blood serum obtained from women who had surgery or biopsies for breast cancer or benign breast disease.

  3. ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS PLATORYNCHUS)

    E-print Network

    ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SHOVELNOSE STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS Mississippi River Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus): Bioaccumulation and Reproductive quantified OC accumulation, intersexuality, and gonadal development in male shovelnose sturgeon

  4. Distribution of some organochlorine compounds (PCB, CBz, and DDE) in beeswax and honey

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, J.; Cerne, K.

    1993-11-01

    Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Persistent organochlorines in air and water from East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S.; Ouchi, E.; Tatsukawa, R.; Timonin, A.

    1995-12-31

    In order to assess the east Siberia for persistent organochlorine (POC) contaminations such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs, the residue levels in air and water collected from Chaun, Magadan, Khabarovsk and Listvyanka during 1992--1993 have been determined. The levels of atmospheric PCBs and DDTs concentrations in Magadan and Khabarovsk were one to two orders of magnitude higher than the global baseline levels, while the prominent contaminations in water were found in Listvyanka which is in the southwest coast of Lake Baikal. The results suggest that these areas are exposed by different local sources. Chaun, located in the coast of Chaunskaya Guba (Gulf) facing the East Siberian Sea, exhibited the lowest POCs residues. Apart from the concentrations, aerial PCB congener compositions varied with the total concentration levels. Khabarovsk air, where the highest PCB levels (2,860 pg/M{sup 3}) were found, contained mainly tetra and pentachlorobiphenyls. In contrast, samples from Chaun (36--160 pg/M{sup 3}) showed the higher predominance of di and trichlorinated congeners and Magadan air (320--880 pg/M{sup 3}) was a mixed type for both the air. Regarding DDTs composition, high percentages of p,p{prime}-DDT to total DDT compounds in the air from Magadan and Khabarovsk indicate the recent usage. Annual concentrations of aerial POCs in Listvyanka were strongly dependent on air temperature. Hence, heats of vaporization (desorption) for POCs were calculated from the relationships between logarithmic concentrations (partial pressure) and inverse temperatures. The values ranged from 26 kJ/mol to 43 kJ/mol in order of HCB < {alpha}-HCH < {gamma}-HCH < p,p{prime}DDE < total PCBs < p,p{prime}DDT. In addition, highly chlorinated PCBs tended to show higher values than the less chlorinated PCBs. The heats of vaporization estimated from the field survey were lower than those from the laboratory experiments previously reported.

  6. Heavy metal and organochlorine compound concentrations in tissues of raccoons from east-central Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, G.B.; Peterle, T.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and related compounds and heavy metals are persistent contaminants in the environment. Bioconcentration and biomagnification are well reported for organochlorine compounds. These compounds have a great potential for causing wildlife mortality or serious behavioral, reproductive, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects, along with specific organ toxicity. The pervasive nature of toxic substances in the environment necessitates some knowledge for potential exposure of wildlife species. Without baseline values of contaminant loads for selected indicator species it is impossible to determine when abnormal or pathological conditions exist in wild populations. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline values for selected environmental contaminants in the raccoon (Procyon lotor), a potential indicator species for wildlife and to see if heavy metal accumulation was related to age or sex.

  7. Organochlorine compounds in the marine atmosphere of Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, Oliver; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in high-volume air samples collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) over the sea surface of Singapore during the summer monsoon period of 2004. A novel and quality assured microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) procedure for PUF was developed as an alternative to conventional Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). Average concentrations of ?PCBs, ?HCHs and ?DDTs in air samples were 32, 311 and 8 pg m -3, respectively. Overall, a decline in the ocean atmospheric concentration of DDTs was noted relative to data obtained from the early 1990s, but current data are in a similar range for HCH and PCBs. Levels of OCs in the equatorial atmosphere were compared to equivalent data from temperate regions available in the literature. On a global scale, the levels of DDTs and PCBs in the atmosphere of Singapore are low, but moderate for HCHs.

  8. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  9. Reconstruction of organochlorine compound inputs in the Tagus Prodelta.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vicente, Maria; Grimalt, Joan O; Micaelo, Cristina; Abrantes, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Twenty century time-resolved variability of riverine deposits of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was studied in three (210)Pb dated sediment cores collected in a depositional shelf area adjacent to the Tagus estuary (the Tagus Prodelta). The geographic and temporal distribution patterns were consistent with discharge of these organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the area associated with the Tagus mouth. Their concentrations were not correlated with the sedimentary total organic carbon. The PCB down-core profiles were dominated by CB138 and CB153 (hexa-CBs) congeners followed by CB180 (hepta-CBs). Principal Component Analysis of the congener distributions of these compounds did not define temporal down-core trends. The ratios of DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT) were consistent with recent DDT inputs into the environment and/or earlier applications and long-term residence in soils/sediments until these were eroded and remobilized. PMID:26210675

  10. Organochlorine compounds in ice melt water from Italian Alpine rivers.

    PubMed

    Villa, Sara; Negrelli, Christian; Finizio, Antonio; Flora, Onelio; Vighi, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine chemicals (OCs) (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and hexachlorobenzene) were measured in ice melt water from five glaciers in the Italian Alps. Even though the data collected may not be sufficient for a precise description of persistent organic pollutant release patterns from glacier melting, they have, however, highlighted the potential for surface water contamination. Concentrations were of the same order of magnitude in all glacial streams, indicating comparable contamination levels in different glaciers of the alpine region. OC levels in nonglacial springs sampled in the same areas are usually lower. Even if differences during the melting season (from spring to autumn) have been identified, a regular seasonal pattern in OC concentrations was not observed. Risk for the aquatic environment is excluded through direct water exposure, but it is likely to occur through biomagnification and secondary poisoning exposure. PMID:16054693

  11. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer and Serum Organochlorine and Serum Organochlorine Compounds and Breast Cancer on Long Island

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Steven D. Stellman, of the American Health Foundation, New York, NY, and colleagues conducted a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk for breast cancer in relation to levels of organochlorine compounds, such as DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB).

  12. EOX and organochlorine compounds in fish and ringed seal samples from Lake Ladoga, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kostamo, A; Viljanen, M; Pellinen, J; Kukkonen, J

    2000-12-01

    Information about the pollution of Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe, has been controversial. Various effluents and drainage waters affect the quality of the lake water. Wastewaters have caused eutrophication of parts of Lake Ladoga, but concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the lake's food webs are poorly understood. In this study, concentrations of some organochlorine compounds, chlorophenols (CPs), and extractable organic halogen (EOX) were determined in smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), vendace (Coregonus albula), pikeperch (Lucioperca lucioperca), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), and the Ladoga seal (Phoca hispida ladogensis) from the northern part of the lake. The concentrations of organochlorine compounds in fish were low. Concentrations were between 0.07 and 0.15, 0.65 and 1.0, and 0.29 and 0.48 mg/kg lipids for hexachlorobenzene, total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p'-DDE, respectively. The results indicated biomagnification from smelt and vendace to pikeperch and ringed seal. In ringed seals, concentrations of PCB and DDT were 12 and 29 times higher than in fish used by ringed seals as major food sources. PMID:11057612

  13. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male

    PubMed Central

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008–2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988–1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p?-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/ml), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p?-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p?-DDE were 10.0 (2.1–35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2–2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7–55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p?-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p?-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

  14. Organochlorine compounds, iodine intake, and thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Guxens, Monica; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Rebagliato, Marisa; Rodriguez, Agueda; Espada, Mercedes; Goñi, Fernando; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2009-10-15

    The effect of organochlorine compounds (OCs) on thyroid function, as well as the potential confounding effect of iodine intake, was studied in a large sample of pregnant women from two population-based cohort studies in Sabadell (n = 520) and Gipuzkoa (n = 570), Spain. Thyroid hormones (free T4 and total T3), thyrotropin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p'p'-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyl richloroethane (p'p-DDT) were measured in serum samples collected at first trimester of pregnancy. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured and iodine intake from diet, iodized salt, and supplements were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Levels of HCB and PCBs congeners 180, 153, and 138 were related to lowe rtotal T3 levels (adjusted coefficient (SE): -4.0(1.1), -6.1(1.6), -5.5(1.6), and 3.8(1.4), respectively) and higher free T4 levels (adjusted coefficient (SE): 0.013(0.05), 0.017(0.007), 0.016(0.007), and 0.007(0.006), respectively). These associations were homogeneous in both cohorts, especially for PCBs and total T3 (p-value forthe interaction between cohorts >0.8). Iodine intake and UIC did not affect the association between OCs and thyroid hormones. Our results indicate that exposure to OCs during pregnancy can alter TH levels. PMID:19921913

  15. Determination of potentially bioaccumulating complex mixtures of organochlorine compounds in wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Contreras López, M Concepción

    2003-03-01

    Organic chlorine compounds can be persistent environmental contaminants and may be accumulated through the food chain to the aquatic organisms, to fish and humans, depending basically on their hydrophobic properties. Consequently, there is an interest to measure these organic compounds from both the scientific and regulatory communities. The analytical essays have been improved for measuring specific organic chlorine compounds that present the most toxicological potential (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], certain pesticides and dioxins), although they are tedious and time-consuming procedures. The existing tests to measure adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) or extractable organic halogens (EOX) do not distinguish the more hydrophobic organic chlorine matter. The intention of this paper is to make a review of the existing methods to measure the potentially bioaccumulating organochlorine compounds (OCs) from wastewater and propose a methodology to a standardisation procedure for complex mixtures of OCs in wastewater, such as pulp mill effluents. A new method has been proposed for determining the most hydrophobic part of the extractable organic halogens (EOX(fob)), the lowest reported value is 0.6 microg/l, expressed as chloride, and the relative standard deviation at 20 microg/l is 7% on laboratory samples and 30% on real effluents. This new procedure could be a valuable tool to complement environmental risk assessment studies of wastewater discharges. PMID:12605924

  16. Organochlorine compounds and their metabolites in seven Icelandic seabird species - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn; Löfstrand, Karin; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Ake

    2010-05-01

    The present study is designed to assess the occurrence of a few organochlorine contaminants and their metabolites in eggs of different marine bird species in Iceland, a country located in the sub-Arctic of the North-Western Atlantic. Previous investigations from e.g. Sweden and The Netherlands have shown some obvious differences in contaminant concentrations, including e.g. hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) in guillemot (Uria aalge) and other bird species. Eggs from seven marine bird species, Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), common eider (Somateria mollissima), guillemot, fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), and great skua (Stercorarius skua), that all breed in Iceland, were collected and analyzed for several persistent organic compounds and their metabolites. The contaminant levels varied between the species investigated. The highest concentrations were found in eggs from the great skua (18 and 23 microg/g l.w. of CB-153 and 4,4'-DDE, respectively). The concentration difference was generally 2 orders of magnitude higher in great skua for all organochlorine compounds analyzed with the exception of HCB. HCB did not vary as much between the seven species (ranging from 34 to 710 ng/g l.w). OH-PCB and MeSO(2)-PCB metabolites congener concentrations and patterns showed differences in metabolic capacity between bird species. Guillemot and great skua seem to distinguish themselves most from other species i.e. with the absence of 4-OH-CB187 and low relative levels of 4-OH-CB146 in guillemot and the low abundance of OH-PCBs in great skua. PMID:20356092

  17. Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, L.L.; Kucklick, J.R.; Bidleman, T.F.; Ivanov, G.P.; Chernyak, S.M.

    1996-10-01

    Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples were collected from three mid-lake stations and at the mouth of two major tributaries. Average air concentrations of chlorinated bornanes (14 pg m{sup -3}), chlordanes (4.9 pg m{sup -3}), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (194 pg m{sup -3}) were similar to global backgound of Arctic levels. However, air concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, and PCBs were closer to those observed in the Great Lakes region. Significantly higher levels of these three compound classes in air over Irkutsk suggests that regional atmospheric transport and deposition may be an important source of these persistent compounds to Lake Baikal. Air-water gas exchange calculations resulted in net depositional flux values for {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, DDTs, and chlorinated bornanes at 112, 23, 3.6, and 2.4 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The total net flux of 22 PCB congeners, chlordanes, and HCB was from water to air (volatilization) at 47, 1.8, and 32 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. 50 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. ENANTIOMERIC OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. RIVER SEDIMENT AND BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    River sediment and biota (fish, bivalves) from throughout the continental U.S. were analyzed for chiral organochlorine compounds (o,p'-DDT and DDD, some chlordane compounds, PCB atropisomers) to assess spatial trends in environmental chirality. Chiral PCB enantiomers were racemic...

  19. Organochlorine and organobromine compounds in a benthic fish (Solea solea) from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia): implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ben Ameur, Walid; El Megdiche, Yassine; Eljarrat, Ethel; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Badreddine, Barhoumi; Souad, Trabelsi; Bèchir, Hammami; Barceló, Damia; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2013-02-01

    Information on the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish from Tunisia is scarce. In this study, thirty one persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (dichlorodihenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in solea solea muscle, from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia) and from the Mediterranean Sea (reference area) (northern Mediterranean). In the Bizerte Lagoon, contaminant concentrations generally followed this order: PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>MeO-PBDEs>HCB>HCHs; while in the Mediterranean Sea, pollutant concentration followed this order: MeO-PBDEs>PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>HCB>HCHs. Mean levels of organochlorine compounds were 1018 and 380 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw) in fish from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Mean concentrations of organobromine compounds were 279 and 301 ng g(-1) lw in sole from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Organohalogen concentrations in fish from Bizerte Lagoon were similar or slightly lower than those reported for other marine fish species from other locations around the world. PCB, HCH, HCB and PBDE levels were negatively correlated with lipid content, while no such correlation was seen for DDTs. Assessment based on several available guidelines suggested an insignificant human health risk for dietary intake of HCB, lindane and PBDEs associated with consumption of sole. However, the estimated lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to DDTs and PCBs is a potential concern. PMID:23219662

  20. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, Miquel Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-11-15

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

  1. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across Asia.

    PubMed

    Jaward, Foday M; Zhang, Gan; Nam, Jae Jak; Sweetman, Andrew J; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Kobara, Yuso; Jones, Kevin C

    2005-11-15

    Asia is of global importance economically, yet data on ambient persistent organic pollutant levels are still sparse for the region, despite international efforts under the Stockholm Convention to identify and reduce emissions. A large-scale passive air sampling survey was therefore conducted in Asia, specifically in China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. Polyurethane foam disks were deployed simultaneously at 77 sites, between Sept 21 and Nov 16, 2004, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine compounds (hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordane), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The meteorological conditions prevailing in the region at this time facilitated the assessment of local/regional differences in atmospheric emissions, because large-scale advection effects due to monsoons or dust storms did not occur. Air concentrations estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day ranged as follows (pg m(-3)): PCBs, 5-340; HCB, 10-460; DDTs, 0.4-1800; chlordanes, 1-660; PBDEs, < 0.13-340. South Korea and Singapore generally had regionally low concentrations. Elevated concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB occurred at sites in China, higher than reported in a similar recent sampling campaign in Europe. Chlordane was highest in samples from Japan (which also had elevated levels of PCBs and DDTs) and was also elevated in some Chinese locations. PBDE levels were generally low in the region. PMID:16323757

  2. Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S.; Gubala, C.P.; Ford, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

  3. Urinary Porphyrin Excretion in Children is Associated with Exposure to Organochlorine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; To-Figueras, Jordi; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan O.; Herrero, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Background Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and other organochlorines induce porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) in animal studies. Evidence in humans, however, is contradictory. In neonates and adults from a population historically highly exposed to HCB (Flix, Catalonia, Spain), no relation with PCT or with porphyrin excretion was found. Objectives We aimed to analyze the association between urinary porphyrin excretion and exposure to HCB and other organochlorinated compounds in children 4 years of age. Methods Our birth cohort included all newborns from Flix and the five surrounding towns (where no airborne pollution occurred). Among the 68 children with porphyrins we measured in cord blood, 52 children 4 years of age provided blood to measure organochlorine compounds, hair for methylmercury, and urine for porphyrin excretion pattern. Results Quantitative porphyrin excretion was within the normal values. However, total porphyrins, coproporphyrin I (CPI), and coproporphyrin III (CPIII) adjusted to creatinine excretion increased with increasing levels of HCB, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p?-DDE), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p?-DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153). We found no association with methylmercury. When we fitted multiple pollutant models, p,p?-DDE had the strongest association. We found these associations in children from both Flix and other towns, and they were independent of breast-feeding and of organochlorine and porphyrin levels at birth. Conclusion HCB at current levels did not induce porphyria or increase uroporphyrins. However, the increase of urinary coproporphyrins suggests an incipient toxic effect of the organochlorines, especially for p,p?-DDE, on the hepatic heme-synthesis pathway that differs from the major effects seen in PCT. PMID:18941586

  4. Organochlorine compound accumulation in delphinids from Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lailson-Brito, José; Dorneles, Paulo R; Azevedo-Silva, Cláudio E; Bisi, Tatiana L; Vidal, Lara G; Legat, Leticiaá N; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Torres, João Paulo M; Malm, Olaf

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated organochlorine compound levels (PCBs, DDTs and HCB) in blubber samples of six delphinid species from Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazilian coast. The species analyzed inhabit the continental shelf (one killer whale, one false killer whale, two bottlenose dolphins, three rough-toothed dolphins, and four long-beaked common dolphins) and open ocean (four Fraser's dolphins). PCBs represented the greatest proportion of the sum of all measured organochlorines (from 0.60 to 257.2 ?g g(-1) lw), followed by DDTs (from 0.15 to 125.6 ?g g(-1) lw), and, at last, HCB (from

    organochlorine levels in delphinids from southeastern Brazilian coast are comparable to those reported in cetaceans from highly industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Organochlorine accumulation patterns among delphinids from Rio de Janeiro State were related to habitat use. PMID:22771469

  5. Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (?-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

  6. Bimonthly variability of persistent organochlorines in plastic pellets from four beaches in Mumbai coast, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analysed in plastic pellets collected from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. A total of 72 pools of pellets were extracted and analysed by gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni(63) electron capture detector (ECD). The median concentrations of seven ?PCBs and 16 ?OCPs were 37.08 and 104.90 ng g(-1) (n?=?72), respectively. PCB-28 was recorded at the highest concentration with a mean of 17.58?±?2.77 ng g(-1) among the seven PCBs studied, followed by PCB-52 and PCB-101. Bimonthly variation was significant for ?PCBs. The ?PCB concentration in November was at par with that of September and was significantly higher than those of the other months (p?compounds in addition to PCB, HCH and DDT. Further, pellets can be used to study the temporal variability for a range of organic micropollutants. PMID:26116196

  7. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, J.R.; Struntz, W.D.J.; Becker, P.R.; York, G.W.; O'Hara, T. M.; Bohonowych, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a variety of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs and metabolites. The geometric mean, on a wet mass basis, of ??PCBs (sum of 29 congeners and congener groups) were 732??282 ng/g (1 S.D.) in seals and 3395??1442 ng/g in polar bears. The geometric mean of ??DDTs, ??HCHs (??-, ??- and ??- HCH) and HCB concentrations (wet mass basis) in seals and bears were 562??261 ng/g vs. 74.8??39 ng/g, 380??213 ng/g vs. 515 ng/g, and 17.4??10.1 ng/g vs. 183??153 ng/g, respectively. The geometric mean sum of chlordane (??chlordane, sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide) and dieldrin concentrations in ringed seals and polar bears were 753??617 ng/g vs. 720??315 ng/g and 38.6??22.8 ng/g vs. 130??65 ng/g, respectively. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (polar bear/ringed seal POP concentrations) were lower in the animals sampled near Barrow, Alaska than in those from locations in the Canadian Arctic. This suggests that polar bears are also preying on marine mammals from lower trophic levels than the ringed seals with correspondingly lower organochlorine levels, such as bowhead whale carcasses. PCB congener patterns in the samples demonstrated the metabolism of certain PCB congeners in the polar bear relative to the ringed seal in agreement with previous studies. Regional comparisons of animals collected in Alaska and Arctic Canada are presented. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Persistent organochlorines in the serum of the non-occupationally exposed New Zealand population

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), poly- chlorinated biphenyls. Keywords: Dioxins; New Zealand; Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; Polychlorinated dibenzofurans; Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); Organochlorine pesticides 1. Introduction The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

  9. Organochlorine compounds in subtropical and tropical marine organisms: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Snedaker, S C; Araújo, R J; Capin, A A; Hearon, M D; Ofengand, E A

    1999-01-01

    A search of the published and unpublished literature was conducted for analytical data on organochlorine compounds in tissues of subtropical and tropical marine organisms. The search was limited to reports of analyte concentrations in whole body or muscle tissue that were minimally determined by chromatographic procedures. A total of 1564 sample analyses consisting of 4431 analyte determinations were obtained for hard and soft corals, sponges, benthic seagrasses and algae, gastropods, fish and shellfish, and 'market-basket' (processed seafood) samples. For comparative purposes, data that were reported on a wet- or fresh-weight basis were uniformly converted to a common dry-weight estimate by dividing the wet-weight values by five (i.e., 80% water, 20% dry-weight tissue). Due to the large variation in analytical procedures, target analytes, chromatographic interpretations, and reporting units, the data were pooled by organochlorine-compound class (i.e., chlorinated cyclodienes, chlorinated aliphatics, chlorinated phenols, and chlorinated terpenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and polychlorinated biphenyls). A meta-analysis of the resulting database yielded a mean analyte concentration of 1594 +/- 8768 ng g-1 (dry weight), a median concentration of 23 ng g-1 (dry weight), and a mean of 2.89 analytes per sample; the corresponding mean tissue burden is 4608 ng g-1 (dry weight), the equivalent of 922 ng g-1 on a wet-weight basis. It was also found that the chlorinated aliphatics (i.e., DDT and its metabolites) constituted 40.15% of the reported analyte determinations. PMID:10188204

  10. Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Miriam N. . E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T.; Hood, Steven R.

    2005-12-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

  11. Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DOT (DDT+DDD+DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat bogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.

  12. Organochlorine compounds in the Gulf of Bothnia: sediment and benthic species.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, B; Bandh, C; van Bavel, B; Bergqvist, P A; Broman, D; Ishaq, R; Näf, C; Rappe, C

    2000-01-01

    Surface sediment, amphipods (Monoporeia affinis), isopods (Saduria entomon) and fourhorn sculpins (Oncocottus quadricornis) were collected at two coastal stations in the Gulf of Bothnia, one in the Bothnian Bay and the other in the Bothnian Sea. The objective was to study the concentrations, composition profiles, bioaccumulation features and spatial differences of organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCBz), chlordanes (CHLs), dieldrin, Mirex and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). All groups of compounds were found in every sample investigated, with the exception of Mirex that was not detected in the sediment samples. The concentrations for e.g. PCBs and CHLs ranged from 700 to 2400 and 70 to 400 ng/g lipid in the specimens. For the corresponding sediments the results were 9.0-9.3 ng/g dw for PCBs and 0.54-0.57 ng/g dw for CHLs, respectively. Bioaccumulation differences between the species with regard to both degree of and type of compound were observed. The highest accumulation potential was found for the cyclodiene compounds including CHLs and Mirex in isopod. Finally, there were only small concentration and bioaccumulation differences between the two stations. PMID:10739063

  13. Bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gray whale and Pacific walrus from the western part of the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N

    2015-10-15

    The feeding habits of a gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and a Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), caught from the western Bering Sea in the summers of 2010 and 2011, have been studied, and concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in their organs determined. The total OCP concentration (?HCH+?DDT) in muscles and liver of the gray whales varies from 297 to 3581 and from 769 to 13,808ng/g lipids, respectively. The total OCP concentration (?HCH+?DDT) in muscles and liver of the Pacific walruses varies from 197 to 5659 and from 4856 to 90,263ng/g lipids, respectively. The specifics of diet as a source of pesticide accumulation in these two marine mammal species are discussed. PMID:26169228

  14. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE and DDD are degradation products of DDT (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which is a well-documented, persistent organochlorine insecticide that has been banned from use in the United States since 1972. Detected concentrations were very low, ranging from 0.12 to 4.7 micrograms per kilogram, and probably pose little threat to aquatic organisms in park lakes. DDD and DDE concentrations in a sediment core from Mills Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that atmospheric deposition of DDT and possibly other banned organochlorine compounds to high-elevation parks has been in decline since the 1970s. Commonly detected current-use pesticides in lake sediments included dacthal and endosulfan sulfate, which ranged in concentrations from 0.11 to 0.26 micrograms per kilogram for dacthal and 0.12 to 1.2 micrograms per kilogram for endosulfan sulfate. Both compounds were found in nearly all the snow samples, confirming that some current-use pesticides entering high-elevation aquatic ecosystems through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota.

  15. Organochlorine Turnover in Forest Ecosystems: The Missing Link in the Terrestrial Chlorine Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    A Leri; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

  16. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from

  17. Land use, organochlorine compound concentrations, and trends in benthic-invertebrate communities in selected stream basins in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, Mark A.; Wetzel, Kim L.; Moore, Craig R.

    1995-01-01

    Land use was analyzed for the drainage areas of 26 stream sites in Chester County, Pa., that cover a total area of 227 square miles or about 30 percent of the country. The most significant land-use changes during 1967-87 were decreased agricultural land use, increased residential land use, and increased commercial and industrial land use. Bulk samples of stream-bottom materials were collected at 42 sites in the study area from October 1985 through November 1987 and analyzed for content of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). Organochlorine compounds and (or) PCB's were detected in streambed materials collected at 40 of the 42 sites sampled. The most enriched compounds (greater than 15 micrograms per kilogram) were PCB's, chlordane, and DDT plus its breakdown products. Data suggest that chlordane residues are closely associated with residential land use. PCB residues are closely associated with industrial and commercial land use. Cores of labeled sediments from the site of Icedale Lake, a drained reservoir on the West Branch Brandywine Creek, indicate that DDT was the first organochlorine pesticide to enter the Brandywine Creek; concentrations peaked in the late 1940's and early 1950's. As DDT influx subsequently decreased, influxes of chlordane and dieldrin increased and peaked in the mind-1960's, before the Chester County biological monitoring program. Influx of all pesticides appears to have decreased significantly since the 1960's. Contingency analyses showed that the relation between the Kendall slope estimator for trend and the increases in residential land use of 12 percent or greater were significant at the 95-percent confidence level. The contingency tables also showed that the relation between diversity indices of less than 2.25 and organochlorine-compound concentrations greater than 45 micrograms per kilogram was significant at the 95-percent confidence level.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the Canadian market: polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, K; Verigin, V; Nicolidakis, H; Sit, D; Feeley, M

    2009-01-01

    Fish and seal oil dietary supplements, marketed to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids, are frequently consumed by Canadians. Samples of these supplements (n = 30) were collected in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2007. All oil supplements were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) and each sample was found to contain detectable residues. The highest SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT (1,1,1-trichloro-di-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) concentrations (10400 ng/g and 3310 ng/g, respectively) were found in a shark oil sample while lowest levels were found in supplements prepared using mixed fish oils (anchovy, mackerel, and sardine) (0.711 ng SigmaPCB/g and 0.189 ng SigmaDDT/g). Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in oil supplements were 34.5, 24.2, 25.1, 95.3, 12.0, 5260, 321, and 519 ng/g in unidentified fish, mixed fish containing no salmon, mixed fish with salmon, salmon, vegetable with mixed fish, shark, menhaden (n = 1), and seal (n = 1), respectively. Maximum concentrations of the other OCs were generally observed in the seal oil. The hexachlorinated PCB congeners were the dominant contributors to SigmaPCB levels, while SigmaDDT was the greatest contributor to organochlorine levels. Intake estimates were made using maximum dosages on manufacturers' labels and results varied widely due to the large difference in residue concentrations obtained. Average SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT intakes were calculated to be 736 +/- 2840 ng/d and 304 +/- 948 ng/d, respectively. PMID:19200125

  19. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  20. Immune function biomarkers in children exposed to lead and organochlorine compounds: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Brooks, Kevin R; Nebe, Thomas; Witten, Jutta; Obi-Osius, Nadia; Kruse, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Background Different organochlorines and lead (Pb) have been shown to have immunomodulating properties. Children are at greater risk for exposure to these environmental toxicants, but very little data exist on simultaneous exposures to these substances. Methods We investigated whether the organochlorine compounds (OC) dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (?PCBs) and Pb were associated with immune markers such as immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, white blood cell (WBC), counts of lymphocytes; eosinophils and their eosinophilic granula as well as IgE count on basophils. The investigation was part of a cross-sectional environmental study in Hesse, Germany. In 1995, exposure to OC and Pb were determined, questionnaire data collected and immune markers quantified in 331 children. For the analyses, exposure (OC and Pb) concentrations were grouped in quartiles (?-HCH into tertiles). Using linear regression, controlling for age, gender, passive smoking, serum lipids, and infections in the previous 12 months, we assessed the association between exposures and immune markers. Adjusted geometric means are provided for the different exposure levels. Results Geometric means were: DDE 0.32 ?g/L, ?PCBs 0.50 ?g/L, HCB 0.22 ?g/L, ?-HCH 0.02 ?g/L and Pb 26.8 ?g/L. The ?PCBs was significantly associated with increased IgM levels, whereas HCB was inversely related to IgM. There was a higher number of NK cells (CD56+) with increased ?-HCH concentrations. At higher lead concentrations we saw increased IgE levels. DDE showed the most associations with significant increases in WBC count, in IgE count on basophils, IgE, IgG, and IgA levels. DDE was also found to significantly decrease eosinophilic granula content. Conclusion Low-level exposures to OC and lead (Pb) in children may have immunomodulating effects. The increased IgE levels, IgE count on basophils, and the reduction of eosinophilic granula at higher DDE concentrations showed a most consistent pattern, which could be of clinical importance in the etiology of allergic diseases. PMID:15831097

  1. The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J.

    1997-09-01

    The authors analyzed streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls ({Sigma}PCB). The objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. The authors detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was {Sigma}DDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and {Sigma}chlordane. Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, {Sigma}DDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although {Sigma}DDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, the study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

  2. Extraction and distribution of organochlorine compounds in eastern Lake Erie and Niagara River water

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A chromic acid digestion extraction technique was compared to conventional solvent extraction for recovery of a series of organochlorine compounds (chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, DDE, mirex and photomirex) from centrifuged water collected at two sites along the Niagara River, between 1/22/86 and 1/7/87. The sampling sites were located near the river's inlet at Fort Erie, Ontario and close to the river's outlet to Lake Ontario at Niagara-on-the-Lake Ontario. The digestion technique was more efficient than conventional solvent extraction. Relative recovery (undigested/digested) decreased exponentially with increasing log K[sub ow]. This implies that digestion-extraction recovers both the fraction dissolved and the fraction bound to dissolved organic matter (DOM), while conventional solvent extraction only recovers the dissolved fraction. As the time compounds equilibrated with the DOM increased, the extraction efficiencies by conventional extraction decreased while the efficiencies by digestion extraction remained 100%. Results obtained with the digestion technique were also more reproducible than those with conventional solvent extraction. the relative recoveries also varied between the two sites. Using conventional solvent extraction PCB concentrations appeared to decrease by about 13% along the length of the river while with digestion extraction the PCBs increased by approximately 33%. To study the homogeneity of water in the eastern basin of Lake Erie, uncentrifuged water samples collected from the inlet of the Niagara River at Fort Erie, Ontario, were compared to samples collected from Lake Erie at Sturgeon Point, New York for the period from 7/24/86 to 1/24/87. The average concentrations of four PCB congeners, total organic carbon, turbidity and conductance were similar at the two sampling sites. The average p,p[prime]-DDE concentration was 0.53 ng/L at Fort Erie but only 0.28 ng/L at Sturgeon Point.

  3. Altitudinal and chiral signature of persistent organochlorine pesticides in air, soil, and spruce needles (Picea abies) of the Alps.

    PubMed

    Shen, Heqing; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Levy, Walkiria; Zsolnay, Adam; Weiss, Peter; Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Moche, Wolfgang; Braun, Katharina; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the distribution, transportation, and biodegradation of the selected chiral persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in the Alps. In the complex environment, we found the movement and fate of OCP could be defined by many factors. Taking HCE as an example, below the timberline its accumulation from air into SPMD increased with altitude and seasonally changed, but the trends reversed above the timberline. In soil, the tendency of HCE concentrations vs organic materials followed a sigmoid curve, and HCE concentration-altitude correlations are positive in central Alps but negative in southern Alps. The HCE enantiomeric ratios (ERs) in soil correlated to HCE isomers concentrations, the humus pH values, and the sampling site altitudes. HCE shift from humus to mineral soil can also be traced by ERs. The altitudinal and longitudinal trends in needles suggested that alpha-HCH has a more complex movementthan HCE in Alps. In conclusion, altitude conducted condensation, plant canopies, organic material in soil, and geographic specific precipitations may affect OCP distributions and transportation, whereas altitude conducted temperature and soil pH could dictate their fate in the environment. PMID:19452900

  4. Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.

    PubMed

    Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

    2014-05-01

    The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of ?20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) was the most predominant component. ?HCH and ?dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of ?20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed ?-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. ?-HCH, ?-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37?±?0.51% and 0.46?±?0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with ?20OCPs, ?-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments. PMID:24488553

  5. Mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in a lactating cow

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-03-01

    A contaminant mass balance was conducted of a lactating cow in its natural state. PCBs, HDHs, DDE, DDT, HCB, and several other chlorinated substances were investigated. It was found that virtually all of the cow's exposure was through feed. The contaminant absorption in the cow and hence the carry-over rate of persistent compounds was found to be a function of K[sub ow], with approximately constant values up to a log K[sub ow] of 6.5 and thereafter rapidly decreasing absorption with increasing lipophilicity of the contaminant. The key to PCB persistence in the cow was the 4,4[prime] substitution pattern. The 2,3,5 substitution was a less effective hindrance for PCB metabolism. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Risk excess of soft-tissue sarcoma and thyroid cancer in a community exposed to airborne organochlorinated compound mixtures with a high hexachlorobenzene content.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, J O; Sunyer, J; Moreno, V; Amaral, O C; Sala, M; Rosell, A; Anto, J M; Albaiges, J

    1994-01-15

    Unusually high levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were detected in the air and in sera of volunteers of a village located in the vicinity of an organochlorinated-compounds factory (Flix, Catalonia, Spain). A significant increase for specific causes of death was obtained only for neoplasms of unknown origin. However, an excess of incident cases was observed for thyroid neoplasms, soft-tissue sarcoma and brain neoplasms in men. These descriptive findings are in agreement with previously reported associations between soft-tissue sarcoma and human exposure to organochlorinated compounds, as well as with animal experiments relating HCB and thyroid cancer, and add new information on the possible relation between organochlorinated compounds, and particularly HCB, and cancer. PMID:8314301

  8. Relations between Land Use and Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs, and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment and Fish on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, A.M.D.; Wolff, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

  9. Metals, trace elements, and organochlorine compounds in bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake, Kansas, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom-sediment cores were used to investigate the occurrence of 44 metals and trace elements, and 15 organochlorine compounds in Tuttle Creek Lake, a reservoir with an agricultural basin in northeast Kansas, U.S.A. On the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sediment-quality guidelines, concentrations of Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn frequently or typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels for toxic biological effects. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally below the threshold-effects levels. Statistically significant positive depositional trends were determined for several elements. However, because the vertical profiles of element concentrations typically indicated a bimodal distribution and much of the variability could be attributable to analytical variance, the statistical trends may not represent actual trends. DDE concentrations reflected the history of DDT use. Substantial increases in grain corn and soybean production, irrigated land, and hog production in the basin have not had a discernible effect on sediment quality in the reservoir. Future research focused on small impoundments throughout the basin may enhance understanding of the effects of human activity on sediment quality within the Tuttle Creek Lake system and elsewhere.

  10. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  11. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  12. Integrated biological and chemical analysis of organochlorine compound pollution and of its biological effects in a riverine system downstream the discharge point.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alba; Quirós, Laia; Pelayo, Sergi; Navarro, Anna; Bosch, Carme; Grimalt, Joan O; Fabregat, Maria Del Carme; Faria, Melisa; Benejam, Lluis; Benito, Josep; Solé, Montserrat; Barata, Carlos; Piña, Benjamin

    2010-10-15

    Pollution in riverine systems, along with its biological effects, may propagate downstream even at considerable distances. We analyzed the organochlorine compound (OC) pollution in a section of the low Ebro River (Northeast Spain) downstream a long-operating chlor-alkali plant. Maximal levels of OCs and of their associated dioxin-like biological activity occurred in residue samples from the plant, and persisted in river sediments some 40km downstream (Xerta site). Biological analysis at multiple organization levels in local carp (Cyprinus carpio, EROD, Cyp1A mRNA expression in the liver, hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and micronuclei index in peripheral blood) showed a similar pattern, with a maximal impact in Ascó, few kilometers downstream the plant, and a clear reduction at Xerta. This combination of chemical, molecular, cellular and physiological data allowed the precise assessment of the negative impact of the chlor-alkali plant on the quality of river sediments and on fish, and suggests that sediments may be a reservoir for toxic substances even in dynamic environments like rivers. PMID:20800876

  13. Concentrations of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit : Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.; Coupe, Richard H.; Justus, B.G.; Kleiss, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    Whole fish were collected at 52 sites during 1995-99 to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of selected organochlorine compounds in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit. Samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. From 5 to 8 fish were collected at each site; the fish were composited, and an aliquot of the tissue was analyzed for 28 organo-chlorine compounds, which included pesticides, pesticide degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The use of these organochlorine compounds has been discontinued or severely restricted within the United States, but the continued detection of these compounds or their degradates in the air, water, soil, and biota in national surveys, coupled with known environmental problems associated with these compounds (such as a long half-life and the propensity to accumulate in living tissue), is cause for continued interest in their environmental fate. At least one organochlorine compound was detected in every fish-tissue sample, and as many as 15 different compounds were detected in some. The most frequently detected com-pounds were the degradates of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichlo-roethane (p,p'-DDT); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected in every sample above the method reporting limit, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), was detected in 94 percent of the samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and dieldrin were detected in 83 and 78 percent of fish-tissue samples, respectively. Because these were whole fish samples, the results are not directly comparable to human health standards, which are based on fish fillets. Comparison of these results, however, to the guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife indicates that concentrations of the p,p'-DDT degradates and toxaphene continue to be of environmental concern.

  14. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

  15. Human health risk assessment of environmental exposure to organochlorine compounds in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Bosch, Carme; Lourencetti, Carolina; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Domingo, José L

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the environmental impact and human health risks associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) through soils and tap water in the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River, Spain, were investigated. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, as well as DDT and derivates, were determined. Relatively low levels of these pollutants were observed, with mean concentrations ranging between 0.51-315.8 lg/kg and 0.05-74.6 ng/L in soil and tap water, respectively. These values are similar to those found in a number of recent surveys over the world. In spite of the presence of a chlor-alkali plant located upstream the Ebro River, which could mean a potential source of pollution, the current levels of OCs should not mean significant additional health risks for the local population. PMID:19771382

  16. Characterization of organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants and dioxin-like compounds in shellfish and eel from Fiji.

    PubMed

    Lal, Vincent; Bridgen, Phil; Votadroka, Waisea; Raju, Rupantri; Aalbersberg, William

    2014-09-01

    This article gives an overview of a range of persistent organic pollutant chemical levels in shellfish (Batissa violacea and Anadara antiquata) species and eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) from Fiji. As there is limited data in published literature to date, this paper reports first data on a range of persistent organic pollutants and highlights the more prominent POP chemicals present in marine biota in Fiji. A significant number of POP chemicals were detected (e.g. 17 PCDD/PCDF, 12dl-PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants), the concentrations found were generally low (e.g. parts per billion level). The low levels of contamination are indicative of a low input from long range and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. Also concentrations of POPs in eel and shellfish from Fiji are low in comparison to wild species in other regions and are within acceptable limits for POP chemicals in fish and fishery products set by the European Union. It describes also results of early studies on basic POPs levels in shellfish in several Pacific Island Countries, which generally show relatively low levels. PMID:24568747

  17. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and streambed sediment in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappia, Humbert

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 1998, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, a survey was conducted to determine which organochlorine compounds and trace elements occur in fish tissues and streambed sediments in the Mobile River Basin, which includes parts of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. The data collected were compared to guidelines related to wildlife, land use, and to 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program Study-Unit data.Twenty-one sites were sampled in subbasins of the Mobile River Basin. The subbasins ranged in size from about 9 to 22,000 square miles and were dominated by either a single land use or a combination of land uses. The major land-use categories were urban, agriculture, and forest.Organochlorine compounds were widespread spatially in the Mobile River Basin. At least one organochlorine compound was reported at the majority of sampling sites (84 percent) and in a majority of whole-fish (80 percent) and streambed-sediment (52 percent) samples. Multiple organochlorine compounds were reported at 75 percent of the sites where fish tissues were collected and were reported at many of the streambed-sediment sampling sites (45 percent). The majority of concentrations reported, however, were less than 5 micrograms per kilogram in fish-tissue samples and less than 1 microgram per kilogram in streambed-sediment samples.The majority of trace elements analyzed in fish-liver tissue (86 percent) and streambed-sediment (98 percent) samples were reported during this study. Multiple trace elements were reported in all samples and at all sites.Based on comparisons of concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish-tissue and streambed-sediment samples in relation to National Academy of Science and National Academy of Engineering and Canadian tissue guidelines, probable-effects concentrations, and mean probable-effects concentration quotients for streambed sediment, the potential exists for adverse effects to wildlife at 15 (72 percent) of the sites sampled. The potential for adverse effects at these sites is because of the presence of residues or breakdown products related to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chromium, lead, and zinc.The majority of compounds reported (65 percent) were chlordane, DDT, and PCB?s, or their breakdown products. Concentrations of chlordane and heptachlor epoxide in whole-fish tissue were positively correlated to the amount of urban land use in a basin. Total DDT concentrations in whole-fish tissues were positively correlated to agriculture.The relation of trace elements to land use is not as clear as the relation of organochlorine compounds to land use. This lack of clarity may be due to the possibility of geologic sources of trace elements in the Mobile River Basin and to the ubiquitous nature of many of these trace elements. However, there may be a correlation between the amount of urban land use and concentrations of antimony, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed-sediment samples from the Mobile River Basin.Fewer organochlorine compounds and trace elements were reported in samples from the Mobile River Basin than in samples collected during the 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies. Of the organochlorine compounds analyzed nationally, 57 percent were reported in whole-fish tissue samples collected locally and 41 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples collected locally, whereas 96 percent and 86 percent, respectively, were reported nationally. Of trace elements analyzed nationally, 86 percent were reported in fish-liver tissue locally and 95 percent were reported in streambed-sediment samples locally, whereas 95 percent and 98 percent, respectively, were reported nationally.In general, concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements and the frequency with which they were reported in the Mobile River Basin are similar to or less than t

  18. Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Laliberte, C. ); Bruneau, S. ); Muir, D.C.G. ); Norstrom, R.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from artic Quebec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Quebec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1979-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes) were monitored nationwide from birds harvested during the 1979-80 hunting season. DDE residues were found in all samples. DDT residues had declined from levels reported in 1976 on a flyway basis but the decline was significant (P less than 0.05) only in the Pacific Flyway. Levels of DDT, DDE, TDE, and dieldrin were low on a flyway basis, and all but DDE declined significantly (P less than 0.05) in the percent occurrence. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels were lower in mallard wings from all flyways compared with 1976 data, but percent occurrence had significantly (P less than 0.05) increased. Pools from Alabama and New Mexico continued to show higher DDE residues than pools from other areas.

  20. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health determinants of placental transfer of organochlorine compounds

    PubMed Central

    Patayová, Henrieta; Wimmerová, So?a; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovi?ová, ?ubica; Drobná, Beata; Fabišková, Anna; Ková?, Ján; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate placental transfer, quantified by the cord to maternal serum concentration ratio (C/M), of five organochlorine pesticides (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) , p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 52, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123+149, 138+163, 153, 156+171, 157, 167, 170, 180, and 189) to anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health characteristics. We included into the study 1,134 births during the period 2002–2004 from two districts in eastern Slovakia with high organochlorine concentrations relative to other areas of the world. Only concentrations >LOD were taken into account. Variables as age, weight and height of mothers, parity, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, illness during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, hypertension, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus, and birth weight were related to C/M. Results of regression analyses showed that C/M was predicted by several factors studied. Positive associations were observed for gestational alcohol consumption, fewer illnesses during pregnancy, maternal age, and maternal weight. Caucasians had a greater C/M compared to Romani for wet weight data of congeners 170 and 180 and in contrast C/M for HCB was greater in Romani. Our results show that drinking mothers compared to abstaining expose their fetuses not only to alcohol but to an increased level of several PCB congeners. A straightforward explanation of associations between C/M shifts and factors studied is very difficult, however, with regard to the high lipophilicity of OCPs and PCBs, changes in their kinetics probably reflect lipid kinetics. PMID:23677752

  1. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. PMID:26202210

  2. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as DXNs, from MSWI flue gas at approximately 300 degrees C. More than half of the clays used in this study showed the decomposition characteristics of MCB. The presence of Cl atoms in the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C proved the occurrence of MCB decomposition. The results of this study suggest a novel flue gas treatment method to establish high-energy efficient MSWI systems. PMID:25282999

  3. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

  4. Data on occurrence of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds in edible fish tissues from Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, James B.

    2002-01-01

    A public-health assessment conducted for the Texas Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concluded that exposure to contaminants through the aquatic food chain is an indeterminate human-health hazard in Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds to support a human-health risk assessment. Left-side, skin-off fillet samples were collected from 10 individuals each of channel catfish, common carp, freshwater drum (gaspergou), largemouth bass, and white crappie but only from five smallmouth buffalo. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory analyzed the samples for 22 trace metals, 40 organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, and 75 semivolatile organic compounds.

  5. Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentz, D.A.; Waite, I.R.; Rinella, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

  6. Contaminants in the southern tip of South America: Analysis of organochlorine compounds in feathers of avian scavengers from Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, E; Espín, S; Barbar, F; Lambertucci, S A; Gómez-Ramírez, P; García-Fernández, A J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide. This is the first study on OC in feathers of three terrestrial top carnivores from South America. OC concentrations found in the studied species were much higher than those found in feathers of raptors from Europe and Asia, which likely indicate their high use in the region, specifically in agriculture, and other possible uses of OC in this area. ?HCH had the highest median concentration, followed by ?Drins, ?DDT, ?Heptachlor, and ?Endosulfan, similar to those reported in several food samples in Argentina. On the other hand, differences in OC profiles between species and areas may be related to feeding and migratory habits, as well as the molt period. Three individuals showed ?DDT (DDT, DDD and DDE) concentrations in feathers related to sublethal effects. However, this comparison should be used with caution due to problems with extrapolating such data across tissues and species. PMID:25682585

  7. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-09-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. ?-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of ?-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of ?-HCH.

  8. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. ?-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p'-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of ?-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of ?-HCH. PMID:26354713

  9. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. ?-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of ?-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of ?-HCH. PMID:26354713

  10. Organochlorine compounds in human breast fat from deceased with and without breast cancer and in a biopsy material from newly diagnosed patients undergoing breast surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, M.; Kiaer, H.; Blichert-Toft, M.; Olsen, J.; Clausen, J.

    1984-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have related the incidence of mammary cancer to the dietary intake of fat and/or meat. Since organochlorine compounds (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDT (and its metabolite DDE)) are accumulated in the adipose tissue it was tempting to suggest a relationship between levels of PCB and DDT (i.e., DDT + DDE) in breast fat tissue and the occurrence of mammary cancer. To elucidate this theory, the organochlorine levels of 14 breast fat tissue samples from breast cancer patients and similar samples from 18 decreased mammary cancer patient were compared to that of 21 similar samples from noncancer patients and finally to adipose tissue samples from 35 non-cancer autopsy specimens. No significant differences were traced. Thus it seems that the accumulation of PCB and DDT measured in breast fat tissue do not relate to the occurrence of mammary cancer.

  11. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high-altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté Pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Re-emission of PCBs from soils or as a consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific sources as the predominant origin of these compounds in these remote sites. In contrast, significant correlations between current-use pesticides and air masses flowing from the south were observed in Gossenköllesee, Lochnagar and Redòn. In the case of Redòn, the higher proportion of air masses from the south occurred in parallel to higher temperatures, which did not allow us to discriminate between these two determinant factors of pesticide deposition. However, in Gossenköllesee and Lochnagar, the relationship between pesticide concentration and southern air masses was univocal, reflecting the impact of regions with intensive agricultural activities.

  12. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-02-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Reemission of PCBs from soils or as consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific sources as the predominant origin of these compounds in these remote sites. In contrast, significant correlations between current-use pesticides and air masses flowing from the south were observed in Gossenköllesee, Lochnagar and Redòn. In the case of Redòn, the higher proportion of air masses from the south occurred in parallel to higher temperatures, which did not allow to discriminating between these two determinant factors of pesticide deposition. However, in Gossenköllesee and Lochnagar, the relationship between pesticide concentration and southern air masses was univocal reflecting the impact of regions with intensive agricultural activities.

  13. Maternal Concentrations of Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Asthma in Offspring: Results from a Prospective Cohort with 20 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Maslova, Ekaterina; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil H.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous findings suggest that developmental exposures to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may be detrimental for the development of the immune system in the offspring. Whether these suspected immunoregulatory effects persist beyond early childhood remains unclear. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal serum concentrations of POPs and the risk of asthma in offspring after 20 years of follow-up. Methods: A birth cohort with 965 women was formed in 1988–1989 in Aarhus, Denmark. Concentrations of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) were quantified in maternal serum (n = 872) collected in gestation week 30. Information about offspring use of asthma medications was obtained from the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results: Maternal serum concentrations of HCB and dioxin-like PCB-118 were positively associated with offspring asthma medication use after 20 years of follow-up (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with subjects in the first tertile of maternal concentration, those in the third tertile of PCB-118 had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.23). For HCB the HR for the third versus the first tertile of maternal concentration was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.21). Weak positive associations were also estimated for PCB-156 and the non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180). No associations were found for p,p´-DDE. Conclusions: Maternal concentrations of PCB-118 and HCB were associated with increased risk of asthma in offspring followed through 20 years of age. Citation: Hansen S, Strøm M, Olsen SF, Maslova E, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Rytter D, Bech BH, Hansen LV, Halldorsson TI. 2014. Maternal concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants and the risk of asthma in offspring: results from a prospective cohort with 20 years of follow-up. Environ Health Perspect 122:93–99;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206397 PMID:24162035

  14. Persistence of volatile compounds in the breath after their consumption in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Linforth, R; Taylor, A J

    2000-11-01

    The persistence of volatile compounds in the breath was monitored after their consumption in aqueous solutions. Factors studied were variation in volatile release patterns between panelists, effect of adding hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and differences among compounds. For any given compound, the extent of volatile persistence was broadly similar for all panelists. Adding HPMC at concentrations in excess of c did not substantially affect persistence. The largest differences in persistence were observed when compounds were compared (>20-fold). The differences were modeled using a quantitative structure property relationship approach, based on the persistence data from 41 compounds. Major components of the model were terms that described the hydrophobicity and vapor pressure of a molecule. The model was validated with a test set, which showed that there was a significant correlation between persistence predicted by the model and the actual values observed. PMID:11087495

  15. Role of dense shelf water cascading in the transfer of organochlorine compounds to open marine waters.

    PubMed

    Salvadó, Joan A; Grimalt, Joan O; López, Jordi F; Palanques, Albert; Heussner, Serge; Pasqual, Catalina; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel

    2012-03-01

    Settling particles were collected by an array of sediment trap moorings deployed along the Cap de Creus (CCC) and Lacaze-Duthiers (LDC) submarine canyons and on the adjacent southern open slope (SOS) between October 2005 and October 2006. This array collected particles during common settling processes and particles transferred to deep waters by dense shelf water cascading (DSWC). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs)--pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene--and hexachlorocyclohexanes were analyzed in all samples. The results show much higher settling fluxes of these compounds during DSWC than during common sedimentation processes. The area of highest deposition was located between 1000 and 1500 m depth and extended along the canyons and outside them showing their channelling effects but also overflows of dense shelf water from these canyons. Higher fluxes were observed near the bottom (30 m above bottom; mab) than at intermediate waters (500 mab) which is consistent with the formation and sinking of dense water close to the continental shelf and main displacement through the slope by the bottom. DSWC involved the highest settling fluxes of these compounds ever described in marine continental slopes and pelagic areas, e.g., peak values of PCBs (960 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), DDTs (2900 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), CBzs (340 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)) and lindane (180 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)). PMID:22296346

  16. Exposure to cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants and its association with bone mineral density and markers of bone metabolism on postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Rignell-Hydbom, A.; Skerfving, S.; Lundh, T.; Lindh, C.H.; Elmstahl, S.; Bjellerup, P.; Juensson, B.A.G.; Struemberg, U.; Akesson, A.

    2009-11-15

    Environmental contaminants such as cadmium and persistent organochlorine pollutants have been proposed as risk factors of osteoporosis, and women may be at an increased risk. To assess associations between exposure to cadmium and two different POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl CB-153, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene p,p'-DDE), on one hand, and bone effects, on the other, in a population-based study among postmenopausal (60-70 years) Swedish women with biobanked blood samples. The study included 908 women and was designed to have a large contrast of bone mineral densities, measured with a single photon absorptiometry technique in the non-dominant forearm. Biochemical markers related to bone metabolism were analyzed in serum. Exposure assessment was based on cadmium concentrations in erythrocytes and serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. Cadmium was negatively associated with bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone, positively with the marker of bone resorption. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for smoking. The major DDT metabolite (p,p'-DDE) was positively associated with bone mineral density, an association which remained after adjustment for confounders, but the effect was weak. There was no evidence that the estrogenic congener (CB-153) was associated with any of the bone markers. In conclusion, no convincing associations were observed between cadmium and POPs, on one hand, and bone metabolism markers and BMD, on the other.

  17. Interspecific comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organochlorines bioaccumulation in bivalves from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    León, Víctor M; Moreno-González, Rubén; González, Emilia; Martínez, Fulgencio; García, Víctor; Campillo, Juan A

    2013-10-01

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized in cockle, oyster and noble pen shell from nine areas in the Mar Menor lagoon with different hydrodynamic and pollutant sources. Biota, sediment and water samples were simultaneously collected in the spring and autumn of 2010. Considering all bivalve samples, PAH concentrations ranged from 8.98 to 370 ?g·kg(-1) d.w., those of PCBs from 0.15 to 42.36 ?g·kg(-1) d.w. and those of DDXs from below detection limit to 240.6 ?g·kg(-1) d.w., where p,p'-DDE was the main fraction. The bioaccumulation of PAHs was similar for cockle, oyster and noble pen shell, being higher close to ports and wastewater effluents. However, DDX and PCB bioaccumulations in oyster and noble pen shell were significantly higher than in cockle in spring (p=0.02). The first organic pollutant bioaccumulation data for noble pen shell were obtained in this study, showing a preferential accumulation of pyrene. The increase of PAH bioaccumulation in autumn, as compared to spring, was low, due to high water temperatures during the summer, which favoured PAH dissipation processes. No significant seasonal variations were detected for OCPs and PCBs, except in some specific areas. The PAH, PCB and OCP levels detected in these bivalves were lower than OSPAR/MED POL environmental assessment criteria, except for p,p'-DDE in bivalves sited close to El Albujón watercourse mouth. PMID:23872249

  18. Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the Lower Columbia River using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are of concern in the Columbia River Basin because of their adverse effects on fish and wildlife. Because these compounds can have important biological consequences at concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional water-sampling techniques, we used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per-quintillion detection limits. We deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. We also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our data indicate that (1) in the absence of additional sources, mechanisms such as volatilization, dilution, and settling of suspended particles can act to significantly reduce concentrations of contaminants along the river's flow path, (2) elevated concentrations of contaminants in the Portland-Vancouver area are primarily from local rather than upstream sources, (3) elevated concentrations of many compounds tend to be diluted during periods of high discharge, (4) much higher discharge in the main stem considerably dilutes elevated concentrations entering from tributaries, (5) the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in streambed sediment is not necessarily indicative of their distribution in the dissolved-phase, and (6) SPMDs can reveal patterns of contaminant occurrence at environmentally relevant concentrations that are undetectable by conventional water-sampling techniques.

  19. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tom S. Wilson, John X.; Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia; Poon, Raymond; O'Brien, Peter J.

    2008-11-01

    Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes.

  20. Accumulation Features of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Resident and Migratory Birds from South India

    PubMed

    Tanabe; Senthilkumar; Kannan; Subramanian

    1998-05-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in whole-body homogenates of resident and migratory birds collected from South India. Organochlorine contamination pattern in birds varied depending on their migratory behaviour. Resident birds contained relatively greater concentrations of HCHs (14-8,800 ng/g wet wt) than DDTs and PCBs concentrations. In contrast, migrants exhibited elevated concentrations of PCBs (20-4,400 ng/g wet wt). The sex differences in concentrations and burdens of organochlorines in birds were pronounced, with females containing lower levels than males. Inland piscivores and scavengers accumulated greater concentrations of HCHs and DDTs while coastal piscivores contained comparable or greater amounts of PCBs. Global comparison of organochlorine concentrations indicated that resident birds in India had the highest residues of HCHs and moderate to high residues of DDTs. It is, therefore, proposed that migratory birds wintering in India acquire considerable amounts of HCHs and DDTs. Estimates of hazards associated with organochlorine levels in resident and migratory birds in India suggested that Pond Heron, Little Ringed Plover, and Terek Sandpiper may be at risk from exposure to DDTs. PMID:9543510

  1. Validation of user- and environmentally friendly extraction and clean-up methods for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in soils.

    PubMed

    Ivdra, Natalija; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Fischer, Anko

    2014-08-15

    In order to evaluate the potential of compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis (CSIA) for tracking organochlorine pesticides in soil systems, sample pre-treatment methods have to be developed, which can provide recoveries sufficient for low detection limits without altering the isotope ratio of the target compounds. In this study we tested the compatibility of CSIA with user- and environmentally friendly extraction methods, including the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe procedure (QuEChERS), Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (USE) and Focused Ultrasonic Extraction (FUSE), as well as clean-up methods, including sulfuric acid clean-up and Florisil(®) column chromatography for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and their environmental metabolites (chlorinated benzenes, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene - DDE and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane - DDD) in soils. We optimized the extraction methods for maximum recovery and pre-concentration. At optimal conditions, all extraction methods and clean-up procedures, as well as the pre-concentration of the extract by solvent evaporation, led to insignificant changes in carbon isotope ratios of the target compounds. We modified the USE procedure to increase the volume of withdrawn organic extract, resulting in a higher pre-concentration of the target compounds by the subsequent solvent evaporation step. This Modified Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (MUSE) was the most suitable procedure, and it was validated for the determination of carbon isotope ratios of the target compounds using two different types of soil matrices. The method could be applied to analyze carbon isotope ratios of HCHs, DDT, and their chlorinated metabolites in soil samples with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 0.8mg/kg. The analytical uncertainty of MUSE, incorporating both accuracy and precision, was ?0.4‰. PMID:24980091

  2. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process. PMID:25563158

  3. (PRESENTED AT TSUKUBA, JAPAN) PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS METHOD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    PowerPoint presentation summarizing method development research involving the persistent perfluorinated organic compounds. Review of data indicating widespread distribution of these materials and the potential for toxicity.

  4. Brominated Flame Retardants and Other Persistent Organohalogenated Compounds in Relation to Timing of Puberty in a Longitudinal Study of Girls

    PubMed Central

    Pinney, Susan M.; Voss, Robert W.; Sjödin, Andreas; Biro, Frank M.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Stewart, Susan; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to hormonally active chemicals could plausibly affect pubertal timing, so we are investigating this in the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program. Objectives Our goal was to examine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in relation to pubertal onset. Methods Ethnically diverse cohorts of 6- to 8-year-old girls (n = 645) provided serum for measure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and lipids. Tanner stages [breast (B) and pubic hair (PH)], and body mass index (BMI) were measured at up to seven annual clinic visits. Using accelerated failure time models, we calculated time ratios (TRs) for age at Tanner stages 2 or higher (2+) and POPs quartiles (Q1–4), adjusting for confounders (race/ethnicity, site, caregiver education, and income). We also calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) of Tanner stages 2+ at time of blood sampling. Results Cross-sectionally, the prevalence of B2+ and PH2+ was inversely related to chemical serum concentrations; but after adjustment for confounders, only the associations with B2+, not PH2+, were statistically significant. Longitudinally, the age at pubertal transition was consistently older with greater chemical concentrations; for example: adjusted TR for B2+ and Q4 for ?PBDE = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08, for ?PCB = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08, and for ?OCP = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.14, indicating median ages of about 6 and 11 months older than least exposed, and with similar effect estimates for PH2+. Adjusting for BMI attenuated associations for PCBs and OCPs but not for PBDEs. Conclusions This first longitudinal study of puberty in girls with serum POPs measurements (to our knowledge) reveals a delay in onset with higher concentrations. Citation Windham GC, Pinney SM, Voss RW, SjÖdin A, Biro FM, Greenspan LC, Stewart S, Hiatt RA, Kushi LH. 2015. Brominated flame retardants and other persistent organohalogenated compounds in relation to timing of puberty in a longitudinal study of girls. Environ Health Perspect 123:1046–1052;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408778 PMID:25956003

  5. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  6. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish. PMID:26173852

  7. [Human biomonitoring investigations of organochlorine compounds -- PCB, DDE, HCB, beta- and gamma-HCH, PCDD/PCDF, Dioxin-like PCB's and polybrominated biphenyl ethers].

    PubMed

    Gabrio, T; Broser, S; Erdinger, L; Felder-Kennel, A; Fichtner, G; Häberle, E; Herrmann, T; Kirsch, H; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Mann, V; Päpke, O; Piechotowski, I; Rzonca, E; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schröder, S; Spöker-Maas, K; Weidner, U; Wuthe, J; Zöllner, I; Zöltzer, D

    2005-04-01

    Although PCB and PCB-containing materials are not processed for a long time, PCB is under discussion again and again caused by the pollution of indoor environments. To objectify the discussion, the dates of the PCB-biomonitoring, the organochlorine-compounds (DDE, HCB, beta-/gamma -HCH, PCDD/PCDF) and the polybrominated biphenyl ethers concerning the investigations within the project "Sentinel Health Departments" in Baden-Wurttemberg are represented. Additionally results from children from Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area) and from teachers which are working in PCB polluted schools as well as from a long term investigated test person are reported. Blood concentrations of the following compounds decreased from 1996/97 to 2002/03: the sum of the concentration of PCB 138,153 and 180 decreased from 0.46 microg/L to 0.20 microg/L, DDE from 0.32 microg/L to 0.17 microg/, HCB from 0.20 microg/L to 0.08 microg/L, beta-HCH below the level of detection, I-TEQ NATO to 4.8 pg/g blood fat, TEQ WHO (without PCB) to 5.5 pg/g blood fat, PCB 126 to 18,8,pg/g blood fat and PCB 169 to 12.8 pg/g blood fat. The influence of breast feeding and the gender on the level of the pollution is conspicious. No local correlations were found in Baden-Wurttemberg, but they were found in comparison with the results of Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area). The difficulty to produce time series while the analyzing pollutants are more and more decreasing, as well as the change of the calculation base of the summation of parameters like I-TEQ NATO to TEQ WHO are discussed. PMID:15856391

  8. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J; Orazio, Carl E; Schmitt, Christopher J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2009-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. PMID:18851891

  9. Concentrations and relationships between classes of persistent halogenated organic compounds in pooled human serum samples and air from Laizhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Xu, Meng; Jin, Jun; He, Songjie; Li, Mingyuan; Sun, Yiming

    2014-06-01

    Persistent halogenated organic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), pentabromobenzene (PBBz), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), were analyzed in pooled human serum samples from different age groups and air samples from the south coast of Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province, China. The ?25OCP and ?8PBDE congeners were found at higher concentrations than the other compounds, with mean concentrations of 1500 and 240ng/g lipid in serum and 330 and 140,000pg/m(3) in the air, respectively. PBBz and PBT were detected in every serum and air sample, with mean concentrations of 4.9 and 1.4ng/g lipid in serum and 100 and 250pg/m(3) in air, respectively. In serum, the mean concentrations of ?14PCBs and ?DP were 7.1 and 3.6ng/g lipid, respectively, and in air, the mean concentrations of ?12dioxin-like (DL-) PCBs and ?DP were 1.7 and 1.4pg/m(3), respectively. Different relationships were observed between the concentrations of different compounds in serum and the volunteers' ages, and the concentration distributions with age were closely related to the historic production and usage volumes of each chemical in China. The ubiquity of PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, DP, PBBz, and PBT in serum and air is potentially concerning, and effective measures should be taken to control the concentrations of these chemicals in the environment and humans. Significant correlations were found between the chemical concentrations in serum and air, suggesting that inhalation may be an important exposure route for the residents of Laizhou Bay. PMID:24657373

  10. Comparative fate of an organochlorine, chlordecone, and a related compound, chlordecone-5b-hydro, in soils and plants.

    PubMed

    Clostre, Florence; Cattan, Philippe; Gaude, Jean-Marie; Carles, Céline; Letourmy, Philippe; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2015-11-01

    We address the problem of the comparative environmental fate of a pesticide, chlordecone (CLD), and a related compound, chlordecone-5b-hydro (CLD-5b-hydro). We used a large database including data from two types of contaminated volcanic soils, andosol and nitisol, and thirteen crops grown in the French West Indies in historically polluted soils. We performed in-depth statistical analysis of the effect of different parameters (soil type, crop, organ, etc.) on the ratio of CLD-5b-hydro to CLD in both soils and plants. The environmental fate of the two compounds differed depending on the type of soil. Proportionally, more CLD-5b-hydro than CLD was measured in nitisols than in andosols. Compared to CLD, we also found a preferential transfer of CLD-5b-hydro from the soil to the plant. Finally, mobilization of the two compounds differed according to the species of crop but also within the plant, with increasing ratios from the roots to the top of the plant. The properties of the compound played a key role in the underlying processes. Because CLD-5b-hydro is more soluble in water and has a lower K(ow) than CLD, CLD-5b-hydro (1) was more easily absorbed from soils by plants, (2) was less adsorbed onto plant tissues and (3) was transported in greater quantities through the transpiration stream. Due to the amounts of CLD-5b-hydro we measured in some plant parts such as cucurbit fruits, an assessment of the toxicity of this CLD monodechlorinated product is recommended. PMID:26081731

  11. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period

    SciTech Connect

    Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. ); Ludwicki, J. )

    1991-12-01

    Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

  12. A review of surface-water sediment fractions and their interactions with persistent manmade organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkowski, P.J.; Smith, J.A.; Fusillo, T.V.; Chiou, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the suspended and surficial sediment fractions and their interactions with manmade organic compounds. The objective of this review is to isolate and describe those contaminant and sediment properties that contribute to the persistence of organic compounds in surface-water systems. Most persistent, nonionic organic contaminants, such as the chlorinated insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are characterized by low water solubilities and high octanol-water partition coefficients. Consequently, sorptive interactions are the primary transformation processes that control their environmental behavior. For nonionic organic compounds, sorption is primarily attributed to the partitioning of an organic contaminant between a water phase and an organic phase. Partitioning processes play a central role in the uptake and release of contaminants by sediment organic matter and in the bioconcentration of contaminants by aquatic organisms. Chemically isolated sediment fractions show that organic matter is the primary determinant of the sorptive capacity exhibited by sediment. Humic substances, as dissolved organic matter, contribute a number of functions to the processes cycling organic contaminants. They alter the rate of transformation of contaminants, enhance apparent water solubility, and increase the carrying capacity of the water column beyond the solubility limits of the contaminant. As a component of sediment particles, humic substances, through sorptive interactions, serve as vectors for the hydrodynamic transport of organic contaminants. The capabilities of the humic substances stem in part from their polyfunctional chemical composition and also from their ability to exist in solution as dissolved species, flocculated aggregates, surface coatings, and colloidal organomineral and organometal complexes. The transport properties of manmade organic compounds have been investigated by field studies and laboratory experiments that examine the sorption of contaminants by different sediment size fractions. Field studies indicate that organic contaminants tend to sorb more to fine-grained sediment, and this correlates significantly with sediment organic matter content. Laboratory experiments have extended the field studies to a wider spectrum of natural particulates and anthropogenic compounds. Quantitation of isotherm results allows the comparison of different sediment sorbents as well as the estimation of field partition coefficients from laboratory-measured sediment and contaminant properties. Detailed analyses made on the basis of particle-size classes show that all sediment fractions need to be considered in evaluating the fate and distribution of manmade organic compounds. This conclusion is based on observations from field studies and on the variety of natural organic sorbents that demonstrate sorptive capabilities in laboratory isotherm experiments.

  13. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediment and livers of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Cashman, J.R.; Nishioka, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made in 1992 of chlorinated organic compounds in sediments and in livers of striped bass from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. Samples of sediment and striped bass livers contained DDT (ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-) and its degradation products, DDD (ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-) and DDE (ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-); PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls); alpha and gamma chlordane, and cis and trans nonachlor. In addition, the livers of striped bass contained small concentrations of DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), a pre-emergent herbicide. Agricultural run-off from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, as well as atmospheric deposition, are probably responsible for a low chronic background of DDT in sediments throughout San Francisco Bay. Larger concentrations of DDT in sediment near Richmond in the Central Bay, and Coyote Creek in the South Bay may be derived from point sources. Ratios of pentachloro isomers of PCBs to hexachloro isomers in the South Bay sediments were different from those in the Central and North Bay, suggesting either differences in microbial activity in the sediments or different source inputs of PCBs. Concentrations of alpha chlordane in livers of striped bass were greater than those of gamma chlordane, which suggests a greater environmental stability and persistence of alpha chlordane. Trans nonachlor, a minor component of technical chlorodane, was present in greater concentrations than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor. Trans nonachlor is more resistant to metabolism than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor, and serves as an environmentally stable marker compound of chlordane contamination in the estuary. Chlorinated organic compounds have bioaccumulated in the livers of striped bass. These compounds may contribute to the decline of the striped bass in San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

  14. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  15. Persistent halogenated compounds in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Hong, Bing; Wu, Xiaobing; Wu, Jiangping; Wang, Xinming; Yi, Zhigang; Zhao, Juan; Zhan, Miao; Mai, Bixian

    2014-09-01

    While a number of studies have reported residual levels of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in crocodilia, there is still a dearth of information on the Chinese alligator, a critically endangered crocodilian species. In the present study, several PHCs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were detected in the adult tissues, neonates, and eggs of captive Chinese alligators from China. The concentrations of ?PBDEs, ?PCBs, and ?DDTs in Chinese alligators ranged from 0.11 to 16.1, 1.12 to 22.2, and 6.03 to 1020ngg(-1) wet weight, respectively, with higher levels of ?PCBs and ?DDTs in the neonates and eggs than in muscle tissues. The ?DDT residues in the studied Chinese alligators were at the high end of reported ranges from crocodilia around the world, and some results exceeded levels known to cause a female-biased sex ratio in crocodilians. PMID:24880595

  16. Persistent toxic burdens of halogenated phenolic compounds in humans and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Mauricio; Gutleb, Arno C; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-18

    Halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs) including hydroxylated polychlorobiphenyls (OH-PCBs) and hydroxylated polybromodiphenyl-ethers (OH-PBDEs) can be persistent organic pollutant (POP) metabolites or natural marine compounds. Structurally similar to thyroid hormones (THs), they are retained in blood, transported through selective barriers, and the cause of endocrine and neuronal POP effects. This study presents a meta-analysis of HPC burdens in human and wildlife tissues, including OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs, Pentachlorophenol, and polybromophenols. HPC blood plasma levels were also compared to known in vitro and in vivo toxicological effect concentrations. Blood, highly perfused, and fetal tissues contained the highest levels of HPCs. Plasma concentrations of analyzed OH-PCBs/PBDEs ranged from 0.1 to 100 nM in humans and up to 240, 454, 800, and 7650 nM for birds, fish, cetaceans, and other mammals, respectively. These concentrations fully fall within the in vitro effect concentrations reported in literature for HPCs of 0.05-10000 nM. We strongly advise further study of HPC blood levels in the general population, children, and fetal tissue to establish background levels and the risk at sensitive development stages. As not all HPCs are, or can be, chemically analyzed, the application of additional bioanalysis might reveal an even greater toxicological relevance of HPCs. In addition, metabolic activation should always be included within in vitro hazard assessment of POPs. PMID:23635024

  17. Organochlorine in the serum of inhabitants living near an electrochemical factory

    PubMed Central

    Sala, M.; Sunyer, J.; Otero, R.; Santiago-Silva, M.; Camps, C.; Grimalt, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the impact of occupational and lifestyle factors on concentrations of organochlorine compounds in a general population sample living near an electrochemical factory with a high airborne concentration of hexachlorobenzene (HCB). METHODS: Serum samples from 608 people (328 selected from a random sample) were collected in 1994. Information on lifestyles, occupation, and medical condition was obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS: HCB and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in all samples (means 36.7 ng/ml and 4.3 ng/ml respectively), followed by dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDE) and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), found in 98.7% and 87.3% of the samples respectively (means 4.6 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml, respectively). Concentrations of HCB were the highest ever reported. Occupation in the factory was the main determinant of the variation in concentrations of HCB (regression coefficients 1.52 (SEM 0.14) in 1n (HCB) for workers in the production department, and 2.13 (0.23) for workers in maintenance department) and explained the highest concentrations of HCB found in men of middle age. In retired workers, concentrations of HCB declined with time since retirement. The PCBs, dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), and beta-HCH were independent of the occupation and concentrations were similar to those found in other populations. Concentrations of beta-HCH and DDE in the whole population, and HCB among non-workers, were higher in women than in men. Concentrations of all measured organochlorine compounds increased with age and body mass index. Consumption of locally caught fish was an independent determinant of HCB and PCB concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: This population incorporated HCB directly through occupation in the electrochemical factory, by airborne pollution, and consumption of locally caught fish. Concentrations of other common organochlorine compounds were not higher than expected. Environmental exposures to these compounds deserve attention due to their persistence and potential health effects.   PMID:10448322

  18. Formation of environmentally persistent free radicals from the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Borrowman, Cuyler K; Zhou, Shouming; Burrow, Timothy E; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-01-01

    In the 1980s long-lived radical species were identified in cigarette tar. Since then, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been observed in ambient particulate matter, and have been generated in particulate matter generated from internal combustion engines. For the first time, we measure in situ the formation and decay of EPFRs through the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and several polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC). Solid anthracene (ANT), pyrene (PY), benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), benzo[ghi]perylene (BGHIP), 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4NQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) were reacted with gas-phase ozone in a flow system placed in the active cavity of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer, and the formation of radicals was measured on the timescale of tens of minutes at ambient levels of ozone down to 30 ppb. For most substrates the net radical production is initially rapid, slows at intermediate times, and is followed by a slow decay. For oxidized solid BAP, radical signal persists for many days in the absence of ozone. To evaluate the effect of substrate phase, the solid PAHs were also dissolved in squalane, an organic oil inert to ozone, which yielded a much higher maximum radical concentration and faster radical decay when exposed to ozone. With higher mobility, reactants were apparently able to more easily diffuse and react with each other, yielding the higher radical concentrations. The EPR spectra exhibit three radicals types, two of which have been assigned to semiquinone species and one to a PAH-derived, carbon-centered radical. Although our system uses levels of PAC not typically found in the environment it is worth noting that the amounts of radical formed, on the order of 10(18) radicals per g, are comparable to those observed in ambient particulate matter. PMID:26603953

  19. Environmental and human exposure to persistent halogenated compounds derived from e-waste in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Zeng, Hui; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2010-06-01

    Various classes of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) can be released into the environment due to improper handling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste), which creates severe environmental problems and poses hazards to human health as well. In this review, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are the main target contaminants for examination. As the world's largest importer and recycler of e-waste, China has been under tremendous pressure to deal with this huge e-waste situation. This review assesses the magnitude of the e-waste problems in China based on data obtained from the last several years, during which many significant investigations have been conducted. Comparative analyses of the concentrations of several classes of toxic compounds, in which e-waste recycling sites are compared with reference sites in China, have indicated that improper e-waste handling affects the environment of dismantling sites more than that of control sites. An assessment of the annual mass loadings of PBDEs, PBBs, TBBPA, PBPs, PCDD/Fs, and ClPAHs from e-waste in China has shown that PBDEs are the dominant components of PHCs in e-waste, followed by ClPAHs and PCDD/Fs. The annual loadings of PBDEs, ClPAHs, and PCDD/Fs emission were estimated to range from 76,200 to 182,000, 900 to 2,000 and 3 to 8 kg/year, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs and ClPAHs should not be neglected because they are also primarily released from e-waste recycling processes. Overall, the magnitude of human exposure to these toxics in e-waste sites in China is at the high end of the global range. PMID:20821565

  20. Cellular uptake of lipoproteins and persistent organic compounds-An update and new data

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Andreassen, Thomas Kjaergaard; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2008-10-15

    There are a number of interactions related to the transport of lipophilic xenobiotic compounds in the blood stream of mammals. This paper will focus on the interactions between lipoproteins and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and how these particles are taken up by cells. A number of POPs including the pesticide p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and especially its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), interacts with nuclear hormone receptors causing these to malfunction, which in turn results in a range of deleterious health effects in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of lipoprotein receptors in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells in conjunction with uptake of DDT-lipoprotein complexes from supplemented media in vitro. Uptake of DDT by MEF cells was investigated using MEF1 cells carrying the receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) present and MEF4 cells with no LRP and LDLR expression. Cells were incubated together with the complex of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and [{sup 14}C]DDT. The receptor function was further evaluated by adding the 40 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) which blocks receptor activity. The results showed that [{sup 14}C]DDT uptake was decreasing when the LDL concentration was increasing. There was no strong evidence for a receptor-mediated uptake of the [{sup 14}C]DDT-lipoprotein complex. To conclude, DDT travels in the blood stream and can cross cell membranes while being transported as a DDT-lipoprotein complex. The lipoproteins do not need receptors to cross cell membranes since passive diffusion constitutes a major passageway.

  1. The investigation of atmospheric deposition distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindoruk, S. S?dd?k; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a significant pollution source leading to contamination of remote and clean sites, surface waters and soils. Since persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stay in atmosphere without any degradation, they can be transported and deposited to clean surfaces. Organochlorine pesticides are an important group of POPs which have toxic and harmful effects to living organisms and environment. Therefore, atmospheric deposition levels and characteristics are of importance to determine the pollution quantity of water and soil surfaces in terms of POPs. This study reports the distribution quantities of atmospheric deposition including bulk, dry, wet and air-water exchange of particle and gas phase OCPs as a result of 1-year sampling campaign. Atmospheric deposition distribution showed that the main mechanism for OCPs deposition is wet processes with percentage of 69 of total deposition. OCP compounds' deposition varied according to atmospheric concentration and deposition mechanism. HCH compounds were dominant pesticide species for all deposition mechanisms. HCH deposition constituted the 65% of ?10OCPs.

  2. Analysis and advanced oxidation treatment of a persistent pharmaceutical compound in wastewater and wastewater sludge-carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Picard, P; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-02-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. PMID:24140682

  3. Blast from the past: melting glaciers as a relevant source for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may represent a secondary source of persistent organic chemicals is investigated. To this end, a dated sediment core from a glacier-fed lake (Lake Oberaar, Switzerland) was analyzed for a wide range of persistent organic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, and synthetic musk fragrances. Input fluxes of all organochlorines increased in the 1950s, peaked in the 1960s-1970s, and decreased again to low levels in the 1980s-1990s. This observation reflects the emission history of these compounds and technical improvements and regulations leading to reduced emissions some decades ago. The input of synthetic musks remained at a high level in the 1950s-1990s, which is consistent with their relatively constant production throughout the second half of the 20th century. Since the late 1990s, input of all compound classes into the high-Alpine Lake Oberaar has increased sharply. Currently, input fluxes of organochlorines are similar to or even higher than in the 1960s-1970s. This second peak supports the hypothesis that there is a relevant release of persistent organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive glacier melting predicted for the future, our study indicates the potential for dire environmental impacts due to pollutants delivered into pristine mountainous areas. PMID:19924940

  4. Body burdens of persistent halogenated compounds during different development stages of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Tore C; Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Rønsholdt, Bent; Frier, Jens-Ole

    2007-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were followed through the five life stages of a wild population of anadromous brown trout and related to variations in lipid content and exposure situations. Anadromous brown trout exhibits great variations in lipid content during its life cycle in the freshwater and marine environments. The results indicated substantial differences in PBDE and organochlorine exposure, with apparently more recent sources of PBDEs in the freshwater environment relative to the marine environment. Lipid and contaminant transfer were not always identical: The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and PBDEs (ng/g lipid weight) were about 15 times lower in the eggs compared to the muscle of their mother (e.g., 823 ng PCB/g Iw vs. 12,565 ng PCB/g lw, respectively). During the starving period from maiden to spawning trout the contaminant load increased by a higher factor than the lipid use. The data suggest a decoupling between lipid content and organohalogen concentrations for anadromous brown trout, which may contribute positively to reduce any potential negative effects of the transferred contaminants on eggs and fry. PMID:17937270

  5. Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; Cohen, R.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Residues of 6 organochlorine compds. were detected in adult carcasses, 4 in eggs, 2 in brains, and one in nestlings of Colorado tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). DDE [72-55-9]accounted for 91% of total organochlorine compound residue in each of the 4 sample types. DDE was detected in 30 samples (94%) and DDT [50-29-3] in 2 samples (6%). Carcasses of breeding females and egg clutches had residues of 6 organochlorine compds. not found in nestling samples. Only residues of DDE were found in nestlings. DDT and DDE were the only organochlorine compds. recovered in brain samples. Measurements of tree swallow eggshells showed that unattended eggs were not significantly different from those of attended or historical eggs. The implications of the observed organochlorine compound contamination are discussed.

  6. Natural formation and degradation of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines in forest soil: challenges to understanding 

    E-print Network

    Laturnus, Frank; Fahimi, Isabelle; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Heal, Mathew R; Matucha, Miroslav; Schoeler, Heinfried; Schroll, Reiner; Svensson, Teresia

    2005-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. The anthropogenic environmental emissions of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines have been under scrutiny in recent years because the two compound groups are suspected to contribute ...

  7. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    SciTech Connect

    Windham, Gayle C.; Pinney, Susan M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Lum, Raymond; Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L.; Biro, Frank M.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2010-04-15

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and -118. Conclusions: Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.

  8. Body Burdens of Brominated Flame Retardants and Other Persistent Organohalogenated Compounds and their Descriptors in U.S. Girls

    PubMed Central

    Windham, Gayle C.; Pinney, Susan M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Lum, Raymond; Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L.; Biro, Frank M.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in U.S. populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally-active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-to-8 years old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 36 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breastfeeding in adjusted models. Results Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9–855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breastfed, whose mothers were younger, or whose caregivers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and ?118. Conclusions Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications. PMID:20129604

  9. Organochlorine pollution in tropical rivers (Guadeloupe): role of ecological factors in food web bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Coat, Sophie; Monti, Dominique; Legendre, Pierre; Bouchon, Claude; Massat, Félix; Lepoint, Gilles

    2011-06-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and carbon were measured in a tropical freshwater ecosystem to evaluate the contamination level of biota and examine the bioaccumulation patterns of pollutants through the food web. Chemical analyses showed a general and heavy contamination of the entire food web. They revealed the strong accumulation of pollutants by juveniles of diadromous fishes and shrimps, as they re-enter the river. The role of ecological factors in the bioaccumulation of pesticides was evaluated. Whereas the most persistent pollutants (chlordecone and monohydro-chlordecone) were related to the organisms diet and habitat, bioaccumulation of ?-HCH was only influenced by animal lipid content. The biomagnification potential of chlordecone through the food chain has been demonstrated. It highlighted the importance of trophic transfer in this compound bioaccumulation process. In contrast, bioconcentration by passive diffusion from water seemed to be the main exposure route of biota to ?-HCH. PMID:21440344

  10. PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and reproduction in river otters from Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Linscombe, G.; Kinler, N.; Stafford, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Reproductive tracts from 89 3-year-old female river otters (Lutra canadensis), from Louisiana were examined. Eighteen of these were in a reproductive phase out of synchrony with the expected population norms. Eight of 32 otters had fewer embryos than corpora lutea, indicating intrauterine mortality in 25% of the sample. Chemical analyses of liver tissue from 57 otters revealed a low prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide contamination. These low Ievels of organochlorine compounds were not associated with atypical reproductive synchrony or intrauterine mortality.

  11. Bivalve, Mytilus edulis, as a test organism for bioconcentration studies. I. Designing a continuous-flow system and its application to some organochlorine compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Renberg, L.; Tarkpea, M.; Linden, E.

    1985-04-01

    Most bioconcentration studies have previously been carried out using fish as a test organism. Equally important is the use of bivalves for this purpose, from both an ecological and an economic point of view. A continuous-flow system has thus been designed for use also with extremely hydrophobic substances and evaluated using 2,4',5-trichlorobiphenyl, methoxychlor, pentachlorobenzene, and lindane. The variation of the uptake in the individuals after 3 weeks exposure was quite small (relative standard errors varied from 10.1 to 15.3% depending on the test substance), indicating a high degree of reproducibility. The bivalves, however, are known to close their valves under unfavorable conditions, which occasionally may bias the results. To overcome this disadvantage, it is suggested that an internal standard--i.e., a chemically defined compound--be added to the water simultaneously with the test substances. Although there is a principal risk for interactive effects, unexpected variations in the uptake can thus be compensated for by relating the concentration of the test substance to the concentration of the internal standard in the organisms. Comparisons between continuous-flow systems and static systems have also been made. It is concluded that continuous-flow systems are more suitable for studying hydrophobic compounds than static systems.

  12. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Reissman, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    In a study conducted by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 24 water samples were collected at selected locations within a drinking-water-treatment (DWT) facility and from the two streams that serve the facility to evaluate the potential for wastewater-related organic contaminants to survive a conventional treatment process and persist in potable-water supplies. Stream-water samples as well as samples of raw, settled, filtered, and finished water were collected during low-flow conditions, when the discharge of effluent from upstream municipal sewage-treatment plants accounted for 37-67% of flow in stream 1 and 10-20% of flow in stream 2. Each sample was analyzed for 106 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) that represent a diverse group of extensively used chemicals. Forty OWCs were detected in one or more samples of stream water or raw-water supplies in the treatment plant; 34 were detected in more than 10% of these samples. Several of these compounds also were frequently detected in samples of finished water; these compounds include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, fragrance compounds, flame retardants and plasticizers, cosmetic compounds, and a solvent. The detection of these compounds suggests that they resist removal through conventional water-treatment processes. Other compounds that also were frequently detected in samples of stream water and raw-water supplies were not detected in samples of finished water; these include selected prescription and non-prescription drugs and their metabolites, disinfectants, detergent metabolites, and plant and animal steroids. The non-detection of these compounds indicates that their concentrations are reduced to levels less than analytical detection limits or that they are transformed to degradates through conventional DWT processes. Concentrations of OWCs detected in finished water generally were low and did not exceed Federal drinking-water standards or lifetime health advisories, although such standards or advisories have not been established for most of these compounds. Also, at least 11 and as many as 17 OWCs were detected in samples of finished water. Drinking-water criteria currently are based on the toxicity of individual compounds and not combinations of compounds. Little is known about potential human-health effects associated with chronic exposure to trace levels of multiple OWCs through routes such as drinking water. The occurrence in drinking-water supplies of many of the OWCs analyzed for during this study is unregulated and most of these compounds have not been routinely monitored for in the Nation's source- or potable-water supplies. This study provides the first documentation that many of these compounds can survive conventional water-treatment processes and occur in potable-water supplies. It thereby provides information that can be used in setting research and regulatory priorities and in designing future monitoring programs. The results of this study also indicate that improvements in water-treatment processes may benefit from consideration of the response of OWCs and other trace organic contaminants to specific physical and chemical treatments. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Persistence of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds in chlorinated drinking water as a function of time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.; Zaugg, S.D.; Lippincott, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Ninety eight pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds (POOCs) that were amended to samples of chlorinated drinking-water were extracted and analyzed 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10 days after amendment to determine whether the total chlorine residual reacted with the amended POOCs in drinking water in a time frame similar to the residence time of drinking water in a water distribution system. Results indicated that if all 98 were present in the finished drinking water from a drinking-water treatment plant using free chlorine at 1.2??mg/L as the distribution system disinfectant residual, 52 POOCs would be present in the drinking water after 10??days at approximately the same concentration as in the newly finished drinking water. Concentrations of 16 POOCs would be reduced by 32% to 92%, and 22 POOCs would react completely with residual chlorine within 24??h. Thus, the presence of free chlorine residual is an effective means for transforming some POOCs during distribution. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric fluxes of persistent organic compounds to a forest ecosystem at the Swedish west coast

    SciTech Connect

    Brorstroem-Lunden, E.; Loefgren, C.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this ongoing study is to investigate the importance of the atmospheric contribution of POP, such as PCB, HCH, HCB and PAH, to a forest at the Swedish west coast, Lake Gaardsjoen, and to get an idea about circulation and accumulation of these organic contaminants within a terrestrial ecosystem. The measurements include parallel sampling in air, deposition (artificial surface) and spruce needles. Recent sampling periods also include throughfall, runoff water, litterfall and soil. The amounts of POP deposited to the Gaardsjoen area were similar to those obtained during measurements at coastal and sea based sites at the Swedish west coast. Events with long range air transport did not significantly increase the atmospheric concentrations of PAH and PCB in the Gaardsjoen area. However, due to an increased particle concentration in the air, such episodes increased the deposition fluxes of PAH and PCB. Only small variations in the concentrations of POP occurred in the needles during different sampling periods and no accumulation was observed. The lowest PCB concentrations in the needles were found during a summer period in connection with the highest PCB concentrations in the air and with the highest ambient air temperature. The PAH and PCB found in spruce needles seemed to be due to uptake from both the gas and particle phases. Except for a relative increase of less volatile compounds, the distribution among individual PCB obtained in the soil agreed well with the PCB profile found in the deposition and throughfall. This supports the hypothesis that atmospheric deposition is the main source for PCB in this area.

  15. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychloribiphenyls [sic] in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), from the continental United States, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Starlings were collected from 129 sites throughout the contiguous United States in the fall of 1982 and analyzed for organochlorine compounds as part of a nationwide monitoring program. Residues of 14 organochlorine compounds were found. Only DDE, polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide occurred in more than 50% of the lO-starling pools. Geographical variation in the occurrence of seven organochlorine compounds was noted. Mean DDE levels were higher in the southwestern United States. Mean PCB levels were higher in the eastern United States. The occurrence frequency of most organochlorines in 1982 was similar to that which was reported in the previous nationwide study in 1979. A slight increase in occurrence was noted for trans-nonachlor. Mean DDE level I in 1982 was similar to that of 1979. Mean PCB level in 1982 was lower than the 1979 mean, but this change may not reflect a decrease in environmental PCB levels.

  16. Organochlorine Contamination and Physiological Responses in Nestling Tree Swallows in Point Pelee National Park, Canada

    E-print Network

    Bortolotti, Gary R.

    Organochlorine Contamination and Physiological Responses in Nestling Tree Swallows in Point Pelee of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the nestlings, the distribution of persistent contaminants in the food web was tracked using the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor

  17. X-ray spectromicroscopic investigation of natural organochlorine distribution in weathering plant material

    E-print Network

    X-ray spectromicroscopic investigation of natural organochlorine distribution in weathering plant vary dramatically with decay stage, with the most striking changes occurring at the onset of weathering appears to leach away slowly as degradation progresses, persisting through advanced weathering stages

  18. Organochlorines in Greenland marine fish, mussels and sediments.

    PubMed

    Cleemann, M; Riget, F; Paulsen, G B; Klungsøyr, J; Dietz, R

    2000-01-17

    Shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), polar cod (Boreogadus saida), blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and sediments were sampled in Greenland 1994-1995 at three locations at the west coast and one at the east coast. Fish liver, mussel soft tissue and sediments were analysed for PCBs (10 congeners), DDTs (pp,'), HCHs (alpha, beta, gamma), HCB and trans-nonachlor. The overall geometric mean concentrations found for PCBs were 17 micrograms kg-1 wet wt. in shorthorn sculpin liver, 33 micrograms kg-1 wet wt. in polar cod liver, and 0.86 microgram kg-1 wet wt. in blue mussels. For the three species, the geometric mean concentrations for DDTs were 11, 36, and 0.39 micrograms kg-1 wet wt., respectively; for HCHs: 8.7, 32 and 0.56 micrograms kg-1 wet wt., respectively; for HCB: 4.2, 11 and 0.06 micrograms kg-1 wet wt., respectively; and for trans-nonachlor: 6.3, 19 and 0.16 microgram kg-1 wet wt., respectively. All organochlorines in the sediment samples were below the detection limit of 0.1 microgram kg-1 dry weight. For sculpins and mussels, most organochlorine compounds were found to increase with increasing lipid content. The weight of mussels did not influence organochlorine concentrations, whereas organochlorine content in general increased with fish length of sculpins. The concentrations were found to be comparable to levels in other Arctic regions, but orders of magnitude lower than levels found in the southern part of the North Sea. Organochlorine concentrations in sculpins showed a decreasing trend following the ocean current flowing from north to south at the east coast and from south towards north at the west coast of Greenland. The proportion of higher chlorinated PCBs (Cl atoms > or = 6) in sculpin liver followed the decreasing trend of PCB concentrations. PMID:10682358

  19. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and ?-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. PMID:23954213

  20. Organochlorine contamination (PCBs, DDTs, HCB, HCHs) in sediments from Cienfuegos bay, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Alonso-Hernandez, C M

    2010-09-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments from Cienfuegos bay, Cuba. Their concentrations appeared to be relatively low by global standards and only sediments receiving the impact from the residual waters of the city and thermoelectrical power approached the sediment quality guidelines for PCBs and DDTs. Relatively higher SigmaDDT concentrations and high DDT/DDE+DDD ratios in two sites near the outfalls of the city indicated a current DDT usage, probably linked to public health emergencies. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. PMID:20598718

  1. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. Methods: A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. Results: The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother’s age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. Conclusion: The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds. PMID:26478886

  2. Accumulation levels of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue and blood

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kumiko; Ishizaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuharu; Uchiyama, Mitsuru )

    1991-05-01

    Because of their persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, the use of organochlorine pesticides, technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and pp{prime}-DDT, has been prohibited since 1971 in Japan. Furthermore, chlordane which had been applied for termite control has the potential for bioaccumulation and the use of it has been also prohibited since 1986. These chemicals can enter human body through a food chain or by inhalation of vapors. However, few data on chlordane residue in human adipose tissue are available in Japan. The aims of the present study were to assess the levels of organo-chlorine chemicals in adipose tissue and blood of Japanese and to examine the relationship between them.

  3. Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in anhingas and waders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1977-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine compounds occur commonly in environmental samples and have been associated with adverse effects in numerous avian species. The affected species are usually terminal consumers, generally those feeding on aquatic organisms (primarily fish) or birds. Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus , and certain herons are among the species that have exhibited shell thinning in some regions. In 1972, we began a study to determine: (1) geographic differences in the occurrence of environmental pollutants in Anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and waders in the eastern United States; (2) differences in environmental pollutant levels among those species nesting at the same localities; and (3) whether eggshell thickness had changed since the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides began in the mid-1940's.

  4. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Aube, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre; Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. - Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on breast cancer cell growth. {yields} Weak xenoestrogens in the mixture stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. {yields} Antiandrogens increased the proliferation CAMA-1 cells grown with sex steroids. {yields} High concentrations of the mixture decreased the proliferation of all cell lines.

  5. Occurrence and possible fate of organochlorine pesticide residues at Manzala Lake in Egypt as a model study.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Essam; Moussa, Saad; Abonorag, Mostafa A; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Persistence of the residue of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) became a great danger to our environment long ago. In this study, the persistence of OCPs at Manzala Lake in Egypt was determined. Four different sites were investigated: the El-Gamel, El-Kowar, El-Rasoah, and Janb El-Timsah regions. Among these, the El-Kowar region had the highest concentration of total OCPs in the sediment samples when compared to other regions during both 2012 and 2013. In fact, generally, the residues of OCPs in the sediment samples were significantly higher in all tested sites in comparison with other compartments. Conversely, OCP residues were undetectable in water samples at both the El-Gamel region and the El-Rasoah site in the studied seasons. The data proved that the sediment layer plays a sourcing role in OCP persistence in the aquatic ecosystem. Data analysis also indicated that there was an external source for OCP contamination in the Manzala Lake ecosystem that most likely comes from Nile Basin countries and which extends the expected half-life of these compounds. It could be exemplified by DDT, the half-life of which increased from 30 to approximately 47 years. PMID:25424498

  6. Human hair as a potential biomonitor for assessing persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Sun, Huibin

    2007-07-01

    To explore human biomonitor of persistent organic pollutants (POP) for public health risk assessment, extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) and some selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in children hair from urban and rural regions of Beijing, China, were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that about 96% of the total halogens existed as water-soluble polar compounds; about 25 to 50% of EOX were sulfuric acid-resistant EPOX; organochlorines were the major fraction of the organohalogens; and 88 to 99.6% of extractable persistent organochlorines (EPOCl) cannot be attributed to the selected OCP and PCB. HCH, DDT and 2-5CB were the major contributors to hair OCP and PCB. Further, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and PCB-52 were the predominant individuals of HCH, DDT and 2-5CB, respectively. The concentration distributions of EPOCl, HCH, DDT and PCB in children hair were generally in the order of urban>rural and girls>boys, except for PCB congeners with random distributions between genders. Pearson positive correlations between hair lipid and the detected parameters of hair gamma-HCH (p<0.01), DDT (p<0.01), EOCl (p<0.05), as well as EPOCl (p<0.05) were observed. Also, the ratios of hair alpha/gamma and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT suggested that fresh input of HCH and DDT might exist in Beijing area. Hair can reflect body's integral exposure to POP from endogenous and exogenous sources, which, thus, can be used as a potential biomonitor in assessing POP exposure for public health purposes. PMID:17367859

  7. Organochlorine residues in adult mallard and black duck wings, 1981-1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Bunck, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten organochlorine compounds were identified in pools of black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) wings from the 1981-82 hunting season. Most organochlorine compounds occurred very infrequently. Among those compounds positively identified by mass spectrometry, DDE and, secondarily, PCB had the highest frequencies of occurrence. Other compounds, positively identified and occurring less frequently, included DDT, DDD, DDMU, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, cis-chlordane and mirex. Compounds looked for but not positively identified include oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, endrin, hexachlorobenzene and toxaphene. PCB levels in black duck wings declined between the 1979-80 and 1981-82 collections. PCB levels in black duck wings from the northern region of the Atlantic Flyway were higher than those in wings from the southern region. Mean DDE residues in mallard wings declined between collections and differed among flyways and regions. PCB levels in mallard wings differed only among flyways and regions.

  8. Predictors of adipose tissue concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in a general Danish population.

    PubMed

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Gaudreau, Eric; Leblanc, Alain; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitously present in the environment and suspected of carcinogenic, neurological and immunological effects. Our objective was to identify determinants of adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides experienced by a general Danish population. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. We examined geography, gender, age, lactation, body mass index (BMI) and intake of nine dietary groups and tap water drinks, as potential determinants of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorocyclohexane, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane. Living in Copenhagen city and age at enrolment showed positive associations with all compounds. BMI was positively associated with all compounds except cis-nonachlor. Fatty-fish consumption showed positive associations with cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, DDT and dieldrin and fruit and vegetables were inversely associated with dieldrin. Determinant estimates of trans-nonachlor were similar to estimates of total chlordanes while cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane seemed to differ. This is one of the first studies of organochlorine pesticides predictors in adipose tissue and contributes to the ongoing debate about exposure sources of these compounds. Single determinants varied among the individual compounds, even within related chlordane residues, suggesting that organochlorine pesticides should not be treated as a homogenous group. PMID:22044925

  9. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 18, METHOD 608 - ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCB'S

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results obtained and data analysis from an interlaboratory evaluation of EPA Method 608 (Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs). The method is designed to analyze for 16 single-compound pesticides, chlordane, toxaphene, and seven Aroclor formulations in wat...

  10. Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring gulls and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring gulls. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring gulls, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring gulls. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants. PMID:8880006

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seafood from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cirillo, Teresa; Naso, Barbara; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Lucisano, Antonia; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2007-03-01

    Seven target polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) and the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its related metabolites (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) were quantified in edible tissues from seven marine species (European hake, red mullet, blue whiting, Atlantic mackerel, blue and red shrimp, European flying squid, and Mediterranean mussel) from the Gulf of Naples in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). PCBs 118, 138, and 153 were the dominant congeners in all the species examined. The concentrations of all PCBs (from not detectable to 15,427 ng g(-1) fat weight) exceeded those of all the DDTs (from not detectable to 1,769 ng g(-1) fat weight) and HCB (not detectable to 150.60 ng g(-1) fat weight) in the samples analyzed. The OCP concentrations were below the maximum residue limits established for fish and aquatic products by the Decreto Ministerale 13 May 2005 in all the samples analyzed; therefore the OCPs in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea species are unlikely to be a significant health hazard. Conversely, the mean concentrations of PCBs exceeded (greatly in some cases) the current limits (200 ng(-1) fat weight) set by the European Union for terrestrial foods. Although the manufacture and use of PCBs are banned or highly restricted, these compounds still are important persistent chemical contaminants in the Gulf of Naples. PMID:17388063

  12. Global Expression Profile of Biofilm Resistance to Antimicrobial Compounds in the Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Reveals Evidence of Persister Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muranaka, Lígia S.; Takita, Marco A.; Olivato, Jacqueline C.; Kishi, Luciano T.

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of biofilm resistance response rarely focus on plant-pathogenic bacteria. Since Xylella fastidiosa is a multihost plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilm in the xylem, the behavior of its biofilm in response to antimicrobial compounds needs to be better investigated. We analyzed here the transcriptional profile of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in response to inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of copper and tetracycline. Copper-based products are routinely used to control citrus diseases in the field, while antibiotics are more widely used for bacterial control in mammals. The use of antimicrobial compounds triggers specific responses to each compound, such as biofilm formation and phage activity for copper. Common changes in expression responses comprise the repression of genes associated with metabolic functions and movement and the induction of toxin-antitoxin systems, which have been associated with the formation of persister cells. Our results also show that these cells were found in the population at a ca. 0.05% density under inhibitory conditions for both antimicrobial compounds and that pretreatment with subinhibitory concentration of copper increases this number. No previous report has detected the presence of these cells in X. fastidiosa population, suggesting that this could lead to a multidrug tolerance response in the biofilm under a stressed environment. This is a mechanism that has recently become the focus of studies on resistance of human-pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics and, based on our data, it seems to be more broadly applicable. PMID:22730126

  13. Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

  14. Prior exposure to immunosuppressive organophosphorus or organochlorine compounds aggravates the T(H)1- and T(H)2-type allergy caused by topical sensitization to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and trimellitic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Tajima, Yukari; Ueda, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichi; Kosaka, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Immunosuppressive environmental chemicals may increase the potency of allergens and thereby play a role in the development of allergic diseases. This study's primary objective was to examine the mechanisms behind the relationship between allergic diseases and the immunosuppression induced by some environmental chemicals. We focused on the modulation of allergic potential in vitro and in mice by the organophosphorus pesticide O,O-diethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl-thiophosphate (parathion) and the organochlorine pesticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxy-phenyl)ethane (methoxychlor), with respect to the T(H)1-type allergen 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and the T(H)2-type allergen trimellitic anhydride (TMA). Mice (4-week-old) were orally administered parathion or methoxychlor. Four weeks after the final dosing, the mice were sensitized to DNCB or TMA, and T-lymphocyte proliferation measured in their (using a local lymph node assay [LLNA]). In addition, we analyzed T-lymphocytes via surface antigen expression and local cytokine production in auricular lymph nodes after treatment with 0.1% DNCB or 0.3% TMA. The estimated concentration of DNCB and TMA to yield a stimulation index (SI) of cell proliferation of three decreased markedly in parathion- and methoxychlor-pre-treated mice. Pesticide pre-treatment induced marked increases in the number of helper and cytotoxic T-cells, levels of T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokines, and gene expression in lymph node cells. According to our results, T(H)1- and T(H)2-type allergies are aggravated by prior exposure to immunosuppressive environmental chemicals. PMID:21534883

  15. [Levels of selected organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances in blood--Polish WWF study].

    PubMed

    Struci?ski, Pawe?; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    In June 2004, blood samples of fifteen volunteers were analyzed for presence of selected groups of chemical contaminants. The aim of this survey organized by WWF Poland (World Wildlife Fund) was highlighting the problem of man-made, persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals constantly present in surrounding environment and in our tissues. It was a part of European WWF "Detox" campaign supporting proposal of a new EU regulation that should lead to the identification and phasing out of the most harmful chemicals (known as REACH). Three laboratories in Czech Republic, Sweden and Belgium have analyzed blood samples for presence of the following groups of contaminants: organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated pesticides), phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances. The total number of single chemicals found in the blood samples was 25, that represents 64% of the 39 chemicals looked for. The average number of compounds found in the samples was 21 (from 19 to 22). Among organochlorine compounds analyzed, the predominant chemical found in the highest concentration was p,p'-DDE (range from 130 to 1310 ng/g of fat), which similarly like p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, and HCB (concentrations ranging from 6,4 to 46 ng/g of fat) was present in every person's blood. Among analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls, in all samples the following congeners have been present: PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 (concentrations ranging from 3,7 to 61 ng/g of fat). The two predominant phtalates from total eight analyzed present in all samples were di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (concentration range from 49 to 293 ng/g of blood) and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) (concentration range from 10 to 63 ng/g of blood). Among fifteen perfluorinated aliphatic substances analyzed, six have been present in each single sample (perfluorohexanesulfonic acid - PFHxS, perfluorooctanoic acid - PFOA, perfluorooctane-sulfonic acid - PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonylamide - PFOSA, perfluorononanoic acid - PFNA, and perfluorododecanoic acid - PFDA). The predominant compound in this class of contaminants was PFOS with the concentration ranging from 4,4 to 14 ng/ml of blood. The limited number of samples does not allow for making an analysis of potential impact of different factors on concentrations of particular contaminants in human blood. Results obtained in this survey confirm the ubiquitous contamination by a cocktail of hazardous chemicals of every person tested. Humans being a part of the environment are being contaminated with the same chemicals which are present in surrounding air, water, food, consumer articles, etc. PMID:17044303

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and parasites in Mugil incilis collected in Cartagena Bay, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz E; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara; Ruiz-Garcés, Luis Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Nematode parasites of the Anisakides family are often found in people living in countries where fish is consumed raw or partially cooked. This research shows the histological changes in the liver and spleen of Mugil incilis, collected in Cartagena Bay. These changes are associated with pollution by organochlorine pesticides and their possible influence on the parasite. Organochlorine compounds were extracted using the headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique. Residual amounts in the muscle of M. incilis such as ?-HCH, ?-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, 4,4'-DDE, and dieldrin, among others, were identified by gas chromatography connected to an electron capture detector, indicating that the fauna of Cartagena Bay are exposed to these pollutants. Histological analysis was carried out on liver and spleen samples of M. incilis which were fixed, processed, and embedded in paraffin. The presence of melano-macrophages, granulomes, and trematodes in the liver was the most important changes observed. Larval prevalence for the Anisakis spp. was determined to be 1.6 %; for Pseudoterranova spp., 25.3 %, and for Contracaecum spp., 57.8 %. Other parasites such as acanthocephalans were also reported for a total of 15.3 %. Nevertheless, no significant correlation between parasites and organochlorines was found. This study is the first to correlate the presence of organochlorine compounds and histological damage in the liver and spleen of M. incilis, with the presence of parasites in fish from Cartagena Bay (Colombia). PMID:26160124

  17. Organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue in Spain: Study of an agrarian area

    SciTech Connect

    Camps, M.; Planas, J.; Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Corbella, J.

    1989-02-01

    The environmental pollution by persistent organochlorine residues has received much attention in the last years because of its possible effects on wildlife and human health. These residues - organochlorine insecticides, hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in minor levels, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) - are accumulated in lipid-rich tissues. Their concentrations in adipose tissues of human populations are the best indices in determining the extent of exposure and in evaluating the hazard. In a previous study on the urban population of Barcelona (Spain) during the years 1982-83, high levels of DDE, DDT, /beta/-HCH and HCB were determined. Recently the incidence of HCB in Barcelona has been confirmed by serum determinations. In the present paper the authors have investigated the levels of organochlorine residues - with special concern on HCB- in human adipose tissues from an agrarian area, located at 130 km from Barcelona, mainly devoted to fruit-trees and cereal culture. Results obtained will form part of an up-to-date report on organochlorine pollution in Spain, including several populations of different geographical and socioeconomic characteristics, that will make it possible to identify the sources and trends of this contamination.

  18. Do persistent organic pollutants interact with the stress response? Individual compounds, and their mixtures, interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jodie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Steven; Frizzell, Caroline; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-01-22

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances, highly resistant to environmental degradation, which can bio-accumulate and have long-range atmospheric transport potential (UNEP, 2001). The majority of studies on endocrine disruption have focused on interferences on the sexual steroid hormones and so have overlooked disruption to glucocorticoid hormones. Here the endocrine disrupting potential of individual POPs and their mixtures has been investigated in vitro to identify any disruption to glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity. POP mixtures were screened for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocation using a GR redistribution assay (RA) on a CellInsight™ NXT high content screening (HCS) platform. A mammalian reporter gene assay (RGA) was then used to assess the individual POPs, and their mixtures, for effects on glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transactivation. POP mixtures did not induce GR translocation in the GR RA or produce an agonist response in the GR RGA. However, in the antagonist test, in the presence of cortisol, an individual POP, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), was found to decrease glucocorticoid nuclear receptor transcriptional activity to 72.5% (in comparison to the positive cortisol control). Enhanced nuclear transcriptional activity, in the presence of cortisol, was evident for the two lowest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFOS) potassium salt (0.0147mg/ml and 0.0294mg/ml), the two highest concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (0.0025mg/ml and 0.005mg/ml) and the highest concentration of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) (0.0000858mg/ml). It is important to gain a better understanding of how POPs can interact with GRs as the disruption of glucocorticoid action is thought to contribute to complex diseases. PMID:26599974

  19. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7?ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2?ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by ?(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation. PMID:25899033

  20. Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 ?W/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.

  1. Organochlorine exposure and bioaccumulation in the endangered northwest Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) population

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2000-03-01

    Exposure to toxicants is one factor hypothesized to influence population growth of the northern right whale. Organochlorines in right whale skin, feces, and prey were measured and used to identify factors influencing exposure and bioaccumulation. Concentrations of 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 20 pesticides in skin biopsies were consistent with other baleenopterids. Concentrations in feces and prey were two orders of magnitude less than in biopsies. In principal component analysis, organochlorines in biopsies matched those from Bay of Fundy, Canada, zooplankton, whereas feces were like Cape Cod, USA, copepods. Year of biopsy collection was the principal factor associated with differential accumulation of nonmetabolizable PCBs, 4,4{prime}-DDE, and dieldrin. Biopsies collected during winter had lower concentrations of lipid and metabolizable compounds than biopsies collected during summer. Concentrations of metabolizable PCBs increased with age in males. The bioaccumulation patterns implied that blubber burdens change annually because of the ingestion of different prey or prey from distinct locations and the release of some organochlorines stored in blubber during lipid depletion in winter. Because biopsy concentrations were lower than those found in marine mammals affected by PCBs and DDTs, the authors do not have evidence that the endangered whales bioaccumulate hazardous concentrations of organochlorines.

  2. Persistent Commissioning, Persistent Value 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    This case study showcases the energy savings, operational insights, and continuous economic benefits that end-use customers realize by employing persistent commissioning (PCx) tools and practices through a strategic utility program. Ener...

  3. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE US: FOUR STUDIES, SIX STATES AND TWENTY YEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides used to control indoor pests have transitioned across the chemicals classes of organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds from the 1980's to the present. This work summarizes the pesticide concentrations measured from the indoor air of homes from four st...

  4. Removal of persistent organic pollutant hexachlorocyclohexane isomers by advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Organochlorine insecticide Lindane (gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane) and its isomers (alpha, beta, delta-HCH) are recalcitrant and toxic compounds. They were progressively banished in most of the countries, because of their persistence and toxicity. Due to their nonselective production process and widespread use, they are still occurring in the environment. These insecticides and isomers were detected in all media like soil, ground water, sediments, vegetables and even in human tissues. In this study, UV, H2O2, UV+H2O2, Fenton's reagent, UV+Fenton's reagent, Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) have been applied for degradation of HCH isomers (a, beta, gamma and delta-HCH). The results revealed that the UV+H2O2 treatment was most effective, which could do 99% degradation of all isomers of HCH within 75 minutes. The results in detail are presented and discussed in this paper. PMID:24749381

  5. Scavenging amphipods: sentinels for penetration of mercury and persistent organic chemicals into food webs of the deep Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Stern, Gary A; Tomy, Gregg T; Hargrave, Barry T; Jantunen, Liisa M; Macdonald, Robie W

    2013-06-01

    Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075 to 4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983 and 1998, were analyzed for total mercury (?Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median ?Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g(-1) ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of ?Hg. ?Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (?Hg r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n = 63; MeHg r(2) = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n = 25), but not significantly with ?(13)C nor ?(15)N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750 to 156,000 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with order of abundance: ?TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > ?PCBs > ?DDTs > ?chlordanes > ?mirex compounds > ?BDEs ? ?chlorobenzenes ? octachlorostyrene > ?-hexachlorocyclohexane ? hexachlorobenzene ? pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ?10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologues, whereas profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences. PMID:23627492

  6. Dramatic declines of DDE and other organochlorines in spring migrant Peregrine Falcons from Padre Island, Texas, 1978-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Yates, M.A.; Seegar, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) captured in the spring at Padre Island, Texas, nest across the arctic and subarctic from Alaska to Greenland and winter throughout Latin America. Padre Island, located immediately north of the Mexican border, is the peregrines' first landfall in the U.S.A. after spending about 6 mo in Latin America. Blood plasma was collected from spring migrants at Padre Island between 1978 and 2004 to monitor trends in organochlorine (OC) pesticides and their metabolites. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE (??g/g, ww) decreased throughout the study: 1978-1979 (0.879), 1980 (0.617), 1984 (0.551), 1994 (0.406) and 2004 (0.013). Most other OC pesticides, with detection limits used during the earlier portion of this study, were no longer detected during the last two sampling periods. The reduced concentrations of OC pesticides suggest that other pesticides (including carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) are likely being used as replacements. These replacement compounds are not as persistent and cannot be readily evaluated at migration sites like Padre Island. However, concentrations of flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs) have recently increased in bird eggs in many regions and have been reported in blood plasma. Concentrations of PBDEs in peregrine plasma could be evaluated at Padre Island for assessment of trends in the Americas. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  7. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struci?ski, Pawe?; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds. PMID:25836759

  8. Concomitant evaluation of atmospheric levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Strasbourg (France) using pine needle passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Mokbel, Haifaa; Elmoll, Ahmad; Massemin, Sylvie; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Toufaily, Joumana; Hanieh, Tayssir; Millet, Maurice

    2015-11-01

    In this study, pine needles were used as cost-effective and reliable passive bio-monitors to concomitantly evaluate atmospheric concentrations of three classes of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The extraction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from needle samples was performed. Eleven PCBs, 11 OCPs, and 15 PAHs were detected and followed through time in needle samples from three sites in the Strasbourg region. The urban and rural sites were more exposed to PCBs than the suburban site. The highest concentration of PCBs was found at the urban site, but the largest number of congeners (10) was detected at the rural site. PCB 189 and 156 were the predominant congeners in the rural site and PCB 70 in the urban site. For OCPs, the rural site displayed the highest concentrations (up to 22.9 ng g(-1)) and number of compounds investigated (9). The high concentration of ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) at that time in the urban site was the reason for this result. ?- and ?-HCH were the two predominant compounds in all samples. The suburban and urban sites were the most exposed with PAHs with pyrene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene being the three predominant compounds in these sites. No specific trend in terms of time was apparent for PCBs and OCPs. However, higher concentrations were detected for some compounds in the first sampling, especially for PAHs, and this is attributed to variations in meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature, wind, rain) and variable inputs from both identified and unidentified sources. PMID:26162446

  9. Serum organochlorines and urinary porphyrin pattern in a population highly exposed to hexachlorobenzene

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Herrero, Carmen; Ozalla, Dolores; Sala, Maria; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Background Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is caused by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in several species of laboratory mammals, but the human evidence is contradictory. In a study among adults of a population highly exposed to HCB (Flix, Catalonia, Spain), the prevalence of PCT was not increased. We aimed at analysing the association of individual urinary porphyrins with the serum concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine compounds in this highly exposed population. Methods A cross-sectional study on total porphyrins was carried out in 1994 on 604 inhabitants of the general population of Flix, older than 14 years. Of them, 241 subjects (comprising a random sample and the subgroup with the highest exposure) were included for the present study. The porphyrin profile was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of HCB, as well as common organochlorine compounds, were determined by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection. Results Coproporphyrin I (CPI) and coproporphyrin III (CPIII) were the major porphyrins excreted, while uroporphyrins I and III were only detected in 2% and 36% of the subjects respectively, and heptaporphyrins I and III in 1% and 6%, respectively. CPI and CPIII decreased with increasing HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). This negative association was not explained by age, alcohol, smoking, or other organochlorine compounds. No association was found between uroporphyrin I and III excretion, nor heptaporphyrin excretion, and HCB. CPIII increased with smoking (p < 0.05). Conclusion HCB exposure in this highly exposed population did not increase urinary concentrations of individual porphyrins. PMID:12495451

  10. Assessing trends in organochlorine concentrations in Lake Winnipeg fish following the 1997 red river flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, A.R.; Stern, G.A.; Lockhart, W.L.; Kidd, K.A.; Salki, A.G.; Stainton, M.P.; Koczanski, K.; Rosenberg, G.B.; Savoie, D.A.; Billeck, B.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    As we move toward the virtual elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment our understanding of how short-term variability affects long-term trends of POPs in natural populations will become increasingly more important. In this study we report short-term trends in organochlorine (OC) levels in fish from Lake Winnipeg in the months and years following the 1997 100-year flood of the Red River ecosystem. Our goal was to understand the effects of an episodic event on OC levels in benthic and pelagic invertebrates and in fish. Despite elevated loading of OCs into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg during the flood there were no differences in OC levels of surface sediments or emergent mayflies. After adjusting for differences in lipid content and length among sample times, we did find significant increases in total DDT (??DDT) and total polychlorinated biphenyl (??PCB) post-flood (March 1999) in top predators including walleye and burbot. Significant increases were also observed in OC concentrations of zooplankton and yellow perch (> 2 fold in ??PCB, ??DDT, total chlordane (??CHL), total chlorobenzenes (??CBZ)) and walleye (1.4 fold ??PCB) over a 2-month period in the summer following the flood. Analysis of specific congener patterns over time suggest that the major changes in fish OC levels pre- and post-flood did not appear to be linked to transport of new compounds into the Lake during the flood, but to species shifts within the plankton community. Our results indicate that short-term variation (???2 months) in OC distributions within biota may be equal to or greater than those resulting from episodic events such as spring floods.

  11. Spatial distribution, source apportionment and ecological risk assessment of residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Raha, Priyankar; Shihua, Qi; Dan, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is one of the important mountain ecosystems among the global mountain system which support wide variety of flora, fauna, human communities and cultural diversities. Surface soil samples collected from IHR were analysed for 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentration of ?OCPs ranged from 0.28 to 2143.96 ng/g (mean 221.54 ng/g) and was mostly dominated by DDTs. The concentration of ?DDTs ranged from 0.28 to 2126.94 ng/g (mean 216.65 ng/g). Other OCPs such as HCHs, endosulfan and heptachlor, Aldrin and dieldrin were detected in lower concentration in IHR. Their concentrations in soil samples ranged from ND to 2.79 ng/g for HCHs, ND to 2.83 ng/g for endosulfans, NDto 1.46 ng/g for heptachlor, ND to 2.12 ng/g for Aldrin and ND to 1.81 ng/g for dieldrin. Spatial distribution of OCPs suggested prevalence of DDTs and HCHs at Guwahati and Itanagar, respectively. The close relationship between total organic carbon (TOC) and part of OCP compounds (especially ?- and ?-HCH) indicated the important role of TOC in accumulation, binding and persistence of OCP in soil. Diagnostic ratio of DDT metabolites and HCH isomers showed DDT contamination is due to recent application of technical DDT and dicofol, and HCH contamination was due to mixture of technical HCH and lindane source. This was further confirmed by principal component analysis. Ecological risk analysis of OCP residues in soil samples concluded the moderate to severe contamination of soil. PMID:26300363

  12. Petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescent aromatic compounds in fish bile and organochlorine pesticides from areas surrounding the spill of the Kab121 well, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V; Chan-Cocom, E; Zapata-Perez, O

    2014-01-01

    In October 2007, a light crude oil spill took place in the off shore Kab121 oil well, 32 km north of the mouth of the Grijalva River, Tabasco, Mexico. In order to estimate the possible effects of oil spill on the biota in the area surrounding the spilled well, the level of different fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in fish, as well as the concentration of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs. The organisms examined were cat fish (Ariopsis felis), in addition fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, the contaminants above mentioned and their relationship with cyotochrome P-450 and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, Glutathion-S-Transferase and catalase activities in liver were determined. The concentration of most pollutants were low, except PAHs. Spatial distribution of these compounds, as well as most biomarkers, reflected the highest exposure of fish to pollutants in the area adjacent to well, as well as in the proximity of rivers. The profile of exposure to this environment was chronic in nature and not temporary. PMID:24579530

  13. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR?=?1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p?=?0.024). Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk. PMID:22534004

  14. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L., Jr.; Clark, D.R., Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  15. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-09-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  16. Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

  17. Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Arsalan; DiStasio, Susan; Zhao, Jingbo; Cardozo, Christopher P; Wolff, Mary S; Caplan, Avrom J

    2005-03-01

    1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response. PMID:15710169

  18. Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Shabbir, Arsalan; DiStasio, Susan; Zhao, Jingbo; Cardozo, Christopher P.; Wolff, Mary S.; Caplan, Avrom J. . E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

    2005-03-01

    1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  19. Effects of urbanization and long-term rainfall on the occurrence of organic compounds and trace elements in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue from the Santa Ana River basin, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.

    2002-01-01

    Organcochlorine compounds, semivolatile-organic compounds (SVOC), and trace elements were analyzed in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment, and fish tissue in the Santa Ana River Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Three reservoirs were sampled in areas that have different degrees of urbanization. Streambed sediment and fish tissue collected at 12 sites were divided into two groups, urban and nonurban. More organochlorine compounds were detected in reservoir sediment cores, streambed sediment and fish tissue, and at higher concentrations at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of organochlorine compounds were lower than the probable-effect concentration (PEC). At the highly urbanized West Street Basin, chlordane and p,p'-DDE exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The less stringent threshold-effect concentration (TEC) was exceeded for six compounds at eight sites. Most of the organochlorine compounds detected in streambed sediment and fish tissue were at urban sites on the Santa Ana River as opposed to its tributaries, suggesting accumulation and persistence in the river. More SVOCs were detected in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment, and at higher concentrations, at urban sites than at nonurban sites. At all the sites, except West Street Basin, concentrations of SVOCs were lower than the PEC. At West Street Basin, chrysene, pyrene, and total polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded the PEC throughout the historical record. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 3 sites. Most of the SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment at urban sites on tributaries to the Santa Ana River rather than the mainstem itself. The less frequent occurrence and lower concentrations in the Santa Ana River suggest that SVOCs are less persistent than organochlorine compounds, possibly as a result of volatization, gradation, or dilution. Most trace-element detections in reservoir sediment cores and streambed sediment were at urban sites, and the concentrations were generally higher than at nonurban sites. Lead and zinc exceeded their PECs at West Street Basin throughout the historical record; copper exceeded its PEC at Canyon Lake, an area of urban growth. The TEC was exceeded for 10 compounds at 11 sites. Frequency of detection and concentration did not differ between tributary and Santa Ana River sites, which may be attributed to the fact that trace elements occur naturally. Four trace elements (arsenic, copper, mercury, and selenium) had higher concentrations in fish tissue at nonurban sites than at urban sites. Concentrations decreased over time for organochlorine compounds at all three reservoirs, probably a result of the discontinued use of many of the compounds. Decreasing trends in SVOCs and trace elements were observed at West Street Basin, but increasing trends were observed at Canyon Lake. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds, SVOCs, and trace elements were higher during periods of above average rainfall at both West Street Basin and Canyon Lake.

  20. Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in blubber and liver tissue collected from Queensland (Australia) dugong (Dugong dugon).

    PubMed

    Haynes, David; Carter, Steve; Gaus, Caroline; Müller, Jochen; Dennison, William

    2005-01-01

    Tissue samples of liver and blubber were salvaged from fifty-three dugong (Dugong dugon) carcasses stranded along the Queensland coast between 1996 and 2000. Liver tissue was analysed for a range of heavy metals and blubber samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds. Metal concentrations were similar in male and female animals and were generally highest in mature animals. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, mercury and nickel in a number of individual animals were elevated in comparison to concentrations previously reported in Australian dugong. Dieldrin, DDT (and its breakdown products) and/or heptachlor epoxide were detected in 59% of dugong blubber samples. In general, concentrations of organochlorines were similar to those reported in dugong 20 years earlier, and were low in comparison to concentrations recorded from marine mammal tissue collected elsewhere in the world. With the exception of lead, the extent of carcass decomposition, the presence of disease or evidence of animal starvation prior to death did not significantly affect dugong tissue concentrations of metals or organochlorines. The results of the study suggest that bioaccumulation of metals and organochlorine compounds (other than dioxins) does not represent a significant risk to Great Barrier Reef dugong populations, particularly in the context of other pressures associated with coastal development and other anthropogenic activities. PMID:15757735

  1. Environmental fate and behavior of persistent organic pollutants in Shergyla Mountain, southeast of the Tibetan Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-08-01

    Pristine mountains are ideal settings to study transport and behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along gradients of climate and land cover. The present work investigated the concentrations and patterns of 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 25 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) isomers in the air of the Shergyla Mountain, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Endosulfan ?, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes and dichlorodibenzotrichloroethane and its degradation products (DDTs) were the predominant compounds while PBDEs and HBCDs showed the lowest background concentrations. Most of the target POPs had significantly higher concentrations in summer than those in winter. Increasing trends of the concentrations of DDTs and endosulfan were found with increasing altitude on the western slope in the Shergyla Mountain. Potential forest filter effect was observed based on the lower air concentrations of the target POPs in the forest than the ones out of the forest. PMID:24842382

  2. Natural organochlorine in humic soils. GC and GC/MS studies of soil pyrolysates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lijser, H. J. Peter; Erkelens, Corrie; Knol, Adri; Pool, Wim; de Leer, Ed W. B.

    Organic Halogen (OX) matter of natural origin in soils forms an integral part of the macromolecular humic materials and, therefore, it cannot be removed by simple washing and extracting processes. In this study pyrolysis at 400°C in a nitrogen atmosphere was used to break down the humic macromolecules to gas chromatographable compounds, which were collected in a cold trap system. According to coulorimetric analysis, 10-60% of the original soil OX was removed by the pyrolysis process but only a small part of the OX removed (2-40%) was collected in the cold trap system. The bulk of the OX was found in a precipitate that was formed between the furnace and the cold trap system. Analysis of the pyrolysates with GC/ECD indicated the presence of organohalogen compounds. GC/MS-NCI/SIM gave evidence for the presence of at least 20 different organochlorine compounds. Identification of individual organochlorine compounds with GC/MS and GC/MS-SIM was not successful, possibly due to the relatively low concentrations of these compounds and the overlap with other major non-chlorinated components. GC/MS-CNL indicated the presence of dichloropropane or chlorobenzene, and chlorophenol as of several unidentified chloroalkanes and/or chloroalkenes.

  3. Plasma organochlorine levels and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Kristan J; Wilson, James W L; Hamel, Meghan; Diarsvitri, Wienta; Fan, Wenli; Woolcott, Christy; Heaton, Jeremy P W; Nickel, J Curtis; Macneily, Andrew; Morales, Alvara

    2010-07-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between plasma organochlorine levels and prostate cancer risk. Male clinic patients scheduled for prostate core biopsy or seeing their urologist for other conditions from 1997 through 1999 in Kingston, Ontario were eligible, excluding those with an earlier cancer. Age frequency matched controls (n=329) were compared with 79 incident prostate cancer cases. Before knowledge of diagnosis, the patients completed a questionnaire and donated 15 ml of blood for the measurement of 14 PCBs, and 13 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. At least 70% of patients had detectable levels of nine PCB congeners and seven pesticides, and these chemicals were included in the risk analysis adjusted for total lipids. Geometric means for these PCB congeners, total PCBs, and p,p'-DDE are slightly lower for cases than controls, whereas the levels of p,p'-DDT and other pesticides are virtually equal. Adjusting for age and other confounders in multivariable logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) are consistently below 1.0 for PCB congeners and total PCBs. For pesticides, most ORs are very close to the null. This study suggests that long-term low-level exposure to organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the general population does not contribute to increased prostate cancer risk. PMID:19513097

  4. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of ?-HCH/?-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no significant health risk for human consumption by eating eggs collected in this study. PMID:24862478

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klin?i?, D; Herceg Romani?, S; Matek Sari?, M; Grzunov, J; Duki?, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. ?-HCH/?-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of ?-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly. PMID:24562053

  6. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores < insectivores < omnivores < piscivores < carnivores. Although, the organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species. PMID:20571760

  7. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

  8. Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling Sergei A. Kurta a , Alex A Byproduct Recycling Dichloroethane Vinyl chloride Trichloroethane a b s t r a c t Due to environmental waste recycling. Environmentally-friendly processing and recycling methods of organochlorine waste

  9. Sucralose, a synthetic organochlorine sweetener: overview of biological issues.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S; Rother, Kristina I

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  10. Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Southern Right Whales (Eubalaena australis) breeding at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Miglioranza, K S B; Uhart, M M; Gonzalez, M; Commendatore, M

    2015-06-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in blubber from 35 dead Southern Right Whales (SRW - Eubalaena australis) stranded at Península Valdés, Argentina. The life cycle includes a feeding period in high productivity areas of the South West Atlantic and a reproductive period in coastal template waters of Argentina. Organochlorine pesticides showed higher concentrations (22.6±13.8 ng·g(-1)ww) than PCBs (7.5±10 ng·g(-1)ww). Among pesticides, HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, dieldrin, chlordans, heptachlor epoxide, and trans-nonachlor were detected. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were present in 69% and 26% of samples, respectively. p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio showed low values (<0.33) as a result of aged DDT inputs. However, the occurrence of only p,p'-DDT in some samples suggests a recent pesticide input. ?-HCH/?-HCH ratio (organochlorine compounds are forbidden they were bioaccumulated in the blubber of SRW with a predominance of endosulfans, the more recently used pesticide. The absence of data on chemical pollutants in stranded dead whales is highlighted as a priority for research. This is the first study on levels, compositional patterns, and organochlorine sources in SRW. Moreover, more research including milk, and other tissues/organs is recommended considered that in the studied specimens, mostly calves, pollutants are likely transferred from the mother during pregnancy and nursing. PMID:25813841

  12. Susceptibility to infections and immune status in Inuit infants exposed to organochlorines.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Bruneau, S; Gingras, S; Belles-Isles, M; Roy, R

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether organochlorine exposure is associated with the incidence of infectious diseases in Inuit infants from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec, Canada). We compiled the number of infectious disease episodes during the first year of life for 98 breast-fed and 73 bottle-fed infants. Concentrations of organochlorines were measured in early breast milk samples and used as surrogates to prenatal exposure levels. Immune system parameters were determined in venous blood samples collected from infants at 3, 7, and 12 months of age. Otitis media was the most frequent disease, with 80. 0% of breast-fed and 81.3% of bottle-fed infants experiencing at least one episode during the first year of life. During the second follow-up period, the risk of otitis media increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and dieldrin. The relative risk (RR) for 4- to 7-month-old infants in the highest tertile of p, p'-DDE exposure as compared to infants in the lowest tertile was 1. 87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-3.26]. The RR of otitis media over the entire first year of life also increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE (RR, 1.52; CI, 1.05-2.22) and hexachlorobenzene (RR, 1.49; CI, 1.10-2.03). Furthermore, the RR of recurrent otitis media ( [Greater/equal to] 3 episodes) increased with prenatal exposure to these compounds. No clinically relevant differences were noted between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to immunologic parameters, and prenatal organochlorine exposure was not associated with immunologic parameters. We conclude that prenatal organochlorine exposure could be a risk factor for acute otitis media in Inuit infants. Images Figure 1 PMID:10706525

  13. POTENTIAL FOR BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANO-CHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are the most important organic contaminants of shallow water-table aquifers. Such aquifers have recently been shown to harbor an indigenous microflora. Organisms in authentic and uncontaminated samples of unconsolidated subsurface m...

  14. Concentrations and mass fluxes estimation of organochlorine pesticides in Three Gorges Reservoir with virtual organisms using in situ PRC-based sampling rate.

    PubMed

    Temoka, Cedrique; Wang, Jingxian; Bi, Yonghong; Deyerling, Dominik; Pfister, Gerd; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are widely distributed environmental pollutants. Due to their persistence and toxicity, it is important to know their fluxes and spatial and temporal distribution in the environment. In this study, a new procedure to estimate OCP concentration based on a set of performance reference compounds (PRCs) was used. Their occurrence and mass fluxes were assessed on a regional scale ranging from Chonqging to Maoping in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) as part of Yangtze River. The results are based on three sampling campaigns in 2009 (twice) and 2011. Due to different factors, the measured concentrations varied from 410 to 1418 pg/L. The highest total OCP concentration was localized in Wanzhou while the lowest was downstream Maoping near the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). The highest load of OCP mass fluxes was observed at Wanhzou with 9.6 mg/s and the lowest load at Maoping with 2.97 mg/s. Studies at Maoping show an increase in OCP water concentration from 2009 to 2012. Comparison between free dissolved OCP water concentration and total OCP water concentration in TGR 2009, 2011 and 2012 show a slight variation, indicating the important role of dilution in the OCP removal process in TGR. PMID:26498100

  15. Inhibition of final maturation of Atlantic croaker oocytes in vitro by organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Thomas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Final oocyte maturation (FOM) in teleosts is induced by a maturation inducing steroid (MIS) secreted in response to a surge in maturational gonadotropin secretion. Recently the authors found that a variety of organochlorine pesticides bind to the ovarian plasma membrane receptor for the MIS in the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). In the present study the interaction of various xenobiotics (10{sup {minus}9}--10{sup {minus}4}M) with MIS-induced final maturation of follicle-enclosed oocytes of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), a closely related species, was investigated using an in vitro oocyte maturation bioassay. A wide range of organochlorine compounds (10{sup {minus}9}--10{sup {minus}4}M) inhibited MIS-induced FOM 10%-80% in a concentration-dependent manner. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was the most potent inhibitor among the compounds tested. The minimum concentration of TCDD which inhibited final maturation of 50% of the oocytes (EC{sub 50}) was in the 10{sup {minus}7} M range whereas the EC{sub 50} values for Kepone and naphthalene were in the 10{sup {minus}5}M range. The relative potencies of DDT analogs varied greatly, with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}4}M (o,p{prime}-DDD > o,p{prime}-DDE > o,p{prime}DDT > p,p{prime}-DDE > p,p{prime}-DDE > p,p{prime}-DDT). PCBs only inhibited FOM at higher concentrations (2--200 ppm); congeners with higher chlorine contents were the most inhibitory. These results indicate that organochlorine compounds at environmentally realistic concentrations can affect reproduction in fish by interfering with FOM, a critical stage of the reproductive cycle.

  16. Synergistic activation of human pregnane X receptor by binary cocktails of pharmaceutical and environmental compounds

    PubMed Central

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Dendele, Béatrice; Huet, Tiphaine; Grimaldi, Marina; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine; Beucher, Bertrand; Roecklin, Dominique; Muller, Christina; Rahmani, Roger; Cavaillès, Vincent; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Vivat, Valérie; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Balaguer, Patrick; Bourguet, William

    2015-01-01

    Humans are chronically exposed to multiple exogenous substances, including environmental pollutants, drugs and dietary components. Many of these compounds are suspected to impact human health, and their combination in complex mixtures could exacerbate their harmful effects. Here we demonstrate that a pharmaceutical oestrogen and a persistent organochlorine pesticide, both exhibiting low efficacy when studied separately, cooperatively bind to the pregnane X receptor, leading to synergistic activation. Biophysical analysis shows that each ligand enhances the binding affinity of the other, so the binary mixture induces a substantial biological response at doses at which each chemical individually is inactive. High-resolution crystal structures reveal the structural basis for the observed cooperativity. Our results suggest that the formation of ‘supramolecular ligands' within the ligand-binding pocket of nuclear receptors contributes to the synergistic toxic effect of chemical mixtures, which may have broad implications for the fields of endocrine disruption, toxicology and chemical risk assessment. PMID:26333997

  17. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Keith, Miles A.; Anthony, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (??15N) and carbon source (??13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of ?? polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of ?? PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high ?? PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of ?? PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p??? DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with ??15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of ?? PCBs and p,p??? DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of atmospheric-oceanic processes and the migratory movements of seabirds.

  18. Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine chemical residues in oxbow lakes of northeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niethammer, K.R.; White, D.H.; Baskett, T.S.; Sayre, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Samples (98) of 16 spp. of animals were collected at Lake Providence, 88 samples of 15 spp. at Lake Bruin and 21 samples of 5 spp. at Lake St. John, Louisiana, between July 15 and Sept. 25, 1980. Residues of 13 organochlorine compounds were identified in these samples. Substantial concentrations of many compounds throughout the food webs of all 3 lakes showed that the lakes acted as sumps, accumulating residues from nearby agricultural land. DDT and its metabolites (DDE, TDE and DDMU [1-chloro-2,2,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene]), toxaphene and polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) were the principal organochloride residues detected. With few exceptions, biomagnification of the principal residues was clearly illustrated. Tertiary consumers such as green-backed heron (Butorides striatus), snakes, spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) contained the highest residues. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), blacktail shiner (Notropis venustus), yellow-crowned night heron (Nycticorax violaceus) and other secondary consumers contained lower levels of residues. Primary consumers, crayfish (Orconectes lancifer) and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense), contained relatively low residue levels of most compounds. Frogs contained lower residue levels than expected based on their position in the food web. Residue levels in immature green-backed herons and .gtoreq. 1 of the longer-lived predators, e.g., snakes, gars or largemouth bass could be monitored to evaluate levels of organochlorine chemical contaminants in aquatic habitats.

  19. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  20. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  1. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  2. Photochemical Transformations of Trace Persistent Organic Pollutants in Snow and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannas, A. M.; Rowland, G. A.; Sprenkle, A.; Bausch, A.

    2007-12-01

    Polar snowpacks have been established as active matrices for chemical processing of atmospheric species such as molecular halogens, volatile organics and ozone. It has previously been demonstrated that photochemical transformations of anthropogenic persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in ice occur under laboratory conditions, but there is little in the published literature regarding these processes. In the study described here, we consider the effect of near ultraviolet radiation on trace amounts of various organochlorine compounds in ice; the compounds selected are of interest because of their known presence in polar regions and their detrimental effect on organisms in polar ecosystems. Both direct photochemical transformations and indirect photo-oxidation by OH radical were investigated. To differentiate between pure liquid-phase, solid phase and interfacial processes, experiments were conducted on POPs in aqueous solution, ice and crushed ice/snow at various temperatures. In all cases, the degradation of the POP was monitored by the extraction of photolyzed samples followed by GC analysis. On the basis of these degradation studies, some reactive systems were selected for more detailed investigation. Reaction products were identified from irradiated samples by SPME with GCMS analysis. On the basis of the kinetic studies and identified reaction products, mechanisms for selected photochemical transformations are proposed. Potential implications of these transformations for environmental partitioning and interactions of the selected POPs will be discussed.

  3. Organochlorine pollutants in water, soils, and earthworms in the Guadalquivir River, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1992-08-01

    Organochlorine compounds (insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) are known to maintain their stability in the aquatic environment for long periods. DDT and cyclodiene insecticides were used widely in Spain until their use was banned in 1976; DDT and its degradation products are still found in environmental samples. Since DDT has been legally restricted for use, lindane has become important as a substitute for DDT. This study has been carried out along Guadalquivir River, Spain. This river runs across an agricultural area where pesticides are used extensively. The Guadalquivir basin is the most economically important area of the South of the Iberian Peninsula; its economic importance stems from its proximity to a major metropolitan areas (Cordova, Seville), which indicates the presence of numerous urban, commercial, and industrial locations in the vicinity of the sampling stations. The purposes of this investigation are: (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine compounds in water, soils, and earthworms sampled in ten stations of the Guadalquivir River; (2) to evaluate biological accumulation of pollutants studied within the food webs; (3) to evaluate regional patterns and time trends of residues. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson's Disease in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, B. D.; Bala, Kiran; Sharma, Deepika

    2013-01-01

    The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive, but environmental chemical exposures have been postulated to be involved in the etiology of PD. We examined the association between the persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PD in the North Indian population. This case control study included 70 PD and 75 control subjects in the age group of 50 to 85 years. Blood samples were collected and high-purity grade hexane and acetone (2?:?1 ratio) were used for extraction of organochlorine residues. OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, pp?-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp?-DDE), op?-DDE, pp?- Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp?-DDT), op?-DDT, pp?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (pp?-DDD) and op?-DDD) were quantitatively estimated by using gas chromatography. The most frequently detected OCP was dieldrin, which was present in 9.3% of control and 61.4% of PD. The strongest predictor was ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), which reported an odds ratio of 2.566, indicating that for every additional one unit of ?-HCH, patients had 2.566 times more chances of presence of PD. This study indicates that increased level of ?-HCH and dieldrin may be associated with the risk of PD. PMID:23936670

  5. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  6. Levels, distribution, and risk assessment of organochlorines in surficial sediments of the Red Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Moneer, Abeer A; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany

    2013-06-01

    The analyses of environmentally persistent pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in surficial sediment samples collected from 17 locations along with the coast of the Red Sea in Egypt were carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several potential organic contaminants from agricultural (e.g., DDT and its breakdown products, lindane, endrin, dieldrin, and endosulfan) and industrial (PCBs) sources were measured. The levels of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and ten PCB congeners in sediment collected from 17 stations along ~1,200 km were investigated. Concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, and cyclodienes ranged from 0.40 to 6.17, 0.01 to 0.09, n.d. to 0.46, and 0.08 to 0.90 ppb dry weight. Two statistical programs were applied on the data (principal component analysis, PCA, and cluster analysis, CA), and it was concluded that it is impossible to predict the distribution patterns of the OCPs in a contaminated area. Risk assessment of the organochlorines contaminated in the sediments of the studied area was investigated. PMID:23054273

  7. Determination of Q1, an unknown organochlorine contaminant, in human milk, Antarctic air, and further environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Vetter, W; Alder, L; Kallenborn, R; Schlabach, M

    2000-12-01

    Q1, an organochlorine component with the molecular formula C(9)H(3)Cl(7)N(2) and of unknown origin was recently identified in seal blubber samples from the Namibian coast (southwest of Africa) and the Antarctic. In these samples, Q1 was more abundant than PCBs and on the level of DDT residues. Furthermore, Q1 was more abundant in seals from the Antarctic than the Arctic. To prove this assumption, gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS), which is sensitive and selective for Q1, allowed for screening of traces of Q1 even in samples with particularly high levels of other organochlorine contaminants. Q1 was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from a skua liver sample. A 1:1 mixture with trans-nonachlor in electron-capture detectors (ECDs) was used to determine the relative response factor with ECNI-MS. The ECNI-MS response of Q1 turned out to be 4.5 times higher than that of trans-nonachlor in an ECD. With GC/ECNI-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode, four Antarctic and four Arctic air samples were investigated for the presence of Q1. In the Antarctic air samples, Q1 levels ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 fg/m(3). In Arctic air samples, however, Q1 was below the detection limit (<0.06 fg/m(3) or 60 ag/m(3)). We also report on high Q1 levels in selected human milk samples (12-230 microg/kg lipid) and, therefore, suggested that the unknown Q1 is an environmental compound whose origin and distribution should be investigated in detail. Our data confirm that Q1 is a bioaccumulative natural organochlorine product. Detection of a highly chlorinated natural organochlorine compound in air and human milk is novel. PMID:15092819

  8. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, ?-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, ?-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  9. Dynamics of suspended sediment borne persistent organic pollutants in a large regulated Mediterranean river (Ebro, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Quesada, S; Tena, A; Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Vericat, D; Martínez, E; Navarro-Ortega, A; Batalla, R J; Barceló, D

    2014-03-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characterized by highly variable hydrological regimes that are strongly dependent on the seasonal rainfall. Sediment transport is closely related to the occurrence of flash-floods capable to deliver enough kinetic energy to mobilize the bed and channel sediments. Contaminants accumulated in the sediments are likely to be mobilized as well during such events. However, whereas there are many studies characterizing contaminants in steady sediments, those devoted to the transport dynamics of suspended-sediment borne pollution are lacking. Here we examined the occurrence and transport of persistent organic microcontaminants present in the circulating suspended sediments during a controlled flushing flow in the low part of the River Ebro (NE Spain) 12 km downstream of a well-known contaminated hot-spot associated to a nearby chloro-alkali industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organochlorine pollutants (DDT and related compounds, DDX; polychlorinated byphenils, PCBs; and other organochlorine compound, OCs) were measured in the particulate material by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, using previously developed analytical methods. The concentration levels observed were compared to previously reported values in steady sediments in the same river and discussed on a regulatory perspective. Hydrographs and sedigraphs recorded showed a peak-flow of 1,300 m(3)s(-1) and a corresponding peak of suspended sediments of 315 mg L(-1). Combination of flow discharge, suspended sediments and pollutants' concentrations data allowed for quantifying the mass flows (mass per unit of time) and setting the load budgets (weight amount) of the different pollutants transported by the river during the monitored event. Mean mass-flows and total load values found were 20.2 mg s(-1) (400 g) for PAHs, 38 mg s(-1) (940 g) for DDX, 44 mg s(-1) (1,038 g) for PCBs and 8 mg s(-1) (200 g) for OCs. The dynamic pattern behavior of PAHs differs substantially to that of organochlorine pollutants, thus reflecting different pollution origins. PMID:24380771

  10. Organochlorine residues in eggs of black-crowned night-herons from Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, L.C.; Stafford, C.J.; Hensler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Eggs of black-crowned night-herons N. nycticorax were collected for analysis from 7 nesting sites in Colorado and Wyoming in 1979. One egg was taken/nest from as many as 20 nests/site during early incubation. The nests were marked and revisited after hatching, but before fledging, to record the number of live young. DDE was detected in all collected eggs (147) at a mean concentration of 3.1 ppm, fresh basis (residue means were geometric). Mean DDE at the 7 sites varied from 1.8-7.6 ppm. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were detected in 81 eggs (mean 1.0 ppm); the highest mean at any site was 2.2 ppm. Twelve other organochlorines were each detected in 1-30 eggs, usually at a concentration of lt 1.0 ppm. Mean total organochlorines in the eggs from the 7 sites ranged from 2.0-10.1 ppm and the median number of compounds/egg ranged from 1-5. Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated (P lt 0.001, r = -0.585) with DDE levels in the 147 eggs. Average shell thickness (0.258 +- 0.030 mm) was 8.8% lower than the average thickness (0.283 +- 0.016 mm) of 40 pre-DDT eggs from this region. The nesting sites with the highest DDE and total organochlorine residues in the eggs had the thinnest shells, produced the fewest young and had more nonviable eggs and dead young. At 4 of 7 sites, the average number of live young/nest was lt 2.0, the minimum long-term mean required for population maintenance. The source of the contaminants found in the heron eggs in this study was not determined.

  11. Short communication Trace elements, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Short communication Trace elements, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in New Zealand common, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide levels were determined in tissues collected pesticides including dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltri- chloroethane (DDT

  12. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2012-02-01

    Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid. PMID:22099537

  13. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romani?, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klin?i?, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (?6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ?PCB and ?DDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

  14. Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, M; Topping, J J

    1985-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established. PMID:3937849

  15. Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

    1985-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established.

  16. Semibiotic Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothmann, C.; Zauner, K.-P.

    From observation, we find four different strategies to successfully enable structures to persist over extended periods of time. If functionally relevant features are very large compared to the changes that can be effectuated by entropy, the functional structure itself has a high enough probability to erode only slowly over time. If the functionally relevant features are protected from environmental influence by sacrificial layers that absorb the impinging of the environment, deterioration can be avoided or slowed. Loss of functionality can be delayed, even for complex systems, by keeping alternate options for all required components available. Biological systems also apply information processing to actively counter the impact of entropy by mechanisms such as self-repair. The latter strategy increases the overall persistence of living systems and enables them to maintain a highly complex functional organisation during their lifetime and over generations. In contrast to the other strategies, information processing has only low material overhead. While at present engineered technology is far from achieving the self-repair of evolved systems, the semibiotic combination of biological components with conventionally engineered systems may open a path to long-term persistence of functional devices in harsh environments. We review nature's strategies for persistence, and consider early steps taken in the laboratory to import such capabilities into engineered architectures.

  17. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears

    SciTech Connect

    Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

  18. FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOOT DEPOSITS FROM NON-OPTIMUM COMBUSTION OF NO. 6 FUEL OIL WITH CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a full-scale hazardous waste combustion study performed for EPA, sampling and analysis was conducted on both stack gases and solid "soot" collected from a boiler's interior surfaces. wo organochlorine compounds, monochlorobenzene (MCB) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were cof...

  19. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g?1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  20. Spatial distribution and accumulation of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Karri; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Kim, Eun-Young; Min, Byung-Yoon; We, Sung-Ug; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-07-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 20 locations along the coastal waters of Korea were analyzed to elucidate the characteristic distribution and contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the contamination status of HBCDs from Korea. PBDEs and HBCDs were found in mussels at levels ranging from 6.6 to 440 and from 6.0 to 500 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in mussels from Korea were higher or comparable to available data in mussels from other countries. Among the organochlorine compounds (OCs) analyzed, levels of PCBs and DDTs were the highest followed by CHLs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene. For all the compounds, higher concentrations were found in mussels from southeastern coast of Korea. The present study shows the importance of mussels as bioindicators for monitoring contaminants in coastal waters. PMID:17240498

  1. Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. PMID:25043888

  2. Persistent hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Kelly Anne; Tigchelaar, Helene; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama

    2013-07-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common finding in emergency departments. In this article, we review the causes of hypoglycemia in children, the evaluation and management of a child with persistent hypoglycemia, and causes of adrenal insufficiency in children. We report a case of adrenoleukodystrophy, a type of primary adrenal insufficiency, in a 5-year-old boy who presented with altered mental status, seizures, and hypoglycemia. PMID:23823267

  3. Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Callender, Edward; Fuller, Christopher C.

    1998-01-01

    Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 (±2.5), 9.5 (±2.2), and 13 (±5.8) yr for decay-corrected 137Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of 137Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

  4. Latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants in pelagic and demersal marine fish on the Norwegian Coast.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Borgå, Katrine; Dempster, Tim; Lie, Elisabeth; Nygård, Torgeir; Uglem, Ingebrigt

    2012-07-17

    The latitudinal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: legacy organochlorines [OCs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs,] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCD]) was examined in livers of two species of marine fish, the pelagic saithe (Pollachius virens,n = 40) and the demersal cod (Gadus morhua,n = 40), along a south-north gradient (59°-70°N) on the Norwegian Coast. Cod had in general two to three times higher concentrations of POPs than saithe, probably because of higher exposure in the benthic food chain. The concentrations of heavy halogenated compounds were higher in the southernmost region than further north. Moreover, the POP pattern showed a gradual shift in the compositions from south to north, especially for OCs in cod: i.e. the relative importance of low-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and some OC-pesticides (e.g., hexachlorobenzen [HCB]) in the contaminant burdens increased with latitude. The latitudinal fractionation signal was weaker in saithe, possibly due to its pelagic and nomadic behavior. Hence, this study shows not only a strong latitudinal fractionation in the compositional patterns of POPs in marine fish but also the effects of habitat use and fish behavior. PMID:22734881

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  6. Effects of local and distant contaminant sources: polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines in bottom-dwelling animals from an Arctic estuary.

    PubMed

    Bright, D A; Dushenko, W T; Grundy, S L; Reimer, K J

    1995-01-15

    Elevated concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues of large marine predators in the Canadian Arctic are well documented. This paper presents some of the first data on the composition and distribution of chlorinated organic compounds in some arctic coastal animals found at lower levels of the marine food chain. Organisms include bottom-dwelling invertebrates: clams (Mya truncata), mussels (Mytilus edulis), sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and fish: sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis). The majority of samples were collected in the vicinity of Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada; however, samples were also collected near another inhabited area (Hall Beach, NWT) and at a reference site (Wellington Bay, NWT). PCBs and other organochlorines typically originate in more industrialized parts of the northern hemisphere, enter the Arctic, and are subsequently biomagnified. In this study, differences in the PCB congener compositions and concentrations, as well as the relative concentrations of a larger suite of organochlorines in biota, allowed the discrimination between local and distant PCB sources. Terrestrial runoff from southern Victoria Island, NWT, has resulted in localized elevation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in marine sediment and bottom-dwelling animals. The major inputs of PCBs to coastal waters within Cambridge Bay were derived from local sources (the hamlet dump and DEW Line site). In addition, transport from more distant sources via riverine input accounts for locally elevated concentrations of other organochlorines in upper Cambridge Bay. This process may also account for concentrations of all measured organochlorines that are higher in Wellington Bay than in Queen Maud Gulf. The high PCB concentrations in the whole tissue (excluding liver) or livers of four-horned sculpins in Cambridge Bay (up to 220 ng/g and 1950 ng/g, respectively) and, to a lesser extent, Wellington Bay (3.8 ng/g and 47 ng/g, respectively) reflect a strong tendency for biomagnification of PCBs in coastal benthic communities. PMID:7892574

  7. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of ?(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ?HCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

  8. Food habits and organochlorine contaminants in the diet of olivaceous cormorants in Galveston Bay, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    More than 1,000 food items, representing 32 species of fish and one invertebrate, were identified from olivaceous cormorants. Six species of fish comprised 79% of the diet by frequency of occurrence and 78% by weight. Almost half of the diet consisted of a single species, the sheepshead minnow. Concentrations of pp-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in cormorant carcasses were 27 times greater than those in fish and 57 times higher in cormorant eggs than fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) were 18 times higher in carcasses and 15 times higher in eggs than in fish. The biomagnification of other organochlorine contaminants through the cormorant food base in Galveston Bay is difficult to evaluate because the only compounds detected in all three tissues at greater than 50% frequency of occurrence were DDE and PCB.

  9. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon, 1988-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Lee, Karl K.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were detected in unfiltered samples from Johnson Creek that were collected during a storm in March, 2002. Total DDT (the sum of DDT and its metabolites), as well as dieldrin, potentially exceeded Oregon chronic, freshwater criteria at all four Johnson Creek stream-sampling sites. The total DDT criterion was also potentially exceeded at a storm drain at SE 45th Avenue and Umatilla Street. The concentration of total DDT in water samples has decreased by an order of magnitude since previous sampling was done on Johnson Creek in 1989?1990. This decrease was probably due to the movement of these compounds out of the basin and to degradation processes. Concentrations and loads of the organochlorine pesticides were largest at the most upstream sampling site, Johnson Creek at Palmblad Road, which has historically been primarily affected by agricultural land cover. Concentrations and loads were smaller at downstream locations, and there were only a few detections from storm drains. For the purposes of assessing trends in total DDT concentration in Johnson Creek, data for total suspended solids (TSS) were examined, because TSS is often correlated with DDT concentrations, and TSS data are collected routinely by regulatory agencies. As an intermediate step, linear regression was used to relate TSS (measured in the recent study) and turbidity (measured both in the earlier and in the recent studies). For 77 samples, TSS (in mg/L [milligrams per liter]) = 0.88 x Turbidity (in nephleometric turbidity units). The r2 value was 0.82. The TSS concentration (measured, or estimated by the regression) was compared to the concentration of total DDT using linear regression. The TSS concentration associated with meeting the Oregon water-quality criterion for total DDT was 15 to 18 mg/L in the lower and middle part of the basin and 8 mg/L in the upper reaches of the basin. This TSS/DDT relationship is based on only one storm and may not be valid for other conditions of streamflow and runoff. Dieldrin concentration was not well correlated with TSS. Organochlorine compounds also were detected in significant concentrations in Kelley Creek, an important tributary to Johnson Creek, but quality-control considerations made it difficult to interpret some of the data. It does appear, however, that some of the metabolites of DDT were positively associated with TSS. The high concentrations of the DDT metabolites and dieldrin were correlated with agricultural areas.

  11. Marine mammal health: Organochlorines in blubber, blood and milk of Tursiops truncatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.L.; Ridgway, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    Marine mammals are potentially vulnerable organisms for the effects of hazardous man-made chemicals. Organochlorines (OCs) are suspected of causing reproductive failure and immunosuppression which may result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease. High levels of OCs have been found in victims of mass die offs of cetaceans world-wide. To determine baseline values of these organochlorine contaminants found in healthy reproductive dolphins, the authors collected samples of blood, blubber and milk from a population of Tursiops truncatus maintained by the US Navy. These animals are ideal for study because of the availability of relevant biological data which is often lacking in data from wild animals. The Navy dolphins are trained for medical behaviors like blood and milk collection. These behaviors allow them to collect data under controlled conditions preempting errors that occur when collecting similar data on dead and/or wild animals. Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) the authors have quantified 10 to 25 PCBs using congener-specific analysis and 19 chlorinated pesticides from microsamples of blubber, blood and milk collected from these animals. The authors also analyzed the fish in the diets of the dolphins. Serial sample collection of milk has allowed us to track the transfer of OCs over the course of lactation. They were also able to correlate OC levels found in blubber, blood and milk. This database should reveal baseline levels relating environmental toxins and marine mammal health to provide a potentially sensitive indicator of pollution and disease in the natural ocean environment and furnish an unparalleled historical pathway toward understanding the effects and consequences of these persistent contaminants and their impact on the marine ecosystem.

  12. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS OF WINTERING DUCKS FORAGING ON DETROIT RIVER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organochlorine analysis was performed on carcasses of 13 diving ducks from a 1981 wintering population that foraged on contaminated sediments in the lower Detroit River. Mean total PCB concentrations were 10 mg/kg for seven lesser scaups (Aythya affinis), 11 mg/kg for three great...

  13. Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  14. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  15. Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1999-05-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

  16. Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Human Placental Tissue from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachael M.; Li, An; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Walker, Cheryl; Szabo, Sara; Leuthner, Steve; Durkin, Maureen S.; Moye, Jack; Miller, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and legacy environmental pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (DDE) are found in human placenta, indicating prenatal exposure, but data from the United States are sparse. We sought to determine concentrations of these compounds in human placentae as part of a formative research project conducted by the National Children’s Study Placenta Consortium. A total of 169 tissue specimens were collected at different time points post delivery from 42 human placentae at three U.S. locations, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry following extraction using matrix solid phase dispersion. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE were detected in all specimens. The concentrations of 10 PBDEs (?10PBDEs), 32 PCBs (?32PCBs) and p,p’-DDE were 43–1,723, 76–856 and 10–1,968 pg/g wet weight, respectively, in specimens collected shortly after delivery. Significant geographic differences in PBDEs were observed, with higher concentrations in placentae collected in Davis, CA than in those from Rochester, NY or Milwaukee, WI. We combined these with other published data and noted first-order declining trends for placental PCB and DDE concentrations over the past decades, with half-lives of about 5 and 8 years, respectively. The effect of time to tissue collection from refrigerated placentae on measured concentrations of these three classes of persistent organic pollutants was additionally examined, with no significant effect observed up to 120 hours. The results of this work indicate that widespread prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the United States continues. PMID:24485817

  17. Estrogenic Evaluation and Organochlorine Identification in Blubber of North Sea Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Stranded on the North Sea Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brose, François; Jauniaux, Thierry; Das, Krishna; Muller, Marc; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000?ng/mL culture medium), as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER) activation or inhibition, using a luciferase reporter gene assay (RGA). None of the PCB 138, 153, or 180 or their mixture induced a response in the RGA. o,p?-DDT was the most potent xenoestrogen from the DDT group, inducing a response already at 80?ng/mL. From the HCH and HCB group, only ?-HCH (at 400 and 2000?ng/mL) and ?-HCH (at 2000?ng/mL) displayed estrogenic activities. These 13 organochlorines were determined by GC-MS in 12 samples of North Sea harbor porpoise blubber. The PCBs were the main contaminants. Within each group, PCB 153 (6.0 × 102~4.2 × 104??g/kg), p,p?-DDE (5.1 × 102~8.6 × 103??g/kg), and HCB (7.6 × 101~1.5 × 103??g/kg) were the compounds found in highest concentrations. The hormonal activity of the porpoise blubber samples was also assayed in RGA, where two samples showed estrogenic activity, seven samples showed antiestrogenic activity, and one sample showed both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Our results suggest that the 13 POPs measured by GC-MS in the samples cannot explain alone the estrogenicity of the extracts. PMID:26075240

  18. Use of stable isotopes of N and C to explain unexpectedly high levels of PCBs and other organochlorines in walrus

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.; Segstro, M.; Stewart, R.; Hobson, K.; Olpinski, S.

    1994-12-31

    Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber from Inukjuak and Akulivik (E. Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin and E. Baffin Is. was analyzed for PCB congeners and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes) as part of studies documenting spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian arctic marine biota. Samples from 18 of 53 individuals had wet weight concentrations of {Sigma}PCBs ranging from 1 to 20 {mu}g//g; the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations. Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where 11 of 13 animals (males and females) had high levels. {Sigma}PCB concentrations greater than 0.5 {mu}g/g were unexpected based on previous studies in Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because DDT, chlordanes and toxaphene were all elevated, and high levels were found in both males and females from 2 of 4 other locations. {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope measurements using muscle samples from the jaws of walrus and seals, showed that walrus with high EPCB had higher {delta}{sup 15}N values than those with low PCBs. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals (Phoca hispida) for a significant proportion of their diet.

  19. Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum ?-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of ?-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013. Organochlorine pesticides and risk of endometriosis: findings from a population-based case–control study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1319–1324;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306648 PMID:24192044

  20. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in a sediment core from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Díaz-Asencio, M; Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    2015-10-01

    Sediments can be natural archives to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs into coastal areas. This is important to improve management strategies and evaluate the success of pollution control measurements. In this work, the vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex) was determined in a sediment core collected from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, which was dated by using the (210)Pb dating method and validated with the (239,240)Pu fallout peak. Results showed significant changes in sediment accumulation during the last 40 years: recent mass accumulation rates (0.321 g cm(-2) yr(-1)) double those estimated before 1970 (0.15 g cm(-2) yr(-1)). This change matches closely land use change in the region (intense deforestation and regulation of the Colon River in the late 1970s). Among pesticides, only DDTs isomers, Lindane and HCB were detected, and ranged from 0.029 to 0.374 ng g(-1) dw for DDTs, from<0.006 to 0.05 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane and from<0.04 to 0.134 ng g(-1) dw for HCB. Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex were below the detection limits (?0.003 ng g(-1)), indicating that these compounds had a limited application in the Coloma watershed. Pesticide contamination was evident since the 1970s. DDTs and HCB records showed that management strategies, namely the banning the use of organochlorine contaminants, led to a concentration decline. However, Lindane, which was restricted in 1990, can still be found in the watershed. According to NOAA guidelines, pesticides concentrations encountered in these sediments are low and probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. PMID:26051863

  1. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  2. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  3. Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Gowen, Rose M. Z.; Miller, Rebecca P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes. PMID:23343981

  4. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides and their Metabolites in Alligator Livers from Lakes Apopka and Woodruff, Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

  5. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant. PMID:2445007

  6. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, E.H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  7. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. PMID:26210237

  8. Level of organochlorine pesticide residues in dry fruit nuts.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pragya; Raizada, R B; Srivastava, L P

    2010-09-01

    The use of pesticides on cash crops and exportable food commodities had always been a serious concern. Fruits form one of the important constituents of human diet, in that they give one third of the requirement of calories, vitamins, and minerals. This study has been carried out to determine the level of organochlorine pesticides namely HCH, DDT and Endosulfan in raw fruit nuts. Nuts have proteins and high level of fat content. These properties of nuts attract organochlorine pesticides to accumulate. The analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in commonly used dry fruits like Cashewnut, Walnut, Coconut, Chilgoza, Chironji, Makhana, Resins, Apricot, Almonds, Date palm, Pistachio nut collected from local market of Lucknow India has indicated presence of very low level of HCH (0.007-1.328 mg kg(-1)), DDT(ND-0.140 mg kg(-1)) and Endosulfan (ND-0.091 mg kg(-1)). There are no MRL values established for nuts in the country. This finding is based on a smaller number of samples, which however suggest that the presence of low level of DDT, HCH and Endosulfan might be due to environmental rather than direct exposure. PMID:21387926

  9. Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in wood storks and anhingas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    All 10 Wood Stork eggs collected at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in 1973 contained residues of DDE (geometric mean 4.0 ppm wet weight) and PCBs (1.2 ppm). Nine other organochlorines were found at lower frequencies in the eggs. Eggshells from the recent period were 8.9% thinner (P < 0.001) than pre-1947 samples; decrease in eggshell thickness was more closely correlated with DDE than other organochlorines and correlation of DDE and eggshell thickness approached significance (P = 0.115).....Anhinga eggs were collected at 7 localities; 45 of the 46 eggs analyzed contained DDE residues and 24 contained PCBs. Residues of other organochlorines were found less frequently. Shell thickness of recent eggs from Louisiana and Mississippi was significantly less (-7.5%; P < 0.05) than the mean for pre-1947 eggs, but there was no significant change in shell thickness of eggs from Florida. The change in clutch mean eggshell thickness was significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the concentration of DDE in the eggs.

  10. Macro-analytical methods used to analyze tissues of the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, G.H.; Leong, G.H.

    1981-10-01

    Among the specimens which were processed as the results of poisoning incidents, were tissues of an adult male Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, which had died while in captivity without known cause. Various tissues of the animal were analyzed to determine whether the death of the monk seal had any connection with exposures to environmental pesticides or pollutants, particularly to organochlorine compounds. The specimens included urine, parts of liver, lung and blubber, an entire testis, and an entire kidney. Solid tissues from the animal were from correspondingly large organs. Macro methods for representative analyses of these tissues for multiresidues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were devised. Results are tabulated. The death of the Hawaiian monk seal could not be attributed conclusively to the organochlorines and pentachlorophenol that were found in tissues of this mammal. Baseline (normal) data of residue levels for these pollutants in animal tissues in Hawaii are so limited that pathogenic levels in the fauna cannot be predicted. It is difficult to even speculate whether the residues detected in the monk seal tissues were due to exposures of earth's background (ambient) atmosphere or to exposures of the mammal's immediate (specific) environment.

  11. SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION OF METHOD 8080 -ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design, execution and results of the improvement and single-laboratory evaluation of SW-846 Method 8080, 'Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs', are described. In the study, the application of the method to the analysis of aqueous and solid samples for organochlorine pesticides...

  12. Immune Function and Organochlorine Pollutants in Arctic Breeding Glaucous J. O. Bustnes,1

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    Immune Function and Organochlorine Pollutants in Arctic Breeding Glaucous Gulls J. O. Bustnes,1 S/Accepted: 25 April 2004 Abstract. Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus

  13. Air-Seawater Exchange of Organochlorine Pesticides along the Sediment Plume of a Large Contaminated River.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Nizzetto, Luca; Ma, Chuanliang; Chen, Yingjun

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous exchange fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across the air-water interface of the coastal East China Sea were determined in order to assess whether the contaminated plume of the Yangtze River could be an important regional source of OCPs to the atmosphere. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs in air and water. Air-water exchange was mainly characterized by net volatilization for all measured OCPs. The net gaseous exchange flux ranged 10-240 ng/(m2·day) for ?-HCH, 60-370 ng/(m2·day) for trans-CHL, 97-410 ng/(m2·day) for cis-CHL, and ?0 (e.g., equilibrium) to 490 ng/(m2·day) for p,p'-DDE. We found that the plume of the large contaminated river can serve as a significant regional secondary atmospheric source of legacy contaminants released in the catchment. In particular, the sediment plume represented the relevant source of DDT compounds (especially p,p'-DDE) sustaining net degassing when clean air masses from the open ocean reached the plume area. In contrast, a mass balance showed that, for HCHs, contaminated river discharge (water and sediment) plumes were capable of sustaining volatilization throughout the year. These results demonstrate the inconsistencies in the fate of HCHs and DDTs in this large estuarine system with declining primary sources. PMID:25827140

  14. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Beyer, W.N.; Stehn, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  15. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides in the environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Chaofei; Gao, Guanjun; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-11-01

    Antarctica is considered as a final sink of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This work aims to investigate the levels, distributions and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with HRGC/HRMS technique. Twenty-three OCPs were measured in various environmental matrices from King George Island, west Antarctica. The total concentrations (?23OCPs) were at quite low levels, ranging 93.6-1260 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil and sediment, 223-1053 pg g(-1) dw in moss and 373-812 pg g(-1) dw in lichen. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (especially p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the main contaminants in all samples. Lower ?-HCH/?-HCH and higher p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios compared with the technical products indicated long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of recent lindane and aged technical DDT. Significant dependence of many OCPs concentrations on total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. Apart from LRAT, local biotic activities could also contribute and influence the spatial distribution of the contaminants. PMID:26162333

  16. Bioaccumulation and related effects of PCBs and organochlorinated pesticides in freshwater fish Hypostomus commersoni.

    PubMed

    Bussolaro, D; Filipak Neto, F; Glinski, A; Roche, H; Guiloski, I C; Mela, M; Silva de Assis, H C; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Brazilian native freshwater fish. In order to evaluate the bioavailability, potential risk to human exposure and the effects of POPs in the fish Hypostomus commersoni, muscle and liver samples of thirteen specimens were collected in a lake located in the city of Ponta Grossa (Parana State, Southern Brazil). Also, the liver and gills were considered for histopathological studies, and oxidative stress was investigated in the liver. Expressive concentrations of POPs were observed in the liver and muscle, with a total of 427 ± 78.7 and 69.2 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) dry weights of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Negative correlations between the concentration of several POPs and glutathione S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were found. Otherwise, the cholinesterase activity in the muscle and brain presented positive correlations with the concentration of POPs. The hepatic bioaccumulation of some banned pesticides like aldrin, dieldrin and DDT was associated with various histopathological findings in the liver and gills. Necrotic areas, fibrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and the absence of macrophage centers were observed in the liver, indicating both chronic exposure and immunological suppression. Neoplasic changes were observed in the gills, confirming the carcinogenic potential reported for some of the investigated pollutants. The current work was the first to study the bioaccumulation of POPs in H. commersoni, an important species in ecological aspects and as a vehicle to human exposure to PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PMID:22772567

  17. Regulation of hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Simon; Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides constitute a major class of persistent and toxic organic pollutants, known to modulate drug-detoxifying enzymes. In the present study, OCs were demonstrated to also alter the activity and expression of human hepatic drug transporters. Activity of the sinusoidal influx transporter OCT1 (organic cation transporter 1) was thus inhibited by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, lindane, and dieldrine, but not by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers, whereas those of the canalicular efflux pumps MRP2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein) were blocked by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, and chlordecone; this latter OC additionally inhibited the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. OCs, except endosulfan, were next found to induce MDR1/P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expressions in hepatoma HepaRG cells; some of them also upregulated BCRP. By contrast, expression of sinusoidal transporters was not impaired (organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP2B1) or was downregulated (sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and OCT1). Such regulations of drug transporter activity and expression, depending on the respective nature of OCs and transporters, may contribute to the toxicity of OC pesticides. PMID:24464585

  18. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and ?-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 ?g kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region. PMID:24813984

  19. Significance of organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wintering shorebirds at Corpus Christi, Texas, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal residues were determined in 103 shorebirds of seven species collected at Corpus Christi, Texas, during the winter of 1976-77 to evaluate their potential effects on population survival, DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in most samples. Chlordane isomers, dieldrin, toxaphene, and heptachlor epoxide also occurred, but less frequently. In general, organochlorine residues were low in skinned carcasses. Geometric means on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.25 ppm to 4.76 ppm for DDE and from 0.67 ppm to 6.64 ppm for PCBs; residues of the other compounds averaged less than 1 ppm in all instances. Mercury, lead, arsenic and vanadium occurred in all shorebird livers, and selenium and cadmium were detected in all kidneys. Residues of these metals, except selenium, were low in most tissue samples. Selenium averages varied from 1.77 ppm to 5.62 ppm (wet weight) in kidneys; residues in this range may be sufficient to inhibit reproduction or to induce other forms of toxicity, especially at the higher levels.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  1. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Beníšek, Martin; Kuku?ka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Lud?k

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22?g (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts. PMID:25522853

  2. Occurrence of Legacy and New Persistent Organic Pollutants in Avian Tissues from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Tae; Son, Min-Hui; Kang, Jung-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Jung, Jin-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-11-17

    Legacy and new persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), Dechlorane Plus (DPs) and related compounds (Dechloranes), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were analyzed in avian tissue samples from King George Island, Antarctica. The avian species consisted of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), the Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), the South polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and the Brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus). HBCDs were detected in all samples and ranged from 1.67-713 pg/g-lipid. In the penguin samples, the concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.69-2.07 ng/g-lipid, whereas those in the skua samples ranged from 7.41-175 ng/g-lipid. The levels of Dechloranes ranged from 0.60-1.30 ng/g-lipid in the penguin samples and from 6.57-47.4 ng/g-lipid in the skua samples. The concentrations and congener distributions of OCPs and PCBs were similar to the results of previous reports. The three new POPs were detected in all samples, and this study was one of the first reports on the occurrence of these pollutants in the Antarctic biota. Because Antarctica is one of the most pristine places on Earth, the detection of new POPs in the Antarctic birds, especially penguins, is direct evidence of the long-range transport of pollutants. Furthermore, the concentration ratios of the penguin to the skua samples (BMFs-p) were greater than 1 in most legacy and new POPs, and the BMFs-p values of the new POPs were comparable to those of some OCPs, suggesting a possibility of biomagnification. Despite the small sample size, the results of this study identified POP contamination of the Antarctic avian species and long-range transport and biomagnification of HBCDs, Dechloranes, and PCNs. PMID:26502059

  3. Variation in concentrations of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants among eggs in abandoned clutches of a terrestrial raptor.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2015-01-01

    Bird eggs are often used to measure various pollutants in monitoring programs. In protected species, however, it might only be possible to collect eggs abandoned by the parent birds. In order to assess the appropriateness of abandoned eggs for contaminant monitoring we examined intra-clutch variation in concentrations of 24 halogenated organic pollutants (16 organochlorines [OCs] and 8 brominated flame retardants) in six abandoned tawny owl (Strix aluco) clutches from central Norway. The variation among eggs within a clutch was low for nearly all compounds (intra-class correlation >0.9 both for lipid- and wet weight). This study suggests that abandoned eggs provide a relatively reliable measurement of lipophilic pollutants in clutches of terrestrial raptors such as the tawny owl. PMID:25463262

  4. Persistent organohalogen contaminant burdens in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from the eastern Antarctic sector: a baseline study.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, S M; Poulsen, A H; Kawaguchi, S; Vetter, W; Schlabach, M

    2008-12-15

    A baseline for persistent organohalogen compound (POC) accumulation in the Antarctic keystone species, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been established for a 50 degrees longitudinal range of the eastern Antarctic sector. Samples of adult krill, caught from 12 sites distributed between 30 degrees and 80 degrees E (60-70 degrees S), were analysed for >100 organohalogen compounds including chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated organic compounds and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). Organochlorine pesticides dominated measured krill contaminant burdens with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as the single most abundant compound quantified. Krill HCB concentrations were comparable to those detected at this trophic level in both the Arctic and temperate northwest Atlantic, lending support for the hypothesis that HCB will approach global equilibrium at a faster rate than other POCs. Para, para'-dichlorodiphenylethene (p,p'-DDE) was detected at notable concentrations. Measurements of DDT and its degradation products provide an important baseline for monitoring the temporal and geographical influence of renewed, DDT usage for malaria-control in affected southern hemisphere countries. In contrast to the Arctic, PCBs did not feature prominently in contaminant burdens of Antarctic krill. The major commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners -99 and -47 were quantified at low background levels with clear concentration spikes observed at around 70 degrees E , in the vicinity of modern, active research stations. The likelihood that local anthropogenic activities are supplementing low PBDE levels, delivered otherwise primarily via long range environmental transport, is discussed. The suspected naturally occurring brominated organic compound, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA), was a ubiquitous contaminant in all samples whereas the only PCDD/Fs quantifiable were trace levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and 1,2,3,4,7,8/1,2,3,4,7,9-hexachlorodibenzofuran (HxCDF). With the aims of; i) Generating a robust and broadly applicable POC auditing platform for the scarcely studied eastern Antarctic sector; ii) Determining the compounds accumulating in Antarctic krill for further toxicity evaluation studies and iii) Establishing a baseline for Antarctic predator exposure to POCs, this study represents one of the most comprehensive reports of POC contamination of the Antarctic food web to date. PMID:18848720

  5. A model to resolve organochlorine pharmacokinetics in migrating humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Cropp, Roger; Nash, Susan Bengtson; Hawker, Darryl

    2014-07-01

    Humpback whales are iconic mammals at the top of the Antarctic food chain. Their large reserves of lipid-rich tissues such as blubber predispose them to accumulation of lipophilic contaminants throughout their lifetime. Changes in the volume and distribution of lipids in humpback whales, particularly during migration, could play an important role in the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic contaminants such as the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Previous models have examined constant feeding and nonmigratory scenarios. In the present study, the authors develop a novel heuristic model to investigate HCB dynamics in a humpback whale and its environment by coupling an ecosystem nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The model takes into account the seasonal feeding pattern of whales, their energy requirements, and fluctuating contaminant burdens in the supporting plankton food chain. It is applied to a male whale from weaning to maturity, spanning 20 migration and feeding cycles. The model is initialized with environmental HCB burdens similar to those measured in the Southern Ocean and predicts blubber HCB concentrations consistent with empirical concentrations observed in a southern hemisphere population of male, migrating humpback whales. Results show for the first time some important details of the relationship between energy budgets and organochlorine pharmacokinetics. PMID:24733631

  6. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for transport of organochlorine pesticides in ground water at the North Hollywood Dump, Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.; Bradley, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data indicate that ground-water contamination is confined to shallow horizons within the unconfined aquifer underlying the North Hollywood Dump in Memphis, Tennessee. The dump is a closed municipal-industrial landfill that has been ranked as Tennessee's potentially most dangerous hazardous-waste site. Toxic constituents of concern at the dump include residues from the manufacture of organochlorine pesticides. The dump overlies an unconfined aquifer of unconsolidated sands, silts, and clays. During average hydrologic conditions, ground waterflows beneath the dump at a mean velocity of approximately 3 feet per day and discharges to the Wolf River. Leachate from the dump mixes with underlying ground water, resulting in increased concentrations of dissolved solids and organic carbon downgradient from the dump. The mobility of chlordane, a representative organochlorine pesticide, is limited by its low solubility and its strong affinity for sand, silt, and clays of the aquifer. Degradation of chlordane may occur slowly, if at all, in the aquifer. Based on estimates of mean ground-water velocity and retardation of the pesticide due to sorption, mean travel times for chlordane migrating from the dump to the ground-water discharge zone are of the order of 50 to 500 years. Simulations of chlordane concentration resulting from the discharge of contaminated ground water and complete mixing in the Wolf River are sensitive to assumptions about chlordane persistence in the unconfined aquifer. If the half life of chlordane in the aquifer is assumed to be 30 years or less, the simulated concentration of chlordane in the Wolf River under average flow conditions is less than the most stringent water-quality criterion.

  7. Chloride - a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?

    PubMed

    Laturnus, Frank; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Two plants, a fern (Athyrium filix-femina) and a moss (Polytrichum commune Hedw.), both commonly occurring in Northern Temperate forests, were exposed in a laboratory study to a solution of (36)Cl-chloride. The uptake of (36)Cl-chloride by the plants was investigated and the emission of volatile chlorine 36 by the plants was determined. Furthermore, speciation of the emitted volatile organochlorine compounds (VOCls) was investigated. For the fern and the moss a rapid uptake of (36)Cl-chloride was observed within a 1-h exposure period. The uptake rates for the fern and the moss, respectively, were 16 microg (36)Cl-chloride g(-1) fresh weight (FW) h(-1) and 3.0 microg (36)Cl-chloride g(-1) FW h(-1), respectively. The study also suggested that after uptake by the plants (36)Cl-chloride is incorporated into VOCls, which were emitted by the plants into the atmosphere. Speciation analysis of the VOCls revealed the emission of chloroform, tetrachloromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. PMID:17850934

  8. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in black duck eggs from the Atlantic Flyway, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Mulhern, B.M.; Stafford, C.

    1980-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) eggs were collected during 1978 in the Atlantic Flyway. One egg from each of 49 clutches was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and mercury. DDE was detected in 39 eggs, ranging from 0.09 ppm to 3.4 ppm, wet weight. DDE residues were highest in eggs from Delaware, where the mean DDE level was 2.0 ppm. DDT and TDE were present at Iow levels in only five and four eggs, respectively. PCBs resembling Aroclor 1260 were detected in 24 eggs and ranged from 0.43 ppm to 2.9 ppm. Eggs from Massachusetts and Rhode Island contained an average of >1.0 ppm PCBs, but eggs from Nova Scotia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia contained no detectable PCBs. Dieldrin, oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were present in a few samples at low levels. Mercury was detected in 31 eggs, ranging from 0.07 ppm to 0.34 ppm, wet weight. Twenty eggs analyzed for chromium, copper, and arsenic contained averages of 0.64 ppm, 1.7 ppm, and 0.18 ppm, respectively. No geographic pattern was observed in these metal residue levels. Eggshell thickness (0.347 mm) was identical to the pre-1946 norm.

  9. Flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in bald eagle plasma from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Wierda, Michael; Bowerman, William W; Hites, Ronald A

    2010-08-01

    We report measurements of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and of emerging flame retardants in the plasma of nestling bald eagles sampled from early May to late June of 2005. Concentrations of total PBDEs ranged from 0.35 ng g(-1) ww to 29.3 ng g(-1) ww (average=5.7+/-1.9 ng g(-1) ww). The most abundant congeners were BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-100. The fully brominated congener, BDE-209, was detected in approximately one third of the samples at an average concentration of 1.2+/-0.72 ng g(-1) ww. Several emerging flame retardants, such as pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and Dechlorane Plus (DP), were detected in these samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were also detected at levels close to those previously published. A statistically significant relationship was found between total PBDE concentrations and total PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations, suggesting that these compounds share a common source, which is most likely the eagle's food. PMID:20579684

  10. Reproductive performance and organochlorine pollutants in an Antarctic marine top predator: the south polar skua.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Varpe, Øystein; Henden, John A; Skaare, Janneche U

    2007-10-01

    Despite low levels of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in Antarctic biota, some compounds may exceed the levels in equivalent Arctic species, and previous studies have found biochemical evidence of pollutant exposure in south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki), a common marine top predator in the region. In this study we examined relationships between fitness components (fecundity and adult return rate between breeding seasons) and concentrations of OCs in this species. In 65 nests, both males and females were caught, and using principal component analyses (PCA) we produced composite measurements (PC1 and PC2) of six highly correlated OCs measured in blood samples. Although the concentrations of OC were below those documented to have reproductive effects in other aquatic birds, we found that the eggs of females with high levels of OCs in the blood hatched later, and their chicks were in poorer condition at hatching, than females with low OC levels. Thus OCs may delay reproduction and reduce foetal growth in the skuas. However, there was no relationship between the parents' OC residues and the occurrence of non-viable eggs, although the proportion of nests containing non-viable eggs was high (47%). Moreover, there were no significant relationships between OCs and reproductive variables in males, even if males had higher OC levels than females, and no associations between OCs and adult return rate between breeding seasons. PMID:17561256

  11. Polar bear hepatic cytochrome P450: Immunochemical quantitation, EROD/PROD activity and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are an ubiquitous mammal atop the arctic marine food chain and bioaccumulate lipophilic environmental contaminants. Antibodies prepared against purified rat liver cytochrome P450-1 Al, -1 A2, -2Bl and -3Al enzymes have been found to cross-react with structurally-related orthologues present in the hepatic microsomes of wild polar bears, immunochemically determined levels of P450-1 A and -2B proteins in polar bear liver relative to liver of untreated rats suggested enzyme induction, probably as a result of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants. Optical density quantitation of the most immunochemically responsive isozymes P450-I Al, -IA2 and -2Bi to polygonal rabbit anti-rat P450-IA/IA2 sera and -2BI antibodies in hepatic microsomes of 13 adult male polar bars from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic is presented. Correlations with EROD and PROD catalytic activities and levels of organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p-DDE) and their methyl sulfone (MeSO2-) metabolites are made to determine if compound-specific enzyme induction linkages exist. Inter-species immunochemical quantitation of isozymic P450 cytochromes can serve as an indicator of exposure to biologically active contaminant.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in bird species and their prey (fish) from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and stable isotopes were measured in muscle from 4 bird and 5 fish species from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region where DDT is used for malaria control and vast agricultural activities are carried out. We investigated the bioaccumulation of OCPs such as DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, and heptachlors between the species, and examined the potential risk posed by these compounds for bird species. Significant differences in contaminant profiles and levels were observed within the species. Levels of total OCPs ranged from 3.7 to 148.7 ?g/g lipid in bird and 0.04 to 10.9 ?g/g lipid in fish species. DDTs were the predominant contaminant, and a positive relationship between ?(15)N and ?DDT concentrations was found. The main DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant and significantly greater concentrations in bird species (up to 138.5 ?g/g lipid), which could have deleterious effects on survival and/or reproduction of birds. PMID:24907858

  13. Trends of persistent organic pollutants in American eel (Anguilla rostrata) from eastern Lake Ontario, Canada, and their potential effects on recruitment.

    PubMed

    Byer, Jonathan D; Lebeuf, Michel; Trottier, Steve; Raach, Meriem; Alaee, Mehran; Stephen Brown, R; Backus, Sean; Casselman, John M; Hodson, Peter V

    2015-10-01

    This study reports the history of contamination of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) from eastern Lake Ontario (LO) by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Three groups of 10 large female eels captured in eastern LO in each of 1988, 1998, and 2008 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, several organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Mean concentrations were up to 3-fold lower in 2008 compared to previous years. When combined with the results of previous studies, these data show that concentrations of POPs in American eels have declined exponentially since the early 1980s by an average of 9.1±1.9% per year. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) were calculated from fish toxic equivalency factors. Assuming an efficient transfer of DLCs to their eggs, egg TEQs prior to 2000 exceeded the threshold for chronic toxicity to embryos of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (4-5 pg/g ww of TEQ). These results suggest that embryotoxicity of maternally-derived DLCs from LO eels, historically a major contributor to the spawning stock of American eels, could have impaired the reproductive and recruitment success of the species. PMID:26022407

  14. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, ?-?-?-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher ?-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue. PMID:24928094

  15. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA FROM FOUR US ARCTIC LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including...

  16. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sourthern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, H.; Kannan, K.; Jing, L.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT), HCHs (?-, ?-, ?-isomers), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA, during 1992–96. The contamination pattern of organochlorines in sea otters from several locations was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > > CHLs > HCHs > > HCB, whereas those from Monterey Harbor contained greater concentrations of PCBs than of DDTs. Hepatic concentrations of PCBs and DDTs were in the ranges of 58–8700 and 280–5900 ng/g, wet weight, respectively, which varied depending on the geographic location. Sea otters collected from Monterey Harbor contained the greatest concentrations of PCBs and DDTs. In general, accumulation of DDTs, CHLs and PCBs was greater in kidney than in liver, whereas that of HCHs was similar in both the tissues. The gender difference in organochlorine concentrations was less than those reported in cetaceans. The composition of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs compounds in sea otter tissues indicated no recent inputs of these compounds in coastal California. Sea otters that died from infectious diseases, neoplasia and emaciation contained higher concentrations of DDTs than those that died from trauma.

  17. Organochlorine concentrations in the Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) from Lake Haukivesi, Finland, 1981 to 2000, and in its diet today.

    PubMed

    Kostamo, Auli; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Pellinen, Jukka; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2002-07-01

    Organochlorine and mercury (Hg) pollution has been one possible reason for a decline in the size of the population of the Saimaa ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) in Lake Haukivesi, Finland. In this study, we analyzed changes in the concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCls) and extractable organic halogen (EOX) in the blubber of Saimaa ringed seals that died from 1981 to 2000. In addition, the present concentrations and biomagnification factors of OCls and Hg from the main prey fish of ringed seal and pike (Esox lucius) were determined. Concentrations of pollutants in bream (Abramis brama) also were analyzed. The decline in the OCl concentrations in blubber was, on average, 25% during the two decades since polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT compounds were banned. Today, concentrations in blubber of Saimaa ringed seals are similar of those in ringed seals from the Arctic. Correspondingly in fish, the OCl and Hg concentrations were, on average, similar to those found in other studies on Finnish and Arctic areas. The low diet concentrations and metabolism of OCls also reflect the lower age correlation of OCls in the male ringed seals in the 1990s than in the 1980s. Biomagnification was considerably higher from fish to the ringed seal than from prey fish to pike because of higher feeding rate of ringed seals and differences in the metabolisms of these animals. PMID:12109735

  18. PERSISTENT, BIOACCUMULATIVE, AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS (PBTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Article describes the class of compounds known as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutants (known as PBTs), including the mechanisms responsible for ability to build up the food chain and for causing adverse health effects and ecosystem damage. Exposure to numerous PBTs ...

  19. Analytical validation for the HRMS detection of organochlorines in living marine mammals from biopsy microsamples

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomou, M.G.; Crewe, N.F.; Fischer, M.; Smith, T.G.

    1995-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that marine mammals accumulate high concentrations of lipophilic organochlorine contaminants in blubber. As predators of the high trophic level they have also been used to evaluate contamination in the marine environment. Sampling of living marine mammals using a microsample (100 to 200 mg) biopsy dart technique offers a potentially invaluable chronicle in assessing levels and types of persistent environmental pollutants from a sample in which age, sex and other genetic information can additionally be ascertained. The authors have explored analytical methodology based on a high sensitivity detection system (HRGC/HRMS) which provides multi-residue determinations from biopsy dart microsamples. Lipid content and the concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were measured in 100 mg biopsy dart replicates taken from a killer whale carcass and in three strata of the blubber of that carcass. Statistically acceptable results were obtained from the dart replicates which compared very well with those of the blubber strata. Analytical data from 100 mg extractions from an established in house blubber CRM also compared well against a series of 2.5 g extractions of that CRM. The extraction and cleanup procedures used also allow for the determination of other organohalogen contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, all the remaining PCBs, polychlorinated diphenylethers and brominated residues. The strengths and limitations of the analytical methodology and the biopsy dart as a sampling tool and pollution predicator will be illustrated in terms of method accuracy and precision, glassware and procedural blanks associated with each extraction batch, and the incorporation of an in house micro reference standard.

  20. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban atmosphere of Pakistan: concentration, spatial variation and sources.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Jawad; Wang, Xiaoping; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Chuanfei; Joswiak, Daniel R; Rehman, Said; Lodhi, Arifa; Shafiq, Shoaib; Jilani, Rehmatullah

    2014-01-01

    Robust knowledge on the occurrence and distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of low-latitude regions is inevitable to forecast their transportation to pristine ecosystem and assess toxicological impacts upon local biota. Despite the earlier revelation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils/sediments and water bodies in Pakistan, knowledge about atmospheric levels and sources of these POPs remains limited. For the first time, a network of XAD resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) was established across megacities of Pakistan, i.e., Karachi, the coastal city, and Lahore, lying in an agricultural region. Typical geographical locations of the two cities allowed assessing the influence of source regions on the occurrence and distribution patterns of selected POPs. Average concentrations (ng/PAS) in both cities ranged as endosulfan 39-101, DDTs 63-92, HCHs 33-65, heptachlor 10-26, and PCBs 48-61. High concentrations of endosulfan and lindane as observed throughout Lahore were certainly due to their ongoing applications in surrounding agricultural fields. Lower proportions of parental DDTs as compared to their metabolites were observed in both cities, suggesting inputs of DDTs from older or secondary sources. Owing to ultimate discharge of country's agricultural/industrial waste through river streams in to Arabian Sea, the coastal region of Karachi was found potential source of weathered POPs that could be dissipated at regional/global scales by maritime advections. The study contributes to the pool of information on fate and geographical distribution of POPs in subtropical developing countries. PMID:24467173

  1. The Role of Canine Distemper Virus and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Mortality Patterns of Caspian Seals (Pusa caspica)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Susan C.; Eybatov, Tariel M.; Amano, Masao; Jepson, Paul D.; Goodman, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are a concern for species occupying high trophic levels since they can cause immunosuppression and impair reproduction. Mass mortalities due to canine distemper virus (CDV) occurred in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), in spring of 1997, 2000 and 2001, but the potential role of organochlorine exposure in these epizootics remains undetermined. Here we integrate Caspian seal mortality data spanning 1971–2008, with data on age, body condition, pathology and blubber organochlorine concentration for carcases stranded between 1997 and 2002. We test the hypothesis that summed PCB and DDT concentrations contributed to CDV associated mortality during epizootics. We show that age is the primary factor explaining variation in blubber organochlorine concentrations, and that organochlorine burden, age, sex, and body condition do not account for CDV infection status (positive/negative) of animals dying in epizootics. Most animals (57%, n?=?67) had PCB concentrations below proposed thresholds for toxic effects in marine mammals (17 µg/g lipid weight), and only 3 of 67 animals had predicted TEQ values exceeding levels seen to be associated with immune suppression in harbour seals (200 pg/g lipid weight). Mean organonchlorine levels were higher in CDV-negative animals indicating that organochlorines did not contribute significantly to CDV mortality in epizootics. Mortality monitoring in Azerbaijan 1971–2008 revealed bi-annual stranding peaks in late spring, following the annual moult and during autumn migrations northwards. Mortality peaks comparable to epizootic years were also recorded in the 1970s–1980s, consistent with previous undocumented CDV outbreaks. Gompertz growth curves show that Caspian seals achieve an asymptotic standard body length of 126–129 cm (n?=?111). Males may continue to grow slowly throughout life. Mortality during epizootics may exceed the potential biological removal level (PBR) for the population, but the low frequency of epizootics suggest they are of secondary importance compared to anthropogenic sources of mortality such as fishing by-catch. PMID:24987857

  2. Determination of organochlorine pesticide residue in sediment and water from the Densu river basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet; Atiemo, Sampson Manukure; Palm, Linda Maud Naa-Dedei; Blankson-Arthur, Sarah; Tutu, Anita Osei; Fosu, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the aquatic ecosystem from the Densu river revealed varying levels of concentration in water and the sediment samples. Three locations were sampled along the river to evaluate the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in the river. Sediment and surface water samples were extracted by soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively and analyzed using Gas Chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detectable organochlorine pesticides were gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin. The other pesticides that were investigated are gamma-chlordane, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, methoxychlor, endrin and its metabolite endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone. The order of increasing frequency of detection of samples was higher in sediment than water. In sediment, the mean concentration ranged from 0.030 ?g kg(-1) dry weight (endrin) to 10.98 ?g kg(-1) dry weight (aldrin). The highest detected concentration of organochlorine in water was endosulfan sulfate with mean concentration of 0.185 ?g L(-1). Analysis of variance indicated significant differences for most organochlorine pesticide residue in the sediment sampled from the various locations. Some of the levels of organochlorine pesticides detected in water were relatively high compared to guideline values set by World Health Organization and Australia and thus could be harmful if the trend is not checked. PMID:22123529

  3. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF SYNTHETIC CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS: EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental release of synthetic chlorinated compounds in the form of herbicides/pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, etc., has created major concerns with regard to their effects on human health because of the persistence of many such compounds. he persistence of these compound...

  4. Lichen, moss and soil in resolving the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated a wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), including 28 persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) congeners in lichen, moss and soil collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. This allows research provides insight into elevation gradient distributions and possible cold trapping effects of SVOCs in this high mountain area, and compares lichens and mosses as air passive samplers for indicating SVOC occurrences. DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene predominated in all of the samples. Source analysis indicted that there were fresh inputs of DDTs and HCHs in the sampling region. Lichens and mosses shared commonalities in revealing the profiles and levels of SVOCs based on their lipid-content-normalized concentrations. The concentrations of 12 OCPs and 14 PCBs in lichens were significantly linearly correlated with altitudes, whereas the correlations for mosses and soil with altitudes were insignificant. Both a frequency distribution diagram and the Mountain Contamination Potential Model indicated that SVOCs with specific values of log KOA (8-11) and log KWA (2-4) had relative high mountain contamination potential on the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25770945

  5. DISTRIBUTION STUDY OF PERSISTENT, BIOACCUMULATIVE & TOXICS (PBTS) AT THE CALUMET WATER RECLAMATION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will determine the fate, transport and emission characteristics of selected persistent bioaccumulative compounds passing through a municipal waste treatment plant, including the sludge drying process. Compounds of interest include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PD...

  6. Food intake and serum persistent organic pollutants in the Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT sub-study.

    PubMed

    Long, Manhai; Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-10-01

    The Greenlandic Inuit have high blood concentrations of environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). High POP concentrations have been associated with age, smoking and consumption of marine mammals. Studies have indicated that exposure to POPs during pregnancy may adversely affect fetal and child development. To assess geographical differences in diet, lifestyle and environmental contaminant exposure among pregnant women in Greenland, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected from 207 pregnant women in five Greenlandic regions (North, Disco Bay, West, South and East). Blood samples were analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 15 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and 63 metals. A trend of higher intake of marine mammals in the East and North regions was reflected by a higher n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio. Participants in the East region tended also to have higher intake of terrestrial species. A significant higher seabird intake was seen for pregnant women in the West region. Significant regional differences were found for blood concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, PFASs and mercury, with higher levels in the North and East regions. PFASs were significantly associated with PCBs and OCPs in most of the regions. In the North region, PFASs were associated with both selenium and mercury. No significant regional difference was observed for PBDEs. The regional differences of blood levels of POPs and mercury were related to differences in intake of the traditional food. Compared to earlier reports, decreased levels of legacy POPs, Hg and Pb and perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid were observed, but the levels of PFAS congeners perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were sustained. The detection of POPs and heavy metals in maternal blood indicates fetal exposure to these compounds possibly influencing fetal development. PMID:26011616

  7. PBDEs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides distribution in edible fish from Negro River basin, Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, P M; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B

    2014-01-01

    DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs, chlordanes, PCBs and PBDEs levels were determined in different tissues of patagonian silverside (Odontesthes hatcheri) from the Upper (UV), Middle (MV) and Lower (LV) valleys of the Negro River, Argentina. Results showed a direct relation between pollutant levels in fish and land uses along the basin. All tissues showed decreasing levels from headwaters (UV) to downstream (LV). A significant predominance of organochlorine pesticides (306-3,449 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by ?PCBs (65-3,102 ng g(-1) lipid) and ?PBDEs (22-870 ng g(-1) lipid) was observed in all tissues and valleys, suggesting agriculture as the main source of pollutants in this basin. Pesticides were dominated by DDTs (90% pp'-DDE) followed by endosulfan (?->?->sulfate), ?-HCH and ?-chlordane showing the prevalence of legacy compounds. Endosulfan levels point out the current use of technical endosulfan in the surrounding areas. The highest PCBs and PBDEs concentrations observed in fish from UV were associated to hydroelectric power plants and industries established upstream. PCB fingerprint presented a prevailing contribution of hexa-CBs (66 ± 7%) and penta-CBs (27 ± 9%), with a similar composition to Aroclor 1254-1260. The predominance of BDE-47 (69 ± 17%) among PBDEs, followed by BDE-100 and BDE-99, suggests possible debromination processes. These results were similar to worldwide trends found in fishes and environmental compartments. PCBs levels in silverside muscles along the Negro River exceeded the maximum limits for safe consumption, suggesting a possible human health risk related to silverside ingest. Therefore, a continued long-term monitoring of organic contaminants in fishes is needed in order to assess the potential risk for human health. PMID:24144466

  8. Seasonal variation of organochlorine pesticides in the gaseous phase and aerosols over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tianyi; Lin, Tian; Wang, Fengwen; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Eighty paired gaseous phase and PM2.5 (particulate matter < 2.5 ?m in diameter) samples, covering four seasons from October 2011 to August 2012 were collected simultaneously from a remote island in the East China Sea (ECS). The samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to determine their seasonal variation and potential sources over the coastal marine environment. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the PM2.5 samples were higher in winter and lower in summer, and the reverse trend was observed for the measured OCP compounds (except hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs) in the gaseous phase. Principal component analysis revealed one trend that contributed 40% to PM2.5-bound OCPs characterized by ?-HCH, ?-HCH, p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p?-DDD), p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE), and chlordanes; whereas two seasonal trends, represented by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) or chlordanes and HCHs, were responsible for 38% and 23% of the gaseous OCPs, respectively. Continental outflow driven by the East Asian monsoon brought large quantities of particulate OCPs to the ECS, especially in winter. Possible fresh sources or net volatilization from the Yangtze River induced by both higher ambient temperature and higher discharge rates caused the higher gaseous DDT and chlordane levels observed in summer. However, the lower concentrations of gaseous HCHs observed in summer suggested that net volatilization had a relatively limited impact on gaseous HCHs due to the long-term prohibition of their use and their low residual levels in the catchment, whereas the elevated concentrations of gaseous HCHs in winter controlled by gas-particle partitioning, resulted from increased particulate HCHs producing a partial shift to gaseous HCHs over ECS.

  9. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2004-01-01

    Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

  10. Sources of organochlorine pesticides in air in an urban Mediterranean environment: volatilisation from soil.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Gerhard; Klánová, Jana; Eri?, Ljiljana; Ili?, Predrag; Kohoutek, Ji?í; Kovaci?, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) cycling was studied in the area of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, over 3 days in summer with high temporal (4 h-means) and spatial (3 sites distanced 3-6 km) resolutions. Elevated levels of DDX compounds (i.e. o,p'- and p,p'-isomers of DDT, DDE and DDD, 44-74 pg m(-3) at the urban sites and 27 pg m(-3) as a background level), HCH (?-, ?- and ?-isomers, 52-70 vs. 147 pg m(-3)), HCB (34-48 vs. <0.1 pg m(-3)) and pentachlorobenzene (6.8-9.9 vs. 6.0 pg m(-3)) were found. The variation of OCP levels at the two urban sites was not in phase, except for most DDX compounds. This was related to background levels, which for HCH were higher than in the urban area. Vertical profiles between samples collected from 1.1 and 2.3 m (part of the time 0.6 and 2.3 m) above a soil, which was only moderately contaminated by OCPs (0.12 ng g(-1) HCH, 0.11 ng g(-1) DDX, 0.44 ng g(-1) HCB) were analysed. Volatilisation from the ground caused negative vertical concentration gradients of HCH isomers (day and night), but not for HCB (except for 1 day-time sample) and DDX compounds (except p,p'-DDD, day-time, sporadically). The concentration in air and the vertical concentration gradient of the HCH isomers varied with air temperature (day-time maxima), while the variation of the HCB concentration was inversely related to air temperature and was determined by mixing (night-time maxima). ?- and ?-HCH were volatilised from soil throughout the three days, even during periods of cooling. Fugacity calculations, based on the absorption in soil organic matter as the process determining retention in soil, underestimated the volatilisation of ?-HCH and p,p'-DDD. It is concluded that the representativeness of point measurements of OCPs in urban areas is limited by the spatial variability of soil contamination. PMID:22020740

  11. Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Charles S.; Mabury, Scott A.; Whittle, D. Michael; Backus, Sean M.; Teixeira, Camilla; DeVault, David S.; Bronte, Charles R.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments at PCB concentrations far lower than that previously associated with such activity. Widely nonracemic PCB residues in forage fish (lake herring, rainbow smelt, and slimy sculpin) and lake trout suggest a combination of both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from prey for these species. Minimum biotransformation rates, calculated from enantiomer mass balances between predators and prey, suggest metabolic half-lives on the order of 8 yr for CB 136 in lake trout and 2.6 yr for CB 95 in sculpins. This result suggests that significant biotransformation may occur for metabolizable PCB congeners over the lifespan of these biota. This study highlights the potential of chiral analysis to study biotransformation processes in food webs.

  12. Organochlorine compounds in Lake Superior: chiral polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation in the aquatic food web.

    PubMed

    Wong, Charles S; Mabury, Scott A; Whittle, D Michael; Backus, Sean M; Teixeira, Camilla; DeVault, David S; Bronte, Charles R; Muir, Derek C G

    2004-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of seven chiral PCB congeners was measured in the Lake Superior aquatic food web sampled in 1998, to determine the extent of enantioselective biotransformation in aquatic biota. All chiral PCB congeners studied (CBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183) biomagnified in the Lake Superior aquatic food web, based on biomagnification and food web magnification factors greater than unity. PCB atropisomers were racemic in phytoplankton and zooplankton, suggesting no biotransformation potential toward PCBs for these low trophic level organisms. However, Diporeia and mysids had significantly nonracemic residues for most chiral congeners studied. This observation suggests that these macrozooplankton can stereoselectively metabolize chiral congeners. Alternatively, macrozooplankton obtained nonracemic residues from feeding on organic-rich suspended particles and sediments, which would imply that stereoselective microbial PCB biotransformation may be occurring in Lake Superior sediments at PCB concentrations far lower than that previously associated with such activity. Widely nonracemic PCB residues in forage fish (lake herring, rainbow smelt, and slimy sculpin) and lake trout suggest a combination of both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from prey for these species. Minimum biotransformation rates, calculated from enantiomer mass balances between predators and prey, suggest metabolic half-lives on the order of 8 yr for CB 136 in lake trout and 2.6 yr for CB 95 in sculpins. This result suggests that significant biotransformation may occur for metabolizable PCB congeners over the lifespan of these biota. This study highlights the potential of chiral analysis to study biotransformation processes in food webs. PMID:14740721

  13. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residue in fishes from the Densu river basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet; Yeboah, Philip O; Nyarko, Elvis; Golow, Abledze A

    2013-04-01

    The study was carried out to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in five fish species Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Hepsetus odoe, Tilapia zilli, Heterotis niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus from the Densu river basin (Weija) in Ghana. The fishes sampled from the Weija fish landing site were selected on the basis of their importance to local human fish consumption. The detectable organochlorine pesticides were ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane, aldrin and dieldrin. Others investigated were alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, endrin and its metabolite endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone. The total contamination levels of the individual fishes varied in the decreasing order of 9.19 ng g(-1) (O. niloticus), 4.16 ng g(-1) (T. zilli), 3.69 ng g(-1) (C. nigrodigitatus), 3.68 ng g(-1) (H. odoe) and 3.09 ng g(-1) (H. niloticus). The highest organochlorine pesticide residue recorded in the study was alpha-endosulfan while dieldrin was the least pesticide observed. Analysis of variance indicated significant statistical differences for most organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples. The levels of organochlorine pesticides found in fish samples in the study were below maximum residue limit for food safety stipulated by EU, US FDA, FAO, Italy and Australia and thus safe for human consumption. PMID:23283531

  14. Organochlorine and organophosphorus residues in the fat of domestic farm animal species, Ontario, Canada 1986-1988.

    PubMed

    Frank, R; Braun, H E; Stonefield, K I; Rasper, J; Luyken, H

    1990-01-01

    During the period 1986-1988 a total of 602 samples of animal products were analysed for organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and industrial organic pollutants. Samples of abdominal fat were collected from avian, bovine, caprine, lupine, ovine and porcine species together with hen eggs. The following six compounds were identified in animal tissues: DDE, dieldrin, lindane, PCB, pentachlorophenol and tetrachlorophenol. Pentachlorophenol was the most frequently found contaminant, being identified in 35% of samples, and DDE was the second in 21%. All other contaminants were present in less than 10% of samples. The residues of all six compounds detected were added to give a combined residue. Forty-three per cent of samples had non-detectable residues. A further 31% had combined residues adding to less than 0.01 mg/kg. The highest combined residues ranged between 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg and were present in 2.8% of samples. One egg sample had a residue of 0.16 mg/kg that exceeded the 0.1 mg/kg maximum residue limit for pentachlorophenol. Residues of chlordane and its metabolites, heptachlor and its epoxide, endosulphan and its sulphate metabolite, dicofol, HCB and mirex were below their detection limits in all samples and no residues of the organophosphorus insecticide listed as applied to livestock were found in meat, fat or egg tissues. PMID:2253807

  15. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 1: legacy organochlorine contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Rune; Rigét, Frank F; Sonne, Christian; Born, Erik W; Bechshøft, Thea; McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Legacy organochlorine contaminants were determined in adipose tissues from 294 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in East Greenland in 23 of the 28years between 1983 and 2010. Of 19 major legacy contaminants and congeners (?PCB, 4 PCB congeners (CB153, 180, 170/190), ?DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p' -DDD and p,p'-DDT, ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), HCB, octachlorostyrene, dieldrin, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, heptachlor epoxide and BB-153), 18 showed statistically significant average yearly declines of -4.4% (range: -2.0 to -10.8%/year) among subadult polar bears (i.e. females<5years, males<6years). For example, the ?PCB concentrations declined 2.7 fold from 22730ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 12470-32990ng/g lw) in 1983-1986 to 8473ng/g lw (95% C.I.: 6369-9776ng/g lw) in 2006-2010. Similar but fewer statistically significant trends were found for adult females and adult males likely due to smaller sample size and years. Despite declines as a result of international regulations, relatively high levels of these historic pollutants persist in East Greenland polar bear tissues. PMID:23078749

  16. Detoxification enzyme activities (CYP1A1 and GST) in the skin of humpback whales as a function of organochlorine burdens and migration status.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, S; Dawson, A; Burkhard, M; Waugh, C; Huston, W

    2014-10-01

    The activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) enzymes were measured in freshly extracted epidermis of live-biopsied, migrating, southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The two quantified enzyme activities did not correlate strongly with each other. Similarly, neither correlated strongly with any of the organochlorine compound groups previously measured in the superficial blubber of the sample biopsy core, likely reflecting the anticipated low levels of typical aryl-hydrocarbon receptor ligands. GST activity did not differ significantly between genders or between northward (early migration) or southward (late migration) migrating cohorts. Indeed, the inter-individual variability in GST measurements was relatively low. This observation raises the possibility that measured activities were basal activities and that GST function was inherently impacted by the fasting state of the sampled animals, as seen in other species. These results do not support the implementation of CYP1A1 or GST as effective biomarkers of organochlorine contaminant burdens in southern hemisphere populations of humpback whales as advocated for other cetacean species. Further investigation of GST activity in feeding versus fasting cohorts may, however, provide some insight into the fasting metabolism of these behaviourally adapted populations. PMID:25058559

  17. Organochlorine residues in bats after a forest spraying with DDT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Maser, C.; Whitaker, J.O., Jr.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Background levels of DDT and its metabolites (ZDDT) were extremely low or not detected in five species of forest-dwelling bats in northeastern Oregon, i.e., areas not sprayed with DDT in 1974. Other organochlorine pesticides were rarely found and no polychlotinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at any time during the study. Four of five species of bats showed significant changes in Z:DDT residues in, their carcasses following the single DDT spray application. Myotis californicus and M. volans showed the highest postspray carcass residues, 6.90 and 6.21 ppm (wet weight). respectively. Lasionycteris noctivagans and Eptesicus fuscus also showed an increase; however, M. evotis exhibited no significant postspray change. By 1977 (3 years postspray), residues declined and only M. californicus and M. volans contained levels that were significantly above those in the nonspray (control) area. We are uncertain if the elevated residue levels resulting from the DDTspray project adversely affected any of the bats. An attempt to relate bat catcass ZDDT residues to food habits, through analysis of stomach contents, yielded no clear relationships.

  18. Backward estimation of exposure to organochlorines using repeated measurements.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Fussman, Christopher; Muttineni, Jyotsna; Zhu, Xiaobei

    2004-05-01

    Great Lakes sport-caught fish are contaminated with various organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Through consumption of these fish, humans are subject to continuing levels of OC contamination. To assess potential adverse effects of past exposure, we compared three different backward extrapolation models. The data originated from OC determinations in a cohort of anglers and their families. Repeated PCB measurements collected in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s were used when testing the backward extrapolations. We applied a simple and a complex decay model based on assumptions used in previous studies; a third was a regression model incorporating markers of OC intake and loss. These techniques provided past exposure estimates. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated comparing measured and estimated PCB values. ICC values for the regression model equations were 0.77 and 0.89; ICC values for the simple and complex decay models were significantly lower, with ranges of 0.07-0.45 and -0.14-0.69, respectively. Plots showing trends of OC concentrations in fish and humans indicate comparable increases and decreases of PCB in fish and humans, with fish concentrations peaking approximately 10 years before that in humans. Our findings suggest that one should be cautious when using simple backward extrapolation techniques to estimate OC exposure in situations involving changing environmental exposures. Whenever repeated measurements are available, regression analyses seem to produce more accurate backward estimations of exposure. PMID:15121515

  19. REGULATORY ACTIONS - COMMUNITY RIGHT TO KNOW - PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing worldwide attention is being focused on a group of persistent organic pollutants known as the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). This class of compounds includes the now well known perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but it also includes ...

  20. Analysis of human milk to assess exposure to PAHs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the vicinity Mediterranean city Mersin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cok, Ismet; Mazmanci, Birgul; Mazmanci, Mehmet A; Turgut, Cafer; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of human exposure to environmental persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) based on the levels in human breast milk provides a reasonable tool not only to assess the contaminant burden in mothers but also to assess potential exposure of breast-fed neonates. There are limited data on levels of PCBs and OCPs in humans but no previous reports from Turkey on chemically determined levels PAHs in human milk. The aim of this study was to report the levels and accumulation profiles of OCPs, PCBs and PAHs in 47 breast milk samples obtained from a Mediterranean city, Mersin. High resolution analyses were performed by a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4.4'-DDE) was the dominant pollutant. Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4.4'-DDT), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, oxy-chlordane, cis-heptachlorepoxide were the other main OCPs detected. Mean levels of ?PCB congeners and WHO(PCB)-TEQ were 9.94 and 0.001 ng/g lipid, respectively. PCB 153 showed the highest concentration (3.37 ng/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and 180. For the dioxin-like PCBs, PCB 118 was the dominant (0.97 ng/g lipid). Naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene were the major PAHs among the 16 PAHs detected. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, PCBs, HCHs and HCB were not exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) proposed by the Health Canada Guideline. These results indicate that the neonates of Mersin city are exposed to persistent organic pollutants analyzed in this study. However, neonates born in Mersin province are less exposed than the ones born in other regions, considering OCP and PCB levels in breast milk. PMID:22280929

  1. Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua

    2005-04-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (?-HCH, ?-HCH, ?-HCH, o, p?-DDT, p, p?-DDT and p, p?-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  2. Persistent depressive disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    PDD; Chronic depression; Depression - chronic ... The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also ...

  3. Glyphosate persistence in seawater.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Carter, Steve; Negri, Andrew P

    2014-08-30

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely applied herbicides globally but its persistence in seawater has not been reported. Here we quantify the biodegradation of glyphosate using standard "simulation" flask tests with native bacterial populations and coastal seawater from the Great Barrier Reef. The half-life for glyphosate at 25 °C in low-light was 47 days, extending to 267 days in the dark at 25 °C and 315 days in the dark at 31 °C, which is the longest persistence reported for this herbicide. AMPA, the microbial transformation product of glyphosate, was detected under all conditions, confirming that degradation was mediated by the native microbial community. This study demonstrates glyphosate is moderately persistent in the marine water under low light conditions and is highly persistent in the dark. Little degradation would be expected during flood plumes in the tropics, which could potentially deliver dissolved and sediment-bound glyphosate far from shore. PMID:24467857

  4. Perfluorinated Compounds In The Ohio River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in waterways include pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), alkylphenols, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs). Their distributions and persistence in the aquatic environment remain p...

  5. Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin, Washington; distribution of pesticides and other organic compounds in water, sediment, and aquatic biota, 1987-91; with a section on dissolved organic carbon in the Yakima River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Crawford, J. Kent; Foreman, William T.; Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Aiken, George R.

    1999-01-01

    During 1987-91, chemical data were collected for pesticides and other organic compounds in surface water, streambed sediment, suspended sediment, agricultural soil, and aquatic biota to determine the occurrence, distribution, transport, and fate of organic compounds in the Yakima River basin in Washington. The report describes the chemical and physical properties of the compounds most frequently detected in the water column; organochlorine compounds including DDT, organophosphorus compounds, thiocarbamate and sulfite compounds, acetamide and triazine compounds, and chlorophenoxy-acetic acid and benzoic compounds. Concentrations are evaluated relative to chronic-toxicity water quality criteria and guidelines for the protection of human health and freshwater aquatic life.

  6. Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. PMID:25020099

  7. Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Sverko, Ed

    2006-01-01

    Analytical methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely available and are the result of a vast amount of environmental analytical method development and research on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the past 30–40 years. This review summarizes procedures and examines new approaches for extraction, isolation, identification and quantification of individual congeners/isomers of the PCBs and OCPs. Critical to the successful application of this methodology is the collection, preparation, and storage of samples, as well as specific quality control and reporting criteria, and therefore these are also discussed. With the signing of the Stockholm convention on POPs and the development of global monitoring programs, there is an increased need for laboratories in developing countries to determine PCBs and OCPs. Thus, while this review attempts to summarize the current best practices for analysis of PCBs and OCPs, a major focus is the need for low-cost methods that can be easily implemented in developing countries. A “performance based” process is described whereby individual laboratories can adapt methods best suited to their situations. Access to modern capillary gas chromatography (GC) equipment with either electron capture or low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) detection to separate and quantify OCP/PCBs is essential. However, screening of samples, especially in areas of known use of OCPs or PCBs, could be accomplished with bioanalytical methods such as specific commercially available enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays and thus this topic is also reviewed. New analytical techniques such two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) and “fast GC” using GC–ECD may be well-suited for broader use in routine PCB/OCP analysis in the near future given their relatively low costs and ability to provide high-resolution separations of PCB/OCPs. Procedures with low environmental impact (SPME, microscale, low solvent use, etc.) are increasingly being used and may be particularly suited to developing countries. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-0765-y and is accessible for authorized users. PMID:17047943

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in the natural environments of the city of Bratsk (Irkutsk Oblast): Levels and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Mamontov, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    The contents of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)—in the natural environments of an industrial city (Bratsk) of Irkutsk oblast have been studied. Features of the spatial and seasonal distribution of the PCBs and OCPs in the soils and the atmospheric air have been revealed. The structure of the homological and congeneric composition of the PCBs in the soils and the atmospheric air has been shown. Parameters of the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks for human health from the impact of the PCBs and OCPs present in the soils and the atmospheric air have been determined.

  9. Occurrence and sources of selected organochlorine pesticides in the soil of seven major Indian cities: Assessment of air-soil exchange.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Sivakumar, A; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    India is an agricultural country and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) accounts for nearly three fourth of the annual pesticide consumption. Selected OCPs were therefore quantified in 81 soil samples along urban-suburban-rural transect from New Delhi and Agra in the north, Kolkata in the east, Mumbai and Goa in the west and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern part of India. ?OCPs ranges from 2 to 410 ng/g dry weight (Mean, 35) with dominance of endosulfan sulfate in the rural sites. Urban centers and suburbs reflects OCP usage for vector control. Lower winter temperature in New Delhi favored site-specific deposition of most OCPs in soil. Volatilization of OCPs from soil occurred in the Indian cities having higher ambient temperature. Due to the compounded impact of past and ongoing usage of selected OCPs like DDT, a sporadic cycle of emission and re-emission from Indian soil is expected to continue for many more years to come. PMID:25932785

  10. Evaluation of lipid removal from animal fats for the determination of organochlorine, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyl indicators by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Adriana S; Sacheto, Doriane; Hoff, Rodrigo B; Pizzolato, Tania M

    2012-09-01

    For cleanup of animal fat before GC analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, freezing-lipid filtration with solid-phase extraction and matrix solid-phase dispersion were evaluated to replace the official Brazilian methodology that uses preparative alumina column chromatography. General drawbacks associated with this last technique, such as the use of large amounts of solvent, laborious and time-consuming procedure could be avoided by using these alternative approaches. Experiments were carried out to study the performance by using different combinations of sorbents and elution solvents. Efficiency of alternative extraction methods in terms of fat removal and recovery capability was monitored by gravimetry, TLC, and GC with electron capture detection. Freezing-lipid filtration with solid-phase extraction afforded better clean up efficiency with recoveries in a range of 54.5 to 103.6% with the relative standard deviation of less than 10% for all compounds under investigation. PMID:22833512

  11. Assessment of exposure to organochlorine pesticides and levels of DNA damage in mother-infant pairs of an agrarian community.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Hernandez, Diana Lorena; Montero-Montoya, Regina; Serrano-García, Luis; Arellano-Aguilar, Omar; Jasso-Pineda, Yolanda; Yáñez-Estrada, Leticia

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to organochlorine pesticides was studied in a group of mother-infant pairs living in a rural area where agriculture is the main economic activity. Fumigation in this zone is performed with airplanes, thus affecting the inhabited areas around them, including schools. Heparinized venous blood of mothers and umbilical cords was used to evaluate the olive tail moment in the comet assay, and micronuclei, chromatin buds, and nucleoplasmic bridges in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cord blood samples were taken at the moment of birth only from natural and normal parturitions. Determinations of hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxichlordane, t and c-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, mirex, alpha and beta-endosulfan, alpha, beta and gamma hexachlorocyclohexane, and p'p'-DDT, p'p'-DDE were conducted to establish the differential distribution of the toxicants between compartments, i.e., mother and umbilical cord. Significantly higher pesticide levels were found in umbilical cord plasma than in mothers' plasma for almost all compounds tested, except DDE and oxychlordane. Significantly higher olive tail moments were found in umbilical cords than in mothers, whereas micronuclei frequencies were higher in mothers than in umbilical cords. However, neither the levels of micronuclei nor the olive tail moment were correlated with pesticide levels. Given that no other exposure to toxic compounds has been identified in this region, the lack of correlation between genotoxicity biomarkers and pesticide levels may be due to the variability of the exposure and to endogenous processes related to lipid mobility during pregnancy, the metabolism of the compounds, and individual susceptibilities. PMID:23355095

  12. HUMAN HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF ORGANOCHLORINE AND MERCURY CONTAMINANTS IN JAPANESE WHALE MEAT

    E-print Network

    Palumbi, Stephen

    HUMAN HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE OF ORGANOCHLORINE AND MERCURY CONTAMINANTS IN JAPANESE WHALE MEAT M. P], and S HCH) were determined in 61 whale meat products (bacon, blubber, red meat, liver, intestine, and tongue estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of contaminants at two hypothetical levels of whale meat consumption

  13. COMPARATIVE ENZYME INDUCTION AND LINDANE METABOLISM IN RATS PRE-TREATED WITH VARIOUS ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comparative effect of 7 days pre-treatment with one of seven organochlorine pesticides on the metabolism of lindane in vivo and on the metabolism of EPN, p-nitroanisole and methyl orange in vitro was investigated. Mirex was the most potent inducer of the oxidative hydrolysis ...

  14. AT-SEA INCINERATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE WASTES ONBOARD THE M/T VULCANUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the incineration of 4100 tonnes of organochlorine wastes by the M/T Vulcanus in an EPA-designated burn area in the Gulf of Mexico under a special permit granted by EPA Region VI. The wastes, containing 63% chlorine, originated from manufacturing processes. Th...

  15. Residues of organochlorines and heavy metals in tissues and eggs of brown pelicans, 1969-73

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Neely, B.S., Jr.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Shells of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) eggs collected in South Carolina from 1969 through 1973 were significantly thinner than shells of those collected before 1947. Residues of 10 organochlorine pollutants and 10 heavy metals were found in these eggs. Total organochlorine residues were apparently magnified 23 times from fish to pelican eggs, but interpretation of biomagnification was complicated by the migratory habits of both the pelicans and their chief prey fish. Residues of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals were also found in tissues of brown pelicans. Dieldrin was probably involved in the death of a pelican that exhibited myocardial necrosis. Other pelicans died from gunshot wounds, various diseases, or unknown causes. From 1969 through 1973, there was a significant decline in residues of p-p'-DDE, p-p'-TDE, p-p'DDT, and dieldrin in eggs of the brown pelican in South Carolina, but the rate of decline was different for each pollutant. PCB's peaked in 1972 and then declined in 1973 to the lowest level in 5 years. In 1973, the first time in many years, South Carolina brown pelicans reproduced very well. The excellent reproductivity seemed related to lowered organochlorine residues and favorable tides, weather, and food supply.

  16. How Do We Advise the Pest Control Industry in the Post-Organochlorine Era?1

    E-print Network

    by their own colleagues, and especially by the chemical industry and its chief advocates in the U.S. Department Do We Advise the Pest Control Industry in the Post-Organochlorine Era?1 J.R.J. French2 Abstract industry in termite control? A brief historical review of pesticide bans and the relevance of these bans

  17. Economic Consequences of Restricting the Use of Organochlorine Insecticides on Cotton, Corn, Peanuts, and Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Velmar W.; And Others

    The Department of Agriculture continually reviews needs for insecticides and recommends those which are effective with least hazard to people and the environment. This report estimates the economic effects of reducing the use of organochlorine insecticides. Using data from a 1966 Economic Research Service Survey, the report concludes that these…

  18. Pharmaceuticals and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of an urban river in Florida, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose Sediments from a rural to urban gradient along the Alafia River in Florida, United States were investigated to determine the risk of environmental contamination with legacy (organochlorine pesticides, OCPs) and new contaminants (pharmaceuticals). Materials and methods Bed sediments (0-10 cm)...

  19. Mobilization of soil bound residue of organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an in-vitro gastrointestinal model

    PubMed Central

    TAO, SHU; LI, LI; DING, JUNNAN; ZHONG, JUNJUN; ZHANG, DIYU; LU, YAN; YANG, YIFENG; WANG, XILONG; LI, XIQING; CAO, JUN; LU, XIAOXIA; LIU, WENXIN

    2011-01-01

    A previous study on mobilization of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in contaminated soils from the field revealed that the total amount of OCPs measured in digestive fluid and chyme of an in-vitro gastrointestinal model was higher than the quantity directly extracted using a solvent extraction without digestion, providing a clue that the bound residue of OCPs might be mobilized. This hypothesis was tested in this study for both OCPs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Three contaminated surface soil samples with different organic carbon (OC) contents were collected from the field, and extracted with a solvent with and without digestion in an in-vitro gastrointestinal model. It was found that bound residues of OCPs and PAHs were mobilized to a certain extent during digestion. The ratios of the mobilized bound residues over the total quantities extracted after digestion (Rb) varied from 0 to 0.96 for individual compounds. The Rb was positively correlated with OC content. Among the five constitutes of digestive juice, bile salt was the only one that served to mobilize the bound residues and the extractability of bile salt was constant over a concentration range from 2 to 20 mg/mL. The mobilization process followed typical first-order kinetics. The calculated rate constants suggest that mobilization was fast and 90% of extracted bound residues of OCPs and PAHs were mobilized within 2.4 and 4.8 h, respectively. PMID:21175124

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qu, Chengkai

    2015-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29-274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and ?-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

  1. Assessing the relationship and influence of black carbon on distribution status of organochlorines in the coastal sediments from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Junwen, Liu; Sánchez-García, Laura; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Arshad, Masood; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-07-01

    Levels of total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) were determined together with those of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the selected eighteen coastal sites (n = 285) along the Arabian Sea from Pakistan. Results showed that the total concentration of TOC, BC, ?OCPs and ?26PCBs ranged between 0.3 and 2.9% dw, 0.1-0.2% dw, 0.9-110 ng g(-1) dw and 6.2-1200 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. Correlation analysis of BC (r = 0.26-0.89) and TOC (r = 0.06-0.69) revealed a stronger association with studied compounds. The sedimentary depositional fluxes (D) for ?OCPs and ?26PCBs were calculated as 1.7 and 4.9 tons yr(-1), respectively. In the coastal belt of Pakistan, sedimentary mass inventories (I) indicated the presence of 13 and 37 metric tons of ?OCPs and ?26PCBs, respectively. PMID:24732884

  2. Further interpretation of the relation of organochlorine residues in brown pelican eggs to reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide additional interpretation of the relation of organochlorine pollutants to reproductive success and population stability of brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis in the southeastern United States from 1969 to 1977. The sample egg technique was employed in South Carolina; it involved collecting an egg from each of 156 marked nests, analysing the eggs for residues and relating residue levels to nest success. All of the organochlorines appeared to induce adverse effects on reproductive success of brown pelicans, but the correlative evidence indicated that DDE was responsible for most of the pollutant-related nest failure. Close intercorrelation of each of the organochlorines presented a problem in the separation of the effects of each pollutant. The critical level of DDE in brown pelican eggs was 3 :g g-1, this level was associated with substantially impaired reproductive success and 4 :g g-1 of DDE was associated with sotal reproductive failure. The critical level for dieldrin was not determined, but it appeared to exceed 1 :g g-1. Dieldrin, DDT, DDD and the PCBs apparently exerted a minor effect on reproductive success of brown pelicans in South Carolina. Endrin seemed to induce reproductive impairment in brown pelicans in Louisiana in 1975. The critical level in eggs is only roughly estimated at <0?5 :g g-1 because it was not possible to use the sample egg technique in this small population. Significant declines in organochlorine residues in South Carolina during this study were associated with increases in eggshell thickness, reproductive success and the breeding population. Of those avian species studied, the brown pelican remains the most sensitive to organochlorine contaminants, particularly DDE and endrin; factors related to this sensitivity are poorly known.

  3. Retention and Persistence Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Timothy R.

    Two studies are combined with an introductory section: one is "Persistence to Graduation for Freshmen Entering the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1967-75," by Timothy Sanford, and the second is "Freshman, Transfer, Professional, Masters, and Doctoral Student Retention at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill," by Paul D.…

  4. The Persistence of PCBs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Robert H.; Highland, Joseph H.

    1979-01-01

    PCB's are one of the most persistent chemicals ever introduced into the environment by man. From very early in their history of manufacture PCB's were suspected of being hazardous to health, but public awareness of the hazard was slow in coming. (RE)

  5. A Very Persistent Mistake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, J. A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Articulated bodies with an internal energy source require to be coupled to an external mass in order to accelerate themselves but the typical text book assertion that the net force is provided by the external mass is not correct. Arguments are presented demonstrating that the assertion is incorrect and reasons are suggested for the persistence of…

  6. Organohalogenated compounds in pine needles from Beijing city, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Diandou; Deng, Linlin; Chai, Zhifang; Mao, Xueying

    2004-12-01

    Pine needles collected from 22 sites of six areas in Beijing city, China, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with organic extraction for extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX). The concentrations of EOX (EOX = ECl + EOBr + EOI) were in the order of EOCl > EOBr > EOI. About 1.6-34% of EOCl remained as extractable persistent organochlorine (EPOCl) after treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid, which suggested that major fractions of EOCl in pine needles were an acid-liable or acid-soluble fraction. The fact that pine needle contained higher EOCl contents in chemical industrial and traffic hub areas indicated that chemical industries and exhaust emission from vehicle were the main sources of organochlorines in the Beijing's air. The relative proportions of the known organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, HCB and PCBs) to total EOCl and EPOCl were 0.32-0.76% and 2.5-11.4%, respectively, which implied that a major portion of the EOCl and EPOCl measured in pine needles was unknown. The organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and PCBs concentrations in six areas were as follows: sigma HCH (sigma HCH = alpha- + beta- + gamma- + delta-HCH), 11.7-20.8 ng/g; sigma DDT (p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD), 12.5-113.3 ng/g; hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 1.1-5.3 ng/g; sigma chlordane (cis-chlordane + trans-chlordane + heptachlor), 1.7-9.5 ng/g, sigma PCB, 41.8-270.5 ng/g, on dry weight basis. The samples from chemical industrial area and residential area nearby chemical industries contained the highest concentrations of sigma DDT, HCB, sigma chlordane and sigma PCB, while the contamination levels of most OCPs and PCBs in iron-steel industrial area were the lowest. The ratios of alpha/gamma-HCH (ranged from 0.9-1.5) and p,p'-DDT/DDTs (ranged from 72.1% to 91.0%) revealed the presence of the recent use of lindane and DDTs or impure dicofol in Beijing. PMID:15519379

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in a marine bivalve on the Marennes-Oléron Bay and the Gironde Estuary (French Atlantic Coast) - part 1: bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Luna-Acosta, A; Budzinski, H; Le Menach, K; Thomas-Guyon, H; Bustamante, P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 1) the relevance of using the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas as a sentinel organism, at a juvenile stage, for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and persistent organic pollutant (polychlorobiphenyl, PCB, polybromodimethylether, PBDE, and organochlorine pesticide, OCP) contamination, 2) the potential levels of chemical organic contamination in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, and their potential sources and 3) the potential influence of physiological or environmental factors on contaminant body burdens in oysters. To this end, juvenile oysters purchased from an oyster hatchery were transplanted to a reference site, in Bouin, and to different transplantation sites in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, the first oyster production area in France, and in the Gironde Estuary, the biggest estuary in Occidental Europe. Transplantations were done during summer and winter. Whole oyster soft tissues from each site were analysed for PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs. Results obtained with a transplantation period of 3months suggest that C. gigas, at the juvenile stage, is a relevant sentinel organism for short-term assessment of contamination for these contaminants. In addition, no significant effects of physiological factors on contaminant body burdens were observed. Principal component analysis revealed two distinct groups of contaminants (PAHs and OPCs, and PCBs and PBDEs) and three groups of sites: 1) the reference site, 2) Les Palles (LP) and Boyard (BOY) in winter and 3) all the other sites. The group of LP and BOY was clearly defined by the levels of PAHs and OCPs, suggesting higher levels of contamination of these chemical compounds on these sites, potentially due to local contamination sources. In addition, no relevant effects of physiological or environmental factors on contaminant body burdens were observed. Results suggest also a predominance of contaminants related to agricultural activities along the Marennes-Oléron Bay, and therefore, further studies on the presence of pesticides in this region should be considered. PMID:25440063

  8. Individual variation in biomarkers of health: influence of persistent organic pollutants in Great skuas (Stercorarius skua) breeding at different geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza H K; Magnusdóttir, Ellen; Fisk, Aaron T; Furness, Robert W; Strøm, Hallvard; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Petersen, Aevar; Olafsdóttir, Kristin; Borgå, Katrine; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2012-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been shown to cause adverse effects on a number of biomarkers of health in birds. POPs may impair immune function and alter the stress response, defined as a suite of behavioral and physiological responses to environmental perturbations. Recent studies have also proposed that POPs can induce oxidative stress. Nevertheless, there is a lack of studies simultaneously assessing the potential damaging effects of POPs on the latter biomarkers. In this study, we examined the contribution of legacy (organochlorines; (OCs)) and emerging (flame retardants; PBDEs) POPs to individual variations in stress levels (feather corticosterone), humoral immunity (plasma immunoglobulin Y levels) and oxidative stress occurring in three breeding colonies of a top predator seabird, the Great skua (Stercorarius skua), distributed from temperate regions to the high Arctic: Shetland (60°N), Iceland (63°N) and Bjørnøya (74°N). Our results demonstrated that plasma concentrations of OCs in Great skuas from Bjørnøya are among the highest in North Atlantic seabirds, with up to 7900 ?g/kg (ww) ?OCs. Yet, a latitudinal gradient in POP levels was observed with all compounds being significantly higher in Bjørnøya than in Iceland and Shetland (on average 4-7 fold higher for OCs and 2.5-4.5 for PBDEs, respectively). Contrary to our predictions, skuas breeding at the least contaminated site (i.e., Shetland) experienced the poorest physiological condition; i.e., the highest levels of stress hormones (25% higher) and oxidative stress (50% higher) and the lowest immunoglobulin levels (15% lower) compared to the two other colonies. Finally, our results failed to point out consistent within-colony relationships between biomarkers of health and POPs. Overall, it is suggested that other ecological factors such as food availability could constrain physiological indicators more than anthropogenic contaminants. PMID:22921737

  9. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; König, Max; Lipasti, Inka; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Routti, Heli

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (?13C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4-11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and ?13C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, ?-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of ?13C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. PMID:25536177

  10. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romani?, Snježana; Klin?i?, Darija; Kljakovi?-Gašpi?, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Relji?, Slaven; Huber, ?uro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ?OCPs and ?PCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (?6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with ?-HCH, HCB, ?-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180?PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (?HCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (?8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ?DDTs, HCB, ?OCP, ?PCBs, ?6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (?ToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals. PMID:26002287

  11. Plasma Organochlorines and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer in Japanese Men: A Nested Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Itoh, Hiroaki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    Background Although accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may contribute to the development of prostate cancer, few investigations have used biological samples to classify exposure to specific organochlorines. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study to investigate the association between blood levels of organochlorines and prostate cancer risk. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study using data from the Japan Public Health Center–based Prospective (JPHC) Study. A total of 14,203 men 40–69 years old who returned the baseline questionnaire and who provided blood samples were followed from 1990 to 2005. Using a mean follow-up period of 12.8 years, we identified 201 participants who were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. Two matched controls for each case were selected from the cohort. We used a conditional logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prostate cancer in relation to plasma levels of nine organochlorines: PCBs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), trans- and cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and mirex. Results No statistically significant association with total prostate cancer was seen for any plasma organochlorine, although we did observe an insignificant inverse association for plasma HCB and ?-HCH. Total PCB in plasma was also inversely associated with advanced prostate cancer but without statistical significance. Conclusion Our results suggest that no overall association exists between prostate cancer and organochlorines at the levels measured in our study population. PMID:20435560

  12. Effects of Fumigants on Microbial Diversity and Persistence of E. coli O15:H7 in Contrasting Soil Microcosms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence of E. coli O157 in the environment is a serious public health concern. However, little is known about the persistence of this pathogen after exposure to chemical compounds like fumigants in the environment. In this study, the persistence behavior of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 was investi...

  13. Assessment and investigation on the fate of organochlorine pesticides in water and sediments of international Amir-kalaye wetland in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Azadeh Nekouei; Hassani, Amir Hessam; Farshchi, Parvin; Morowati, Mohssen; Moatar, Faramarz; Karbassi, Abdolreza

    2012-06-01

    A total of 48 water samples and 24 sediment samples were collected at four sampling stations along the wetland during four seasons from 2009 to 2010 and analyzed by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). In water the total concentration of OCPs was 0.33, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.07 mg/L in summer, autumn, winter and spring, respectively. The most frequent OCP compounds detected were endrin and chlordane (0.08 and 0.07 mg/L), heaxachlorobenzene and chlordane (0.06, 0.02 mg/L), and chlordane (0.07 mg/L) in summer, winter and spring, respectively. The maximum concentration of ?OCPs was found in samples collected from station 1 in summer (0.26 mg/L). In sediments the total concentrations of OCPs were 15.84 and 2.62 mg/g-dry weight (dw) in summer and winter, respectively. Chlordane was the most frequently found OCP compound, followed by lindane, 9.92 and 2.47 mg/g-dry weight (dw), respectively, in summer. While, lindane (2.52 mg/g-dw) and endosulfan I (0.1 mg/g-dw) were the highest OCP compounds detected in winter. The results obtained in this study show that there still exist a variety of organochlorine pesticide residues in the water and sediments from the Amir-kalaye wetland in Iran. PMID:22349307

  14. Factors affecting the occurrence and transport of atmospheric organochlorines in the China Sea and the northern Indian and South East Atlantic Oceans.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Li, Jun; Schuster, Jasmin; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong; Spiro, Baruch; Bhatia, Ravinder S; Dachs, Jordi; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-09-18

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are reported in 97 air samples collected on board the RV Polarstern in November 2007 from the equator to Cape Town, South Africa and the MV Oceanic II (The Scholar Ship) in January-March 2008 from Shanghai, China to Cape Verde in the Central Atlantic Ocean. The atmospheric concentrations were higher close to the coast and lower in remote regions of the Indian and South Atlantic Ocean. Groups of samples were selected in the South China Sea, Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean where the relative wind direction matched the trajectory of the ship, thus all the samples had the same input of sources upwind. In these three regions the concentrations of OCPs and PCBs declined during atmospheric transport following first order kinetics. These sets of measurements provided estimates of field derived residence times (FDRTs) for individual compounds. These values were compared with predicted atmospheric residence times (PARTs) computed using a model of long-range atmospheric transport potential of POPs. The FDRTs are 5-10 times longer for the more volatile PCB congeners and TC, CC, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE than the respective PARTs, while they are similar to PARTs for the less volatile compounds. Possible causes of discrepancies between PARTs and FDRTs are discussed, and revolatilization from the ocean surface seems to be the main cause for the higher values of FDRTs of the more volatile compounds in comparison with the respective PARTs. PMID:22871129

  15. Determination of selected endocrine disrupting compounds in human fetal and newborn tissues by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Achille; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Matturri, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) include organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), carbamate pesticides, and plasticizers, such as bisphenol A (BPA). They persist in the environment because of their degradation resistance and bioaccumulate in the body tissues of humans and other mammals. Many studies are focused on the possible correlation between in utero exposure to EDCs and adverse health hazards in fetuses and newborns. In the last decade, environmental pollution has been considered a possible trigger for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death Syndrome (SIUDS), the most important death-causing syndromes in fetuses and newborns in developed countries. In this work, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed to determine the level of OCPs and OPPs, carbamates, and phenols in human fetal and newborn tissues (liver and brain) and to unveil the possible presence of non-targeted compounds. The target analytes where selected on the basis of their documented presence in the Trentino-Alto Adige region, an intensive agricultural area in northern Italy. A liquid-solid extraction procedure was applied on human and animal tissues and the extracts, after a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure, were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometric detector (GC-qMS). A GC-TOFMS (time-of-flight) instrument, because of its higher full-scan sensitivity, was used for a parallel detection of non-targeted compounds. Method validation included accuracy, precision, detection, and quantification limits (LODs; LOQs), and linearity response using swine liver and lamb brain spiked at different concentrations in the range of 0.4-8000.0 ng/g. The method gave good repeatability and extraction efficiency. Method LOQs ranged from 0.4-4.0 ng/g in the selected matrices. Good linearity was obtained over four orders of magnitude starting from LOQs. Isotopically labeled internal standards were used for quantitative calculations. The method was then successfully applied to the analysis of liver and brain tissues from SIUDS and SIDS victims coming from the above mentioned region. PMID:24633505

  16. Assessment of the exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and PAHs in six species of predatory birds of the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2014-02-15

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distributions of 57 anthropogenic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liver samples from 102 birds of prey of six species that were found dead or that had died during their stay in the Wildlife Recovery Centers of the Canary Islands (Spain) between 2009 and 2012. The dual goal of this work was to determine the occurrence of these contaminants in these six species of birds of prey, and also whether they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution in the region. We found that Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides and Falco tinnunculus were the most contaminated species. The profiles of contamination among the species were extremely similar in the case of organochlorine contaminants, with DDT and its metabolites as the most abundant compounds. The contamination by DDT and its metabolites, as well as contamination by dieldrin, could be considered high in these animals, much higher than reports from other regions of the planet, which is in agreement with previous reports from our group regarding humans, food and other animals from this area. In contrast, the contamination by PCBs could be considered extremely low and was probably below the threshold of toxicity for these contaminants. The content of carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in these animals was clearly dependent on the feeding pattern of the species; however, the levels were also well below the values that were considered toxic in predictive models. This study represents the first report of contamination by PAHs in all these species and is also the first report of PCB levels in Barbary Falcons. PMID:24291140

  17. Alaska peregrine falcon productivity in 1984 and the role of organochlorine residues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambrose, R.E.; Henny, C.J.; Hunter, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs (one per eyrie) were collected at random in Alaska in 1984 for organochlorine residue analysis. Prior to this study we had obtained only addled eggs which were possibly not representative of the egg-laying population if addled eggs contained different levels of organochlorines than viable eggs that hatched. Ten eggs were collected from the American (anatum) population (8 upper Yukon River, 2 Tanana River) and 10 eggs from the Arctic (tundrius) popUlation were later collected in the study area. Productivity at specific eyries and eggshell thickness were evaluated in relation to residue burdens in sample eggs collected. Residue levels and residue profiles for the two subspecies were compared. The tentative 'critical' residue level in Peregrine eggs of 15-20 ppm DDE (wet weight) was compared to results obtained from this study. We also present some data on residue levels in prey species from the study area.

  18. Determination of vapor pressures for nonpolar and semipolar organic compounds from gas chromatographic retention data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Foreman, W.T.; Tuschall, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vapor pressures for nonpolar and moderately polar organochlorine, pyrethroid, and organophosphate insecticides, phthalate esters, and organophosphate flame retardants were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with known liquid-phase vapor pressures (P??L) (standard compounds) were chromatographed along with two reference compounds n-C20 (elcosane) and p,p???-DDT on a 1.0-m-long poly(dimethylsiloxane) bonded-phase (BP-1) column to determine their vapor pressures by GC (P??GC). A plot of log P??L vs log P??GC for standard compounds was made to establish a correlation between measured and literature values, and this correlation was then used to compute P??L of test compounds from their measured P??GC. P??L of seven major components of technical chlordane, endosulfan and its metabolites, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, mirex, and two components of technical toxaphene were determined by GC. This method provides vapor pressures within a factor of 2 of average literature values for nonpolar compounds, similar to reported interlaboratory precisions of vapor pressure determinations. GC tends to overestimate vapor pressures of moderately polar compounds. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  19. Residues of organochlorines and heavy metals in ruddy ducks from the Delaware River, 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    In December 1973, eight ruddy ducks killed in an oil spill on the Delaware River were collected to be analyzed for residues of environmental pollutants. Whole carcasses were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and livers were examined for lead, cadmium, and mercury. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT and/or its metabolites were present in all carcasses. Dieldrin and hexachlorobenzene were present in seven of the eight samples. All livers contained detectable levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues in woodcock, soils and earthworms in Louisiana, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLane, M.A.R.; Stickel, L.F.; Newsom, J.D.

    1971-01-01

    Woodcock (Philohela minor), earthworms, and soil samples were collected from January-March 1965, from fields in southeastern Louisiana approximately 3 years after discontinuance of areal treatments with heptachlor in this region. Heptachlor epoxide residues in woodcock averaged 0.42 ppm (dry weight), conspicuously lower than in 1961 and 1962. Residues of DDE in woodcock averaged 3.62 pprn, higher than in birds taken in the same area in 1961-62. Earthworms and soils contained traces of several organochlorine pesticides.

  1. Systems for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The requirements for a persistent wide-area surveillance system are discussed in the context of evolving military operations. Significant emphasis has been placed on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. Within the UK, the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) has supported the research and development of new capabilities including radio-frequency (RF) and electro-optic (EO) systems, as well as work on sensor exploitation, with a goal of developing solutions for enhancing situational awareness. This activity has been supported by field trials to determine the efficacy of competing technologies in relation to realistic threat scenarios.

  2. Persistence of Salmonid Redds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, J. M.; Buxton, T.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.; Yager, E.

    2013-12-01

    The construction of redds by spawning salmonids modifies fluvial processes in ways that are beneficial to egg and embryo survival. Redd topography induces hyporheic flow that oxygenates embryos incubating within the streambed and creates form drag that reduces bed mobility and scour of salmonid eggs. Winnowing of fine material during redd construction also coarsens the streambed, increasing bed porosity and hyporheic flow and reducing bed mobility. In addition to the biological benefits, redds may influence channel morphology by altering channel hydraulics and bed load transport rates depending on the size and extent of redds relative to the size of the channel. A key question is how long do the physical and biological effects of redds last? Field observations indicate that in some basins redds are ephemeral, with redd topography rapidly erased by subsequent floods, while in other basins, redds can persist for years. We hypothesize that redd persistence is a function of basin hydrology, sediment supply, and characteristics of the spawning fish. Hydrology controls the frequency and magnitude of bed mobilizing flows following spawning, while bed load supply (volume and caliber) controls the degree of textural fining and consequent bed mobility after spawning, as well as the potential for burial of redd features. The effectiveness of flows in terms of their magnitude and duration depend on hydroclimate (i.e., snowmelt, rainfall, or transitional hydrographs), while bed load supply depends on basin geology, land use, and natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfire). Location within the stream network may also influence redd persistence. In particular, lakes effectively trap sediment and regulate downstream flow, which may promote long-lived redds in stream reaches below lakes. These geomorphic controls are modulated by biological factors: fish species (size of fish controls size of redds and magnitude of streambed coarsening); life history (timing of spawning and incubation relative to high flows); and population size (density of redds and extent of streambed alteration within a given reach). Species and life history also control the location of spawning within the basin, dictating the flow and sediment supply regimes. A theoretical framework is developed for predicting redd persistence as a function of the above physical and biological factors. We expect that long-lived redds will indicate either that the river is not competent to re-work the effects of spawning or that spawning occurs after peak flow events that are capable of modifying redd features. The longevity of redds and their associated effects on fluvial processes also provides a measure of the degree of potential ecological conditioning for future generations of fish. Future work will test the framework in field and laboratory settings.

  3. PERSISTENCE OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND OTHER WASTEWATER RELATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require a considerable length of time to complete, and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One sol...

  4. FATE AND PERSISTENCE IN SOIL OF SELECTED TOXIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The persistence of toxic and generally refractory halogenated hydrocarbons in the environment is a key factor in evaluating human exposure. The report summarizes the chemical and physical properties of some of these compounds and addresses how these properties can affect their pe...

  5. Organochlorine residues, eggshell thickness, and nest success in barn owls from the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaas, E.E.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Eggs of barn owls (Tyto alba) were collected from 18 nests in offshore duck blinds on the Maryland side of the lower Potomac River estuary in 1972 and 1973 and analyzed for organochlorine residues. DDE was found in 100% of the clutches, PCBs in 89%, and dieldrin in 78%. Eggshell thickness was inversely correlated with concentrations of DDE, DDD, and dieldrin residues. Six of the 18 clutches had mean DDE residues above 5 ppm, and eggshell thickness in these six clutches was significantly less (P < 0.001) than in the other 12 clutches. The owls produced 1.7 young per active nest in 1973. This rate is slightly below the reproductive rate needed to maintain a stable population. An estimated 15% of the population carried concentrations of organochlorine residues that may have been detrimental to their reproduction. Passerine birds, taken extensively as food by a small proportion of the population, are believed to have been the source of elevated concentrations of organochlorines in these barn owls.

  6. Fish thymocyte viability, apoptosis and necrosis: In-vitro effects of organochlorine contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, L.I.; Passino-Reader, D. R.; Meier, P.G.; Omann, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The thymus is believed to be a central component of haematopoiesis and immune function in teleosts. Hence, chemically-elicited adverse effects to the thymus may result in immunomodulation and organ dysfunction. The objective of this research was to assess the levels of active (apoptotic) and passive (necrotic) cell death in untreated and organochlorine treated fish thymocytes. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) thymocytes were challenged with Aroclor 1254 (concentration range 1.5-10.5??g ml-1) and alpha, beta, gamma, delta isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (concentration range 10-100??M). The resulting maintenance or loss of viability was assessed by cytofluorometry (expression of phosphatidylserine and exclusion of propidium iodide) and confirmed with fluorescence microscopy. The results indicate that 20-60% of thymocytes in healthy fish undergo apoptosis, whereas thymocytes treated for 6-24 h with organochlorines exhibit increased levels of apoptotic cell death. This study demonstrates that given sufficient concentration, contact time and cellular receptors, organochlorines such as Aroclor 1254 and hexachlorocyclohexanes may induce direct or indirect toxicity, altered functionality, or cell death to an organ important for fish immunocompetence. ?? 1998 Academic Press Limited.

  7. Stable isotopes and organochlorines in the food webs of Lakes Baikal and Superior

    SciTech Connect

    Kucklick, J.R.; Baker, J.E.; Ostrom, N.E.; Ostrom, P.H.; Lee, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    Quantifying organochlorine biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems is traditionally accomplished by assigning discreet trophic levels, which does not adequately describe feeding relationships except in well defined systems. {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C, particularly {delta}{sup 15}N values, measured in aquatic food webs provide additional information on trophic position such that it may be treated as a continuous variable. To evaluate this technique, samples were collected from the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal in August and September, 1993 for organochlorine (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes and HCHS) and stable isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) analyzed. These included high volume water samples, seston, net plankton, two species of pelagic sculpin Comephorus dybowskii, C. baikalensis, the omul, (Coregonus autumnalis migratorious), and 9 seal (Phoca siberica) samples of known sex and age. Food web samples from Lake Superior will be collected in June, 1994 to include benthic infauna, sculpins, Mysis and surface phytoplankton and zooplankton. Results from this study will provide a comparison of organochlorine trophodynamics between a system with a predominant pelagic food web (Lake Baikal) to one with substantial benthic/pelagic coupling (Lake Superior).

  8. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in woodcock wings, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLane, M.A.R.; Dustman, E.H.; Clark, E.R.; Hughes, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Pesticide residues in wings of adult woodcock (Philohela minor) were used to monitor regional differences in a 1970-71 survey of DDT, DDE, TDE, dieldrin, mirex, and PCBs in Maine, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Lousiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin. In 1971-72, wings were sampled again to compare levels of organochlorine insecticide residues with those of the previous survey and to delineate differences in residue values between adult and immature woodcock. Three additional states, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Vermont, and one additional organochlorine insecticide, heptachlor epoxide, were included in the second survey. Residue levels in the 1971-72 wings showed the same pattern as that observed in 1970-71: organochlorine insecticide residues were highest in wings collected in the southern states and in New Jersey; residues were lowest in samplings taken in the northern and midwestern states. Residues of DDT, TDE, and dieldrin in the 1971-72 wings were slightly lower than those found in 1970-71. DDE, PCB, and mirex residues were significantly lower (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively) in 1971-72. Wings of immature woodcock in Louisiana had significantly lower (P <0.05) mirex residues than did adult wings.

  9. Organochlorine residues in young herons from the upper Mississippi River-1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Elder, J.B.; Stendell, R.C.; Hensler, G.L.; Johnson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Chicks of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from four heronaries located near South St. Paul, Royalton, and Wabasha, Minnesota, and La Crosse, Wisconsin, were analyzed for organochlorines, Highest mean wet-weight concentrations, 6.43 ppm PCBs. 1.31 ppm DDE, and 1.90 ppm sigma DDT, were found in the South St. Paul chicks. Among chicks from the other three heronries, most levels were similar, but were significantly lower than levels in South St. Paul chicks. Lowest mean organochlorine levels, 0.37 ppm DDE, 0.38 ppm sigma DDT, and 0.22 ppm PCBs, were found in chicks from Royalton. All birds from South St. Paul and La Crosse contained residues of DDT and TDE whereas only one of the 10 birds from Royalton contained DDT and one contained TDE residues. Five of the 12 birds from Wabasha contained DDT; eight contained TDE. Except for PCB residues in La Crosse heron chicks, the rate of organochlorine residue accumulation in the birds was generally less than the rate of dilution caused by growth.

  10. Evaluation of the persistence of micropollutants through pure-oxygen activated sludge nitrification and denitrification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, A.D.; Meyer, M.T.; Kish, G.

    2006-01-01

    The persistence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and household and industrial chemicals through a pure-oxygen activated sludge, nitrification, denitrification wastewater treatment facility was evaluated. Of the 125 micropollutants that were tested in this study, 55 compounds were detected in the untreated wastewater, and 27 compounds were detected in the disinfected effluent. The persistent compounds included surfactants, fire-retardant chemicals, pesticides, fragrance compounds, hormones, and one pharmaceutical. Physical-chemical properties of micropollutants that affected partitioning onto wastewater solids included vapor pressure and octanol-water partition coefficients.

  11. Persistence and transport potential of chemicals in a multimedia environment

    SciTech Connect

    van de Meent, D.; McKone, T.E.; Parkerton, T.; Matthies, M.; Scheringer, M.; Wania, F.; Purdy, R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2000-02-01

    Persistence in the environment and potential for long-range transport are related since time in the environment is required for transport. A persistent chemical will travel longer distances than a reactive chemical that shares similar chemical properties. Scheringer (1997) has demonstrated the correlation between persistence and transport distance for different organic chemicals. However, this correlation is not sufficiently robust to predict one property from the other. Specific chemicals that are persistent mayor may not exhibit long-range transport potential. Persistence and long-range transport also present different societal concerns. Persistence concerns relate to the undesired possibility that chemicals produced and used now may somehow negatively affect future generations. Long-range transport concerns relate to the undesired presence of chemicals in areas where these compounds have not been used. Environmental policy decisions can be based on either or both considerations depending on the aim of the regulatory program. In this chapter, definitions and methods for quantifying persistence and transport potential of organic chemicals are proposed which will assist in the development of sound regulatory frameworks.

  12. Assessment of dietary exposure to some persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Karakalpakstan of Uzbekistan.

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Nigina; Jermini, Marco; Small, Ian; Falzon, Dennis; Fürst, Peter; Migliorati, Giacomo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Forti, Anna Francesca; Anklam, Elke; von Holst, Christoph; Niyazmatov, Bakhtier; Bahkridinov, Shakub; Aertgeerts, Roger; Bertollini, Roberto; Tirado, Cristina; Kolb, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    A 1999 study heightened long-standing concerns over persistent organic pollutant contamination in the Aral Sea area, detecting elevated levels in breast milk and cord blood of women in Karakalpakstan (western Uzbekistan). These findings prompted a collaborative research study aimed at linking such human findings with evidence of food chain contamination in the area. An international team carried out analyses of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on samples of 12 foods commonly produced and consumed in Karakalpakstan. Analysis consistently detected long-lasting organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in all foods of animal origin and in some vegetables such as onions and carrots--two low-cost components of many traditional dishes. Levels of PCBs were relatively low in all samples except fish. Analyses revealed high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs (together often termed "dioxins") in sheep fat, dairy cream, eggs, and edible cottonseed oil, among other foodstuffs. These findings indicate that food traditionally grown, sold, and consumed in Karakalpakstan is a major route of human exposure to several persistent toxic contaminants, including the most toxic of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Intake estimations demonstrate that consumption of even small amounts of locally grown food may expose consumers to dioxin levels that considerably exceed the monthly tolerable dioxin intake levels set by the World Health Organization. Data presented in this study allow a first assessment of the risk associated with the consumption of certain food products in Karakalpakstan and highlight a critical public health situation. PMID:12896851

  13. Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Arguin, Hélène; Sánchez, Marina; Bray, George A; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Peters, John C; Jandacek, Ronald J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the potential of some nutritional approaches to prevent or reduce the body load of organochlorines (OC) in humans. Study 1 compared plasma OC concentrations between vegans and omnivores while study 2 verified if the dietary fat substitute olestra could prevent the increase in OC concentrations that is generally observed in response to a weight-reducing programme. In study 1, nine vegans and fifteen omnivores were recruited and the concentrations of twenty-six OC (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'-DDE), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT), hexachlorobenzene, mirex, aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) nos. 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183 and 187, and aroclor 1260) were determined. In study 2, the concentrations of these twenty-six OC were measured before and after weight loss over 3 months in thirty-seven obese men assigned to one of the following treatments: standard group (33 % fat diet; n 13), fat-reduced group (25 % fat diet; n 14) or fat-substituted group (1/3 of dietary lipids substituted by olestra; n 10). In study 1, plasma concentrations of five OC compounds (aroclor 1260 and PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were significantly lower in vegans compared with omnivores. In study 2, beta-HCH was the only OC which decreased in the fat-substituted group while increasing in the other two groups (P = 0.045). In conclusion, there was a trend toward lesser contamination in vegans than in omnivores, and olestra had a favourable influence on beta-HCH but did not prevent plasma hyperconcentration of the other OC during ongoing weight loss. PMID:20030906

  14. Effects of prenatal exposure to organochlorines on thyroid hormone status in newborns from two remote coastal regions in Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, Renee; Dewailly, Eric Ayotte, Pierre; Muckle, Gina; Laliberte, Claire; Bruneau, Suzanne

    2008-11-15

    Background: Several prospective studies have revealed that prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organochlorine compounds (OCs) affect neurodevelopment during infancy. One of the mechanisms by which PCBs might interfere with neurodevelopment is a deficit in thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations. Objectives: We investigated the potential impact of transplacental exposure to PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on TH concentrations in neonates from two remote coastal populations exposed to OCs through the consumption of seafood products. Methods: Blood samples were collected at birth from the umbilical cord of neonates from Nunavik (n=410) and the Lower North Shore of the St. Lawrence River (n=260) (Quebec, Canada) for thyroid parameters [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T{sub 4} (fT{sub 4}), total T{sub 3} (tT{sub 3}), and thyroxine-binding globuline (TBG)] and contaminants analyses. Results: In multivariate models, umbilical cord plasma concentrations of PCB 153, the predominant PCB congener, were not associated with TH and TSH levels in both populations. Prenatal exposure to HCB was positively associated with fT{sub 4} levels at birth in both populations (Nunavik, {beta}=0.12, p=0.04; St. Lawrence, {beta}=0.19, p<0.01), whereas TBG concentrations were negatively associated with PCB 153 concentrations ({beta}=-0.13, p=0.05) in the St. Lawrence cohort. Conclusion: OCs levels were not associated to a reduction in THs in neonates from our two populations. Essential nutrients derived from seafood such as iodine may have prevented the negative effects of OCs on the thyroid economy during fetal development.

  15. Assessment of persistent organic pollutants accumulation and lipid peroxidation in two reproductive stages of wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis).

    PubMed

    Barni, María Florencia Silva; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in streamwater can sometimes exceed the guidelines values reported for biota and human protection in watersheds with intensive agriculture. Oxidative stress and cytotoxicity are some of the markers of exposure to POPs in fish. Accumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) was assessed in wild silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) from maturation and pre-spawning stages sampled in a typical soybean growing area. Pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and LPO by the method of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Concentrations of POPs were in the following order: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs in all organs and stages. Liver, gills and gonads had the highest OCP concentrations in both sexes and stages with a predominance of endosulfan in all samples. Matured individuals, sampled after endosulfan application period, showed higher endosulfan concentrations than pre-spawning individuals. The predominance of endosulfan sulfate could be due to direct uptake from diet and water column, as well as to the metabolism of the parent compounds in fish. The prevalence of p,p'-DDE in liver would also reflect both the direct uptake and the metabolic transformation of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE by fish. The highest levels of PBDEs and PCBs were found in gills and brain of both stages of growth. The pattern BDE-47>BDE-100 in all samples corresponds to pentaBDE exposure. In the case of PCBs, penta (#101 and 110) and hexa-CB congeners (#153 and 138) dominated in the maturation stages and tri (#18) and tetra-CB (#44 and 52) in pre-spawning stages, suggesting biotransformation or preferential accumulation of heavier congeners during gonadal development. Differences in LPO levels in ovaries were associated with growth dilution and reproductive stage. Differences in LPO levels in gills were related with pesticide application periods. As a whole, endosulfan, a current-use pesticide, constituted the main pollutant found in wild silverside reflecting the intense agriculture activity in the study area. Moreover endosulfan was positively correlated with LPO. PMID:24183323

  16. Concentrations and distribution of manmade organic compounds in the Lake Tahoe Basin, Nevada and California, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, Michael S.; Pennington, Nyle

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency and the Lahontan Regional Water-Quality Control Board, sampled Lake Tahoe, major tributary streams to Lake Tahoe, and several other lakes in the Lake Tahoe Basin for manmade organic compounds during 1997-99. Gasoline components were found in all samples collected from Lake Tahoe during the summer boating season. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) were the commonly detected compounds in these samples. Most samples from tributary streams and lakes with no motorized boating had no detectable concentrations of gasoline components. Motorized boating activity appears to be directly linked in space and time to the occurrence of these gasoline components. Other sources of gasoline components to Lake Tahoe, such as the atmosphere, surface runoff, and subsurface flow, are minor compared to the input by motorized boating. Water sampled from Lake Tahoe during mid-winter, when motorized boating activity is low, had no MTBE and only one sample had any detectable BTEX compounds. Soluble pesticides rarely were detected in water samples from the Lake Tahoe Basin. The only detectable concentrations of these compounds were in samples from Blackwood and Taylor Creeks collected during spring runoff. Concentrations found in these samples were low, in the 1 to 4 nanograms per liter range. Organochlorine compounds were detected in samples collected from semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD's) collected from Lake Tahoe, tributary streams, and Upper Angora Lake. In Lake Tahoe, SPMD samples collected offshore from urbanized areas contained the largest number and highest concentrations of organochlorine compounds. The most commonly detected organochlorine compounds were cis- and trans-chlordane, p, p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene. In tributary streams, SPMD samples collected during spring runoff generally had higher combined concentrations of organochlorine compounds than those collected during baseflow conditions. Upper Angora Lake had the fewest number of organochlorine compounds detected of all lake samples. Dioxins and furans were not detected in SPMD samples from two sites in Lake Tahoe or from two tributary streams. The number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and their combined concentrations generally were higher in samples from Lake Tahoe than those from tributary streams. Areas of high-motorized boating activity at Lake Tahoe had the largest number and highest concentrations of PAH's. PAH compounds were detected in samples from SPMD's in four of six tributary streams during spring runoff, all tributary streams during baseflow conditions, and at all lake sites. The most commonly detected PAH's in tributary streams during spring runoff were phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, and during baseflow conditions were phenanthrene, 1-methylphenanthrene, diethylnaphthalene, and pyrene. Upper Truckee River, which has an urban area in its drainage basin, had the largest number and highest combined concentration of PAH's of all stream samples. Bottom-sediment from Lake Tahoe had detectable concentrations of p-cresol, a phenol, in all but one sample. A sample collected near Chambers Lodge contained phenol at an estimated concentration of 4 micrograms per kilogram (?g/kg). Bottom-sediment samples from tributary streams had no detectable concentrations of organochlorine or PAH compounds. Several compounds were detected in bottom sediment from Upper Angora Lake at high concentrations. These compounds and their concentrations were p, p'-DDD (10 ?g/kg), p, p'-DDE (7.4 ?g/kg), 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene (estimated at 190 ?g/kg), pentachlorophenol (3,000 ?g/kg), and p-cresol (4,400 ?g/kg).

  17. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Rissato, Sandra Regina; Galhiane, Mário Sergio; Fernandes, João Roberto; Gerenutti, Marli; Gomes, Homero Marques; Ribeiro, Renata; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p?-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p?-DDT < p,p?-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds. PMID:26301249

  18. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Kaba, Shajadi Pardo; Florezi, Giovanna Piacenza; Lemos Júnior, Celso Augusto; Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi

    2015-01-01

    Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA) of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints. PMID:26448884

  19. THE FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEONATAL REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF ALLIGATORS EXPOSED IN OVO TO ATRAZINE, 2,4-D, OR ESTRADIOL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wild alligators exposed to persistent organochlorine contaminants, municipal waste compounds, and contemporary-use herbicides exhibit reproductive alterations that are thought to be caused by endocrine disruption. This study tests the hypothesis that these alterations, at least i...

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and pyrethroids in Chinese tea by screening and confirmatory detection using GC-NCI-MS and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pan; Miao, Hong; Du, Juan; Zou, Jian-hong; Zhang, Guo-wen; Zhao, Yun-Feng; Wu, Yong-Ning

    2014-07-23

    One hundred and one tea samples including green tea, dark tea, scented tea, black tea, and oolong tea were screened and confirmed for the contamination of 31 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 19 pyrethroids (PYs) by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). 50 pesticides, 3 deuterium-labeled PYs, and 24 (13)C-labeled OCPs were separated well with the limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.02 to 4.5 ?g/kg for GC-NCI-MS, and the positive samples were verified by GC-MS/MS with LODs of 0.1-5.0 ?g/kg. High detection rates for some PYs, such as 63.4% for bifenthrin (not detected (ND)-3.848 mg/kg), 55.4% for ?-cyhalothrin (ND-3.244 mg/kg), 46.5% for cypermethrin (ND-0.499 mg/kg), and 24.8% for fenvalerate (ND-0.217 mg/kg), were found in the 101 tea samples. Endosulfan, DDTs, HCHs, and heptachlor, the persistent OCPs, were frequently detected with rates of 63.4% (ND-1.802 mg/kg), 56.4% (ND-0.411 mg/kg), 24.8% (ND-0.377 mg/kg), and 15.8% (ND-0.100 mg/kg), respectively. PMID:24964290

  1. Time trends (1983-1999) for organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) from Lakes Michigan, Huron and Superior, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rice, Clifford P.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Hickey, James P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Service Great Lakes Science Center has archived rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) collected from the early 1980s to the present. These fish were collected to provide time- and site-dependent contaminant residue data needed by researchers and managers to fill critical data gaps regarding trends and behavior of persistent organic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In the present study, data are presented for concentrations of several organochlorine (OC) contaminants in the archived smelt, including DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, and chlordanes in Lakes Michigan and Huron (MI, USA) and in Lake Superior (MN, USA). The trends for all the OCs were declining as a first-order decay over the sampled time series (1983/1985-1993/1999) with the exception of toxaphene in Lake Superior and PCBs at the Charlevoix/Little Traverse Bay site in Lake Michigan. Concentration of the emerging contaminant, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), also was traced from its apparent entry into this ecosystem in approximately 1980 until 1999. Time trends for the PBDEs were increasing exponentially at all sites, with concentration-doubling times varying from 1.58 to 2.94 years.

  2. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  3. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  4. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  5. Effect of organochlorine (DDT) exposure on experimental giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Deyab, Fetouh A; El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Shoheib, Zeinab S; El-Fadl, Arwa A Abo

    2008-04-01

    This work studied the effect of sub-chronic DDT exposure on the course of experimental giardiasis and efficacy of its treatment. A total of 160 mice were divided into six groups: G1: 30 mice received DDT and infected with Giardia lamblia. G2: 30 mice received DDT, infected and treated with tinidazole (TNZ). G3: 30 mice infected with Giardia. G4: 30 mice infected and treated with TNZ. G5: 30 mice received DDT only. G6: 10 mice served as normal control. Mice were sacrificed at 7, 14, 21 & 28 days P.I. All groups were subjected to cyst count/2 hours collected stool, trophozoite count in intestine, histopathological examination of small intestinal section and avidin biotin peroxidase technique for local IgA staining. Also, IFN-gamma was measured in sera. DDT caused early shedding of many cysts and increase in trophozoite counts for a long time, decreased intra epithelial lymphocytes, low levels of IgA & IFN-gamma and severe histopathological changes in intestinal sections in G1 as compared to G3. Also, DDT reduced the efficacy of TNZ treatment in G2 as compared to G4. The results strongly support the immunomodulating effect of DDT on experimental giardiasis that might be responsible for persistence of infection, resistance to treatment and re-infection in DDT exposed persons. PMID:19143133

  6. The sediment load and deposition by river discharge and their relation to organochlorine pesticides pollutants in the sediment bottom of Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hoang Trung; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Based on previous results from the "River reef impact studies project that was carried out as a co-operation programme between ZMT (Germany) and NIO (Vietnam) from 2008-2012, the variation of sediment load and associated persistent organic pollutants were investigated in Nha Trang Bay. In northern parts of the bay, both suspended matter load and deposition rates are high during the rainy season (flood events). The total suspended matter (TSM) and particulate nitrogen (PN) concentration show variations both with season (dry and rainy seasons) and increasing distances from the coast: TSM ranged from 2.30 to 19.79 mgL-1; and PN concentration ranged from 0.006 to 0.055 mgL-1. High deposition rates occurred both near the shore and in mid-bay, ranging from 12.8 to 36.1 g m-2 d-1. In the southern section of the bay, sediment deposition was slightly lower, with little seasonal variation. The highest deposition rate was measured at the river estuarine site, amounting to 9.1 g m-2 d-1 (dry season) and 9.0 g m-2 d-1 (rainy season). Further, persistent organic pollutants (POP) concentrations in sediment samples and sediment cores clearly showed the presence of organo-chlorine pesticides (OCP pollutant). High accumulation levels of OCP components were found in almost all sediment samples of Nha Trang Bay. The DDT concentrations showed high levels in sediment located in the estuary at the northern part of the bay (ranged: 20.11µg kg-1 to 5.28µg kg-1), and in the southern part (B1) 3.76µg kg-1. This study provides essential data and information, which are needed to assess the long-term impacts of river input on the degradation of marine ecosystems in the coastal waters of Nha Trang Bay.

  7. Cell Host & Microbe Microbial Persistence

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    as an evolutionary reservoir from which resistant organisms can emerge. As persistence and its consequences comeCell Host & Microbe Review Microbial Persistence and the Road to Drug Resistance Nadia R. Cohen,1 acquiring resistance-conferring genetic changes. Microbial per- sisters can cause recurrent or intractable

  8. Persistence. Snapshot Report, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Today's college student is not your '60s drop-out. In 2010, college students tended to stay enrolled (i.e., persist), even if it was in a different school, according to the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. For a student enrolled in the fall, persistence is defined as either continued enrollment during the next term after the fall or…

  9. Multidimensional persistence in biomolecular data.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-07-30

    Persistent homology has emerged as a popular technique for the topological simplification of big data, including biomolecular data. Multidimensional persistence bears considerable promise to bridge the gap between geometry and topology. However, its practical and robust construction has been a challenge. We introduce two families of multidimensional persistence, namely pseudomultidimensional persistence and multiscale multidimensional persistence. The former is generated via the repeated applications of persistent homology filtration to high-dimensional data, such as results from molecular dynamics or partial differential equations. The latter is constructed via isotropic and anisotropic scales that create new simiplicial complexes and associated topological spaces. The utility, robustness, and efficiency of the proposed topological methods are demonstrated via protein folding, protein flexibility analysis, the topological denoising of cryoelectron microscopy data, and the scale dependence of nanoparticles. Topological transition between partial folded and unfolded proteins has been observed in multidimensional persistence. The separation between noise topological signatures and molecular topological fingerprints is achieved by the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The multiscale multidimensional persistent homology reveals relative local features in Betti-0 invariants and the relatively global characteristics of Betti-1 and Betti-2 invariants. PMID:26032339

  10. Prenatal Organochlorine and Methylmercury Exposure and Memory and Learning in School-Age Children in Communities Near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site, Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Orenstein, Sara T.C.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Altshul, Larisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg) are environmentally persistent with adverse effects on neurodevelopment. However, especially among populations with commonly experienced low levels of exposure, research on neurodevelopmental effects of these toxicants has produced conflicting results. Objectives: We assessed the association of low-level prenatal exposure to these contaminants with memory and learning. Methods: We studied 393 children, born between 1993 and 1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Cord serum PCB, DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), and maternal peripartum hair mercury (Hg) levels were measured to estimate prenatal exposure. Memory and learning were assessed at 8 years of age (range, 7–11 years) using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML), age-standardized to a mean ± SD of 100 ± 15. Associations with each WRAML index—Visual Memory, Verbal Memory, and Learning—were examined with multivariable linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Results: Although cord serum PCB levels were low (sum of four PCBs: mean, 0.3 ng/g serum; range, 0.01–4.4), hair Hg levels were typical of the U.S. fish-eating population (mean, 0.6 ?g/g; range, 0.3–5.1). In multivariable models, each microgram per gram increase in hair Hg was associated with, on average, decrements of –2.8 on Visual Memory (95% CI: –5.0, –0.6, p = 0.01), –2.2 on Learning (95% CI: –4.6, 0.2, p = 0.08), and –1.7 on Verbal Memory (95% CI: –3.9, 0.6, p = 0.14). There were no significant adverse associations of PCBs or DDE with WRAML indices. Conclusions: These results support an adverse relationship between low-level prenatal MeHg exposure and childhood memory and learning, particularly visual memory. Citation: Orenstein ST, Thurston SW, Bellinger DC, Schwartz JD, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Altshul LM, Korrick SA. 2014. Prenatal organochlorine and methylmercury exposure and memory and learning in school-age children in communities near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site, Massachusetts. Environ Health Perspect 122:1253–1259;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307804 PMID:25062363

  11. Management of persistent vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Nyirjesy, Paul

    2014-12-01

    With vaginitis remaining a common condition that leads women to seek care, it is not surprising that some women develop chronic vulvovaginal problems that are difficult to diagnose and treat. With a differential diagnosis that encompasses vulvar disorders and infectious and noninfectious causes of vaginitis, accurate diagnosis is the cornerstone of choosing effective therapy. Evaluation should include a symptom-specific history, careful vulvar and vaginal examination, and office-based tests (vaginal pH, amine test, saline and 10% potassium hydroxide microscopy). Ancillary tests, especially yeast culture with speciation, are frequently crucial to obtaining a correct diagnosis. A heavy but normal physiologic discharge can be determined by excluding other causes. With vulvovaginal candidiasis, differentiating between Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida infection has important treatment ramifications. Most patients with C albicans infections can be successfully treated with maintenance antifungal therapy, usually with fluconazole. Although many non-albicans Candida, particularly Candida glabrata, may at times be innocent bystanders, vaginal boric acid therapy is an effective first choice for many true non-albicans Candida infections. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis, a difficult therapeutic challenge, can often be controlled with maintenance therapy. Multiple options, especially high-dose tinidazole, have been used for metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis. With the aging of the U.S. population, atrophic vaginitis and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis, both associated with hypoestrogenism, are encountered frequently in women with persistent vaginitis. PMID:25415165

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in soils around watersheds of Beijing reservoirs: a case study in Guanting and Miyun Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Guang; Wang, Tieyu; Luo, Wei; Shi, Yajuan; Zhang, Xiang; Jiao, Wentao

    2009-06-01

    A systematic survey of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in soils around reservoirs that supply water to Beijing, China, has been lacking. 104 representative surface soil samples were collected around Guanting Reservoir (GTR) and Miyun Reservoir (MYR) in Beijing watershed to characterize concentrations and sources of organochlorine pesticides, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Compared with other studies of OCPs in soils and with the Chinese environmental quality standard for soil, the concentrations of OCP were relatively lower in soils around the watershed. The results indicated that past agricultural application of OCPs was the major source of OCP residues in the watershed. PMID:19280094

  13. Evaluation of organochlorine pesticides in serum from students in Coimbra, Portugal: 1997-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Lino, Celeste Matos . E-mail: cmlino@ci.uc.pt; Silveira, M. Irene Noronha da

    2006-11-15

    In 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001, in an attempt to evaluate the contamination level of a Portuguese population, organochlorine pesticide residues were evaluated in human serum from students of the University of Coimbra. Concentrations of selected organochlorine pollutants ({alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, HE, HCB, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD) and endosulfan sulfate was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Our objective is to point out the general levels of pesticide contamination and the differences between the four populations; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender or the residence area of the subjects. Endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently identified residues. Endosulfan sulfate present the highest concentrations for all subjects, 42.6 {mu}g/l, with concentrations ranging from undetected to 1295.5 {mu}g/l. Between DDT, isomers, and analogues, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT presented the highest levels, 24.8 and 21.9 {mu}g/l, respectively. Mean total DDT levels were higher than mean total HCH levels. For {sigma}-DDT, the highest levels were found among female gender and urban samples. An opposite situation was found in {sigma}-HCH: males presented higher levels than females. The mean concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues, present in the student populations, showed that it is among the highest levels of contamination, when compared with others from Europe, Asia, and America.

  14. Lead, cadmium and organochlorine pesticide residues in hunted red deer and wild boar from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Mario; Cortinovis, Cristina; Bertoletti, Marco; Alborali, Loris; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Ferretti, Enrica; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess heavy metal cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in tissues of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from nine hunting areas and to evaluate related risk factors for the host animal. Over a period of 2 years, a total of 1055 and 210 masseters, 424 and 201 livers, 642 and 152 kidneys were collected from wild boar and red deer, respectively, and concentrations of Cd, Pb and organochlorine pesticides were determined. Comparing the two species, Cd concentration in the kidney (3.72 mg/kg), liver (0.67 mg/kg) and muscle (0.02 mg/kg) of wild boar was found to be significantly higher than in the organs of red deer (1.02 mg/kg in the kidneys, 0.07 mg/kg in the liver and 0.006 mg/kg in muscle). Mean Pb concentrations were found to be similar in both animals, with 0.39, 0.52 and 2.60 mg/kg detected in the wild boar kidney, liver and muscle, respectively, and 0.24, 0.21 and 2.04 mg/kg in the respective organs of the red deer. No difference in concentrations were found based on age class, location of tissue sample or contaminant in the case of wild boar. By contrast, a significantly lower Cd concentration was found in the kidney of the young red deer. The search for organochlorine pesticides in both red deer and wild boar produced negative results with values below the limits of detection. Due to the high levels of renal Cd and muscle Pb detected in wild boar and red deer, further research needs to be carried out in an effort to identify the source of contamination and preserve the health of animals and humans. PMID:26365428

  15. A survey of organochlorine pesticide residues in cheese samples from three Mexican regions.

    PubMed

    Albert, L A; Alpuche, L; Bárcenas, C; Rendón, J

    1990-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in cheese samples from three Mexican regions. All samples were found to be contaminated by these residues: p,p'-DDE was present in 100% of the samples. Other pesticides found with high frequencies were HCB, three of the BHC isomers, as well as heptachlor and its epoxide. Also found, although less frequently, were residues of p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin. Samples from the region known as Comarca Lagunera had the highest number of pesticides per sample. The highest concentrations of residues were found in cheese samples from the Soconusco and the Comarca Lagunera regions. PMID:15092270

  16. Organochlorines and heavy metals in 17-year cicadas pose no apparent dietary threat to birds.

    PubMed

    Clark, D R

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in 17-year cicadas from Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland, were well below levels known to be harmful to birds. Cicadas contained concentrations of metals similar to or less than other local invertebrates except they contained more copper than did earthworms. Copper and lead concentrations in cicadas from one site may have been elevated by sewage plant effluent deposited during river floodings. Cicadas from the median of a major highway did not contain more lead than cicadas from non-traffic sites. PMID:24234029

  17. Nationwide residues of organochlorine pesticides in wings of mallards and black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, R.G.

    1969-01-01

    Nationwide monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in wings of more than 24,000 mallards and black ducks bagged during the1965 and 1966 hunting seasons showed DDE to be the predominant residue, followed in order by DDT, DDD, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Residues were generally highest in wings from the Atlantic and Pacific Flyways, and lowest in the Central Flyway. DDE was reported for every State and was notably high in wings from New Jersey, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Alabama, California, and Utah. Dieldrin residues were prevalent in wings from Arkansas, Texas, Utah, California, and several Stales in the Atlantic Flyway.

  18. Organochlorines and heavy metals in 17-year cicadas pose no apparent dietary threat to birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in 17-year cicadas from Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland, were well below levels known to be harmful to birds. Cicadas contained concentrations of metals similar to or less than other local invertebrates except they contained more copper than did earthworms. Copper and lead concentrations in cicadas from one site may have been elevated by sewage plant effluent deposited during river floodings. Cicadas from the median of a major highway did not contain more lead than cicadas from non-traffic sites.

  19. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  20. Organochlorines, mercury, and selenium in wintering shorebirds from Washington and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Myers, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Dunlins Caldris alpina , and black-bellied plovers, Pluvialis squatarola , were collected in Washington and California during the winter of 1984-85; long-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus scolopaceus , were collected in California. Pooled breast muscles were analyzed for organochlorines and pooled livers for mercury and selenium. DDE was detected in all eight dunlin, three of five dowitcher, and two of nine plover muscle pools. Estimated DDE concentrations in dunlin carcasses at two sites in California were greater than 3 ppm wet wt, a dietary concentration associated with eggshell thinning and decreased reproductive success in raptors. Detectable concentrations of mercury and selenium were found in all liver pools.

  1. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  2. Nickel Compounds

    Cancer.gov

    Nickel is a silvery-white metallic element found in the earth’s crust. It can be combined with other elements to form nickel compounds. Because of its unique properties, nickel has many industrial uses. Most nickel is used in metal alloys because it imparts useful properties, such as corrosion resistance, heat resistance, hardness, and strength.

  3. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  4. LEVELS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE, AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN CTEPP NORTH CAROLINA MULTIMEDIA SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    CTEPP (Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants) is a pilot study of the possible exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly found in their everyday environments. Sampling was p...

  5. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom sediment by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, William T.; Connor, Brooke F.; Furlong, Edward T.; Vaught, Deborah G.; Merten, Leslie M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of 30 individual organochlorine pesticides, total toxaphene, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediment is described. The method isolates the pesticides and PCBs by solvent extraction with dichlorobenzene, removes inorganic sulfur, large naturally occurring molecules, and other unwanted interferences by gel permeation chromatography, and further cleans up and class fractionates the extract using adsorption chromatography. The com- pounds then are instrumentally determined using dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Reporting limits range from 1 to 5 micrograms per kilogram for 30 individual pesticides, 50 micrograms per kilogram for total PCBs, and 200 micrograms per kilogram for total toxaphene. The method also is designed to allow the simultaneous isolation of 79 other semivolatile organic compounds from the sediment, which are separately quantified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The method was developed in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program.

  6. Methodologies for Determining Persistence of Commissioning Benefits 

    E-print Network

    Claridge, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the persistence of commissioning benefits to date have used a variety of methods to evaluate this persistence. This paper proposes a consistent framework for describing and evaluating the persistence of commissioning benefits. It begins...

  7. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, physically or socially. The ways in which sound operates are a result of acoustic properties, and the ways by which it is considered to be music are a result of social constructions. Therefore, music is always political, regardless of its content: the way it is performed and composed; the choice of instrumentation, notation, tuning; the medium of its distribution; its inherent hierarchy and power dynamics, and more. My compositional praxis makes me less interested in defining a relationship between music and politics than I am in erasing---or at least blurring---the borders between them. In this paper I discuss the aesthetics of resonance and echo in their metaphorical, physical, social, and musical manifestations. Also discussed is a political aesthetic of resonance, manifested through protest chants. I transcribe and analyze common protest chants from around the world, categorizing and unifying them as universal crowd-mobilizing rhythms. These ideas are explored musically in three pieces. Sumud: Rhetoric of Resistance in Three Movements, for two pianos and two percussion players, is a musical interpretation of the political/social concept of sumud, an Arabic word that literally means "steadfastness" and represents Palestinian non-violent resistance. The piece is based on common protest rhythms and uses the acoustic properties inherent to the instruments. The second piece, Three Piano Studies, extends some of the musical ideas and techniques used in Sumud, and explores the acoustic properties and resonance of the piano. The final set of pieces is part of my Critical Mess Music Project. These are site-specific musical works that attempt to blur the boundaries between audience, performers and composer, in part by including people without traditional musical training in the process of music making. These pieces use the natural structure and resonance of an environment, in this case, locations on the UCSC campus, and offer an active form of musical consumption and experience. The three pieces draw lines connecting different aspects of persistence, resistance, and resonance.

  8. Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes in pinnipeds from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cipro, Caio V Z; Bustamante, Paco; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, fat, skin, liver and muscle samples from Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell seal, n=2 individuals), Lobodon carcinophagus (crabeater seal, n=2), Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic fur seal, n=3) and Mirounga leonina (southern elephant seal, n=1) were collected from King George Island, Antarctica, and analysed for POPs (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and PBDEs) and stable isotopes (?¹³C and ?¹?N in all tissues but fat). PBDEs could be found in only one sample (L. weddellii fat). Generally, PCBs (from 74 to 523 ng g?¹ lw), DDTs (from 14 to 168 ng g?¹ lw) and chlordanes (from 9 to 78 ng g?¹ lw) were the prevailing compounds. Results showed a clear stratification in accordance with ecological data. Nonetheless, stable isotope analyses provide a deeper insight into fluctuations due to migrations and nutritional stress. Correlation between ?(15)N and pollutants suggests, to some degree, a considerable ability to metabolize and/or excrete the majority of them. PMID:23154138

  9. Immunomodulation by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widely distnbuted in the environment, are resistant to degradation, and increase in concentration (biomagnify) in the food chain. Concentrations in apical predators may be tens to hundreds of times greater than concentrations in their pref...

  10. DCC Briefing Paper: Persistent Identifiers 

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Joy

    The persistent identification of digital resources can play a vital role in enabling their accessibility and re-usability over time. However, progress in defining the nature and functional requirements for identifier systems ...

  11. Dietary versus maternal sources of organochlorines in top predator seabird chicks: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza K H; Furness, Robert W; Borgå, Katrine; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Bustnes, Jan Ove

    2013-06-01

    We examined the relative importance of dietary sources and maternal transfer on organochlorine concentrations (?OCs) in Great skua chicks (Stercorarius skua) in Shetland by food supplementing parents with known wintering area. We predicted that experimental chicks (whose parents were supplemented) should have (i) higher growth rates and, (ii) lower ?OCs due to growth dilution effect and/or due to being fed with less contaminated food compared to control chicks. We also predicted a significant influence of maternal wintering area on chicks' ?OCs. Plasma ?OCs of adults, assessed prior to the manipulation, significantly differed between wintering areas of birds. Chicks were weighed every 5 days and plasma ?OCs were assessed at 20 days old. Based on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis, the supplementary food contributed on average 20% of the dietary protein of the chicks. Although experimental chicks experienced better developmental conditions, supplementary food did not alleviate their organochlorine burden. Nevertheless, chicks whose mothers wintered in Europe showed ?OCs 50% higher than chicks whose mothers wintered in Africa. Moreover, based on the positive relationship between ?OCs of chicks and females, the contaminant load of Great skua chicks in Shetland appears to be more influenced by maternal transfer than by trophic transfer. PMID:23672486

  12. Nationwide residues of organochlorines in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1972-73

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Heath, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored during the 1972-73 hunting season. DDE, DDT, DDD, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were present in all samples. Mallard wings from Alabama contained the highest mean levels of DDE, DDT, DDD, dieldrin, and PCB's. Mallards and black ducks from the Atlantic Flyway and mallards from the Pacific Flyway contained significantly lower DDE residues than in 1969-70. Black ducks from the Atlantic Flyway contained significantly less dieldrin than in 1969-70, and mallards in the Central and Pacific Flyways contained significantly lower levels of PCB's. As in 1969-70, DDE residues were lowest in the Central Flyway and highest in the Atlantic Flyway. The average PCB level remained unchanged in the Atlantic Flyway but was higher in the Mississippi Flyway than in 1969-70, probably because of the unusually high levels in Alabama samples. All organochlorine residues in black ducks from the Atlantic Flyway significantly correlated. DDE concentrations in mallards from the Atlantic Flyway significantly correlated with those of DDT, DDD, and PCB's.

  13. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in wild mink and river otters from Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Gregory, S.V.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) collected during the 1978-1979 trapping season in Oregon were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues. PCB residues were most frequently encountered in both species from the Lower Columbia River. PCB residues in 6 of 9 Columbia River mink livers were as high as those reported in livers of experimental female mink that experienced total reproductive failure after eating a PCB-contaminated diet of 0.64 ppm for 160 days. Also, some fish from the Columbia River contained PCBs (range 0.24-2.8 ppm) equivalent to or higher than the dietary dosage given in the same laboratory study. River otter livers from the same area contained even higher levels of PCBs [(M) geometric mean 9.3 ppm, (F) geometric mean 3.5 ppm], but the relative sensitivity of the 2 species to these contaminants is unknown. The river otter harvest along the Lower Columbia River has declined in the last 3 decades, whereas the statewide harvest trend is upward. PCBs were generally low or not detected in the remainder of the Oregon locations studied. Lower Columbia River collections also showed the highest organochlorine pesticides (mainly DDE) in both species. We are less concerned about the DDE residues reported, particularly in mink, because mink are less sensitive to DDT than to PCBs. Population declines of both mink and otters resulting from PCB contamination may have occurred, and may still be occurring, along the Lower Columbia River.

  14. Organochlorines, mercury, and selenium in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Hines, Randy K.; Stewart, Paul M.; Melancon, Mark J.; Henshel, Diane S.; Spearks, Daniel W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, 20 great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs (one per nest) were collected from a colony at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana (INDU). The eggs were artificially incubated until pipping and were then analyzed for organochlorines, mercury, and selenium. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity. Brains were measured for asymmetry. Egg-laying began in early April and the mean clutch size was 4.2 eggs per clutch. Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean p,p'-DDE = 1.6 I?g/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 4.9 I?g/g); however, one egg had elevated concentrations of p,p'-DDE (13 I?g/g) and PCBs (56 I?g/g). EROD activity in the embryos analyzed from INDU was not elevated. The frequency (11%) of brain asymmetry was low. Eggshells averaged 3.4% thinner than eggshells collected prior to the use of DDT. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.9 I?g/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. Selenium (4.0 I?g/g dry weight) concentrations in eggs were above background levels, but below a concentration threshold associated with reproductive impairment.

  15. Organochlorines, mercury, and selenium in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hines, R.K.; Stewart, P.M.; Melancon, M.J.; Henshel, D.S.; Sparks, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, 20 great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs (one per nest) were collected from a colony at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana (INDU). The eggs were artificially incubated until pipping and were then analyzed for organochlorines, mercury and selenium. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity. Brains were measured for asymmetry. Egg-laying began in early April and the mean clutch size was 4.2 eggs per clutch. Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean p,p'DDE = 1.6 ?g/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 4.9 ?g/g); however, one egg had elevated concentrations of p,p'DDE (13 ?g/g) and PCBs (56 ?g/g). EROD activity in the embryos analyzed from INDU was not elevated. The frequency (11%) of brain asymmetry was low. Eggshells on the average were 3.4% thinner than eggshells collected prior to the use of DDT. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.9 ?g/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. Selenium (4.0 ?g/g dry weight) concentrations in eggs were above background levels, but below a concentration threshold associated with reproductive impairment.

  16. Object-oriented persistent homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a quantitative model which correlates the topological persistence of fullerene central cavity with the total curvature energy of the fullerene structure, the proposed method is used for the prediction of fullerene isomer stability. The efficiency and robustness of the present method are verified by more than 500 fullerene molecules. It is shown that the proposed persistent homology based quantitative model offers good predictions of total curvature energies for ten types of fullerene isomers. The present work offers the first example to design object-oriented persistent homology to enhance or preserve desirable features in the original data during the filtration process and then automatically detect or extract the corresponding topological traits from the data.

  17. Persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Kong, Deguo; Hendriks, Hester S; de Wit, Cynthia A; Cousins, Ian T; Westerink, Remco H S; Leonards, Pim E G; Kraak, Michiel H S; Admiraal, Wim; de Voogt, Pim; Parsons, John R

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are synthetic organic materials having a high carbon and hydrogen content, which make them readily combustible. Polymers have many indoor uses and their flammability makes them a fire hazard. Therefore, flame retardants (FRs) are incorporated into these materials as a safety measure. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which accounted for about 21% of the total world market of FRs, have several unintended negative effects on the environment and human health. Hence, there is growing interest in finding appropriate alternative halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Many of these HFFRs are marketed already, although their environ- mental behavior and toxicological properties are often only known to a limited extent, and their potential impact on the environment cannot yet be properly assessed. Therefore, we undertook this review to make an inventory of the available data that exists (up to September 2011) on the physical-chemical properties, pro- duction volumes, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) of a selection of HFFRs that are potential replacements for BFRs in polymers. Large data gaps were identified for the physical-chemical and the PBT properties of the reviewed HFFRs. Because these HFFRs are currently on the market, there is an urgent need to fill these data gaps. Enhanced transparency of methodology and data are needed to reevaluate certain test results that appear contradictory, and, if this does not provide new insights, further research should be performed. TPP has been studied quite extensively and it is clearly persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. So far, RDP and BDP have demonstrated low to high ecotoxicity and persistence. The compounds ATH and ZB exerted high toxicity to some species and ALPI appeared to be persistent and has low to moderate reported ecotoxicity. DOPO and MPP may be persistent, but this view is based merely on one or two studies, clearly indicating a lack of information. Many degradation studies have been performed on PER and show low persistence, with a few exceptions. Additionally, there is too l ittle information on the bioaccumulation potential of PER. APP mostly has low PBT properties; however, moderate ecotoxicity was reported in two studies. Mg(OH)?, ZHS, and ZS do not show such remarkably high bioaccumulation or toxicity, but large data gaps exist for these compounds also. Nevertheless, we consider the latter compounds to be the most promising among alternative HFFRs. To assess whether the presently reviewed HFFRs are truly suitable alternatives, each compound should be examined individually by comparing its PBT values with those of the relevant halogenated flame retardant. Until more data are available, it remains impossible to accurately evaluate the risk of each of these compounds, including the ones that are already extensively marketed. PMID:22990944

  18. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  19. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  20. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  1. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research. PMID:24369135

  2. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research. PMID:24369135

  3. Application of poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber sol-gel coated onto NiTi alloy electrodeposited with zirconium oxide for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in herbal infusions.

    PubMed

    Budziak, Dilma; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    A PDMS fiber sol-gel coated onto an NiTi alloy previously electrodeposited with zirconium oxide (named NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS) was applied to the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), and anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.). Salting-out effect, extraction time, and extraction temperature were optimized firstly by means of a full-factorial design and then using a Doehlert matrix. No salt addition and 50 min of extraction at 70 degrees C were the optimum conditions. Satisfactory LODs in the range of 2-17 ng/L, as well as good correlation coefficients (at least 0.9981) in the linear range studied, were obtained. Calibration was successfully applied using an infusion of M. recutita L. and recovery tests were performed to ensure the accuracy of the method, with values in the range of 77-120%. Comparison of the NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS with commercially available PDMS fibers showed that the proposed fiber has an extraction efficiency comparable to that of PDMS 30 microm for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating its potential applicability. PMID:18666186

  4. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ennaceur, S. Gandoura, N.; Driss, M.R.

    2008-09-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (p<0.05). With regard to PCBs, we observed the predominance of mid-chlorinated congeners due to the presence of PCBs with high K{sub ow} such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines.

  5. Organo-Chlorinated Thin Films Deposited by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition for Adhesion Enhancement between Rubber and Zinc-Plated Steel Monofilaments.

    PubMed

    Vandenabeele, Cédric; Bulou, Simon; Maurau, Rémy; Siffer, Frederic; Belmonte, Thierry; Choquet, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    A continuous-flow plasma process working at atmospheric pressure is developed to enhance the adhesion between a rubber compound and a zinc-plated steel monofilament, with the long-term objective to find a potential alternative to the electrolytic brass plating process, which is currently used in tire industry. For this purpose, a highly efficient tubular dielectric barrier discharge reactor is built to allow the continuous treatment of "endless" cylindrical substrates. The best treatment conditions found regarding adhesion are Ar/O2 plasma pretreatment, followed by the deposition from dichloromethane of a 75 nm-thick organo-chlorinated plasma polymerized thin film. Ar/O2 pretreatment allows the removal of organic residues, coming from drawing lubricants, and induces external growth of zinc oxide. The plasma layer has to be preferably deposited at low power to conserve sufficient hydrocarbon moieties. Surface analyses reveal the complex chemical mechanism behind the establishment of strong adhesion levels, more than five times higher after the plasma treatment. During the vulcanization step, superficial ZnO reacts with the chlorinated species of the thin film and is converted into porous and granular bump-shaped ZnwOxHyClz nanostructures. Together, rubber additives diffuse through the plasma layer and lead to the formation of zinc sulfide on the substrate surface. Hence, two distinct interfaces, rubber/thin film and thin film/substrate, are established. On the basis of these observations, hypotheses explaining the high bonding strength results are formulated. PMID:26069994

  6. Preconcentration of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop after SPE with multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rakh, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    SPE joined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) as a novel technique combined with GC with electron-capture detection has been developed as a preconcentration technique for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water samples. Aqueous samples were loaded onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sorbent. After the elution of the desired compounds from the sorbent by using acetone, the DLLME-SFO technique was performed on the obtained solution. Variables affecting the performance of both steps such as sample solution flow rate, breakthrough volume, type and volume of the elution, type and volume of extraction solvent and salt addition were studied and optimized. The new method provided an ultra enrichment factor (8280-28221) for nine OCPs. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.5-1000 ng/L, and the LODs ranged from 0.1-0.39 ng/L. The RSD, for 0.01 ?g/L of OCPs, was in the range of 1.39-13.50% (n = 7). The recoveries of method in water samples were 70-113%. PMID:24288158

  7. Legacy and contemporary persistent organic pollutants in North Pacific albatross.

    PubMed

    Harwani, Suhash; Henry, Robert W; Rhee, Alexandra; Kappes, Michelle A; Croll, Donald A; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Here we report the first measurements of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE 47, 99, and 153) alongside 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of albatross from breeding colonies distributed across a large spatial east-west gradient in the North Pacific Ocean. North Pacific albatross are wide-ranging, top-level consumers that forage in pelagic regions of the North Pacific Ocean, making them an ideal sentinel species for detection and distribution of marine contaminants. Our work on contaminant burdens in albatross tissue provides information on transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the remote North Pacific and serves as a proxy for regional environmental quality. We sampled black-footed (Phoebastria nigripes; n?=?20) and Laysan albatross (P. immutabilis; n?=?19) nesting on Tern Island, Hawaii, USA, and Laysan albatross (n?=?16) nesting on Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Our results indicate that North Pacific albatross are highly exposed to both PCBs and OCPs, with levels ranging from 8.8 to 86.9?ng/ml wet weight and 7.4 to 162.3?ng/ml wet weight, respectively. A strong significant gradient exists between Laysan albatross breeding in the Eastern Pacific, having approximately 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold higher levels for PCBs and OCPs, respectively, compared to those from the Central Pacific. Interspecies levels of contaminants within the same breeding site also showed high variation, with Tern black-footed albatross having approximately threefold higher levels of both PCBs and OCPs than Tern Laysan albatross. Surprisingly, while PBDEs are known to travel long distances and bioaccumulate in wildlife of high trophic status, we detected these three PBDE congeners only at trace levels ranging from not detectable (ND) to 0.74 ng/ml wet weight in these albatross. PMID:21898564

  8. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  9. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  10. Levels of persistent organic pollutant and their predictors among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p’-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continues to be of concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and high persistence. Current toxicant body burden is still a primary concern within the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation since other studies conducted within the community have shown relationships between these POPs and endocrine disruption. In this article we describe the levels of these toxicants in young adults of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation between the ages of 17 and 21 years of age (mean age 18.1 years), and investigate potential influences of their current body-burden. Seventeen congeners in fourteen chromatographic peaks were detected in 50% or more of the individuals sampled (geometric mean [GM] of the sum of these congeners = 0.43 ppb). Congeners 118, 138[+163+164] and 153 had the highest rate of detection (? 98%) within the Akwesasne youth. Of the other organochlorines, HCB (GM= 0.04 ppb) and p,p’-DDE (GM=0.38 ppb) were found in 100% and 99% of the sample respectively. Significantly higher levels of PCBs were found among individuals who were breastfed as infants, were first born, or had consumed local fish within the past year. When compared to levels of p,p’-DDE, HCB, and 13 specific congeners reported by the CDC for youth between the ages of 12 and 19 years, the geometric means of several congeners (CBs 99, 105, 110, and 118) among the Akwesasne were higher than the reported CDC 90th percentile. In contrast, levels of CB 28 in Akwesasne youth were ?50% or less than those of the CDC cohort. p,p’-DDE and HCB levels were generally higher in the CDC cohort (GM of 0.516 and 0.065 ppb, respectively for Mohawks vs. 2.51 and 0.123, respectively, for CDC). Concentrations of non-persistent PCBs among this sample of Akwesasne young adults were higher than those reported by the CDC suggesting continued exposure, but lower than those associated with severe contamination. Additional research into the concentration trends of individual PCB congeners within Akwesasne youth and young adults is warranted to further improve our insight into the determinants and influences of organochlorine concentrations within members of the Akwesasne community. PMID:21458024

  11. Prediagnostic Serum Organochlorine Concentrations and Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case–Control Study in the Norwegian Janus Serum Bank Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Langseth, Hilde; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Vermeulen, Roel; Portengen, Lützen; Wacholder, Sholom; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Blair, Aaron; Hayes, Richard B.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Engel, Lawrence S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Organochlorine (OC) insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to have estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic properties; as a result, the impact of exposure to these compounds and risk of hormonal cancers, such as prostate cancer, is a concern. Objectives We conducted a nested case–control study, using prospectively collected serum, to estimate associations between OC exposures and metastatic prostate cancer in a population-based cohort from Norway. Methods Sera from 150 cases and 314 controls matched on date of blood draw, age at blood draw, and region was used to determine concentrations of 11 OC pesticide metabolites and 34 PCB congeners. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for quartiles of lipid-corrected metabolite levels were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results Metastatic prostate cancer was two times as likely among men with serum concentrations of oxychlordane in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.03; p-trend 0.05). Elevated but nonsignificant ORs were estimated for the highest versus lowest quartile of heptachlor epoxide, HCB, and mirex, although these exposures were correlated with oxychlordane. Findings for specific PCB congeners showed a significant inverse association between natural log–transformed lipid-adjusted PCB 44 and metastatic prostate cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.97; p-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of estimating associations with specific OC chemicals and suggests a possible role of OC insecticides and PCBs in the etiology of metastatic prostate cancer. Citation Koutros S, Langseth H, Grimsrud TK, Barr DB, Vermeulen R, Portengen L, Wacholder S, Beane Freeman LE, Blair A, Hayes RB, Rothman N, Engel LS. 2015. Prediagnostic serum organochlorine concentrations and metastatic prostate cancer: a nested case–control study in the Norwegian Janus Serum Bank cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:867–872; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408245 PMID:25734605

  12. Physiological and transcriptional characterization of persistent and nonpersistent Listeria monocytogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Leonard, Nola; Jordan, Kieran

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to characterize physiological differences between persistent and presumed nonpersistent Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated at processing facilities and to investigate the molecular basis for this by transcriptomic sequencing. Full metabolic profiles of two strains, one persistent and one nonpersistent, were initially screened using Biolog's Phenotype MicroArray (PM) technology. Based on these results, in which major differences from selected antimicrobial agents were detected, another persistent strain and two nonpersistent strains were characterized using two antimicrobial PMs. Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) was shown to be higher among persistent strains. Growth of persistent and nonpersistent strains in various concentrations of the QACs benzethonium chloride (BZT) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) was determined. Transcriptomic sequencing of a persistent and a presumed nonpersistent strain was performed to compare gene expression among these strains in the presence and absence of BZT. Two strains, designated "frequent persisters" because they were the most frequently isolated at the processing facility, showed overall higher resistance to QACs. Transcriptome analysis showed that BZT induced a complex peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis response, which may play a key role in BZT resistance. Comparison of persistent and nonpersistent strains indicated that transcription of many genes was upregulated among persistent strains. This included three gene operons: pdu, cob-cbi, and eut. These genes may play a role in the persistence of L. monocytogenes outside the human host. PMID:21764947

  13. A Whole-Cell-Based High-Throughput Screening Method to Identify Molecules Targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Persister Cells.

    PubMed

    Liebens, Veerle; Defraine, Valerie; Fauvart, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Despite its clinical relevance and the fact that the phenomenon of persistence was discovered in the 1940s, little is known about the mechanisms behind persister cell formation. Research in this field has mainly focused on the model organism Escherichia coli and few genetic determinants of persistence have been described in other bacterial species, impairing the development of target-based strategies to combat these antibiotic-tolerant cells. In this chapter we describe a top-down large-scale screening method capable of specifically identifying small molecule compounds that, in combination with conventional antibiotics, significantly reduce the persister fraction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The method is readily adaptable for other species. Further characterization and analysis of the mode of action of the identified compounds can provide additional insight into the mechanisms behind persister formation and can guide the development of future anti-persister therapies. PMID:26468104

  14. Multimatrix measurement of persistent organic pollutants in Mar Chiquita, a continental saline shallow lake.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, M L; Miglioranza, K S B; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Wunderlin, D A; Bistoni, M A

    2014-08-15

    RAMSAR sites are determined by specific characteristics of the environment in terms of ecological productivity as well services for human development, but they are also one of the most threatened ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamic of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in different biotic and abiotic matrixes of the RAMSAR site (wetlands with international importance), Mar Chiquita Lake. Sampling was performed according to land use (agricultural, urban, and industrial) at two stations: Laguna del Plata and Campo Mare. POPs were analyzed in superficial water (Sw), suspended particulate material (SPM), bottom sediment (Bs) and fish tissues (Odontesthes bonariensis). Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed by GC-ECD. HCHs, Endosulfans, DDTs, PCBs and PBDEs were found in all matrixes at both stations. The high persistence and transport processes are responsible for the occurrence of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Bs, SPM and fish tissues, even many years after their prohibition. PBDEs showed lower levels according to the scarcity of punctual sources in the area. Endosulfan showed variable amounts in agreement with application periods since this pesticide was used until a few years ago in this area. Finally, PCB levels overpassed the acceptable daily intake for human consumption being a risk for human health Thus, the present report confirms the occurrence of POPs in Mar Chiquita lake, alerting on the contribution of agricultural and urban pollutants in a RAMSAR site. Current results also raise concerns on biomagnification processes through the food web. PMID:24840282

  15. Temporal trends (1986-2004) of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in tawny owl eggs from northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bangjord, Georg; Polder, Anuschka; Skaare, Janneche U

    2007-12-15

    Eggs (n = 139) from tawny owls (Strix aluco) were collected annually (1986-2004) in Central Norway and analyzed for organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs). p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the dominating contaminants (mean/median = 2.7/1.7 and 2.9/1.6 microg/g, lipid weight [l.w.], respectively), comprising 90% of the contaminant burden. Other OCs (hexachlorobenzene [HCB], hexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane) comprised less than 4% of the contaminant burden. Concentrations of OCs dropped 74-96% during the study period; p,p'-DDE, HCB, beta-HCH, oxychlordane, and PCBs decreased rapidly in the early (1986-1989) study period (23-34% per year; mean = 27.4%), but leveled off to less than 7% (mean = 3.6%) in the late period (2001-2004). The decrease in p,p'-DDE concentrations leveled off in the early 1990s, possibly due to an early ban on the use of DDT. alpha-HCH showed the strongest decline (always > 20% per year), while trans-nonachlor and gamma-HCH dropped at a constant rate of 9% per year. Toxaphene made up less than 0.6% of the measured contaminants (mean/median = 39/13 ng/ g, l.w.), and the concentrations of these compounds were lower in the late period compared to the early period, but not significant. BFRs, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sigmaPBDE: mean/median = 182/ 85 ng/g, l.w.) made up about 3% of the measured contaminants. sigmaPBDE declined significantly over the study period (62%). Most PBDE congeners declined: significantly for BDE-47 (80% reduction) and BDE-153 (50% reduction), but the patterns differed; i.e., congeners associated with PentaBDE mixtures showed a rapid annual decline early (22-26%) and a slower decline late in the study period (6-12%), while the PBDEs associated with OctaBDE declined at a constant rate (1-4%). This may result from a larger reduction in the use of PentaBDE compared to other PBDE products in Europe. PMID:18200884

  16. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  19. APPLICATION OF THE HALL DETECTOR AND A SURFACE-BONDED CARBOWAX 20M COLUMN TO ANALYSIS OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN HUMAN BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of a gas chromatographic electrolytic conductivity detector system (Hall detector) was conducted for the determination and confirmation of selected organochlorine pesticides at sub-ppm concentration levels in human biological extracts. The sample extracts were also ...

  20. Dysregulation of Cytokine Response in Canadian First Nations Communities: Is There an Association with Persistent Organic Pollutant Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Imbeault, Pascal; Findlay, C. Scott; Robidoux, Michael A.; Haman, François; Blais, Jules M.; Tremblay, Angelo; Springthorpe, Susan; Pal, Shinjini; Seabert, Tim; Krümmel, Eva M.; Maal-Bared, Rasha; Tetro, Jason A.; Pandey, Sunita; Sattar, Syed A.; Filion, Lionel G.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies report that some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) trigger the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Whether POP exposure is associated with a dysregulation of cytokine response remains to be investigated in humans. We studied the strength of association between plasma POP levels and circulating cytokines as immune activation markers. Plasma levels of fourteen POPs and thirteen cytokines were measured in 39 Caucasians from a comparator sample in Québec City (Canada) and 72 First Nations individuals from two northern communities of Ontario (Canada). Caucasians showed significantly higher levels of organochlorine insecticides (?-HCH, p,p?-DDE and HCB) compared to First Nations. Conversely, First Nations showed higher levels of Mirex, Aroclor 1260, PCB 153, PCB 170, PCB 180 and PCB 187 compared to Caucasians. While there was no difference in cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-22 between groups, First Nations had significantly greater average levels of IFN?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-5, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, TNF? and TNF? levels compared to Caucasians. Among candidate predictor variables (age, body mass index, insulin resistance and POP levels), high levels of PCBs were the only predictor accounting for a small but significant effect of observed variance (?7%) in cytokine levels. Overall, a weak but significant association is detected between persistent organochlorine pollutant exposure and elevated cytokine levels. This finding augments the already existing information that environmental pollution is related to inflammation, a common feature of several metabolic disorders that are known to be especially prevalent in Canada's remote First Nations communities. PMID:22768323

  1. Non-Persisting Student Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the characteristics and opinions of the non-persisting students at Moraine Valley Community College. A random sample of 500 non-persisting students was selected, with equal numbers of full-time and part-time ex-students. Separate questionnaires were used for non-persisting full-time and non-persisting part-time…

  2. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  3. Organochlorines in antarctic and arctic avian top predators: a comparison between the South Polar Skua and two species of northern hemisphere gulls.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Henden, John A; Varpe, Oystein; Janssen, Kirstin; Skaare, Janneche U

    2006-04-15

    Different organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in the blood of breeding south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) at Svarthamaren, Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica) and compared to those in two species of northern hemisphere gulls: the Arctic glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and the subarctic great black-backed gull (Larus marinus). The skuas had 8% and 29% of the SigmaOC levels (45 ng/g, wet weight) of glaucous gulls (591 ng/g) and great black-backed gulls (158 ng/g), respectively. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were very low in skuas compared to northern gulls, but the mean hexachlorobenzene (HCB) level was 1.7 times higher than in great black-backed gulls and one-third of the glaucous gull level. Mirex levels in skuas were among the highest reported in birds, the mean level being 3 and 26 times higher than those in glaucous gull and great black-backed gulls, respectively. In skuas, the mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by about 30% during a 2-week period, and mirex increased by nearly 60%. In glacuous gulls, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by 10-20%. For HCB, mirex, and oxychlordane, only a relatively small proportion of the increase in skuas could be explained by changes in lipid pools and the levels at first sampling, compared to glaucous gulls. Thus, skuas were probably accumulating these compounds when present in Antarctica. p,p'-DDE and PCB levels, in contrast, seemed much more stable in the skuas. Relatively high levels of mirex and HCB in south polar skuas are concerning with regard to potential adverse effects. PMID:16683630

  4. Landfill mining from a deposit of the chlorine/organochlorine industry as source of dioxin contamination of animal feed and assessment of the responsible processes.

    PubMed

    Torres, João Paulo Machado; Leite, Claudio; Krauss, Thomas; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    In 1997, the Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin (PCDD)/Polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in dairy products in Germany and other European countries increased. The PCDD/PCDF source was contaminated lime used in Brazilian citrus pulp pellets. The contaminated lime was mined from an industrial dump site. However, the detailed origin of the PCDD/PCDFs in the lime was not revealed. This paper investigates the contamination origin and describes the link between lime milk from the dumpsite of a chlorine/organochlorine industry and the contaminated lime. The contaminated lime stem from mining at the corporate landfill of Solvay Indupa in Sao Paulo. The landfill was used for 40 years for deposition of production residues and closed in 1996. The factory operated/operates at least two processes with potentially high PCDD/PCDFs releases namely the oxychlorination process for production of ethylene dichloride (EDC) and the chlor-alkali process. The main landfilled waste was lime milk (1.4 million tons) from the vinyl chloride monomer production (via the acetylene process) along with residues from other processes. The PCDD/PCDF fingerprint revealed that most samples from the chemical landfill showed an EDC PCDD/PCDF pattern with a characteristic octachlorodibenzofuran dominance. The PCDD/PCDF pattern of a Rio Grande sediment samples downstream the facility showed a chlor-alkali pattern with a minor impact of the EDC pattern. The case highlights that PCDD/PCDF- and persistent organic pollutants-contaminated sites need to be identified in a comprehensive manner as required by the Stockholm Convention (article 6) and controlled for their impact on the environment and human health. Landfill mining and reuse of materials from contaminated deposits should be prohibited. PMID:22828923

  5. Thiopropazate Hydrochloride in Persistent Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Singer, K.; Cheng, M. N.

    1971-01-01

    Thiopropazate (Dartalan) was found to be significantly more effective than a placebo in relieving dyskinesia in 23 patients with functional psychosis and persistent dyskinesia associated with prolonged phenothiazine therapy. Each patient whose dyskinesia had persisted unchanged for at least one month after phenothiazine withdrawal received thiopropazate by mouth for three weeks and the placebo for a similar period. Patients were evaluated before the trial, at three weeks, and at six weeks. The drug also improved psychotic behaviour. Possible side effects, which were generally mild, were noted in eight patients, of whom six had Parkinsonism and four drowsiness. None had side effects while on the placebo. The findings indicate that thiopropazate is of value in persistent dyskinesia associated with prolonged phenothiazine intake—a condition hitherto unresponsive to other treatment. Further research is required to determine the long-term effectiveness of the drug. PMID:4938244

  6. Persistent hypereosinophilia with Wells syndrome.

    PubMed

    Powell, J; Salim, A; Muc, R; Colloby, P; Kaur, M R

    2013-01-01

    Since Wells and Smith first described cases of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome; WS) in 1979, it has been noted that some but not all patients with WS present with eosinophilia. In the face of idiopathic persistent eosinophilia patients will also then fall within the hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), which represents a multifarious spectrum of disorders of varying severity, causes and outcomes. In this article we propose that patients who present within the HES spectrum with cutaneous findings of WS and with no extracutaneous disease be classified as having 'persistent hypereosinophilia with Wells syndrome' (PHEWS). PMID:22607377

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in the Australian fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus

    SciTech Connect

    Smillie, R.H.; Waid, J.S.

    1987-08-01

    Seals occupy a high trophic level in the marine ecosystem and have large reserves of subcutaneous fats. It is, therefore, not surprising that they accumulate high concentration of lipophilic substances such as organochlorine pesticides. Seal tissue concentration of pesticides are considered by some workers to be a good indication of local environmental loads. The Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks occupy a breading colony from which they can range into Bass Strait, Westernport Bay and Port Phillip Bay. It is, therefore, reasonable that results obtained for local seals should provide an indication of pesticides and PCBs in local squid and schooling fish. Previous results indicate that biota in Port Phillip Bay and Bass Strait, adjacent to the colony are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs. The authors have determined PCB and pesticide levels in local seals.

  8. Concentration of Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Different Molluscs from Tighra Reservoir, Gwalior, India.

    PubMed

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Concentration of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and their metabolites were determined in whole body homogenate of L. acuminata, I. exustus, V. dissimilis, V. bengalensis, from Tighra Reservoir during summer and post monsoon season using GC-MS technique. The different types of pesticides viz., HCB, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p-DDT, choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, parathion were found in resident molluscs studied. Concentration of these pesticides varied independently during the summer and the post monsoon season at monitored sites. The study concluded that presence of pesticides in Tighra Reservoir is a major concern on public and ecosystem health and use of biopesticides in the adjacent area of Reservoir is highly recommended. PMID:26174029

  9. Mechanisms of toxic action and structure-activity relationships for organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Coats, J R

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms and sites of action of organochlorine (DDT-types and chlorinated alicyclics) and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are presented with discussion of symptoms, physiological effects, and selectivity. The structural requirements for toxicity are assessed, and structure-activity relationships are considered for each subclass. Lipophilicity is important for all the groups because it facilitates delivery of these neurotoxicants to the site of action in the nerve. Steric factors including molecular volume, shape, and isomeric configuration greatly influence toxicity. Electronic parameters also have been demonstrated to affect biological activity in some of the groups of insecticides, e.g., Hammett's sigma and Taft's sigma * as indicators of electronegativity. New synthetic pyrethroids continue to be developed, with varied structures and different physicochemical and biological properties. PMID:2176589

  10. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils and sediments, southeast China: A case study in Xinghua Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Tan, Lingzhi; Gong, Xiangyi; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Junpeng

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the contamination status and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between Xinghua Bay and adjacent watersheds in Putian region, southeast China. Twenty-five surface soil samples and two sediment cores were collected from two watersheds and the Xinghua Bay, respectively. Results showed that the concentrations of OCPs in samples of the Mulan River Watershed (MRW), the Qiulu River Watershed (QRW), the inner bay core (IBC) and the open bay core (OBC) were in the range of 4.96-38.20ng/g, 4.62-22.80ng/g, 1.84-80.46ng/g and 1.87-23.43ng/g, respectively. The mean concentration of OCPs was in an order: IBC>MRW>QRW>OBC. The higher concentration of OCPs in recent periods may suggest that a certain amount of OCPs were still input to this area. PMID:21453938

  11. Organochlorine insecticide residues in soils and soil invertebrates from agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gish, C.D.

    1970-01-01

    Soils and earthworms and other soil invertebrates were collected from 67 agricultural fields in eight States. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography for DDE, DDD, DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and gamma-chlordane insecticides. Organochlorine insecticides in soils averaged 1.5 ppm, dry weight, and in earthworms, 13.8 ppm. Residues in earthworms averaged nine times that in soils. Residues ranged from a trace to 19.1 ppm in soils and from a trace to 159.4 ppm in earthworms. Residues in beetle larvae from two fields averaged 0.6 ppm; in snails from two fields, 3.5 ppm; and in slugs from four fields, 89.0 ppm. Amounts of insecticides in earthworms varied directly with amounts in soils. Coefficients of correlation between residues in soils and residues in earthworms usually were significant for DDE, DDD, and DDT regardless of crop or soil type.

  12. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

  13. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  14. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  15. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  16. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Rice, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average alpha-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average gamma-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (alpha-HCH, average 79% saturation; gamma-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for alpha-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of gamma-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  17. Distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Peng, Ping'an; Xu, Yi-Gang; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Deng, Hong-Mei; Deng, Yun-Yun

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed rainwater collected from multiple sites, Guangzhou, China, from March to August 2005, with the aim to characterize the distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South China. Eight species of organochlorine pesticide were detected, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfans. Volume-weighted mean monthly total concentrations varied from 3.65 ± 0.95 to 9.37 ± 2.63 ng L - 1 , and the estimated total wet deposition flux was about 11.43 ± 3.27 µg m - 2 during the monitoring period. Pesticides were mainly detected in the dissolved phase. Distribution coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases in March and April were generally higher than in other months. HCHs, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in precipitation were attributed to both the residues and present usage of insecticides in Pearl River Delta. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT were relatively high from April to August, which were related to the usage of antifouling paints containing DDT for fishing ships in seaports of the South China Sea in summer. In contrast, endosulfans were relatively high in March, which was related to their seasonal atmospheric transport from cotton fields in eastern China by the Asian winter monsoon. The consistency of the variation of endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT concentrations with the alternation of summer and winter monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon played an important role in the long-range transport of OCPs. In addition, the wet deposition of OCPs may influence not only Pearl River water but also the surface land distributions of pesticides in the Guangzhou area, especially for endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT.

  18. Protocol for Determination of the Persister Subpopulation in Candida Albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    De Brucker, Katrijn; De Cremer, Kaat; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to planktonic cultures of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, C. albicans biofilms can contain a persister subpopulation that is tolerant to high concentrations of currently used antifungals. In this chapter, the method to determine the persister fraction in a C. albicans biofilm treated with an antifungal compound is described. To this end, a mature biofilm is developed and subsequently treated with a concentration series of the antifungal compound of interest. Upon incubation, the fraction of surviving biofilm cells is determined by plating and plotted versus the used concentrations of the antifungal compound. If a persister subpopulation in the biofilm is present, the dose-dependent killing of the biofilm cells results in a biphasic killing pattern. PMID:26468100

  19. Blood Persistent Organic Pollutants Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence of a subset of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the blood of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2002. Some POPs have been linked to adverse health effects such as cancer and nervous system disorders. Three broad classes of POPs are in...

  20. Computational Methods to Model Persistence.

    PubMed

    Vandervelde, Alexandra; Loris, Remy; Danckaert, Jan; Gelens, Lendert

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial persister cells are dormant cells, tolerant to multiple antibiotics, that are involved in several chronic infections. Toxin-antitoxin modules play a significant role in the generation of such persister cells. Toxin-antitoxin modules are small genetic elements, omnipresent in the genomes of bacteria, which code for an intracellular toxin and its neutralizing antitoxin. In the past decade, mathematical modeling has become an important tool to study the regulation of toxin-antitoxin modules and their relation to the emergence of persister cells. Here, we provide an overview of several numerical methods to simulate toxin-antitoxin modules. We cover both deterministic modeling using ordinary differential equations and stochastic modeling using stochastic differential equations and the Gillespie method. Several characteristics of toxin-antitoxin modules such as protein production and degradation, negative autoregulation through DNA binding, toxin-antitoxin complex formation and conditional cooperativity are gradually integrated in these models. Finally, by including growth rate modulation, we link toxin-antitoxin module expression to the generation of persister cells. PMID:26468111

  1. Persistence and Small Group Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Simon; And Others

    The effects of persistence on students' ability to interact and learn in cooperative learning groups was studied, and the effect of collaboration on students' attitudes toward their partners was assessed. Participants were 138 sixth graders in a midwestern public school. A computer-based lesson and posttest dealt with the advertising concepts of…

  2. Organochlorine and metal pollution in aquatic organisms sampled in the Donana National Park during the period 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Rico, M.C.; Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Fernandez, M.A.; Montero, M.C.

    1987-12-01

    The study area, Donana National Park, is located in the South South-West of Spain, and this is one of the most important reservation of Europe. Samples of aquatic organism were obtained from the principal waterway of Donana National Park to determine the degree of organochlorine and metal contamination of this environment. The sampling was carried out during the period 1983-1986 in order to collect six aquatic species in four sites along the Brazo de la Torre. An agricultural area in the North-West side of the Park and a working mine at about 40 km from its northern boundary were considered as the likely main polluting sources of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals respectively. The aquatic organism species chosen for analysis were: American crayfish (Procambarus clarckii), carp (Cyprinus carpio), barbel (Barbus barbus), grey mullet (Mugil capito), eel (Anguilla anguilla), and frog (Rana perezi).

  3. Cytochrome P450 and organochlorine contaminants in black-crowned night-herons from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Rice, C.P.; Riley, W., Jr.; Eisemann, J.; Hines, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) offspring were collected from a relatively uncontaminated coastal reference site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA, USA) and two sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Baltimore Harbor, MD and Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., USA). Hepatic microsomal activities of benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were significantly elevated (up to sixfold and ninefold induction, respectively) in pipping embryos from the Baltimore Harbor colony compared to the reference site, whereas values in embryos from the Rock Creek Park colony were intermediate. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in pipping embryos from both sites in the Chesapeake watershed were greater than at the reference site, but below known threshold for reproductive impairment. However, concentrations of 10 arylhydrocarbon-receptor active PCB congeners and estimated toxic equivalents were up to 37-fold greater in embryos collected from these two sites in the Chesapeake Bay region, with values for toxic congeners 77 and 126 exceeding those observed in pipping heron embryos from the Great Lakes. Monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was frequently associated with concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and toxic equivalents (r = 0.30 to 0.59), providing further evidence of the value of cytochrome P450 as a biomarker of organic contaminant exposure. Organochlorine contaminant levels were greater in 10-d-old nestlings from Baltimore Harbor than the reference site, but had no apparent effect on monooxygenase activity or growth. These findings demonstrate induction of cytochrome P450 in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos in the Chesapeake Bay region, probably by exposure to PCB congeners of local origin, and the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in nestling herons from Baltimore Harbor.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides in serum and adipose tissue of pregnant women in Southern Spain giving birth by cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Jimenez Torres, M; Campoy Folgoso, C; Cañabate Reche, F; Rivas Velasco, A; Cerrillo Garcia, I; Mariscal Arcas, M; Olea-Serrano, F

    2006-12-15

    Since the appearance of DDT, increasingly potent insecticides have been developed to overcome the resistance developed by insects to successive products. Pesticides are also used in public health programs to control disease vectors. Despite legislation to control the use of certain products, they repeatedly appear in the adipose tissue, milk and serum of human populations. The present study determined the presence of organochlorine molecules in the adipose tissue, serum, and umblical cord of women giving birth by cesarean section in order to establish a possible correlation in organochlorine molecule content between these biological compartments and to examine fetal exposure to molecules with hormonal effects. Presence of nine organochlorines was detected by GC/ECD and confirmed by GC/MS. Highly significant differences (p<0.000) were observed between adipose tissue and maternal serum in concentrations of lindane, HCB, DDE, DDD, and endosulfan but not (p>0.5) in concentrations of endosulfan II or endosulfan sulfate. Only DDE concentrations differed (p<0.001) between maternal serum and umbilical cord serum. An association between pp'DDE and op'DDT was observed in maternal serum (p<0.094). An association in pp'DDE and pp'DDD content was found between adipose tissue and umbilical cord serum, and in pp'DDT content between adipose tissue and maternal serum. Results obtained indicate that exposure can be measured solely in serum when relatively high concentrations of pesticides are present. PMID:16904732

  5. Persistent personal biases in walking.

    PubMed

    Boeddeker, Norbert; Jetzschke, Simon; Ernst, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Locomotion along a given path in the absence of vision and audition is known to be inaccurate. Here we ask about the nature of these inaccuracies. To this end, we analyzed the performance of participants in three walking experiments involving straight and angle-walking tasks. In the first experiment eight blindfolded participants were guided along paths of different lengths and asked to turn to a target location by an angle of ±90° in a sports hall (size: 25x45m). We found significant biases in turn angles, i.e. systematic deviations from the correct angle that were characteristic of certain participants, whereas varying path length had weak effects on turn accuracy and precision. To check whether this idiosyncrasy was persistent over time and present in another type of walking task, we performed a second experiment several weeks after the first. Here, the same participants were guided to walk turns with varying amplitude. We then asked them to judge whether they had walked an angle larger or smaller than 90° in a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) paradigm. Very surprisingly, the personal bias was highly correlated between the two experiments indicating that the sense of direction can be persistently and individually biased in the absence of external directional cues. In a third experiment the participants where asked to walk straight on slanted and level surfaces. Here, we again found persistent directional biases in most participants. The direction of surface inclination did not significantly influence these individual biases. We found systematic angular biases in several walking tasks that were persistent over weeks. The biases reported here for healthy participants are most likely counterbalanced during normal daily-life by using visual and auditory cues for spatial orientation. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26327013

  6. Dealing with Persistent Pain in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pain Management Related Documents PDF Dealing with Persistent Pain in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Dealing with Persistent Pain in Older Adults Tools and Tips Printer-friendly ...

  7. SPECTRAL SEQUENCES, EXACT COUPLES AND PERSISTENT ...

    E-print Network

    2015-12-17

    each individual groups of one object in terms of the dimensions of the groups in the other ... the dimensions of the persistent homology groups of the same filtration. One of ...... Robert Ghrist, Barcodes: the persistent topology of data, Bull. Amer ...

  8. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of animals in sinks can compromise persistence. Conversely, sinks can bolster population sizes, improving viability. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional persistence, we simulated the removal of sink hab...

  9. PERSISTENT CONTAMINANTS: NEW PRIORITIES, NEW CONCERNS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative, and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorin...

  10. Policies of different governments : persistence and interactions

    E-print Network

    Ricka, Frantisek

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters on persistence and interactions of policies of different governments in various settings. Chapter 1 studies government policy persistence when firms face capital installation ...

  11. The Extraction of Information From Visual Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    This research sought to distinguish among three concepts of visual persistence by substituting the physical presence of the target stimulus while simultaneously inhibiting the formation of a persisting representation. Reportability of information about the stimuli was compared to a condition in which visual persistence was allowed to fully develop…

  12. A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

  13. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report offers information on student persistence and retention rates for 2009-2013. It offers data on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year Private Nonprofit Institutions; (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year…

  14. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  15. Persistence in University Continuing Education Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Jia

    2007-01-01

    This study presents persistence and attrition data from two years of data collection. Over the eight quarters studied, the persistence rate in online courses was 79 percent. The persistence rate for similar onground courses was 84 percent. The drops for both course modalities were disaggregated by the "time" of the request for withdrawal: before…

  16. Levels and profiles of POPs (organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs) in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins of the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Alvarez, Natalia; Martín, Vidal; Fernández, Antonio; Almunia, Javier; Xuriach, Aina; Arbelo, Manuel; Tejedor, Marisa; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-09-15

    The effect of anthropogenic pollution in marine mammals worldwide has become an important issue due to the high concentrations found in many areas. The present study represents the first report of pollutants in free-ranging cetaceans from the Canary Islands, where there are 12 marine Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), because of the presence of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We selected this resident population of dolphins as a bioindicator to gain knowledge concerning the toxicological status of the cetaceans of this protected area. In 64 biopsy samples of live free-ranging animals sampled from 2003 to 2011, we determined the concentrations of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We found high levels of many of these pollutants, and some of them were detectable in 100% of the samples. The median value for ?OCPs was 57,104 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), and the dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) accounted for 70% of this amount. Among PCBs, congeners 180, 153 and 138 were predominant (82% of ?PCBs; median = 30,783 ng g(-1) lw). Concerning the analyzed PAHs, the total median burden was 13,598 ng g(-1) lw, and phenanthrene was the compound measured at the highest concentration followed by pyrene and by naphthalene. Surprisingly, we have found that organohalogen pollutants exhibit an upward trend in recent years of sampling. Thus, according to the guidelines outlined in the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive, further monitoring studies in Canary Islands are required to contribute to the conservation of the resident populations of marine mammals in this region. PMID:24937489

  17. Organochlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, and PBDEs in grey mullets (Liza ramada) and allis shads (Alosa alosa) from the Vilaine estuary (France).

    PubMed

    Bocquené, Gilles; Abarnou, Alain

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the contamination levels of various organohalogenated compounds in two migratory fish species in the Vilaine River in western France. Organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs)), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in two diadromous species from the Vilaine estuary, the grey mullet (Liza ramada)-an amphihaline species, and the allis shad (Alosa alosa)-an anadromous species. Fish were collected in spring 2004 and spring 2005, upstream and downstream of the Arzal Dam. PCB contamination varied from 27 to 200 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.). PCDDs/Fs, expressed in toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ) varied from 0.4 to 2.8 pg g(-1) d.w. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs expressed in total TEQ varied from 1.4 to 18.8 pg g(-1) d.w. PBDE47 was present at around 2-10 ng g(-1) d.w. and concentrations of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane breakdown product p,p'-dichlorodiphenylchloroethylene varied from 1 to 14 ng g(-1) d.w. For both species, specimens collected upstream were more contaminated. The grey mullet specimens were less contaminated than the allis shad when taken downstream of the dam but were more contaminated upstream. The allis shads presented intermediate contaminant concentrations with a less pronounced difference between upstream and downstream specimens. However, it is thought that shads do not feed when they spawn in the upstream parts of rivers, which should modify the contaminant concentrations. However, measurements in upstream shad samples show an unexpected increase of the contamination, which remains unexplained. PMID:23014954

  18. Organochlorine and heavy-metal contaminants in wild mammals and birds of Urbino-Pesaro Province, Italy: an analytic overview for potential bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Alleva, E; Francia, N; Pandolfi, M; De Marinis, A M; Chiarotti, F; Santucci, D

    2006-07-01

    Tissue samples from 56 bird and 11 mammal species of different trophic levels, collected from 1994 to 1995 from the Urbino-Pesaro area in the Marche region of central Italy, were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'-DDE) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg). Results revealed interspecies differences in pollutant residue concentrations. A clear relationship between contaminant and trophic levels emerged depending on several factors specific to the chemicals and the organisms, the importance of dietary accumulation, and metabolic capacity as it increased toward higher trophic levels. Polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'-DDE were found in all of the bird and mammal species analyzed (bird- or fish-eating birds), and insectivore mammals showed the highest level of these contaminants. Pb and Hg residues were also widely detected and reflected trophic-level differences. The highest concentration of Pb was found in herbivorous or bird-eating aquatic invertebrates and in insectivorous mammals, particularly in the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), whereas the highest Hg levels were found in fish-eating birds. All of the other heavy metals were detected at low concentrations and represented background levels for birds and mammals, with the exception of increased amounts of Cd and Cr, respectively, found in stone marten (Martes foina) and fox (Vulpes vulpes). Data from this study provided information on baseline levels of interest to monitor status and trends in chemical residue in biota in this specific area, and therefore they represent a tool to evaluate potential ecologic, wildlife, and human health exposure. PMID:16418892

  19. Isolation and Identification of Persistent Chlorinated Organophosphorus Flame Retardant-Degrading Bacteria ?

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shouji; Satake, Ikuko; Konuma, Isao; Kawashima, Koji; Kawasaki, Manami; Mori, Shingo; Morino, Jun; Mori, Junichi; Xu, Hongde; Abe, Katsumasa; Yamada, Ryo-hei; Kera, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    Tris(2-chloroethyl) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphates are chlorinated persistent flame retardants that have recently emerged as environmental pollutants. Two bacterial strains that can degrade the compounds when they are the sole phosphorus sources have been isolated and identified as members of the sphingomonads. The strains can be useful for the bioremediation of environments contaminated with these compounds. PMID:20525857

  20. Prepubertal Serum Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides and Age at Sexual Maturity in Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few human studies have evaluated the impact of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) on pubertal development. Objective We evaluated associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] with age at attainment of sexual maturity among boys. Methods From 2003 through 2005, 350 8- to 9-year-old boys from Chapaevsk, Russia, with measured OCPs were enrolled and followed annually for 8 years. We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with three physician-assessed measures of sexual maturity: Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth, Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth, or testicular volume (TV) ? 20 mL in either testis. Results In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations achieved sexual maturity reflected by TV ? 20 mL a mean of 3.1 months (95% CI: –1.7, 7.8), 5.3 months (95% CI: 0.6, 10.1), and 5.0 months (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.04). Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth was attained a mean of 2.2 months (95% CI: –3.1, 7.5), 5.7 months (95% CI: 0.4, 11.0), and 3.7 months (95% CI: –1.7, 9.1) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, of ?HCH compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.09). Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth occurred 6–9 months later on average for boys in the highest versus lowest quartile for HCB (p trend < 0.001), ?HCH (trend p = 0.01), and p,p´-DDE (p trend = 0.04). No associations were observed between p,p´-DDE and Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth or TV ? 20 mL. Conclusions and relevance Higher prepubertal serum HCB and ?HCH concentrations were associated with a later age at attainment of sexual maturity. Only the highest quartile of serum p,p´-DDE was associated with later pubic hair maturation. Citation Lam T, Williams PL, Lee MM, Korrick SA, Birnbaum LS, Burns JS, Sergeyev O, Revich B, Altshul LM, Patterson DG Jr, Hauser R. 2015. Prepubertal serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and age at sexual maturity in Russian boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:1216–1221;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409022 PMID:26009253

  1. Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States; a review of current understanding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Witkowski, P.J.; Fusillo, Thomas V.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews the occurrence and distribution of manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States. On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves among water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: 1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides, 2. Carbamate and organophosphorus insecticides, 3. Herbicides, 4. Phenols, 5. Halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6. Phthalate esters, 7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and 8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Processes that influence the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate processes are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison with concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where data are sufficient, regional and temporal contamination trends in the United States are discussed.

  2. Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: a review of current understanding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Witkowski, Patrick J.; Fusillo, Thomas V.

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the occurrence and distribution of manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States. On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be absorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rate commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: 1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides, 2. Carbamate and organophosphorus insecticides, 3. Herbicides, 4. Phenols, 5. Halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6. Phthalate esters, 7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and 8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Processes that influence that the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate processes are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison to concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where sufficient data exist, regional and temporal contamination trends in the United States are discussed.

  3. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom and suspended sediment by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noriega, Mary C.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Foreman, William T.

    2004-01-01

    A method applicable for the determination of 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, including total toxaphene as a complex mixture, and 3 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures as Aroclor equivalents--Aroclor 1016/1242, 1254, and 1260--in soil, aquatic bottom sediment, and suspended sediment is described. Method performance data are presented. The solvent system is designed to extract simultaneously selected OC pesticides and PCBs from the same sample matrix. The compounds are extracted by conventional Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, followed by partial isolation using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to remove inorganic sulfur and large naturally present molecules from the sediment extract. The aliquot of extract collected from the GPC for OCs (OC pesticides and PCBs) is split into two sample fractions by alumina/silica combined-column chromatography, followed by Florisil adsorption chromatography to remove interfering compounds in the second fraction. The OC fractions are analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC/ECD). This report is limited to the determination of selected OC pesticides and PCBs by GC/ECD using this method. Interim reporting levels (IRLs) have been set at 0.400 to 3.12 micrograms per kilogram for 18 individual OC pesticides, 200 micrograms per kilogram for toxaphene, and 4.04 to 4.68 micrograms per kilogram for the PCBs, based on a sample size of 25-gram equivalent dry weight. These reporting levels may change following additional determinations of method detection limits.

  4. Persistent antimony- and bismuth-centered radicals in solution.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Shintaro; Hirakawa, Fumiya; Furukawa, Ko; Yoza, Kenji; Iwamoto, Takeaki

    2014-10-13

    Stibinyl and bismuthinyl radicals are recognized as representative intermediates of antimony and bismuth compounds, but still elusive in the condensed phase. We successfully synthesized persistent stibinyl and bismuthinyl radicals in solution by facile dissociation of the corresponding dimers with bulky substituents. We characterized the radicals by NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy and estimated the thermodynamic parameters for the dissociation equilibria. The radicals show n?p (HOMO?SOMO) transition bands at 497?nm (stibinyl) and 543?nm (bismuthinyl) in 3-methylpentane and react with a stable nitroxyl radical to give the cross-radical coupling products in good yields. PMID:25066471

  5. Perfluorinated Compounds in Fish from U.S. Urban Rivers and the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have recently received scientific and regulatory attention due to their broad environmental distribution, persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and toxicity. Some studies suggest that the consumption of fish from contaminated waters may be a maj...

  6. Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in California Children's Whole Blood and Residential Dust.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Todd P; Crispo Smith, Sabrina; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto X; Rappaport, Stephen M; Metayer, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated relationships between persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels in the blood of children with leukemia and POP levels in dust from their household vacuum cleaners. Blood and dust were collected from participants of the California Childhood Leukemia Study at various intervals from 1999 to 2007 and analyzed for two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and two organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Due to small blood sample volumes (100 ?L), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and BDE-153 were the only analytes with detection frequencies above 70%. For each analyte, depending on its detection frequency, a multivariable linear or logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between POP levels in blood and dust, adjusting for child's age, ethnicity, and breastfeeding duration; mother's country of origin; household annual income; and blood sampling date. In linear regression, concentrations of BDE-153 in blood and dust were positively associated; whereas, DDE concentrations in blood were positively associated with breastfeeding, maternal birth outside the U.S., and Hispanic ethnicity, but not with corresponding dust-DDE concentrations. The probability of PCB-153 detection in a child's blood was marginally associated with dust-PCB-153 concentrations (p = 0.08) in logistic regression and significantly associated with breastfeeding. Our findings suggest that dust ingestion is a source of children's exposure to certain POPs. PMID:26147951

  7. Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants and Duration of Lactation among Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Rosana H.; Webster, Monique; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Fenster, Laura; Davis, Mark D.; Hubbard, Alan; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Background. Research suggests that estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals interfere with lactation. Objectives. (1) to determine if estrogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are associated with shortened lactation duration; (2) to determine whether previous breastfeeding history biases associations. Methods and Results. We measured selected organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (p, p?-DDE, p, p?-DDT, o, p?-DDT, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs 44, 49, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in serum from 366 low-income, Mexican-American pregnant women living in an agricultural region of California and assessed breastfeeding duration by questionnaires. We found no association between DDE, DDT, or estrogenic POPs with shortened lactation duration, but rather associations for two potentially estrogenic POPs with lengthened lactation duration arose (HR [95% CI]: 0.6 [0.4, 0.8] for p, p?-DDE & 0.8 [0.6, 1.0] for PCB 52). Associations between antiestrogenic POPs (PCBs 138 and 180) and shortened lactation duration were attributed to a lactation history bias. Conclusion. Estrogenic POPs were not associated with shortened lactation duration, but may be associated with longer lactation duration. PMID:20671963

  8. Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hermle, Leo; Simon, Melanie; Geppert, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A 33-year-old female patient developed a hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) after lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abuse for a year at the age of 18. Specifically, she reported after images, perception of movement in her peripheral visual fields, blurring of small patterns, halo effects, and macro- and micropsia. Previous treatment with antidepressants and risperidone failed to ameliorate these symptoms. Upon commencing drug therapy with lamotrigine, these complex visual disturbances receded almost completely. Based on its hypothesized neuroprotective and mood-stabilizing effects, the antiepileptic lamotrigine may offer a promising new approach in the treatment of HPPD. PMID:23983976

  9. The persistence of false beliefs.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Fowler, Nicci Bowman; Nelson, Kally J; Bernstein, Daniel M; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-09-01

    Do false beliefs last? To explore this question, this study planted false beliefs or memories of a childhood experience with asparagus. We found that these false beliefs had consequences for subjects, when assessed directly after the suggestive manipulation. Moreover, subjects were brought back two weeks later to see if their false beliefs persisted. After two weeks, subjects' confidence in their new memories, and the consequences of those memories were diminished, but not extinguished. These false beliefs were found to be somewhat weaker than other subjects' true beliefs for the same events. Another novel finding was that the manipulation was sufficiently powerful to affect actual food choices. PMID:18620329

  10. Cold urticaria with persistent weals.

    PubMed

    Juhlin, L

    1981-06-01

    A patient with cold urticaria is described in whom weals appeared immediately after an ice cube test for 3 min and persisted for a week as a red, tender swelling. The duration of the oedema was dependent on the intensity of the immediate reaction. If the immediate wealing was blocked by treatment with an oral antihistamine 3 h before the ice cube test, no delayed reaction was seen. Antihistamines given after the immediate wealing had occurred did not influence the delayed reaction. Reactions to intradermally injected histamine, prostaglandin E, kallikrein, serotonin and serum appeared normal. PMID:6113841

  11. Persistent Holes in a Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkt, Florian S.; Deegan, Robert D.; Goldman, Daniel I.; Rericha, Erin C.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2004-05-01

    We observe stable holes in a vertically oscillated 0.5cm deep aqueous suspension of cornstarch. Holes appear only if a finite perturbation is applied to the layer for accelerations a above 10g. Holes are circular and approximately 0.5cm wide, and can persist for more than 106 cycles. Above a?17g the rim of the hole becomes unstable, producing fingerlike protrusions or hole division. At higher acceleration, the hole delocalizes, growing to cover the entire surface with erratic undulations. We find similar behavior in an aqueous suspension of glass microspheres.

  12. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 ?g/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  13. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and dechlorane plus in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Jurng, Jongsoo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for one year at eight cities in Mongolia, China, and South Korea to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and dechlorane plus (DP). PCB levels were highly correlated with population size and density in China and South Korea. In Mongolia, PCB levels were relatively high considering the low population. In the cases of OCPs and DP, a country-specific distribution was observed. The highest levels of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane isomers) were detected at sites in China, whereas the highest endosulfan and DP levels were measured at South Korean sites. These results strongly reflected the patterns of use of these chemicals. Mirex, an insecticide never registered in Mongolia and South Korea, was detected at all sampling sites; this is likely to have resulted from long-range transport. Nevertheless, OCPs were generally low in Mongolia. This study confirms that PAS results reflect well the past and current usage of POPs in Northeast Asia.

  14. Multiyear Measurements of Flame Retardants and Organochlorine Pesticides in Air in Canada's Western Sub-Arctic.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Hung, Hayley; Alexandrou, Nick; Roach, Pat; Nordin, Ken

    2015-07-21

    Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 14 non-BDE flame retardants (FRs), and 25 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in air samples collected at Little Fox Lake (LFL) in Canada's Yukon Territory from August 2011 to December 2014. LFL is a long-term monitoring station operated under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) and one of only a few stations that contribute to the assessment of air pollution levels and pathways to the sub-Arctic region. BDE-47 was the most abundant congener among the 14 PBDEs, followed by BDE-99. Non-BDE FRs pentabromotoluene (PBT) and dechlorane plus (DP) were detected in all the samples. Dechlorane 602, 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) were also detected in >75% of all samples. PBDEs have shown a decreasing tendency as of 2013, which may reflect the phase-out of penta- and octa-BDE mixtures has led to significant decline in the atmosphere. The highest concentrations of OCPs were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), with a median concentration of 61 pg/m(3), followed by ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) and ?-endosulfan. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) highlights Northern Canada, Pacific, and East Asia as potential sources in warm seasons; whereas in cold seasons, the chemicals mainly came from the Pacific Rim. PMID:26098022

  15. Achieving environmentally relevant organochlorine pesticide concentrations in eggs through maternal exposure in Alligator mississippiensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wiebe, J.J.; Buckland, J.E.; Smith, Joe T.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis eggs from organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminated sites in Florida exhibit high rates of embryonic mortality compared to reference sites (p<0.05). The objective of the present study was to use captive adult alligators to test the hypotheses that maternal exposure to OCPs results in increased OCP concentrations in eggs, and that increased exposure is associated with increased embryonic mortality. A total of 24 adult alligators (8 males and 16 females) were housed in eight pens. Eight females in four pens were dosed with a mixture of p,p'-DDE, toxaphene, dieldrin, and chlordane at a rate of 0.2 ? 0.01 mg/kg/day for 274 ? 8 days. Treated females produced eggs containing higher OCP concentrations (12,814 ? 813 ng/g yolk) than controls (38 ? 4 ng/g yolk). Eggs of treated females exhibited decreased viability (13 ? 22%) as compared to controls (45 ? 20%). Results indicated that 0.6% of administered OCPs were maternally transferred to the eggs of American alligators, and that maternal exposure is associated with decreased egg/embryo viability in this species.

  16. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the East Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yuyi; Liu, Minxia; Wang, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous pollutants, and their presence in urban lakes is a concern for human and ecological health. Surface sediments in the East Lake, China, were collected in winter 2012 and summer 2013 to investigate concentrations, distribution patterns, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of OCPs in this area. The total concentrations of 14 OCPs ranged from 6.3 to 400 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) with an average concentration of 79 ng g(-1) dw. The mean values of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT) were 36 and 7.6 ng g(-1) dw, accounting for 45 and 10 % of the total OCPs, respectively. The concentrations of OCPs in sediment samples collected in winter were significantly higher than those in summer, especially the HCHs, of which in winter were two times greater than summer. Composition analyses indicated that DDTs and endosulfan were mainly from historical contribution. Historical use of technical HCH and new input of lindane were probably the source of HCHs in the East Lake. Most sampling sites of HCHs and DDTs were found to have the potential ecological risk based on levels specified in the sediment quality standards. PMID:24756687

  17. Effect of home food processing on chlordecone (organochlorine) content in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Clostre, Florence; Letourmy, Philippe; Thuriès, Laurent; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2014-08-15

    Decades after their use and their ban, organochlorine pesticides still pollute soil, water and food and lead to human and ecosystem exposure. In the case of chlordecone, human exposure is mainly due to the consumption of polluted food. We studied the effect of preparation and cooking in five vegetable products, three root vegetables (yam, dasheen and sweet potato) and two cucurbits (cucumber and pumpkin), among the main contributors to exposure to chlordecone in food in the French West Indies. Boiling the vegetables in water had no effect on chlordecone content of the vegetables and consequently on consumer exposure. The peel was three to 40-fold more contaminated than the pulp except cucumber, where the difference was less contrasted. The edible part is thus significantly less contaminated and peeling is recommended after rinsing to reduce consumer exposure, particularly for food grown in home gardens with contaminated soils. The type of soil had no consistent effect on CLD distribution but plot did. Peel and pulp composition (lipids and fibers) appear to partially account for CLD distribution in the product. PMID:24914532

  18. Uptake of organochlorine pesticides by zucchini cultivars grown in polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, L; Pompi, V; Faraci, A; Conte, E

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this trial was to verify the occurrence and the distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in zucchini cultivated varieties grown in glasshouses and in open field with different levels of pollutants in soil. Residues of OCPs have been detected in soils and crops in the province of Latina, an intensively agricultural area of Lazio Region, in Italy. The study has been focused at crop harvest in less contaminated glasshouses and during crop life cycle in contaminated field in spring-summer time. Dieldrin distribution in different part of plant is similar among zucchini cultivars grown in contaminated field. In crop grown in field and in glasshouses with soil pollution >0.01 mg/kg, we found dieldrin in all zucchini fruits and flowers, at the same level or higher than the maximum residue limit (RML) fixed by European law for edible vegetables (0.02 mg/kg). Instead in soil with pollution < or = 0.01 mg/kg total OCPs it would be possible to grow zucchini cultivars. PMID:19226835

  19. Mesoporous TiO? nanoparticles for highly sensitive solid-phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqin; Xie, Lijun; Zheng, Juan; Jiang, Ruifeng; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-06-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized with the hydrothermal method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then a superior solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated by sequentially coating the stainless steel fiber with silicone sealant film and mesoporous TiO2 powder. The developed fiber possessed a homogeneous surface and a long life-span up to 100 times at direct immersing (DI) extraction mode. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiencies of the self-made 17 ?m TiO2 fiber for six organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were higher than those of the two commercial fibers (65 ?m PDMS/DVB and 85 ?m PA fibers) which were much thicker than the former. As for analytical performance, low detection limits (0.08-0.60 ng L(-1)) and wide linearity (5-5000 ng L(-1)) were achieved under the optimal conditions. The repeatabilities (n=5) for single fiber were between 2.8 and 12.3%, while the reproducibilities (n=3) of fiber-to-fiber were in the range of 3.7-15.7%. The proposed fiber was successfully applied to the sensitive analysis of OCPs in real water samples and four of the six analytes were detected from the rainwater and the lake water samples. PMID:26002332

  20. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides and butlyns in southern sea otters and their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M. E.; Nakata, H.; Thomas, N.J.; Stephenson, M.; Jessup, David A.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,pa??-DDE], p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,pa??-DDD], and p,pa??-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  1. Organochlorine residues in females and nursing young of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Lamont, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    Carcasses and brains of 18 big brown bats from Gaithersburg, Maryland, were analyzed for residues of organochlorine insecticides and PCB's. Eleven bats were adult females, and six of these had seven nursing young associated with them....Young bats resembled their parents in microgram amounts of PCB and DDE present in carcasses. However, concentrations of chemicals (expressed as ppm) were significantly higher in young. Brains of three young contained detectable residues of PCB and DDE....Younger adult females contained higher levels of PCB and DDE than did older ones. However, among the oldest females, amounts appeared to begin rising again. This pattern resembles that in free-tailed bats from Bracken Cave, Texas, but differs from the continuous linear decline seen in a Laurel, Maryland population of big brown bats, in which initial levels among younger females were higher than those in the Gaithersburg population....DDE was transferred from female to young more readily than was PCB by nursing. Five of 51 neonate big brown bats from the Laurel population were thought to have been born dead because of residues of PCB that were transferred across the placenta. Present data show that even greater amounts of PCB may be transferred to young by lactation and nursing.

  2. Distribution of organochlorine contaminants in double-crested cormorant eggs and sibling embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) fresh eggs and sibling embryos at pipping were collected from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated colony in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA. Egg contents were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) contaminants, including 15 arylhydrocarbon-active PCB congeners. In order to determine the significance of tissue removal on the subsequent estimate of contaminant burden, embryos were decapitated and the heads, yolk sac, liver, fecal sac (allantois), and carcass remainder were analyzed separately. The distribution of contaminant concentration in the embryos was yolk sac > liver > carcass > head > fecal sac. The distribution of contaminant mass in the embryos was yolk sac > carcass > liver > head > fecal sac. For example, mass of total PCBs (TPCB) was yolk sac = 58%, carcass = 31%, liver = 5%, head = 3%, and fecal sac = 1%. Eighteen additional OCs, including 13 PCB congeners, had distribution patterns similar to that of TPCB concentration and mass. Excluding the head of the embryo from the chemical analysis overestimated TPCB concentrations by 15% (16 vs 14 mu g/g). In contrast, excluding the liver from the chemical analysis underestimated TPCB concentration by only 4% (13.5 vs 14 mu g/g). Mean concentrations of OCs were not significantly different between fresh eggs and sibling embryos.

  3. Organochlorine residues in six species of estuarine birds, South Carolina, 1971-75

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Lamont, T.G.

    1979-01-01

    In South Carolina between 1971 and 1975, authors evaluated the occurrence of organochlorine residues in the laughing gull (Larus atricilla), white ibis (Eudocimus albus), glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus), and ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres). Tissues of birds found dead and eggs were analyzed, eggshell thicknesses were measured, and incidental observations were made of reproductive success and population status. Eggshell thickness of the white bis, American oystercatcher, and laughing gull were not significantly different (P less than 0.05) from the pre-1947 norms. DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found most frequently and at the highest concentration in eggs. DDE residues declined significantly in oystercatcher eggs, and declined slightly in laughing gull eggs; no change was noted in white ibis eggs. No consistent trends were found for dieldrin and PCBs. Authors found no obvious problems with reproductive success of any species. Populations of the five species breeding in South Carolina appear stable. The white ibis and laughing gull in South Carolina have experienced population explosions over the past 50 years; the glossy ibis has increased substantially since the first documented breeding records in 1947.

  4. Resistance to selected organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid, in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mushtaq A; Ahmad, Munir; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Aslam, Muhammad; Sayyed, Ali H

    2008-10-01

    The toxicity of the most commonly used insecticides of organochlorine, organophosphate, pyrethroid, and carbamate groups were investigated against Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations collected for three consecutive years (2004-2006). For a chlorocyclodiene and pyrethroids tested, the resistance ratios compared with Lab-PK were in the range of 10- to 92-fold for endosulfan, 5- to 111-fold for cypermethrin, 2- to 98-fold for deltamethrin, and 7- to 86-fold for beta-cyfluthrin. For organophosphates and carbamates, resistance ratios were in the range of 3- to 169-fold for profenofos, 18- to 421-fold for chlorpyrifos, 3- to 160-fold for quinalphos, 6- to 126-fold for phoxim, 7- to 463-fold for triazophos, and 10- to 389-fold for methomyl and 16- to 200-fold for thiodicarb. Resistance ratios were generally low to medium for deltamethrin and beta-cyfluthrin and high to very high for endosulfan, cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, quinalphos, phoxim, triazophos, methomyl, or thiodicarb. Pairwise comparisons of the log LC50 values of insecticides tested for all the populations showed correlations among several insecticides, suggesting a cross-resistance mechanism. Integration of timely judgment of pest problem, delimiting growing of alternate crops such as arum, rotation of insecticides with new chemicals, and insect growth regulators in relation to integrated pest management could help in manageable control of this important pest. PMID:18950050

  5. Clutch size, reproductive success, and organochlorine contaminants in Atlantic coast black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hensler, G.L.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    In 1979, clutch-size and reproductive-success data were collected on black-crowned night-herons (N. nycticorax) nesting in 3 New England and two North Carolina [USA] colonies. In 1975, similar data were collected from 1 New England and 1 North Carolina colony. Latitudinal differences in clutch initiation were not evident. Mean clutch size was larger in the New England colonies. Mean clutch size was smaller in late nests from 1 New England colony studied in both years and another New England colony studied in 1979; seasonal trends in clutch size for another colonies were not found. In 1979, nest success was greater in 2 New England colonies than in 1 North Carolina colony. Within-season differences in nest success occurred but were inconsistent among colonies. In the 4 instances where statistical comparisons could be made, larger clutches were more successful than smaller ones in 2 colonies; large and small clutches had similar success in 2 other colonies. One egg was collected from each of several nests in each colony in 1979 for organochlorine contaminant analysis, and the fate of the remaining eggs was recorded. Concentrations of DDE and PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] did not differ with clutch size; concentrations of PCB were lower in eggs laid late in the season. Although the data suggest an effect of DDE on hatching success in the northern more contaminated colonies, the impact of environmental contaminants on overall reproductive success appears to be minimal.

  6. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Surface Waters of Konya Closed Basin, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Ozcan, Senar; Beduk, Fatma; Tor, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including ?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p?-DDE, p,p?-DDD, p,p?-DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane I, chlordane II, and heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in surface water samples from the Konya closed basin were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. Among all HCH isomers, ?-HCH is the main isomer with a concentration range of 0.015–0.065??g/L. DDE, DDD, and DDT were almost determined in all samples, in which DDE isomer had the highest concentration ranged from not detected to 0.037??g/L. In all studied OCPs, aldrin showed the highest concentration at 0.220??g/L. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were observed with order: Mn?

  7. Anthropogenic nexus on organochlorine pesticide pollution: a case study with Tamiraparani river basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Kumarasamy, P; Govindaraj, S; Vignesh, S; Rajendran, R Babu; James, R Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The levels of 17 organochlorine pesticides residues (OCPs) in surface water and sediments from Tamiraparani river basin, South India were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risk impacts. A total of 96 surface water and sediment samples at 12 sampling stations were collected along the river in four seasons during 2008-2009. The ?OCP concentrations in surface water and sediments were in the range of 0.1 to 79.9 ng l(-1) and 0.12 to 3,938.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and mirex were dominant in the sediments. The dominant OCPs in water samples are heptachlor, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, o,p'-DDD, and mirex, which show different source of contamination pattern among sampling seasons. The distribution pattern of DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane, and other OCPs in the present study shows heterogenic nature of nonpoint source of pollution. Notable contamination of water and sediment sample that was observed in upstream (S2) 58 ng l(-1) and downstream (S11) 1,693 ng g(-1) dw explains agricultural and municipal outfalls, whereas frequent damming effect reduces the concentration level in the midstream. The overall spatial-temporal distribution pattern of ?OCP residues are illustrated by GIS package. PMID:21800068

  8. Organochlorine contaminants and reproductive success of double-crested cormorants from Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, R.K.; Gutreuter, S.; Stromborg, K.L.; Allen, P.D.; Melancon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, nesting success of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) was measured at Cat Island, in southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at pipping and unhatched eggs were collected and analyzed for organochlorines (including total polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in embryos, and eggshell thickness. Of 1,570 eggs laid, 32% did not hatch and 0.4% had deformed embryos. Of 632 chicks monitored from hatching to 12 d of age, 9% were missing or found dead; no deformities were observed. The PCB concentrations in sample eggs from clutches with deformed embryos (mean = 10.2 I?g/g wet weight) and dead embryos (11.4 I?g/g) were not significantly higher than concentrations in sample eggs from nests where all eggs hatched (12.1 I?g/g). A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE, dieldrin, and PCB concentrations in sibling eggs identified DDE and not dieldrin or PCBs as a significant risk factor. A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE and eggshell thickness implicated DDE and not eggshell thickness as a significant risk factor. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in double-crested cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an effect on reproduction in this species.

  9. Organochlorine contaminants and reproductive success of Double-crested Cormorants from Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, R.K.; Gutreuter, S.; Stromborg, K.L.; Allen, P.D.; Melancon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, nesting success of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) was measured at Cat Island, in southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at pipping and unhatched eggs were collected and analyzed for organochlorines (including total polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in embryos, and eggshell thickness. Of 1,570 eggs laid, 32% did not hatch and 0.4% had deformed embryos. Of 632 chicks monitored from hatching to 12 d of age, 9% were missing or found dead; no deformities were observed. The PCB concentrations in sample eggs from clutches with deformed embryos (mean = 10.2 ?g/g wet weight) and dead embryos (11.4 ?g/g) were not significantly higher than concentrations in sample eggs from nests where all eggs hatched (12.1 ?g/g). A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE, dieldrin, and PCB concentrations in sibling eggs identified DDE and not dieldrin or PCBs as a significant risk factor. A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE and eggshell thickness implicated DDE and not eggshell thickness as a significant risk factor. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in double-crested cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an effect on reproduction in this species.

  10. Organochlorine insecticide residues are found in surface, irrigated water samples from several districts in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Alamgir Zaman; Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua; Alam, Md Khorshed

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of organochlorines such as aldrin, dieldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endrin, lindane and heptachlor insecticide residues in irrigated surface water samples collected from 22 districts in Bangladesh. The concentrations of the pesticides were determined using gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry. Water samples from five locations (Feni, Nawabganj, Putia, Burichang and Chatak) were contaminated with DDT; the highest DDT concentration detected was 8.29 ?g/L, and its metabolite, DDE, was detected at 4.06 ?g/L. Water samples from four other locations (Natore, Sikderpara, Chatak and Rajoir) were contaminated with heptachlor residues, and the highest level detected was 5.24 ?g/L, which is the above the maximum contaminant level recommended by the World Health Organisation. A water sample collected from Chatak, Sunamganj, was contaminated with both DDT and heptachlor pesticide residues. None of the water samples were contaminated with aldrin, DDD, dieldrin, endrin or lindane. It is concluded that continuous, long-term monitoring and essential steps to limit the use of the pesticides in Bangladesh are needed. PMID:23212886

  11. Trend and climate signals in seasonal air concentration of organochlorine pesticides over the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin; Cao, Zuohao; Dove, Alice; Zhang, Lisheng

    2010-08-01

    Following worldwide bans or restrictions, the atmospheric level of many organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) over the Great Lakes exhibited a decreasing trend since the 1980s in various environmental compartments. Atmospheric conditions also influence variation and trend of OCPs. In the present study a nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with an additional process to remove the effect of temporal (serial) correlation was used to detect the temporal trend of OCPs in the atmosphere over the Great Lakes region and to examine the statistical significance of the trends. Using extended time series of measured air concentrations over the Great Lakes region from the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network, this study also revisits relationships between seasonal mean air concentration of OCPs and major climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere. To effectively extract climate signals from the temporal trend of air concentrations, we detrended air concentrations through removing their linear trend, which is driven largely by their respective half-lives in the atmosphere. The interannual variations of the extended time series show a good association with interannual climate variability, notably, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This study demonstrates that the stronger climate signals can be extracted from the detrended time series of air concentrations of some legacy OCPs. The detrended concentration time series also help to interpret, in addition to the connection with interannual variation of the NAO, the links between atmospheric concentrations of OCPs and decadal or interdecadal climate change.

  12. Cell Sorting Experiments Link Persistent Mitochondrial DNA Damage with Loss of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and

    E-print Network

    Santos, Janine H.

    to understand the molecular events following oxidative stress, which lead to persistence of lesions in the mtDNA, experiments were performed on normal hu- man fibroblast (NHF) expressing human telomerase re- verse used compounds to produce oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo biological studies, is hydrogen

  13. Identification of an Antimicrobial Agent Effective against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Persisters Using a Fluorescence-Based Screening Strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooseong; Conery, Annie L; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Persisters are a subpopulation of normal bacterial cells that show tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Persister cells are responsible for recalcitrant chronic infections and new antibiotics effective against persisters would be a major development in the treatment of these infections. Using the reporter dye SYTOX Green that only stains cells with permeabilized membranes, we developed a fluorescence-based screening assay in a 384-well format for identifying compounds that can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) persisters. The assay proved robust and suitable for high throughput screening (Z`-factor: >0.7). In screening a library of hits from a previous screen, which identified compounds that had the ability to block killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis by MRSA, we discovered that the low molecular weight compound NH125, a bacterial histidine kinase inhibitor, kills MRSA persisters by causing cell membrane permeabilization, and that 5 ?g/mL of the compound can kill all cells to the limit of detection in a 108 CFU/mL culture of MRSA persisters within 3h. Furthermore, NH125 disrupts 50% of established MRSA biofilms at 20 ?g/mL and completely eradicates biofilms at 160 ?g/mL. Our results suggest that the SYTOX Green screening assay is suitable for large-scale projects to identify small molecules effective against MRSA persisters and should be easily adaptable to a broad range of pathogens that form persisters. Since NH125 has strong bactericidal properties against MRSA persisters and high selectivity to bacteria, we believe NH125 is a good anti-MRSA candidate drug that should be further evaluated. PMID:26039584

  14. Identification of an Antimicrobial Agent Effective against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Persisters Using a Fluorescence-Based Screening Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wooseong; Conery, Annie L.; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Persisters are a subpopulation of normal bacterial cells that show tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Persister cells are responsible for recalcitrant chronic infections and new antibiotics effective against persisters would be a major development in the treatment of these infections. Using the reporter dye SYTOX Green that only stains cells with permeabilized membranes, we developed a fluorescence-based screening assay in a 384-well format for identifying compounds that can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) persisters. The assay proved robust and suitable for high throughput screening (Z`-factor: >0.7). In screening a library of hits from a previous screen, which identified compounds that had the ability to block killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis by MRSA, we discovered that the low molecular weight compound NH125, a bacterial histidine kinase inhibitor, kills MRSA persisters by causing cell membrane permeabilization, and that 5 ?g/mL of the compound can kill all cells to the limit of detection in a 108 CFU/mL culture of MRSA persisters within 3h. Furthermore, NH125 disrupts 50% of established MRSA biofilms at 20 ?g/mL and completely eradicates biofilms at 160 ?g/mL. Our results suggest that the SYTOX Green screening assay is suitable for large-scale projects to identify small molecules effective against MRSA persisters and should be easily adaptable to a broad range of pathogens that form persisters. Since NH125 has strong bactericidal properties against MRSA persisters and high selectivity to bacteria, we believe NH125 is a good anti-MRSA candidate drug that should be further evaluated. PMID:26039584

  15. Do plants reflect atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic contaminants?

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    Chemical analysis of several types of plants -- such as pine needles, lichens, mosses and grasses -- has been used by numerous workers as a means of inferring spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic compounds (e.g. PCBs, PAHs, CBs and PCDD/Fs). This is usually because plants are perceived as convenient `passive` air samplers and assumed to `integrate` variations in ambient concentrations during their lifetime. More recently, various researchers have sought to understand the mechanisms of exchange/uptake at the air vegetation surface, with a view to refining the use of vegetation sampling techniques and understanding the role of vegetation in influencing the global cycling of these compounds. This presentation will review some of the recent advances in this area, highlighting some of pitfalls and beneficial uses of employing plants as `monitoring tools`.

  16. Persistence of fermentative process to phenolic toxicity in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.X.; Lerner, D.N.; Banwart, S.A.; Thornton, S.E.; Pickup, R.W.

    2006-11-15

    The fermentation process is an important component in the biodegradation of organic compounds in natural and contaminated systems. Comparing with terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs), however, research on fermentation processes has to some extent been ignored in the past decades, particularly on the persistence of fermentation process in the presence of toxic organic pollutants. Both field and laboratory studies, presented here, showed that microbial processes in a groundwater-based system exhibited a differential inhibitory response to toxicity of phenolic compounds from coal tar distillation, thus resulting in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and hydrogen. This indicated that fermentation processes could be more resistant to phenol toxicity than the subsequent TEAPs such as methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, thus providing us with more options for enhancing bioremediation processes.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorobiphenyl, and mercury residues in bald eagle eggs--1969-79--and their relationships to shell thinning and reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Lamont, T.G.; Bunck, C.M.; Sindelar, C.R.; Gramlich, F.J.; Fraser, J.D.; Byrd, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected in 14 States in 1969-79 and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and mercury. Moderate shell thinning occurred in eggs from several areas. Eggs from the Chesapeake Bay area contained the highest residue levels of most organochlorines. DDE was detected in all eggs; other organochlorines were detected less frequently. Mercury levels were highest in eggs from Maine. Eight contaminants were significantly negatively correlated with shell thickness or reproduction at sampled breeding areas; DDE was most closely related to these factors. Production of young was near normal at breeding areas when DDE was 15 ppm. Five ppm DDE was associated with 10% shell thinning. The other contaminants that were associated with these factors were also highly correlated with DDE; their impact appeared minor in relation to those of DDE.

  18. Preconception Maternal and Paternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Birth Size: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. Objective: We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Methods: Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Results: Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84–195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98–170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Conclusions: Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring. Citation: Robledo CA, Yeung E, Mendola P, Sundaram R, Maisog J, Sweeney AM, Barr DB, Buck Louis GM. 2015. Preconception maternal and paternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and birth size: the LIFE Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:88–94;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308016 PMID:25095280

  19. Massive PCDD/F contamination at the Khimprom organochlorine plant in Ufa-a review and recommendations for future management.

    PubMed

    Amirova, Zarema; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    The Khimprom plant in Ufa was one of the largest organochlorine production facilities in Russia. This paper summarises the residual pollution of the site with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and highlights the current and future challenges in relation to remediation of the site. Preliminary assessment of the pollution shows large-scale PCDD/F contamination at the site from half a century production of organochlorine pesticides and solvents. This contamination is affecting the city, and 2500 residents live within 3 km with a further 350,000 living within 7 km of the factory. The current PCDD/F pollution of the site and the continuing releases highlight the urgent need for further investigations, for the site to be secured and for the contamination to be remediated. The production history of the plant means that also other unintentionally POPs, mercury and chlorinated solvents need to be considered. The current regulatory framework for PCDD/F-contaminated soil and for defining hazardous waste in the Russian Federation is not appropriate for the management of PCDD/F-contaminated sites. It is therefore suggested that a science-based regulatory framework should be developed. The Russian Federation recently ratified the Stockholm Convention providing a foundation for the development of appropriate regulations and for further assessment, securing and remediation of the site. The impacts of pollution from the Khimprom plant demonstrate that the assessment and management of the organochlorine production sites should be a priority in the implementation of the Stockholm Convention by the Russian Federation and other countries. PMID:26201658

  20. The impact of organochlorines and metals on wild fish living in a tropical hydroelectric reservoir: bioaccumulation and histopathological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Marcelo Gustavo; Benze, Tayrine Paschoaletti; Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Sakuragui, Marise Margareth; Fernandes, João Batista; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates the contaminants in water and their bioaccumulation in the gills and liver of two ecologically distinct fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, living in the reservoir of the Furnas hydroelectric power station located in Minas Gerais in the southeastern Brazil. The histological alterations in these organs are also examined. Water and fish were collected in June and December from five sites (site 1: FU10, site 2: FU20, site 3: FU30, site 4: FU40 and site 5: FU50) in the reservoir, and agrochemicals and metals selected based on their use in the field crops surrounding the reservoir were analyzed in the water and in the fish gills and livers. The concentrations of the organochlorines aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide as well as the metals copper, chromium, iron and zinc in the gills and livers of both fish species were higher in June than in December; the liver accumulated higher concentrations of contaminants than the gills. The organochlorine metolachlor was detected only in the liver. The histological pattern of changes was similar in both species with regard to contaminant accumulation in the gills and liver. Fish from FU10, the least contaminated site, exhibited normal gill structure and moderate to heavy liver damage. Fish collected at FU20 to FU50, which were contaminated with organochlorines and metals, showed slight to moderate gill damage in June and irreparable liver damage in the livers in June and December. The histological changes in the gills and liver were suitable to distinguishing contaminated field sites and are therefore useful biomarkers for environmental contamination representing a biological end-point of exposure. PMID:25137379

  1. The influence of tomato processing on residues of organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides and their associated dietary risk.

    PubMed

    Reiler, Emilie; Jørs, Erik; Bælum, Jesper; Huici, Omar; Alvarez Caero, Maria Mercedes; Cedergreen, Nina

    2015-09-15

    Due to the increasing food demand, the use of pesticides in agriculture is increasing. Particularly in low income countries poor training among farmers, combined with the use of obsolete pesticides may result in a high risk for the consumers. In this study six organochlorines and five organophosphates were analyzed in 54 samples of tomatoes from small scale farmers in Bolivia. The analyses were done on unprocessed, stored, washed and peeled tomatoes. The cumulated risk associated with consumption of the tomatoes after different storage times and processing treatments was evaluated using the Hazard Index (HI) for acute risk assessment. All 11 pesticides were detected in the analyses although several of them are obsolete and included in the Stockholm convention ratified by Bolivia. The organochlorines were found in the ?g pesticide/kg tomato range and below the HI, while the organophosphates were present in the mg pesticide/kg tomato range and most often above the HI. The low organochlorine concentrations were not significantly affected by time or treatment, but storage significantly decreased the concentrations of organophosphates. Washing decreased the initial concentrations to between 53% (malathion) down to 2% (ethyl parathion), while peeling had a larger effect reducing the initial concentrations to between 33% (malathion) and 0.7% (chlorpyriphos). Both the acute and chronic cumulative risk assessment of organophosphates showed a dietary risk for unprocessed tomatoes three days after harvest. For children, also the consumption of washed tomatoes constituted a dietary risk. To reduce the dietary risk of pesticide residues in Bolivia, there is an urgent need of farmer education and introduction of less hazardous pesticides as well as resources for surveillance and enforcement of legislation in order to ensure public health. PMID:25965039

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides in selected cereals available on the Polish retail market.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; J?drzejczak, Renata; Szymczyk, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (DDT, HCH, HCB, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, aldrin, nitrophene, metoxychlor) are man-made chemicals manufactured for numerous applications. The aim of this study was to assess levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected types of cereals available on the Polish retail market. 191 samples of various cereals have been analyzed in total. Average EC6 concentrations ranged from 56.4 (snacks) to 442.2 pg g(-1) (bran) while the concentration of 12 dioxin-like PCBs was in 15 (groats)-37.6 pg g(-1) (snacks) range. Mean dioxin equivalency concentration calculated as lower bound results in 2005 TEF values amounted to 0.120 ± 0.445 pg TEQ g(-1), while 0.091 ± 0.338 pg TEQ g(-1) if 1998 TEF values were used. Average concentration of all 14 studied BDEs (?14 BDE) was 112 ± 80 pg g(-1), while average concentration of 13 BDEs excluding BDE #209 was only 15 ± 6 pg g(-1). Pesticide concentrations observed in the analyzed samples were generally low in comparison to maximum residue levels (MRLs) actually permitted by the European Union. However, MRLs were exceeded in 7 out of all 191 analyzed samples. Total concentration of DDT isomers in one of the tested bran samples was as high as 0.053 mg kg(-1). DMDT concentrations slightly above MRL = 0.01 mg kg(-1)were observed in 6 other samples (2 × bran, 1 × children porridge, 2 × snacks and 1 × bread). This study has shown that levels of PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in cereal products available on the Polish market are generally low. However, elevated levels of individual pollutants were observed in several instances. PMID:23906852

  3. Biochar in Co-Contaminated Soil Manipulates Arsenic Solubility and Microbiological Community Structure, and Promotes Organochlorine Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Samuel J.; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Biggs, Patrick J.; Ganley, Austen R. D.; O’Sullivan, Justin M.; McManus, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of biochar on the water-soluble arsenic (As) concentration and the extent of organochlorine degradation in a co-contaminated historic sheep-dip soil during a 180-d glasshouse incubation experiment. Soil microbial activity, bacterial community and structure diversity were also investigated. Biochar made from willow feedstock (Salix sp) was pyrolysed at 350 or 550°C and added to soil at rates of 10 g kg-1 and 20 g kg-1 (representing 30 t ha-1 and 60 t ha-1). The isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH (lindane), underwent 10-fold and 4-fold reductions in concentration as a function of biochar treatment. Biochar also resulted in a significant reduction in soil DDT levels (P < 0.01), and increased the DDE:DDT ratio. Soil microbial activity was significantly increased (P < 0.01) under all biochar treatments after 60 days of treatment compared to the control. 16S amplicon sequencing revealed that biochar-amended soil contained more members of the Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Dyadobacter and Pseudomonadaceae which are known bioremediators of hydrocarbons. We hypothesise that a recorded short-term reduction in the soluble As concentration due to biochar amendment allowed native soil microbial communities to overcome As-related stress. We propose that increased microbiological activity (dehydrogenase activity) due to biochar amendment was responsible for enhanced degradation of organochlorines in the soil. Biochar therefore partially overcame the co-contaminant effect of As, allowing for enhanced natural attenuation of organochlorines in soil. PMID:25923541

  4. Persulfate Oxidation of Gasoline Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, K.; Thomson, N.; Barker, J.

    2009-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate is a promising remediation technology that can be potentially applied to a wide range of organic contaminants. Gasoline compounds are of particular interest because they extensively impact the soil and groundwater, and are highly persistent and toxic. In this investigation, destruction of specific gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzenes, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) and naphthalene), and fractions (F1 and F2) by activated and inactivated persulfate was studied at the bench-scale. Aqueous phase batch reactors (25 mL) for inactivated systems employed persulfate at two concentrations (1 or 20 g/L), and activated systems were conducted with a persulfate concentration of 20 g/L. In the activated systems, the ability of hydrogen peroxide or chelated-ferrous as an activator was examined at two experimental conditions (peroxide molar ratio 0.1 and 1.0 with respect to persulfate; and citric acid chelated ferrous at 150 and 600 mg/L). All treatments and controls contained an initial gasoline concentration of approximately 25 mg/L and were run in triplicate. Sampling for gasoline compounds was conducted over <28 day reaction period. The controls showed insignificant degradation for all the gasoline compounds and fractions examined while inactivated persulfate at 1 g/L showed little (<10%) decrease in the concentration of gasoline compounds over the 28 day reaction period. Inactivated persulfate at 20 g/L demonstrated a significant decrease in the aqueous concentration of BTEX (>99%), TMB (>94%) and naphthalene (>71%). Oxidation of the F1 fraction (>94%) was more pronounced than the F2 fraction (>80%), and >93% TPH was oxidized. Use of peroxide as an activator at a molar ratio of 0.1 improved the destruction of TMBs (>99%) and naphthalene (>85%) while maintaining the high removal of BTEX (>99%) compounds. Increase in activator strength (molar ratio 1.0) decreased the destruction of xylenes (>86%) and TMBs (>81%). The decrease in concentration of all the compounds was higher for a molar ratio of 1.0 (<27%) as compared with a molar ratio of 0.1 (<11%). The activation by ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of compounds (except naphthalene) as compared with unactivated or peroxide activated persulfate. 1,3,5-TMB was completed oxidized after 4 days using higher chelated ferrous concentration and after 12 days using lower chelated ferrous concentration for persulfate activation. In general, increase in chelated ferrous concentration resulted in higher oxidation of the gasoline compounds. While oxidation of F1 fraction was similar for two ferrous activation conditions, the oxidation of F2 fraction was lower when ferrous activation at 600 mg/L was employed. Use of persulfate at high dosages by itself or in combination with higher doses of chelated ferrous or optimum doses of peroxide as an activator seems to be a viable option for remediation of gasoline compounds examined in this study. Persulfate appears to be particularly effective in the oxidation of BTEX compounds, but may require ferrous activation for a complete oxidation of TMBs and peroxide activation for oxidation of naphthalene.

  5. A Historical Perspective on Bacterial Persistence.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Natalie; Knapen, Wouter; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Bactericidal antibiotics quickly kill the majority of a bacterial population. However, a small fraction of cells typically survive through entering the so-called persister state. Persister cells are increasingly being viewed as a major cause of the recurrence of chronic infectious disease and could be an important factor in the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The phenomenon of persistence was first described in the 1940s, but remained poorly understood for decades afterwards. Only recently, a series of breakthrough discoveries has started to shed light on persister physiology and the molecular and genetic underpinnings of persister formation. We here provide an overview of the key studies that have paved the way for the current boom in persistence research, with a special focus on the technological and methodological advances that have enabled this progress. PMID:26468095

  6. Declines in organochlorines in eggs of red-breasted mergansers from Lake Michigan, 1977-78 versus 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Miller, D.S.; Ebert, B.J.; Stromborg, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    From 1977-1978 to 1990, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most organochlorine pesticides declined in eggs of red-breasted mergansers (M ergus serrator) nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan. Total PCBs decreased 60% (from 21 ppm in 1977-1978 to 8.5 ppm in 1990) and p, p'-DDE decreased 66% (from 6.5 to 2.2 ppm). Dieldrin decreased only 16% (from 0.82 to 0.69 ppm). In 1990, 79.1 % of incubated eggs hatched, which was not significantly different from the 83.5% that hatched in 1977-1978.

  7. Cytochrome P450 and organochlorine contaminants in black-crowned night-herons from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Rice, C.P.; Riley, W.; Eisemann, J.; Hines, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) offspring were collected from a relatively uncontaminated coastal reference site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA, USA) and two sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Baltimore Harbor, MD and Rock Creek Park, Washington, DC, USA). Hepatic microsomal activities of benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were significantly elevated (up to sixfold and ninefold induction, respectively) in pipping embryos from the Baltimore Harbor colony compared to the reference site, whereas values in embryos from the Rock Creek Park colony were intermediate. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in pipping embryos from both sites in the Chesapeake watershed were greater than at the reference site but below the known threshold for reproductive impairment. However, concentrations of 10 arylhydrocarbon receptor-active polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and estimated toxic equivalents were up to 37-fold greater in embryos collected from these two sites in the Chesapeake Bay region, with values for toxic congeners 77 and 126 exceeding those observed in pipping heron embryos from the Great Lakes. Monooxygenase activity of pipping embryos was associated with concentrations of several organochlorine pesticides, total PCBs, arylhydrocarbon receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents (r = 0.30-0.59), providing further evidence of the value of cytochrome P450 as a biomarker of organic contaminant exposure. Organochlorine contaminant levels were greater in 10-d-old nestlings from Baltimore Harbor than the reference site but had no apparent effect on monooxygenase activity or growth. These findings demonstrate induction of cytochrome P450 in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos in the Chesapeake Bay region, probably by exposure to PCB congeners of local origin, and the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in nestling herons from Baltimore Harbor. Biomonitoring with additional waterbird species (e.g., bald eagle, common tern, great blue heron) that appear to be more sensitive to PCBs than black-crowned night-herons is recommended to document health of waterbirds and remediation of the Chesapeake Bay.

  8. Interfacing a robotic station with a gas chromatograph for the full automation of the determination of organochlorine pesticides in vegetables

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, P.; Luque de Castro, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    A fully automated method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in vegetables is proposed. The overall system acts as an {open_quotes}analytical black box{close_quotes} because a robotic station performs the prelimninary operations, from weighing to capping the leached analytes and location in an autosampler of an automated gas chromatograph with electron capture detection. The method has been applied to the determination of lindane, heptachlor, captan, chlordane and metoxcychlor in tea, marjoram, cinnamon, pennyroyal, and mint with good results in most cases. A gas chromatograph has been interfaced to a robotic station for the determination of pesticides in vegetables. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in bald eagle eggs and changes in shell thickness--1969 and 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.M.; Ligas, F.J.; Hensel, R.J.; Mathisen, J.E.; Robards, F.C.; Postupalsky, S.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-three bald eagle eggs collected in Alaska, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, and Florida during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury. All eggs contained residues of DDE, dieldrin, PCB's, and mercury. Average residue concentrations were lowest in eggs from Alaska. Significant eggshell thinning has occurred among eggs from most major areas sampled. Some eggs contained D