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Sample records for personnel dosemeters conrad

  1. 1983 ORNL intercomparison of personnel neutron and gamma dosemeters

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Ninth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted during April 19-21, 1983, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dosemeters from 33 participating agencies were mounted on water-filled polyethylene elliptical phantoms and exposed to a range of low-level dose equivalents (0.02-0.45 mSv gamma and 0.49-11.14 mSv neutron) which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the radiation source for six separate exposures which used four different shield conditions: unshielded and shielded with steel, steel/concrete, and concrete. Results of the neutron measurements indicate that it is not unusual for dose equivalent estimates made under the same conditions by different agencies to differ by more than a factor of 2. Albedo systems, which were the most popular neutron monitors in this study, provided the most accurate results with CR-39 recoil track being least accurate. Track and film neutron systems exhibited problems providing measurable indication of neutron exposure at dose equivalents of about 0.50 mSv. Gamma measurements showed that TLD and film systems generally overestimated dose equivalents in the mixed radiation fields with film exhibiting significant problems providing measurable indication of gamma exposure at dose equivalents lower than about 0.15 mSv. Under the conditions of this study in which exposures were carefully controlled and participants had information concerning exposure conditions and incident spectra prior to dosemeter analysis, only slightly more than half of all neutron and gamma dose equivalent estimates met regulatory accuracy standards relative to reference values. These results indicate that continued improvement of mixed-field personnel dosimetry is required by many participating organizations. 15 references, 30 tables.

  2. An estimate of the propagated uncertainty for a dosemeter algorithm used for personnel monitoring.

    PubMed

    Veinot, K G

    2015-03-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex utilises thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) to monitor personnel for external radiation doses. The TLD consist of four elements positioned behind various filters, and dosemeters are processed on site and input into an algorithm to determine worker dose. When processing dosemeters and determining the dose equivalent to the worker, a number of steps are involved, including TLD reader calibration, TLD element calibration, corrections for fade and background, and inherent sensitivities of the dosemeter algorithm. In order to better understand the total uncertainty in calculated doses, a series of calculations were performed using certain assumptions and measurement data. Individual contributions to the uncertainty were propagated through the process, including final dose calculations for a number of representative source types. Although the uncertainty in a worker's calculated dose is not formally reported, these calculations can be used to verify the adequacy of a facility's dosimetry process. PMID:25009187

  3. Performance characteristics of neutron personnel dosemeters used in the Oak Ridge intercomparison studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    To provide an opportunity for dosimetrists to test and calibrate their neutron personnel monitoring systems, the staff of the Dosimetry Applications Research Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies (PDIS) periodically since 1974. During these studies, neutron dosemeters are mailed to ORNL, exposed to low-level (less than 15 mSv) dose equivalents in a variety of mixed-radiation fields produced using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR), and then returned to the participants for evaluation. Beginning with the Seventh PDIS in 1981, interest and participation in the Oak Ridge intercomparisons increased significantly and consistent and documented methods for determining reference neutron dose equivalents for the HPRR were introduced. This paper presents a summary and analysis of about 3450 neutron dose equivalent measurements reported for PDIS 7 through 12 (1981-1986) with particular emphasis on low dose equivalent sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and performance relative to accreditation standards for the basic types of personnel dosimetry systems. (16 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel: dosemeters, calibration and practical aspects of H p (3) monitoring. A 2015 review.

    PubMed

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ferrari, Paolo; Bjelac, Olivera Ciraj; Gingaume, Merce; Merce, Marta Sans; O'Connor, Una

    2015-09-01

    A thorough literature review about the current situation on the implementation of eye lens monitoring has been performed in order to provide recommendations regarding dosemeter types, calibration procedures and practical aspects of eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel. Most relevant data and recommendations from about 100 papers have been analysed and classified in the following topics: challenges of today in eye lens monitoring; conversion coefficients, phantoms and calibration procedures for eye lens dose evaluation; correction factors and dosemeters for eye lens dose measurements; dosemeter position and influence of protective devices. The major findings of the review can be summarised as follows: the recommended operational quantity for the eye lens monitoring is H p (3). At present, several dosemeters are available for eye lens monitoring and calibration procedures are being developed. However, in practice, very often, alternative methods are used to assess the dose to the eye lens. A summary of correction factors found in the literature for the assessment of the eye lens dose is provided. These factors can give an estimation of the eye lens dose when alternative methods, such as the use of a whole body dosemeter, are used. A wide range of values is found, thus indicating the large uncertainty associated with these simplified methods. Reduction factors from most common protective devices obtained experimentally and using Monte Carlo calculations are presented. The paper concludes that the use of a dosemeter placed at collar level outside the lead apron can provide a useful first estimate of the eye lens exposure. However, for workplaces with estimated annual equivalent dose to the eye lens close to the dose limit, specific eye lens monitoring should be performed. Finally, training of the involved medical staff on the risks of ionising radiation for the eye lens and on the correct use of protective systems is strongly recommended. PMID

  5. Joseph Conrad: International Narrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, George

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the contribution made by Joseph Conrad's fictional writing to our understanding of cultural awareness. Never comfortable with his adopted English culture, Conrad used his experiences in different parts of the world during his career in the merchant navy to explore in his writing aspects of cultural dissonance and cultural…

  6. Performance characteristics of LiF thermoluminescent dosemeters employed in the National Personnel Radiation Dose Services in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngaile, J E; Muhogora, W E

    2004-06-01

    Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) have been used to estimate the personal dose equivalent for external occupationally exposed workers in Tanzania. The reliability and precision of dose measurements and the accuracy of dose evaluation are important factors for the improvement and achievement of individual monitoring objectives. In this piece of work we describe a study of the major characteristics of TLDs (linearity of response, photon energy response, batch homogeneity and uniformity, calibration of TLDs and TLD systems in terms of operational quantities, fading, etc) in order to initiate a routine performance testing and quality assurance programme to be undertaken by central personal dosimetry services. The energy response of the dosemeters relative to that measured using 137Cs gamma rays was found to vary between 1.0 and 1.3 over the range of 33-1250 keV (60Co). The linearity of the response for the TL dose dependence in the dose range of 0.1-30 mGy for 48 keV and 137Cs (662 keV) radiation protection qualities varied from 15% to 7% respectively, for both energies. The minimum detectable dose, the batch homogeneity and uniformity, and the batch reproducibility were found to be 0.1 mGy, 16%, and 9% respectively while the fading characteristic of doped LiF after a received dose of 3 mGy was found to be 6.3% over a one-month period. These results are discussed in order to demonstrate the degree of accuracy achieved and the need for its improvement where necessary. PMID:15296259

  7. Conrad Unfurls Flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 12 astronaut Charles 'Pete' Conrad stands beside the United States flag after is was unfurled on the lunar surface during the first extravehicular activity (EVA-1), on November 19, 1969. Several footprints made by the crew can be seen in the photograph.

  8. CONRAD Software Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, J. C.; Bennett, T.

    2008-08-01

    The Convergent Radio Astronomy Demonstrator (CONRAD) is a collaboration between the computing teams of two SKA pathfinder instruments, MeerKAT (South Africa) and ASKAP (Australia). Our goal is to produce the required common software to operate, process and store the data from the two instruments. Both instruments are synthesis arrays composed of a large number of antennas (40 - 100) operating at centimeter wavelengths with wide-field capabilities. Key challenges are the processing of high volume of data in real-time as well as the remote mode of operations. Here we present the software architecture for CONRAD. Our design approach is to maximize the use of open solutions and third-party software widely deployed in commercial applications, such as SNMP and LDAP, and to utilize modern web-based technologies for the user interfaces, such as AJAX.

  9. Conrad Gessner's Paratexts.

    PubMed

    Blair, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Throughout his prolific publishing career Conrad Gessner composed abundant paratexts which offer valuable insight into his methods of working. Gessner wrote many dedications, only a minority of which were addressed to major patrons of his day. Instead he used them to thank dozens of physicians and scholars for sending him information, images, and manuscripts for his ongoing projects. Gessner acknowledged new arrivals in successive publications and invited further contributions explicitly. In "to the readers" and other passages Gessner called attention to his future publication plans and his skill in working with printers and in editing manuscripts of recently deceased scholars, thereby also encouraging new commissions. Gessner was also a master indexer and innovated especially in drawing up the first index of authors cited for his edition of Stobaeus in 1543 and a new all-purpose index in his Stobaeus of 1549. Many other aspects of Gessner's paratexts warrant further study. PMID:27349033

  10. Effect of short-term sensitivity loss in LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosemeter and its implications on personnel dosimetry operations.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Alexander; Delzer, Jeffrey A; Grypp, Matthew D; Williams, Anthony S

    2016-02-01

    A short-term sensitivity loss in LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) was observed and is described. Its observation occurred during a pre-irradiation anneal with a slightly elevated maximum temperature (5-15°C), which causes notable under-response (5-10 %) of the subsequent read at the recommended time-temperature profile (TTP), which has a peak temperature of 260°C. A subsequent irradiation and reading using the recommended TTP showed partial or complete recovery of the TLD's sensitivity. To the best of our knowledge, there were no publications on possible implications of a one-time 5-15°C overheat of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs during anneal. This is not unusual when several readers with some variations in their heating cycles are used to calibrate and process the same population of dosemeters. A special test to identify if a small uncontrolled overheating of a dosemeter element has occurred was developed and tested. Two practical implications of the effect of a short-term sensitivity loss in LiF:Mg,Cu,P, e.g. inconsistency in results of metrological traceability verification and reporting of false neutron doses, are described in detail. Simple indicators of a small uncontrolled overheating are provided. PMID:25767182

  11. Joseph Conrad's tormented Rescue (fantasy).

    PubMed

    Freedman, William

    2014-02-01

    Joseph Conrad was a notoriously tormented writer for whom the creative act was often a punishment severe enough to drive him into paralyzing depressions that delayed the completion of his novels, sometimes for years. By far the most agonizing of these projects was The Rescue, a novel he began in 1898, abandoned a year later, tried unsuccessfully to continue several times over the next two decades, but was only able to resume in 1918 and to complete, after another tortured two-year struggle, in 1920. An explanation for this incapacity, that is powerfully suggested by the novel's evocative title and perhaps unintentionally ironic subtitle (A Romance of the Shallows) has not yet been explored. Using Freud's 1910 essay on the rescue fantasy, "Contributions to the Psychology of Love: A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men," and Emanuel Berman's instructive revision and expansion of the concept in his 2003 American Imago essay, "Ferenczi, Rescue, and Utopia," I argue that a substantial explanation for Conrad's tormented history with The Rescue is ascribable to its quite remarkably faithful treatment of a rescue fantasy with deep and disabling resonance for its author. More specifically, the difficulty was compounded by the novel's dramatization of the soul-crushing conflict between two such fantasies: one in the service of the masculine ideal of unflinching dedication to a heroic purpose, the other promising satisfaction to the equally potent demands of emotional and sexual desire. Features of Conrad's narrative fit so tightly and consistently with the theory as Freud (and Abraham) proposed and as Berman elaborated it that The Rescue offers itself as one of those rare and reinforcing instances wherein the literary text seems to validate the psychoanalytic theory at least as persuasively as the theory "understands" the text. PMID:24555549

  12. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs. (ACR)

  13. Conrad: gene prediction using conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    DeCaprio, David; Vinson, Jade P; Pearson, Matthew D; Montgomery, Philip; Doherty, Matthew; Galagan, James E

    2007-09-01

    We present Conrad, the first comparative gene predictor based on semi-Markov conditional random fields (SMCRFs). Unlike the best standalone gene predictors, which are based on generalized hidden Markov models (GHMMs) and trained by maximum likelihood, Conrad is discriminatively trained to maximize annotation accuracy. In addition, unlike the best annotation pipelines, which rely on heuristic and ad hoc decision rules to combine standalone gene predictors with additional information such as ESTs and protein homology, Conrad encodes all sources of information as features and treats all features equally in the training and inference algorithms. Conrad outperforms the best standalone gene predictors in cross-validation and whole chromosome testing on two fungi with vastly different gene structures. The performance improvement arises from the SMCRF's discriminative training methods and their ability to easily incorporate diverse types of information by encoding them as feature functions. On Cryptococcus neoformans, configuring Conrad to reproduce the predictions of a two-species phylo-GHMM closely matches the performance of Twinscan. Enabling discriminative training increases performance, and adding new feature functions further increases performance, achieving a level of accuracy that is unprecedented for this organism. Similar results are obtained on Aspergillus nidulans comparing Conrad versus Fgenesh. SMCRFs are a promising framework for gene prediction because of their highly modular nature, simplifying the process of designing and testing potential indicators of gene structure. Conrad's implementation of SMCRFs advances the state of the art in gene prediction in fungi and provides a robust platform for both current application and future research. PMID:17690204

  14. Astronaut Charles Conrad using the bicycle ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, during an exercise session on the bicycle ergometer in the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) in the Skylab 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit.

  15. Performance of Harshaw TLD-100H two-element Dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Luo, L Z; Rotunda, J E

    2006-01-01

    One of the advantages of LiF based thermoluminescent (TL) materials is its tissue-equivalent property. The Harshaw TLD-100H (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) material has demonstrated that it has a near-flat photon energy response and high sensitivity. With the optimized dosemeter filters built into the holder, the Harshaw TLD-100H two-element dosemeter can be used as a whole body personnel dosemeter for gamma, X ray and beta monitoring without the use of an algorithm or correction factor. This paper presents the dose performance of the Harshaw TLD-100H two-element dosemeter against the ANSI N13.11-2001 standard and the results of tests that are required in IEC 1066 International Standard. PMID:16644944

  16. Conrad Hal Waddington: the last Renaissance biologist?

    PubMed

    Slack, Jonathan M W

    2002-11-01

    Conrad Hal Waddington was a leading embryologist and geneticist from the 1930s to the 1950s. He is remembered mainly for his concepts of the 'epigenetic landscape' and 'genetic assimilation'. This article reviews his life and work, and enquires to what extent his ideas are relevant tools for understanding the biological problems of today. PMID:12415319

  17. The British Novel: Conrad to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Paul L.

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who desire a useful research tool, this bibliography cites the works of and about British novelists, beginning with Joseph Conrad and terminating in 1950. The listings are selective with proper emphasis given to less celebrated but distinctive writers. A preface explaining the numerous…

  18. Evaluation of the calibration procedure of active personal dosemeters for interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Bordy, J-M; Daures, J; Clairand, I; Denozière, M; Donadille, L; d'Errico, F; Gouriou, J; Itié, C; Struelens, L

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the use of active personal dosemeters (APD) in interventional radiology is presented. It is based on the work done by the working package 7 of the CONRAD coordinated action supported by the EC within the frame of the 6th FP. This study was done in collaboration with the working package 4 of CONRAD to deal with the calculations required for studying the new calibration facility. The main requirements of the standard for the APD and the difficulties caused by the use of pulsed radiations are presented through the results of an intercomparison organised in a realistic calibration facility similar to the workplace situation in interventional radiology. The main characteristics of this facility are presented. PMID:18757898

  19. Astronauts Weitz and Conrad suit up during prelaunch activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, prime crew pilot of the first manned Skylab mission, is suited up in bldg 5 at JSC during prelaunch training activity. He is assisted by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., prime crew commander. The man in the left background is wearing a face mask to insure that Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Weitz are not exposed to disease prior to launch.

  20. CONRAD Evaluation Code: Development Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Litaize, O.; Noguère, G.; Berge, L.; Privas, E.; Tamagno, P.

    2014-04-01

    CONRAD is an object-oriented code developed at CEA Cadarache since 2005 to treat issues occurring during the data assimilation process. The last new features of the code in terms of experimental, theoretical and interface aspects are presented in this paper. The experimental descriptions capabilities have been enhanced thanks to the implementation of both analytical (Chi-Square, Gaussian) and Monte-Carlo resolution functions which are required for neutron resonance shape analysis. On the theoretical aspects, efforts have been focused on the fast energy region with the wrapping of the ECIS and TALYS codes and the management of optical model and statistical parameters. These new features make it possible for CONRAD to currently perform evaluations from 0 to 20 MeV. Concerning the interfacing developments, a multigroup cross-sections generating tool and an ENDF parser have been recently improved to produce multigroup cross-section covariance matrices in the frame of the JEFF project. Several examples and comparisons with other codes (SAMMY, REFIT) are provided to validate each development.

  1. Neutron tomography instrument CONRAD at HZB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Manke, I.; Strobl, M.; Dawson, M.; Williams, S.; Banhart, J.

    2011-09-01

    The neutron tomography instrument CONRAD has been in operation since 2005 at the Hahn-Meitner research reactor at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). Over the last 5 years, significant developmental work has been performed to expand the radiographic and tomographic capabilities of the beamline [1-3]. New techniques have been implemented, including imaging with polarized neutrons [4-9], Bragg-edge mapping [10,11], high-resolution neutron imaging and grating interferometry [12-15]. These methods have been provided to the user community as tools to help address scientific problems over a broad range of topics such as superconductivity, materials research, life sciences [16,17], cultural heritage and paleontology [18,19]. Industrial applications including fuel cell research [20-27] have also been improved through these new developments. Descriptions and parameters of the developed options will be presented, along with prominent examples.

  2. Astronaut Conrad tweaks Astronaut Cooper's beard for the cameramen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr. tweaks Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper's eight-day growth of beard for the cameramen while onboard the prime recovery vessel after their Gemini 5 flight. The NASA Headquarter alternative photo number is 65-H-680.

  3. ["Trema, apophany, apocalypse"--is Conrad's phase model empirically founded?].

    PubMed

    Hambrecht, M; Häfner, H

    1993-12-01

    Among several phase models of beginning schizophrenia, the study by Conrad ("Die beginnende Schizophrenie. Versuch einer Gestaltanalyse des Wahns") was particularly impressive in German psychiatry. The ABC-Schizophrenia-study with its representative sample of 267 first-admissions and a careful retrospective assessment of emerging symptomatology made it possible to test the empirical basis of Conrad's model. In this operationalization "trema" was confirmed as the frequent first stage of the disease process, whereas Conrad's hypothesized order of the two following phrases (first "apophany", then "apocalypse") could not be validated. Therefore, Conrad's model cannot completely be generalized. Because the methods employed so far have some limitations, analyses of additional data (especially reports by significant others) may control and probably enhance the presented results. PMID:8112705

  4. Astronaut Charles Conrad checks out Human Vestibular Function experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Conrad is in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC. The reference sphere with a magnetic rod is used by the astronaut to indicate body orientation non-visually. The litter chair in which he is seated can be rotated by a motor at its base or, when not being rotated, can tilt forward, backward or to either side.

  5. APOLLO 12: C.Conrad Jr. collects geological samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 12: 'Pete' Conrad collects samples from the lunar surface, while at the same time adjusting to, and remarking on, the working conditions. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 12: 'Pinpoint for Science'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 12: Second manned lunar landing and return with Charles 'Pete' Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, and Alan F. Bean. Landed in the Ocean of Storms on November 19, 1969; deployed television camera and ALSEP experiments; two EVA's performed; collected core samples and lunar materials; photographed and retrieved parts from surveyor 3 spacecraft. Mission duration 244hrs 36min 24sec

  6. Astronaut Charles Conrad following exercise session on bicycle ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, wipes perspiration from his face following an exercise session on the bicycle ergometer during Skylab training at JSC. Conrad is in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC. In addition to being the prime exercise for the crewmen, the ergometer is also used for the vector-cardiogram test and the metabolic activity experiment. The bicycle ergometer produces measured work loads for use in determining man's metabolic effectiveness.

  7. Qualification of the bubble detector as neutron dosemeter at the MOX plant of BELGONUCLEAIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockerols, P.; De Smet, F.; Vandergheynst, A.

    2000-07-01

    Due to the increasing contribution of the neutron dose to the total dose of the BELGONUCLEAIRE personnel and the introduction of the ICRP 60 recommendations,1 the use of a more reliable personal neutron dosemeter has become even more important. A Canadian2 dosimeter manufactured by Bubble Technology Industries seemed to be a very interesting alternative to the albedo dosimeter used in the past. An extensive investigation program was carried out at BELGONUCLEAIRE to determine the effectiveness of the new dosimeter in the fuel fabrication plant environment. A series of tests were conducted to get a better understanding of this type of dosemeter.

  8. Astronauts Conrad and Kerwin practice Human Vestibular Function experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, science pilot of the mission, goes over a checklist. The two men are in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC.

  9. Astronauts Conrad and Gordon demonstrate tethering procedures for news media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Charles Conrad (left), command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon (right), pilot, demonstrate tether procedure between their Gemini 11 spacecraft and the Agena Target Docking Vehicle at the post flight press conference. They use models of their spacecraft and its Agena to illustrate maneuvers.

  10. Astronauts Conrad and Gordon demonstrate tethering procedures for news media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Charles Conrad (center), command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon (right), pilot, demonstrate tether procedure between their Gemini 11 spacecraft and the Agena Target Docking Vehicle at the post flight press conference. They use models of their spacecraft and its Agena to illustrate maneuvers. At left is George Low, Deputy Director, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston.

  11. Astronaut Charles Conrad during visual acuity experiments over Laredo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., pilot for the prime crew on the Gemini 5 space flight, takes pictures of predetermined land areas during visual acuity experiments over Laredo, Texas. The experiments will aid in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

  12. Astronauts Cooper and Conrad prepare cameras during visual acuity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles Conrad Jr., pilot, the prime crew of the Gemini 5 space flight, prepare their cameras while aboard a C-130 aircraft flying near Laredo. The two astronauts are taking part in a series of visual acuity experiments to aid them in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

  13. The origins of Michael Conrad's research programs (1964-1979).

    PubMed

    Pattee, H H

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes Michael Conrad's academic and professional career from the time he began his Ph.D. studies in 1964 to his appointment at Wayne State University in 1979. It describes the origins of several of his major research interests and presents a personal evaluation of how this early work continues to be of fundamental importance. PMID:11755483

  14. From films to thermoluminescence dosemeters: the Greek Atomic Energy Commission experience.

    PubMed

    Carinou, E; Drikos, G; Hourdakis, C; Hyvönen, H; Kamenopoulou, V

    2001-01-01

    The personnel dosimetry department of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) assures the individual monitoring of almost 8000 occupationally exposed workers. Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems will replace the existing photographic dosimetry system for the individual monitoring with the joint support of IAEA and GAEC. The thermoluminescence dosimetry system consists of two automated readers, one automated irradiator and about 20,000 dosemeters purchased from the Rados Co. The properties of two thermoluminescent materials have been compared: LiF has been chosen for the whole-body dosemeter configuration and Li2B4O7 for the extremities. The technical evaluation of the system has been performed according to the European and IEC standards. The overall uncertainty has been calculated. The existing database system, and the accounting and dispatching procedures have been adapted to the new demands. The system became operational on March 2000, and the official distribution of thermoluminescence dosemeters has begun. PMID:11586730

  15. Comparison on characteristics of radiophotoluminescent glass dosemeters and thermoluminescent dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Ming; Yeh, Shann-Horng; Lin, Meei-Shiow; Chen, Wei-Li

    2006-01-01

    The radiophotoluminescent glass dosemeter (RPLGD) system is applicable for measurement of radiation dose of X rays and gamma rays by using radiophotoluminescent glass (silver-activated phosphate glass). When the radiophotoluminescent glass is exposed to ionizing radiation, stable luminescent centres are created. During pulsed ultraviolet laser excitation (337.1 nm) in the reader, the centres emit a radiation induced orange fluorescent light (600-700 nm). This phenomenon is called radiophotoluminescence. This study compared the RPLGD system with lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescence dosimetry system and the results of the study revealed that the RPLGD had not only good basic characteristics for reproducibility of readout value, dose linearity, energy dependence and fading, but also infinite repeatable measurements and could be one of the most important radiation dose measurement instruments. PMID:16709718

  16. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin takes blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (right), Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, takes a blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Sylab 2 commander, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. The blood sampling was part of the Skylab Hematology and Immunology Experiment M110 series.

  17. Astronaut Charles Conrad trims hair of Astronaut Paul Weitz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, trims the hair of Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission in Earth orbit. They are in the crew quarters wardroom of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station. Weitz is holding a vacuum hose in his right hand. This picture was taken by Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot.

  18. Joseph Conrad's Empathy for Exploited Africans in "The Heart of Darkness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Ena L.

    1990-01-01

    Seemingly contradictory positions of J. Conrad as both a racist and an opponent of race-based imperial practices are discussed with reference to "The Heart of Darkness." It is argued that Conrad made a conscious effort to shake off the racial theories of the time and to deplore imperial racism. (SLD)

  19. Astronauts Alan Bean and Charles Conrad on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Their lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. In this photograph, one of the astronauts on the Moon's surface is holding a container of lunar soil. The other astronaut is seen reflected in his helmet. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  20. Skylab beverage container filled with orange juice held by Astronaut Conrad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An accordian-style beverage dispenser filled with orange juice is held by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, in this close-up view which is a reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. Conrad (head and face not in view) is seated at the wardroom table in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop. The dispenser contained beverage crystals, and Conrad has just added the prescribed amount of water to make the orange drink.

  1. Recent Developments in the CONRAD Code regarding Experimental Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archier, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Kopecky, S.; Litaize, O.; Noguère, G.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Volev, K.

    2013-03-01

    The CONRAD code is an object-oriented software tool developed at CEA Cadarache since 2005 to deal with problems arising during the evaluation process (data assimilation and analysis, physical modelling, propagation of uncertainties…). This paper will present recent developments concerning the experimental corrections, which are required when a neutron resonance shape analysis is performed. Several experimental aspects are detailed in this work: the possibility to use spectra in energy as well as in time, the implementation of both analytical (Chi-Square) and Monte-Carlo resolution functions, the sample homogeneity corrections using log-normal distributions. Each development aspect is illustrated with several examples and comparisons with other resonance analysis codes (SAMMY, REFIT).

  2. The CONRAD approach to biokinetic modeling of DTPA decorporation therapy.

    PubMed

    Breustedt, Bastian; Blanchardon, Eric; Bérard, Philippe; Fritsch, Paul; Giussani, Augusto; Lopez, Maria Antonia; Luciani, Andrea; Nosske, Dietmar; Piechowski, Jean; Schimmelpfeng, Jutta; Sérandour, Anne-Laure

    2010-10-01

    Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) is used for decorporation of plutonium because it is known to be able to enhance its urinary excretion for several days after treatment by forming stable Pu-DTPA complexes. The decorporation prevents accumulation in organs and results in a dosimetric benefit, which is difficult to quantify from bioassay data using existing models. The development of a biokinetic model describing the mechanisms of actinide decorporation by administration of DTPA was initiated as a task in the European COordinated Network on RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD). The systemic biokinetic model from Leggett et al. and the biokinetic model for DTPA compounds of International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 53 were the starting points. A new model for biokinetics of administered DTPA based on physiological interpretation of 14C-labeled DTPA studies from literature was proposed by the group. Plutonium and DTPA biokinetics were modeled separately. The systems were connected by means of a second order kinetics process describing the chelation process of plutonium atoms and DTPA molecules to Pu-DTPA complexes. It was assumed that chelation only occurs in the blood and in systemic compartment ST0 (representing rapid turnover soft tissues), and that Pu-DTPA complexes and administered forms of DTPA share the same biokinetic behavior. First applications of the CONRAD approach showed that the enhancement of plutonium urinary excretion after administration of DTPA was strongly influenced by the chelation rate constant. Setting it to a high value resulted in a good fit to the observed data. However, the model was not yet satisfactory since the effects of repeated DTPA administration in a short time period cannot be predicted in a realistic way. In order to introduce more physiological knowledge into the model several questions still have to be answered. Further detailed studies of human contamination cases and experimental data will be needed in

  3. SIMPLE SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE-BASED DOSEMETER.

    PubMed

    Urbonavičius, Benas Gabrielis; Adlienė, Diana

    2016-06-01

    The interest to application of various surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based sensors for the investigation of chemical and biological processes in thin layers deposited on the grating's surface/media is developing. Characterisation of processes as well as specimen's features might be performed analysing variations in optical properties (refraction index) of these thin layers. SPR sensors by default are characterised by high resolution and small uncertainties, and measurements might be performed in situ High-resolution, low-cost, SPR-based dosemeter concept has been proposed and realised depositing dose-sensitive nPAG gel layer onto diffraction grating's surface. The experimental set-up and method for information read out from the sensor were developed and implemented. Obtained results show a potential application of SPR-based dosemeter for dose measurements/mapping in steep gradient fields and/or large area fields. PMID:26535002

  4. State of the Art in Electronic Dosemeters for Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Luszik-Bhadra, Marlies

    2011-05-05

    The paper presents an overview of electronic personal dosemeters for neutrons in mixed neutron/photon fields. The energy response of commercially available electronic dosemeters in quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields and their performance in working places is discussed. The response curves are extended to high-energy neutrons up to 100 MeV, new prototype dosemeters are described and discussed especially for use at high-energy accelerators and in space.

  5. State of the Art in Electronic Dosemeters for Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, Marlies

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents an overview of electronic personal dosemeters for neutrons in mixed neutron/photon fields. The energy response of commercially available electronic dosemeters in quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields and their performance in working places is discussed. The response curves are extended to high-energy neutrons up to 100 MeV, new prototype dosemeters are described and discussed especially for use at high-energy accelerators and in space.

  6. Tenth ORNL Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Chou, T.L.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Tenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during April 9-11, 1984. Dosemeter badges from 31 participating organizations were mounted on 40cm Lucite phantoms and exposed to a range of dose equivalents which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the only source of radiation for eight of the ten irradiations which included a low (approx. 0.50 mSv) and high (approx. 10.00 mSv) neutron dose equivalent run for each of four shield conditions. Two irradiations were also conducted for which concrete- and Lucite-shield reactor irradiations were gamma-enhanced using a /sup 137/Cs source. Results indicated that some participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron and gamma exposures at dose equivalents less than about 0.50 mSv and 0.20 mSv, respectively. Albedo dosemeters provided the best overall accuracy and precision for the neutron measurements. Direct interaction TLD systems showed significant variation in accuracy with incident spectrum, and threshold neutron dosemeters (film and recoil track) underestimated reference values by more than 50%. Gamma dose equivalents estimated in the mixed fields were higher than reference values with TL gamma dosemeters generally yielding more accurate results than film. Under the conditions of this study in which participants had information concerning exposure conditions and radiation field characteristics prior to dosemeter evaluation, only slightly more than half of all reported results met regulatory standards for neutron and gamma accuracy. 19 refs., 2 figs., 29 tabs.

  7. Response of dosemeters in the radiation field generated by a TW-class laser system.

    PubMed

    Olšovcová, V; Klír, D; Krása, J; Krůs, M; Velyhan, A; Zelenka, Z; Rus, B

    2014-10-01

    State-of-the-art laser systems are able to generate ionising radiation of significantly high energies by focusing ultra-short and intense pulses onto targets. Thus, measures ensuring the radiation protection of both working personnel and the general public are required. However, commercially available dosemeters are primarily designed for measurement in continuous fields. Therefore, it is important to explore their response to very short pulses. In this study, the responses of dosemeters in a radiation field generated by iodine high-power and Ti:Sapphire laser systems are examined in proton and electron acceleration experiments. Within these experiments, electron bunches of femtosecond pulse duration and 100-MeV energy and proton bunches with sub-nanosecond pulse duration and energy of several megaelectronvolts were generated in single-shot regimes. Responses of typical detectors (TLD, films and electronic personal dosemeter) were analysed and compared. Further, a first attempt was carried out to characterise the radiation field generated by TW-class laser systems. PMID:24563524

  8. Operational experience of electronic active personal dosemeter and comparison with CaSo4:Dy TL dosemeter in Indian PHWR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Managanvi, S S; Bihari, R R; Bhat, H R

    2013-01-01

    Direct reading dosemeter has been used for day-to-day radiation exposure control and management for last four decades in Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently new real time, alarm and pre-alarm on equivalent dose/dose rate, storage of dose/dose rate and maximum dose rate, user-friendly electronic active personal dosemeter (APD) has been implemented into practice for the first time at Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4,  of Indian NPPs. The dosemeter showed tolerance level (L) 0.1085±0.0450 compared with 0.1869±0.0729 (average±SD) for CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter, having narrow range trumpet curve, nil electromagnetic interference. Records of >29 000 for APD and TL dosemeter were analysed for comparasion of the measurement of the individual dose. APD followed general acceptance rule of ±25 % for dose >1 mSv. Monthly Station collective dose by TL dosemeters and APD for normal reactor operation as well as outage are found in good agreement. Operational experiences and statistical analysis support that an APD dosemeter is reasonably equivalent to CaSO4:Dy TL dosemeter. The accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement of radiation for (137)Cs are comparable with CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter. Operational experience of APD during the normal operation as well as outage showed as one of the best ALARA tool for occupational dose monitoring, control, management and future outage planning. PMID:23528326

  9. Personal photon dosemeter trial--Devonport Royal Dockyard.

    PubMed

    Collison, Roger

    2005-03-01

    To establish an understanding of the operational responses of various personal dosemeters employed at Devonport and to assess new types of dosemeters, a photon dosemeter trial was conducted. Most day-to-day exposure is to relatively low dose rates. Therefore the suitability of each dosemeter for use within the relatively low Devonport dose rate environment has been assessed. The Panasonic TLD demonstrated a good representation of the dose within the medium to higher gamma energy ranges with an unexpected under-response at lower energies. The optically stimulated luminescent dosemeter showed a varied response within a degraded (60)Co environment. With consistent under-response, the NRPB TLD and film badge were found to generally be unsuitable for sites such as Devonport. The Harshaw TLD demonstrated a good representation of the dose. The RADOS RAD80 and QFD fail to meet current best industry standards. However, the QFD is the only direct reading dosemeter suitable for use where intrinsically safe equipment is required. The RADOS RAD52 and SAIC PD 2i show a reasonable representation of the dose received but should be adjusted to read within an operational (60)Co environment. Direct ion storage and Thermo [corrected] electronic personal dosemeters showed good representations of the dose. Inherent characteristics combined with the associated systems led to the conclusion that these dosemeters should be employed for preference. PMID:15798276

  10. A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations.

    PubMed

    Jones, L A; Stokes, R P

    2011-03-01

    The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines). PMID:21346288

  11. Barium dithionate as an EPR dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Baran, M P; Bugay, O A; Kolesnik, S P; Maksimenko, V M; Teslenko, V V; Petrenko, T L; Desrosiers, M F

    2006-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry is growing in popularity and this success has encouraged the search for other dosimetric materials. Previous studies of gamma-irradiated barium dithionate (BaS(2)O(6) x 2H(2)O) have shown promise for its use as a radiation dosemeter. This work studies in greater detail several essential attributes of the system. Special attention has been directed to the study of EPR response dependences on microwave power, irradiation temperature, minimum detectable dose and post-irradiation stability. PMID:16565205

  12. A neutron dosemeter for nuclear criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, F; Curzio, G; Ciolini, R; Del Gratta, A; Nath, R

    2004-01-01

    A neutron dosemeter which offers instant read-out has been developed for nuclear criticality accidents. The system is based on gels containing emulsions of superheated dichlorodifluoromethane droplets, which vaporise into bubbles upon neutron irradiation. The expansion of these bubbles displaces an equivalent volume of gel into a graduated pipette, providing an immediate measure of the dose. Instant read-out is achieved using an array of transmissive optical sensors which consist of coupled LED emitters and phototransistor receivers. When the gel displaced in the pipette crosses the sensing region of the photomicrosensors, it generates a signal collected on a computer through a dedicated acquisition board. The performance of the device was tested during the 2002 International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison in Valduc, France. The dosemeter was able to follow the initial dose gradient of a simulated accident, providing accurate values of neutron kerma; however, the emulsion was rapidly depleted of all its drops. A model of the depletion effects was developed and it indicates that an adequate dynamic range of the dose response can be achieved by using emulsions of smaller droplets. PMID:15353696

  13. Gemini 11 Commander Conrad and Pilot Gordon at post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gemini 11 Commander Charles Conrad, Jr (left) and Pilot Richard F. Gordon, Jr describe mission activities during their post flight press conference at JSC. Gordon at the microphone talks about the extravehicular activity (EVA) photo projected behind the two crewmembers. During the EVA Gordon attached a tether to the Agena and retrieved a nuclear emulsion experiment package.

  14. Astronauts Conrad and Cooper slice cake on U.S.S. Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. prepate to slice into the huge cake prepared for them by the cooks onboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain. They are using ornamental Navy swords for knives.

  15. Calibration of Far West Technology (FWT-60) radiachromic dye dosemeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Zaidi, M.K.

    1992-08-01

    Radiachromic dye dosimetry was used to measure kilogray doses absorbed by various liquid samples during gamma-ray exposure in a spent nuclear fuel pool. The source of nuclear fuel was the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Calibrations were performed using a {sup 60}Co source and were run on bare dosemeters, as well as on dosemeters which mocked to simulate the samples. These dosemeters were prepared as a dye-impregnated nylon film and are commercially available. When exposed to gamma-ray doses of 0.5 to 200 kGy, a color change occurs which has an optical density proportional to absorbed dose. The difference in the calibration curves demonstrated the importance of irradiation of dosemeters under conditions as close to the actual samples as possible. Since these dosemeters could not be immersed directly in the organic solutions of interest, they were sandwiched between layers of lucite and stainless steel. This simulated the conditions inside an irradiated sample and provides a practical method of measuring absorbed doses. The reproducibility of measurements using the radiachromic dye dosemeters is also shown. 10 refs.

  16. Calibration of Far West Technology (FWT-60) radiachromic dye dosemeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Zaidi, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Radiachromic dye dosimetry was used to measure kilogray doses absorbed by various liquid samples during gamma-ray exposure in a spent nuclear fuel pool. The source of nuclear fuel was the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Calibrations were performed using a {sup 60}Co source and were run on bare dosemeters, as well as on dosemeters which mocked to simulate the samples. These dosemeters were prepared as a dye-impregnated nylon film and are commercially available. When exposed to gamma-ray doses of 0.5 to 200 kGy, a color change occurs which has an optical density proportional to absorbed dose. The difference in the calibration curves demonstrated the importance of irradiation of dosemeters under conditions as close to the actual samples as possible. Since these dosemeters could not be immersed directly in the organic solutions of interest, they were sandwiched between layers of lucite and stainless steel. This simulated the conditions inside an irradiated sample and provides a practical method of measuring absorbed doses. The reproducibility of measurements using the radiachromic dye dosemeters is also shown. 10 refs.

  17. Holocene polar front migrations over the Conrad Rise in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehara, M.; Katsuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Yamane, M.; Khim, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern Ocean has played a significant role in the global climate system during the geologic past. In order to understand the paleoceanographic variations with the polar front system and Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), we conducted two cruises KH-07-4 and KH-10-7 in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Two piston cores were collected from the Conrad Rise. We examined centennial-scale changes of diatom assemblages and stable isotopic ratios in planktic foraminifera during the Holocene in a high-accumulation-rate sediment core from the Conrad Rise. Although abundances of dominant diatom taxa (Fragilariopsis kerguelensis and Thalassiothrix antarctica) are comparatively constant, relative abundances of secondary taxa fluctuate. Before ca 9900 cal. yr BP, winter sea-ice and cold water covered the Conrad Rise. Following deglaciation the sea-ice retreated from the Conrad Rise. The Polar Front moved southward during the early Holocene optimum and north Antarctic Zone waters covered the Conrad Rise for about 650 yr. After 9300 cal. yr BP, solar insolation strongly influenced sea surface temperature and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean. In the high-latitude Indian Sector, productivity increased 1500 yr after the onset of late Holocene neoglaciation. Periodic δ18O and cold-water diatom taxa spikes (at intervals of 200 and 300-500 yr, respectively) occurred after 9300 cal. yr BP, probably associated with solar activity. Fluctuations in short-term sea surface temperature and cold-water taxa are synchronous with changes in dD observed in an east Antarctic ice core.

  18. Performance of the EPD-N2 dosemeter for monitoring aircrew doses.

    PubMed

    Scherpelz, R I; Cezeaux, J R

    2015-03-01

    United States Air Force (USAF) aircrew fly at altitudes and for durations where doses from cosmic radiation are significant enough to warrant monitoring. This study evaluated a candidate radiological monitoring system for USAF aircrew, the Thermo Scientific electronic personnel dosemeter (EPD-N2). The evaluation consisted of characterising the device in a well-characterised radiation field at a European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) accelerator, and aboard an USAF aircraft. The performance of the EPDs was evaluated by comparison with accepted values for dose at the CERN facility, comparison with the value calculated by flight dose software and comparison with the value estimated by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter aboard the aircraft. This study recommends that a correction factor of 1/CF = 1/3.9 be applied to EPD-N2 measurements aboard aircraft flights. The uncertainty in this correction factor is 11.8 %. PMID:25108394

  19. Results of the EURADOS extremity dosemeter intercomparison 2009.

    PubMed

    Stadtmann, H; Grimbergen, T W M; Figel, M; Romero, A M; McWhan, A F

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an intercomparison for extremity dosemeters organised by the European radiation dosimetry group in 2009. In total, 59 systems were tested during this exercise including ring, stall and wrist dosemeters. A total of 1652 dosemeters were irradiated in the selected fields of photons and beta radiation qualities on appropriate phantoms (ISO finger and pillar phantom) in the dose quantity H(p)(0.07). All irradiations were carried out in selected accredited reference dosemetry laboratories (Seibersdorf Laboratories, Austria and IRSN, France). The results show that, especially at low-energy beta radiations ((85)Kr) and for beta irradiations with large angles of incidence (60°), many tested systems show pronounced under responses. On the other hand, for photon irradiations down to energies of 16 keV most systems showed good results. A participants meeting was held at IM2010 with discussion on both general aspects of this intercomparison and specific problems. PMID:21196458

  20. Paediatric personnel extremity dose study.

    PubMed

    Gallet, J M C; Reed, M H

    2002-03-01

    Concern has been expressed in paediatric radiology regarding the magnitude of the extremity dose received by attending personnel during routine fluoroscopic procedures and CT. Common procedures that may be of short duration in adults can be quite the opposite in paediatric patients. The extremities of attending personnel are more likely to be exposed to the primary beam and for a longer period of time owing to a variety of reasons such as assisting in the procedure or physically restraining the patient during the examination. During the period mid 1998 to mid 2000, two paediatric radiologists, four senior radiographers and two paediatric nurses were monitored using ring thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Each participant wore the ring TLD on either the left or right ring finger, depending on which hand the individual favoured. Left/right asymmetrical studies were not conducted, nor were records kept of whether an examination used a grid or gridless technique. Initial apprehension about higher paediatric fluoroscopic and CT extremity doses was dispelled as a result of this quantitative dosimetric study. PMID:11932219

  1. Study of minimum detection limit of TLD personnel monitoring system in India.

    PubMed

    Sneha, C; Pradhan, S M; Adtani, M M

    2010-09-01

    Personnel monitoring of radiation workers in India is carried out using a thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system based on CaSO(4):Dy Teflon TLD disc. The dose due to occupational exposure for a majority of radiation workers is very small and hence is reported as zero. In view of this the detection of low levels of occupational dose over and above a variable background assumes great importance. The present values of reporting levels are based on the standard deviations of annealed dosemeters and therefore are fixed irrespective of period of use and background radiation levels. The validity of these levels is investigated under laboratory conditions. The laboratory values of standard deviations cannot be used as an indication of the imprecision that occurs during service. Therefore, the validity of the reporting levels is also investigated for control dosemeters used in routine service. PMID:20511403

  2. Being a Stranger and the Strangeness of Being: Joseph Conrad's "The Secret Sharer" as an Allegory of Being in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwieler, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Joseph Conrad's "The Secret Sharer" has often been associated with what can be called initiation stories. However, in this article I argue that Conrad's text is more than that. It can, I suggest, be read as an allegory of the inaccessibility to reveal the essence of being in command, being in education, and also the…

  3. PERSONNEL DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Birkhoff, R.D.; Hubbell, H.H. Jr.; Johnson, R.M.

    1959-02-24

    A personnel dosimeter sensitive to both gamma and beta radiation is described. The dosimeter consists of an electrical conductive cylinder having a wall thickness of substantially 7 milligrams per square centimeter and an electrode disposed axially within the cylinder and insulated therefrom to maintain a potential impressed between the electrode and the cylinder. A cylindrical perforated shield provided with a known percentage of void area is disposed concentrically about the cylinder. The shield is formed of a material which does not contain more than 15 percent of an element higher than atomic weight 13. The dose actually received is at most the gamma dose plus the beta dose indicated by discharge of the dosimeter divided by the known percentage.

  4. Polarized neutron imaging at the CONRAD instrument at Helmholtz Centre Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manke, Ingo; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Strobl, Markus; Dawson, Martin; Banhart, John

    2009-06-01

    Neutrons are highly sensitive to magnetic fields because of their intrinsic magnetic moment. At the same time, their zero net electrical charge allows them to penetrate thick layers of matter. In combination with standard radiographic and tomographic imaging techniques, these properties have been exploited to visualize magnetic fields in free space and within the bulk of solid, massive, opaque samples. In this paper, the basic principle of this new technique and its realization at the CONRAD instrument at the Helmholtz Centre Berlin (formerly Hahn-Meitner Institute Berlin) are explained. Two application examples will be given: the visualization of the magnetic field around a permanent magnet and the investigation of the displacement of the current density from the core of a conductor to the surface (the skin effect).

  5. Circulation of images and graphic practices in Renaissance natural history: the example of Conrad Gessner.

    PubMed

    Egmond, Florike; Kusukawa, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Conrad Gessner's Historia animalium is a compilation of information from a variety of sources: friends, correspondents, books, broadsides, drawings, as well as his own experience. The recent discovery of a cache of drawings at Amsterdam originally belonging to Gessner has added a new dimension for research into the role of images in Gessner's study of nature. In this paper, we examine the drawings that were the basis of the images in the volume of fishes. We uncovered several cases where there were multiple copies of the same drawing of a fish (rather than multiple drawings of the samefish), which problematizes the notion of unique "original" copies and their copies. While we still know very little about the actual mechanism of, or people involved in, commissioning or generating copies of drawings, their very existence suggests that the images functioned as an important medium in the circulation of knowledge in the early modern period. PMID:27349032

  6. A method for evaluating personal dosemeters in workplace with neutron fields.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Nascimento, Luana; Cauwels, Vanessa; Vanhavere, Filip

    2012-04-01

    Passive detectors, as albedo or track-etch, still dominate the field of neutron personal dosimetry, mainly due to their low-cost, high-reliability and elevated throughput. However, the recent appearance in the market of electronic personal dosemeters for neutrons presents a new option for personal dosimetry. In addition to passive detectors, electronic personal dosemeters necessitate correction factors, concerning their energy and angular response dependencies. This paper reports on the results of a method to evaluate personal dosemeters for workplace where neutrons are present. The approach here uses few instruments and does not necessitate a large mathematical workload. Qualitative information on the neutron energy spectrum is acquired using a simple spectrometer (Nprobe), reference values for H*(10) are derived from measurements with ambient detectors (Studsvik, Berthold and Harwell) and angular information is measured using personal dosemeters (electronic and bubbles dosemeters) disposed in different orientations on a slab phantom. PMID:21565843

  7. Personnel doses in haemodynamic units in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kottou, S; Neofotistou, V; Tsapaki, V; Lobotessi, H; Manetou, A; Molfetas, M G

    2001-01-01

    Personnel of haemodynamic and interventional radiology units receive continuously increasing radiation doses due to extended fluoroscopy. Moreover, there is not a parallel increase in the number of cardiology specialists involved. Doses received by 15 cardiologists and 5 nurses, in 5 Athenian hospitals were measured using thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) and film badges. The workload and examination protocol of each cardiologist, the technical characteristics of the X ray unit, as well as availability and use of protective equipment were recorded. Results show that doses measured by TLD and film badges differ due mainly to the irregular wear of the latter. Although X ray units performed comparably with each other, dose per procedure received by each cardiologist varied widely, due to differences in examination protocol and beam collimation used. In all cases, nurses' dose was approximately one fourth of cardiologists' dose. In half of the cases assessed, the protective equipment available was not in full use. Estimation of dose per procedure, taking into account personnel's workload assesses annual personnel doses. Evaluation of risk level and check of compliance with regulatory dose limits should be part of continuing radiation protection education. PMID:11487818

  8. Type testing of the Siemens Plessey electronic personal dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Hirning, C R; Yuen, P S

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter, the Electronic Personal Dosemeter made by Siemens Plessey Controls Limited. Twenty pre-production dosimeters and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. Tests were performed on radiological performance, including reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, detection threshold, energy response, angular response, neutron response, and response time. There were also tests on the effects of a variety of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pulsed magnetic and electric fields, low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields, light exposure, drop impact, vibration, and splashing. Other characteristics that were tested were alarm volume, clip force, and battery life. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards: an Ontario Hydro standard for personal alarming dosimeters, an International Electrotechnical Commission draft standard for direct reading personal dose monitors, and an International Electrotechnical Commission standard for thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal monitoring. In general, the performance of the Electronic Personal Dosemeter was found to be quite acceptable: it met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency electromagnetic fields; poor resistance to dropping; and an alarm that was not loud enough. In addition, the response of the electronic personal dosimeter to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. Problems were experienced with the reliability of operation of the pre-production dosimeters used in these tests. PMID:7790213

  9. Calibration, performance and type testing of personal dosemeters used in ionising-radiation applications in Greece.

    PubMed

    Boziari, A; Hourdakis, C J

    2007-01-01

    Active Personal Dosemeters (APDs) are widely used in real-time personal dosimetry. Their performance, operational characteristics and limitations, as well as their calibration should be routinely checked to assure satisfactory operation and safe use. This study summarises the results of such type tests and calibrations performed in almost 4750 dosemeters at Ionising Radiation Calibration Laboratory (HIRCL) of Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). About 13.8% of the pencil type and 4.3% of the electronic dosemeters were found to be out of limits of acceptable performance. For the pencil type dosemeters, the mean calibration factor (CF+/-SD) for high- and low-dose categories was found to be 1.014+/-0.102 (range 0.793-1.458) and 0.995+/-0.059 (range 0.794-1.311), respectively. Of these >85% of them had reproducibility better than 90%, while <1% showed remarkable non-linearity and approximately 10% of them failed to retain the dose reading within the limits after 24 h. For the electronic dosemeters, the mean CF was 1.034+/-0.046 (range 0.967-1.238). The majority of them showed good reproducibility and linearity results while, after irradiation, the dose readings were not shifted through time. The energy response varies with the dosemeter type, reaching in one dosemeter type down to 50%. Both electronic and pencil did not showed electronic equilibrium problems. PMID:17185312

  10. Subsurface temporal variation of radon at the Conrad Geophysical Observatory, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Roman; Steinitz, Gideon; Piatibratova, Oksana

    2015-04-01

    The Conrad Observatory (COBS) housed the national geophysical observatory of Austria and is located 50 km south west of Vienna within the carbonate sequence of the "Wettersteinkalk". Parameters monitored at the facility comprise environmental data, seismic signals, gravity, geomagnetic components and also natural gamma rays. A subsurface tunnel, 150 meters long and oriented E-W is driven into the calcareous sequence at a depth of 50 meters. The tunnel is lined with a concrete carapace, ~20 cm thick. The tunnel observatory is separated from the external atmosphere by 3 tight doors, resulting in a stable temperature of 6.85±0.04°C. A gamma detector (3×3", NaI, SCA) is used measure the variation of the gamma radiation from radon in the air of the tunnel, at a resolution of 1 minute, which is accumulated to form a 15-minute count rate. The sensor is placed on a concrete block at 135 meters. Several SSNTD measurements in the tunnel indicated radon level in the level of 1.5 kBq/m^3. The background gamma radiation, due probably mainly to sources in the concrete is in the order to 2×105 counts (per 15-minutes). A long term variation of radon is reflected as an annual radon signal with large amplitude (2×105 counts) and a maximum in summer. Small to large (2×105 counts) non periodic multi-day signals lasting from two to several tens of days are superimposed. Daily periodic signals of much lower amplitude are observed, with amplitudes generally up to 4×104 counts. The amplitude of the non-periodic multi-day is coupled to amplitude of the annual signal, and the amplitude of the periodic daily signal is modulated by the multi-day variation. The source of the radon in the air of the tunnel is from the concrete lining the floor and walls of the tunnel. The variation patterns and their systematic characteristics cannot be ascribed to local variations of pressure and temperature (stable). These limitations indicate that other driver(s), external to the tunnel, are forcing

  11. The use of active personal dosemeters as a personal monitoring device: comparison with TL dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Boziari, A; Koukorava, C; Carinou, E; Hourdakis, C J; Kamenopoulou, V

    2011-03-01

    The use of active personal dosemeters (APDs) not only as a warning device but also, in some cases, as an official and hence stand-alone dosemeter is rapidly increasing. A comparison in terms of dose, energy and angle dependence, among different types of APD and a routinely used whole-body thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) has been performed. Significant differences were found between the TLD readings and mainly some not commonly used APDs. The importance of choosing the best adapted APD according to the radiation field characteristics is pointed out. PMID:21196464

  12. The new cold neutron radiography and tomography instrument CONRAD at HMI Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilger, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Strobl, M.; Treimer, W.; Banhart, J.

    2006-11-01

    The new cold neutron radiography instrument CONRAD is a multifunctional facility for radiography and tomography with cold neutrons at Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin. It is located at the end of a curved neutron guide, which faces the cold-neutron source of the BER-II research reactor. The geometry provides a cold-neutron beam with wavelengths between 2 and 12 Å. Two measuring positions are available for radiography and tomography investigations. The first one is placed at the end of the guide and it is optimized for in situ experiments in which a high neutron flux is required. The available flux at this position is approximately 10 8 cm -2 s -1. The second measuring position uses a pin-hole geometry which allows better beam collimation ( L/ D up to 1000) and higher image resolution in the range of 200 μm in the CCD based detector system (10×10 cm 2). The use of cold neutrons for radiography purposes increases the image contrast and improves the sensibility e.g., the detection of small amounts of water and hydrogen-containing materials in metal matrixes. On the other hand the cold-neutron beam can be modified easily by using diffraction and neutron optical techniques. This enables to perform radiography and tomography experiments with more sophisticated measuring techniques. Recent examples of research and industrial applications will be presented.

  13. Gravity Variations Induced by Changing Snowpack Observed at Conrad Observatory (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressl, Hans; Dorninger, Manfred; Meurers, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological processes are usually associated with mass transport. This induces gravity variations observed by superconducting gravimeter (SG) masking the pure geodynamical signal. The present study focusses specifically on gravity variations due to snow accumulation and melting. Measurements of the gravity signal are taken from the SG GWR C025 located at the Conrad Observatory (Austria) in an underground laboratory at about 1000m altitude. In snow rich winters a snowpack of one meter in depth or even more can be observed at this location. Snow height is measured at three different locations to get an idea of its variability. At one place additionally the weight of the snow pack is determined which allows to calculate the snow water equivalent. Gravitational signals are rather different for the accumulation and ablation phase, not only due to the different time scales of these processes but also due to the complex way path of melting water entering the ground beneath of the SG. Two methods, rainfall admittance function and Bouguer reduction, are used to account for the effect of the snow pack. Both have their strengths and weaknesses. They work better for short-term mass transports than for long lasting ones because in the latter case interference with signals of other environmental processes gets more prominent. A few case studies including both accumulation and ablation of snow on different time scales will be discussed.

  14. Characterisation of an electronic radon gas personal dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Gründel, M; Postendörfer, J

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring of radon exposure at workplaces is of great importance. Up to now passive measurement systems have been used for the registration of radon gas. Recently an electronic radon gas personal dosemeter came onto the market as an active measurement system for the registration of radon exposure (DOSEman; Sarad GmbH, Dresden, Germany). In this personal monitor, the radon gas diffuses through a membrane into a measurement chamber. A silicon detector system records spectroscopically the alpha decays of the radon gas and of the short-lived progeny 218Po and 214Po gathered onto the detector by an electrical field. In this work the calibration was tested and a proficiency test of this equipment was made. The diffusion behaviour of the radon gas into the measurement chamber, susceptibility to thoron, efficiency, influence of humidity, accuracy and the detection limit were checked. PMID:14756187

  15. The calibration of personal dosemeters used for evaluating exposure to solar UV in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Sisto, R; Lega, D; Militello, A

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study regarding the correlation between solar UV radiation exposure and skin pathologies in a population of outdoor workers, the possibility of using polysulphone film personal dosemeters to quantify the Subjects UVB exposure has been evaluated. An original experimental set-up is presented. in a preliminary version, which ill be used both for solar irradiance spectroradiometric measurements and for the reading of personal dosemeters. The polysulphone absorption is similar to the CIE erythemal response curve. Due to UVB radiation exposure, the polysulphone film dosemeters photodegrade with a measrable absorbance change. The absorbance variation after the dosemeter exposure to UV radiation has been correlated to the UVB effective dose. The calibration curve obtained by this method may be particularly useful for the evaluation of small closes. The method will be used to quantify the personal exposure of workers whose exposure conditions are characterised by high variability. PMID:11878432

  16. Feasibility study of extremity dosemeter based on polyallyldiglycolcarbonate (CR-39) for neutron exposure.

    PubMed

    Chau, Q; Bruguier, P

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, some activities such as reprocessing, recycling and production of bare fuel rods expose the workers to mixed neutron-photon fields. For several workplaces, particularly in glove boxes, some workers expose their hands to mixed fields. The mastery of the photon extremity dosimetry is relatively good, whereas the neutron dosimetry still raises difficulties. In this context, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has proposed a study on a passive neutron extremity dosemeter based on chemically etched CR-39 (PADC: polyallyldiglycolcarbonate), named PN-3, already used in routine practice for whole body dosimetry. This dosemeter is a chip of plastic sensitive to recoil protons. The chemical etching process amplifies the size of the impact. The reading system for tracks counting is composed of a microscope, a video camera and an image analyser. This system is combined with the dose evaluation algorithm. The performance of the dosemeter PN-3 has been largely studied and proved by several laboratories in terms of passive individual neutron dosemeter which is used in routine production by different companies. This study focuses on the sensitivity of the extremity dosemeter, as well as its performance in the function of the level of the neutron energy. The dosemeter was exposed to monoenergetic neutron fields in laboratory conditions and to mixed fields in glove boxes at workplaces. PMID:17502314

  17. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-06-16

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

  18. Characterization of optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters to measure organ doses in diagnostic radiology

    PubMed Central

    Endo, A; Katoh, T; Kobayashi, I; Joshi, R; Sur, J; Okano, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of an optically stimulated luminescence dosemeter (OSLD) for use in diagnostic radiology and to apply the OSLD in measuring the organ doses by panoramic radiography. Methods The dose linearity, energy dependency and angular dependency of aluminium oxide-based OSLDs were examined using an X-ray generator to simulate various exposure settings in diagnostic radiology. The organ doses were then measured by inserting the dosemeters into an anthropomorphic phantom while using three panoramic machines. Results The dosemeters demonstrated consistent dose linearity (coefficient of variation<1.5%) and no significant energy dependency (coefficient of variation<1.5%) under the applied exposure conditions. They also exhibited negligible angular dependency (≤10%). The organ doses of the X-ray as a result of panoramic imaging by three machines were calculated using the dosemeters. Conclusion OSLDs can be utilized to measure the organ doses in diagnostic radiology. The availability of these dosemeters in strip form proves to be reliably advantageous. PMID:22116136

  19. A gamma/neutron-discriminating, Cooled, Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) dosemeter

    SciTech Connect

    Eschbach, P.A.; Miller, S.D.

    1992-07-01

    The Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) of CaF{sub 2}:Mn (grain sizes from 0.1 to 100 microns) powder embedded in a hydrogenous matrix is reported as a function of fast-neutron dose. When all the CaF{sub 2}:Mn grains are interrogated at once, the COSL plastic dosemeters have a minimum detectable limit of 1 cSv fast neutrons; the gamma component from the bare {sup 252}cf exposure was determined with a separate dosemeter. We report here on a proton-recoil-based dosemeter that generates pulse height spectra, much like the scintillator of Hornyak, (2) to provide information on both the neutron and gamma dose.

  20. Independent evaluation of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) 'dot' dosemeters for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Bindu; Gesell, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) 'dot' dosemeters (manufactured by Landauer®) are reported to have a high degree of environmental stability, high level of sensitivity and provide wide range of dose measuring capabilities from 0.05 mGy to 100 Gy. The optical read out method is fast and relatively simple and permits repeated read out, but few studies have been performed about its application in monitoring radiation in the environment. This study was initiated to independently test the performance of OSL dot dosemeters for the application of measuring doses of radiation in the outdoor environment. Testing was performed in the laboratory to evaluate reproducibility and stability and in the field to evaluate accuracy relative to calibrated high-pressure ionisation chambers. The results showed that OSL dot dosemeters had good reproducibility and stability in both laboratory and field tests and met the performance requirements of standards of the American National Standards Institute. PMID:20947590

  1. Calibration of personal dosemeters in terms of the ICRU operational quantities

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C. ); Hertel, N.E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined several new operational quantities for radiation protection purposes. The quantities to be used for personal monitoring are defined at depths in the human body. Because these quantities are impossible to measure directly, the ICRU has recommended that personal dosemeters should be calibrated under simplified conditions on an appropriate phantom, such as the ICRU sphere. The US personal dosimetry accreditation programs make use of a 30 {times} 30 {times} 15 cm polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) phantom, therefore it is necessary to relate the response of dosemeters calibrated on this phantom to the ICRU operational quantities. Calculations of the conversion factors to compute dosemeter response in terms of the operational quantities have been performed using the code MCNP. These calculations have also been compared to experimental measurements using thermoluminescent (TLD) detectors.

  2. Operational comparison of TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detectors in fuel fabrication facilities.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, N; Takada, C; Yoshida, T; Momose, T

    2007-01-01

    The authors carried out an operational study that compared the use of TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detector in plutonium environments of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works. A selected group of workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX (Plutonium-Uranium mixed oxide) fuel wore both TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detectors. The TL readings were generally proportional to the counted etch-pits, and thus the dose equivalent results obtained from TLD albedo dosemeter agreed with those from solid state nuclear tracks detector within a factor of 1.5. This result indicates that, in the workplaces of the MOX fuel plants, the neutron spectrum remained almost constant in terms of time and space, and the appropriate range of field-specific correction with spectrum variations was small in albedo dosimetry. PMID:17337735

  3. Validation of a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining the absorbed and effective radiation doses in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Manninen, A-L; Kotiaho, A; Nikkinen, J; Nieminen, M T

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to validate a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining absorbed and effective doses (EDs) in the dose and energy range used in diagnostic radiology. Energy dependence, dose linearity and repeatability of the dosemeter were examined. The absorbed doses (ADs) were compared at anterior-posterior projection and the EDs were determined at posterior-anterior, anterior-posterior and lateral projections of thoracic imaging using an anthropomorphic phantom. The radiation exposures were made using digital radiography systems. This study revealed that the MOSFET system with high sensitivity bias supply set-up is sufficiently accurate for AD and ED determination. The dosemeter is recommended to be calibrated for energies <60 and >80 kVp. The entrance skin dose level should be at least 5 mGy to minimise the deviation of the individual dosemeter dose. For ED determination, dosemeters should be implanted perpendicular to the surface of the phantom to prevent the angular dependence error. PMID:25213263

  4. COMPARISON OF AQUEOUS AND SOLID-PHASE UPTAKE FOR HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN THE TELLINID CLAM MACOMA NASUTA (CONRAD): A MASS BALANCE APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake of sediment-associated hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the deposit-feeding clam Macoma nasuta (Conrad) was determined using a clam ventilation chamber. lams were exposed to [14C]HCB-dosed sediment, and the 14C amounts were measured in inhalant and exhalant waters, fecal pel...

  5. Personnel neutron dosimetry improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hoffman, J.M.; Brake, R.J.; Bliss, J.L.

    1992-08-01

    We are investigating methods to improve neutron dosimetry at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the track etch dosemeter CR-39. Specifically, use of CR-39 for dynamic environments, typically encountered at the LANL Plutonium Facility, is shown to be a superior method for personnel neutron dosimetry when compared to the currently used TLD system. The results of glovebox experiments simulating hydrogenous shielding used at LANL, temporal variations of neutron correction factors used at the Plutonium Facility, trial implementation at this facility and preliminary neutron spectroscopy measurements are presented and compared to reference dosimetry measurements. Our results confirm that use of a TLD system in a facility implementing hydrogenous shielding requires frequent field re-calibration. When such correction factors are not re-evaluated frequently, or are maintained at pre-shielding levels, significant (i.e., 2- to 3-fold) overestimation of the neutron dose equivalent can occur.

  6. Personnel neutron dosimetry improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hoffman, J.M.; Brake, R.J. ); Bliss, J.L. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating methods to improve neutron dosimetry at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the track etch dosemeter CR-39. Specifically, use of CR-39 for dynamic environments, typically encountered at the LANL Plutonium Facility, is shown to be a superior method for personnel neutron dosimetry when compared to the currently used TLD system. The results of glovebox experiments simulating hydrogenous shielding used at LANL, temporal variations of neutron correction factors used at the Plutonium Facility, trial implementation at this facility and preliminary neutron spectroscopy measurements are presented and compared to reference dosimetry measurements. Our results confirm that use of a TLD system in a facility implementing hydrogenous shielding requires frequent field re-calibration. When such correction factors are not re-evaluated frequently, or are maintained at pre-shielding levels, significant (i.e., 2- to 3-fold) overestimation of the neutron dose equivalent can occur.

  7. Summary of personal neutron dosemeter results obtained within the EVIDOS project.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T; Boschung, M; Coeck, M; Curzio, G; Derdau, D; d'Errico, F; Fiechtner, A; Kyllönen, J-E; Lacoste, V; Lievens, B; Lindborg, L; Lovefors Daun, A; Reginatto, M; Schuhmacher, H; Tanner, R; Vanhavere, F

    2007-01-01

    Within the EC project EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields'), different types of active neutron personal dosemeters (and some passive ones) were tested in workplace fields at nuclear installations in Europe. The results of the measurements which have been performed up to now are summarised and compared to our currently best estimates of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Under- and over-readings by more than a factor of two for the same dosemeter in different workplace fields indicate that in most cases the use of field-specific correction factors is required. PMID:17449908

  8. Rigorous noise test and calibration check of strong-motion instrumentation at the Conrad Observatory in Austria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R.; Costa, G.; Lenhardt, W.; Horn, N.; Suhadolc, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the European InterregIV Italy/Austria project: "HAREIA - Historical and Recent Earthquakes in Italy and Austria" the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and Mathematic and Geosciences Department of University of Trieste (DMG) are upgrading the transfrontier seismic network of South-Eastern Alps with new 12 accelerometric stations to enhance the strong motion instrument density near the Austria/Italy border. Various public institutions of the provinces Alto Adige (Bolzano Province), Veneto (ARPAV) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Regional Civil Defense) in Italy and in the Austrian province of Tyrol are involved in the project. The site selection was carried out to improve the present local network geometry thus meeting the needs of public Institutions in the involved regions. In Tyrol and Alto Adige some strategic buildings (hospitals and public buildings) have been selected, whereas in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia the sites are in the free field, mainly located near villages. The instruments will be installed in an innovative box, designed by ZAMG, that provides electric and water isolation. The common choice regarding the instrument selection has been the new Kinemetrics Basalt ® accelerograph to guarantee homogeneity with the already installed instrumentation and compatibility with the software already in use at the different seismic institutions in the area. Prior to deployment the equipment was tested at the Conrad Observatory and a common set-up has been devised. The Conrad Observatory, seismically particularly quiet, permits to analyze both the sensor and the acquisition system noise. The instruments were connected to the network and the data sent in real-time to the ZAMG data center in Vienna and the DMG data center in Trieste. The data have been collected in the database and analyzed using signal processing modules PQLX and Matlab. The data analysis of the recordings at the ultra-quiet Conrad Observatory pointed out

  9. Generation of 238U Covariance Matrices by Using the Integral Data Assimilation Technique of the CONRAD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privas, E.; Archier, P.; Bernard, D.; De Saint Jean, C.; Destouche, C.; Leconte, P.; Noguère, G.; Peneliau, Y.; Capote, R.

    2016-02-01

    A new IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) aims to test, validate and improve the IRDF library. Among the isotopes of interest, the modelisation of the 238U capture and fission cross sections represents a challenging task. A new description of the 238U neutrons induced reactions in the fast energy range is within progress in the frame of an IAEA evaluation consortium. The Nuclear Data group of Cadarache participates in this effort utilizing the 238U spectral indices measurements and Post Irradiated Experiments (PIE) carried out in the fast reactors MASURCA (CEA Cadarache) and PHENIX (CEA Marcoule). Such a collection of experimental results provides reliable integral information on the (n,γ) and (n,f) cross sections. This paper presents the Integral Data Assimilation (IDA) technique of the CONRAD code used to propagate the uncertainties of the integral data on the 238U cross sections of interest for dosimetry applications.

  10. The epigenetic landscape in the course of time: Conrad Hal Waddington's methodological impact on the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Baedke, Jan

    2013-12-01

    It seems that the reception of Conrad Hal Waddington's work never really gathered speed in mainstream biology. This paper, offering a transdisciplinary survey of approaches using his epigenetic landscape images, argues that (i) Waddington's legacy is much broader than is usually recognized--it is widespread across the life sciences (e.g. stem cell biology, developmental psychology and cultural anthropology). In addition, I will show that (ii) there exist as yet unrecognized heuristic roles, especially in model building and theory formation, which Waddington's images play within his work. These different methodological facets envisioned by Waddington are used as a natural framework to analyze and classify the manners of usage of epigenetic landscape images in post-Waddingtonian 'landscape approaches'. This evaluation of Waddington's pictorial legacy reveals that there are highly diverse lines of traditions in the life sciences, which are deeply rooted in Waddington's methodological work. PMID:23932231

  11. Projecting Personnel Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Philip T.

    Increased reliance on personnel services is placing school districts' business operations in a no-win situation. This report evaluates methods of student population projection in relation to teacher costs. Educational costs reflect personnel costs in light of a decrease in the number of pupils being served. Increased enrollment projections create…

  12. 75 FR 2821 - Personnel Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 293 RIN 3206-AM05 Personnel Records AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is proposing to amend the regulations governing disposition of Official Personnel Folders...

  13. Vertical density contrast and mapping of basement, Conrad and Moho morphologies through 2D spectral analysis of gravity data in and around Odisha, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arbind; S. Roy, P. N.; Das, L. K.

    2016-07-01

    Power spectrum analysis of Complete Bouguer Anomaly (CBA) map of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) and its surroundings in India through Two Dimensional (2D) spectral analysis has provided estimates of the ensemble average depths for the density discontinuities which represent crustal inhomogeneities. The spectral analysis method has helped to estimate the depths of a perturbing body sources which are obtained from the negative slopes of the linear relationship between the logarithmic power spectrum and the wave-numbers of the gravity field. The detailed analysis reveals three horizontal discontinuities (i) Phanerozoic sediment thickness (ii) Basement depth and (iii) Conrad discontinuity. The average thickness of Phanerozoic sediments is estimated to be 3 km whereas depth of basement and Conrad discontinuity are at 7 km and 14.5 km respectively. Additionally Mohorovicic discontinuity also estimated at a depth of 32.8 km in the study region.

  14. Performance of a PADC personal neutron dosemeter at simulated and real workplace fields of the nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Fiechtner, A; Boschung, M; Wernli, C

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the EVIDOS (Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields) project, funded by the EC, measurements with PADC personal neutron dosemeters were carried out at several workplace fields of the nuclear industry and at simulated workplace fields. The measured personal neutron dose equivalents of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are compared with values that were assessed within the EVIDOS project by other partners. The detection limits for different spectra types are given. In cases were the neutron dose was too low to be measured by the PADC personal neutron dosemeter, the response is estimated by convoluting the responses to monoenergetic neutrons with the dose energy distribution measured within EVIDOS. The advantages and limitations of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are discussed. PMID:17578876

  15. Pyramided QTL underlying tolerance to Phytophthora root rot in mega-environments from soybean cultivars 'Conrad' and 'Hefeng 25'.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuping; Han, Yingpeng; Teng, Weili; Zhang, Shuzheng; Yu, Kangfu; Poysa, Vaino; Anderson, Terry; Ding, Junjie; Li, Wenbin

    2010-08-01

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is the second most important cause of yield loss by disease in North America, surpassed only by soybean cyst nematode (Wrather et al. in Can J Plant Pathol 23:115-121, 2001). Tolerance can provide economically useful disease control, conditioning partial resistance of soybean to PRR. The aims of this study were to identify new quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying tolerance to PRR, and to evaluate the effects of pyramided or stacked loci on the level of tolerance. A North American cultivar 'Conrad' (tolerant to PRR) was crossed with a northeastern China cultivar 'Hefeng 25' (tolerant to PRR). Through single-seed descent, 140 F2:5 and F2:6 recombinant inbred lines were advanced. A total of 164 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map. The percentage of seedling death was measured over 2 years (2007 and 2008) in the field at four naturally infested locations in Canada and China following additional soil infestation and in the greenhouse following inoculation with Phytophthora sojae isolate. A total of eight QTL underlying tolerance to PRR were identified, located in five linkage groups (F, D1b+w, A2, B1, and C2). The phenotypic variation contributed by the loci ranged from 4.24 to 27.98%. QPRR-1 (anchored in the interval of SSR markers Satt325 and Satt343 of LG F), QPRR-2 (anchored in the interval of Satt005 and Satt600 of LG D1b+w), and QPRR-3 (anchored in the interval of Satt579 and Sat_089 of LG D1b+w) derived their beneficial allele from 'Conrad'. They were located at chromosomal locations known to underlie PRR tolerance in diverse germplasm. Five QTL that derived beneficial alleles from 'Hefeng 25' were identified. The QTL (QPRR-1 to QPRR-7) that were detected across at least three environments were selected for loci stacking and to analyze the relationship between number of tolerance loci and disease loss percentage. The accumulation of tolerance loci was

  16. Determination of the response function for two personal neutron dosemeter designs based on PADC.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Assenmacher, F; Boschung, M

    2014-10-01

    Since 1998 neutron dosimetry based on PADC (poly allyl diglycol carbonate) is done with a so-called original Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) design at PSI. The original design (i.e. holder) was later changed. Both designs are optimised for use in workplaces around high-energy accelerators, where the neutron energy spectra are dominated by fast neutrons ranging up to some 100 MeV. In addition to the change of the dosemeter design a new evaluation method based on a microscope scanning technique has been introduced and the etching conditions have been optimised. In the present work, the responses obtained with the original and the new dosemeter designs are compared for fields of radionuclide sources and monoenergetic reference fields using the new evaluation method. The response curves in terms of the personal dose equivalent for normally incident neutrons were built as functions of the incident neutron energy. PMID:24179145

  17. A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO PERFORM THE ISOTROPY TEST FOR EXTREMITY DOSEMETERS.

    PubMed

    Gultresa, J; Llansana, J; Roig, M; Ginjaume, M

    2016-09-01

    The requirements for determining extremity dosemeter performance have evolved over the past decade. In 2010, the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) adopted a national protocol with performance requirements based on ISO 12794. Because of the lack of symmetry of ISO 4037-3 calibration phantoms, the isotropy test set up in the sagittal plane presented several challenges both for individual monitoring services and for calibration labs. This article proposes and validates a practical approach to reduce the number of irradiations. Results show that wrist and ring dosemeters in this study meet the ISO 12794 requirements for the isotropy test. However, additional studies would be needed to verify the newer IEC 62387 Standard. PMID:26747847

  18. Migration of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Late Neogene: reconstruction from sediment wave on the Conrad Rise, Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwane, H.; Ikehara, M.; Suganuma, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Nogi, Y.; Miura, H.; Sato, T.

    2012-12-01

    ACC is the largest and strongest ocean current in the world. It is important for the interoceanic exchange of water, exchange of gases to the atmosphere, and thermal isolation of the Antarctic continent. Fluctuation of the ACC has been reconstructed from several methods such as microfossils, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibilities, and statistical analysis of Ice-Rafted Debris. On the other hand, sediment waves are investigated and interpreted to reconstruct the fluctuation of the bottom- and contour currents. In this study, we tried reconstructing the ACC using sediment waves based on multidisciplinary survey on the Conrad Rise in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The Conrad Rise is a topographic high that is elevated ca. 3000 m from the ocean floor. We conducted multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection, and sediment coring on the southwestern slope of the rise. Seismic units on the Conrad Rise are divided into three units, A, B, and C in descending order. Unit A shows transparent to low amplitude with sediment wave structure. Sediment waves don't show systematic changes of its dimension and thickness. Sedimentary core showed that the surface sediment is composed of diatom ooze. Unit B shows higher amplitude than that of unit A, and shows planar, parallel configuration. Unit C has high-amplitude reflectors at its top and shows chaotic facies below. Based on morphological characteristics of the sediment waves, oceanographic setting of the Conrad Rise, and components of the surface sediment, it is most likely that the sedimentary structure and component of the Unit A is significantly constrained by the ACC. On the other hand, the Unit B shows planar configuration suggesting deposition without current effect. Additionally, higher amplitude suggests different component form that of the Unit A. These a series of evidence represent difference of sedimentary environment between units A and B, especially on the point of the influence of the ACC. Accordingly, onset

  19. EURADOS IC2012N: FURTHER INFORMATION DERIVED FROM AN EURADOS INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF NEUTRON PERSONAL DOSEMETERS.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, M-A; Fantuzzi, E; Cruz-Suarez, R; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Mayer, S; Thomas, D J; Tanner, R; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) performed an intercomparison for neutron dosemeters that are intended to measure personal dose equivalent, Hp(10). A total of 31 participants registered with 34 dosimetry systems. The irradiation tests were chosen to provide the participants with useful information on their dosimetry systems, i.e. linearity, reproducibility, responses for different energies and angles and to simulated workplace fields. This paper gives details of the extensive information derived from the exercise. PMID:26715777

  20. Cytogenetic characterisation of the razor shells Ensis directus (Conrad, 1843) and E. minor (Chenu, 1843) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Tizón, Ana M.; Rojo, Verónica; Vierna, Joaquín; Jensen, K. Thomas; Egea, Emilie; Martínez-Lage, Andrés

    2013-03-01

    The European razor shell Ensis minor (Chenu 1843) and the American E. directus (Conrad 1843) have a diploid chromosome number of 38 and remarkable differences in their karyotypes: E. minor has four metacentric, one metacentric-submetacentric, five submetacentric, one subtelocentric and eight telocentric chromosome pairs, whereas E. directus has three metacentric, two metacentric-submetacentric, six submetacentric, six subtelocentric and two telocentric pairs. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a major ribosomal DNA probe located the major ribosomal genes on one submetacentric chromosome pair in both species; FISH with a 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) probe rendered one chromosomal (weak) signal for E. minor and no signal for E. directus, supporting a more dispersed organisation of 5S rDNA compared to the major ribosomal genes. The vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG) n was located on both ends of each chromosome, and no interstitial signals were detected. In this work, a comparative karyological analysis was also performed between the four Ensis species analysed revealing that the three European species studied so far, namely E. minor, E. siliqua (Linné 1758) and E. magnus Schumacher 1817 show more similarities among them than compared to the American species E. directus. In addition, clear karyotype differences were found between the morphologically similar species E. minor and E. siliqua.

  1. Investigation of a BeO-based optically stimulated luminescence dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Sommer, M; Henniger, J

    2006-01-01

    The optical sensitivity of BeO-based luminophors has been well-known for many years. The optical stimulation of BeO with blue light is most effective. Then the dosemeters emit luminescent light in the ultraviolet-range around 325 nm. Matched on these facts a simple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) treatment has been developed. Intense blue light-emitting diodes are used for cw-stimulation. A Hamamatsu solar blind photomultiplier detects the OSL-light. Good separation of both spectral ranges by optical filters is very important. The dosemeter has a linear dose response between approximately 20 muGy and >10 Gy. It was suggested, that a modification of stimulation conditions would allow measurements down to 1 muGy. Fading, photon energy dependence and reproducibility of OSL-signal correspond well with requirements to clinical and personal dosemeters. In addition, basic questions of the OSL-process in BeO have been investigated. A relevant point of interest was the dependency of the OSL-signal on stimulation power. PMID:16735572

  2. Simulated and measured Hp(10) response of the personal dosemeter Seibersdorf.

    PubMed

    Hranitzky, C; Stadtmann, H

    2007-01-01

    The Hp(10) energy response of the personal dosemeter Seibersdorf and its two different filtered LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescence (TL) detectors are investigated. A close-to-reality simulation model of the personal dosemeter badge including the wrapped detector card was implemented with the MCNP Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The comparison of measured and computationally calculated response using a semi-empirical TL efficiency function is carried out to provide information about the quality of the results of both methods, experiment and simulation. Similar to the experimental calibration conditions, the irradiation of dosemeters centred on the front surface of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) water slab phantom is simulated using ISO-4037 reference photon radiation qualities with mean energies between 24 keV and 1.25 MeV and corresponding ISO conversion coefficients. The comparison of the simulated and measured relative Hp(10) energy responses resulted in good agreement within some percent except for the filtered TL element at lower photon energies. PMID:17846027

  3. A portable versatile x- and gamma-ray dosemeter with ditigal display for medical use.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, A; Gangadharan, P

    1980-05-01

    A multipurpose dosemeter based on analogue-to-digita (A-d) conversion has been developed using solid state devices, micropower integrated circuits and displays. The A-D converter combines the features of a MOSFET electrometer, a voltage-to-frequency converter, the automatic Townsend balance, LED(LCD) display for exposure, analogue output and has a voltage-measuring accuracy of +/- 0.1% FS +/- 1 digit. The dosemeter, which is designed to measure a wide range of x- and gamma-ray exposure rates (1 mR h-1 to 1000 R min-1) and exposures (1 mR to 1000 R) with a variety of air-equivalent ionisation chambers, is compact, rugged and battery or AC mains powered. It is designed to provide trouble-free performance, easy operation and maintenance and to be independent of climatic conditions. Combining the features of a survey meter, dosemeter and a radioisotope calibrator, it can be fabricated using the facilities locally available in hospitals or universities. PMID:7403264

  4. Assessment of neutron dosemeters around standard sources and nuclear fissile objects.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, N; Tournier, B; Groetz, J E; Piot, J; Riebler, E; Crovisier, P; Chambaudet, A; Cabanné, N

    2002-01-01

    In order to evaluate the neutron doses around nuclear fissile objects, a comparative study has been made on several neutron dosemeters: bubble dosemeters, etched-track detectors (CR-39) and 3He-filled proportional counters used as dose-rate meters. The measurements were made on the ambient and the personal dose equivalents H*(10) and Hp(10). Results showed that several bubble dosemeters should have been used due to a low reproducibility in the measurements. A strong correlation with the neutron energy was also found, with about a 30% underestimation of Hp(10) for neutrons from the PuBe source, and about a 9% overestimation for neutrons from the 252Cf source. Measurements of the nuclear fissile objects were made using the CR-39 and the dose-rate meters. The CR-39 led to an underestimation of 30% with respect to the neutron dose-rate meter measurements. In addition, the MCNP calculation code was used in the different configurations. PMID:12382734

  5. Development and characterization of real-time personal neutron dosemeter with two silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, M.; Nakamura, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Ueda, O.; Suzuki, T.

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a new real-time personal neutron dosemeter containing two neutron sensors, a fast and a slow neutron sensor. The former sensor is a p-type silicon semiconductor detector. The slow neutron sensor is also a p-type silicon semiconductor detector and natural boron is doped on the aluminum electrode to produce 10B(n,α) reactions. A thin polyethylene radiator is contacted on the front surface of each sensor to produce recoil protons. The neutron detection efficiencies of these sensors were measured in a thermal neutron field and monoenergetic neutron fields from 8 keV to 22 MeV. By taking the weighted sum of counts given by the two sensors, the detection efficiency could be made to approach to the fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factor given by ICRP 51. Field tests of the performance of this neutron dosemeter were performed in the radiation environments around several nuclear facilities, including reactor, accelerator, radioisotope and nuclear fuel handling facilities. Based on the results of these field tests, we conclude that our dosemeter is able to provide a reading of the neutron dose equivalent within a factor of 2 margin of accuracy.

  6. THE RESULTS OF THE EURADOS INTERCOMPARISON IC2014 FOR WHOLE-BODY DOSEMETERS IN PHOTON FIELDS.

    PubMed

    Stadtmann, H; Grimbergen, T W M; Figel, M; Romero, A M; McWhan, A F; Gärtner, C

    2016-09-01

    The European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) first started performing international intercomparisons for whole-body dosemeters for individual monitoring services in 1998. Since 2008, these whole-body intercomparisons have been performed on a regular basis. In this latest intercomparison (IC2014), 96 monitoring services from 35 countries (mostly European) participated with 112 dosimetry systems. Unlike in the previous intercomparisons, the whole registration, communication and data exchange process was handled by a new on-line platform. All dosemeter irradiations were carried out in the Seibersdorf accredited dosimetry laboratory. The irradiation plan consisted of nine irradiation setups with five different photon radiation qualities (S-Cs, S-Co, RQR7, W-80 and W-150) and two different angles of radiation incidence (0° and 60°). The paper describes and analyses the individual results for the personal dose equivalent quantities Hp(10) and if requested, Hp(0.07), for all participating systems and compares these results with the ISO 14146 'trumpet curve' performance criteria. The results show that 100 systems (89 % of all systems) do fulfil the general ISO 14146 performance criteria. This paper gives an overview on the performance of the participating individual monitoring services and the influence of the dosemeter type on the observed response values. PMID:26763903

  7. FIRST EURADOS INTERCOMPARISON EXERCISE OF EYE LENS DOSEMETERS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Clairand, I; Ginjaume, M; Vanhavere, F; Carinou, E; Daures, J; Denoziere, M; Silva, E H; Roig, M; Principi, S; Van Rycheghem, L

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the decrease in the eye lens dose limit for occupational exposure to 20 mSv per year stated by the recent revision of the European Basic Safety Standards Directive 2013/59/EURATOM, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has organised in 2014, for the first time, an intercomparison exercise for eye lens dosemeters. The main objective was to assess the capabilities of the passive eye lens dosemeters currently in use in Europe for occupational monitoring in medical fields. A total of 20 European individual monitoring services from 15 different countries have participated. The dosemeters provided by the participants were all composed of thermoluminescent detectors, of various types and designs. The irradiations were carried out with several photon fields chosen to cover the energy and angle ranges encountered in medical workplace. Participants were asked to report the doses in terms of Hp(3) using their routine protocol. The results provided by each participant were compared with the reference delivered doses. All the results were anonymously analysed. Results are globally satisfactory since, among the 20 participants, 17 were able to provide 90 % of their response in accordance with the ISO 14146 standard requirements. PMID:26163384

  8. Training of Hydrometeorological Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hzmaljan, K. A.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Hydrometeorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in hydrometeorology required by different levels of personnel. This situation has been brought about by the shortage or lack of national cadres of hydrologists in developing countries to undertake comprehensive water…

  9. Personnel Management. Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

    This manual is one of 10 completed in the Ohio Management Improvement Program (MIP) during the 1971-73 biennium. In this project, Ohio's 34 public universities and colleges, in an effort directed and staffed by the Ohio Board of Regents, have developed manuals of management practices, in this case, concerning personnel management. Emphasis in this…

  10. Personnel Management in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Richard, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve articles discuss personnel management in libraries. Topics covered include building job commitment among employers, collective bargaining, entry-level recruitment, employee turnover, performance evaluation, managing resistance to change, training problems, productivity, employee stress, compensation systems, and the Allerton Park Institute.…

  11. Personnel Management Institutes 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Stanley B., Jr.

    This report is a compilation of presentations made at the Personnel Management Institutes held by the New York State School Boards Association in the fall of 1974. Included are the following six presentations: "New Laws Affecting School Boards and School Administration," by Bernard T. McGivern; "How to Prepare for Tenure Hearings, PERB Hearings,…

  12. Models of Personnel Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Beverly

    This report presents samples of models and strategies for determining professional development needs of special education personnel. The following areas are covered: definitions of needs and the needs assessment process; personnel needs assessment regulations under the Comprehensive System of Personnel Development, the Individuals with…

  13. Energy and angular dependence of active-type personal dosemeter for high-energy neutron.

    PubMed

    Rito, Hirotaka; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Oda, Keiji

    2011-07-01

    In order to develop an active-type personal dosemeter having suitable sensitivity to high-energy neutrons, the characteristic response of silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. An agreement of the shape of pulse-height distribution, its change with radiator thickness and the relative sensitivity was confirmed between the calculated and experimental results for 14.8-MeV neutrons. The angular dependence was estimated for other neutron energies, and found that the angular dependence decreased with the incident energy. The reason was also discussed with regard to the radiator thickness relative to maximum range of recoil protons. PMID:21613268

  14. Dose evaluation in criticality accidents using response of Panasonic TL personal dosemeters (UD-809/UD-802).

    PubMed

    Zeyrek, C T; Gündüz, H

    2012-09-01

    This study gives the results of dosimetry measurements carried out in the Silène reactor at Valduc (France) with neutron and photon personal thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields, in the frame of the international accident dosimetry intercomparison programme in 2002. The intercomparison consisted of a series of three irradiation scenarios. The scenarios took place at the Valduc site (France) by using the Silène experimental reactor. For neutron and photon dosimetry, Panasonic model UD-809 and UD-802 personal TLDs were used together. PMID:22389154

  15. Personnel carrier efficiency counts

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1982-09-01

    Different types of personnel transport for underground mines are considered. In the US the majority are track vehicles powered by batteries or trolley lines. The safety aspects of trolley lines are discussed, together with the problems of track design. Rubber-tyred equipment is increasing in use: it is powered by batteries or diesel. Details of both types of carrier from a number of manufacturers are given in a Table. Bicycles and scooters which run on tracks are briefly mentioned, as well as the chairlift system used in Europe.

  16. [Violence against health personnel].

    PubMed

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz

    2014-01-20

    Health personnel are at risk of threats and violence, especially when young and inexperienced. Also, working in emergency departments, psychiatric wards, and eldercare bears a risk. The phenomenon is reported from all over the world and may originate in intoxication, confusion or frustration during long waiting hours and uncertainty of treatment and prognosis. Experiences of threats and violence result in decreased well-being, anger, helplessness and thoughts about change of workplace or quitting the job. Training in communication and teamwork may prevent threats and violence. PMID:24629677

  17. PERSONNEL NEUTRON DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Fitzgerald, J.J.; Detwiler, C.G. Jr.

    1960-05-24

    A description is given of a personnel neutron dosimeter capable of indicating the complete spectrum of the neutron dose received as well as the dose for each neutron energy range therein. The device consists of three sets of indium foils supported in an aluminum case. The first set consists of three foils of indium, the second set consists of a similar set of indium foils sandwiched between layers of cadmium, whereas the third set is similar to the second set but is sandwiched between layers of polyethylene. By analysis of all the foils the neutron spectrum and the total dose from neutrons of all energy levels can be ascertained.

  18. Development of advanced-type multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Nunomiya, T; Abe, S; Aoyama, K; Nakamura, T

    2007-01-01

    An advanced-type small, light, multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter has been developed using silicon semiconductor radiation detectors for dose management of workers at nuclear power plants and accelerator facilities. This dosemeter is 62 x 82 x 27 mm(3) in size and approximately 130 g in weight, which is capable of measuring personal gamma ray and neutron dose equivalents, Hp(10), simultaneously. The neutron dose equivalent can be obtained using two types of silicon semiconductors: a slow-neutron sensor (<1 MeV) and a fast-neutron sensor (>1 MeV). The slow neutron sensor is a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon on which a natural boron layer is deposited around an aluminium electrode. The fast neutron sensor is also a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon crystal on which an amorphous silicon hydride is deposited. The neutron energy response corresponding to the fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficient given by ICRP Publication 74 has been evaluated using a monoenergetic neutron source from 250 keV to 15 MeV at the Fast Neutron Laboratory of Tohoku University. As the result, the Hp(10) response to neutrons in the energy range of 250 keV and 4.4 MeV within +/-50% difference has been obtained. PMID:17704353

  19. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Sheu, R J

    2015-04-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with (252)Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing (252)Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6_8 extended-range sphere versus the 6″ standard sphere). PMID:25280480

  20. Efficiency of a radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeter for low-earth-orbit space radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.; Badhwar, G. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Chips of a radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeter (RPLG) were used for measurements of space radiation during a 9.8 d Shuttle-Mir mission (STS-91) at an altitude of 400 km and an inclination of 51.65 degrees. Two of RPLG chips were put into each of 59 positions in or on a life-size human phantom. The RPLG values equivalent to 137Cs gamma ray absorbed doses were found to be systematically lower than those of a Mg2SiO4:Tb thermoluminescence dosemeter (TDMS). In comparison with the organ or tissue absorbed dose and dose equivalent values that were estimated using a combination of TDMS and plastic nuclear track detectors, the efficiencies of the RPLG chips were about 80% for the water absorbed dose and about 40% for the dose equivalent. Whereas the percentage values will change during different missions, such additional information obtained from small RPLG chips is useful for improving the reliability of radiation dosimetry in space.

  1. Photon energy dependence of three fortuitous dosemeters from personal electronic devices, measured by optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Beerten, Koen; Vanhavere, Filip

    2010-08-01

    New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to (60)Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity. PMID:20304766

  2. Portable transfer digital dosemeter for beam output measurements with X and gamma rays, electrons and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, A; Gokarn, R S; Gangadharan, P

    1981-04-01

    This instrument was developed in response to a requirement for an accurate, stable and portable transfer dosemeter for calibration, at therapy dose levels, of equipment used for generating X and gamma rays, electrons and neutrons. The detector is a 0.5 cm3 ionization chamber capable of fitting various wall materials reproducibly at the end of the chamber stem. The measuring system uniquely combines the features of a MOSFET electrometer and an automatic Townsend balance. When used for X, gamma and neutron radiations, the instrument measures the tissue kerma in free air on two ranges: 0.001 - 1.999 Gy (0.1 - 199.9 rad) and 0.01 - 19.99 Gy (1 - 1999 rad) or their exposure equivalents, with autoranging feature when the first range is exceeded. The polarizing voltage (180 V) can be reversed for electron and neutron dosimetry. The dosemeter has a measuring accuracy of +/- 0.2% FS +/- 1 digit and operates on four 1.5 V torchlight cells or on AC mains (200-250 V, 50 - 60 Hz). It utilizes solid state devices, CMOS integrated circuits and displays, and is not affected by RF fields. The instrument is enclosed in a brief-case for portability and is easy to operate and maintain in a hospital. PMID:7225720

  3. Personnel emergency carrier vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lester J. (Inventor); Fedor, Otto H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A personnel emergency carrier vehicle is disclosed which includes a vehicle frame supported on steerable front wheels and driven rear wheels. A supply of breathing air is connected to quick connect face mask coupling and umbilical cord couplings for supplying breathing air to an injured worker or attendant either with or without a self-contained atmospheric protection suit for protection against hazardous gases at an accident site. A non-sparking hydraulic motion is utilized to drive the vehicle and suitable direction and throttling controls are provided for controlling the delivery of a hydraulic driving fluid from a pressurized hydraulic fluid accumulator. A steering axis is steerable through a handle to steer the front wheels through a linkage assembly.

  4. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Falk, Roger B.; Tyree, William H.

    1984-12-18

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  5. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Falk, R.B.; Tyree, W.H.

    1982-03-03

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  6. SCOPE OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ECKERSON, LOUISE OMWAKE; SMITH, HYRUM M.

    PART I OF THIS PAMPHLET DESCRIBES THE INTERPROFESSIONAL RESEARCH COMMISSION ON PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES, WHICH WAS STARTED IN 1962 BY THE OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND FINANCED BY THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH FOR A 5-YEAR PROGRAM. THE REST OF THE PAMPHLET DEALS WITH STATISTICS AND SPECIFIC PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES. OF THE 60,000…

  7. Physical Assault of School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajs, Lawrence T.; Schumacher, Gary; Vital, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical assault against school personnel is a serious problem, although not highly publicized. This workplace violence can result in debilitating injury to school employees along with major monetary costs. This article looks at legal issues that address physical assault against school personnel as well as the roles professional associations have…

  8. The Dartnell Personnel Director's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Wilbert E.

    This handbook for personnel directors is designed to help improve the acquisition, selection, development, welfare, and general administration and control of business and industrial employees. Overall objectives and functions of personnel management are considered first. Part 2 (Employment) stresses advance planning; recruiting and interviewing;…

  9. Personnel Practices for Small Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Ronald A.

    Personnel administration in higher education is the focus of this "hands-on, how-to-do-it" guide that provides fundamental materials for developing and maintaining a sound personnel program. Part One (Employment) examines government regulations, employee recruitment and selection, pre-employment inquiries and screening, post-employment process,…

  10. Personnel Systems Survey Standard Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and Univ. Personnel Association, Washington, DC. Management Information Systems Council.

    The status of personnel systems at 370 public and private colleges in 1985 is described, based on a College and University Personnel Association survey. Responding schools were classified as two-year, four-year, universities (doctoral-granting institutions), and other (law, medical, and theological schools). For each institutional classification,…

  11. Readings in Professional Personnel Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Personnel Management Association, Washington, DC.

    Thirteen papers are presented that discuss issues in public personnel decision making, specifically in the area of personnel selection. After an introduction by James P. Springer, the following papers are presented: (1) "History of Employment Testing" (Matthew Hale); (2) "Job Families: A Review and Discussion of Their Implications for Personnel…

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACTIVE DOSEMETER ACCORDING TO IEC 61526:2010.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, J; Santos, J A M; Santos, L; Alves, J G; Oliveira, C

    2016-09-01

    The active personal dosemeter, RaySafe i2, allows the measurement and record of Hp(10) in real time, every second, via wireless technology for real-time display on a portable computer and/or a local network. The system seems particularly attractive for individual monitoring at clinical facilities where high intensity and varying radiation fields may occur, as it enables the user to acknowledge and optimize the dose and dose rate values in real time for each procedure. Prior to its use, the system was characterized at the Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation of IST-LPSR aiming at the metrological characterization of the system in accordance with IEC 61526:2010 for metrological control purposes and to verify the technical specifications stated by the manufacturer. PMID:27103641

  13. Directionality of extruded lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters in a cobalt-60 beam.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G S; Batey, S E; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A

    2000-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the directionality of commercially available extruded lithium fluoride (LiF:Mg,Ti) thermoluminescent dosemeters was carried out in a cobalt-60 beam at a water depth of 5 cm. One-half of a batch of 60 chips (3.1 x 3.1 x 0.9 mm3) was exposed face-on (faces perpendicular to the beam central axis), and the other half was exposed in an edge-on orientation (two edges perpendicular and faces parallel to the beam axis). Measurements show that an edge-on exposure results in a thermoluminescence reading approximately 0.9% lower than a face-on exposure. Although this is of minor importance in every day patient dosimetry, it is relevant in evaluating errors in in-phantom dosimetric measurements where greater accuracy is required. PMID:11064657

  14. Development of confocal laser microscope system for examination of microscopic characteristics of radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Maki, Daisuke; Ishii, Tetsuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    A confocal laser microscope system was developed for the measurement of radiophotoluminescence (RPL) photons emitted from a minute alpha-ray-irradiated area in an RPL glass dosemeter. The system was composed mainly of an inverted-type microscope, an ultraviolet laser, an XY movable stage and photon-counting circuits. The photon-counting circuits were effective in the reduction of the background noise level in the measurement of RPL photons. The performance of this microscope system was examined by the observation of standard RPL glass samples irradiated using (241)Am alpha rays. The spatial resolution of this system was ∼ 3 μm, and with regard to the sensitivity of this system, a hit of more than four to five alpha rays in unit area produced enough amount of RPL photons to construct the image. PMID:21212081

  15. Automation of radiation dosimetry using PTW dosemeter and LabVIEW™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, C.; Al-Frouh, K.; Anjak, O.

    2011-10-01

    Automation of UNIDOS "Dosemeter" using personal computer (PC) is discussed in this paper. In order to save time and eliminate human operation errors during the radiation dosimetry, suitable software, using LabVIEW™ graphical programming language, was written to automate and facilitate the processes of measurements, analysis and data storage. The software calculates the calibration factor of the ionization chamber in terms of air kerma or absorbed dose to water according to IAEA dosimetry protocols. It also has the ability to print a calibration certificate. The obtained results using this software are found to be more reliable and flexible than those obtained by manual methods previously employed. Using LabVIEW™ as a development tool is extremely convenient to make things easier when software modifications and improvements are needed.

  16. Two-dimensional differential calibration method for a neutron dosemeter using a thermal neutron beam.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Harano, Hideki; Masuda, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Jun; Matsue, Hideaki; Uritani, Akira; Nunomiya, Tomoya

    2013-08-01

    A new thermal neutron calibration method to experimentally determine the energy response function of a neutron detector using a pulse parallel beam and the time-of-flight (TOF) technique is developed. The calibration method was experimentally demonstrated for a (3)He proportional counter and an electric personal dosemeter using a pulsed thermal neutron beam from the research reactor JRR-3M. The responses of the detectors were successfully obtained as a function of neutron energy. However, detailed information on the detector structure is required to obtain the spatial response distribution for the detector. The authors further propose an improved calibration method obtaining the spatial response distribution using a pulsed narrow beam, the TOF technique and a beam scanning technique. PMID:23509397

  17. EURADOS INTERCOMPARISONS IN EXTERNAL RADIATION DOSIMETRY: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG EXERCISES FOR WHOLE-BODY PHOTON, WHOLE-BODY NEUTRON, EXTREMITY, EYE-LENS AND PASSIVE AREA DOSEMETERS.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ana M; Grimbergen, Tom; McWhan, Andrew; Stadtmann, Hannes; Fantuzzi, Elena; Clairand, Isabelle; Neumaier, Stefan; Figel, Markus; Dombrowski, Harald

    2016-09-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been organising dosimetry intercomparisons for many years in response to an identified requirement from individual monitoring services (IMS) for independent performance tests for dosimetry systems. The participation in intercomparisons gives IMS the opportunity to show compliance with their own quality management system, compare results with other participants and develop plans for improving their dosimetry systems. In response to growing demand, EURADOS has increased the number of intercomparisons for external radiation dosimetry. Most of these fit into the programme of self-financing intercomparisons for dosemeters routinely used by IMS. This programme is being coordinated by EURADOS working group 2 (WG2). Up to now, this programme has included four intercomparisons for whole-body dosemeters in photon fields, one for extremity dosemeters in photon and beta fields, and one for whole-body dosemeters in neutron fields. Other EURADOS working groups have organised additional intercomparisons including events in 2014 for eye-lens dosemeters and passive area dosemeters for environmental monitoring. In this paper, the organisation and achievements of these intercomparisons are compared in detail focusing on the similarities and differences in their execution. PMID:26759475

  18. Study of a selection of 10 historical types of dosemeter: variation of the response to Hp(10) with photon energy and geometry of exposure.

    PubMed

    Thierry-Chef, I; Pernicka, F; Marshall, M; Cardis, E; Andreo, P

    2002-01-01

    An international collaborative study of cancer risk among workers in the nuclear industry is tinder way to estimate direetly the cancer risk following protracted low-dose exposure to ionising radiation. An essential aspect of this study is the characterisation and quantification of errors in available dose estimates. One major source of errors is dosemeter response in workplace exposure conditions. Little information is available on energy and geometry response for most of the 124 different dosemeters used historically in participating facilities. Experiments were therefore set up to assess this. using 10 dosemeter types representative of those used over time. Results show that the largest errors were associated with the response of early dosemeters to low-energy photon radiation. Good response was found with modern dosemeters. even at low energy. These results are being used to estimate errors in the response for each dosemeter type, used in the participating facilities, so that these can be taken into account in the estimates of cancer risk. PMID:12408486

  19. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  20. Training Personnel for Computer Conversions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulffes, Walt

    1986-01-01

    A computer training model for school personnel can be divided into several phases that meet a district's goal of decentralizing the computerized administrative and instructional support system. Training involves such considerations as cost and job description revisions. (CJH)

  1. Electrostatic forces for personnel restraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, N.; Ciciora, J.; Gardner, R.; Porter, K.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing electrostatic forces for personnel retention devices on exterior spacecraft surfaces was analyzed. The investigation covered: (1) determination of the state of the art; (2) analysis of potential adhesion surfaces; (3) safety considerations for personnel; (4) electromagnetic force field determination and its effect on spacecraft instrumentation; and (5) proposed advances to current technology based on documentation review, analyses, and experimental test data.

  2. The use of passive personal neutron dosemeters to determine the neutron dose equivalent component of radiation fields in spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D T; Hager, L G; Tanner, R J

    2004-01-01

    For the altitude range and inclination of the International Space Station (ISS), secondary neutrons can be a major contributor to dose equivalent inside a spacecraft. The exact proportion is very dependent on the amount of shielding of the primary galactic cosmic radiation and trapped particles, but is likely to lie in the range of 10-50%. Personal neutron dosemeters of simple design, processed using simple techniques developed for personal dosimetry, may be used to estimate this neutron component. PMID:15353682

  3. Efficiency-corrected dose verification with thermoluminescence dosemeters in heavy-ion beams.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Fugger, Mamfred; Vana, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    One of the most essential difficulties in heavy-ion dosimetry by means of thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs)--often seen as a serious disadvantage of TLD utilisation--regards the changing TL-efficiency with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) of the particle. This behaviour leads to a falsification of absorbed dose that can be significant for many applications, e.g. in space or radiotherapeutic dosimetry. The high-temperature TL emission of LiF:Mg,Ti TL detectors can be exploited to obtain information about the LET of the heavy-ion radiation field under study. The high-temperature ratio (HTR) is used as a parameter to determine average LET. To correct the absorbed dose according to the TL-efficiency, the detailed dependence of HTR- and TL-efficiency on LET was recorded. These investigations were accomplished at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan, with a variety of high-energy ion beams (helium, carbon, neon, silicon and iron) ranging in LET from 2.2 to 393 keV microm(-1). The obtained relationships HTR vs. LET and TL-efficiency vs. LET were combined into a TL efficieny vs. HTR relationship. This enables correction of the absorbed dose (HTR-B method). The methodology is demonstrated by means of TLD 700 ((7)LiF:Mg,Ti) measurements in carbon beams of 290 and 400 MeV n(-1) available from HIMAC. PMID:16709709

  4. On optically stimulated luminescence properties of household salt as a retrospective dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Trandafir, Oana

    2013-08-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in the UV (270-370 nm) spectral region have been investigated for five types of table salt (NaCl) available in Romanian supermarkets with a view to applying them in retrospective dosimetry. The salt samples gave bright TL signals with two main peaks at ∼100°C and at 300 or 260°C, depending on the origin of the salt and bright OSL signals under continuous stimulation with blue light. The OSL signal (stimulated at 100°C after a pre-heat of 10 s at 150°C) was used for investigations in a standard multiple aliquot procedure. The dose-response was found to be linear in the dose range investigated (up to ∼100 mGy) and the lower limit of detection for the samples varied from ∼0.01 to 14 mGy. These characteristics, along with the widespread abundance and low cost of household salt, confirm its potential as a retrospective dosemeter. PMID:23443414

  5. 48 CFR 752.7007 - Personnel compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel compensation... Personnel compensation. The following clause shall be used in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts. Personnel Compensation (JUL 2007) (a) Direct compensation of the Contractor's personnel will be...

  6. 14 CFR 145.151 - Personnel requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel requirements. 145.151 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Personnel § 145.151 Personnel requirements. Each...) Provide qualified personnel to plan, supervise, perform, and approve for return to service the...

  7. 21 CFR 606.20 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personnel. 606.20 Section 606.20 Food and Drugs... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Organization and Personnel § 606.20 Personnel. (a) (b) The personnel responsible for the collection, processing, compatibility testing,...

  8. 21 CFR 600.10 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Personnel. 600.10 Section 600.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.10 Personnel. (a) (b) Personnel. Personnel shall...

  9. 21 CFR 600.10 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Personnel. 600.10 Section 600.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.10 Personnel. (a) (b) Personnel. Personnel shall...

  10. 21 CFR 600.10 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Personnel. 600.10 Section 600.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.10 Personnel. (a) (b) Personnel. Personnel shall...

  11. 21 CFR 600.10 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Personnel. 600.10 Section 600.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.10 Personnel. (a) (b) Personnel. Personnel shall...

  12. 21 CFR 600.10 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personnel. 600.10 Section 600.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.10 Personnel. (a) (b) Personnel. Personnel shall...

  13. The Trustee Role in College Personnel Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasiek, Clem R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Considers the trustee's role in guaranteeing personnel quality, establishing institutional values, supporting the president in personnel decisions, and defining personnel standards and processes. Reviews the board's powers in personnel management and legislative and regulative considerations. Discusses the impact of an effective evaluation system.…

  14. Comparison of broad band time series recorded parallel by FGI type interferometric water level and Lippmann type pendulum tilt meters at Conrad observatory, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Papp, Gabor; Leonhardt, Roman; Ban, Dora; Szücs, Eszter; Benedek, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) the progenitor of Finnish Geospatial Research Institute of NLS designed and built a 5.5m long prototype of interferometric water level tiltmeter (iWT) in early 2014. Geodetic and Geophysical Institute (GGI), Sopron, Hungary bought the instrument and started tilt measurement in August 2014 at the Conrad observatory (COBS), Austria to monitor geodynamical phenomena like microseisms, free oscillations of the Earth, earth tides, mass loading effects and crustal deformations in cooperation with Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the FGI. On the July 16 2015 a Lippmann-type 2D tilt sensor (LTS) was also installed by GGI on the 6 m long pier where iWT was set up previously. This situation opens a possibility to do broad band (from secular to seismic variations up to 15 Hz) geophysical signal analysis comparing the responses of long (several meters) and short (a few decimeters) base instruments implementing different physical principles (relative height change of a level surface and inclination change of the plumb line). The characteristics of the sensors are studied by the evaluation of the spectra of recorded signals dominated by microseisms. The iWT has internal interferometric calibration and it can be compared to Lippmanns tilt meter one. Both instruments show good long term ( > 1 day) stability when earth tides and ocean and air mass loading tilts are modelled.

  15. Health Instruction Packages: Dental Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Gary E.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct non-professional dental personnel in selected job-related skills. The first module, by Gary E. Hayes, describes how to locate the hinge axis point of the jaw, place and secure a bitefork, and perform a facebow transfer. The second module,…

  16. Public Information Personnel and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunwoody, Sharon L.; Ryan, Michael

    A study examined the attitudes of scientists toward public information personnel and media coverage. Of 456 subjects (half social and behavioral scientists and half biological scientists) chosen randomly from the "American Men and Women of Science" reference books, 287 responded to the seven-page, two-part questionnaire. Part one contained 34…

  17. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  18. Personnel Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, John D.; And Others

    This document on personnel management in higher education contains three papers that are designed to be used as guidelines for educational administrators. The first two papers, by John D. Millett, discuss the scope and problems of higher education administration and the problems associated with collective bargaining and tenure on college campuses.…

  19. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  20. Energy and angular dependences of common types of personal dosemeters in the mirror of the First national intercomparison of individual dosimetric monitoring laboratories in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V; Deniachenko, N; Volosky, V

    2015-12-01

    In depth analysis of the results of the First National Intercomparison of individual dosimetry laboratories in Ukraine has revealed energy and angular responses of the most common types of personal dosemeters and dosi metric systems. Participating laboratories use 9 different types of dosimetric systems - automatic, semi automat ic and manual. If was found that energy dependences of the most common dosemeter types in Ukraine generally correspond to the literature data on respective TLD materials (LiF:Mg,Cu,P, LiF:Mg,TiandAl2O3:С), however, due to peculiarities of holders (filters) and dose algorithms, for some dosimetry systems the energy dependences can be improved (compensated). Angular dependences proved to be more pronounced: only two systems revealed weak dependence of response on the incident angle, for other systems at large angles (α=60°) dosemeters overestimate true dose values. PMID:26695907

  1. Evaluation of a personal and environmental dosemeter based on CR-39 track detectors in quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields.

    PubMed

    Caresana, M; Ferrarini, M; Parravicini, A; Sashala Naik, A

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the evaluation of the dosimetric capability of a detector based on a CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector coupled to a 1 cm thickness of PMMA radiator was made with the aim of understanding the applicability of this technique to personal and environmental neutron dosimetry. The dosemeter has been exposed to monoenergetic and quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams at PTB in Braunschweig, Germany and at Ithemba Laboratories, in Faure, South Africa, with peak energies ranging from 0.565 to 100 MeV. The results showed a response that is almost independent of the neutron energy in the whole energy range. PMID:24324248

  2. Personnel

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le président du conseil M.Doran explique la décision que le conseil du Cern vient de prendre sur la 4.étape du régime complémentaire des pensions. Le président du comité des finances le Dr.Andersen ainsi que le Prof.Connor(?) prennent aussi la parole

  3. Fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, H.W.

    1980-02-01

    The fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during March 15-23, 1978. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) used unshielded, with a 12-cm-thick Lucite shield, a 20-cm-thick concrete shield, or a 5-cm-thick steel and 15-cm-thick concrete shield, and provided four neutron and gamma-ray spectra. Then the dose was calculated based on the HPRR neutron spectra and dose conversion factors which had been determined previously for the four spectra. The results of these personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies reveal that estimates of dose equivalent vary over a wide range. The standard deviation of the mean of participants data for gamma measurements was in the range of 29 to 43%; for neutrons it was 57 to 188%. (PCS)

  4. Fifth personnel dosimetry intercomparison study

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.

    1980-02-01

    The fifth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (PDIS) was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) facility on March 20-22, 1979. This study is the latest PDIS in the continuing series started at the DOSAR facility in 1974. The PDIS is a three day study, typically in March, where personnel dosimeters are mailed to the DOSAR facility, exposed to a range of low-level neutron radiation doses (1 to 15 mSv or equivalently, 100 to 1500 mrem) and neutron-to-gamma ratios (1:1-10:1) using the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as the radiation source, and returned to the participants for evaluation. This report is a summary and analysis of the results reported by the various participants. The participants are able to intercompare their results with those of others who made dose measurements under identical experimental conditions.

  5. 32 CFR 9.4 - Commission personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... States Government (“Civilian Defense Counsel”), provided that attorney: (1) Is a United States citizen.... Other personnel, such as court reporters, interpreters, security personnel, bailiffs, and clerks may...

  6. 10 CFR 36.55 - Personnel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... irradiator. The personnel dosimeter processor must be accredited for high energy photons in the normal and accident dose ranges (see 10 CFR 20.1501(c)). Each personnel dosimeter must be assigned to and worn by...

  7. 10 CFR 36.55 - Personnel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... irradiator. The personnel dosimeter processor must be accredited for high energy photons in the normal and accident dose ranges (see 10 CFR 20.1501(c)). Each personnel dosimeter must be assigned to and worn by...

  8. 10 CFR 36.55 - Personnel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... irradiator. The personnel dosimeter processor must be accredited for high energy photons in the normal and accident dose ranges (see 10 CFR 20.1501(c)). Each personnel dosimeter must be assigned to and worn by...

  9. 10 CFR 36.55 - Personnel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... irradiator. The personnel dosimeter processor must be accredited for high energy photons in the normal and accident dose ranges (see 10 CFR 20.1501(c)). Each personnel dosimeter must be assigned to and worn by...

  10. 10 CFR 36.55 - Personnel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... irradiator. The personnel dosimeter processor must be accredited for high energy photons in the normal and accident dose ranges (see 10 CFR 20.1501(c)). Each personnel dosimeter must be assigned to and worn by...

  11. Personnel Management: A J/A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasca, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recently, personnel executives and their staffs are being asked to help management solve an increasing number of human resource and business problems. Personnel management must undergo some changes if it is to achieve its full potential. (Author/AJ)

  12. The Control Process In Personnel Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Lane

    1976-01-01

    The concept of human resource planning in personnel administration is gradually reintroducing the need for control over personnel functions as is usually demanded of other functions such as production and finance. (Author/TA)

  13. 9 CFR 2.32 - Personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.32 Personnel qualifications. (a) It shall be the responsibility of the research facility to ensure that all scientists, research technicians... of personnel reviewed, with sufficient frequency to fulfill the research facility's...

  14. 9 CFR 2.32 - Personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.32 Personnel qualifications. (a) It shall be the responsibility of the research facility to ensure that all scientists, research technicians... of personnel reviewed, with sufficient frequency to fulfill the research facility's...

  15. 9 CFR 2.32 - Personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.32 Personnel qualifications. (a) It shall be the responsibility of the research facility to ensure that all scientists, research technicians... of personnel reviewed, with sufficient frequency to fulfill the research facility's...

  16. 9 CFR 2.32 - Personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.32 Personnel qualifications. (a) It shall be the responsibility of the research facility to ensure that all scientists, research technicians... of personnel reviewed, with sufficient frequency to fulfill the research facility's...

  17. 9 CFR 2.32 - Personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.32 Personnel qualifications. (a) It shall be the responsibility of the research facility to ensure that all scientists, research technicians... of personnel reviewed, with sufficient frequency to fulfill the research facility's...

  18. 10 CFR 95.31 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.31 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel... Confidential National Security Information, Confidential Restricted Data or Secret National...

  19. 40 CFR 160.29 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility shall maintain a current summary of training and experience and job description for each... personnel for the timely and proper conduct of the study according to the protocol. (d) Personnel shall...

  20. 40 CFR 160.29 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility shall maintain a current summary of training and experience and job description for each... personnel for the timely and proper conduct of the study according to the protocol. (d) Personnel shall...

  1. 40 CFR 160.29 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility shall maintain a current summary of training and experience and job description for each... personnel for the timely and proper conduct of the study according to the protocol. (d) Personnel shall...

  2. Development of a technique for improving coefficient of variation of CaSO4:Dy teflon-based TLD personnel monitoring system in low-dose region.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, S M; Sneha, C; Sahai, M K; Chougaonkar, M P; Babu, D A R

    2015-12-01

    In view of the importance of zero-dose background (null signal) in influencing the coefficient of variation in low-dose region, a technique for the estimation of the same from composite (gross) signal is developed for CaSO4:Dy-based personnel monitoring system being used in India. The technique is based on simple analysis of glow curves (GCs) of unexposed and exposed dosemeters, evolution of trend/model for the zero-dose curves, generation of simulation protocol for individual zero-dose curves, establishment of characteristics of GCs of exposed dosemeters and finally preparation of an algorithm to segregate the components from composite signal. The technique offers the separation of real-time background and gives superior results over other method of approximation of the background. The results also prove efficiency of the empirical trending and simulation protocol of background GCs. The proposed technique can be implemented in routine monitoring without any extra man hours and reader time. PMID:25527179

  3. 21 CFR 205.7 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personnel. 205.7 Section 205.7 Food and Drugs FOOD... FOR STATE LICENSING OF WHOLESALE PRESCRIPTION DRUG DISTRIBUTORS § 205.7 Personnel. The State licensing authority shall require that personnel employed in wholesale distribution have appropriate education...

  4. 21 CFR 820.25 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personnel. 820.25 Section 820.25 Food and Drugs... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.25 Personnel. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall have sufficient personnel with the necessary education, background, training, and experience...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1021 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personnel. 416.1021 Section 416.1021... DISABLED Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and Requirements § 416.1021 Personnel... to applicable State approved personnel standards in the selection, tenure, and compensation of...

  6. 14 CFR 141.33 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel. 141.33 Section 141.33... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.33 Personnel. (a) An applicant for a pilot school certificate or for a provisional pilot school...

  7. The Changing World of Personnel Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Eileen R.

    Although personnel management in the public sector has become increasingly difficult because of recent social changes, more worker and middle management involvement in decision-making processes can improve all levels of personnel management. The social changes affecting personnel management have assumed three forms: (1) the entrance into the work…

  8. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  9. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  10. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  11. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2711 - Personnel health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2711 - Personnel health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2711 - Personnel health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2711 - Personnel health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2711 - Personnel health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each...

  17. Personnel Development Practices in Turkish Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays everything develops and changes very quickly and sustainability of organizational goals will be possible only when personnel can keep up with these changes. From administrative aspect it is important to enhance personnel's potential and prompt them to achieve organizational goals. Personnel development is a process which influences and…

  18. Personnel Training in the Finnish Lutheran Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtio, Pirkko

    1985-01-01

    Examines various personnel positions in the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church (the largest organized religion in Finland), the basic training of Church personnel (cantors, theologians, deacons, youth leaders, financial administrators, preschool teachers), personnel structure of the Church, and training in the Church itself (familiarization…

  19. 46 CFR 107.113 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 107.113 Section 107.113 Shipping... CERTIFICATION General § 107.113 Industrial personnel. Industrial personnel are all persons, exclusive of the... unit for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial business or functions of the unit....

  20. 46 CFR 107.113 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 107.113 Section 107.113 Shipping... CERTIFICATION General § 107.113 Industrial personnel. Industrial personnel are all persons, exclusive of the... unit for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial business or functions of the unit....

  1. 46 CFR 107.113 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 107.113 Section 107.113 Shipping... CERTIFICATION General § 107.113 Industrial personnel. Industrial personnel are all persons, exclusive of the... unit for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial business or functions of the unit....

  2. 46 CFR 107.113 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 107.113 Section 107.113 Shipping... CERTIFICATION General § 107.113 Industrial personnel. Industrial personnel are all persons, exclusive of the... unit for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial business or functions of the unit....

  3. 46 CFR 107.113 - Industrial personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial personnel. 107.113 Section 107.113 Shipping... CERTIFICATION General § 107.113 Industrial personnel. Industrial personnel are all persons, exclusive of the... unit for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial business or functions of the unit....

  4. 32 CFR 9.4 - Commission personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.4... United States armed forces (“Military Officer”), including without limitation reserve personnel on active duty, National Guard personnel on active duty in Federal service, and retired personnel recalled...

  5. 32 CFR 9.4 - Commission personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TRIALS BY MILITARY COMMISSIONS OF CERTAIN NON-UNITED STATES CITIZENS IN THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM § 9.4... United States armed forces (“Military Officer”), including without limitation reserve personnel on active duty, National Guard personnel on active duty in Federal service, and retired personnel recalled...

  6. 14 CFR 141.33 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personnel. 141.33 Section 141.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.33 Personnel. (a) An applicant for a pilot...

  7. 10 CFR 1016.25 - Protective personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective personnel. 1016.25 Section 1016.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 1016.25 Protective personnel. Whenever protective personnel are required by § 1016.23, such protective...

  8. 21 CFR 58.29 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Personnel. 58.29 Section 58.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Organization and Personnel § 58.29 Personnel. (a) Each individual engaged in the conduct of or responsible for...

  9. 40 CFR 792.29 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Personnel. 792.29 Section 792.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 792.29 Personnel. (a) Each individual engaged in the conduct of or...

  10. 21 CFR 820.25 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Personnel. 820.25 Section 820.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.25 Personnel. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall have sufficient personnel with...

  11. Developing the Rehabilitation Facility Personnel Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Alan D.

    This guide is intended to provide rehabilitation facilities with assistance in developing or improving their facility personnel manual, along with examples of what some rehabilitation facilities are including within their personnel manuals. The introduction to the guide discusses how a facility can begin the formulation of its personnel manual.…

  12. 5 CFR 293.302 - Establishment of Official Personnel Folder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of Official Personnel Folder. 293.302 Section 293.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Official Personnel Folder § 293.302 Establishment of Official Personnel...

  13. 5 CFR 293.302 - Establishment of Official Personnel Folder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of Official Personnel Folder. 293.302 Section 293.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Official Personnel Folder § 293.302 Establishment of Official Personnel...

  14. 5 CFR 293.302 - Establishment of Official Personnel Folder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of Official Personnel Folder. 293.302 Section 293.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Official Personnel Folder § 293.302 Establishment of Official Personnel...

  15. 5 CFR 293.302 - Establishment of Official Personnel Folder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of Official Personnel Folder. 293.302 Section 293.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Official Personnel Folder § 293.302 Establishment of Official Personnel...

  16. 5 CFR 293.302 - Establishment of Official Personnel Folder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of Official Personnel Folder. 293.302 Section 293.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Official Personnel Folder § 293.302 Establishment of Official Personnel...

  17. Influenza vaccination of healthcare personnel.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Sabine; Marckmann, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The thought is terrifying--you are admitted to the hospital and you die of a nosocomial infection. What sounds like a horror scenario, happens every day in hospitals all over the world. Nosocomial influenza is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality among patients with underlying diseases (especially immunocompromised patients), the elderly, and neonates. Although vaccination of healthcare personnel (HCP) is the main measure for preventing nosocomial influenza and is consistently recommended by public-health authorities, vaccine uptake among HCP remains low. (1.) PMID:25483507

  18. Personnel Launch System (PLS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Carl F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is currently studying a personnel launch system (PLS) approach to help satisfy the crew rotation requirements for the Space Station Freedom. Several concepts from low L/D capsules to lifting body vehicles are being examined in a series of studies as a potential augmentation to the Space Shuttle launch system. Rockwell International Corporation, under contract to NASA, analyzed a lifting body concept to determine whether the lifting body class of vehicles is appropriate for the PLS function. The results of the study are given.

  19. BETA-GAMMA PERSONNEL DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, D.M.; Gupton, E.D.; Hart, J.C.; Hull, A.P.

    1961-01-17

    A personnel dosimeter is offered which is sensitive to both gamma and soft beta radiations from all directions within a hemisphere. The device is in the shape of a small pill box which is worn on a worker-s wrist. The top and sides of the device are provided with 50 per cent void areas to give 50 per cent response to the beta rays and complete response to the gamma rays. The device is so constructed as to have a response which will approximate the dose received by the basal layer of the human epidermis.

  20. Influenza vaccination of healthcare personnel

    PubMed Central

    Wicker, Sabine; Marckmann, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The thought is terrifying—you are admitted to the hospital and you die of a nosocomial infection. What sounds like a horror scenario, happens every day in hospitals all over the world. Nosocomial influenza is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality among patients with underlying diseases (especially immunocompromised patients), the elderly, and neonates. Although vaccination of healthcare personnel (HCP) is the main measure for preventing nosocomial influenza and is consistently recommended by public-health authorities, vaccine uptake among HCP remains low.1 PMID:25483507

  1. Studies on automatic hot gas reader used in the countrywide personnel monitoring programme.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Munish; Alagu Raja, E; Prasad, L C; Popli, K L; Kher, R K; Bhatt, B C

    2005-01-01

    In India, approximately 58,000 radiation workers are monitored using locally made CaSO4:Dy teflon embedded thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) badge system. The automatic hot gas readers developed locally are also used in TL measurements. The hot gas reader system has many advantages over the manual readers used previously and has completely replaced the manual reader system in all TLD personnel monitoring units in India. In the present study, the new reader system is studied and a theoretical attempt has been made to interpret the experimentally obtained results. The glow curves are generated theoretically and are also plotted experimentally. It has been found that the heat capacity of the heating gas, which is responsible for the transfer of heat, has a role in deciding the position of peak and is verified experimentally using different gas flow rates of nitrogen and argon as heating gases in the reader. The theoretical study may also be helpful in fitting the experimentally obtained glow curves and, therefore, the elimination of unwanted non-radiation-induced contributions, such as dark current, electronic spikes, light leakage and triboluminescence that generally distort the glow curve shape, can be achieved. PMID:15843392

  2. Neutron personnel dosimetry intecomparison studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted sixteen Neutron Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies (PDIS) since 1974. During these studies dosimeters are mailed to DOSAR, exposed to low-level (typically in the 0.3 -- 5.0 mSv range) neutron dose equivalents in a variety of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields, and then returned to the participants for evaluation. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) was used as the primary radiation source in PDIS 1--12 and radioisotopic neutron sources at DOSAR's Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL) were mainly used, along with sources and accelerators at cooperating institutions, in PDIS 13--16. Conclusions based on 13,560 measurements made by 146 different participating organizations (102 - US) are presented.

  3. Characterising Passive Dosemeters for Dosimetry of Biological Experiments in Space (dobies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhavere, Filip; Spurny, Frantisek; Yukihara, Eduardo; Genicot, Jean-Louis

    Introduction: The DOBIES (Dosimetry of biological experi-ments in space) project focusses on the use of a stan-dard dosimetric method (as a combination of differ-ent passive techniques) to measure accurately the absorbed doses and equivalent doses in biological samples. Dose measurements on biological samples are of high interest in the fields of radiobiology and exobiology. Radiation doses absorbed by biological samples must be quantified to be able to determine the relationship between observed biological effects and the radiation dose. The radiation field in space is very complex, con-sisting of protons, neutrons, electrons and high-energy heavy charged particles. It is not straightfor-ward to measure doses in this radiation field, cer-tainly not with only small and light passive doseme-ters. The properties of the passive detectors must be tested in radiation fields that are representative of the space radiation. We will report on the characterisation of different type of passive detectors at high energy fields. The results from such characterisation measurements will be applied to recent exposures of detectors on the International Space Station. Material and methods: Following passive detectors are used: • thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) • optically stimulated luminescence detectors (OSLD) • track etch detectors (TED) The different groups have participated in the past to the ICCHIBAN series of irradiations. Here protons and other particles of high energy were used to de-termine the LET-dependency of the passive detec-tors. The last few months, new irradiations have been done at the iThemba labs (100-200 MeV protons), Dubna (145 MeV protons) and the JRC-IRMM (quasi mono energetic neutrons up to 19 MeV). All these detectors were also exposed to a simulated space radiation field at CERN (CERF-field). Discussion: The interpretation of the TLD and OSLD results is done using the measured LET spectrum (TED) and the LET-dependency curves of ths TLD and OSLDs

  4. Performance of the electronic personal dosemeter for neutron 'Saphydose-N' at different workplaces of nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, T; Chau, Q; Ménard, S; Lacoste, V; Muller, H; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Reginatto, M; Bruguier, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly aims at presenting the measurements and the results obtained with the electronic personal neutron dosemeter Saphydose-N at different facilities. Three campaigns were led in the frame of the European contract EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields'). The first one consisted in the measurements at the IRSN French research laboratory in reference neutron fields generated by a thermal facility (SIGMA), radionuclide ISO sources ((241)AmBe; (252)Cf; (252)Cf(D(2)O)\\Cd) and a realistic spectrum (CANEL/T400). The second one was performed at the Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant (Germany) close to the boiling water reactor and to a spent fuel transport cask. The third one was realised at Mol (Belgium), at the VENUS Research Reactor and at Belgonucléaire, a fuel processing factory. PMID:16820401

  5. Measurements of non-target organ doses using MOSFET dosemeters for selected IMRT and 3D CRT radiation treatment procedures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Brian; Xu, X George

    2008-01-01

    Many expressed concerns about the potential increase in second cancer risk from the widespread shift to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques from traditional 3-D conformal radiation treatment (3D CRT). This paper describes the study on in-phantom measurements of radiation doses in organ sites away from the primary tumour target. The measurements involved a RANDO((R)) phantom and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor dosemeters for selected 3D CRT and IMRT treatment plans. Three different treatment plans, 4-field 3D CRT, 6-field 3D CRT and 7-field IMRT for the prostate, were considered in this study. Steps to reconstruct organ doses from directly measured data were also presented. The dosemeter readings showed that the doses decrease as the distances increase for all treatment plans. At 40 cm from the prostate target, doses were <1% of the therapeutic dose. At this location, however, the IMRT plan resulted in an absorbed dose from photons, that is a factor of 3-5 higher than the 3D CRT treatment plans. This increase on absorbed dose is due to the increased exposure time for delivering the IMRT plan. The total monitor unit (MU) was 2850 for the IMRT case, while the MU was 1308 and 1260 for 6-field and 4-field 3D CRT cases, respectively. Findings from this case study involving the prostate treatments agree with those from previous studies that IMRT indeed delivers higher photon doses to locations that are away from the primary target. PMID:17627959

  6. Computer-assisted warehouse personnel scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Sandra C.; Malstrom, Eric J.; Usmani, Tariq

    1992-02-01

    A decision support system is developed for personnel scheduling in a multiple warehouse environment. The system incorporates current manpower level, historical data of workers used, empirical load distributions, and performance standards to generate manpower requirements for a specified planning horizon. The software has been developed to be easily adaptable to varying situational details, therefore is widely applicable in different warehouse settings. The system offers personnel managers a valuable tool for evaluating alternative schedules and making intelligent decisions regarding personnel scheduling in warehouses.

  7. 40 CFR 792.29 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Personnel shall take necessary personal sanitation and health precautions designed to avoid contamination of... prevent microbiological, radiological, or chemical contamination of test systems and test, control,...

  8. 21 CFR 606.20 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., training and experience, including professional training as necessary, or combination thereof, to assure..., purity, potency, identity and effectiveness it purports or is represented to possess. All personnel...

  9. 21 CFR 606.20 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., training and experience, including professional training as necessary, or combination thereof, to assure..., purity, potency, identity and effectiveness it purports or is represented to possess. All personnel...

  10. Qualifications and certification of nondestructive testing personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, M. K.

    1971-01-01

    Personnel handbook states criteria for test methods including radiation, ultrasonics, eddy current, liquid penetrant, and magnetic particle. Subject categories are thoroughly defined and substructured.

  11. Effective dose assessment in the maxillofacial region using thermoluminescent (TLD) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosemeters: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, D; Wolff, J; Rottke, D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology dosemeters with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) (TLD 100; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) in the maxillofacial area. Methods: Organ and effective dose measurements were performed using 40 TLD and 20 MOSFET dosemeters that were alternately placed in 20 different locations in 1 anthropomorphic RANDO® head phantom (the Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY). The phantom was exposed to four different CBCT default maxillofacial protocols using small (4 × 5 cm) to full face (20 × 17 cm) fields of view (FOVs). Results: The TLD effective doses ranged between 7.0 and 158.0 µSv and the MOSFET doses between 6.1 and 175.0 µSv. The MOSFET and TLD effective doses acquired using four different (FOV) protocols were as follows: face maxillofacial (FOV 20 × 17 cm) (MOSFET, 83.4 µSv; TLD, 87.6 µSv; −5%); teeth, upper jaw (FOV, 8.5 × 5.0 cm) (MOSFET, 6.1 µSv; TLD, 7.0 µSv; −14%); tooth, mandible and left molar (FOV, 4 × 5 cm) (MOSFET, 10.3 µSv; TLD, 12.3 µSv; −16%) and teeth, both jaws (FOV, 10 × 10 cm) (MOSFET, 175 µSv; TLD, 158 µSv; +11%). The largest variation in organ and effective dose was recorded in the small FOV protocols. Conclusions: Taking into account the uncertainties of both measurement methods and the results of the statistical analysis, the effective doses acquired using MOSFET dosemeters were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using TLD dosemeters. The MOSFET dosemeters constitute a feasible alternative for TLDs for the effective dose assessment of CBCT devices in the maxillofacial region. PMID:25143020

  12. Photon energy response of luminescence dosemeters and its impact on assessment of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) in mixed fields of varying energies of photons and beta radiation.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, A S

    2002-01-01

    X and gamma rays continue to remain the main contributors to the dose to humans. As these photons of varying energies are encountered in various applications, the study of photon energy response of a dosemeter is an important aspect to ensure the accuracy in dose measurement. Responses of dosemeters have to be experimentally established because for luminescence dosemeters, they depend not only on the effective atomic number (ratio of mass energy absorption coefficients of dosemeter and tissue) of the detector, but also considerably on the luminescence efficiency and the material surrounding the dosemeters. Metal filters are generally used for the compensation of energy dependence below 200 keV and/or to provide photon energy discrimination. It is noted that the contribution to Hp(0.07) could be measured more accurately than Hp(10). For the dosemeters exhibiting high photon energy-dependent response, estimation of the beta component of Hp(0.07) becomes very difficult in the mixed field of beta radiation and photons of energy less than 100 keV. Recent studies have shown that the thickness and the atomic number of metal filters not only affect the response below 200 keV but also cause a significant over-response for high energy (>6 MeV) photons often encountered in the environments of pressurised heavy water reactors and accelerators. PMID:12382729

  13. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis; Teoh, William; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1988-01-01

    The Personnel Occupied Woven Envelope Robot (POWER) provides an alternative to extravehicular activity (EVA) of space suited astronauts and/or use of long slender manipulator arms such as are used in the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. POWER provides the capability for a shirt sleeved astronaut to perform such work by entering a control pod through air locks at both ends of an inflated flexible bellows (access tunnel). The exoskeleton of the tunnel is a series of six degrees of freedom (Six-DOF) articulated links compressible to 1/6 of their fully extended length. The operator can maneuver the control pod to almost any location within about 50 m of the base attachment to the space station. POWER can be envisioned as a series of hollow Six-DOF manipulator segments or arms wherein each arm grasps the shoulder of the next arm. Inside the hollow arms ia a bellow-type access tunnel. The control pod is the fist of the series of linked hollow arms. The fingers of the fist are conventional manipulator arms under direct visual control of the nearby operator in the pod. The applications and progress to date of the POWER system is given.

  14. 21 CFR 211.28 - Personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Personnel responsibilities. 211.28 Section 211.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Organization and Personnel §...

  15. 21 CFR 211.25 - Personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Personnel qualifications. 211.25 Section 211.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Organization and Personnel §...

  16. 21 CFR 211.25 - Personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Personnel qualifications. 211.25 Section 211.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Organization and Personnel §...

  17. 21 CFR 211.28 - Personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Personnel responsibilities. 211.28 Section 211.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Organization and Personnel §...

  18. 21 CFR 211.28 - Personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Personnel responsibilities. 211.28 Section 211.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Organization and Personnel §...

  19. 21 CFR 211.25 - Personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Personnel qualifications. 211.25 Section 211.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Organization and Personnel §...

  20. 21 CFR 211.28 - Personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Personnel responsibilities. 211.28 Section 211.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Organization and Personnel §...

  1. 21 CFR 211.25 - Personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Personnel qualifications. 211.25 Section 211.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Organization and Personnel §...

  2. Personnel Utilization in Libraries, Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, Ruth H., Ed.

    An institute on the utilization of personnel in libraries was conducted by the Florida State University School of Library Science in October, 1969. Papers presented are grouped into the following three broad categories: (1) changing attitudes toward personnel administration, (2) procedures for selecting middle management and (3) ways and means of…

  3. 34 CFR 300.207 - Personnel development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Personnel development. 300.207 Section 300.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.207 Personnel development. The LEA must ensure that...

  4. 34 CFR 300.207 - Personnel development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Personnel development. 300.207 Section 300.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.207 Personnel development. The...

  5. 34 CFR 300.207 - Personnel development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Personnel development. 300.207 Section 300.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.207 Personnel development. The LEA must ensure that...

  6. 34 CFR 300.207 - Personnel development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel development. 300.207 Section 300.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.207 Personnel development. The...

  7. 34 CFR 300.207 - Personnel development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Personnel development. 300.207 Section 300.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.207 Personnel development. The...

  8. NASP Issues Guidance on Personnel Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Philip J.; Myers, Mary Alice; Skalski, Anastasia Kalamaros

    2012-01-01

    In November 2011, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) created the Personnel Assessment Task Force comprising national and state leaders with knowledge of effective personnel evaluation systems. Task force participants included school psychologist supervisors, university professors, NASP leadership, and staff. The primary…

  9. 14 CFR 133.21 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel. 133.21 Section 133.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.21 Personnel. (a) The applicant must hold, or have available...

  10. 33 CFR 127.707 - Security personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security personnel. 127.707 Section 127.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.707 Security personnel. The...