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Sample records for perspectives techniques des

  1. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Tae; Tani, Johji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Oryu, Makoto; Iwama, Hisakazu; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. PMID:24741323

  2. Oncoplastic breast surgery: indications, techniques and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Montag, Eduardo; Gemperli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Breast-conservation surgery (BCS) is established as a safe option for most women with early breast cancer. Recently, advances in oncoplastic techniques have reduced surgical trauma and thus are capable of preserving the breast form and quality of life. In spite of the most BCS defects can be managed with primary closure, the aesthetic outcome may be unpredictable. Oncoplastic reconstruction may begin at the time of BCS (immediate), weeks (delayed-immediate) or months to years afterwards (delayed). With immediate reconstruction, the surgical process is smooth, since both procedures can be associated in one operative setting. Additionally, it permits wider excision of the tumor, with a superior mean volume of the specimen and potentially reducing the incidence of margin involvement. The oncoplastic techniques are related to volume displacement or replacement procedures including local flaps, latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and reduction mammaplasty/masthopexy. Regardless of the fact that there is no consensus concerning the best approach, the criteria are determined by the surgeon’s experience and the size of the defect in relation to the size of the remaining breast. On the basis of our 15-year experience, it is possible to identify trends in types of breast defects and to develop an algorithm for immediate BCS reconstruction on the basis of the initial breast volume, the extent/location of glandular tissue ressection and the remaining available breast tissue. The main advantages of the technique utilized should include reproducibility, low interference with the oncologic treatment and long-term results. Surgical planning should include the patients’s preferences, and chiefly addressing individual reconstructive requirements, enabling each patient to receive an individual “custom-made” reconstruction. PMID:25083476

  3. Perspectives of powerful laser technique for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konov, Vitali I.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.; Shcherbakov, Ivan A.

    1991-11-01

    The optimum laser-system parameters are being selected for several types of surgical operations using ablation techniques. The choice is based on the specific demands of the operation performed, knowledge of the ablation laws, limitations on laser-beam intensity which come from the necessity to transport high-intensity light through flexible fiber, and the peculiarities of different laser systems. At present it is more expedient to develop laser medical setups oriented to the solution of one task or a limited number of problems. The choice of a concrete installation should be based on the investigation results of interaction of radiation with biological tissues and its transmission through the fiber, the analysis of the level of development of laser and fiber technique, specificity of the operation, and compatibility of laser facilitates and traditional medical equipment. The paper illustrates such an approach by way of several concrete examples and notes the corresponding laser systems, which were developed or are in the developmental stage in the General Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences and in organizations connected with the Institute.

  4. Evolution of techniques in hair transplantation: a 12-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2007-02-01

    Few if any fields of medicine have undergone such dramatic advancements in technique and outcomes as surgical hair restoration over the past 12 years. Not very long ago, the procedure produced results that were, from a cosmetic perspective, acceptable at best; we are now capable of creating results that truly are natural and undetectable in appearance. These developments have clearly resulted in a procedure-follicular unit hair transplanting-far superior in outcome to the once popular other surgical hair restoration procedures of bald scalp reductions and scalp flap surgery, as well as micro- and mini-grafting. PMID:17330774

  5. Perspectives on the Chaine Des Puys and Limagne Fault UNESCO World Heritage Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Olive, Cécile

    2015-04-01

    The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault project is acknowledged to have Outstanding Universal Value (38th session of the World Heritage UNESCO committee, June 2014). One ongoing challenge for the project is to consolidate the outreach, and to work with other sites to increase the public perception of Earth sciences. The Chaîne des Puys volcanic field in central France, became a celebrated mecca for 18/19th Century scientists, only once the volcanoes were 'discovered'. Beforehand they were only hills, but the ability to interpret landscape with prior knowledge allowed these early geologists to create a popular understanding of the geology. Since that time, the Chaîne des Puys has become a well-known volcanic site to a worldwide audience through textbooks, tourism, and commerce. To the 19th century geologists, the Limagne escarpment was just as fascinating, but lacking the ability to fully interpret this rift margin, the idea of a fault did not percolate down to the general public. With the advent of the current UNESCO project, it became clear that the geological link between the volcanoes and the fault could be exploited, not only to raise the profile of the volcanoes, but to create a greater awareness of the tectonics in the greater public. Not only have the volcanoes, become better known and more clearly understood than previously, but the fault has begun to emerge as a feature in public consciousness. We will demonstrate the many communication techniques at all levels that have been used in the project. We explain the rationale between creating a geological scale model that works on processes as well as landforms to raise the public awareness. The success is that we show how geological features can be made readable by the general public, something highly important for conservation of heritage, but also for risk perception. The increased education efforts of the scientists have also lead to an increase in science. The more informed and participatory the public is

  6. Radiation dose reduction in computed tomography: techniques and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lifeng; Liu, Xin; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan C; Qu, Mingliang; Christner, Jodie; Fletcher, Joel G; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2011-01-01

    Despite universal consensus that computed tomography (CT) overwhelmingly benefits patients when used for appropriate indications, concerns have been raised regarding the potential risk of cancer induction from CT due to the exponentially increased use of CT in medicine. Keeping radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable, consistent with the diagnostic task, remains the most important strategy for decreasing this potential risk. This article summarizes the general technical strategies that are commonly used for radiation dose management in CT. Dose-management strategies for pediatric CT, cardiac CT, dual-energy CT, CT perfusion and interventional CT are specifically discussed, and future perspectives on CT dose reduction are presented. PMID:22308169

  7. Technique de Blount dans le traitement des fractures supra condyliennes du coude chez l'enfant: à propos de 68 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Zanati, Rachid; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Lamrani, Moulay Omar; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh; Ettaybi, Fouad

    2014-01-01

    La fracture de la palette humérale est la plus fréquente des fractures du coude de l'enfant. La méthode de BLOUNT, constitue une perspective thérapeutique longtemps connue. Elle consiste en une réduction sous contrôle scopique de la fracture et une contention en hyper flexion du coude. Notre série a porté sur l’étude de 68 cas de fractures supra condyliennes chez des enfants traités dans le service des urgences chirurgicales pédiatriques de l'hôpital d'enfant de Rabat entre janvier 2009 et janvier 2012. Nous comparons nos résultats avec les données de la littérature. PMID:25667714

  8. Peste des petits ruminants in Pakistan; past, present and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad; Manzoor, Shumaila

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is considered to be one of the main constraints to enhancing the productivity of goats and sheep in regions where it is present and becoming endemic. PPR was recognized in Pakistan in early 1990s but got importance during the Participatory Disease Surveillance (PDS) of Rinderpest Eradication Campaign. Lot of research work has been initiated during last decade towards disease epidemiology, risk factor recognition, laboratory diagnosis, vaccination and demonstration of control strategies. Although there are ongoing projects working towards the progressive control of the disease in country yet there is need to have a national level control program for PPR. Also there is need to have comprehensive social economic surveys, disease hot spot recognition and identification of role of other species in disease transmission. With combined efforts of local and national authorities and political will, there is high likelihood that this devastating disease can be controlled and eventually eradicated in near future. PMID:26528398

  9. Student Perspectives on Teaching Techniques and Outstanding Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Ellen M.; Chen, X. Mara; Venso, Elichia A.

    2007-01-01

    The increased use of instructional technology in the past decade has brought about many changes in college teaching, including changes in the lecture format. We surveyed students in six science courses to obtain their opinions regarding technology use, as well as non-technological instructional techniques, and the characteristics of outstanding…

  10. An overview of protein-folding techniques: issues and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sikder, Abdur Rahman; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2005-01-01

    The importance of protein folding has been recognised for many years. Almost a half century ago, Linus Pauling discovered two quite simple, regular arrangements of amino acids--the alpha-helix and the beta-sheet that are found in almost every protein. In the early 1960s, Christian Anfinsen showed that the proteins actually "tie" themselves: If proteins become unfolded, they fold back into proper shape of their own accord; no shaper or folder is needed. The nature of the unfolded state plays a great role in understanding proteins. Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, mad cow disease, and many cancers are inherited emphysema. Recent discoveries show that all these apparently unrelated diseases result from protein folding gone wrong. Theoretical and computational studies have recently achieved noticeable success in reproducing various features of the folding mechanism of several small to medium-sized fast-folding proteins. This survey presents the state-of-the-art in protein structure prediction methods from a computer scientist perspective. PMID:18048125

  11. Green aspects, developments and perspectives of liquid phase microextraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-02-01

    Determination of analytes at trace levels in complex samples (e.g. biological or contaminated water or soils) are often required for the environmental assessment and monitoring as well as for scientific research in the field of environmental pollution. A limited number of analytical techniques are sensitive enough for the direct determination of trace components in samples and, because of that, a preliminary step of the analyte isolation/enrichment prior to analysis is required in many cases. In this work the newest trends and innovations in liquid phase microextraction, like: single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) have been discussed, including their critical evaluation and possible application in analytical practice. The described modifications of extraction techniques deal with system miniaturization and/or automation, the use of ultrasound and physical agitation, and electrochemical methods. Particular attention was given to pro-ecological aspects therefore the possible use of novel, non-toxic extracting agents, inter alia, ionic liquids, coacervates, surfactant solutions and reverse micelles in the liquid phase microextraction techniques has been evaluated in depth. Also, new methodological solutions and the related instruments and devices for the efficient liquid phase micoextraction of analytes, which have found application at the stage of procedure prior to chromatographic determination, are presented. PMID:24401382

  12. Reduced port laparoscopic gastrectomy: a review, techniques, and perspective.

    PubMed

    Inaki, Noriyuki

    2015-02-01

    Reduced port laparoscopic surgery has been used increasingly. It is a concept that has grown out of the various efforts aimed at minimally invasive surgery, with SILS being the ultimate reduced port technique. Reduced port laparoscopic surgery has been used to perform sleeve gastrectomy in bariatric surgery and excision of benign gastric submucosal tumor, applications that generally do not require lymph node dissection or complicated reconstruction. It can be done safely, result in a permanent cure, and offer good cosmetic outcomes. Reduced port laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer has a short history, and its usefulness has not yet been fully established. This review describes the present situation and challenges faced as well as standardized procedures and the future prospects of reduced port laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer, which my team performs almost daily. These aspects of reduced port laparoscopic surgery are presented in light of the literature. PMID:25496345

  13. New perspectives in hydrodynamic radial polishing techniques for optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Luna, Esteban; Salas, Luis; Cordero, Alberto; González, Jorge; Núñez, Manuel; Salinas, Javier; Cruz-González, Irene; Valdés, Jorge; Cabrera, Victor; Martínez, Benjamín

    2004-09-01

    In order to overcome classic polishing techniques, a novel hydrodynamic radial polishing tool (HyDRa) is presented; it is useful for the corrective lapping and fine polishing of diverse materials by means of a low-cost abrasive flux and a hydrostatic suspension system that avoids contact of the tool with the working surface. This tool enables the work on flat or curved surfaces of currently up to two and a half meters in diameter. It has the advantage of avoiding fallen edges during the polishing process as well as reducing tool wear out and deformation. The functioning principle is based on the generation of a high-velocity, high-pressure, abrasive emulsion flux with radial geometry. The polishing process is repeatable by means of the control of the tool operational parameters, achieving high degrees of precision and accuracy on optical and semiconductor surfaces, with removal rates of up to 9 mm3/hour and promising excellent surface polishing qualities. An additional advantage of this new tool is the possibility to perform interferometric measurements during the polishing process without the need of dismounting the working surface. A series of advantages of this method, numerical simulations and experimental results are described.

  14. Assessment of Drought Severity Techniques - A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panu, U. S.; Crinklaw, T.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts are natural phenomenon experienced by all nations across the globe. Drought inherently means a scarcity of water, which adversely affects various sectors of human socio-economic spectrum, e.g. agriculture, hydropower generation, water supply, industry, recreation, navigation, fish production etc. The prime cause of droughts is the occurrence of less than optimal (below normal) precipitation, which has its origin to various natural reasons, the most important being the global climatic forcing. Droughts are also referred to as sustained and regionally extensive occurrences of below average water availability which invariably cultivate into environmental disasters. The evolution of a drought event is defined into four types; meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and socio-economic. Drought affects all aspects of societal systems irrespective of how it is defined. This has led to a wide range of studies conducted by meteorologists, ecologists, environmentalists, hydrologists, geologists and agricultural scientists in attempts to understand drought processes as required to analyze and predict the impacts of droughts. A conceptual definition, such as a shortage of water relied on by human activity, avoids quantification of a drought event. On the other hand, the purpose of an operational definition is to determine the beginning, termination, and severity of a drought event. The severity assessment of droughts is of primary importance for allocation and management of available water resources. The progression and impact of historical droughts in a region is helpful for developing relationships and techniques to investigate relevant characteristics of droughts. For optimum drought preparedness and mitigative responses, professional bodies need to provide information to private and government agencies in a manner that may also be understood by their employers, stakeholders and the general public. Drought indicators bridge this communication gap between all

  15. Techniques for computing discharge at four Navigation Dams on the Illinois and Des Plaines Rivers in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mades, Dean M.; Weiss, Linda S.; Gray, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques for computing discharge are developed for Brandon Road Dam on the Des Plaines River and for Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams on the Illinois River. At Brandon Road Dam, streamflow is regulated by the operation of Tainter gates and headgates. At Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams, only Tainter gates are operated to regulate streamflow. The locks at all dams are equipped with culvert valves that are used to fill and empty the lock. The techniques facilitate determination of discharge at locations along the upper Illinois Waterway where no streamflow-gaging stations exist. The techniques are also useful for computing low flows when the water-surface slope between control structures on the river approaches zero and traditional methods of determining discharge based on slope are unsatisfactory. Two techniques can be used to compute discharge at the dams--gate ratings and tailwater ratings . A gate ratingdescribes the relation between discharge, gate opening, tailwater stage, and headwater stage. A tailwater rating describes the relation between tailwater stage and discharge. Gate ratings for Tainter gates at Dresden Island, Marseilles, and Starved Rock Dams are based on a total of 78 measurements of discharge that range from 569 to 86,400 cubic feet per second. Flood hydrographs developed from the gate ratings and Lockmaster records of gate opening and stage compare closely with streamflow records published for nearby streamflow-gaging stations. Additional measurements are needed to verify gate ratings for Tainter gates and headgates at Brandon Road Dam after the dam rehabilitation is completed. Extensive leakage past deteriorated headgates and sluice gates contributed to uncertainty in the ratings developed for this dam. A useful tailwater rating is developed for Marseilles Dam. Tailwater ratings for Dresden Island Dam and Starved Rock Dam are of limited use because of varying downstream channel-storage conditions. A tailwater

  16. Ultrasound and deep eutectic solvent (DES): a novel blend of techniques for rapid and energy efficient synthesis of oxazoles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balvant S; Lobo, Hyacintha R; Pinjari, Dipak V; Jarag, Krishna J; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Shankarling, Ganapati S

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis of novel oxazole compounds by using effective combination of ultrasound (US) and deep eutectic solvent (DES). The reaction was also conducted by thermal method (NUS) and the comparative studies are provided. It was observed that applying ultrasound not only improved yields and reduced reaction times but also saved more than 85% energy as shown by energy consumption calculations. The advantages of using DES as reaction medium is highlighted from the fact that it is bio-degradable, non-toxic, recyclable and could be easily prepared using inexpensive raw materials. The recyclability for DES was studied wherein it was found that ultrasound has no negative effects on DES even up to four runs. In addition, the present work is the first report on the combinative use of DES and US in organic synthesis. PMID:22784641

  17. Analyse sérologique de la toxoplasmose pergravidique: évaluation des risques et perspectives du dépistage prénatal au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bobo Dioulasso au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bamba, Sanata; Some, Der Adolphe; Chemla, Cathy; Geers, Régine; Guiguemde, Tinga Robert; Villena, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude rapporte les données sérologiques de 306 sérums collectés chez des parturientes au CHU de Bobo Dioulasso et analysés rétrospectivement au CHU de Reims en 2011. Le but était de déterminer le statut sérologique de ces parturientes et d'en déduire la conduite à tenir. Méthodes La recherche des IgG et des IgM anti toxoplasmiques était systématique. Les techniques d'agglutination haute sensibilisée et celle d'Immunocapture M ont servi à la recherche respective des anticorps spécifiques IgG et des IgM. Résultats Sur 306 sérums analysés, 95 (31%) avaient des IgG positifs et aucun n'avait des IgM. Deux cent onze (211) sérums (69%) des sérums n'avaient ni IgG, ni IgM. Conclusion Nos résultats montrent que 31% des femmes en dehors d'une immunodépression sous jacente, possèdent une immunité résiduelle vis à vis de Toxoplasma gondii et n'ont pas la nécessité d'avoir une surveillance sérologique pendant la grossesse. Cependant, 69% (211) des parturientes sont à risque d'une séroconversion, et devraient bénéficier de conseils hygiéno diététiques, associés à une surveillance sérologique durant la grossesse. Ces résultats montrent l'intérêt de mettre en place des mesures de prévention contre la toxoplasmose congénitale, étant l'une des affections materno - foetales les plus fréquentes par la mise en place d'un diagnostic prénatal de la toxoplasmose en routine dans notre hôpital. PMID:22937183

  18. Perspectives on using des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) as a serum biomarker: facilitating early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peipei; Feng, Xiaobin; Zhang, Keming; Song, Tianqiang; Ma, Kuansheng; Kokudo, Norihiro; Dong, Jiahong

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in China. Evidence has shown that surgical resection and liver transplantation may offer the best potential for treating HCC but are only available to patients whose tumors are detected early. Over the past few decades, although a series of measures for standardized management of HCC has been implemented in China, most patients with HCC in China still present with advanced-stage disease, thus strategies to screen for and diagnose HCC at an earlier stage are urgently needed in China when curable interventions can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival for patients with HCC. In China, the serum biomarker α-fetoprotein (AFP) is considered a useful and feasible tool for HCC screening and early diagnosis. However, the sensitivity and specificity of AFP vary widely, and the total AFP is not always specific, especially when HCC is in its early stages. Globally, numerous studies have reported that the combination of des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and AFP may have a higher sensitivity than AFP alone, and suggested DCP could also be used to assess the progression of HCC. However, DCP has not been approved in China until now. Differ from most of Western countries, people with HBV infection are the largest population at risk of developing HCC China. In order to assess the screening and diagnostic value of DCP in Chinese patients with HCC, a first large-scale, multi-center study was launched in China in 2012, results showed that DCP can help to detect HCC in its early stages and facilitate definitive treatment. The clinical use of DCP is urgently needed to facilitate early detection of HCC in China. PMID:24570947

  19. Perspectives on using des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) as a serum biomarker: facilitating early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Feng, Xiaobin; Zhang, Keming; Song, Tianqiang; Ma, Kuansheng; Kokudo, Norihiro; Dong, Jiahong; Tang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in China. Evidence has shown that surgical resection and liver transplantation may offer the best potential for treating HCC but are only available to patients whose tumors are detected early. Over the past few decades, although a series of measures for standardized management of HCC has been implemented in China, most patients with HCC in China still present with advanced-stage disease, thus strategies to screen for and diagnose HCC at an earlier stage are urgently needed in China when curable interventions can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival for patients with HCC. In China, the serum biomarker α-fetoprotein (AFP) is considered a useful and feasible tool for HCC screening and early diagnosis. However, the sensitivity and specificity of AFP vary widely, and the total AFP is not always specific, especially when HCC is in its early stages. Globally, numerous studies have reported that the combination of des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and AFP may have a higher sensitivity than AFP alone, and suggested DCP could also be used to assess the progression of HCC. However, DCP has not been approved in China until now. Differ from most of Western countries, people with HBV infection are the largest population at risk of developing HCC China. In order to assess the screening and diagnostic value of DCP in Chinese patients with HCC, a first large-scale, multi-center study was launched in China in 2012, results showed that DCP can help to detect HCC in its early stages and facilitate definitive treatment. The clinical use of DCP is urgently needed to facilitate early detection of HCC in China. PMID:24570947

  20. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

  1. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  2. Image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy of malignancies in various inner organs – technique, indications, and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bretschneider, Tina; Ricke, Jens; Gebauer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, minimally invasive tumor ablation performed by interventional radiologists has gained increasing relevance in oncologic patient care. Limitations of thermal ablation techniques such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), and laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), including large tumor size, cooling effects of adjacent vessels, and tumor location near thermosensitive structures, have led to the development of image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, especially for the treatment of liver malignancies. This article reviews technical properties of image-guided brachytherapy, indications and its current clinical role in multimodal cancer treatment. Furthermore, perspectives of this novel therapy option will be discussed. PMID:27504135

  3. Image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy of malignancies in various inner organs - technique, indications, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Tina; Ricke, Jens; Gebauer, Bernhard; Streitparth, Florian

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, minimally invasive tumor ablation performed by interventional radiologists has gained increasing relevance in oncologic patient care. Limitations of thermal ablation techniques such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), and laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), including large tumor size, cooling effects of adjacent vessels, and tumor location near thermosensitive structures, have led to the development of image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, especially for the treatment of liver malignancies. This article reviews technical properties of image-guided brachytherapy, indications and its current clinical role in multimodal cancer treatment. Furthermore, perspectives of this novel therapy option will be discussed. PMID:27504135

  4. Clinically relevant analytical techniques, organizational concepts for application and future perspectives of point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Luppa, Peter B; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Beaudoin, Christopher; Giannetti, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Applications of near-patient testing have developed rapidly during the last years. It offers quick test results and minimal preanalytical interference, having the potential to improve patient outcomes, even when still under scrutiny by laboratory and healthcare professionals. Near-patient diagnostics are currently also used increasingly in developing countries, due to the burden of inadequate healthcare services in resource-constrained settings. This review describes the underlying emerging techniques that are based on advanced microfluidics and nanomaterials, device miniaturization, and multiplexing the detection mode. The organizational concepts for reasonable applications, contributing significantly to the future perspectives of this nascent diagnostic modality, are supplementary portrayed. PMID:26808189

  5. Perspectives on NMR in drug discovery: a technique comes of age

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Maurizio; Bertini, Ivano; Cowburn, David; Dalvit, Claudio; Giralt, Ernest; Jahnke, Wolfgang; James, Thomas L.; Homans, Steve W.; Kessler, Horst; Luchinat, Claudio; Meyer, Bernd; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Peng, Jeff; Schwalbe, Harald; Siegal, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, the potential of harnessing the ability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to monitor intermolecular interactions as a tool for drug discovery has been increasingly appreciated in academia and industry. In this Perspective, we highlight some of the major applications of NMR in drug discovery, focusing on hit and lead generation, and provide a critical analysis of its current and potential utility. PMID:19172689

  6. Faut-il préférer une technique chirurgicale dans le traitement des ruptures du tendon d'Achille?

    PubMed Central

    Hani, Redouane; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh

    2015-01-01

    La rupture du tendon d'Achille est de plus en plus fréquente dans le monde et dans notre pays en raison du développement considérable des activités sportives, de l'accroissement de leur intensité et de l'absence de moyens de prévention. Notre travail porte sur une étude concernant 58 cas de rupture du tendon d'Achille, avec un recul moyen compris entre 5 mois et 80 mois. L’âge moyen était de 36 ans, tous les patients inclus ont tous bénéficier d'un traitement chirurgical. Le but de notre étude étant de souligner la supériorité d'une technique chirurgicale par rapport à une autre dans la prise en charge, ainsi qu'une mise au point sur les différents aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et post-thérapeutiques de cette lésion. PMID:26161208

  7. Current status and future challenges for controlling malaria with the sterile insect technique: technical and social perspectives.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Vreysen, Marc J B; Dupé, Sandrine; Lees, Rosemary S; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Gouagna, Louis-Clement; Chhem, Rethy

    2014-04-01

    The intolerable burden of malaria, when faced with high levels of drug resistance, increasing insecticide resistance and meagre resources at the national level, remains a great public health challenge to governments and the research/control community. Efficient control methods against the vectors of malaria are desperately needed. Control strategies for malaria that integrate the transfer of sterile sperm by released males to wild virgin females with other control tactics are currently being developed, and optimised mass-rearing, irradiation and release techniques are being validated in several field sites. However, the success of this strategy as part of wider pest control or health management programmes strongly depends on gaining public understanding and acceptance. Here we attempt to review what progress has been made and the remaining challenges surrounding the use of the sterile insect technique against malaria from technical and social perspectives. PMID:24295892

  8. Nouvelles techniques pratiques pour la modelisation du comportement dynamique des systèmes eau-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miquel, Benjamin

    The dynamic or seismic behavior of hydraulic structures is, as for conventional structures, essential to assure protection of human lives. These types of analyses also aim at limiting structural damage caused by an earthquake to prevent rupture or collapse of the structure. The particularity of these hydraulic structures is that not only the internal displacements are caused by the earthquake, but also by the hydrodynamic loads resulting from fluid-structure interaction. This thesis reviews the existing complex and simplified methods to perform such dynamic analysis for hydraulic structures. For the complex existing methods, attention is placed on the difficulties arising from their use. Particularly, interest is given in this work on the use of transmitting boundary conditions to simulate the semi infinity of reservoirs. A procedure has been developed to estimate the error that these boundary conditions can introduce in finite element dynamic analysis. Depending on their formulation and location, we showed that they can considerably affect the response of such fluid-structure systems. For practical engineering applications, simplified procedures are still needed to evaluate the dynamic behavior of structures in contact with water. A review of the existing simplified procedures showed that these methods are based on numerous simplifications that can affect the prediction of the dynamic behavior of such systems. One of the main objectives of this thesis has been to develop new simplified methods that are more accurate than those existing. First, a new spectral analysis method has been proposed. Expressions for the fundamental frequency of fluid-structure systems, key parameter of spectral analysis, have been developed. We show that this new technique can easily be implemented in a spreadsheet or program, and that its calculation time is near instantaneous. When compared to more complex analytical or numerical method, this new procedure yields excellent prediction of

  9. Experience with Formal Methods techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from a quality assurance perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.

  10. Atomic physics techniques for studying nuclear ground state properties, fundamental interactions and symmetries: status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, H.-Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    The international workshop on “Application of Lasers and Storage Devices in Atomic Nuclei Research” held during 2009 in Poznan gave an excellent overview on the latest experimental and theoretical results regarding the investigation of radionuclides by atomic physics techniques and the extraction of ground state properties of exotic nuclei. This publication intends to summarize the progress recently achieved by laser spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as well as by weak interaction studies using atomic physics techniques. Furthermore, it tries to point to some areas requiring urgent improvements and to indicate some routes of future research and challenging opportunities.

  11. A Study of Project Management Techniques for Developing Interactive Multimedia Programs: A Practitioner's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Kathleen; Liu, Min

    1996-01-01

    The need for effective information processing in business and education has created a big market for multimedia technology. This article discusses a study of the project management techniques of successful multimedia developers (proposal writing, instructional design team assembly, marketing). The interview questions are appended. (LRW)

  12. Effective Teaching Behaviors in the College Classroom: A Critical Incident Technique from Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandelwal, Kanika Aggarwal

    2009-01-01

    Teaching is a multidimensional, complex activity. The use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) has the potential to be effective in improving teaching as it reveals successful behaviors by identifying key actions associated between excellent/poor performances. The present study sought to identify teaching behaviors that differentiate excellent…

  13. Les conditions d’hébergement favorables au rétablissement : perspective des usagers et usagères

    PubMed Central

    Piat, Myra; Boyer, Richard; Cloutier, Simon; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Cette recherche vise à mieux comprendre le rôle de l’hébergement dans le rétablissement des personnes vivant avec une maladie mentale grave. Quarante résidents et résidentes de différents types d’hébergement communautaire structuré ont été interrogés sur les conditions d’hébergement qui favorisent leur rétablissement. Les résultats indiquent qu’aux yeux des résidents et résidentes, les conditions matérielles d’existence ont une influence déterminante sur le rétablissement. Leurs préoccupations s’articulent autour des besoins de base tels que l’alimentation, le coût, les commodités et la qualité de leur hébergement. Les relations sociales avec leur entourage immédiat ont également une grande influence sur le rétablissement des personnes, lesquelles souhaitent d’abord conserver leurs modestes acquis, tant matériels que sociaux. Cette stabilité est prérequise à leur rétablissement. PMID:27099410

  14. Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography of the Heart: Technique, Current Applications, and Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnken, Andreas H. Wildberger, Joachim E.; Koos, Ralf; Guenther, Rolf W.

    2005-05-15

    Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) is a rapidly evolving, noninvasive technique for cardiac imaging. Knowledge of the principle of electrocardiogram-gated MSCT and its limitations in clinical routine are needed to optimize image quality. Therefore, the basic technical principle including essentials of image postprocessing is described. Cardiac MSCT imaging was initially focused on coronary calcium scoring, MSCT coronary angiography, and analysis of left ventricular function. Recent studies also evaluated the ability of cardiac MSCT to visualize myocardial infarction and assess valvular morphology. In combination with experimental approaches toward the assessment of aortic valve function and myocardial viability, cardiac MSCT holds the potential for a comprehensive examination of the heart using one single examination technique.

  15. Noninvasive Techniques for Intracranial Pressure Assessment: A Review from Aerospace Medicine Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Fogarty, Jennifer; Ebert, Douglas J. W.; Polk, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Microgravity-induced changes in fluid distribution and other physiological factors due to space flight have been implicated as the cause of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in a number of space crewmembers. The modest levels of ICP elevation and absence of severe symptoms in this group do not warrant invasive diagnostic interventions. However, the long-term trends and residual or consequential changes secondary to the observed ICP elevation in this group are not yet known. Therefore, close attention is needed to evaluate the potential techniques of noninvasively assessing ICP, including those feasible for in-flight use. Of particular interest is continuity between ground and in-flight testing, whereby data from the same or different techniques allow reasonably dependable estimation of ICP trends and responses. Methods: A thorough review of current literature, analysis of NASA data, and interviews with subject matter experts were conducted to construct a presentation that reflects the state of the art for noninvasive ICP measurement and monitoring. Results: Multiple imaging and non-imaging modalities are available to assess ICP in terrestrial clinical and experimental environments. Imaging alternatives include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution sonography. Non-imaging techniques include transcranial Doppler, certain audiological methods, and venous ophthalmodynamometry, among others. Special functional techniques have been proposed recently that allow the use of advanced MRI methods to calculate ICP in addition to the acquisition of high-resolution images. Our data include many of these applications, with several cases of correlation with lumbar puncture, the invasive "gold standard" measurement of ICP.

  16. Moteurs piézo-électriques à onde progressive : III. Limites de validité des modèles 2-D et perspectives actuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, A.; Cusin, P.; Minotti, P.; Le Moal, P.

    1996-10-01

    The main objective of this third paper, devoted to the mechanical modeling of traveling wave type ultrasonic motors, aims at the validation of both softwares: C.U.B.I.C. (Contact Unilatéral entre structures Bicouches et Indenteurs Continus) and C.A.S.I.M.M.I.R.E. (Conception Assistée par la SImulation Mécanique des MIcromoteurs REsonnants) previously developed in order to optimize future piezomotors with a high efficiency. The comparisons between the theoretical loading characteristics communicated to the driving shaft and the experimental data, which have been measured on a specific test bench, show the accuracy and the relevance of the algorithms based on a mechanical description of the stator/rotor interface. Moreover it appears that our approach may lead to the theoretical calculation of the optimal axial preload applied to the driving shaft. Nevertheless, some validity limits of mechanical models aiming at the optimization of the axial preload are pointed out, especially when the pressure exerted at the stator/rotor interface is increased in order to obtain high torques. The last part of the paper emphasizes the role played by the radial component of the motor, and shows that the 3-D mechanical modeling of the interface should be an efficient way for the optimal design of very high torque piezomotors. Ce troisième article, consacré à la modélisation mécanique des moteurs piézo-électriques à onde progressive, a pour objectif principal la validation des deux logiciels précédemment développés au laboratoire dans le but d'optimiser le rendement des futurs piézomoteurs : C.U.B.I.C. (Contact Unilatéral entre structures Bicouches et Indenteurs Continus) et C.A.S.I.M.M.I.R.E. (Conception Assistée par la SImulation Mécanique des MIcromoteurs REsonnants). La corrélation entre les caractéristiques mécaniques théoriques et expérimentales coomuniquées à l'arbre moteur met en évidence la précision et la pertinence des algorithmes basés sur l

  17. Use of Push-Pull Superfusion Technique for Identifying Neurotransmitters Involved in Brain Functions: Achievements and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Michaela M.; Philippu, Athineos

    2015-01-01

    The push-pull superfusion technique (PPST) is a procedure for in vivo examination of transmitter release in distinct brain areas. This technique allows to investigate dynamics of transmitter release both under normal and experimentally evoked conditions. The PPST can be modified so that it is possible to determine release of endogenous transmitters simultaneously with electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, recordings of evoked potentials or the on-line determination of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) released into the synaptic cleft. Because of the good time resolution, the method provides further the possibility to modify the collection periods of superfusates depending on the neuronal function that is analyzed. For instance, investigation of central cardiovascular control, behavioral tasks or mnemonic processes requires very short collection periods, because changes in transmitter release occur within seconds. Even more important is the time resolution when rates of transmitter release are correlated with evoked extracellular potentials or EEG recordings. This review provides an overview of the different devices which might be combined with the PPST and perspectives for future work. PMID:26630960

  18. Measuring the microbiome: perspectives on advances in DNA-based techniques for exploring microbial life

    PubMed Central

    Bunge, John; Gilbert, Jack A.; Moore, Jason H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in ‘microbiome studies’: molecular, statistical and graphical techniques to explore and quantify how microbial organisms affect our environments and ourselves given recent increases in sequencing technology. Microbiome studies are moving beyond mere inventories of specific ecosystems to quantifications of community diversity and descriptions of their ecological function. We review the last 24 months of progress in this sort of research, and anticipate where the next 2 years will take us. We hope that bioinformaticians will find this a helpful springboard for new collaborations with microbiologists. PMID:22308073

  19. Muon radiography in Russia with emulsion technique. First experiments future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Konovalova, N. S.; Polukhina, N. G.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Managadze, A. K.; Roganova, T. M.; Orurk, O. I.; Zemskova, S. G.

    2015-12-31

    Cosmic ray muon radiography is a novel technique for imaging the internal structures of massive objects. It exploits the capability of high energy muons from cosmic-rays in order to obtain a density map of investigated object and trying to guess information on the variation in the density distribution. Nuclear emulsions are tracking detectors well suited to be employed in this context since they have an excellent angular resolution (few mrad), they are cheap, compact and robust, easily transportable, able to work in harsh environments, and do not require power supply. This work presents the first successful results in the field of muon radiography in Russia with nuclear emulsions.

  20. Coupling sperm mediated gene transfer and sperm sorting techniques: a new perspective for swine transgenesis.

    PubMed

    De Cecco, Marco; Spinaci, Marcella; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2010-09-15

    Flow cytometric separation of X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa has been demonstrated to be effective in pigs, allowing the use of boar sexed semen in in vitro trials. Sperm Mediated Gene Transfer (SMGT) is a widely used and efficient technique for the creation of transgenic animals. The present research intended to prove that it is possible to associate sperm sexing with the SMGT technique in order to speed up the assessment of homozygous lines of transgenic pigs. In the first experiment, the sorting protocol was modified in order to obtain the highest DNA uptake by sorted spermatozoa. In the second experiment, spermatozoa that had undergone only sperm sorting, only SMGT, or both procedures (Sorted-SMGT) were used for in in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured oocytes. In the third experiment, transformed blastocysts of the desired gender (male) were obtained with Sorted-SMGT in an in vitro fertilization trial. The method we developed here allowed us to produce transgenic swine blastocysts of pre-determined gender, giving a positive answer at the aim to couple SMGT and sperm sorting in swine, obtaining fertile spermatozoa able to produce transgenic embryos of pre-determined gender. PMID:20537690

  1. Stimulation Techniques Used In Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Perspectives From Geomechanics and Rock Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen L. Karner; Joel Renner

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the processes that enhance fluid flow in crustal rocks is a key step towards extracting sustainable thermal energy from the Earth. To achieve this, geoscientists need to identify the fundamental parameters that govern how rocks respond to stimulation techniques, as well as the factors that control the evolution of permeability networks. These parameters must be assessed over variety of spatial scales: from microscopic rock properties (such as petrologic, mechanical, and diagenetic characteristics) to macroscopic crustal behavior (such as tectonic and hydro-dynamic properties). Furthermore, these factors must be suitably monitored and/or characterized over a range of temporal scales before the evolutionary behavior of geothermal fields can be properly assessed. I am reviewing the procedures currently employed for reservoir stimulation of geothermal fields. The techniques are analyzed in the context of the petrophysical characteristics of reservoir lithologies, studies of wellbore data, and research on regional crustal properties. I determine common features of geothermal fields that can be correlated to spatiotemporal evolution of reservoirs, with particular attention to geomechanics and petrophysical properties. The study of these correlations can then help guide procedures employed when targeting new prospective geothermal resources.

  2. Étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, A.; Benyaïch, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Bilal, E.; Moutte, J.; Gruffat, J. J.; Zahry, F.

    2004-11-01

    Dans ce travail, nous présentons une étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES). Les résultats de la calibration des spectromètres à dispersion d'énergie, à excitation par sources radioactives (55Fe, 109Cd et 241Am) et à excitation secondaire (cible secondaire Mo et Cu) du Centre National pour l'Energie, les Sciences et les Techniques Nucléaires (CNESTEN, Rabat, Maroc) sur des échantillons étalons de références de l'Agence International de l'Energie Atomique (AIEA) et du Community Bureau of Référence (BCR) ont été comparés aux résultats d'analyse des mêmes échantillons étalons par la spectrométrie X à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF) et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplé par induction (ICP-AES) au département GENERIC du centre SPIN à l'Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne (France). Les trois techniques d'analyse utilisées donnent des résultats comparables pour le dosage des éléments majeurs, alors que pour les traces on note des déviations importantes à cause des effets de matrice qui sont difficiles à corriger dans le cas de la fluorescence X.

  3. Effective classroom teaching methods: a critical incident technique from millennial nursing students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Robb, Meigan

    2013-01-01

    Engaging nursing students in the classroom environment positively influences their ability to learn and apply course content to clinical practice. Students are motivated to engage in learning if their learning preferences are being met. The methods nurse educators have used with previous students in the classroom may not address the educational needs of Millennials. This manuscript presents the findings of a pilot study that used the Critical Incident Technique. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the teaching methods that help the Millennial generation of nursing students feel engaged in the learning process. Students' perceptions of effective instructional approaches are presented in three themes. Implications for nurse educators are discussed. PMID:24429374

  4. International Perspectives on Quality Assurance and New Techniques in Radiation Medicine: Outcomes of an IAEA Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Shortt, Ken Davidsson, Lena; Hendry, Jolyon; Dondi, Maurizio; Andreo, Pedro

    2008-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organized an international conference called, 'Quality Assurance and New Techniques in Radiation Medicine' (QANTRM). It dealt with quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of radiation medicine (diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy) at the international level. Participants discussed QA issues pertaining to the implementation of new technologies and the need for education and staff training. The advantage of developing a comprehensive and harmonized approach to QA covering both the technical and the managerial issues was emphasized to ensure the optimization of benefits to patient safety and effectiveness. The necessary coupling between medical radiation imaging and radiotherapy was stressed, particularly for advanced technologies. However, the need for a more systematic approach to the adoption of advanced technologies was underscored by a report on failures in intensity-modulated radiotherapy dosimetry auditing tests in the United States, which could imply inadequate implementation of QA for these new technologies. A plenary session addressed the socioeconomic impact of introducing advanced technologies in resource-limited settings. How shall the dual gaps, one in access to basic medical services and the other in access to high-quality modern technology, be addressed?.

  5. International perspectives on quality assurance and new techniques in radiation medicine: outcomes of an IAEA conference.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Ken; Davidsson, Lena; Hendry, Jolyon; Dondi, Maurizio; Andreo, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organized an international conference called, "Quality Assurance and New Techniques in Radiation Medicine" (QANTRM). It dealt with quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of radiation medicine (diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy) at the international level. Participants discussed QA issues pertaining to the implementation of new technologies and the need for education and staff training. The advantage of developing a comprehensive and harmonized approach to QA covering both the technical and the managerial issues was emphasized to ensure the optimization of benefits to patient safety and effectiveness. The necessary coupling between medical radiation imaging and radiotherapy was stressed, particularly for advanced technologies. However, the need for a more systematic approach to the adoption of advanced technologies was underscored by a report on failures in intensity-modulated radiotherapy dosimetry auditing tests in the United States, which could imply inadequate implementation of QA for these new technologies. A plenary session addressed the socioeconomic impact of introducing advanced technologies in resource-limited settings. How shall the dual gaps, one in access to basic medical services and the other in access to high-quality modern technology, be addressed? PMID:18406944

  6. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  7. Merging Traditional Technique Vocabularies with Democratic Teaching Perspectives in Dance Education: A Consideration of Aesthetic Values and Their Sociopolitical Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Becky

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests how movement analysis from a socially contextualized perspective can inform understanding about the significance of sociopolitical contexts and aesthetic values in Western dance training. Perspectives of movement analysis provide groundwork for discussing perceivable ways to address discrepancies between democratic and…

  8. Keeping the Doctor Away: Changing Views on Family and Community Health = Tenir le medecin a distance: Evolution des perspectives sur la famille et la sante communautaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.; Eisner, Kathy, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This quarterly newsletter issue, in English and French language editions, examines changing perspectives on family and community health, with a specific focus on activities, trends, and research dealing with Canada. Five feature articles include: (1) "New Rules: The Canadian Health Care System in Flux" (Lawrence J. Nestman), which comments on the…

  9. EDITORIAL: Perspectives Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, Richard

    2011-05-01

    In this issue, we are delighted to publish the second in a series of articles under the banner of Perspectives. The series commenced in late 2008, when Udo Kaatze [1] published an article about the powerful technique of dielectric spectrometry for liquid measurements. In addition to examining the very wide frequency range from 10-6 Hz to 10-13 Hz, an outline of possible future developments was presented. Some challenging tasks for the future were briefly outlined. The format of the article was different to the usual style of a contributed paper or review article. Instead, it represented a short summary of recent work in the field and offered a viewpoint of an expert in the area. Its commentary noted several milestones that had been recently achieved, and then looked to the future. The Perspective format allowed the author to provide some opinion about the challenges of the future not normally permitted in a Topical Review. The journal now intends to publish several more Perspectives. For example, in this issue David Birch [2] presents a Perspective about another important measurement science, namely fluorescence detections and their future directions. These are based on an old technique which provided the basis for detecting the presence of molecular species. Successful research led to an understanding and description of the phenomenon of molecular fluorescence in terms of excited state energies, transitions, symmetries and rate parameters. More recently, using fluorescence as a probe, and with the exploitation of new technologies, new applications have included the study of protein, vision, photosynthesis, membranes and DNA. Indeed nowhere has fluorescence had more impact than in the biosciences. Once again, the intention of the Perspective article has been to highlight recent milestones within the field. Importantly, it also indicates some of the future challenges. Such Perspectives are an occasional series. They are not intended to deflect from the balance of

  10. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    sont elements de la serie h_{p,q}= [ (p(m+2)-qm)^2-4] /(8m(m+2)) ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs, p et q etant de meme parite, et p+q<= m+2. La charge centrale est donnee par c(m)={3over 2}-{12over m(m+2)} avec m >= 2. Les vecteurs singuliers | Psi_{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+2-q} > sont respectivement de poids h _{p,q}+pq/2 et h_ {p,q}+(m-p)(m+2-q)/2.. Les vecteurs singuliers ont une norme nulle et on doit les eliminer des representations pour que celles -ci soient unitaires. Cette elimination engendrent des equations (super-)differentielles qui dependent directement de la forme explicite des vecteurs singuliers et auxquelles doivent obeir les fonctions de correlations de la theorie. Ainsi la connaissance de ces vecteurs singuliers est intimement reliee au calcul des fonctions de correlation. Les equations definissant les vecteurs singuliers forment un systeme lineaire surdetermine dont le nombre d'equations est de l'ordre de N(pq), le nombre de partitions de l'entier pq. Puisque les vecteurs singuliers jouent un role capital en theorie conforme, il est naturel de chercher des formes explicites pour les vecteurs (ou pour des familles infinies de ceux -ci). Nous donnons ici la forme explicite pour la famille infinie de vecteurs singuliers ayant un de ses indices egal a 1, pour les algebres de Virasoro et de Neveu-Schwarz. Depuis ces decouvertes, d'autres techniques de construction des vecteurs singuliers ont ete developpees, dont celle de Bauer, Di Francesco, Itzykson et Zuber pour l'algebre de Virasoro qui reproduit directement l'expression explicite des vecteurs singuliers |Psi _{1,q}> et |Psi_{p,1}>. Ils ont utilise l'algebre des produits d'operateurs et la fusion entre representations irreductibles pour engendrer des relations de recurence produisant les vecteurs singuliers. Dans le dernier chapitre de cette these nous adaptons cet algorithme a la construction des vecteurs singuliers de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz.

  11. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  12. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  13. Fiber Loop Ringdown — a Time-Domain Sensing Technique for Multi-Function Fiber Optic Sensor Platforms: Current Status and Design Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuji

    2009-01-01

    Fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) utilizes an inexpensive telecommunications light source, a photodiode, and a section of single-mode fiber to form a uniform fiber optic sensor platform for sensing various quantities, such as pressure, temperature, strain, refractive index, chemical species, biological cells, and small volume of fluids. In FLRD, optical losses of a light pulse in a fiber loop induced by changes in a quantity are measured by the light decay time constants. FLRD measures time to detect a quantity; thus, FLRD is referred to as a time-domain sensing technique. FLRD sensors have near real-time response, multi-pass enhanced high-sensitivity, and relatively low cost (i.e., without using an optical spectral analyzer). During the last eight years since the introduction of the original form of fiber ringdown spectroscopy, there has been increasing interest in the FLRD technique in fiber optic sensor developments, and new application potential is being explored. This paper first discusses the challenging issues in development of multi-function, fiber optic sensors or sensor networks using current fiber optic sensor sensing schemes, and then gives a review on current fiber optic sensor development using FLRD technique. Finally, design perspectives on new generation, multi-function, fiber optic sensor platforms using FLRD technique are particularly presented. PMID:22408471

  14. Fast perspective volume ray casting method using GPU-based acceleration techniques for translucency rendering in 3D endoluminal CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek-Hee; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Ho; Kye, Heewon; Shin, Yeong Gil; Kim, Soo Hong

    2009-08-01

    Recent advances in graphics processing unit (GPU) have enabled direct volume rendering at interactive rates. However, although perspective volume rendering for opaque isosurface is rapidly performed using conventional GPU-based method, perspective volume rendering for non-opaque volume such as translucency rendering is still slow. In this paper, we propose an efficient GPU-based acceleration technique of fast perspective volume ray casting for translucency rendering in computed tomography (CT) colonography. The empty space searching step is separated from the shading and compositing steps, and they are divided into separate processing passes in the GPU. Using this multi-pass acceleration, empty space leaping is performed exactly at the voxel level rather than at the block level, so that the efficiency of empty space leaping is maximized for colon data set, which has many curved or narrow regions. In addition, the numbers of shading and compositing steps are fixed, and additional empty space leapings between colon walls are performed to increase computational efficiency further near the haustral folds. Experiments were performed to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional GPU-based method, which has been known to be the fastest algorithm. The experimental results showed that the rendering speed of our method was 7.72fps for translucency rendering of 1024x1024 colonoscopy image, which was about 3.54 times faster than that of the conventional method. Since our method performed the fully optimized empty space leaping for any kind of colon inner shapes, the frame-rate variations of our method were about two times smaller than that of the conventional method to guarantee smooth navigation. The proposed method could be successfully applied to help diagnose colon cancer using translucency rendering in virtual colonoscopy. PMID:19541296

  15. [Capabilities of the application of the perspective technique during the medical supply of the outfits in highlands].

    PubMed

    Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Soldatov, E A; Shurupov, D A

    2010-07-01

    During the organization of the medical evacuation of the outfits in highlands it is necessary to consider that the workability of the stretchermen in highland goes down to 50% and more; equipment of the aid man must corresponds to the conditions of the highlands (immobilize vacuum mattress--IVMv-01, collapsible immobilize pinion stretchers--IPS-01); application of the wheel-type machines and helicopters is difficult and dangerously. Application of the modern techniques of informational support, unmanned drones and others modern techniques requires the output of new organization principles of the system of the medical evacuation in highlands. PMID:20873187

  16. A Historical Perspective on the Identification of Cell Types in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans by Staining and Histochemical Techniques.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Denis G

    2015-08-01

    Before the middle of the previous century, cell types of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans were identified primarily on the basis of their color reactions with histological dyes. At that time, the chemical basis for the staining properties of islet cells in relation to the identity, chemistry and structure of their hormones was not fully understood. Nevertheless, the definitive islet cell types that secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin (A, B, and D cells, respectively) could reliably be differentiated from each other with staining protocols that involved variations of one or more tinctorial techniques, such as the Mallory-Heidenhain azan trichrome, chromium hematoxylin and phloxine, aldehyde fuchsin, and silver impregnation methods, which were popularly used until supplanted by immunohistochemical techniques. Before antibody-based staining methods, the most bona fide histochemical techniques for the identification of islet B cells were based on the detection of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups of insulin. The application of the classical islet tinctorial staining methods for pathophysiological studies and physiological experiments was fundamental to our understanding of islet architecture and the physiological roles of A and B cells in glucose regulation and diabetes. PMID:26216133

  17. A Historical Perspective on the Identification of Cell Types in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans by Staining and Histochemical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Before the middle of the previous century, cell types of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans were identified primarily on the basis of their color reactions with histological dyes. At that time, the chemical basis for the staining properties of islet cells in relation to the identity, chemistry and structure of their hormones was not fully understood. Nevertheless, the definitive islet cell types that secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin (A, B, and D cells, respectively) could reliably be differentiated from each other with staining protocols that involved variations of one or more tinctorial techniques, such as the Mallory-Heidenhain azan trichrome, chromium hematoxylin and phloxine, aldehyde fuchsin, and silver impregnation methods, which were popularly used until supplanted by immunohistochemical techniques. Before antibody-based staining methods, the most bona fide histochemical techniques for the identification of islet B cells were based on the detection of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups of insulin. The application of the classical islet tinctorial staining methods for pathophysiological studies and physiological experiments was fundamental to our understanding of islet architecture and the physiological roles of A and B cells in glucose regulation and diabetes. PMID:26216133

  18. Etudes physiques des mélanges eau-cryoprotecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassoille, R.; Perez, J.

    The aim of the following review is to present the most important studies concerning the physical properties of water-solutes mixtures used in cryobiology. Cryobiology is a branch of biology which deals with the very low temperature behaviour of cells. This technique is developed today in several directions. The creation of banks of cells and perhaps in a short time of small organs, is the purpose of much research in this domain. Before freezing, living cells are generally put in a solution containing one or more solutes. The role of these solutes is to protect the cells against damage due to crystallization of water (cryoprotectors). The mechanisms of cryoprotection are not well known ; nevertheless the vitreous state formation during cooling is often invoked. So, it is possible to avoid crystallization damage such as mechanical strain (due to an increase of volume of about 10 %) and salt effects (due to osmotic pressure). The conditions in which the vitreous state is obtained, maintained during cooling, storage at low temperature and rewarming can be defined by physical studies presented in the following review. Le présent travail est essentiellement une revue bibliographique des principales études physiques qui ont été réalisées avec des solutions de composés habituellement employés en cryobiologie. La cryobiologie est une branche de la biologie qui s'intéresse au comportement des cellules à basse température. Cette discipline est actuellement en plein développement dans des domaines très divers. Son principal but est la création de banques de cellules de plus en plus complexes avec comme perspective la conservation des organes. Les cellules vivantes sont généralement placées avant congélation dans une solution contenant divers composés dont le rôle est de protéger les cellules contre les effets de la cristallisation de l'eau. L'action protectrice de ces cryoprotecteurs est encore mal connue; cependant, la formation d'un état vitreux lors du

  19. Research and development of optical measurement techniques for aerospace propulsion research: A NASA Lewis Research Center perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesco, Daniel J.

    1991-01-01

    The applied research effort required to develop new nonintrusive measurement techniques capable of obtaining the data required by aerospace propulsion researchers and of operating in the harsh environments encountered in research and test facilities is discussed and illustrated through several ongoing projects at NASA's Lewis Research Center. Factors including length of development time, funding levels, and collaborative support from fluid-thermal researchers are cited. Progress in developing new instrumentation via a multi-path approach, including NASA research, grant, and government-sponsored research through mechanisms like the Small Business Innovative Research program, is also described.

  20. The Carbofix™ "Piccolo Proximal femur nail": A new perspective for treating proximal femur lesion. A technique report.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Carmine; Soriani, Antonella; Rossi, Barbara; Salducca, Nicola; Biagini, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Metastases to proximal femur are common and surgery is often suggested to prevent fractures; otherwise it is necessary in cases where this has already occurred. Adjuvant radiotherapy is necessary to reduce the risk of local progression. Nevertheless, the success or failure of radiation therapy treatments depends upon the accuracy in which target identification is correct and dose prescription is fulfilled. Unfortunately, the use of titanium nails consistently limits radiation dose; indeed, the presence of ferromagnetic artifacts interferes with target identification. We present the technique for implant a new carbon fiber nail useful to reduce the ferromagnetic artifacts which allows a better adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:27436924

  1. Perspective on the combined use of an independent transgenic sexing and a multifactorial reproductive sterility system to avoid resistance development against transgenic Sterile Insect Technique approaches

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is an accepted species-specific genetic control approach that acts as an insect birth control measure, which can be improved by biotechnological engineering to facilitate its use and widen its applicability. First transgenic insects carrying a single killing system have already been released in small scale trials. However, to evade resistance development to such transgenic approaches, completely independent ways of transgenic killing should be established and combined. Perspective Most established transgenic sexing and reproductive sterility systems are based on the binary tTA expression system that can be suppressed by adding tetracycline to the food. However, to create 'redundant killing' an additional independent conditional expression system is required. Here we present a perspective on the use of a second food-controllable binary expression system - the inducible Q system - that could be used in combination with site-specific recombinases to generate independent transgenic killing systems. We propose the combination of an already established transgenic embryonic sexing system to meet the SIT requirement of male-only releases based on the repressible tTA system together with a redundant male-specific reproductive sterility system, which is activated by Q-system controlled site-specific recombination and is based on a spermatogenesis-specifically expressed endonuclease acting on several species-specific target sites leading to chromosome shredding. Conclusion A combination of a completely independent transgenic sexing and a redundant reproductive male sterility system, which do not share any active components and mediate the induced lethality by completely independent processes, would meet the 'redundant killing' criteria for suppression of resistance development and could therefore be employed in large scale long-term suppression programs using biotechnologically enhanced SIT. PMID:25471733

  2. Direct Experimental Evaluation of the Grain Boundaries Gas Content in PWR fuels: New Insight and Perspective of the ADAGIO Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Pontillon, Y.; Noirot, J.; Caillot, L.

    2007-07-01

    Over the last decades, many analytical experiments (in-pile and out-of-pile) have underlined the active role of the inter-granular gases on the global fuel transient behavior under accidental conditions such as RIA and/or LOCA. In parallel, the improvement of fission gas release modeling in nuclear fuel performance codes needs direct experimental determination/validation regarding the local gas distribution inside the fuel sample. In this context, an experimental program, called 'ADAGIO' (French acronym for Discriminating Analysis of Accumulation of Inter-granular and Occluded Gas), has been initiated through a joint action of CEA, EDF and AREVA NP in order to develop a new device/technique for quantitative and direct measurement of local fission gas distribution within an irradiated fuel pellet. ADAGIO technique is based on the fact that fission gas inventory (intra and inter-granular parts) can be distinguished by controlled fuel oxidation, since grain boundaries oxidize faster than the bulk. The purpose of the current paper is to present both the methodology and the associated results of the ADAGIO program performed at CEA. It has been divided into two main parts: (i) feasibility (UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels), (ii) application on high burn up UO{sub 2} fuel. (authors)

  3. Romantic versus scientific perspective: the ruins of Radlin palace in Wielkopolska region in the light of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgocka, Aleksandra; Ruciński, Dominik; RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz

    2015-06-01

    Although ruins of palace in Radlin, localized in Wielkopolska Region (Poland), could have been a great inspiration for romantic landscape painters, they were hardly considered as the subject of artistic interest. Nevertheless they stand as a marker in a landscape as a romantic background for the village on one hand and a memento for the neighbouring graveyard on another. Small scale excavations carried out in late 1950s with historical maps and analysis of still standing remains gave a general idea about wings order, localisation of main entrance and communication routs inside courtyard. Those early research thereby were the first step to change the meaning of this place from romantic to more scientific. New remote sensing technology allows move even further into scientific direction. The ruins in Radlin have been included into project ArchEO - archaeological applications of Earth Observation techniques. The main aim of the project in case of Radlin is an attempt to answer the question to what extent very high resolution optical satellite imagery might allow better understanding the spatial structure of the place. The various processing techniques were applied to facilitate the detection of archaeological features' impact on the vegetation condition. It enabled to assess the usefulness of satellite based data in recognizing specific archaeological remains. Thus, potential and limitations of satellite imagery versus other sources of spatial information like historic maps, excavation results, aerial photographs and Lidar will be discussed.

  4. Contributions a l'etude des lidars a champs visuels multiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Gilles

    On presente un modele, base sur la diffraction et l'optique geometrique, liant les signaux lidar a champs multiples a la densite de distribution de la taille des particules. On ecrit la relation sous forme matricielle ce qui permet d'obtenir la densite de distribution apparente de la taille des particules par inversion matricielle avec contrainte. On interprete la perturbation causee par la contribution de l'optique geometrique au signal lidar comme de la diffraction causee par une particule de diametre d'environ un micron. La densite de distribution apparente est corrigee a posteriori en calculant la contribution relative des differents ordres de diffusion a l'elargissement de la fonction de phase des particules. La validite du modele est supportee par des simulations Monte Carlo et par des resultats experimentaux obtenus sous des conditions controlees. Finalement, on applique avec succes, la technique d'inversion aux mesures lidar multichamps obtenues sur des nuages.

  5. Quality and impact assessment in new geoscience communication : future perspectives through digital communication and Big Data exploration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicari, Rosa; Schertzer, Daniel; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Moilleron, Regis

    2015-04-01

    Since 1990s up to now, climate and environmental science communication has gradually become a priority of policy programmes, a consolidated subject of training and education, a developed and greatly expanded field of professional practices. However, in contrast to this very fast evolution there is presumably a deficit in terms of research and reflection on objective tools to assess the quality and impact of communication activities. The quality of communication in the field of science has become more and more challenging due to the fact that the role of traditional mediators (e.g. well reputed newspapers or broadcasters, science museums), that used to be considered quality guarantors, has now become marginal. Today, a new generation of communication professionals tend to be employed by research institutes to respond to a stronger request to develop accountable research projects, to increase transparency and trust and to disseminate and implementation of research findings. This research aims to understand how communication strategies, addressed to the general public, can optimise the impact of research findings in hydrology for resilient cities. The research will greatly benefit from the development of automated analysis of unstructured Big Data that allows the exploration of huge amounts of digital communication data: blogs, social networks postings, public speeches, press releases, publications, articles... Furthermore, these techniques facilitate the crossing of socio-economic and physical-environmental data and possibly lead to the identification of existing correlations. Case studies correspond to those of several research projects under the umbrella of the Chair "Hydrology for resilient cities" aimed to develop and test new solutions in urban hydrology that will contribute to the resilience of our cities to extreme weather. This research was initiated in the framework of the Interreg IVB project RAINGAIN and pursued in the project Blue Green Dream of the EU

  6. The GBT-SerDes ASIC prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, P.; Baron, S.; Bonacini, S.; Cobanoglu, O.; Faccio, F.; Feger, S.; Francisco, R.; Gui, P.; Li, J.; Marchioro, A.; Paillard, C.; Porret, D.; Wyllie, K.

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the GigaBit Transceiver project (GBT), a prototype, the GBT-SerDes ASIC, was developed, fabricated and tested. To sustain high radiation doses while operating at 4.8Gb/s, the ASIC was fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology employing radiation tolerant techniques and circuits. The transceiver serializes-deserializes the data, Reed-Solomon encodes and decodes the data and scrambles and descrambles the data for transmission over optical fibre links. This paper describes the GBT-SerDes architecture, and presents the test results.

  7. Partager : des technologies de pointe au service de la société

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Médecine, climatologie, métrologie et informatique, les techniques utilisées par le LHC trouvent déjà des répercussions dans d?autres domaines scientifiques. Utilisant des techniques inédites, la physique des particules en fait bénéficier la société toute entière.

  8. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  9. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  10. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  11. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    choisi, nous avons mesure les proprietes intrinseques du meme echantillon de YBa2Cu3O7- delta avec la technique pompe-visible et sonde-terahertz donnant, elle aussi, acces aux temps caracteristiques regissant l'evolution hors-equilibre de ce materiau. Dans le meilleur scenario, ces temps caracteristiques devraient correspondre a ceux evalues grace a la modelisation des antennes. Un bon controle des parametres de croissance des couches minces supraconductrices et de fabrication du dispositif nous a permis de realiser des antennes d'emission terahertz possedant d'excellentes caracteristiques en terme de largeur de bande d'emission (typiquement 3 THz) exploitables pour des applications de spectroscopie resolue dans le domaine temporel. Le modele developpe et retenu pour le lissage du spectre terahertz decrit bien les caracteristiques de l'antenne supraconductrice pour tous les parametres d'operation. Toutefois, le lien avec la technique pompe-sonde lors de la comparaison des proprietes intrinseques n'est pas direct malgre que les deux techniques montrent que le temps de relaxation des porteurs augmente pres de la temperature critique. Les donnees en pompe-sonde indiquent que la mesure du temps de relaxation depend de la frequence de la sonde, ce qui complique la correspondance des proprietes intrinseques entre les deux techniques. De meme, le temps de relaxation extrait a partir du spectre de l'antenne terahertz augmente en s'approchant de la temperature critique (T c) de YBa2Cu 3O7-delta. Le comportement en temperature du temps de relaxation correspond a une loi de puissance qui est fonction de l'inverse du gap supraconducteur avec un exposant 5 soit 1/Delta 5(T). Le travail presente dans cette these permet de mieux decrire les caracteristiques des antennes supraconductrices a haute temperature critique et de les relier aux proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui les compose. De plus, cette these presente les parametres a ajuster comme le courant applique, la puissance de

  12. Perspectives of novel imaging techniques for staging, therapy response assessment, and monitoring of surveillance in lung cancer: summary of the Dresden 2013 Post WCLC-IASLC State-of-the-Art Imaging Workshop.

    PubMed

    Henzler, Thomas; Goldstraw, Peter; Wenz, Frederik; Pirker, Robert; Weder, Walter; Apfaltrer, Paul; Meyer, Mathias; Buesing, Karen; Crino, Lucio; Fennell, Dean; Fink, Christian; Grunenwald, Dominique; Manegold, Christian; Pilz, Lothar; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Suresh, Senan; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Voigt, Wieland; Wängler, Björn; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    Modern imaging techniques that can provide functional information on tumor vascularization, metabolic activity, or cellularity have seen significant improvements over the past decade. However, most of these techniques are currently not broadly utilized neither in clinical trials nor in clinical routine, although there is a large agreement on the fact that conventional approaches for therapy response assessment such as Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors or World Health Organization criteria-that exclusively focus on the change in tumor size-are of less value for response assessment in modern thoracic oncology. The aim of this article comprises two parts: a short review of the most promising state-of-the-art imaging techniques that have the potential to play a larger role in thoracic oncology within the near future followed by a meeting report including recommendations of an interdisciplinary expert panel that discussed the potential of the different techniques during the Dresden 2013 Post World Congress of Lung Cancer (WCLC)--International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) meeting. It is intended to provide a comprehensive summary about ongoing trends and future perspectives on functional imaging in thoracic oncology. PMID:25611226

  13. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de transplantation est celui de la transplantation intestinale, c’est-à-dire la transplantation d’un organe à composante lymphoréticulaire complexe ce qui peut provoquer un syndrome greffon contre hôte. Par erreur de conception, et un peu par esprit de systéme, les efforts par le passé étaient dirigés sur la modification et la destruction des systémes lymphoréticulaires grâce au traitement préalable du donneur ou des organes transplantés, par médicaments, radiation ou autres moyens. Actuellement, I’idée directrice est de garder intacte les systémes lymphoréticulaires qui deviennent alors le site d’une circulation à double sens aprés transplantation. Avec la puissante immunodépression que fournit le FK 506, les cellules lymphoréticulaires du donneur peuvent circuler chez le receveur sans créer de syndrome du greffon contre hôte clinique et les cellules de la greffe s’assimilent à celles du receveur (chimérisme local) sans provoquer de rejet. Même si I’on évite le rejet ou le syndrome greffon contre hôte, il existe, à côté de ces entités, des relations métaboliques entre les organes greffés ainsi qu’entre les organes greffés et les viscéres du receveur laissés en place, qui peuvent influencer I’avenir soit des organes greffés, soit des organes laissés en place. Parmi les échanges métaboliques les mieux connus actuellement, il y a les facteurs splanchniques hépatotrophes endogénes, dont I’insuline est la mieux

  14. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    redshift mais qu'elle décrivait assez bien l'évolution des quasars jusqu'à z ~2 . Pour ces deux raisons, une méthode de sélection de candidats quasars efficace à tout redshift a été mise au point et des modèles théoriques de formation et évolution des quasars ont été développés. Cette technique de sélection de candidats quasars, développée pour les besoins du projet spectroscopique VIRMOS , est basée sur la méthode des redshifts photométriques, qui consiste à comparer la distribution d'énergie spectrale observée (photométrie dans plusieurs filtres) avec celle calculée pour des spectres-modèles. Dans le cas de la sélection de candidats quasars, la photométrie des objets (en principe ponctuels mais ceci n'est pas nécessaire) est comparée à des spectres simulés de quasars et à une série de spectres réels d'étoiles. Le meilleur ajustement (Chi2 minimum) permet alors de caractériser un objet comme candidat étoile ou candidat quasar. Cette méthode peut, en principe, fournir des catalogues qui ne sont pas biaisés en redshift et qui ont une grande complétude. En même temps, une estimation du redshift (photométrique) des candidats quasars est donnée, en dirigeant ainsi la spectroscopie vers l'optique ou l'infrarouge. Dans la partie théorique, des modèles de formation et d'évolution de quasars ont été développés ou sont en cours de développement. Depuis peu de temps des indices de l'existence de trous noirs plus ou moins massifs au centre de beaucoup de galaxies, même normales, se sont accumulés. D'une part, un modèle analytique est en cours de développement en collaboration avec l'Université de Barcelona. Ce modèle a initialement été développé pour étudier la formation et évolution des galaxies. Au cours de cette thèse, nous avons contacté l'équipe de E. Salvador-Solé et je leur ai proposé d'incorporer des Trous Noirs Massifs dans les galaxies et d'étudier, ainsi, la naissance et l'évolution des quasars. Un mod

  15. Sociological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  16. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  17. Application de l’analyse des séries chronologiques à la projection d’effectifs de population scolaire par la méthode des composantes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Herbert L.

    2016-01-01

    Cet article veut montrer qu’on peut réécrire des modèles démographiques en vue de réaliser des projections par cohorte, en les transposant dans un modèle économétrique vecteur autoré-gressif (VAR). De cette façon, la méthode des composantes se dote d’un cadre stochastique qui étend son envergure. Le potentiel de cette perspective est illustré à travers l’exemple d’une projection d’effectifs de population scolaire. Il met en valeur une série d’équations qui permet de vérifier la validité de plusieurs choix de modélisations habituellement utilisées dans le domaine de la prévision. PMID:27346921

  18. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  19. Caracterisation du coefficient de retrodiffusion radar des surfaces d'hydrocarbure: Modelisation et interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Francois

    explorer dans le futur. Cependant, la qualite des analyses sera limitee par le niveau du seuil du bruit technique de l'antenne RSO.

  20. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  1. Differential X-ray phase contrast tomography of Alzheimer plaques in mouse models: perspectives for drug development and clinical imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzer, B. R.; Cacquevel, M.; Modregger, P.; Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.

    2013-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a looming threat on an ever-ageing population, with devastating effects on the human intellect. A particular characteristic lesion — the extracellular amyloid plaque — accumulates in the brain of AD patients during the course of the disease, and could therefore be used to monitor the progression of the disease, years before the first neurological symptoms appear. In addition, strategies for drug intervention in AD are often based on amyloid reduction, since amyloid plaques are hypothesized to be involved in a chain of reactions leading to the death of neurons. Developments in both fields would benefit from a microscopic technique that is capable of single plaque imaging, ideally in 3D. While such a non-destructive, single-plaque imaging technique does not yet exist for humans, it has been recently shown that synchrotron based differential X-ray phase contrast imaging can be used to visualize individual plaques at μm resolution in mouse models of AD ex-vivo. This method, which relies on a grating interferometer to measure refraction angles induced by fluctuations in the refractive index, yields a precise three-dimensional distribution of single plaques. These data could not only improve the understanding of the evolution of AD or the effectiveness of drugs, but could also help to improve reliable markers for current and future non-invasive clinical imaging techniques. In particular, validation of PET markers with small animal models could be rapidly carried out by co-registration of PET and DPC signals.

  2. Application of the angle measure technique as image texture analysis method for the identification of uranium ore concentrate samples: New perspective in nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Fongaro, Lorenzo; Ho, Doris Mer Lin; Kvaal, Knut; Mayer, Klaus; Rondinella, Vincenzo V

    2016-05-15

    The identification of interdicted nuclear or radioactive materials requires the application of dedicated techniques. In this work, a new approach for characterizing powder of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) is presented. It is based on image texture analysis and multivariate data modelling. 26 different UOCs samples were evaluated applying the Angle Measure Technique (AMT) algorithm to extract textural features on samples images acquired at 250× and 1000× magnification by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). At both magnifications, this method proved effective to classify the different types of UOC powder based on the surface characteristics that depend on particle size, homogeneity, and graininess and are related to the composition and processes used in the production facilities. Using the outcome data from the application of the AMT algorithm, the total explained variance was higher than 90% with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), while partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) applied only on the 14 black colour UOCs powder samples, allowed their classification only on the basis of their surface texture features (sensitivity>0.6; specificity>0.6). This preliminary study shows that this method was able to distinguish samples with similar composition, but obtained from different facilities. The mean angle spectral data obtained by the image texture analysis using the AMT algorithm can be considered as a specific fingerprint or signature of UOCs and could be used for nuclear forensic investigation. PMID:26992543

  3. International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  4. Important techniques in today's biomedical science research that PhD candidates should be exposed to: a perspective from the FASEB journal.

    PubMed

    John, Theresa Adebola

    2013-01-01

    The need for best evidence has driven researchers into multidisciplinary, collaborative approaches which have become mainstay in today's biomedical science. The multidisciplinary and collaborative approaches to research in research-intensive academic medical centres in the USA and in other countries of affluence has brought in significant advancement in knowledge as well as colossal progress and financial benefits. Therefore the author speculates that for Nigerian and other African PhD graduates in the basic medical sciences to become successful researchers, effective peer reviewers, reliable mentors, and progressive administrators in research-based academia, they need some exposure to multidisciplinary approaches to research during their subject-based training. The present report sought to substantiate this need. Thirty three published articles in the April 2012 FASEB Journal were studied for the methodologies employed and the results showed that the papers utilized an average of nine major biomedical science techniques, 9 being the mean, median, and mode showing the global status quo of diversity of methodology per scientific paper. The most popular procedures and techniques recorded in more than 1/3 of the published articles were: cell isolation; cell culture; in vivo or in situ whole animal studies; animal models of disease; gene/protein expression, sequencing and cloning; transfection, constructs, and genomic interference and silencing; western blotting; fluorescence and confocal microscopy; ELISAs and cell-based assays; and ready-made biotech assay kits. The most popular statistics testing were various forms of student's t-tests at 0.05 confidence levels and ANOVAs. The GraphPad Prism software was the most frequently used statistic software. PMID:23955399

  5. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  6. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  7. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  8. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  9. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  10. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  11. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  12. Community perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    General aviation is considered from the perspective of the local community's decision-making process in determining its needs for access to general aviation services. The decision-making model, preliminary decision, community characteristics, and planning processes are discussed.

  13. Technology and Technique: An Educational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin

    2012-01-01

    Today, technology is developing very fast around the world. This technological development (hardware and software) affects our life. There is a relationship among technology, society, culture, organization, machines, technical operation, and technical phenomenon. Educators should know this relationship because technology begins to affect teaching…

  14. La place de la thoracoscopie dans la prise en charge des pathologies thoraciques: à propos de 104 cas

    PubMed Central

    Lakranbi, Marwane; Rabiou, Sani; Ghalimi, Jamal; Issoufou, Ibrahim; Ouadnouni, Yassine; Smahi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La thoracoscopie est l'exploration endoscopique de la cavité pleurale, des organes avoisinants (diaphragme, péricarde, médiastin) et du poumon. Le but de ce travail se veut d'abord didactique; décrivant la thoracoscopie, ses techniques ainsi que sa place dans la prise en charge de la pathologie thoracique (indications et perspectives thérapeutiques) et informatif en rapportant l'expérience de notre équipe. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective intéressant 104 thoracoscopies à visée diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique réalisées au service de chirurgie thoracique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hassan II de Fès, sur une période de 04 ans (Août 2008-décembre 2012). Nous avons exclu de notre étude les cas ayant bénéficié d'une médiastinoscopie ainsi que les cas ayant bénéficié d'une thoracoscopie dans le cadre des traumatismes fermés du thorax ou des plaies thoraciques. Résultats L’ âge moyen des patients est de 47 ans, avec des extrêmes allant de 18 à 80 ans, et une légère prédominance masculine à 54%. La thoracoscopie est d'ordre pleural chez 86 patients, pulmonaire chez 10 patients et médiastinale chez 8 patients. La thoracoscopie avait une indication à visée diagnostique chez 87 cas et thérapeutique chez 52 patients (talcage dans 45 cas, décortication pleuropulmonaire dans 2 cas, résection de kystepleuro-péricardique dans 2 cas, cure de pneumothorax dans 2 cas et une fenêtre péricardique). L’évolution post opératoire etait marquée par une amélioration clinico-radiologique chez 40 malades, 11 ont présenté une amélioration clinique seule, 6 ont présenté une persistance ou une récidive de l’épanchement. Conclusion La thoracoscopie représente un réel gain en matière de diagnostic de certaines pathologies intra-thoraciques. Son intérêt thérapeutique limité doit être éventuellement étendu grâce à la chirurgie thoracique vidéo assistée, qui est une technique récente fiable

  15. Que peut-on voir avec des neutrons? Une introduction pour des non spécialistes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2005-11-01

    Le neutron est une particule élémentaire qui a été découverte en 1932 par James Chadwick. Ses caractéristiques principales sont résumées dans le tableau I. Il a été utilisé pour la première fois par Clifford Shull en 1946 comme outil pour des expériences de diffusion. Cette technique s'est depuis constamment développée pour concerner tous les aspects de la matière condensée: physique, chimie, matériaux, biologie. Il s'agit d'un outil tout à fait exceptionnel car le neutron possède des propriétés uniques et particulièrement adaptées pour ces études.

  16. Hungarian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montvay, István; Biró, Tamás

    Rolf Hagedorn is introduced from the personal perspective of two Hungarian physics generations. A colleague (IM) and a student (TB) recount memories and events from the early-70-s to mid-80-s, and evaluate Hagedorn's impact on present particle and nuclear Hungarian physics community.

  17. Perspective Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Joni

    2002-01-01

    One fourth grade class studied Van Gogh by investigating his art and life on the computer, painting still lifes, then learning to draw in perspective, creating colorful images of their own bedrooms using Van Gogh's bedroom as a model. Students extended their learning by examining relevant literature and completing timelines, biographical reports,…

  18. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  19. Suggestion and psychoanalytic technique.

    PubMed

    Levy, S T; Inderbitzin, L B

    2000-01-01

    The role of the analyst's suggestive influence on the course and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment is explored, and traditional and newer perspectives on analytic technique are contrasted. The intersubjective critique of the neutral, objective analyst in relation to suggestion is examined. The inevitable presence and need for suggestive factors in analysis, and the relationship of suggestion to transference susceptibility, are emphasized. The manner in which the analysis of suggestive factors is subsumed in transference analysis as part of traditional technique is highlighted. PMID:11059395

  20. Analyse de L'ancrage des Vortex Intergrains pour le Yttrium BARYUM(2) CUIVRE(3) OXYGENE(7) Polycristallin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Patrick

    Le Modele de l'Etat Critique Generalise (MECG) est utilise pour decrire les proprietes magnetiques et de transport du YBa_2Cu_3O _7 polycristallin. Ce modele empirique permet de relier la densite de courant critique a la densite de lignes de flux penetrant dans la region intergrain. Deux techniques de mesures sont utilisees pour caracteriser nos materiaux. La premiere consiste a mesurer le champ au centre d'un cylindre creux en fonction du champ magnetique applique pour des temperatures comprises entre 20 et 85K. En variant l'epaisseur de la paroi du cylindre creux, il est possible de suivre l'evolution des cycles d'hysteresis et de determiner des champs caracteristiques qui varient en fonction de cette dimension. En utilisant un lissage des resultats experimentaux, nous determinons J _{co}, H_ {o} et n, les parametres du MECG. La forme des cylindres, avec une longueur comparable au diametre externe, entrai ne la presence d'un champ demagnetisant qui peut etre inclus dans le modele theorique. Ceci nous permet d'evaluer la fraction du volume ecrante, f _{g}, ainsi que le facteur demagnetisant N. Nous trouvons que J_{ co}, H_{o} et f_{g} dependent de la temperature, tandis que n et N (pour une epaisseur de paroi fixe) n'en dependent pas. La deuxieme technique consiste a mesurer le courant critique de lames minces en fonction du champ applique pour differentes temperatures. Nous utilisons un montage que nous avons developpe permettant d'effectuer ces mesures en contact direct avec le liquide refrigerant, i.e. dans l'azote liquide. Nous varions la temperature du liquide en variant la pression du gaz au-dessus du bain d'azote. Cette methode nous permet de balayer des temperatures entre 65K et la temperature critique du materiau ({~ }92K). Nous effectuons le lissage des courbes de courant critique en fonction du champ applique encore a l'aide du MECG, pour a nouveau obtenir ses parametres. Pour trois echantillons avec des traitements thermiques differents, les parametres

  1. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  2. Modelisation et commande des redresseurs triphases fonctionnant a haut rendement et a faible taux de distorsion harmonique: Application au redresseur triphase de vienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhadj Youssef, Nesrine

    Les problemes de la qualite de l'onde electrique constituent l'une des preoccupations majeures des fournisseurs de l'energie et des organismes specialises en qualite d'energie. Ce sujet a gagne davantage d'ampleur avec l'utilisation ascendante des convertisseurs de l'energie electrique dans la majorite des applications industrielles et domestiques. Dans le cadre de cette these, on s'interesse plus particulierement au type des convertisseurs alternatif/continu, dont le fonctionnement adequat implique la parfaite regulation du bus DC de tension, l'attenuation des harmoniques de courants, la compensation de l'energie reactive et la maximisation du rendement energetique. Ces differents criteres doivent etre maintenus pour diverses conditions de fonctionnement, c'est-a-dire independamment des variations parametriques auxquelles le systeme peut etre sujet. Il s'avere donc indispensable d'adopter des techniques de commande efficaces, ce qui passe par une modelisation correcte du convertisseur. L'optimisation du nombre de capteurs dans le circuit est egalement un facteur cle a prendre en consideration.

  3. Approche pour les comportements sexuels inappropriés chez des personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Joller, Petra; Gupta, Neeraj; Seitz, Dallas P.; Frank, Christopher; Gibson, Michelle; Gill, Sudeep S.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une mise à jour sur l’approche au diagnostic et à la prise en charge des comportements sexuels inappropriés (CSI) chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Sources des données On a fait une recherche dans MEDLINE et EMBASE pour cerner des articles pertinents publiés avant juin 2012. On n’a trouvé aucune étude de niveau I; la plupart des articles fournissaient des données probantes de niveau III. Message principal Les comportements sexuels inappropriés sont fréquents chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Divers facteurs (p. ex., culturels, religieux, perspectives sociétales de la sexualité gériatrique, questions médicolégales) pourraient compliquer l’évaluation de tels comportements et doivent être pris en compte pour permettre une prise en charge appropriée à chaque patient. Il existe des outils pour documenter les CSI. Des interventions créatives non pharmacologiques pour les CSI pourraient être efficaces quand elles sont adaptées à chaque patient. Certaines pharmacothérapies (p. ex., antidépresseurs, antiandrogènes, antipsychotiques et anticonvulsifs) ont été proposées pour les symptômes qui ne répondent pas aux interventions non pharmacologiques. Par ailleurs, les données probantes à l’appui des traitements à l’aide de médicaments sont limitées, les effets secondaires demeurent un aspect important à considérer et il est incertain s’ils devraient être utilisés comme traitement de première ou de deuxième intention. Conclusion Quoiqu’il n’y ait pas d’algorithme de traitements empiriquement établi pour les CSI reliés à la démence, les ouvrages actuels offrent certaines données probantes concernant diverses thérapies pharmacologiques et non pharmacologiques. Des recherches de grande qualité plus approfondies sont nécessaires de toute urgence pour guider les médecins de famille qui prennent en charge des patients qui ont des CSI reliés à la

  4. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  5. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  6. Fritting techniques in chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Won Jo

    2014-03-01

    It is surprising that there has been no devoted review article for frits and relevant studies so far despite the long history of packed columns and the use of frits in them. This review was activated for such a reason. Both separate frits and in situ permanent frits have been covered since the appearance of primitive frits. The in situ fritting methods such as the formation of organic monoliths, sol-gel technology, sintering, fritless techniques such as tapered tip and capillary restrictors, and miscellaneous fritting techniques including magnetically trapped frits and single particle frits are introduced and discussed. In addition, frit-related studies and patents are also introduced. Finally, some conclusive comments on the choice of fritting technique in different situations and future perspectives are given. PMID:24510688

  7. The Empirical Investigation of Perspective-Based Reading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Green, Scott; Laitenberger, Oliver; Shull, Forrest; Sorumgard, Sivert; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1996-01-01

    We consider reading techniques a fundamental means of achieving high quality software. Due to the lack of research in this area, we are experimenting with the application and comparison of various reading techniques. This paper deals with our experiences with Perspective-Based Reading (PBR), a particular reading technique for requirements documents. The goal of PBR is to provide operational scenarios where members of a review team read a document from a particular perspective (e.g., tester, developer, user). Our assumption is that the combination of different perspectives provides better coverage of the document than the same number of readers using their usual technique.

  8. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  9. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  10. From Bursts to Back-Projection: Signal Processing Techniques for Earth and Planetary Observing Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Discusses: (1) JPL Radar Overview and Historical Perspective (2) Signal Processing Needs in Earth and Planetary Radars (3) Examples of Current Systems and techniques (4) Future Perspectives in signal processing for radar missions

  11. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  12. Cosmic Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  13. Cosmic Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    1989-09-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  14. Copernic: la piste des influences arabes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari, A.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Copernic a-t-il connu le travail des astronomes du Moyen-Orient ? S'en est-il inspiré pour élaborer sa théorie de l'héliocentrisme ? C'est l'hypothèse avancée par certains historiens des sciences pour comprendre le génie de celui qui, le premier, a placé le Soleil au centre du monde. Enquête.

  15. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  16. Dismantling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  17. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  18. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  19. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  20. Perspectives of Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, M. Frances; And Others

    A model has been developed that proposes five different perspectives on the curriculum--the ideal, formal, perceived, operational, and experiential. Each perspective has a different data source, and it is hypothesized that each perspective will produce a different picture of "the curriculum." Data collection for a national study of schooling will…

  1. An Attainable Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castaneda, Viann Pedersen

    Concordia College (Minnesota) has established a global studies curriculum that encourages the development of a global perspective in future business leaders. Global perspective is seen as having five dimensions: (1) perspective consciousness; (2) "state of the planet" awareness; (3) cross-cultural awareness; (4) knowledge of global dynamics; and…

  2. [Vaccination perspectives].

    PubMed

    Saliou, P; Plotkin, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of vaccinology is to improve the available vaccines and to develop new ones in the light of progress in immunology, molecular biology and biotechnologies. But it must go beyond this, and aim to protect all populations and control diseases, even eradicate them where possible. New vaccine strategies must be developed taking into account the epidemiology of diseases and the inherent logistic problems of implementing these strategies under local conditions. There are three major thrusts to the progress of the discipline. The improvement of the vaccines available. One of the drives of vaccinology is not only to deliver vaccines of increasing safety (replacement of the current vaccine for whooping cough with an acellular vaccine for example), but also to improve vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity (in particular for flu, tuberculosis, cholera and rabies vaccines). The optimisation of vaccination programmes and strategies for vaccinations. The ideal is to protect against the greatest possible number of diseases with the smallest number of vaccinations. The development of combinations of vaccines is central to this goal. The objective for the year 2000 is a hexavalent vaccine DTPP Hib HB. The development of new vaccines. Classic techniques continue to be successfully used (inactivated hepatitis A vaccine; attenuated live vaccines for chicken pox and dengue fever; conjugated polyosidic bacterial vaccines for meningococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae). However, it will become possible to prepare vaccines against most transmissible diseases using genetic engineering techniques.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921696

  3. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    . Cette nouvelle gamme de modeles-interpolateurs imbriques qualifies d'"intelligents" fait partie de la famille des modeles dits "pilotes". L'hypothese directrice de notre etude est fondee sur la supposition que le climat de fine echelle est souvent gouverne par des forcages provenant de la surface plutot que par des transports atmospheriques de grande echelle spatiale. La technique que nous proposons vise donc a guider FIZR par la Dynamique echantillonnee d'un MCG et de la forcer par la Physique du MCG ainsi que par un forcage orographique de meso-echelle, en chacun des noeuds de la grille fine de calculs. Afin de valider la robustesse et la justesse de notre modele climatique regional, nous avons choisi la region de la Cote Ouest du continent nord americain. Elle est notamment caracterisee par une distribution geographique des precipitations et des temperatures fortement influencee par le relief sous-jacent. Les resultats d'une simulation d'un mois de janvier avec FIZR demontrent que nous pouvons simuler des champs de precipitations et de temperatures au niveau de l'abri beaucoup plus pres des observations climatiques comparativement a ceux simules a partir d'un MCG. Ces performances sont manifestement attribuees au forcage orographique de meso-echelle de meme qu'aux caracteristiques de surface determinees a fine echelle. Un modele similaire a FIZR peut, en principe, etre implante sur l'importe quel MCG, donc, tout organisme de recherche implique en modelisation numerique mondiale de grande echelle pourra se doter d'un el outil de regionalisation.

  4. Stapedectomy technique.

    PubMed

    House, J W

    1993-06-01

    This article reviews the evolution of the author's stapedectomy technique from total footplate removal with single loop wire prosthesis and Gelfoam seal to small fenestra stapedectomy with platinum ribbon piston prosthesis and blood seal. The author concludes that the microdrill is effective, safe, and cost effective for performing this procedure. Since using this technique, the author has had no cases of sensorineural hearing loss and few complaints of dizziness or vertigo. PMID:8341570

  5. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes graves du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'Amercan Society for Surgery For Trauma (ASST) sont plus rares et se retrouvent dans 5% des cas en moyenne. Leur prise en charge est souvent délicate, nécessitant alors des centres expérimentés dotés de moyen adéquats d'imagerie (scanner spiralé). Cependant, durant ces dernières années, la prise en charge de ces traumatismes a évolué vers une attitude de moins en moins chirurgicale grâce à l’évolution des techniques de la radiologie interventionnelle, de l'endourologie et des moyens de surveillance aux urgences et de réanimation. L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer notre expérience dans la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux de haut grade. Notre étude rétrospective porte sur 25 cas de traumatismes grave du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'ASST, colligés entre Janvier 2002 et Juin 2009 au service d'urologie du centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI, Université Cadi Ayyad de Marrakech, Maroc. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, les signes cliniques et biologiques à l'admission (état de choc hémorragique, taux d'hémoglobine), les données radiologiques (échographie et scanner), les lésions associées, la prise en charge thérapeutique et les complications. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 24,9 ans 15 et 58 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (sex-ratio = 7, 3). Le rein droit était intéressé dans 15 cas (60%). Le traumatisme rénal était fermé dans 15 cas, et ouvert par arme blanche dans 10 cas. Huit patients se sont présentés en état de choc hémorragique (32%). Une anémie inférieur à 10g /100ml a été observée dans 10 cas (40%). L'uroscanner fait systématiquement à l'admission a retrouvé un grade III (10 cas), grade IV (13 cas) et grade V (2 cas). La prise en charge a consisté en une exploration chirurgicale avec néphrectomie chez 2 cas de Grade IV pour une instabilité h

  6. Spatial Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabeur, Nafaa; Sahli, Nabil

    The environment, including the Earth and the immense space, is recognized to be the main source of useful information for human beings. During several decades, the acquisition of data from this environment was constrained by tools and techniques with limited capabilities. However, thanks to continuous technological advances,spatial data are available in huge quantities for different applications. The technological advances have been achieved in terms of hardware and software as well. They are allowing for better accuracy and availability, which in turn improves the quality and quantity of useful knowledge that can be extracted from the environment. They have been applied to geography, resulting in geospatial techniques. Applied to both science and technology, geospatial techniques resulted in areas of expertise, such as land surveying, cartography, navigation, remote sensing, Geographic Infor-mation Systems (GISs), and Global Positioning Systems (GPSs). They had evolved quickly with advances in computing, satellite technology and a growing demand to understand our global environment. In this chapter, we will discuss three important techniques that are widely used in spatial data acquisition and analysis: GPS and remote sensing techniques that are used to collect spatial data and a GIS that is used to store, manipulate, analyze, and visualize spatial data. Later in this book, we will discuss the techniques that are currently available for spatial knowledge discovery.

  7. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  8. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  9. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Career Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark; Duarte, Maria Eduarda; Glavin, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    The authors present an overview of the discussion and presentations that took place concerning techniques and assessment in educational and vocational guidance at the recent symposium "International Perspectives on Career Development." Two topics were examined. The 1st focused on the theoretical foundations of and psychometric issues in career…

  10. Science, technology and ethics: from critical perspective to dialectical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Sylvain

    2005-06-01

    It has been agreed upon, according to critical perspective, to distinguish the problems raised by scientific issues on the one hand and the problems raised by moral issues on the other. This distinction, at the genesis of theoretical ideology, postulates that experimental science is mere knowledge which, since it has nothing to do with action, cannot raise a moral problem. Yet the use of experimental techniques turns out to be a necessary means, although an insufficient one, to put to the test and to confirm the theoretical hypothesis of science. Thus, those techniques produce perceptible effects which can be assimilated to genuine transformation and are consequently capable of raising moral problems. It follows that the technical imperative of science can be conditioned by a moral imperative of technique, which leads to modification of the object of the research and dubs it, a dialectical object. It is, however, advisable to effect a demarcation between that which, within the frame work of research in experimental science, can pose a moral problem and which cannot. The criterion of refusability of practical projects, by analogy with Popper's criterion of refutability of theoretical conjectures, allows for this demarcation to be implemented. It postulates that only the technical projects of science, apart from scientific theories, can pose a moral problem or can be recognized as moral, providing that the conditions of a possible ethical refusal can be expressed. From the analysis and the synthesis of heterogeneous possibilities, dialectical perspective thus outlined represents an endeavour to go beyond critical perspective, while trying to seek an intermediary channel between the "progressist dogmatism" of science and the obscurantist scepticism" of morals. PMID:16619430

  11. Etude des émissions radio aurorales de Saturne, modélisation et aurores UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Laurent

    2008-09-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude du rayonnement radio auroral kilométrique de Saturne (SKR pour Saturn Kilometric Radiation) observé de façon quasi-continue par les antennes radio de la sonde Cassini depuis son entrée en orbite autour de Saturne en juillet 2004. Comme les rayonnements radio auroraux des autres planètes magnétisées, le SKR est généré sur des lignes de champ magnétique de haute latitude prés des pôles magnétiques. Tirant parti de plusieurs années d'observations, les propriétés macroscopiques du SKR (spectre, polarisation, conjuguaison des sources de chaque hémisphère, mode d'émission) sont déduites par une analyse statistique. Elles montrent en particulier que les caractéristiques de l'émission dépendent fortement de la position de l'observateur. Ceci est une conséquence directe de l'anisotropie du SKR qui engendre de forts effets de visibilité, visibles dans les cartes d'intensité temps-fréquence (arcs, régions d'invisibilité de l'émission). La simulation de ces effets de visibilité apporte de nouvelles contraintes sur les propriétés microscopiques des sources (énergie et distribution des électrons auroraux). Le SKR est connu pour être modulé à une période variable. Une analyse de la variation de cette période radio sur plusieurs années révèle des oscillations à court terme de l'ordre de 20-30 jours dont l'origine est attribuée à la variation de la vitesse caractéristique du vent solaire au niveau de Saturne. Une étude parallèle du rayonnement auroral kilométrique terrestre (AKR), observé lors du survol de la Terre par Cassini en août 1999, met en évidence la découverte d'une modulation diurne semblable à celle du SKR. Enfin, la technique de goniopolarimétrie permet de faire de l'imagerie radio des sources du SKR. L'étude de leur distribution moyenne montre pour la première fois l'existence d'un ovale radio. La comparaison des images des sources du SKR avec celles des ovales auroraux (observ

  12. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  13. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  14. Effet Hall et Magnetisme des Alliages Amorphes Nickel-Zirconium Fabriques Par Pulverisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Robert

    Cette these se situe dans le cadre d'une etude des proprietes electroniques et structurales des alliages metalliques amorphes, en cours depuis quelques annees a l'Universite de Montreal. Ce programme nous a entre autres amene a caracteriser la magnetoresistivite et l'effet Hall d'alliages FeZr, CoZr et NiZr, ce qui a permis de mettre en evidence deux caracteristiques de l'effet Hall: Dans les alliages amorphes ferromagnetiques, la resistivite elevee engendre un effet Hall extraordinaire beaucoup plus important que celui enregistre dans les metaux cristallins. La polarisation des spins entrai ne une asymetrie de la diffusion qui, tant dans les phases cristalline et amorphe, est tenue responsable de cette contribution. L'autre particularite du comportement de Hall de ces systemes est le renversement de signe du coefficient de Hall ordinaire, qui passe du negatif au positif dans les echantillons plus riches en zirconium. Dans les metaux cristallins, un modele d'electrons libres predit un signe negatif a moins que la conduction ne soit dominee par les trous. Or, dans un milieu desordonne les memes concepts sont difficilement applicables et de nouvelles theories ont du etre elaborees pour expliquer ce phenomene. Jusqu'a maintenant, l'etude des alliages amorphes nickel-zirconium s'est faite surtout a partir d'echantillons fabriques par trempe sur roue. Malheureusement cette technique ne permet pas la fabrication d'alliages contenant plus de 70% de nickel, a l'exception du seul compose Ni _{90}Zr_{10 }. Pour pallier a cette lacune et etendre nos connaissance a l'ensemble de la gamme de compositions, nous avons fabrique par pulverisation cathodique des echantillons NiZr amorphes--et quelques alliages cristallins tres riches en nickel--couvrant une bonne partie de la gamme interdite par la technique de trempe sur roue. Dans un premier temps, par comparaison avec les resultats connus nous avons mis en evidence les similitudes et les differences entre les alliages obtenus par

  15. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  16. The "Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The overall mission of the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers--(CNAM) [National Conservatory of Industrial Arts and Trades] is outlined. One of its centers, the "Centre national de l'entrepreneuriat"--(CNE) [National Center for Entrepreneurship] is described in greater detail. In particular, this center offers various services, notably…

  17. Un exemple de transfert de technologie dans le domaine des polymères conducteurs : le projet ``HYRA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parneix, J. P.; Miane, J. L.; Colin, T.; Ruffie, G.; Mege, J.

    1998-06-01

    The HYRA project is a response to the restructuration of local companies : these are purveyors of high technology military and spatial especially in the radars business. Furthermore, the development of mobile communications needs devices and materials in the millimeter range (from 20 to 100Ghz). The aim of the HYRA project is the development of materials with specific properties - particularly conducting materials - in the millimeter wave range. The results obtained on thermoplastic/conducting polymer composites are presented. Le projet HYRA répond à des préoccupations régionales liées à des restructurations industrielles : les industries régionales fournissant les marchés militaires et spatiaux disposent de techniques très performantes mais coûteuses, en particulier dans le domaine des radars. Par ailleurs le développement des communications mobiles a besoin de dispositifs et de matériaux dans tout le domaine millimétrique (de 20 à 100 Ghz). Le projet HYRA a pour but le développement de matériaux à propriétés spécifiques - en particulier conducteurs - dans ce domaine de fréquence. Les résultats obtenus sur des composites thermoplastiques/polymères conducteurs sont présentés.

  18. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  19. Tracer Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, H.; Motomura, S.; Kamino, S.; Enomoto, S.

    In radioactive tracer technique, radioactive nuclides are used to follow the behavior of elements or chemical species in chemical and other processes. This is realized by means of radioactivity measurement. In 1913, Hevesy and Paneth succeeded in determining the extremely low solubility of lead salts by using naturally occurring 210Pb as a radioactive tracer. As various radioactive nuclides became artificially available, this technique has been widely employed in studies of chemical equilibrium and reactions as well as in chemical analysis. It is also an essential technique in biochemical, biological, medical, geological, and environmental studies. Medical diagnosis and industrial process control are the fields of its most important practical application. In this chapter, fundamental ideas concerning radioactive tracers will be described followed by their application with typical examples. Detailed description on their application to life sciences and medicine is given in Vol. 4.

  20. Miscellaneous Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    Nondestructive way of determining the food quality is the need of the hour. Till now major methods such as colour measurements and their modeling; machine vision systems; X-ray, CT and MRI; NIR spectroscopy; electronic nose and tongue; and ultrasonic technology have been discussed in detail. These techniques, in general, are considered to be sophisticated and costly, and therefore probably are not being adopted as fast as it should be. I am however of the reverse opinion. While going through these techniques, it has been seen that majority of quality parameters have been measured and correlated with the signals obtained using different equipment.

  1. A user's Perspective on Software

    SciTech Connect

    Isadoro T. Carlino

    2006-10-24

    The user is often the most overlooked component of control system design. At Jefferson Lab the control system is almost entirely digital in nature, with little feedback except that which is deliberately designed into the control system. In the complex control room environment a good design can enhance the user's abilities to preform good science. A bad design can leave the user frustrated and contribute significantly to down time, when science is not being done. Key points of use and design from the user's perspective are discussed, along with some techniques which have been adopted at Jefferson Lab to improve the user experience and produce better, more usable software.

  2. Algorithmic Perspectives on Problem Formulations in MDO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    This work is concerned with an approach to formulating the multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) problem that reflects an algorithmic perspective on MDO problem solution. The algorithmic perspective focuses on formulating the problem in light of the abilities and inabilities of optimization algorithms, so that the resulting nonlinear programming problem can be solved reliably and efficiently by conventional optimization techniques. We propose a modular approach to formulating MDO problems that takes advantage of the problem structure, maximizes the autonomy of implementation, and allows for multiple easily interchangeable problem statements to be used depending on the available resources and the characteristics of the application problem.

  3. Profil epidemiologique des brulures d'enfants admis au Centre National des Brules, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, A.; Atannaz, J.; Alaoui, M.; Rafik, A.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Chlihi, A.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ce travail rétrospectif analyse les particularités épidémiologiques de 543 cas de brûlures d'enfants, représentant 45,7% des admissions de notre centre, en vue de déterminer les éléments pouvant contribuer à renforcer la prévention, qui reste le traitement de choix de cette pathologie. La moyenne d'âge est de 4,25 ans avec une prédilection pour la tranche d'âge d'un à cinq ans, avec 42,5% des cas. Une atteinte masculine est retrouvée dans 63,5% des cas. La brûlure survient à domicile dans 85,1% et accidentellement dans 95% des cas. Les brûlures thermiques représentent 96,5% des causes dominées par les liquides dans 69,3% des cas. La surface cutanée brûlée est ≥ 20% dans 52,3%. La brûlure intéresse essentiellement les membres supérieurs (79,1%). 56,8% des enfants sont transférés par d'autres hôpitaux et le délai de prise en charge hospitalière est supérieur à 6 heures dans 65,5%. Le taux de mortalité a été de 13,2%. PMID:22639559

  4. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  5. La dermoscopie pour la détection des mélanomes en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Herschorn, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Évaluer l’exactitude diagnostique et l’utilité clinique de la dermoscopie pour la détection de mélanomes en pratique familiale. Sources des données Nous avons fait une recension dans les bases de données Ovid MEDLINE (de 1946 à juin 2011), EMBASE, PubMed et Cochrane à l’aide des expressions suivantes en anglais: dermoscopy, dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy, family practice, general practice, primary health care, melanoma, skin neoplasms et pigmented nevus. Pour être prises en considération, les études devaient être des articles de recherche primaire ayant pour sujets des médecins de famille, ainsi que la formation en dermoscopie et son utilisation en tant qu’intervention. La recherche a produit 4 articles qui répondaient aux critères d’inclusion et présentaient des données probantes de niveau I selon la définition du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Dans le milieu de la pratique familiale, la dermoscopie a une sensibilité plus élevée que l’examen à l’œil nu pour la détection des mélanomes sans avoir, généralement, une spécificité moins grande. La dermoscopie aide aussi à accroître le degré de confiance des médecins de famille dans leur diagnostic préliminaire des lésions. L’utilisation de la dermoscopie plutôt que l’examen à l’œil nu augmente la probabilité qu’une lésion jugée cancéreuse le soit de fait et qu’une lésion jugée bénigne le soit en réalité. Conclusion Il est démontré que la dermoscopie est un outil utile et relativement peu coûteux pour la détection des mélanomes en pratique familiale. Cette technique rend les médecins de famille plus confiants dans l’exactitude de leurs demandes de consultations auprès de dermatologues et contribue à diminuer les biopsies inutiles. La dermoscopie peut se révéler plus particulièrement utile dans l’examen des patients à risque élevé de mélanomes, étant donn

  6. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  7. Commande optimale à flux libre des machines asynchrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedinger, J. M.; Poullain, S.; Yvon, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the optimal control with unconstrained flux of an induction motor being considered as a distributed parameter system described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. This approach allows to describe the electrodynamic state of the motor by taking into account, in a natural way, the influence of saturation and eddy-currents, as well as the nonlinearities due to the variable flux operation. Equations are approximated via a finite element formulation which leads to a finite dimensional dynamical system to which the techniques of optimal control may be applied. The generality of the methodology allows to treat various criteria. The objective aimed in this paper is to force the motor torque to follow a given input, especially under initially demagnetized conditions and with, naturally, constraints on the currents. For this purpose the criterion will be chosen as a norm of the difference between the electromagnetic torque and a given reference torque. Numerical simulations are presented for the case of a squirrel-cage rotor and for a solid iron rotor. Results are compared with those deduced from strategies based on lumped-parameter models. Torque responses obtained with field-oriented control method adapted to the case of flux-variable operation are also presented. Finally a modification of the criterion is proposed for identifying the command which allows to obtain the larger torque during transient states. Dans cet article on traite le problème du contrôle optimal à flux libre d'un moteur asynchrone considéré comme un système à paramètres répartis gouverné par une équation de diffusion non linéaire. Cette approche permet de décrire l'état électrodynamique de la machine en prenant naturellement en compte les effets de la saturation et des courants induits, ainsi que les non-linéarités liées au fonctionnement à flux variable. La formulation éléments finis est utilisée pour traduire le problème continu sous la forme d

  8. Titration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Houston Jetzer, Kelly; Patani, Néha; Zimmerman, John; Zweerink, Gerald

    1995-07-01

    Significant attention is paid to the proper technique for reading a meniscus. Video shows meniscus-viewing techniques for colorless and dark liquids and the consequences of not reading a meniscus at eye level. Lessons are provided on approaching the end point, focusing on end point colors produced via different commonly used indicators. The concept of a titration curve is illustrated by means of a pH meter. Carefully recorded images of the entire range of meniscus values in a buret, pipet, and graduated cylinder are included so that you can show your students, in lecture or pre-lab discussion, any meniscus and discuss how to read the buret properly. These buret meniscus values are very carefully recorded at the rate of one video frame per hundredth of a milliliter, so that an image showing any given meniscus value can be obtained. These images can be easily incorporated into a computer-based multimedia environment for testing or meniscus-reading exercises. Two of the authors have used this technique and found the exercise to be very well received by their students. Video on side two shows nearly 100 "bloopers", demonstrating both the right way and wrong ways to do tasks associated with titration. This material can be used in a variety of situations: to show students the correct way to do something; to test students by asking them "What is this person doing wrong?"; or to develop multimedia, computer-based lessons. The contents of Titration Techniques are listed below: Side 1 Titration: what it is. A simple titration; Acid-base titration animation; A brief redox titration; Redox titration animation; A complete acid-base titration. Titration techniques. Hand technique variations; Stopcock; Using a buret to measure liquid volumes; Wait before reading meniscus; Dirty and clean burets; Read meniscus at eye level (see Fig. 1); Meniscus viewing techniques--light colored liquids; Meniscus viewing techniques--dark liquids; Using a magnetic stirrer; Rough titration

  9. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  10. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques et memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    Cette these s'attaque a deux problemes majeurs de l'information quantique: - Comment caracteriser efficacement un systeme quantique? - Comment stocker de l'information quantique? Elle se divise done en deux parties distinctes reliees par des elements techniques communs. Chacune est toutefois d'un interet propre et se suffit a elle-meme. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques. Le calcul quantique exige un tres grand controle des systemes quantiques composes de plusieurs particules, par exemple des atomes confines dans un piege electromagnetique ou des electrons dans un dispositif semi-conducteur. Caracteriser un tel systeme quantique consiste a obtenir de l'information sur l'etat grace a des mesures experimentales. Or, chaque mesure sur le systeme quantique le perturbe et doit done etre effectuee apres avoir reprepare le systeme de facon identique. L'information recherchee est ensuite reconstruite numeriquement a partir de l'ensemble des donnees experimentales. Les experiences effectuees jusqu'a present visaient a reconstruire l'etat quantique complet du systeme, en particulier pour demontrer la capacite de preparer des etats intriques, dans lesquels les particules presentent des correlations non-locales. Or, la procedure de tomographie utilisee actuellement n'est envisageable que pour des systemes composes d'un petit nombre de particules. Il est donc urgent de trouver des methodes de caracterisation pour les systemes de grande taille. Dans cette these, nous proposons deux approches theoriques plus ciblees afin de caracteriser un systeme quantique en n'utilisant qu'un effort experimental et numerique raisonnable. - La premiere consiste a estimer la distance entre l'etat realise en laboratoire et l'etat cible que l'experimentateur voulait preparer. Nous presentons un protocole, dit de certification, demandant moins de ressources que la tomographie et tres efficace pour plusieurs classes d'etats importantes pour l'informatique quantique. - La seconde

  11. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report. Fort Des Moines, Des Moines, Iowa. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.; Rausch, K.; Kang, J.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by The Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) at the Fort Des Moines, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA Federal agencies are required to identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. Fort Des Moines is a 53.28-acre site located in Polk County, Iowa, within the city limits of Des Moines. The installation's primary mission is to provide support and shelter for the U.S. Army Reserve. Activities associated with the property that have environmental significance are photographic processing, vehicle maintenance, printing, and fuel storage. TETC reviewed existing investigation documents; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), State, and county regulatory records; environmental data bases; and title documents pertaining to Fort Des Moines during this investigation. In addition, TETC conducted interviews and visual inspections of Fort Des Moines as well as visual inspections and data base searches for the surrounding properties. Information in this CERFA Report was current as of April 1994.

  12. Epidémiologie et prise en charge des infections du per-partum à la maternité du centre hospitalier départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Saizonou, Jacques; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Paraiso, Moussiliou Noël; Ayélo, Paul; Kpozèhouen, Alphonse; Daraté, René; Traoré, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La présente étude avait pour objectif de mesurer l'ampleur des infections du per-partum à la maternité du Centre Hospitalier Départemental de l'Ouémé-Plateau d'analyser les conditions de survenue et de prise en charge dans la perspective de l'amélioration des soins et services maternels et néonataux. Méthodes Une étude descriptive et analytique a été conduite de Août 2009 à Février 2010 et a impliqué 110 mères victimes d'infections du per-partum; elles ont été soumises à un questionnaire durant tout leur séjour hospitalier; des observations des pratiques de prise en charge des prestataires de soins ont été menées et des registres et autres supports de données sanitaires ont été exploités. L'analyse des données a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel Epi Info 6.4 dans sa version française. Résultats L'incidence des infections du per-partum était de 5,9 pour 100 accouchements (110/ 1875); les types d'infections les plus incriminés étaient les endométrites (27,3%), les chorioamniotites (18,2%), les infections du site opératoire (12,7%) et les infections urinaires (2,7%). Les examens cliniques ont été relativement acceptables. En revanche, les examens biologiques ont été très insuffisants expliquant l'imprécision importante au niveau des diagnostics. L'antibiothérapie a été instaurée systématiquement. Le taux de mortinaissance était de 25,6% et les enfants de petit poids représentaient 23,2%. Conclusion L'incidence des infections du per-partum dans la présente étude était assez élevée. Des efforts de préventions et de dépistage de ces infections sont nécessaire afin d'améliorer la qualité des soins PMID:25120854

  13. Rapport d’évaluation des besoins de formation de l’Association canadienne de gastro-entérologie 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rostom, Alaa; Daniels, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    C’est en avril 2009 que l’Association canadienne de gastroentérologie a mené son plus récent sondage annuel en ligne auprès de ses membres afin de connaître leurs besoins en matière de formation. En tout, 261 personnes ont répondu au sondage. Comme lors des années précédentes, les sujets entourant les maladies inflammatoires de l’intestin (MII) et plus particulièrement, les traitements pour la maladie de Crohn et la colite ulcéreuse (CU), de même que les cas de MII rebelles, ont été les plus en demande pour les activités de formation à venir. Parmi les autres thèmes populaires, mention-nons les techniques et les traitements endoscopiques, la maladie cœliaque, la prise en charge des infections gastro-intestinales (IGI) et l’endoscopie en direct. Les deux types d’activités de formation les plus attrayantes ont été les conférences et les présentations en Webdiffusion et le portail didactique de l’ACG offrant des liens vers des présentations en ligne, des tests d’auto-évaluation et le suivi des crédits de maintien du certificat (MainCert).

  14. Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisson, Pierre-Yves

    Cette these decrit l'etude effectuee sur les phenomenes d'insertion du sodium et de penetration du bain electrolytique dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium. L'etude fut effectuee a l'aide d'un montage permettant d'effectuer l'electrolyse en laboratoire. Trois types de revetement cathodiques furent etudies : des blocs semi-graphitique, des blocs graphitiques et des blocs graphitises. L'insertion du sodium dans les trois differents types de blocs fut etudiee a l'aide de la spectrometrie des photoelectrons X (XPS). L'analyse a permis de mettre en evidence deux formes de sodium dans l'anthracite et la phase liante des materiaux semi-graphitiques et graphitiques, indiquant qu'une fraction du sodium se retrouve sous forme adsorbee dans les micropores des materiaux alors que l'autre fraction est inseree dans la structure cristalline du carbone. Dans les phases graphitiques (materiaux graphitises et graphitiques), seuls les micropores sont occupes par le sodium Ce resultat explique la tendance observee selon laquelle l'ajout de graphite dans les blocs permet d'abaisser le gonflement sodique. Les mecanismes de penetration du bain dans le reseau poreux des materiaux furent etudies en microscopie electronique et en diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons apres differents temps d'electrolyses et en variant l'atmosphere (soit sous argon ou sous azote). Ces analyses ont permis d'identifier le mecanisme conduisant a la mouillabilite du bain sur le carbone en fonction de l'atmosphere entourant l'electrolyse. Ainsi, sous azote, la formation de NaCN dans les pores des materiaux par reactions entre le sodium et l'azote permet une mouillabilite accrue du bain alors qu'en absence d'azote (sous argon), le carbure d'aluminium, formes a la surface des pores, joue un role similaire. Dans ce dernier cas, la penetration du bain est moins rapide etant donnee la necessite de toujours amener des especes contenant de l'aluminium en tete du front de

  15. Etude exploratoire des conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Jean-Marc

    Il existe peu d'etudes sur les conceptions touchant les domaines de la biologie, notamment sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine Nous avons observe egalement l'absence de recherche menee aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial sur cette question. Nous avons voulu combler une lacune en menant une recherche sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial. Pour mener cette recherche nous nous sommes inspires d'une methode developpee par Treagust (1988). Le premier niveau de formulation didactique etablit l'architecture du systeme et la fonction nutritive de la circulation. Le second niveau de formulation didactique decrit et relie les parametres de la dynamique de la circulation et leur relation: Pression, Debit et Resistance. Le troisieme niveau de formulation didactique s'interesse au controle de la circulation du sang dans un contexte d'homeostasie qui implique la regulation de la pression arterielle. Nous avons construit un questionnaire en nous guidant sur les niveaux de formulation didactique et l'analyse des entrevues menees aupres de dix-huit eleves, representatifs de la population cible. Ce questionnaire fut administre a un echantillon de 2300 eleves disperses dans six colleges de la region de Montreal. Notre echantillon comprend des eleves inscrits a des programmes de l'ordre collegial en Sciences de la nature et en Techniques de la sante et qui n'ont pas suivi le cours sur la circulation sanguine. Notre analyse des reponses des eleves de notre echantillon aux questions sur le premier niveau de formulation didactique revele que la majorite des eleves considerent que le systeme circulatoire relie les organes les uns aux autres dans un circuit en serie. Notre analyse revele egalement que la majorite des eleves estiment que les nutriments sont extraits du sang par les organes selon un processus de selection base sur les besoins determines par la fonction de l'organe. Ces besoins sont differents selon les organes qui ne

  16. [Tracheostomy techniques].

    PubMed

    Mieth, M; Schellhaaß, A; Hüttner, F J; Larmann, J; Weigand, M A; Büchler, M W

    2016-01-01

    Due to the comprehensive establishment of modern techniques, tracheostomy has become a routine procedure in intensive care units (ICU). The negative effects of prolonged translaryngeal intubation on the laryngeal and tracheal mucosa up to tracheal stenosis can be reduced by tracheostomy. Furthermore, long-term ventilation is facilitated; however, there is no clear evidence on the optimal timing of tracheostomy in critically ill patients. The specific indications and contraindications of surgical as well as percutaneous tracheostomy must be strictly observed for a safe and successful intervention. Exchanging the tracheostomy tube may lead to potentially dangerous situations especially after percutaneous tracheostomy. A standardized and structured approach is therefore recommended. PMID:26643155

  17. Separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Duke, T

    1998-10-01

    The past two years have seen continued development of capillary electrophoresis methods. The separation performance of flowable sieving media now equals, and in some respects exceeds, that provided by gels. The application of microfabrication techniques to separation science is gaining pace. There is a continuing trend towards miniaturization and integration of separation with preparative or analytical steps. Innovative separation methods based on microfabrication technology include electrophoresis in purpose-designed molecular sieves, dielectric, trapping using microelectrodes, and force-free motion in Brownian ratchets. PMID:9818184

  18. A Magellanic origin of the DES dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-09-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves, and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of sub-haloes in Λ cold dark matter, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95) per cent confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Marginalizing over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011 M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  19. Early Results from the DES SN Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolnic, Daniel; Dark Energy Survey

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES SN) has already discovered over 1000 Type Ia supernovae with well-sampled multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.2. I will present an overview of the survey and show recent advances in our detection, photometry, calibration and spectroscopic follow-up pipelines. I will go over initial results from photometric classification of our sample and discuss methods used to reach measurements of cosmological parameters.

  20. A Magellanic Origin of the DES Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-06-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of subhaloes in ΛCDM, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95)% confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the LMC. Marginalising over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  1. Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, Walther; Lettowsky, Christoph

    Das Spritzgießen ist neben der Extrusion das wichtigste Verarbeitungsverfahren für Kunststoffe [1]. Das Verfahren hat sich seit seinen Ursprüngen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts bis heute stetig weiterentwickelt [2]. In neuerer Zeit steigt die Anzahl komplexer Anwendungen, die die gezielte Kombination verschiedener Funktionalitäten in einem Formteil erfordern. Das Standard-Spritzgießen kann diese Anforderungen immer weniger befriedigen. Daher gewinnen die Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens zunehmend an Bedeutung [3]. Ihre Anzahl beträgt inzwischen über 100. Die Aufgabe des Anwenders ist es, aus der Vielzahl der möglichen Verfahren, ein anforderungsgerechtes auszuwählen, das sowohl unter technischen wie wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten die optimale Lösung darstellt. Dies setzt die ständige Auseinandersetzung mit Entwicklungstendenzen im Bereich der Spritzgießtechnologie voraus. Daher soll im folgenden Abschnitt ein Überblick über die wichtigsten Spritzgieß-Sonderverfahren gegeben werden.

  2. Profil anthropometrique des enfants scolarises tananariviens

    PubMed Central

    Razafimanantsoa, Fetralinjiva; Razafindramaro, Notahiana; Raherimandimby, Hasina; Robinson, Annick; RakotoAlson, Olivat; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

    2013-01-01

    Les enfants tananariviens sont en état de malnutrition chronique. Notre objectif est d’évaluer l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) pour estimer les enfants apparemment "sains". Une enquête et une mesure de la taille et du poids des enfants scolarisés tananariviens de 6 à 11 ans ont été réalisées. Après leur accord, la taille et l'indice de masse corporelle des 442 enfants tirés au hasard ont été ainsi obtenus. L'analyse de la moyenne de la taille a révélé une différence significative à 8 ans, une différence non évidente sur l'indice de masse corporelle. La comparaison avec les valeurs de référence (OMS 2006) a montré un retard statural de 34% avec une tendance globale à la hausse et un déficit pondéral égal à 5,5% selon le z score. Ainsi, au sein d'une population malnutrie, l'indice de masse corporelle pourrait être utilisé comme un des paramètres à considérer dans l’évaluation de l’état de santé pour classer ces enfants en bonne santé apparente. PMID:24711862

  3. Dermatomyosite et panniculite: place des immunoglobulines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafidh, Nadia Ben; Toujeni, Sana; Kefi, Asma; Bousetta, Najeh; Sayhi, Sameh; Gharsallah, Imen; Othmani, Salah

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une maladie inflammatoire du tissu adipeux sous-cutané rarement associée à la dermatomyosite. Elle peut survenir avant, après ou en même temps que l'atteinte musculaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l’évolution de la panniculite et des autres atteintes de la dermatomyosite est favorable sous traitement corticoïde et/ou immunosuppresseur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 48 ans ayant présenté des lésions de panniculite précédant de 2 mois les signes musculaires. L'atteinte cutanée était résistante au traitement corticoïde associés aux immunosuppresseurs ce qui a nécessité le recours au traitement par Immunoglobulines polyvalentes permettant ainsi une amélioration à la fois de l'atteinte cutanée et musculaire.

  4. Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

  5. Choice of DES: is there a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, U; Bhatia, V

    2009-01-01

    Restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions has been a major limitation of this otherwise very well-accepted method of coronary revascularisation. Coronary stents work by scaffolding the intimal flaps and preventing elastic recoil, which was a major problem after balloon angioplasty. The neointimal growth response to stenting contributes significantly to the restenotic process. Randomised studies comparing coronary artery bypass surgery with coronary stenting especially in multivessel disease clearly highlighted this problem. The problem has been greater in magnitude in special subgroups: diabetics, patients with small vessels (≤2.5 mm in diameter), long segments of disease (≥20 mm in length), etc. These limitations of Bare metal stents have been addressed by drug-eluting stents (DESs). Third-generation stents with bioabsorbable polymers like the Biolimus releasing Biomatrix stent have already become available in Europe and parts of Asia. A longer follow-up will prove their long-term safety vis-à-vis first-generation DES. The polymer-free stent with capability of using more than one drug, though very attractive, needs larger multicentric studies before gaining wider acceptance. The fully bioabsorbable stent is yet another promising concept. The feasibility has already been demonstrated, and finer refinements are under way. The future of newer DES thus is very promising, and most of the issues related to first-generation DES are at the threshold of being solved.

  6. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  7. Distortion in Perspective Projection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelso, Robert P., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a unique approach in associating perspective projection with the image beheld by the eye and demonstrates that all graphical and photographic perspective projections must contain distortion when compared to the image beheld by the eye. (Contains 8 figures.)

  8. Assessing Individuals' Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kelly Carter; Braskamp, David C.; Braskamp, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), a survey instrument that measures participants' global perspective in terms of cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains--each in terms of both development and acquisition. A summary of the recent research on the GPI is provided along with a discussion of potential uses.

  9. Format and basic geometry of a perspective display of air traffic for the cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael Wallace; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of a perspective display of air traffic for the cockpit is discussed. Parameters of the perspective are variable and interactive so that the appearance of the projected image can be widely varied. This approach makes allowances for exploration of perspective parameters and their interactions. The display was initially used to study the cases of horizontal maneuver biases found in experiments involving a plan view air traffic display format. Experiments to determine the effect of perspective geometry on spatial judgements have evolved from the display program. Several scaling techniques and other adjustments to the perspective are used to tailor the geometry for effective presentation of 3-D traffic situations.

  10. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  11. Urétéroscopie souple laser dans le traitement des calculs du haut appareil urinaire: résultats a propos de 166 interventions

    PubMed Central

    Padja, Essodina; Ibarra, Venceslas Amboulou; Lmezguidi, Khalid; Janane, Abdellatif; Ghadouane, Mohamed; Ameur, Ahmed; Abbar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    L’évolution de la technique opératoire fait de l'urétéroscopie souple –Laser (URSS-L) une méthode efficace et sure dans le traitement des calculs du haut appareil urinaire (HAU). Elle apparait comme une option salvatrice après échec des autres options thérapeutiques. Son coût limite son accessibilité et restreint ses indications dans certains contextes socio-économiques. Nous rapportons l'expérience du service sur les indications, les résultats et les complications de l'URSS-L dans le traitement des calculs du HAU. C'est une étude rétrospective sur 4ans concernant 130 patients ayant des calculs du HAU. Un scanner permettait de déterminer les caractéristiques des calculs avant l'intervention et de faire un contrôle après afin de juger de l'efficacité du traitement. Une analyse statistique évaluait l'influence des différents paramètres des calculs sur l'efficacité de l'intervention. Un suivi était réalisé afin de détecter les complications. L’âge moyen des patients était de 52 ± 17ans. 166 interventions étaient faites en 3 séries. Les indications étaient de première intention dans 50.32% suivi des échecs de LEC. La durée moyenne de l'intervention était de 73min ± 25min pour une taille moyenne des calculs de 13.78mm ± 5mm. Le taux de succès global était de 78.91% (78.71%; 80%; 100%) respectivement après la 1ère, la 2ème et la 3ème série. Aucun paramètre n'influençait significativement le taux de succès. 14.45% de complications était enregistré. L'URSS-L est une méthode aussi efficace que sure dans le traitement des calculs du HAU nous motivant malgré son coût, à élargir ses indications en première intention lorsque les calculs répondent aux critères de choix. PMID:26600912

  12. Adapting perspectives to facilitate knowledge assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Webster, R.B.

    1998-12-31

    The notion of perspective when supported in knowledge representation can allow the representation of multiple and varying points of view, some of which may even be inconsistent with one another. In an object-based knowledge representation methodology created and used by the authors, a perspective is defined by consolidating a number of objects and a number of those objects` associated attributes and methods into a view. This view can help partition a knowledge domain into separate portions. A separate portion represents an individual`s view of the knowledge domain. Representation of multiple and varying perspectives may add to the existing knowledge as well as reveal paths to additional knowledge. A simple example is presented where perspectives are used to represent game playing strategies and levels of expertise in those strategies. Players` perspectives are adapted and changed to provide additional knowledge and insight into further game playing strategies. Results show improvement in the playing of the games. Additionally, a more complex problem for applying these techniques is introduced.

  13. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  14. Extended overview techniques for outdoor augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Veas, Eduardo; Grasset, Raphaël; Kruijff, Ernst; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we explore techniques that aim to improve site understanding for outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) applications. While the first person perspective in AR is a direct way of filtering and zooming on a portion of the data set, it severely narrows overview of the situation, particularly over large areas. We present two interactive techniques to overcome this problem: multi-view AR and variable perspective view. We describe in details the conceptual, visualization and interaction aspects of these techniques and their evaluation through a comparative user study. The results we have obtained strengthen the validity of our approach and the applicability of our methods to a large range of application domains. PMID:22402683

  15. Profil bactériologique du pied diabétique et son impact sur le choix des antibiotiques

    PubMed Central

    Zemmouri, Adil; Tarchouli, Mohamed; Benbouha, Abdellatif; Lamkinsi, Tarik; Bensghir, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa; Haimeur, Cherqui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analyse du profil bactériologique des pieds diabétiques pris en charge à l'hôpital militaire de Rabat et son influence sur l'antibiothérapie de première intention. Méthodes Etude prospective non randomisée étalée sur 18 mois, ayant concerné 105 patients. Après recueil des données et en attente des résultats bactériologiques nos patients ont été divisés en deux groupes: un groupe a été mis sous Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique + Gentamycine (59 patients) et un groupe sous Ertapénème±Gentamycine (46 patients). Résultats L’étude a regroupé 85 hommes et 20 femmes (sexe ratio = 4.26). L’âge moyen est de 64.4 ans. La gangrène a été observée chez 79% des malades; elle était humide-donc surinfectée en principe- dans 43% des cas. Par ailleurs, 67% des malades ont un chiffre de globules blancs 12000 définissant une infection sévère. L'ostéolyse a été mise en évidence chez 27% de nos patients. Parmi les différentes techniques de prélèvements: 81% ont été profonds dont 21% de biopsie osseuse per opératoire et 14% de prélèvements combinés. 42% de ces prélèvements sont poly microbiens et 21% sont stériles. Les résultats bactériologiques viennent confirmer la prédominance des bactéries aérobies à Gram positif. Le taux de remplacement de l'Ertapénème est de 22% contre un taux de 50% pour l'Amoxiclav. Conclusion L'antibiothérapie ne doit être instaurée qu'en cas d'infection du pied diabétique diagnostiquée sur les critères cliniques établis par les consensus internationaux récents. Le respect des mesures de lutte contre la diffusion de la résistance bactérienne s'avère primordiale. PMID:27386024

  16. New techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisacane, V. L.

    1983-04-01

    Equipment, operations, calibration, and accuracy of existing positioning, geodetic, and gravimetric equipment are explored. Radio navigation and positioning systems now include OMEGA, LORAN, VOR, DME, TACAN, and LONAR. Dedicated positioning satellites comprise the Transit and Navstar systems, with positioning accuracies of 8 m available with the GPS. Missile tracking, particularly for submarine launched rockets, is accomplished with the Satrack satellite, which furnishes position and velocity accuracy to within 40 ft and 0.08 ft/sec, respectively. VLBI techniques permit sighting of astronomical objects to obtain 20 cm accuracy for pole positioning and 1 m/sec for earth rotation speeds. Methods have been devised to use portable equipment which compensates for refraction when using lasers and masers in ranging trials. NASA has established a fixed and mobile global laser tracking network to provide a ranging accuracy of 100 cm when employed with satellite and lunar reflectors. Lasers are also used for terrain contouring, aircraft ranging, and satellite altimetry. A free-fall gravimeter has been developed which involves dropping one reflector of a two-beam Michelson interferometer, yielding an accuracy of 10 microgal. It is noted that new standards are needed for the NASA Deep Space Network.

  17. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  18. Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchaud, Simon

    Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis 2004. De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D. Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge (PNC) ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. On trouve deux origines aux fluctuations de conductance pres du PNC, soit des oscillations mesoscopiques provenant de l'interference quantique, et des fluctuations dites Hall quantique apparaissant a plus haut champ (>0.5T), semblant suivre les facteurs de remplissage associes aux monocouches de graphene. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees. A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge.

  19. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  20. Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

    2002-07-01

    Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concr

  1. Fissuration en relaxation des aciers inoxydables austénitiques au voisinage des soudures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Gourgues, A. F.; Pineau, A.

    2003-03-01

    Des fissures intergranulaires peuvent se développer au voisinage des soudures des aciers inoxydables austénitiques lorsqu'ils sont réchauffés dans le domaine de température compris entre 500^{circ}C et 700^{circ}C. A ces températures, les contraintes résiduelles post-soudage se relaxent par déformation viscoplastique. Il peut arriver que ces zones proches de la soudure soient tellement fragiles, qu'elles ne puissent accommoder cette faible déformation. Afin de préciser quelles peuvent être les modifications microstructurales qui conduisent à une telle fragilisation, on a examiné les microstructures de ces zones et révélé ainsi un écrouissage résiduel, responsable d'une forte élévation de la dureté. On a pu reproduire par hypertrempe puis laminage entre 400^{circ}C et 600^{circ}C une microstructure similaire. Des essais mécaniques (traction, fluage, relaxation, sur éprouvettes lisses et pré-fissurées) ont été réalisés à 550^{circ}C et à 600^{circ}C sur ces zones affectées simulées et sur un état de référence hypertrempé. Ils ont montré que l'écrouissage diminuait la ductilité dans le domaine de rupture intergranulaire, sans modifier qualitativement le mécanisme d'endommagement. Pendant la pré-déformation les incompatibilités de déformation entre grains conduiraient à l'existence de contraintes locales élevées qui favoriseraient la germination des cavités intergranulaires.

  2. La Ruralisation de l'enseignement fondamental au Mali: Des techniques et des activites pratiques (Ruralization of Basic Education in Mali: Practical Techniques and Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Michael; Fafaran, Keita, Ed.

    This instructional guide is designed for use by Peace Corps volunteers in teaching basic skills to rural residents of Mali through practical activities on school grounds. Four instructional units provide background information, definitions, illustrated descriptions of procedures, data tables, and suggested exercises for teaching in these areas:…

  3. The Polyvagal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Porges, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    The Polyvagal Theory introduced a new perspective relating autonomic function to behavior that included an appreciation of autonomic nervous system as a “system,” the identification of neural circuits involved in the regulation of autonomic state, and an interpretation of autonomic reactivity as adaptive within the context of the phylogeny of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. The paper has two objectives: First, to provide an explicit statement of the theory; and second, to introduce the features of a polyvagal perspective. The polyvagal perspective emphasizes how an understanding of neurophysiological mechanisms and phylogenetic shifts in neural regulation, leads to different questions, paradigms, explanations, and conclusions regarding autonomic function in biobehavioral processes than peripheral models. Foremost, the polyvagal perspective emphasizes the importance of phylogenetic changes in the neural structures regulating the autonomic nervous system and how these phylogenetic shifts provide insights into the adaptive function and the neural regulation of the two vagal systems PMID:17049418

  4. Job Change in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R.; Loughead, Teri A.

    1990-01-01

    Defines current perspectives on voluntary job change, documents its prevalence in North America, lists positive and negative effects, and considers theoretical frameworks, counseling interventions, and research needs. (22 references) (SK)

  5. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  6. Le traitement familial des enfants et des adolescents anorexiques : Des lignes directrices pour le médecin communautaire

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, S; Pinzon, J; Taddeo, D; Katzman, DK

    2010-01-01

    L’anorexie mentale (AM) est une maladie grave qui met la vie en danger et qui fait généralement son apparition pendant l’adolescence. Les données probantes au sujet du traitement optimal de l’AM chez les enfants et les adolescents sont en croissance, mais il reste beaucoup à apprendre. Même si les démarches thérapeutiques actuelles varient au Canada et ailleurs, les données jusqu’à présent indiquent que le traitement familial (TF) est le plus efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents anorexiques. Un élément essentiel du modèle de TF, c’est que les parents sont investis de la responsabilité de rétablir la santé physique de leur enfant et de s’assurer de la reprise complète de son poids. Le médecin qui comprend les principes fondamentaux et la philosophie du TF peut mettre en place les éléments de cette intervention fondée sur des faits probants auprès des jeunes patients anorexiques et de leur famille.

  7. Disciplinary Perspectives on Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Stephen C.

    This chapter examines the contributions of major academic disciplines to archaeoastronomy, beginning with a consideration of several indicators of the participation of scholars from various fields. We then consider examples of research from astronomy and the physical sciences; anthropology, archaeology, and the social sciences; and the historical disciplines to see how they reflect their disciplinary perspectives. The questions drawn from these varied disciplinary perspectives stimulate different strands of research, enriching the study of astronomies in cultures.

  8. Approaching Assessment from a Learning Perspective: Elevating Assessment beyond Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Michele; George, Beena

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is a key process in assuring quality education but how is it linked to the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL)? How can we join teaching and learning to the assessment process rather than view it as a stand-alone component in course and/or program development? This paper explores the relationship between assessment and the SoTL…

  9. Global History from the Local Perspective: An Instructional Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiewskij-Hay, Valentina

    1999-01-01

    Presents a genealogy/migration assignment that encourages students to recognize how their individual histories fit into the global world. Expounds that the students traced the migration of their ancestors from the Eastern Hemisphere to the United States and then within the United States to the Appalachian region. (CMK)

  10. Video capsule endoscopy: perspectives of a revolutionary technique.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Simon; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Van Gossum, Andre

    2014-12-14

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) was launched in 2000 and has revolutionized direct endoscopic imaging of the gut. VCE is now a first-line procedure for exploring the small bowel in cases of obscure digestive bleeding and is also indicated in some patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, and polyposis syndrome. A video capsule has also been designed for visualizing the esophagus in order to detect Barrett's esophagus or esophageal varices. Different capsules are now available and differ with regard to dimensions, image acquisition rate, battery life, field of view, and possible optical enhancements. More recently, the use of VCE has been extended to exploring the colon. Within the last 5 years, tremendous developments have been made toward increasing the capabilities of the colon capsule. Although colon capsule cannot be proposed as a first-line colorectal cancer screening procedure, colon capsule may be used in patients with incomplete colonoscopy or in patients who are unwilling to undergo colonoscopy. In the near future, new technological developments will improve the diagnostic yield of VCE and broaden its therapeutic capabilities. PMID:25516644

  11. Video capsule endoscopy: Perspectives of a revolutionary technique

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Simon; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Van Gossum, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) was launched in 2000 and has revolutionized direct endoscopic imaging of the gut. VCE is now a first-line procedure for exploring the small bowel in cases of obscure digestive bleeding and is also indicated in some patients with Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and polyposis syndrome. A video capsule has also been designed for visualizing the esophagus in order to detect Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal varices. Different capsules are now available and differ with regard to dimensions, image acquisition rate, battery life, field of view, and possible optical enhancements. More recently, the use of VCE has been extended to exploring the colon. Within the last 5 years, tremendous developments have been made toward increasing the capabilities of the colon capsule. Although colon capsule cannot be proposed as a first-line colorectal cancer screening procedure, colon capsule may be used in patients with incomplete colonoscopy or in patients who are unwilling to undergo colonoscopy. In the near future, new technological developments will improve the diagnostic yield of VCE and broaden its therapeutic capabilities. PMID:25516644

  12. Traitement chirurgical initial des brûlures de la main de l’enfant. Revue

    PubMed Central

    Goffinet, L.; Breton, A.; Gavillot, C.; Barbary, S.; Journeau, P.; Lascombes, P.; Dautel, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Trente cinq revues concernant la prise en charge chirurgicale de la main brûlée de l’enfant sont indexées dans Pub- Med. Elles portent sur l’indication de la cicatrisation dirigée versus chirurgie, les techniques et délais d’instauration des traitements par excision-greffe, le calendrier et la nature du traitement de réadaptation et la surveillance. L’enfant présente un risque accru de brides cicatricielles, nécessitant un suivi médico-chirurgical attentif et prolongé. L’objet de cet article est de rapporter les spécificités chirurgicales de la prise en charge de ces brûlures. Cette revue de la littérature, réalisée au moyen de la base PubMed (publication entre 2005 et 2011) à partir des mots-clés « hand AND/OR child AND/OR burn » retrouve 67 publications utiles au sein de 171 références. Les données rapportées ont été comparées aux ouvrages de références français et américains. Des données contradictoires sont rapportées concernant la délai de l’excision et de la greffe, avec seulement deux études comparatives comportant de nombreux biais. L’état de la science n’apporte pas d’éléments de preuve suffisant en raison d’un manque de puissance statistique des études, mais de nombreux avis d’expert explorant chaque type d’indication permet d’établir une stratégie claire, guidant les indications thérapeutiques. Il apparaît donc indispensable de réaliser des études prospectives incluant ces patients depuis le suivi initial jusqu’au suivi à long terme, pour augmenter le niveau de preuve de cette stratégie. PMID:27279807

  13. Bootstrapping Q Methodology to Improve the Understanding of Human Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Aiora; Pascual, Unai

    2016-01-01

    Q is a semi-qualitative methodology to identify typologies of perspectives. It is appropriate to address questions concerning diverse viewpoints, plurality of discourses, or participation processes across disciplines. Perspectives are interpreted based on rankings of a set of statements. These rankings are analysed using multivariate data reduction techniques in order to find similarities between respondents. Discussing the analytical process and looking for progress in Q methodology is becoming increasingly relevant. While its use is growing in social, health and environmental studies, the analytical process has received little attention in the last decades and it has not benefited from recent statistical and computational advances. Specifically, the standard procedure provides overall and arguably simplistic variability measures for perspectives and none of these measures are associated to individual statements, on which the interpretation is based. This paper presents an innovative approach of bootstrapping Q to obtain additional and more detailed measures of variability, which helps researchers understand better their data and the perspectives therein. This approach provides measures of variability that are specific to each statement and perspective, and additional measures that indicate the degree of certainty with which each respondent relates to each perspective. This supplementary information may add or subtract strength to particular arguments used to describe the perspectives. We illustrate and show the usefulness of this approach with an empirical example. The paper provides full details for other researchers to implement the bootstrap in Q studies with any data collection design. PMID:26845694

  14. Perception of Perspective Angles.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-06-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  15. Perception of Perspective Angles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  16. OzDES Spectroscopic Classification of DES13X3woy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Childress, M.; Sharp, R.; Lidman, C.; Parkinson, D.; Mould, J.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Foley, R. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report spectroscopic classification by OzDES of a supernova discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (370-885nm) was obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell and Wang, 2002, BAAS, 34, 1256), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  17. [From shock therapies to new neuromodulation techniques].

    PubMed

    Plaze, Marion; Krebs, Marie-Odile

    2013-01-01

    The first shock therapies date back to 1933 with the Sakel therapy. Electric induction experiments led to electroconvulsive therapy first used by Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini in 1938. Today, transcranial magnetic stimulation offers new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of mental disorders. Similarly, deep brain stimulation techniques have been developed for the treatment of compulsive obsessive disorders and severe and treatment-resistant depression. PMID:23757891

  18. Prise en compte des ``courants de London'' dans la modélisation des supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossavit, Alain

    1997-10-01

    A model is given, in variational form, in which volumic “Bean currents”, ruled by Bean's law, and surface “London currents” coexist. This macroscopic model generalizes Bean's one, by appending to the critical density j_c a second parameter, with the dimension of a length, similar to London's depth λ. The one-dimensional version of the model is investigated, in order to link this parameter with the standard observable H-M characteristics On propose un modèle, sous forme variationnelle, associant des “courants de Bean” volumiques, décrits par la loi de Bean, et des “courants de London”, surfaciques. Ce modèle macroscopique généralise celui de Bean, caractérisé par le courant critique j_c, et fait intervenir un second paramètre, homogène à une longueur, analogue au λ de London. La version unidimensionnelle du modèle est étudiée en détail de manière à relier ce paramètre à l'observation des caractéristiques H-M usuelles.

  19. Using Perspective to Model Complex Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Bisset, K.R.

    1999-04-04

    The notion of perspective, when supported in an object-based knowledge representation, can facilitate better abstractions of reality for modeling and simulation. The object modeling of complex physical and chemical processes is made more difficult in part due to the poor abstractions of state and phase changes available in these models. The notion of perspective can be used to create different views to represent the different states of matter in a process. These techniques can lead to a more understandable model. Additionally, the ability to record the progress of a process from start to finish is problematic. It is desirable to have a historic record of the entire process, not just the end result of the process. A historic record should facilitate backtracking and re-start of a process at different points in time. The same representation structures and techniques can be used to create a sequence of process markers to represent a historic record. By using perspective, the sequence of markers can have multiple and varying views tailored for a particular user's context of interest.

  20. Characterization of the Glycosyltransferase DesVII and Its Auxiliary Partner Protein DesVIII in the Methymycin/Pikromycin Biosynthetic Pathway†

    PubMed Central

    Borisova, Svetlana A.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro characterization of the catalytic activity of DesVII, the glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotics methymycin, neomethymycin, narbomycin, and pikromycin in Streptomyces venezuelae, is described. DesVII is unique among glycosyltransferases in that it requires an additional protein component, DesVIII, for activity. Characterization of the metabolites produced by a S. venezuelae mutant lacking desVIII gene confirmed that desVIII is important for the biosynthesis of glycosylated macrolides, but can be replaced by at least one of the homologous genes from other pathways. The addition of recombinant DesVIII protein significantly improves the glycosylation efficiency of DesVII in the in vitro assay. When affinity-tagged DesVII and DesVIII proteins were co-produced in E. coli, they formed a tight (αβ)3 complex that is at least 103-fold more active than DesVII alone. The formation of the DesVII/DesVIII complex requires co-expression of both genes in vivo and cannot be fully achieved by mixing the individual protein components in vitro. The ability of DesVII/DesVIII system to catalyze the reverse reaction with the formation of TDP-desosamine was also demonstrated in a transglycosylation experiment. Taken together, our data suggest that DesVIII assists the folding of DesVII during protein production and remains tightly bound during catalysis. This requirement must be taken into consideration in the design of combinatorial biosynthetic experiments of new glycosylated macrolides. PMID:20695498

  1. Perspectives on the profession.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ronald M

    2015-12-01

    In his presidential address to the Southwestern Surgical Congress, he examines surgery as a profession from three different perspectives: his experience as a patient, a surgeon, and a photographer. He uses photography to illustrate the importance of perspective and illumination. He respectfully suggests that we should consciously choose to reframe the profession from a different perspective that accurately reflects its beauty. He also advises that we take effort to shine a gentle, soft light on the profession, a light that will reveal the beauty, the true beauty, of the profession. And finally, he submits that it is our responsibility to consciously and faithfully maintain and defend the profession from enemies inside and outside its borders. PMID:26520870

  2. Organisation des gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutzes auf Bundesebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschiersky-Schöneburg, Helmut; Büttner, Antje

    Zahlreiche Krisen wie Dioxin belastete Futtermittel, die missbräuchliche Verwendung von Antibiotika in der Schweinemast und nicht zuletzt das Auftreten von BSE in Deutschland erschütterten Ende der neunziger Jahre das Vertrauen der Bürger in die Sicherheit der Lebensmittel. Mit dem Weißbuch zur Lebensmittelsicherheit, das im Januar 2000 herausgegeben wurde, hatte die Europäische Kommission ihre Erfahrungen aus dem BSE-Geschehen in ein neues Konzept für den Verbraucherschutz eingearbeitet. Kernstücke des Konzepts sind die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Lebensmittelsicherheit von der landwirtschaftlichen Erzeugung bis zum Verzehr und der Anspruch nach Transparenz und Unabhängigkeit der Risikobewertung.

  3. An Historical Perspective on the Theory and Practice of Soil Mechanical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of soil mechanical analysis. Evaluates this history in order to place current concepts in perspective, from both a research and teaching viewpoint. Alternatives to traditional separation techniques for use in soils teaching laboratories are discussed. (TW)

  4. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2kqw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Kniazev, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2kqw discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (380-820nm) was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  5. La détermination des distances: Sol, Hipparcos, GAIA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turon, C.

    Les parallaxes trigonométriques des étoiles les plus proches du soleil sont la base de la détermination des distances dans l'Univers. Elles permettent, par la calibration en luminosité des différents indicateurs de distance d'étalonner les distances d'abord dans notre Galaxie, puis dans les galaxies du Groupe Local, puis pour les galaxies plus lointaines. Cette base est, actuellement, très mince, et peu de types d'étoiles y sont représentés. Hipparcos va déjà apporter une amélioration sensible. Avec GAIA une révision complète des calibrations de luminosité de tous les indicateurs "primaires" serait directement possible.

  6. La physique des bulles de champagne Une première approche des processus physico-chimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2002-07-01

    bubble interface continuously increases and therefore continuously offers newly created surface to the adsorbed surface-active materials (around 5 mg/l, mostly composed of proteins and glycoproteins). Champagne bubbles experience an interesting competition between two opposing effects. Our results suggest that the bubble growth during ascent approximately balance the adsorption rate of surface-active compounds on the rising bubble. We also compared the behaviour of champagne bubbles with that of beer bubbles. It was found that beer bubbles showed a behaviour, very close to that of rigid spheres. This is not a surprising result, since beer contains much higher amounts of surface-active molecules (of order of several hundreds mg/l) likely to be adsorbed at a bubble interface. Furthermore, since the gas content is lower in beer, growth rates of beer bubbles are lower than those of champagne. As a result, the dilution effect due to the rate of dilatation of the bubble area may be too weak to avoid the rigidification of the beer bubble interface. In a third set of experiments, we used instantaneous high-speed photography techniques to freeze the dynamics of bubbles collapsing at the free surface of a glass poured with champagne. The process following bubble collapse and leading to the projection of a high-speed liquid jet above the free surface was captured. A structural analogy between the liquid jet following a bubble collapse and the liquid jet following a drop impact was presented. By drawing a parallel between the fizz in champagne wines and the “fizz of the ocean", we also suggested that droplets issued from champagne bursting bubbles contain much higher amounts of surface-active and potentially aromatic materials than the liquid bulk. The bursting of champagne bubbles is thus expected to play a major role in flavour release. Otherwise, since the first photographic investigation were published about fifty years ago, numerous experiments have been conducted with single

  7. Forum for Injection Techniques, India: The First Indian Recommendations for Best Practice in Insulin Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kumar, K. M. Prasanna; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Wangnoo, Subhash K.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients’ and health-care providers’ perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT) India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice. PMID:23226630

  8. Cleft lip: The historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S; Khanna, V; Kohli, R

    2009-10-01

    The earliest documented history of cleft lip is based on a combination of religion, superstition, invention and charlatanism. While Greeks ignored their existence, Spartans and Romans would kill these children as they were considered to harbour evil spirits. When saner senses prevailed Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1537-1619) was the first to suggest the embryological basis of these clefts. The knowledge of cleft lip and the surgical correction received a big boost during the period between the Renaissance and the 19th century with the publication of Pierre Franco's Petit Traite and Traite des Hernies in which he described the condition as "lievre fendu de nativite" (cleft lip present from birth). The first documented Cleft lip surgery is from China in 390 BC in an 18 year old would be soldier, Wey Young-Chi. Albucasis of Arabia and his fellow surgeons used the cautery instead of the scalpel and Yperman in 1854 recommended scarifying the margins with a scalpel before suturing them with a triangular needle dipped in wax. The repair was reinforced by passing a long needle through the two sides of the lip and fixing the shaft of the needle with a figure-of-eight thread over the lip. Germanicus Mirault can be credited to be the originator of the triangular flap which was later modified by C.W. Tennison in 1952 and Peter Randall in 1959. In the late 50s, Ralph Millard gave us his legendary 'cut as you go' technique. The protruding premaxilla of a bilateral cleft lip too has seen many changes throughout the ages - from being discarded totally to being pushed back by wedge resection of vomer to finally being left to the orthodontists. PMID:19884680

  9. The Empirical Investigation of Perspective-Based Reading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Green, Scott; Laitenberger, Oliver; Shull, Forrest; Sorumgard, Sivert; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1995-01-01

    We consider reading techniques a fundamental means of achieving high quality software. Due to lack of research in this area, we are experimenting with the application and comparison of various reading techniques. This paper deals with our experiences with Perspective Based Reading (PBR) a particular reading technique for requirement documents. The goal of PBR is to provide operation scenarios where members of a review team read a document from a particular perspective (eg., tester, developer, user). Our assumption is that the combination of different perspective provides better coverage of the document than the same number of readers using their usual technique. To test the efficacy of PBR, we conducted two runs of a controlled experiment in the environment of NASA GSFC Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), using developers from the environment. The subjects read two types of documents, one generic in nature and the other from the NASA Domain, using two reading techniques, PBR and their usual technique. The results from these experiment as well as the experimental design, are presented and analyzed. When there is a statistically significant distinction, PBR performs better than the subjects' usual technique. However, PBR appears to be more effective on the generic documents than on the NASA documents.

  10. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  11. Étude et modélisation des mécanismes complexes en conception assistée par ordinateur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satori, K.; El Kihel, B.

    1997-11-01

    The conception of the mechanical systems becomes very automated in the setting of the Mechanical Computer Aided Design (M.C.A.D.). Actually the geometric modelisation involves Computer Aided Design (C.A.D.). Particularly, the numerical analysis is the origin of Finite Element Methods (F.E.M.). These two techniques give a real image of calculation results; this is due to the discretization methods (stress concentration, loads assignation, ...). The aim of this work is to study the gear box with parallel shafts (reducer of speeds), it includes two steps of reductions. The kinematic chain is constituted by shafts, gears with right denture and bearings (ball and cylindrical), who achieve the link with the box. The mean problem is to quantify the dynamic and vibratory behaviour in order to qualify the conception of gear box. La conception des systèmes mécaniques devient très automatisée dans le cadre de la Conception Mécanique Assistée par Ordinateur (C.M.A.O.). La modélisation géométrique est effectuée de plus en plus avec l'aide des logiciels de Dessin Assisté par Ordinateur (D.A.O.). La modélisation des structures et la simulation numérique s'effectuent généralement par la Méthode des Éléments Finis (M.E.F.). Le couplage de ces deux techniques permet de donner une image concrète et réaliste des résultats de calcul issus des méthodes de discrétisation (concentration des contraintes, répartition des charges, etc.). L'application qu'on présente concerne une boîte de vitesse à arbres parallèle, comporte deux étages de réductions (réducteur de vitesse). La chaîne cinématique est constituée d'arbres d'engrenages à dentures droites et de paliers à roulements à billes et à rouleaux qui réalisent la liaison avec le carter. Le problème posé dans cette application consiste à quantifier le comportement dynamique et vibratoire afin de qualifier la conception du réducteur.

  12. Formation des enseignants dans une perspective d'education permanente au benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboton, Sébastien; Moussa, Yaya Mede

    1994-05-01

    The history of teacher training in Benin, which provides evidence of social and cultural change, suggests that a system of lifelong education should be introduced which unites formal, non-formal and informal education, all of which already exist in embryo. The education originally given to every member of society was a continuing progression from initiate to initiator, a lifelong education that involved, among other things, knowledge of agricultural production. This traditional system was disrupted by the reorganization of teacher training after 1945. Recurrent training of teachers remained inadequate because of limited external funding for in-service training, the lack of teachers, the suspension of recruitment and the closure of teacher training colleges. The 1975 reform, through the initiative known as Operation Education and Development, envisaged links between school and social environment, allying intellectual work with production. This meant a radical change in the role of the teacher, who was confronted with technical advance and was obliged to enter a difficult continuing process of self-training. Furthermore, population growth and the restrictions imposed by the World Bank have brought about developments in both lifelong learning and apprenticeship. These two elements are brought together under an initiative known as Production Scolaire Artisanale, designed for out-of-school learners and artisans. The author concludes that the creation of a coherent system of voluntary education would be possible in a society that was itself favourably disposed to education.

  13. Old Perspectives on Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Blacquiere-Clarkson, John

    1976-01-01

    Presents a perspective on evolution which includes an explanation of the textbook theory of evolution, a review of evolutionary theory before Darwin, and an outline of Darwin's early theories. Describes a rethinking of evolutionary theory to include natural selection, conservative selection, discontinous evolution, catastrophism, and the…

  14. Families in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Bron B., Ed.; Smith, Suzanna, Ed.

    Covering contemporary Third World as well as Western families, this teaching text addresses topics essential for developing a multicultural perspective on the family. It is an ideal text for comparative family courses and includes exercises (as well as exercise guidelines for instructors) developed to challenge students' existing viewpoints and…

  15. Perspective, May 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a commentary assessing the meaning of college- and career-readiness. In doing so, it addresses some of the questions Achieve gets asked most frequently, including: What subjects are most important in defining "Readiness"? What does…

  16. An Executive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1985

    1985-01-01

    There is a need for concentrated administrative leadership in planning for computing and information technology in colleges and universities. An executive perspective through three personal interviews with Samuel A. Banks (Dickinson College), Robert H. McCabe (Miami-Dade Community College), and William E. Lavery (Virginia Tech) is presented. (MLW)

  17. From a Parent's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    The series of articles on parenting compiled in this book bridges the gap between educational theory and the everyday problems parents must deal with. The book's perspective encourages parents to be gentle, flexible, observant, and not too attached to expectations. The first chapter, "Surviving Parenthood," discusses topics such as managing…

  18. Hakka in Wellentheorie Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1992-01-01

    A review of some of the interesting aspects of Hakka dialect studies precedes a discussion of areas needing further linguistic study, such as its resemblance to and contacts with other Chinese dialects, tonal correspondences, and the study of Chinese dialects from a Wellentheorie perspective. (53 references) (CB)

  19. Perspective, March 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how over the past five years, since the National Governors Association (NGA) and Achieve co-sponsored the National Education Summit on High Schools, states have made impressive progress in aligning their high school…

  20. Perspective, March 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a commentary on the efforts of the states to adopt college- and career-ready policies. "Closing the Expectations Gap, 2009"--Achieve's fourth annual report--shows that states have continued to make steady progress on adopting policies aimed at…

  1. Perspective, August 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how Achieve commissioned a first-of-its-kind national poll of American voters to determine their views on college and career readiness. The results of the survey show that there is overwhelming support for college-and…

  2. Millennial Perspectives and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrell, James A.; Dunneback, Staci K.

    2015-01-01

    Through prioritizing student voice, this study investigated the perspectives of millennial students in relation to their preferences and priorities for how they desired to experience teaching and learning. While not experts, our assumption was that undergraduate students, because of their relatively long experience as students, would be closely in…

  3. ADDIE: Perspectives in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Elizabeth; Easterling, Wylie V.; Hardre, Patricia L.; Howard, Craig D.; Roman, Tiffany Anne

    2011-01-01

    In an asynchronous forum responding to a prompt positing that ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) might be used in teaching instructional design (ID) as a safety net for designers without native talent, instructors and practitioners of ID revealed mixed perspectives on the role of ADDIE in design. Critical theory…

  4. Applied Linguistics: Brazilian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalcanti, Marilda C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present perspectives in Applied Linguistics (AL) against the background of a historical overview of the field in Brazil. I take the stance of looking at AL as a field of knowledge and as a professional area of research. This point of view directs my reflections towards research-based Applied Linguistics carried out from…

  5. Keeping Barns in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a landscape project using Grant Wood's paintings as an example. As part of the project, the students are required to include a barn in their picture. This project is a great opportunity to study an Iowa artist who did landscape painting and to study perspective. This is also an excellent project for teaching…

  6. Childhood Education: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva, Ed.

    Education is bound to society, and different educational strategies rise from the society and culture in which people live. This book presents an international perspective on problems and challenges from early education through adult education and highlights teacher education from the point of view of individual cultures and from a cross-cultural…

  7. Perspective, May 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report presenting the recommendations made by Achieve to the Senate HELP (Health, Education, Labor and Pensions) Committee for the improvement of the college and career readiness of all students. This issue also reports: (1) 37…

  8. Perspectives for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    The operations of an institution can be viewed from three perspectives: (1) the "actual operating measurement" such as income and expenditures of a cost center at a point in time; (2) the "criterion" which reflects the established policy for a time period; and (3) the "efficiency level" wherein a balance between input and output is defined.…

  9. Perspective, April 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a report describing how the American Diploma Project (ADP) Network selected Delaware and Tennessee from among 16 finalists as the winners of the first phase of Race to the Top (RTTT) grants. This issue also reports that: (1) The National Governors…

  10. Perspectives on Organizational Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Daniel J.; Fuhrman, Joanne; Renter, Fred

    2002-01-01

    This article presents perspectives on the expansion of provider organizations with case studies of two Oregon organizations: Independent Environments, which supports approximately 20 people with an annual budget of $1 million and Partnerships in Community Living, which supports approximately 115 people with a budget of $10 million. (Contains…

  11. Perspectives on Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.

    This joint publication of the journals of the Literacy Assistance Center (LAC) and the National Even Start Association (NESA) focuses on innovative practices and theory in family literacy education, offers an array of perspectives to members of the literacy community, and critically examines some assumptions about literacy in general, as well as…

  12. Perspectives on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hank; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates several brief articles providing perspectives from the states, the 104th Congress, the Supreme Court, and the White House. Issues covered include the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and the White House attempts to reduce the federal workforce. Authors include Hank Brown, Rita G. Koman, James L. Martin, and Joseph R. Marbach. (MJP)

  13. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

  14. Perspective, June 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how the number of states that ensure the college and career readiness of their students has increased since Achieve first started tracking progress on the college- and career-ready policy agenda five years ago. This…

  15. Understanding the Parent's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Sally Smith's contribution to the world of children with learning disabilities is well documented, particularly by the other contributors to this journal. An area deserving attention, but one usually overlooked, is Smith's understanding of the parent's perspective--the challenges of parenting a child with learning disabilities. It was a priceless…

  16. Humanism: A Christian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasa, Harris; And Others

    As part of a four-college project to integrate the religious tradition with humanities teaching, humanism is discussed from a Christian perspective. Definitions of the terms humanism, religion, Christianity, and Christian humanism are provided. The latter is viewed as the issues surrounding the Christian approach to the dichotomy of good and evil…

  17. Teaching Information Skills: Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses "Information Literacy Standards" for school library media specialists that were included in the 1998 edition of "Information Power" and presents a lesson plan for middle school students on global warming that focuses on the standard addressing perspective, or point of view, and incorporates an information process model. (LRW)

  18. Medical Perspectives on Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchadourian, Herant A.

    1976-01-01

    Written for the layman, this article describes the concept of adulthood in human biology as observed from the perspective of the naturally unfolding human life cycle. Specific male and female physical characteristics are examined and psychiatric viewpoints on adulthood are presented. (DDB)

  19. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  20. International HRD Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on international perspectives on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Human Resource Development Practices in American and Chinese High-technology Companies in Taiwan" (Hsin-yi Chen), uses quantitative and qualitative data on HRD practices in high-technology companies in the…

  1. Perspective, December 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a feature on the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top (RTTT) competition, which gives states an unprecedented opportunity to build the tools to measure results; guide decision-making and investments; and provoke honest conversations about…

  2. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  3. Perspectives on protein crystallisation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochi, T.; Stojanoff, V.; Bolanos-Garcia, V.M.; Moreno, A.

    2009-12-11

    This final part on 'perspectives' is focused on new strategies that can be used to crystallise proteins and improve the crystal quality of macromolecular complexes using any of the methods reviewed in this focused issue. Some advantages and disadvantages, limitations, and plausible applications to high-resolution X-ray crystallography are discussed.

  4. Perspectives on Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litten, Larry H.

    1986-01-01

    The most provocative perspectives on pricing for colleges and universities have come from the introduction of marketing into higher education. A brief review of these developments is offered to serve as an orientation for the consideration of pricing issues per se. (Author/MLW)

  5. Perspectives. Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2008

    2008-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. This issue focuses on the following topics: (1) PEPNet FAQs on Web, in Print; (2) Some Speech-to-Text FAQs; (3) Speech-to-Text…

  6. Utilizing Foundational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundations, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue of "Educational Foundations" contains five articles that utilize an array of foundational perspectives that give reader insight into the organization of schools, the viewpoints of children and parents, the ideological and political nature of community organizing, and mathematics instruction in the Soviet Union. In "Cooperative…

  7. Perspectives. Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers' individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. PEPNet's mission is to improve transition services and educational access for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including those…

  8. Perspectives. Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. The issue focuses on the following topics: (1) Web Tool Locates Needed Resources; (2) Family Center on Technology and Disability (Ana…

  9. Hyperemesis gravidarum: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fergus P; Lutomski, Jennifer E; Greene, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a complex condition with a multifactorial etiology characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting. Despite a high prevalence, studies exploring underlying etiology and treatments are limited. We performed a literature review, focusing on articles published over the last 10 years, to examine current perspectives and recent developments in hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:25125986

  10. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    The combined use of both (1) low-flow purging and sampling and (2) trace-metal clean techniques provides more representative measurements of trace-element concentrations in groundwater than results derived with standard techniques. The use of low-flow purging and sampling provides relatively undisturbed groundwater samples that are more representative of in situ conditions, and the use of trace-element clean techniques limits the inadvertent introduction of contaminants during sampling, storage, and analysis. When these techniques are applied, resultant trace-element concentrations are likely to be markedly lower than results based on standard sampling techniques. In a comparison of data derived from contaminated and control groundwater wells at a site in California, USA, trace-element concentrations from this study were 2-1000 times lower than those determined by the conventional techniques used in sampling of the same wells prior to (5months) and subsequent to (1month) the collections for this study. Specifically, the cadmium and chromium concentrations derived using standard sampling techniques exceed the California Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), whereas in this investigation concentrations of both of those elements are substantially below their MCLs. Consequently, the combined use of low-flow and trace-metal clean techniques may preclude erroneous reports of trace-element contamination in groundwater. Résumé L'utilisation simultanée de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit et des techniques sans traces de métaux permet d'obtenir des mesures de concentrations en éléments en traces dans les eaux souterraines plus représentatives que les résultats fournis par les techniques classiques. L'utilisation de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit donne des échantillons d'eau souterraine relativement peu perturbés qui sont plus représentatifs des conditions in situ, et le recours aux techniques sans éléments en traces limite l

  11. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    The combined use of both (1) low-flow purging and sampling and (2) trace-metal clean techniques provides more representative measurements of trace-element concentrations in groundwater than results derived with standard techniques. The use of low-flow purging and sampling provides relatively undisturbed groundwater samples that are more representative of in situ conditions, and the use of trace-element clean techniques limits the inadvertent introduction of contaminants during sampling, storage, and analysis. When these techniques are applied, resultant trace-element concentrations are likely to be markedly lower than results based on standard sampling techniques. In a comparison of data derived from contaminated and control groundwater wells at a site in California, USA, trace-element concentrations from this study were 2-1000 times lower than those determined by the conventional techniques used in sampling of the same wells prior to (5months) and subsequent to (1month) the collections for this study. Specifically, the cadmium and chromium concentrations derived using standard sampling techniques exceed the California Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), whereas in this investigation concentrations of both of those elements are substantially below their MCLs. Consequently, the combined use of low-flow and trace-metal clean techniques may preclude erroneous reports of trace-element contamination in groundwater. Résumé L'utilisation simultanée de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit et des techniques sans traces de métaux permet d'obtenir des mesures de concentrations en éléments en traces dans les eaux souterraines plus représentatives que les résultats fournis par les techniques classiques. L'utilisation de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit donne des échantillons d'eau souterraine relativement peu perturbés qui sont plus représentatifs des conditions in situ, et le recours aux techniques sans éléments en traces limite l

  12. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J.; Poser, Benedikt A.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in‐plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal‐to‐noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross‐talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. Magn Reson Med 75:63–81, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Medicine in Resonance. PMID:26308571

  13. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J; Norris, David G; Poser, Benedikt A

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in-plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross-talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. PMID:26308571

  14. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River basins, southern Minnesota and northern Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.

    2000-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected sites on streams in the Des Moines River, Upper Des Moines River, and East Fork Des Moines River Basins, located in southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. Stream sites include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  15. Rôle des hyrates dans la formation de Titan et des satellites réguliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.

    2001-12-01

    Cette these est dediee a l'etude de l'origine de Titan et de son atmosphere. Dans l'hypothese ou la subnebuleuse de Saturne etait geometriquement mince, le modele de disque turbulent utilise, derive des travaux de Dubrulle (1993), est moins dense que le modele de Prinn et Fegley (1981). De ce fait, les conversions de Co en CH4 et de N2 en NH3 ont ete inhibees dans la subnebuleuse, contrairement a ce qui est couramment admis pour interpreter la presence du methane dans l'atmosphere de Titan. C'est pourquoi nous avons developpe un nouveau scenario de la formation de titan, qui tient compte simultanement des contraintes resultant de la chimie de la subnebuleuse et des abondances de CH4, N2 et CH3D mesurees dans l'atmosphere du satellite. Nous faisons l'hypothese que ces gaz proviennent initialement de la vaporisation du nuage presolaire, qui s'effondra et forma le Soleil et son disque environnant. Lors du refroidissement de la nebuleuse, les volatils auraient ete pieges sous formes de clathrates d'hydrates dans les grains, puis dans les planetesimaux qu'ils formerent. Les planetesimaux hydrates a l'origine de la formation de Titan seraient alors des rescapes de l'effondrement hydsrodynamique de la feeding zone de Saturne. Ce scenario a ete applique aux subnebuleuses de Jupiter et d'Uranus, et a apporte un certain nombre de contraintes sur la formation des satellites reguliers de ces planetes. Le temps et la zone de formation des grains cometaires ont egalement ete estimes dans la nebuleuse solaire. Enfin, l'etude experimentale de la temperature de fusion du dihydrate d'ammoniac dans la gamme des hautes pressions a apporte des nouvelles donnees thermodynamiques qui permettront d'ameliorer les modeles de l'interieur de Titan.

  16. Cases on Critical and Qualitative Perspectives in Online Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orleans, Myron, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Online education continues to permeate mainstream teaching techniques in higher education settings. Teaching upper-level classes in an online setting is having a major impact on education as a whole and is fundamentally altering global learning. "Cases on Critical and Qualitative Perspectives in Online Higher Education" offers a…

  17. Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

    This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

  18. Management of Cerebral Concussion in Sports: The Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliaro, Scott; Anderson, Scott; Hooker, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new approach in the evaluation and management of concussions from the athletic trainer's perspective. This quantifiable assessment technique provides more information on which return-to-play decisions can be made based on the athlete's symptoms and performance on objective tests. It can be used during initial sideline examinations as…

  19. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  20. The improvement of in vivo model (Balb/c mice) for cervical carcinogenesis using diethylstilbestrol (DES).

    PubMed

    Zulfahmi, Said; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Armania, Nurdin

    2013-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer and one of the major causes of female cancer-related death worldwide particularly in developing countries. Thus far, there are a few in vivo models have been developed in investigating this type of cancer. In this study, we induced cervical cancer in Balb/c mice by exploiting the carcinogenic property of diestylstilbestrol (DES). The Balb/c pregnant mice were given subcutaneous (SC) injection of 67μg/kg body weight of DES on GD 13, and the mice gave birth approximately at gestation day 19-22. Female offspring were reared and the body weight was recorded once weekly. The female offspring were sacrificed at age of 5 months. Upon termination, blood was collected in a plain tube via cardiac puncture and the reproductive tracts were collected and weighed. The reproductive tract sections were stained using H&E for observation of pathological changes. The progression of disease state was monitored by measuring the level of serum interleukin (IL-6) using the Mouse IL-6 ELISA Assay Kit (BD OptEIA™, USA). All parameters were compared with Not-induced group. The outcome of this study demonstrated a significant difference in body weight gain, reproductive organ weight, diameter of cervix and the level of serum IL-6 in the Induced group as compared to the Not-induced group (P<0.05). Histopathological findings revealed the presence of adenosis only in the Induced group. It shows that DES could be employed as an agent to induce cervical carcinogenesis in animal model. In addition to that, new potential anti-cancer agents from various sources could be further evaluated using this technique. PMID:23726752

  1. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-Stimulated Hormonal Toxicity is Mediated by ERα Alteration of Target Gene Methylation Patterns and Epigenetic Modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the Mouse Seminal Vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yin; Hamilton, Katherine J.; Lai, Anne Y.; Burns, Katherine A.; Li, Leping; Wade, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen associated with adverse effects on reproductive organs. DES-induced toxicity of the mouse seminal vesicle (SV) is mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα), which alters expression of seminal vesicle secretory protein IV (Svs4) and lactoferrin (Ltf) genes. Objectives: We examined a role for nuclear receptor activity in association with DNA methylation and altered gene expression. Methods: We used the neonatal DES exposure mouse model to examine DNA methylation patterns via bisulfite conversion sequencing in SVs of wild-type (WT) and ERα-knockout (αERKO) mice. Results: The DNA methylation status at four specific CpGs (–160, –237, –306, and –367) in the Svs4 gene promoter changed during mouse development from methylated to unmethylated, and DES prevented this change at 10 weeks of age in WT SV. At two specific CpGs (–449 and –459) of the Ltf gene promoter, DES altered the methylation status from methylated to unmethylated. Alterations in DNA methylation of Svs4 and Ltf were not observed in αERKO SVs, suggesting that changes of methylation status at these CpGs are ERα dependent. The methylation status was associated with the level of gene expression. In addition, gene expression of three epigenetic modifiers—DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2—increased in the SV of DES-exposed WT mice. Conclusion: DES-induced hormonal toxicity resulted from altered gene expression of Svs4 and Ltf associated with changes in DNA methylation that were mediated by ERα. Alterations in gene expression of DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2 in DES-exposed male mice may be involved in mediating the changes in methylation status in the SV. Citation: Li Y, Hamilton KJ, Lai AY, Burns KA, Li L, Wade PA, Korach KS. 2014. Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-stimulated hormonal toxicity is mediated by ERα alteration of target gene methylation patterns and epigenetic modifiers (DNMT3A, MBD2, and HDAC2) in the mouse seminal vesicle. Environ Health

  2. Caractérisation des convertisseurs matriciels : II. Synthèse des fonctions de connexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Cambronne, J. P.; Hautier, J. P.

    1996-05-01

    Knowing the wished conversion levels (-1,0,1) of a power converter, this paper describes a particular method for setting the corresponding states of switches into the matrix converter. In a first step, a mathematical analysis establishes the relations linking the states of switches with the conversion functions. Afterwards, the presented method gives the inverse relations which constitute the sequential part of the converter control. The turn-on and the turn-off sequences are designed by considering the on-line wished level conversions. This general method enhances the idea that a converter functionnality must be defined by its structure and its control. Cet article propose une méthode originale pour définir la séquence de commande d'un convertisseur à partir de la fonction de conversion globalement souhaitée. Les auteurs procèdent d'abord à une analyse mathématique précise des relations qui existent entre les états des interrupteurs et les fonctions de conversion obtenues. À partir de cette analyse, la méthode developpée permet d'établir systématiquement les relations inverses qui constituent alors le module séquentiel de la commande rapprochée du convertisseur. Les ordres d'ouverture et de fermeture des interrupteurs sont élaborés en considérant à tout instant les niveaux de conversion souhaités pour les grandeurs électriques. Cette méthode générale renforce l'idée que la fonction remplie par un convertisseur moderne doit être définie à la fois par sa structure et sa commande.

  3. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  4. De l'importance des orbites periodiques: Detection et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyon, Bernard

    L'ensemble des Orbites Periodiques Instables (OPIs) d'un systeme chaotique est intimement relie a ses proprietes dynamiques. A partir de l'ensemble (en principe infini) d'OPIs cachees dans l'espace des phases, on peut obtenir des quantites dynamiques importantes telles les exposants de Lyapunov, la mesure invariante, l'entropie topologique et la dimension fractale. En chaos quantique (i.e. l'etude de systemes quantiques qui ont un equivalent chaotique dans la limite classique), ces memes OPIs permettent de faire le pont entre le comportement classique et quantique de systemes non-integrables. La localisation de ces cycles fondamentaux est un probleme complexe. Cette these aborde dans un premier temps le probleme de la detection des OPIs dans les systemes chaotiques. Une etude comparative de deux algorithmes recents est presentee. Nous approfondissons ces deux methodes afin de les utiliser sur differents systemes dont des flots continus dissipatifs et conservatifs. Une analyse du taux de convergence des algorithmes est aussi realisee afin de degager les forces et les limites de ces schemes numeriques. Les methodes de detection que nous utilisons reposent sur une transformation particuliere de la dynamique initiale. Cette astuce nous a inspire une methode alternative pour cibler et stabiliser une orbite periodique quelconque dans un systeme chaotique. Le ciblage est en general combine aux methodes de controle pour stabiliser rapidement un cycle donne. En general, il faut connaitre la position et la stabilite du cycle en question. La nouvelle methode de ciblage que nous presentons ne demande pas de connaitre a priori la position et la stabilite des orbites periodiques. Elle pourrait etre un outil complementaire aux methodes de ciblage et de controle actuelles.

  5. Catalog Production for the DES Blind Cosmology Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, R. H.; Becker, M. R.; Erickson, B.; Evrard, A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Blind Cosmology Challenge (BCC) is an effort by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to test analysis tools for extracting cosmological information using a set of detailed synthetic galaxy catalogs. Here, we describe the creation of these synthetic sky catalogs based on requirements of the optical (DES) and the near-IR VISTA Hemisphere Survey, producing catalogs covering a quarter of the sky to z ˜ 2, with sources complete to r ˜ 25. Starting with a nested set of lightcone outputs of large, N-body simulation, galaxies are assigned to the dark matter distribution using an empirical algorithm that is tunable to match observed evolution of low-order galaxy population properties (counts and spatial clustering) in luminosity-color-density space. Galaxies are lensed by matter along the line of sight (including magnification, shape distortion, and multiple images), using a new algorithm that calculates shear with 3.22 arcsec resolution at galaxy positions in the full catalog. The catalog is well suited to support DES+VISTA joint studies of galaxy clustering, groups and clusters of galaxies, and gravitational lensing, and we highlight their application to the ongoing DES BBCC. Catalogs include ˜320 million galaxies and ˜150 million stars, with realistic colors, shapes and photometric errors. Using the expected DES photometric errors, three independent photometric redshift codes are run on the catalog, two of which produce full probability distributions. The synthetic observable catalog includes object position, magnitudes in the DES and VISTA bands, photometric errors, photometric redshifts, size, ellipticity, for each of ˜ 500 million objects. The galaxy distribution is additionally masked appropriately for the 5000 square degree DES footprint, including the impact of bright stars. In addition, we offer separate catalogs with magnitudes for additional existing and planned surveys, including SDSS, CFHTLS, HSC, LSST, and Euclid.

  6. Perspective: Computer simulations of long time dynamics.

    PubMed

    Elber, Ron

    2016-02-14

    Atomically detailed computer simulations of complex molecular events attracted the imagination of many researchers in the field as providing comprehensive information on chemical, biological, and physical processes. However, one of the greatest limitations of these simulations is of time scales. The physical time scales accessible to straightforward simulations are too short to address many interesting and important molecular events. In the last decade significant advances were made in different directions (theory, software, and hardware) that significantly expand the capabilities and accuracies of these techniques. This perspective describes and critically examines some of these advances. PMID:26874473

  7. Perspective: Computer simulations of long time dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Elber, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Atomically detailed computer simulations of complex molecular events attracted the imagination of many researchers in the field as providing comprehensive information on chemical, biological, and physical processes. However, one of the greatest limitations of these simulations is of time scales. The physical time scales accessible to straightforward simulations are too short to address many interesting and important molecular events. In the last decade significant advances were made in different directions (theory, software, and hardware) that significantly expand the capabilities and accuracies of these techniques. This perspective describes and critically examines some of these advances. PMID:26874473

  8. Le Francais des Professions Scientifiques et Techniques (French for the Scientific and Technical Professions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte

    Two sequential courses in scientific and technical French developed as a supplement to third- and fourth-year college French, in response to expressed student and industry demand, had as their objectives to develop a general familiarity with products of the large French industrial companies and their United States affiliates and to develop means…

  9. National Cancer Institute Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Rosemary S.L. . E-mail: rw26f@nih.gov; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2006-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Perspectives this year presented information on the systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) research projects: (1) being investigated at the NCI's Intramural Center for Cancer Research; (2) funded by NCI's Radiation Research Program and other extramural programs; and (3) the appropriate National Institutes of Health/NCI funding mechanisms applicable to researchers for obtaining funds for STaRT projects.

  10. Regles de fusion en theorie des champs conformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begin, Luc

    1999-10-01

    Les théories de champs conformes constituent un domaine de recherche très actif avec de nombreuses applications en physique statistique, en matière condensée, en théorie des cordes, en mathématiques, etc. Nous analysons ici le calcul des règles de fusion dans les modèles Wess- Zumino-Witten par des méthodes positives. Les règles de fusion sont des quantités importantes puisqu'elles indiquent comment se combinent les champs primaires de la théorie. L'approche présentée est basée sur l'hypothèse que les règles de fusion sont décrites par un système d'inéquations linéaire et homogène et mène au concept original de «base de fusion». Cette approche simple et générale permet d'utiliser les méthodes combinatoires et de programmation linéaire pour construire les fonctions génératrices et les bases de fusion. Cette méthode permet d'obtenir des résultats originaux et explicites pour les algèbres su (3), su (4) et sp (4).

  11. La place du traitement non opératoire des contusions abdominales dans les pays en voie de développement

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Khalid; Narjis, Youssef; Louzi, Abdelouahed; Benelkhaiat, Redouane; Finech, Benacer

    2015-01-01

    Le traitement non opératoire des contusions de l'abdomen représente une approche thérapeutique nouvelle des traumatismes fermés de l'abdomen. La disponibilité d'un plateau technique performant constitue classiquement une des principales conditions pour la réussite de cette attitude. Nous essayons d’étudier les différents aspects épidémiologiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette affection dans le contexte d'un pays en voie de développement, à travers les résultats d'une série de 106 malades. une série de 106 patients est prise en charge par le traitement non opératoire. La gravité des lésions est appréciée par les données cliniques et paracliniques, ainsi que la morbidité et la mortalité sont analysées. les accidents de la circulation étaient la première cause des contusions abdominales, dans notre contexte. Les lésions hépatiques étaient les plus fréquentes (65% des cas), suivit des lésions spléniques chez 19 patients. La notion de polytraumatisme était très fréquente. La durée moyenne de surveillance était de 9,5 jours. Seize malades étaient transfusés, et le nombre moyen de culots globulaires (CG) était de 3,5 culots par patient. Une laparotomie en urgence était indiquée chez 10 patients (9.4%) devant l'instabilité hémodynamique. Trois malades ont nécessité un traitement chirurgical secondaire. On avait noté un taux de mortalité de 3.7% soit 4 cas. il semble à partir de notre expérience que l'abstention chirurgicale peut constituer, dans des conditions strictes de surveillance, une alternative thérapeutique de référence dans les pays en voie de développement, sûre et justifiée à une chirurgie d'urgence toujours difficile. PMID:26097636

  12. Rupture bilatérale des tendons rotuliens chez un sujet jeune sans notion de maladies systémiques ou de traitement par les corticostéroïdes: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Chagou, Aniss; Rhanim, Abdelkarim; Berrady, Mohammed Ali; Lamrani, Moulay Omar; Oudghiri, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les lésions du tendon rotulien sont moins communes que celles du tendon quadricipital. Les lésions bilatérales sont encore plus rares et sont souvent associées à une notion de tendinopathie, d'injection de corticoïdes ou de maladies systémiques tels que le lupus érythémateux, l'ostéomalacie ou l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 26 ans victime d'une rupture bilatérale du tendon rotulien suite à une réception de saut. Le patient n'avait pas d'antécédents de tendinopathie ni de maladies systémiques. Le diagnostic a été suspecté devant une position anormalement haute des deux rotules avec une impossibilité d'extension active des deux jambes. L’échographie a confirmé le diagnostic. Le patient a été traité par la technique de laçage selon Judet protégée par un cadrage. La rupture bilatérale du tendon rotulien est rare. La plupart des patients rapportent une notion de maladie systémique ou un antécédents de chirurgie du genou. Nous rapportons le cas d'une lésion rare dans la littérature, une rupture bilatérale des tendons rotuliens sans notions de maladies auto-immunes ni de traitement avec des corticostéroïdes. Les lésions bilatérales présentent certaines particularités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques. En effet l'objectivation d'une rotule haute peut être rendu difficile par un aspect controlatéral semblable. Concernant le volet thérapeutique, deux difficultés sont à noter la première réside dans l'absence de référence comparative pour la hauteur patellaire. La deuxième difficulté est l'obligation de différer l'appui à 45 jours. Ce qui est contraignant pour le patient. La technique de laçage décrite par judet couplée à un cadrage provisoire protégeant la suture nous a donné des résultats satisfaisants. PMID:25667711

  13. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Syahir, Amir; Usui, Kenji; Tomizaki, Kin-ya; Kajikawa, Kotaro; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano-biological events.

  14. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  15. Teaching Avalanche Safety Courses: Instructional Techniques and Field Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Ron

    This paper discusses course structure, teaching techniques, and field exercises for enhancing winter travelers' avalanche knowledge and skills. In two class sessions, the course typically consists of a historical perspective; a section on snow physics (clouds, types of snow crystals, effects of riming, identification of precipitated snow crystals,…

  16. Problemes en enseignement fonctionnel des langues (Problems in the Functional Teaching of Languages). Publication B-103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Gerardo, Ed.; Huot, Diane, Ed.

    Articles include: (1) "L'elaboration du materiel pedagogique pour des publics adultes" (The Elaboration of Teaching Materials for the Adult Public) by G. Painchaud-Leblanc, (2) "L'elaboration d'un programme d'etudes en francais langue seconde a partir des donnees recentes en didactique des langues" (The Elaboration of a Program of Study in French…

  17. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part. PMID:26827551

  18. The architect's perspective on the tour and map perspective.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Athina

    2015-09-01

    Literature in linguistics suggests that when people are asked to provide an oral spatial description, they usually provide a body-centered narrative; they adopt a Tour Perspective, that is, an imaginary tour of the space rather than a Map Perspective, that is, a description focused on spatial relations as seen from above (Linde and Labov in Language 51(1):924-939, 1975; Howald in Discursive constraints on space in narrative: evidence from guilty plea discourse, eVox 3, 2009). I conducted a pilot experiment to address the following questions: Does the formal knowledge of architects--their familiarity with plan drawings and maps--override the tendency to adopt the tour perspective? Does the tour perspective depend on the actual experience of space? Twenty-two graduate students in architecture were asked to respond to the following questions: (1) "Can you describe the layout of your apartment?" (2) "Can you describe the layout of an ideal apartment?" In the responses to the first question most participants used the tour perspective. In the responses to the second question most participants used the map perspective. The results provide evidence that architects' formal knowledge does not override the preference of the tour perspective in descriptions of experienced space. Moreover, that the tour perspective is associated with the actual experience of space. PMID:26216760

  19. Spectroscopic confirmation of DES12S2a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Marshall, J.; Suntzeff, N.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gilhool, S.; Gladney, L.; Gupta, R.; Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Campbell, H.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; March, M.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2013-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova (SN) candidate discovered by the Dark Energy Supernova Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (450-1000 nm) of DES12S2a was obtained with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (+Marcario Low-Resolution Spectrograph) by J. Caldwell. The spectrum shows a blue continuum with a narrow H-alpha emission feature atop a broader component indicative of a type IIn SN. The phase at the date of the spectrum given below is based on the DES light curves.

  20. La greffe de peau totale dans le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main et des doigts: A propos de 84 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boukind, S.; Droussi, H.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Dhaidah, O.; Ejjiyar, M.; Quaboul, M.; Dehhaze, A.; Fkhar, S.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective s’étendant de septembre 2004 à septembre 2012 sur les données de à propos de 84 patients présentant des séquelles de brûlure majeures de la main. Ces patients étaient traités chirurgicalement par une greffe de peau totale. Le but de cette étude est, donc, d’insister sur la simplicité de cette technique et surtout son efficacité et sa fiabilité. L’âge moyen de la survenue de la brûlure était de 4 ans. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 18,3 ans (2-62 ans), avec prédominance masculine dans 60% des cas. L’agent causal le plus fréquent était un agent thermique - le plus souvent un liquide chaud (56%). Le délai moyen entre la fin de la cicatrisation et la prise en charge des séquelles était de 36 mois (2 mois - 16 ans). Dans 69 cas (82.5%), les lésions étaient localisées au niveau de la face palmaire de la main. Les séquelles ont été dominées par les rétractions digitales (65%) dont le déficit fonctionnel est évident. Une greffe de peau totale a été réalisée chez tous nos patients après libération des brides et excision des placards cicatriciels. Les rétractions commissurales ont été traitées par des plasties en Z. Dans 95% des cas, le prélèvement de peau totale était réalisé au niveau du pli inguinal. Le recul moyen était de 5,5 ans (1-8 ans). 11 patients ont été perdus de vu. Les résultats après cicatrisation complète et rééducation ont été jugés satisfaisants (bons) dans 62 cas (85%), et assez bons dans 11 cas (15%). Un traitement initial bien conduit et effectué dans les meilleures conditions permet non seulement de réduire le nombre de séquelles des brûlures mais encore de les rendre moins sévères. PMID:26336368

  1. Comparison des donnees simulees des capteurs de SPOT et landsat-D: Application a une region agricole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint, Gilbert; Podaire, Alain

    La modélisation de la luminance spectrale des objets observés en télédétection permet d'effectuer des simulations de différents capteurs à partir de données obtenues au moyen d'un scanneur DAEDALUS aéroporté : les qualités radiométrique et géométrique ont pu être évaluées par une comparaison avec des données Landsat réelles. L'analyse sur une zone agricole met surtout en évidence le rôle important de l'accroissement de la résolution.

  2. Analyse des facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires : à propos de 500 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Les nodules thyroïdiens sont très fréquents et moins de 10% d'entre eux sont malin. Ils posent un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique surtout par rapport à leur nature bénigne ou maligne. L’étude de certains facteurs cliniques et paracliniques de présomption de malignité permet de bien codifier la stratégie thérapeutique. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier les facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires et comparer nos résultats à ceux de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective à propos de 500 cas de goitres nodulaires opérés au service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie (ORL) et Chirurgie cervico-faciale (CCF) de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech entre 2006 et 2012. Le pourcentage de cancers a été de 6,8%. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 46 ans, avec une sex-ratio de 5 (F/H). A la palpation cervicale; le caractère dure du nodule a été constaté dans 94,4% des cas de cancer, avec des limites irrégulières dans 64,70% des cas de cancer. Trois nodules étaient fixes et ils étaient tous malins. Les adénopathies cervicales ont été constatées chez 8 malades dont 7 présentaient des cancers. A l’échographie, 61,8% des nodules malins présentaient un aspect hypoéchogène, avec des contours flous dans 88,24% des cas. La vascularisation intra nodulaire était présente dans 35,3% de ces cas des cancers avec des microcalcifications chez 55,9% d'entre eux. Le halo hypoéchogene périnodulaire était incomplet dans 73,5% des cas de cancer. Nos patients étaient en euthyroïdie dans 84,6% des cas. Les facteurs prédictifs de malignité d'un goitre nodulaire, étaient donc dans notre étude d'abord cliniques: l’âge supérieur à 60 ans, la consistance dure du nodule, sa fixité, son caractère irrégulier et mal limité à la palpation, ainsi que la présence d'adénopathie(s) cervicale(s) à l'examen; et échographiques: le caractère hypoéchogène, les limites floues, la présence de

  3. A RANS/DES Numerical Procedure for Axisymmetric Flows with and without Strong Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, A J

    2007-10-30

    A RANS/DES numerical procedure with an extended Lax-Wendroff control-volume scheme and turbulence model is described for the accurate simulation of internal/external axisymmetric flow with and without strong rotation. This new procedure is an extension, from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates, of (1) a second order accurate multi-grid, control-volume integration scheme, and (2) a k-{omega} turbulence model. This paper outlines both the axisymmetric corrections to the mentioned numerical schemes and the developments of techniques pertaining to numerical dissipation, multi-block connectivity, parallelization, etc. Furthermore, analytical and experimental case studies are presented to demonstrate accuracy and computational efficiency. Notes are also made toward numerical stability of highly rotational flows.

  4. Violation of the des Cloizeaux relation for self-avoiding walks on Sierpinski square lattices.

    PubMed

    Marini, Francesco; Ordemann, Anke; Porto, Markus; Roman, H Eduardo

    2006-11-01

    The statistics of self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on deterministic fractal structures with infinite ramification, modeled by Sierpinski square lattices, is revisited in two and three dimensions using the reptation algorithm. The probability distribution function of the end-to-end distance of SAWs, consisting of up to 400 steps, is obtained and its scaling behavior at small distances is studied. The resulting scaling exponents are confronted with previous calculations for much shorter linear chains (20 to 30 steps) based on the exact enumeration (EE) technique. The present results coincide with the EE values in two dimensions, but differ slightly in three dimensions. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is discussed. Despite this, the violation of the so-called des Cloizeaux relation, a renormalization result that holds on regular lattices and on deterministic fractal structures with finite ramification, is confirmed numerically. PMID:17279872

  5. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  6. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  7. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  8. Perspective: relativistic effects.

    PubMed

    Autschbach, Jochen

    2012-04-21

    This perspective article discusses some broadly-known and some less broadly-known consequences of Einstein's special relativity in quantum chemistry, and provides a brief outline of the theoretical methods currently in use, along with a discussion of recent developments and selected applications. The treatment of the electron correlation problem in relativistic quantum chemistry methods, and expanding the reach of the available relativistic methods to calculate all kinds of energy derivative properties, in particular spectroscopic and magnetic properties, requires on-going efforts. PMID:22519307

  9. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  10. Perspective: Nonadiabatic dynamics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, John C.

    2012-12-01

    Nonadiabatic dynamics—nuclear motion evolving on multiple potential energy surfaces—has captivated the interest of chemists for decades. Exciting advances in experimentation and theory have combined to greatly enhance our understanding of the rates and pathways of nonadiabatic chemical transformations. Nevertheless, there is a growing urgency for further development of theories that are practical and yet capable of reliable predictions, driven by fields such as solar energy, interstellar and atmospheric chemistry, photochemistry, vision, single molecule electronics, radiation damage, and many more. This Perspective examines the most significant theoretical and computational obstacles to achieving this goal, and suggests some possible strategies that may prove fruitful.

  11. Transport de paires EPR dans des structures mesoscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Emilie

    Dans cette these, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses a la propagation de paires EPR1 delocalisees et localisees, et a l'influence d'un supraconducteur sur le transport de ces paires. Apres une introduction de cette etude, ainsi que du cadre scientifique qu'est l'informatique quantique dans lequel elle s'inscrit, nous allons dans le chapitre 1 faire un rappel sur le systeme constitue de deux points quantiques normaux entoures de deux fils supraconducteurs. Cela nous permettra d'introduire une methode de calcul qui sera reutilisee par la suite, et de trouver egalement le courant Josephson produit par ce systeme transforme en SQUID-dc par l'ajout d'une jonction auxiliaire. Le SQUID permet de mesurer l'etat de spin (singulet ou triplet), et peut etre forme a partir d'autres systemes que nous etudierons ensuite. Dans le chapitre 2, nous rappellerons l'etude detaillee d'un intricateur d'Andreev faite par un groupe de Bale. La matrice T, permettant d'obtenir le courant dans les cas ou les electrons sont separes spatialement ou non, sera etudiee en detail afin d'en faire usage au chapitre suivant. Le chapitre 3 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence du bruit sur le fonctionnement de l'intricateur d'Andreev. Ce bruit modifie la forme du courant jusqu'a aboutir a d'autres conditions de fonctionnement de l'intricateur. En effet, le bruit present sur les points quantiques peut perturber le transport des paires EPR par l'intermediaire des degres de liberte. Nous montrerons que, du fait de l'"intrication" entre la charge de la paire et le bruit, la paire est detruite pour des temps longs. Cependant, le resultat le plus important sera que le bruit perturbe plus le transport des paires delocalisees, qui implique une resonance de Breit-Wigner a deux particules. Le transport parasite n'implique pour sa part qu'une resonance de Breit-Wigner a une particule. Dans le chapitre 4, nous reviendrons au systeme constitue de deux points quantiques entoures de deux fils

  12. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  13. Teaching with a Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Percy

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of teaching from a global perspective far outweigh the disadvantages. Teaching from a global perspective provides the employer with global workers. Such teaching produces students who possess the knowledge of languages, culture, social systems, dress, religion, and cultural norms, as well as skills for employment in the global…

  14. Learning Disabilities: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollinger, Ruth H., Ed.; Klein, Nancy K., Ed.

    Presented are six papers originally delivered at a colloquium series on the problems of the learning disabled child, with emphasis on a multidisciplinary perspective. In "One Psychologist's Perspective on Learning Disabilities," J. Kessler provides an overview of the field with sections on definition and identification, etiology, testing as a…

  15. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New Beginnings" (Michael Collins);…

  16. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  17. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  18. Opération multimode transverse des OPOs: des structures classiques aux corrélations quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, M.; Ducci, S.; Gigan, S.; Treps, N.; Maître, A.; Fabre, C.

    2002-06-01

    Nous démontrons la formation de structures transverses sur les faisceaux émis par un oscillateur paramétrique optique (OPO) de type II en configuration confocale. D'un point de vue classique nous mettons en évidence le caractère multimode transverse de telles structures. A travers l'étude des corrélations spatiales des faisceaux générés nous montrons que ces structures sont également multimodes d'un point de vue quantique.

  19. Apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la dilatation des sténoses caustiques de l’œsophage

    PubMed Central

    Seydou, Togo; Abdoulaye, Ouattara Moussa; xing, Li; Zi, Sanogo Zimogo; sekou, Koumaré; Wen, Yang Shang; Ibrahim, Sankare; Sekou, Toure Cheik Ahmed; Boubacar, Maiga Ibrahim; Saye, Jacque; Jerome, Dakouo Dodino; Dantoumé, Toure Ousmane; Sadio, Yena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Toutes les sténoses symptomatiques de l’œsophage peuvent être dilatées par voie endoscopique. Nous évaluons l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la prise en charge de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique de l’œsophage (SCO) au Mali. Méthodes IL s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et prospective réalisée dans le service de chirurgie thoracique à l'hôpital du Mali. Au total 46 dossiers cliniques de patients on été enregistrés et subdivisés en 4 groupes en fonction de la topographie des lésions cicatricielles. Le nombre de cas d'assistance endoscopique réalisé a été déterminé afin de comprendre l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans le succès de la dilatation des SCO. Pour les 2 différentes méthodes de dilatation utilisées, le résultat du traitement et le coût ont comparés. Résultats La FOGD a été utilisée dans 19 cas (41.30%) de dilatation avec la bougie de Savary Guillard et dans 47.82% des cas dans la dilatation de Lerut. La vidéo-laryngoscopie a été utilisé 58.69% des cas de dilatation à la bougie de Lerut. Le passage de guide métallique et / ou de fil-guide a été réalisée dans 39.13% avec la vidéo laryngoscopie et dans 58.68% avec la FOGD. Dans la comparaison des deux méthodes, il existe une différence significative dans la survenue des complications (p=0.04075), l'anesthésie générale (p=0.02287), l'accessibilité à la méthode (p=0.04805) et la mortalité (p=0.00402). Conclusion La SCO est une pathologie grave et sous évaluée au Mali. Les moyens endoscopiques contribuent considérablement au succès de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique dans les différentes méthodes utilisées. PMID:27200129

  20. Régimes transitoires des photopiles: durée de vie des porteurs et vitesse de recombinaison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialhe, P.; Sissoko, G.; Pelanchon, F.; Salagnon, J. M.

    1992-12-01

    A detailed analysis of a new experimental practice of the open circuit voltage decay method and of the short circuit current decay method for determining the base minority carrier lifetime and the back surface recombination velocity in solar cells has been performed. The measurements have been made by using the monitoring of a single transient of an operating cell at any level of injection; no power supply is required and a constant illumination level imposes the carrier injection level for normal operating conditions. The theory considers the complete continuity equation including generation and recombination rates of carriers. Precision and sensitivity of the method have been compared. The necessity of a precise knowledge of cell structural parameters have been shown to impose a limitation of the practical use of short-circuit current decay method, to low illumination levels. Cette étude développe une nouvelle méthode expérimentale pour mesurer la durée de vie des porteurs minoritaires dans la base d'une photopile ainsi que la vitesse de recombinaison à son interface arrière. Au cours de la mesure, la photopile est maintenue sous un éclairement constant qui impose le niveau d'injection souhaité. Cette méthode permet d'éliminer les effets néfastes à la mesure, provenant des impédances, propres au composant. Un régime transitoire, provoqué par une variation d'impédance, est étudié au cours de fonctionnements dans des conditions de court-circuit ou de circuit ouvert. L'étude théorique souligne la prise en compte de l'ensemble des phénomènes de recombinaison. L'obtention d'une bonne précision des mesures nécessite, avec une expérimentation rigoureuse, une connaissance précise des paramètres de structure de la photopile étudié. Pour la mesure de la durée de vie des porteurs, la plus grande sensibilité de la méthode en régime transitoire de court-circuit, comparée au régime de circuit ouvert, impose des mesures sous faible

  1. Remembering from any angle: The flexibility of visual perspective during retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Heather J.; Rubin, David C.

    2010-01-01

    When recalling autobiographical memories, individuals often experience visual images associated with the event. These images can be constructed from two different perspectives: first person, in which the event is visualized from the viewpoint experienced at encoding, or third person, in which the event is visualized from an external vantage point. Using a novel technique to measure visual perspective, we examined where the external vantage point is situated in third-person images. Individuals in two studies were asked to recall either 10 or 15 events from their lives and describe the perspectives they experienced. Wide variation in spatial locations was observed within third-person perspectives, with the location of these perspectives depending on the event being recalled. Results suggest remembering from an external viewpoint may be more common than previous studies have demonstrated. PMID:21109466

  2. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  3. Image processing technique for arbitrary image positioning in holographic stereogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Der-Kuan; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Honda, Toshio; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    1990-12-01

    In a one-step holographic stereogram, if the series of original images are used just as they are taken from perspective views, three-dimensional images are usually reconstructed in back of the hologram plane. In order to enhance the sense of perspective of the reconstructed images and minimize blur of the interesting portions, we introduce an image processing technique for making a one-step flat format holographic stereogram in which three-dimensional images can be observed at an arbitrary specified position. Experimental results show the effect of the image processing. Further, we show results of a medical application using this image processing.

  4. Perspectives on Agile Coaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Steven; Lundh, Erik; Davies, Rachel; Eckstein, Jutta; Larsen, Diana; Vilkki, Kati

    There are many perspectives to agile coaching including: growing coaching expertise, selecting the appropriate coach for your context; and eva luating value. A coach is often an itinerant who may observe, mentor, negotiate, influence, lead, and/or architect everything from team organization to system architecture. With roots in diverse fields ranging from technology to sociology coaches have differing motivations and experience bases. This panel will bring together coaches to debate and discuss various perspectives on agile coaching. Some of the questions to be addressed will include: What are the skills required for effective coaching? What should be the expectations for teams or individu als being coached? Should coaches be: a corporate resource (internal team of consultants working with multiple internal teams); an integral part of a specific team; or external contractors? How should coaches exercise influence and au thority? How should management assess the value of a coaching engagement? Do you have what it takes to be a coach? - This panel will bring together sea soned agile coaches to offer their experience and advice on how to be the best you can be!

  5. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard; Sharp, Rob; Lidman, C.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ≥500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrain the radius-luminosity (R-L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ˜35-45 per cent of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ˜1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R-L relationship parameters for H β, Mg II λ2798, and C IV λ1549. Extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R-L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.

  6. The Des Moines Plan: A Plan for Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelda, Sharon; Wagner, Mary

    The Des Moines Plan (DMP) is described, which is a comprehensive kindergarten through grade 12 program designed to improve and strengthen students' reading, writing, and mathematics skills. The program was implemented during the fall semester of the 1986-87 school year. The DMP adopted the instructional model implemented by the Chapter 1 program…

  7. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  8. Die Gasultrazentrifuge als mediale Projektion des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbold, Bernd

    Studien der letzten Dekaden nach der Wiedervereinigung von BRD und DDR erweitern die Perspektive der Wissenschaftsgeschichte vom Fokus des Big Science und der technisch-militärisch-industriellen Auseinandersetzung zwischen den zwei Blöcken zu einer globalen Transformation im Konflikt der Supermächte geprägt durch lokale und auch interne Ausformungen.

  9. Mechanistic Enzymology of the Radical SAM Enzyme DesII

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    DesII is a member of the radical SAM family of enzymes that catalyzes radical-mediated transformations of TDP-4-amino-4,6-didexoy-D-glucose as well as other sugar nucleotide diphosphates. Like nearly all radical SAM enzymes, the reactions begin with the reductive homolysis of SAM to produce a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical which is followed by regiospecific hydrogen atom abstraction from the substrate. What happens next, however, depends on the nature of the substrate radical so produced. In the case of the biosynthetically relevant substrate, a radical-mediated deamination ensues; however, when this amino group is replaced with a hydroxyl, one instead observes dehydrogenation. The factors that govern the fate of the initially generated substrate radical as well as the mechanistic details underlying these transformations have been a key focus of research into the chemistry of DesII. This review will discuss recent discoveries pertaining to the enzymology of DesII, how it may relate to understanding other radical-mediated lyases and dehydrogenases and the working hypotheses currently being investigated regarding the mechanism of DesII catalysis.

  10. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; Banerji, Manda; McMahon, Richard; Sharp, Rob; Lidman, C.

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrain the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.

  11. 75 FR 63714 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Des Allemands Bayou, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway swing bridge across Des Allemands Bayou, mile 14.0, in St. Charles and Lafourche Parishes, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to perform extensive rehabilitation to the bridge. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to navigation completely from January 18,...

  12. L'Infection Nosocomiale en Reanimation des Brules

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Belefqih, R.; Elouennass, M.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ihrai, I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary L'infection nosocomiale bactérienne étant l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité chez le brûlé, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 84 patients hospitalisés au sein du service de réanimation des brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat, sur une période de 3 ans, du premier janvier 2001 au 31 décembre 2003. Les critères d'infection nosocomiale étaient ceux du Center for Disease Control d'Atlanta de 1988. Les taux d'incidence ont été calculés. La population infectée a été comparée à celle non infectée. L'écologie bactérienne du service a été décrite comme aussi l'antibiotype. Il ressort de cette étude la survenue de 87 infections nosocomiales chez 27 patients. L'incidence cumulative était de 103 infections pour 1000 jours de traitement. Pour ce qui est des caractéristiques des infections bactériennes, les sites infectés étaient la peau (77%), le sang (13,8%), les voies urinaires (8%) et les poumons (1,1%). Les principaux germes étaient: Staphylococcus sp. (33,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Enterococcus faecalis et Acinetobacter (8%). Les staphylocoques étaient méticillo-résistants dans 22,2% des cas. Le Pseudomonas et l'Acinetobacter étaient multirésistants (60%). Dans notre étude les facteurs prédictifs de survenue des infections nosocomiales que nous avons retenus après l'étude comparative des populations infectées et non infectées ont été l'âge, le body mass index, l'abbreviated burn severity index et le remplissage initial. En isolant ces paramètres, nous avons pu établir une équation à valeur prédictive de survenue d'infection nosocomiale chez le patient brûlé. PMID:21991158

  13. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  14. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  15. Radio-chimiothérapie adjuvante des adénocarcinomes gastriques: à propos de 34 cas et d'une revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    James, Laurianne; Dossou, Sepos; Bellfiq, Sarah; Irigo, Joëlle; Ogandaga, Etienne; Mouden, Karima; Loughmari, Saïda; Filali, Dounia; El Majjaoui, Sanaa; Kebdani, Tayeb; Ahid, Samir; Benjafaar, Nourredine

    2014-01-01

    Notre étude consistera en l’évaluation du pronostic des patients porteurs d'un adénocarcinome gastrique opérés et traités par radio-chimiothérapie adjuvante en technique conformationnelle. Entre Janvier 2007 et Décembre 2011, 34 patients ont reçu après une chirurgie radicale (R0 ou R1), un à trois cycles de 5-Fluoro-uracile associé à de l'Elvorine en adjuvant, suivi d'une radio-chimiothérapie selon le même protocole à la dose de 45Gy, puis de deux cycles de chimiothérapie à un mois d'intervalle après la radio-chimiothérapie concomitante. Dans le groupe d’étude, il y avait 34 patients d’âge médian 50 ans (47-58), avec un sexe ratio (H/F) de 2,4. Une chirurgie de type R1 a été réalisée dans 26,5% des cas, et 53% des patients étaient de stade III-IV. Le rapport nombres de ganglions positifs, sur nombre de ganglions prélevés étaient > 0,4 dans 26,5% des cas. Durant le traitement mené à terme, une neutropénie de grade III a été observée chez quatre patients, avec des troubles digestifs (nausées, vomissement, ou diarrhée) de grade I/II dans la majorité des cas. Après un suivi médian de 20 mois, 70,6% des patients étaient en survie sans rechute, et 29,4% ont présenté une récidive métastatique; la survie globale à 5 ans était de 35,4% et la survie sans progression de 58,7%. La radio-chimiothérapie concomitante postopératoire pourrait être un régime efficace et sûre chez les patients ayant bénéficié d'une gastrectomie à visée curative dans le cancer de l'estomac localement avancé. PMID:25709728

  16. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  17. The radiocarbon hydroxyl technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Malcolm J.; Sheppard, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiocarbon Technique depends upon measuring the rate of oxidation of CO in an essentially unperturbed sample of air. The airborne technique is slightly different. Hydroxyl concentrations can be calculated directly; peroxyl concentrations can be obtained by NO doping.

  18. Seals and Sealing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Developments by the aerospace industry in seals and sealing techniques are announced for possible use in other areas. The announcements presented are grouped as: sealing techniques for cryogenic fluids, high pressure applications, and modification for improved performance.

  19. Interprétation cohérente du coefficient de Poisson négatif rapporté dans des multicouches métalliques : rôle du paramètre libre de contrainte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, K. F.; Goudeau, Ph.; Durand, N.

    1998-04-01

    Elastic properties of multilayers with low period thickness show in some cases anomalies which are generally correlated with structural modifications in individual layers. In the recent past, several studies have evidenced using X-ray diffraction in-plane and out-of-plane strains with the same sign. Some authors have then proposed in the case of W/Ni and Nb/Cu metallic superlattices to use a negative Poisson's ratio. This result is surprising because the value of this coefficient in metals is generally positive. In this article, we introduce a novel interpretation mainly based on the experimental determination by sin^2Psi method of the reference parameter (stress-free lattice parameter) used in strain calculations. Then, we show that the introduction of the bulk parameter instead of stress-free parameter for the reference parameter is an unrealistic assumption in the case of thin films and multilayers (W and Ag/Ni) and may thus lead to wrong results which are then in total disagreement with those obtained by other techniques. Therefore, the elastic anomaly concerning Poisson's ratio which has been reported by some authors in scientific literature do not result from real structure of multilayers but from experimental X-ray diffraction data analysis. Les propriétés élastiques dans certains systèmes multicouches de faible période présentent des anomalies qui sont généralement associées à des modifications des propriétés structurales de chacune des couches. Ainsi, plusieurs études ont mis en évidence par diffraction des rayons X des déformations de même signe dans le plan et selon la normale au plan des couches déposées. Certains auteurs ont alors proposé dans le cas de systèmes métalliques W/Ni et Nb/Cu l'utilisation d'un coefficient de Poisson négatif. Ce résultat est surprenant car la valeur de ce coefficient pour les métaux est généralement positive. Dans cet article, nous présentons une nouvelle interprétation reposant sur la d

  20. Relation entre les caractéristiques des table-bancs et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Benin

    PubMed Central

    Falola, Stève Marjelin; Gouthon, Polycarpe; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fiogbe, Michel Armand; Nigan, Issiako Bio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le mobilier scolaire et la posture assise en classe sont souvent impliqués dans l'apparition des douleurs rachidiennes, influant de fait sur la qualité des tâches réalisées par les apprenants. Aucune étude n'a encore vérifié le degré d'adéquation entre les caractéristiques du mobilier et celles des écoliers au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude transversale est donc de déterminer la relation entre les dimensions des table-bancs utilisées en classe et les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers au Bénin. Methods Elle a été réalisée avec un échantillon probabiliste de 678 écoliers, âgés de 4 à 17 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques des écoliers et les mensurations relatives aux longueurs, largeurs et hauteurs des table-bancs ont été mesurées, puis intégrées aux équations proposées dans la littérature. Les pourcentages des valeurs situées hors des limitesacceptables, dérivées de l'application des équations ont été calculés. Results La largeur et la hauteur des table-bancs utilisées par les écoliers étaient plus élevées (p < 0,05) que les valeurs de référence recommandées par les structures officielles de contrôle et de production des mobiliers scolaires au Bénin. Quel que soit le sexe, il y avait une inadéquation entre la largeur du banc et la longueur fesse-poplité, puis entre la hauteur de la table et la distance coude-bancdes écoliers. Conclusion Les résultats suggèrent de prendre en compte l’évolution des mesures anthropométriques des écoliers dans la confection des table-bancs, afin de promouvoir de bonnes postures assises en classe et de réduire le risque de troubles du rachis. PMID:25317232

  1. Optimisation des proprietes fonctionnelles des alliages a memoire de forme suite a l'application de traitements thermomecaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Vincent

    L'objectif de ce projet est de determiner les conditions de laminage et la temperature de traitement thermique maximisant les proprietes fonctionnelles de l'alliage a memoire de forme Ti-Ni. Les specimens sont caracterises par des mesures de calorimetrie, de microscopie optique, de gene ration de contrainte, de deformation recuperable et des essais mecaniques. Pour un cycle unique, l'utilisation d'un taux d'ecrouissage e=1.5 obtenu avec l'application d'une force de tension FT = 0.1sigma y et d'une huile minerale resulte en un echantillon droit, sans microfissure et qui apres un recuit a 400°C, produit un materiau nanostructure manifestant des proprietes fonctionnelles deux fois plus grandes que le meme materiau ayant une structure polygonisee. Pour des cycles repetes, les memes conditions de laminage sont valables mais le niveau de deformation optimal est situe entre e=0.75-2, et depend particulierement du mode de sollicitation, du niveau de stabilisation et du nombre de cycles a la rupture requis par l'application.

  2. Bright perspectives for nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.

    2014-05-01

    With the advent of new high-power, short-pulse laser facilities in combination with novel technologies for the production of highly brilliant, intense γ beams (like, e.g., Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Bucharest, MEGaRay in Livermore or a planned upgrade of the HIγS facility at Duke University), unprecedented perspectives will open up in the coming years for photonuclear physics both in basic sciences as in various fields of applications. Ultra-high sensitivity will be enabled by an envisaged increase of the γ-beam spectral density from the presently typical 102γ/eVs to about 104γ/eVs, thus enabling a new quality of nuclear photonics [1], assisted by new γ-optical elements [2]. Photonuclear reactions with highly brilliant γ beams will allow to produce radioisotopes for nuclear medicine with much higher specific activity and/or more economically than with conventional methods. This will open the door for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes [3]. The isotopic, state-selective sensitivity of the well-established technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) will be boosted by the drastically reduced energy bandwidth (<0.1%) of the novel γ beams. Together with a much higher intensity of these beams, this will pave the road towards a γ-beam based non-invasive tomography and microscopy, assisting the management of nuclear materials, such as radioactive waste management, the detection of nuclear fissile material in the recycling process or the detection of clandestine fissile materials. Moreover, also secondary sources like low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beams of high intensity and high brilliance [4] or a new type of positron source with significantly increased brilliance, for the first time fully polarized [5], can be realized and lead to new applications in solid state physics or material sciences.

  3. Recent Perspectives in Geoheritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, Cécile; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage is developing at all scales from small local sites, regional and national initiatives, to global Geoparks and to UNESCO World Heritage sites. It is increasingly appreciated that the more people understand geosciences and Earth systems processes, the better we as scientists are able to communicate concepts such as natural hazards, risk, and environmental change. Getting people to visit geoheritage sites is one of the best ways to communicate concepts and to draw the public into the geoscience process. Local communities, and be involved in the creation of geoheritage sites and can benefit from an increased awareness and a deepened sense of place and importantly, can reap the economic benefits from visitors. As geoscience itself changes, geoheritage should adapt to reflect new knowledge and find ways to communicate and answer newly-arising societal questions. Also, geoscience individuals and organisations should assure a strong representation in governmental and international heritage structures, to assure that the community and our science is fully represented at all levels and that the great diversity of outstanding geological value be fully realised. In 2014 a complete GeoHeritage review has been called for by the UNESCO World Heritage committee, echoing a widening gap between the geo-community and mandated NGOs. Clarification of Geopark and World Heritage site distinctions has been called for. This is a consequence of the divergence between States, academics and UNESCO advisory bodies. The gap is about 1) what geological elements are outstanding for science and heritage; 2) site assessment, 3) who is competent to assess; 4) management and compatibility of humans in geoheritage sites. We will explore and share experience on geoheritage and World Heritage from an international viewpoint and through our experiences on the Chaîne des Puys and Limagne Fault World Heritage project.

  4. Dépistage des maladies cardiovasculaires chez des étudiants de l'Université de Douala et influence des activités physiques et sportives

    PubMed Central

    Ewane, Marielle Epacka; Mandengue, Samuel Honoré; Priso, Eugene Belle; Tamba, Stéphane Moumbe; Ahmadou; Fouda, André Bita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Les maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV) constituent l'une des principales causes de mortalité dans les pays en développement. Le dépistage de ces dernières chez des jeunes est un défi dans la lutte contre leur expansion. Le but de cette étude était de dépister ces maladies au sein d'une population jeunes d’étudiants camerounais. Methodes Deux mille six cent cinquante-huit étudiants de l'Université de Douala (23,6 ± 2,9 ans, sex-ratio H/F = 0,9) ont en Avril - Mai 2011 participé à une campagne de dépistage gratuit du diabète, de l'hypertension artérielle (HTA) et de l'obésité. Ils ont également été soumis à une d'enquête évaluant leur niveau en activités physiques et sportives (APS). Resultats 12,7% des participants avaient une pression artérielle (PA) ≥ 140/90 mmHg, 3,6% étaient obèses et 0,9% avaient une glycémie ≥1,26 g/L. Des corrélations ont été trouvées entre certains facteurs de risque (diabète, hypertension et obésité) et le niveau académique d'une part (r =0,366; p < 0,0001) et le temps passé devant la télévision d'autres part (r = 0,411; p < 0,0001). L‘APS était inversement corrélée à l‘âge (r =-0,015; p < 0,0001) et au temps passé devant la télévision (r = -0,059; p = 0,002). Conclusion La présence des MCV et leurs facteurs de risque mis en évidence dans cette étude réalisée en milieu estudiantin camerounais interpelle à une prévention et une éducation dans la lutte contre ces dernières. PMID:22655111

  5. DEcomposed Software Pipelining: A new perspective and a new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Eisenbeis, C.; Jourdan, M.; Su, B. )

    1994-06-01

    Software pipelining is an efficient instruction-level loop scheduling technique, but existing software pipelining approaches have not been widely used in practical and commercial compilers. This is mainly because resource constraints and the cyclic data dependencies make software pipelining very complicated and difficult to apply. In this paper we present a new perspective on software pipelining in which it is decomposed into two subproblems - one is free from cyclic data dependencies and can be effectively solved by the list scheduling technique, and the other is free from resource constraints and can be easily solved by classical polynomial-time algorithms of graph theory. Based on this new perspective, we develop a new instruction-level loop scheduling approach, called DEcomposed Software Pipelining (DESP).

  6. Diabetes: An Investor's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Total health care expenditure in 2006 was $2.1 trillion. This figure is estimated to double within the next few years as the cost of treating diabetes and other chronic conditions continues to rise. Moreover, the baby boomer demographic is anticipated to place an enormous burden on the health care system and employer-based health insurance premiums were increased at rates as high as 10% per year in 2006. The quest to address these challenges has also created opportunities for investment, particularly in the fields of telemedicine, health care information technology, and medical technology. The author shares his business perspective, informed by years of experience as a physician and astronaut at NASA, and describes new applications of exciting technologies that deliver effective and efficient health care to diabetes patients, no matter where they may be. PMID:19885357

  7. Auditory perspective taking.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Effective communication with a mobile robot using speech is a difficult problem even when you can control the auditory scene. Robot self-noise or ego noise, echoes and reverberation, and human interference are all common sources of decreased intelligibility. Moreover, in real-world settings, these problems are routinely aggravated by a variety of sources of background noise. Military scenarios can be punctuated by high decibel noise from materiel and weaponry that would easily overwhelm a robot's normal speaking volume. Moreover, in nonmilitary settings, fans, computers, alarms, and transportation noise can cause enough interference to make a traditional speech interface unusable. This work presents and evaluates a prototype robotic interface that uses perspective taking to estimate the effectiveness of its own speech presentation and takes steps to improve intelligibility for human listeners. PMID:23096077

  8. Diabetes: an investor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, Bernard

    2008-03-01

    Total health care expenditure in 2006 was $2.1 trillion. This figure is estimated to double within the next few years as the cost of treating diabetes and other chronic conditions continues to rise. Moreover, the baby boomer demographic is anticipated to place an enormous burden on the health care system and employer-based health insurance premiums were increased at rates as high as 10% per year in 2006.The quest to address these challenges has also created opportunities for investment, particularly in the fields of telemedicine, health care information technology, and medical technology.The author shares his business perspective, informed by years of experience as a physician and astronaut at NASA, and describes new applications of exciting technologies that deliver effective and efficient health care to diabetes patients, no matter where they may be. PMID:19885357

  9. Generation Y Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Garret; Painting, Kristen; Barrera, Aaron; Skytland, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Are you familiar with the famed Generation Y, or "Gen Yers?" Generation Y is projected to be 47 percent of the workforce by 2014. They were born roughly between 1977 and 2000, but that is definitely not their only defining factor. But who is this group, and what do they have to do with the future of the space program and the Johnson Space Center (JSC)? During 2007, a group of Gen Yers at JSC participated on a committee to address the NASA Headquarters strategic communications plan. Fitzpatrick, along with his co-authors, created a presentation to share the Gen Yers' perspective on their generation in conjunction with the strategic communications strategy released. This knowledge capture (KC) event is that presentation.

  10. Perspectives on ethics

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C

    2007-01-01

    In his recent paper about understanding ethical issues, Boyd suggests that traditional approaches based on principles or people are understood better in terms of perspectives, especially the perspective‐based approach of hermeneutics, which he uses for conversation rather than controversy. However, we find that Boyd's undefined contrast between conversation and controversy does not point to any improvement in communication: disputes occur during conversation and controversy may be conducted in gentle tones. We agree with Boyd, that being prepared to listen and learn are excellent attitudes, but his vague attempts to establish these and similar virtues in hermeneutic theory are not plausible. Additionally, the current controversy about the use of human embryos in stem cell therapy research shows Boyd missing the opportunity to illustrate how conversation would improve understanding. PMID:17209105

  11. Perspectives on health.

    PubMed

    Huch, M H

    1991-01-01

    On May 12, 1989, in Pittsburgh, six nurse leaders participated in a panel discussion on health at Discovery International, Inc.'s Nurse Theorist Conference. The participants were Imogene King, Nola Pender, Betty Neuman, Martha E. Rogers, Afaf Meleis and Rosemarie Rizzo Parse. The goal of the conferences was to present views on the meaning of health from different perspectives. The panel discussion provided the nurse leaders with an opportunity to engage in a dialogue about health. Five of the participants answered the questions posed and the conference keynote speaker Afaf Meleis responded. Four questions were posed to the panel relating to the meaning of health, the uniqueness of nursing, and nurse-person relationships. The dialogue of the panel discussion follows. PMID:2000198

  12. The use of radiolabelling techniques to measure substantivity to, and penetration into, hair of protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Jones, R T; Chahal, S P

    1997-10-01

    The use of 14C-labelled amino acids enables the measurement of both the total substantivity to hair and the degree of penetration into the hair shaft of amino acid mixtures derived from complete hydrolysis of proteins. The technique utilizes the fact that direct measurement of 14C radioactivity of the treated hair detects only the surface substantivity. Total substantivity can be determined following solubilization of the hair. Data obtained for wheat amino acids show significant penetration when used to treat hair from a shampoo or conditioner formulation. A similar technique has been investigated for a wheat protein partial hydrolysate using 14CNO for radiolabelling purposes and shows that significant penetration into hair can occur. L'utilisation d'amino-acides marques au 14C permet la mesure a la fois de l'absorption totale par les cheveux et du degre de penetration dans la fibre du cheveu de melanges d'amino-acides obtenus a partir d'une hydrolyse totale de proteines. La technique utilise le fait que la mesure directe de la radioactivite du 14C des cheveux traites ne detecte que l'absorption en surface. L'absorption totale peut etre determinee apres solubilisation des cheveux. Les donnees obtenues a partir d'amino-acides de ble montrent une penetration significative lors d'une utilisation pour traiter des cheveux a partir d'une formulation de shampoing ou d'apres-shampoing. Une technique similaire a ete exploree vis-a-vis d'un hydrolysat partiel d'une proteine de ble utilisant 14CNO a des fins de marquage, et montre qu'une penetration significative dans les cheveux peut avoir lieu. PMID:18507628

  13. Brain resuscitation. Ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Omery, A; Caswell, D

    1989-03-01

    Brain resuscitation is the newest in a long line of treatment protocols that is designed to aid us in sustaining not just life, but quality life in the critical care setting. Like other, previously established protocols, it is not value free. Its implementation brings ethical considerations that must be addressed. If the issues are not addressed, there is the real danger that the resulting moral dilemmas will overwhelm the nurse. In brain resuscitation, there are at least three ethical issues that must be recognized. These are the role of resuscitation in the life process, allocation of scarce resources, and participation in research. To address these issues, nurses will have to be aware of the ethical principle and/or perspectives involved. For some of these issues, the solutions will have to come from nursing's national organizations, such as the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Other solutions presented will require the nurse to come to an individual decision regarding the ethics of brain resuscitation. The journey to the conclusion of this discussion will end with disappointment for those who sought an algorhythm or decision tree with which to make definitive decisions in regard to ethical decisions about brain resuscitation. To have assumed that such an absolute discussion in regard to the ethical perspectives related to brain resuscitation is possible or even desirable would have been to deny the moral/ethical responsibilities of the nurse who practices in a critical care setting. While these ethical responsibilities can be overwhelmingly burdensome, they can also be opportunities. They can be positive opportunities for our health care colleagues, our patients, and ourselves. PMID:2803694

  14. Physico-Chimie des Atomcules d'Hélium antiprotonique: Modélisation de Processus réactifs en présence d'Antimatière

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauge, Sébastien

    2000-07-01

    Environ 3%des antiprotons (p) stoppés dans l'hélium survivent plusieurs microsecondes, contre quelques picosecondes dans tout autre matériau. Cette métastabilité inhabituelle résulte d'une capture sur des états liés de l'atome exotique pHe+, dénommé atomcule car il s'apparente à la fois à un atome de Rydberg quasi-circulaire quasi-classique de grand moment angulaire l n-1 37et à une molécule diatomique composée d'un noyau chargé négativement et caractérisée par une forte excitation rotationnelle J=l. En dehors de cette structure duale originale accessible par spectroscopie laser, la physico-chimie de leur interaction avec d'autres atomes ou molécules a fait l'objet d'études microscopiques. Alors que les atomcules résistent à des millions de collisions dans l'hélium pur, des contaminants moléculaires comme H2 les détruisent immédiatement, y compris à basse température. Dans le cadre Born-Oppenheimer, nous interprétons l'interaction moléculaire, calculée par des techniques de chimie quantique {ab initio}, en termes de chemins réactifs classiques, qui présentent des barrières d'activation compatibles avec celles mesurées dans He et H2.Nous montrons par une approche Monte Carlo de trajectoires classiques que la thermalisation détruit fortement les populations initiales, portant la fraction estimée des états de capture à 3%. Nous étudions aussi la recombinaison dissociative pHe+ + e+ e -dans une approche de trajectoires classiques pour les noyaux: nous prédisons la synthèse d'antihydrogène avec un rapport de branchement de 10%, ainsi qu'une nouvelle classe d'atomcules métastables ?={p}, e+, 2e-, qui pourrait être confirmée par spectroscopie. Ce travail illustre la transférabilité des concepts de chimie physique à l'étude de processus exotiques en présence d'antimatière, et apporte un éclairage nouveau sur la physico-chimie des radicaux interstellaires froids.

  15. Communicating Geoscience through Geoheritage: The Chaine Des Puys and Limagne Fault Unesco World Heritage Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive-Garcia, C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Chaîne des Puys volcanic field in central France, became a celebrated mecca for 18/19th Century Scientists, only once the volcanoes were 'discovered'. Beforehand they were only hills, but the ability to interpret landscape with prior knowledge allowed these early geologists to create a popular understanding of the geology. Since that time, the Chaîne des Puys has become a well-known volcanic site to a worldwide audience through textbooks, tourism, and commerce (Look at a Volvic water bottle!). To the 19th century geologists, the Limagne escarpment was just as fascinating, but lacking the ability to fully interpret this rift margin, the idea of a fault did not percolate down to the general public. With the advent of the current UNESCO project, it became clear that the geological link between the volcanoes and the fault could be exploited, not only to raise the profile of the volcanoes, but to create a greater awareness of the tectonics in the greater public. Not only have the volcanoes, become better known and more clearly understood than previously, but the fault has begun to emerge as a feature in public consciousness. We will demonstrate the many communication techniques at all levels that have been used in the project. We explain the rationale between creating a geological scale model that works on processes as well as landforms to raise the public awareness. The success is that we show how geological features can be made readable by the general public, something highly important for conservation of heritage, but also for risk perception. The increased education efforts of the scientists have also lead to an increase in science. The Chaîne des Puys and Limagne fault project was discussed at the 38th session of the World Heritage UNESCO committee in June 2014 and was acknowledged to have Universal Exceptional Value: the future challenge for this project is to consolidate the outreach, and to work with other sites to increase the public perception of earth

  16. Evaluation des complications cardiaques chez les hémodialysés chroniques de Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Moustapha, Cissé Mouhamadou; Tall, Lemrabott Ahmed; Maria, Faye; Khodia, Fall; Moustapha, Faye; Fary, Ka El Hadji; Abdou, Niang; Boucar, Diouf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L’évaluation cardiovasculaire est essentielle en hémodialyse périodique car les affections cardiovasculaires sont la première cause de mortalité chez les hémodialysés chroniques. Nous avons conduit cette étude afin de déterminer la prévalence et le type des différentes complications cardiovasculaires et d'identifier les principaux facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective de 4 ans portant sur les dossiers de patients traités au moins 6 mois en hémodialyse et ayant des explorations cardio-vasculaires comportant une radiographie du thorax de face, un électrocardiogramme et une échographie cardiaque. Les données épidémiologiques, cliniques, paracliniques, les aspects évolutifs des complications cardiaques ont été recueillies pour chaque patient retenu. Résultats Trente huit dossiers de patients ont été inclus dans cette étude. L’âge moyen était de 52 ans ± 12,85 et le sex-ratio H/F de 1,53. Les complications cardiovasculaires étaient dominées par l'hypertrophie ventriculaire gauche (71,05%), la maladie coronaire (34,21%), l'insuffisance cardiaque congestive (18,42%), Calcifications vasculaires (5,78%), les troubles du rythme (7.89%), les fuites valvulaires mitrales (44,73%), tricuspidiennes (42,10%) et les accidents vasculaires cérébraux hémorragiques (5,26%). L'incidence moyenne de l'HVG était de 81% chez les patients hypertendus. Au cours de cette étude, 27 patients avaient poursuivi l'hémodialyse et 11 étaient décédés dont 6 de causes cardiovasculaires (54,55%). Conclusion L'hémodialyse est une technique d’épuration qui expose les patients à de multiples complications cardiovasculaires. PMID:27217869

  17. Turbulence Modeling: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents turbulence modeling from NASA's perspective. The topics include: 1) Hierarchy of Solution Methods; 2) Turbulence Modeling Focus; 3) Linear Eddy Viscosity Models; and 4) Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Algebraic Stress Models.

  18. Career perspective: Peter D Wagner

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This perspective focuses on key career decisions, explaining the basis of those decisions. In so doing, it exemplifies the unexpected influences of serendipity and the interaction between serendipity and planned events in shaping the career of one individual. PMID:24229460

  19. Perspectives in geology. Circular 525

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

  20. Career perspective: Peter D Wagner.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    This perspective focuses on key career decisions, explaining the basis of those decisions. In so doing, it exemplifies the unexpected influences of serendipity and the interaction between serendipity and planned events in shaping the career of one individual. PMID:24229460

  1. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  2. [What perspectives for cognitive remediation in schizophrenia?].

    PubMed

    Correard, N; Mazzola-Pomietto, P; Elissalde, S-N; Viglianese-Salmon, N; Fakra, E; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Cognitive deficits are routinely evident in schizophrenia, and are of sufficient magnitude to influence functional outcomes in work, social functioning and illness management. Cognitive remediation is an evidenced-based non-pharmacological treatment for the neurocognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. Narrowly defined, cognitive remediation is a set of cognitive drills or compensatory interventions designed to enhance cognitive functioning, but from the vantage of the psychiatric rehabilitation field, cognitive remediation is a therapy which engages the patient in learning activities that enhance the neurocognitive skills relevant to their chosen recovery goals. Cognitive remediation programs vary in the extent to which they reflect these narrow or broader perspectives but a metaanalytic study reports moderate range effect sizes on cognitive test performance, and daily functioning. Reciprocal interactions between baseline ability level, the type of instructional techniques used, and motivation provide some explanatory power for the heterogeneity in patient response to cognitive remediation. Recent studies indicate that intrinsic motivation mediates the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcomes. Results of these studies suggest that intrinsic motivation should be a viable treatment target in cognitive remediation intervention. In this perspective, NEAR (Neuropsychological Educational Approach to Remediation) program was created to enhance intrinsic motivation by employing more engaging and interesting software packages for cognitive practice, involving consumers in choosing the focus of training and having the NEAR leader serve as a coach to engage the consumers in active guidance of their own treatment program. PMID:22212847

  3. Correction partielle des Effets de la Turbulence atmosphérique en Interférométrie optique: Traitement des Données et Développement d'Optiques adaptatives pour l'Interféromètre GI2T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vérinaud, Christophe

    2000-11-01

    Dans le domaine de la haute résolution angulaire en astronomie, les techniques de l'interférométrie optique et de l'optique adaptative sont en plein essor. La principale limitation de l'interférométrie est laturbulence atmosphérique qui entraîne des pertes de cohérence importantes, préjudiciables à la sensibilité et à la précision des mesures. L'optique adaptative appliquée à l'interférométrie va permettre un gain en sensibilité considérable. Le but de cette thèse est l'étude de l'influence de l'optique adaptative sur les mesures interférométriques et son application au Grand Interféromètre à DeuxTélescopes (GI2T) situé sur le Mont Calern dans le sud de la France. Deux problèmes principaux sont étudiés de manière théorique par des développements analytiques et des simulations numériques: le premier est le contrôle en temps réel de la variation des différences de marche optique, encore appelée piston différentiel, induite par l'optique adaptative ; le deuxième problème important est la calibration des mesures de contraste des franges dans le cas de la correction partielle. Je limite mon étude au cas d'un interféromètre multi-modes en courtes poses, mode de fonctionnement principal du GI2T également prévu sur le Very Large Telescope Interferometer installé au Cerro Paranal au Chili. Je développe une méthode de calibration des pertes de cohérence spatio-temporelles connaissant la fonction de structure des fronts d'onde corrigés. Je montre en particulier qu'il est possible d'estimer fréquence par fréquence la densité spectrale des images en courtes poses, méthode très utile pour augmenter la couverture du plan des fréquences spatiales dans l'observation d'objets étendus. La dernière partie de ce mémoire est consacrée au développements instrumentaux auxquels j'ai participé. J'ai développé un banc de qualification du système d'optique adaptative à courbure destiné au GI2T et j'ai étudié l

  4. Conception d'un capteur intelligent pour la détection des vapeurs de styrène dans l'industrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbossou, Kodjo; Agbebavi, T. James; Koffi, Demagna; Elhiri, Mohammed

    1994-10-01

    The techniques of measurement of toxic gases are nowadays based on the semiconductor type sensors. The modelling and the electronic processing of their signals can be used to improve the accuracy and the efficiency of the measurement. In this paper, an intelligent system using a semiconductor sensor has been designed for the detection of the styrene vapors. A set of the environmental parameters sensors such as the temperature, the pressure and the humidity, is added to the basic sensor and allows a precise detection of the styrene vapors in air. A microcontroller and a communication interface, that are included in the control system and in the data processing system, provide the local intelligence. The linearization routines of the differents sensors are in the memory of the microcontroller. The system made of the sensors, of the amplification circuits, of the microcontroller and of the communication network between the smart sensor and the computer is analysed. A laboratory test of the device is presented and the accuracies and efficiencies of the differents sensors are given. Les techniques fiables de quantification des gaz polluants sont aujourd'hui basées sur l'utilisation des détecteurs à récepteurs chimiques et sur des capteurs à semiconducteurs. La modélisation et le traitement numérique des signaux résultants sont importants pour une mesure efficace et précise dans un milieu donné. Dans cet article, un capteur intelligent, utilisant un détecteur de gaz type semiconducteur a été réalisé pour la détection des vapeurs de styrène. Un ensemble de détecteurs des paramètres environnementaux, tels que la température, la pression et l'humidité, ajoutés au capteur de styrène, permettent de mesurer avec un bon contrôle les vapeurs de styrène dans l'air. Le système de contrôle et de gestion local des données est constitué d'un microcontrôleur et d'une interface de communication. Le microcontrôleur contient dans sa mémoire toutes les

  5. Perspectives on School Energy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    This paper offers a general perspective of school energy use based on national surveys and a state of North Carolina perspective based on the public school laws that can have energy impact. Data from two surveys conducted in 1972-73 and 1974-75 are analyzed. Findings show a shift away from oil and a shift from direct use of coal to use of…

  6. Etudes optiques de nouveaux materiaux laser: Des orthosilicates dopes a l'ytterbium: Le yttrium (lutetium,scandium) pentoxide de silicium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoyer, Aurelie

    La decouverte et l'elaboration de nouveaux materiaux laser solides suscitent beaucoup d'interet parmi la communaute scientifique. En particulier les lasers dans la gamme de frequence du micron debouchent sur beaucoup d'applications, en telecommunication, en medecine, dans le domaine militaire, pour la, decoupe des metaux (lasers de puissance), en optique non lineaire (doublage de frequence, bistabilite optique). Le plus couramment utilise actuellement est le Nd:YAG dans cette famille de laser, mais des remplacants plus performants sont toujours recherches. Les lasers a base d'Yb3+ possedent beaucoup d'avantages compares aux lasers Nd3+ du fait de leur structure electronique simple et de leur deterioration moins rapide. Parmi les matrices cristallines pouvant accueillir l'ytterbium, les orthosilicates Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5 se positionnent tres bien, du fait de leur bonne conductivite thermique et du fort eclatement de leur champ cristallin necessaire a l'elaboration de lasers quasi-3 niveaux. De plus l'etude fine et systematique des proprietes microscopiques de nouveaux materiaux s'avere toujours tres interessante du point de vue de la recherche fondamentale, c'est ainsi que de nouveaux modeles sont concus (par exemple pour le champ cristallin) ou que de nouvelles proprietes inhabituelles sont decouvertes, menant a de nouvelles applications. Ainsi d'autres materiaux dopes a l'ytterbium sont connus pour leurs proprietes de couplage electron-phonon, de couplage magnetique, d'emission cooperative ou encore de bistabilite optique, mais ces proprietes n'ont encore jamais ete mises en evidence dans Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5. Ainsi, cette these a pour but l'etude des proprietes optiques et des interactions microscopiques dans Yb:Y2SiO 5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO5. Nous utilisons principalement les techniques d'absorption IR et de spectroscopie Raman pour determiner les excitations du champ cristallin et les modes de vibration dans le materiau

  7. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multivariate techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohammed Tahir

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater systems can be carried out using conventional and multivariate techniques, namely cluster, factor analyses and others such as correspondence analysis. The main objective of this study is to investigate the groundwater quality in the Blue Nile basin of eastern Sudan, and to workout a hydrochemical evaluation for the aquifer system. Conventional methods and multivariate techniques were applied to achieve these goals. Two water-bearing layers exist in the study area: the Nubian Sandstone Formation and the Al-Atshan Formation. The Nubian aquifer is recharged mainly from the Blue Nile and Dinder Rivers through lateral subsurface flow and through direct rainfall in outcrop areas. The Al-Atshan aquifer receives water through underground flow from River Rahad and from rainfall infiltration. The prevailing hydrochemical processes are simple dissolution, mixing, partial ion exchange and ion exchange. Limited reverse ion exchange has been witnessed in the Nubian aquifer. Three factors control the overall mineralization and water quality of the Blue Nile Basin. The first factor includes high values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate and magnesium. The second factor includes calcium and pH. The third factor is due to fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The study highlights the descriptive capabilities of conventional and multivariate techniques as effective tools in groundwater quality evaluation. Une étude hydrochimique de systèmes aquifères a pu être réalisée au moyen des techniques conventionnelles et multidimensionnelles, telles que les analyses de cluster et factorielles, ainsi que d'autres comme l'analyse des correspondances. Le principal objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la qualité des eaux souterraines du bassin du Nil bleu au Soudan oriental, et de réaliser une évaluation hydrochimique du système aquifère. Des méthodes conventionnelles et

  8. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multivariate techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohammed Tahir

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater systems can be carried out using conventional and multivariate techniques, namely cluster, factor analyses and others such as correspondence analysis. The main objective of this study is to investigate the groundwater quality in the Blue Nile basin of eastern Sudan, and to workout a hydrochemical evaluation for the aquifer system. Conventional methods and multivariate techniques were applied to achieve these goals. Two water-bearing layers exist in the study area: the Nubian Sandstone Formation and the Al-Atshan Formation. The Nubian aquifer is recharged mainly from the Blue Nile and Dinder Rivers through lateral subsurface flow and through direct rainfall in outcrop areas. The Al-Atshan aquifer receives water through underground flow from River Rahad and from rainfall infiltration. The prevailing hydrochemical processes are simple dissolution, mixing, partial ion exchange and ion exchange. Limited reverse ion exchange has been witnessed in the Nubian aquifer. Three factors control the overall mineralization and water quality of the Blue Nile Basin. The first factor includes high values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate and magnesium. The second factor includes calcium and pH. The third factor is due to fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The study highlights the descriptive capabilities of conventional and multivariate techniques as effective tools in groundwater quality evaluation. Une étude hydrochimique de systèmes aquifères a pu être réalisée au moyen des techniques conventionnelles et multidimensionnelles, telles que les analyses de cluster et factorielles, ainsi que d'autres comme l'analyse des correspondances. Le principal objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la qualité des eaux souterraines du bassin du Nil bleu au Soudan oriental, et de réaliser une évaluation hydrochimique du système aquifère. Des méthodes conventionnelles et

  9. Performance measurement for information systems: Industry perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy; Hamilton, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Performance measurement has become a focal topic for information systems (IS) organizations. Historically, IS performance measures have dealt with the efficiency of the data processing function. Today, the function of most IS organizations goes beyond simple data processing. To understand how IS organizations have developed meaningful performance measures that reflect their objectives and activities, industry perspectives on IS performance measurement was studied. The objectives of the study were to understand the state of the practice in IS performance techniques for IS performance measurement; to gather approaches and measures of actual performance measures used in industry; and to report patterns, trends, and lessons learned about performance measurement to NASA/JSC. Examples of how some of the most forward looking companies are shaping their IS processes through measurement is provided. Thoughts on the presence of a life-cycle to performance measures development and a suggested taxonomy for performance measurements are included in the appendices.

  10. Perspectives on knowledge in engineering design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasdorf, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Various perspectives are given of the knowledge currently used in engineering design, specifically dealing with knowledge-based expert systems (KBES). Constructing an expert system often reveals inconsistencies in domain knowledge while formalizing it. The types of domain knowledge (facts, procedures, judgments, and control) differ from the classes of that knowledge (creative, innovative, and routine). The feasible tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, where generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select a knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations.

  11. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  12. Prise en charge des complications des fistules artério-veineuses pour hémodialyse chronique

    PubMed Central

    Jiber, Hamid; Zrihni, Youssef; Zaghloul, Rachid; Hajji, Rita; Zizi, Othman; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    La fistule artério-veineuse native est l'accès vasculaire de choix pour l'hémodialyse chronique en raison de sa longévité, son taux faible de complication et de mortalité par rapport aux pontages artério-veineux et aux cathéters. Cependant, il arrive assez souvent que l'on assiste à des complications qui sont dominées par la sténose et la thrombose. C'est une étude rétrospective des complications ayants survenues pour 31 fistules artério-veineuses pour hémodialyse chronique des 200 fistules réalisées chez 200 patients au sein du service de chirurgie vasculaire du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une période de trois ans, étendue de Janvier 2007 à Décembre 2009. Ces complications ont été présentés par les thromboses dans 14 cas soit 45,15% de l'ensemble des complications, les sténoses dans 4 cas (12,90%,) les anévrismes dans 4 cas (12,90%), les complications ischémiques dans 3 cas (9,67%), l'infection dans 3 cas (9,67%), l'hémorragie dans 2 cas (6,45%) et l’ hyperdébit dans un seul cas soit 3,22%. On a pu conserver 22 fistules soit 70,96% par traitement chirurgical ou endovasculaire, on a confectionné une nouvelle fistule dans 8 cas soit 25,80%, et on a adressé une patiente (3,22%) pour pose d'un cathéter veineux tunnelisé permanent. Les complications des fistules artério-veineuses pour l'hémodialyse chronique sont la principale cause de morbidité chez les patients hémodialysés, il est donc important de s'impliquer lors de leur création, et de donner un maximum d'attention quand ils sont manipulés. Ceci suggère la mise en place d'un programme de surveillance de ces fistules en raison de l'impact des complications sur la morbi-mortalité du patient hémodialysé et sur le plan financier. PMID:26113933

  13. Surgical forceps techniques.

    PubMed

    Malden, N

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers two new elevator and dental forceps techniques for the atraumatic removal of teeth to avoid a surgical procedure where possible. The techniques described should be applicable in relatively well defined but commonly occurring situations. The two techniques involve the unconventional use of conventional dental extraction forceps, with the aim of facilitating removal of the retained roots of certain teeth: the first for incisors, canines and premolars and the second for lower first molars. The term 'surgical forceps technique's is tentatively put forward as a description of these hybrid procedures. PMID:11819949

  14. The DES Science Verification weak lensing shear catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  15. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.

    2015-07-20

    We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  16. The DES Science Verification weak lensing shear catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-08-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies, respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-yr DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  17. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jarvis, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SVmore » data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.« less

  18. Acupuncture Au Laser He-Ne: Traitement Des Infections Rhinopharyngees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussert, Dr.

    1984-03-01

    Mesdames, Messieurs, y a 23 mois, je recevais l'urgence suivante dans mon cabinet medical : 1) Un homme de 53 ans, dyspneioue (cliniquement it etait en Bradypnee expiratoire). Il venait d'être hospitalise 1 mois et avait ete place sous cortisone. Je le fais assoir, et j'irradie avec un laser sur chacun des ganglions stellaires pendant 6 minutes je debloque ce malade qui se met e respirer normalement. 2) Quelques temps apres : C'est un enfant de 7 ans que je regois en crise d'asthme. J'irradie sur chacun des ganglions stellaires pendant 4 minutes une onde laser d'impulsion 6 et en basse freouence. L'enfant voit s'estomper la crise d'asthme. Devant ces deux cas, je decide d'organiser un travail de recherche.

  19. The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.

    2016-05-01

    We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.

  20. Des recommandations probantes pour surveiller l’innocuité des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Davidson, Jana; Ho, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au Canada, l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques, notamment les antipsychotiques de deuxième génération (ADG), a augmenté de façon considérable depuis cinq ans chez les enfants ayant des troubles de santé mentale. Ces médicaments ont le potentiel de causer de graves complications métaboliques et neurologiques lorsqu’on les utilise de manière chronique. OBJECTIF : Synthétiser les données probantes relatives aux effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques précis associés à l’usage d’ADG chez les enfants et fournir des recommandations probantes sur la surveillance de ces effets secondaires. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les auteurs ont procédé à une analyse systématique des essais cliniques contrôlés des ADG auprès d’enfants. Ils ont fait des recommandations à l’égard de la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG d’après un modèle de classification fondé sur le système GRADE (système de notation de l’évaluation et de l’élaboration des recommandations). Lorsque les données probantes n’étaient pas suffisantes, ils fondaient leurs recommandations sur le consensus et l’avis d’experts. Un groupe consensuel multidisciplinaire a analysé toutes les données probantes pertinentes et est parvenu à un consensus à l’égard des recommandations. RÉSULTATS : Les recommandations probantes portant sur la surveillance de l’innocuité des ADG figurent dans les présentes lignes directrices. Les auteurs indiquent la qualité des recommandations relatives à des examens physiques et tests de laboratoire précis à l’égard de chaque ADG à des moments déterminés. CONCLUSION : De multiples essais aléatoires et contrôlés ont permis d’évaluer l’efficacité de bon nombre des ADG utilisés pour traiter les troubles de santé mentale en pédiatrie. Toutefois, leurs avantages ne sont pas sans risques : on observe à la fois des effets secondaires métaboliques et neurologiques chez les enfants traités au moyen d

  1. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  2. Landform Variability in the Chaine Des Puys Tracing Multiple Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Chaîne des Puys is a highly varied, type monogenetic field, and was acknowledged by 38th WH UNESCO Committee to contain Outstanding Universal Value. The Chaîne des Puys - Limagne Fault should be presented in 2016 for World Heritage Status. The 30 km long Chaîne des Puys contains ranges from simple basaltic scoria cones to complex, multicrater cones, and small simple domes to complicated trachytic edifices. There is also a range of phreatomagmatic landforms from tuff rings to maars and vulcanian to sub plinian deposits. There is a wide range of pahoehoe and aa lava types, that have flowed over different topographies. Here we take morphometrical data to analyse the variability of the edifices using a 10 m regional topographic DTM. The volcanoes form a broad continuum of morphological features, and height/widths of domes and cones overlap. Some edifices, are smooth and elliptical, even though they have erupted complex lava sequences, while others complex shapes, but are related to simple lava flows. There seems to be no easy correlation between cone morphology and eruption histories derived from lava fields and distal tephras. In the few cones where the interior is visible, the shape of the cone is seen to vary with changing eruption events. The final shape is a combination of changing activity, with the last events having the strongest morphometic signature. The broad variations in edifice, lava field, and deposit morphology are described and quantified, however it becomes clear from the few individual eruptions already studied, that to fully appreciate the range of monogenetic eruption scenarios presented by the Chaîne des Puys, much more detailed work is required. This is being made possible by new acquisitions of LiDAR imagery, new geophysical work, and the combination of excellent preservation and extensive outcrop that is partly the result the original geology and long term responsible land management by the local populace, regional park and local

  3. Simulations of the OzDES AGN reverberation mapping project

    DOE PAGESBeta

    King, Anthea L.; Martini, Paul; Davis, Tamara M.; Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Skielboe, Andreas; Vestergaard, Marianne; Huff, Eric; Watson, Darach; et al

    2015-08-26

    As part of the Australian spectroscopic dark energy survey (OzDES) we are carrying out a large-scale reverberation mapping study of ~500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg2 area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between 16.8 mag < r < 22.5 mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission-line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and constrainmore » the radius–luminosity (R–L) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for ~35–45 % of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag measurement, and objects with lags ≲6 months or ~1 yr are expected to be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the R–L relationship parameters for Hβ, MgIIλ2798, and C IVλ1549. As a result, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission-line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the R–L parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.« less

  4. La dysplasie fibreuse: état des lieux

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Talbi, Sofia; Tahiri, Latifa; Harzy, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    La dysplasie fibreuse des os est une affection osseuse bénigne congénitale mais non héréditaire, où l'os normal est remplacé par un tissu fibreux renfermant une ostéogenèse immature. Elle est due à une mutation du gène GNAS 1sur le chromosome 20q13, une mutation activatrice de la sous-unité α de la protéine G. C'est une pathologie qui est le plus souvent silencieuse, de découverte fortuite sur une radiographie standard ou révélée par une douleur osseuse ou une fracture pathologique. L'imagerie et l'histologie, quand elle est nécessaire, permettent d’établir le diagnostic. Bien qu'il ne s'agisse pas d'une tumeur, elle est souvent classée dans la catégorie des tumeurs osseuses bénignes pour des raisons de diagnostic différentiel radiographique et anatomopathologique. Elle peut être monostotique ou polyostotique. L'approche thérapeutique est essentiellement symptomatique. Quelques publications récentes ont suggéré l'intérêt majeur d'un bisphosphonate, en particulier le pamidronate, qui diminuerait les douleurs et stimulerait une reminéralisation progressive des zones ostéolytiques chez les patients traités. D'autres traitements tels que la thérapie ciblée sont en cours d’évaluation. PMID:26401215

  5. Discovery and Classification of DES15C2kyh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. L.; Filippenko, A. V.; Nugent, P.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15C2kyh discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (340-1025nm) was obtained using LRIS on Keck-I. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  6. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  7. Historical perspectives on photocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Raymond, L A

    1977-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin may share a prominent place in the history of photocoagulation. He devised an uncomplicated experiment showing the effect of color on the absorption of light by solids and its conversion into heat motion of the molecules. His experiment and the related experiments of others leading ultimately to the development of photocoagulation techniques are discussed. PMID:331535

  8. Transpersonal Perspectives in Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Frances Vaughan

    1977-01-01

    Emerging paradigms in transpersonal psychotherapy are discussed in relation to values and attitudes of the therapist and the place of transpersonal experience in the growth process, which goes beyond self-actualization to self-transcendence. Transpersonal therapy is not identified with specific techniques, but three distinct stages of therapy are…

  9. Perspectives: A Challenging Patriotism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyte, Harry C.

    2012-01-01

    In a time of alarm about the poisoning of electoral politics, public passions inflamed by sophisticated techniques of mass polarization, and fears that the country is losing control of its collective future, higher education is called upon to take leadership in "reinventing citizenship." It needs to respond to that call on a scale unprecedented in…

  10. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  11. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Irvine, W. M.; Owen, T.; Becker, L.; Blank, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Colangeli, L.; Derenne, S.; Dutrey, A.; Despois, D.; Lazcano, A.; Robert, F.

    2004-07-01

    Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space missions. Today’s rich array of new spacecraft, telescopes and dedicated scientists promises a steady flow of discoveries and insights that will ultimately lead us to the answers we seek.

  12. Time in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gorea, Andrei; Hau, Janice

    2013-08-01

    Perceptions of time and space are subject to strong contextual effects. Like their physical counterparts, they appear to be bound together. The perceived spatial extent of a constant retinal extent increases with its perceived distance from the observer. The perceived duration of a moving object increases with its covered angular trajectory. It follows that the perceived duration of moving objects covering identical angular trajectories should also increase with distance. Using three-dimensionally rendered balls rolling for 600 ms, 900 ms, and 1,200 ms and covering 5.5°, 11°, and 22° trajectories in fronto-parallel planes of a linear-perspective scene, we showed that perceived duration dilates by up to 50% as the fronto-parallel plane of the rolling ball recedes from the observer. Such time dilation is mostly contributed to by the smaller size of the distant ball. As in a three-dimensional world, objects' sizes and their covered trajectories per time unit decrease with distance, and as the two factors lead to opposite perceived-duration effects, the results suggest a form of time constancy in a three-dimensional world. PMID:23774463

  13. Employer and consumer perspectives.

    PubMed

    McGhan, W F

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews various published reports from surveys on employer opinion, perception of needs, and trends with regard to healthcare benefits; the consumer perspective regarding healthcare is also discussed. Surveys indicate that businesses want continuous evidence that high-quality healthcare can positively impact company profits. Employers and labor unions are demanding more cost-effective healthcare. At both employer and consumer levels, greater patient education is needed, as well as traditional educational media. Direct-to-consumer advertising and use of the World Wide Web are increasingly important in enabling consumers to participate more fully in their own lipid-related decision-making. Finally, the transition of lipid-lowering drugs to over-the-counter accessibility has great implications with respect to issues of patient preferences and willingness to pay in the evolving healthcare environment. Groups in the United States, such as the National Committee on Quality Assurance and the Foundation for Accountability, are setting standards and beginning to assess both process and outcomes in patient care. Further collaborative efforts are needed that raise standards of care and stimulate more cost-effective healthcare. The pharmacoeconomics and outcomes data gathered will, one hopes, also demonstrate to global businesses the positive financial impact of high-quality healthcare and appropriate lipid therapy. PMID:16674548

  14. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  15. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  16. Infections fongiques des brûlé : revue

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, JF.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les infections fongiques locales ou générales sont souvent d’une extrême gravité chez les brûlés. Les brûlés combinent de nombreux facteurs de risque à une immunodépression induite par la brûlure. Les infections de plaies sont le fait des genres Candida, Aspergillus et des agents de mucormycoses. Ces deux derniers cas sont à l’origine de lésions particulièrement sévères. Leur diagnostic repose sur la biopsie cutanée avec examens mycologique et anatomopathologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical, associé à une antibiothérapie adaptée. Les septicémies sont le fait de levures, essentiellement du genre Candida. Le diagnostic en est difficile dans le contexte des brûlés et repose souvent sur une forte suspicion clinique. Leur traitement repose sur les échinocandines et plus secondairement sur le fluconazole. PMID:26668558

  17. CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giannantonio, T.

    2016-01-07

    We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of themore » signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the LCDM Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.« less

  18. CMB lensing tomography with the DES Science Verification galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannantonio, T.; Fosalba, P.; Cawthon, R.; Omori, Y.; Crocce, M.; Elsner, F.; Leistedt, B.; Dodelson, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Holder, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Percival, W. J.; Kirk, D.; Bauer, A. H.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Carretero, J.; Crawford, T. M.; Crittenden, R.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Krause, E.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ross, A. J.; Simard, G.; Soergel, B.; Stark, A.; Story, K. T.; Vieira, J. D.; Weller, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C. L.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-03-01

    We measure the cross-correlation between the galaxy density in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as reconstructed with the Planck satellite and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). When using the DES main galaxy sample over the full redshift range 0.2 < zphot < 1.2, a cross-correlation signal is detected at 6σ and 4σ with SPT and Planck , respectively. We then divide the DES galaxies into five photometric redshift bins, finding significant (>2σ) detections in all bins. Comparing to the fiducial Planck cosmology, we find the redshift evolution of the signal matches expectations, although the amplitude is consistently lower than predicted across redshift bins. We test for possible systematics that could affect our result and find no evidence for significant contamination. Finally, we demonstrate how these measurements can be used to constrain the growth of structure across cosmic time. We find the data are fit by a model in which the amplitude of structure in the z < 1.2 universe is 0.73 ± 0.16 times as large as predicted in the Λ cold dark matter Planck cosmology, a 1.7σ deviation.

  19. Feasibility of new breeding techniques for organic farming.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Landes, Xavier; Xiang, Wen; Anyshchenko, Artem; Falhof, Janus; Østerberg, Jeppe Thulin; Olsen, Lene Irene; Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian; Kappel, Klemens; Palmgren, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Organic farming is based on the concept of working 'with nature' instead of against it; however, compared with conventional farming, organic farming reportedly has lower productivity. Ideally, the goal should be to narrow this yield gap. In this review, we specifically discuss the feasibility of new breeding techniques (NBTs) for rewilding, a process involving the reintroduction of properties from the wild relatives of crops, as a method to close the productivity gap. The most efficient methods of rewilding are based on modern biotechnology techniques, which have yet to be embraced by the organic farming movement. Thus, the question arises of whether the adoption of such methods is feasible, not only from a technological perspective, but also from conceptual, socioeconomic, ethical, and regulatory perspectives. PMID:26027462

  20. A Survey of Architectural Techniques For Improving Cache Power Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2013-01-01

    Modern processors are using increasingly larger sized on-chip caches. Also, with each CMOS technology generation, there has been a significant increase in their leakage energy consumption. For this reason, cache power management has become a crucial research issue in modern processor design. To address this challenge and also meet the goals of sustainable computing, researchers have proposed several techniques for improving energy efficiency of cache architectures. This paper surveys recent architectural techniques for improving cache power efficiency and also presents a classification of these techniques based on their characteristics. For providing an application perspective, this paper also reviews several real-world processor chips that employ cache energy saving techniques. The aim of this survey is to enable engineers and researchers to get insights into the techniques for improving cache power efficiency and motivate them to invent novel solutions for enabling low-power operation of caches.

  1. Techniques for Teachers Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Includes a simple technique to demonstrate Millikan's oil drop experiment, an environmental studies experiment to measure dissolved oxygen in water samples, and a technique to demonstrate action-reaction. Science materials described are the Pol-A-Star Tomiscope, Nuffield chemistry film loops, air pucks and pH meters. (JR)

  2. TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HASTINGS, GERALDINE; AND OTHERS

    A COMPENDIUM OF WORKABLE AND REASONABLE TECHNIQUES TO PROVIDE TEACHERS WITH ALTERNATIVES IN SELECTING LEARNING EXPERIENCES IS PRESENTED. MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED TO AID TEACHERS AND LEARNERS IN ALL SUBJECT MATTER AREAS. TEACHING TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED ARE (1) THE CASE STUDY, (2) DISCUSSIONS SUCH AS SYMPOSIUM, COLLOQUIUM, BUZZ SESSIONS, AND…

  3. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  4. Emerging Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in selected imaging technologies focused on the cardiovascular system. The techniques covered are: ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), microSPECT, microPET, near infrared imaging, and quantum dots. For each technique, the basic physical principles are explained and recent example applications demonstrated. PMID:16614313

  5. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2011 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2010-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  6. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2012 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2011-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE, Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa, July 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-21

    The Des Moines TCE site includes the underground infiltration gallery used by the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) as a source of the public water supply. The site was discovered in 1984 after trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in the city's public water supply. The Dico Company disposed of an unknown quantity of oily waste sludge containing TCE onto their parking lot for dust control and into a drainage ditch on their property. The primary contaminants of concern include: TCE, PCE, 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride. The selected remedial action for this site includes: extraction wells to collect the contaminated ground water; isolation of the northern-most section of the north gallery; treatment of the ground water through air stripping to remove 96% of the TCE; discharge of the treated water to the Raccoon River; operation of the west extraction wells until established effluent levels are achieved for four consecutive months.

  8. Simulation verification techniques study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonmaker, P. B.; Wenglinski, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized of the simulation verification techniques study which consisted of two tasks: to develop techniques for simulator hardware checkout and to develop techniques for simulation performance verification (validation). The hardware verification task involved definition of simulation hardware (hardware units and integrated simulator configurations), survey of current hardware self-test techniques, and definition of hardware and software techniques for checkout of simulator subsystems. The performance verification task included definition of simulation performance parameters (and critical performance parameters), definition of methods for establishing standards of performance (sources of reference data or validation), and definition of methods for validating performance. Both major tasks included definition of verification software and assessment of verification data base impact. An annotated bibliography of all documents generated during this study is provided.

  9. Patient perspectives of telemedicine quality

    PubMed Central

    LeRouge, Cynthia M; Garfield, Monica J; Hevner, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the quality attributes required for effective telemedicine encounters from the perspective of the patient. Methods We used a multi-method (direct observation, focus groups, survey) field study to collect data from patients who had experienced telemedicine encounters. Multi-perspectives (researcher and provider) were used to interpret a rich set of data from both a research and practice perspective. Results The result of this field study is a taxonomy of quality attributes for telemedicine service encounters that prioritizes the attributes from the patient perspective. We identify opportunities to control the level of quality for each attribute (ie, who is responsible for control of each attribute and when control can be exerted in relation to the encounter process). This analysis reveals that many quality attributes are in the hands of various stakeholders, and all attributes can be addressed proactively to some degree before the encounter begins. Conclusion Identification of the quality attributes important to a telemedicine encounter from a patient perspective enables one to better design telemedicine encounters. This preliminary work not only identifies such attributes, but also ascertains who is best able to address quality issues prior to an encounter. For practitioners, explicit representation of the quality attributes of technology-based systems and processes and insight on controlling key attributes are essential to implementation, utilization, management, and common understanding. PMID:25565781

  10. Digital Sky Surveys from the Ground: Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, T.

    I first review the status of Digital Sky Surveys. The focus will be on extragalactic surveys with an area of more than 100 deg2. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey is the archetype of such imaging surveys and it is its great success that has prompted great activity in this field. The latest surveys explore wider, fainter and higher resolution and also a longer wavelength range than SDSS. Many of these surveys overlap particularly in the S Hemisphere where we now have Pan-STARRS, DES and the ESO VST surveys, and our aim here is to compare their properties. Since there is no dedicated article on the VST ATLAS in this symposium, we shall especially review the properties of this particular survey. This easily fits onto our other main focus which is to compare overlapping Southern Surveys and see how they best fit with the available NIR imaging data. We conclude that the Southern Hemisphere will soon overtake the North in terms of multiwavelength imaging. However we note that the South has more limited opportunities for spectroscopic follow-up and this weakness will persist during the LSST era. Some new perspectives are offered on this and other aspects of survey astronomy.

  11. Decontamination: a microbiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Graham, G S

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of decontamination is to protect healthcare workers who handle medical devices from infectious diseases that may be present on those devices. Ideally, the decontamination process should provide both cleaning and biocidal activity. A wide range of equipment, from automatic washer/sterilizers to semi-automated washer/sanitizers are commercially available to satisfy this need. The primary difference between these pieces of equipment, from a microbiology perspective, is in the level of safety they provide. A summary comparison of the decontamination methods is shown in Table 1. Without a doubt, steam sterilization as a method of decontamination provides a greater safety level than may be required. However, the question is, "Do disinfection and sanitization provide an adequate safety level?" Although items do not necessarily need to be sterile to be safe to handle, sterilization processes provide the greatest margin of safety because of the significant microbial lethality and the ability to effectively monitor the process via biological indicators. Sterilization effectively eliminates the concern regarding the nearly unanswerable question of bioburden. Unfortunately, not all items are capable of being processed through a washer/sterilizer. Therefore, consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Disinfection processes provide the next level of safety. Unfortunately, there is no recognized or accepted method for quantitatively describing or monitoring a thermal disinfection process. As is the case with sterilization consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Sanitization provides the lowest level of safety for the decontamination process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10285793

  12. Perspectives on Transdermal Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Ita, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery offers several advantages, including avoidance of erratic absorption, absence of gastric irritation, painlessness, noninvasiveness, as well as improvement in patient compliance. With this mode of drug administration, there is no pre-systemic metabolism and it is possible to increase drug bioavailability and half-life. However, only a few molecules can be delivered across the skin in therapeutic quantities. This is because of the hindrance provided by the stratum corneum. Several techniques have been developed and used over the last few decades for transdermal drug delivery enhancement. These include sonophoresis, iontophoresis, microneedles, and electroporation. Electroporation, which refers to the temporary perturbation of the skin following the application of high voltage electric pulses, has been used to increase transcutaneous flux values by several research groups. In this review, transdermal electroporation is discussed and the use of the technique for percutaneous transport of low and high molecular weight compounds described. This review also examines our current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of electroporation and safety concerns arising from the use of this transdermal drug delivery technique. Safety considerations are especially important because electroporation utilizes high voltage pulses which may have deleterious effects in some cases. PMID:26999191

  13. Perspectives on Transdermal Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Ita, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery offers several advantages, including avoidance of erratic absorption, absence of gastric irritation, painlessness, noninvasiveness, as well as improvement in patient compliance. With this mode of drug administration, there is no pre-systemic metabolism and it is possible to increase drug bioavailability and half-life. However, only a few molecules can be delivered across the skin in therapeutic quantities. This is because of the hindrance provided by the stratum corneum. Several techniques have been developed and used over the last few decades for transdermal drug delivery enhancement. These include sonophoresis, iontophoresis, microneedles, and electroporation. Electroporation, which refers to the temporary perturbation of the skin following the application of high voltage electric pulses, has been used to increase transcutaneous flux values by several research groups. In this review, transdermal electroporation is discussed and the use of the technique for percutaneous transport of low and high molecular weight compounds described. This review also examines our current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of electroporation and safety concerns arising from the use of this transdermal drug delivery technique. Safety considerations are especially important because electroporation utilizes high voltage pulses which may have deleterious effects in some cases. PMID:26999191

  14. Cellules solaires photovoltaïques plastiques enjeux et perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicot, L.; Dumarcher, V.; Raimond, P.; Rosilio, C.; Sentein, C.; Fiorini, C.

    2002-04-01

    Après avoir détaillé le fonctionnement d'une cellule photovoltaïque plastique et les paramètres photovoltaïques permettant de caractéiser son efficacité, un état de l'art des technologies de fabrication des cellules est présenté. Des moyens d'amélioration des performances des cellules photovoltaïques organiques sont ensuite illustrés par l'étude de dispositifs développés au Laboratoire Composants Organiques (LCO) du CEA Saclay.

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Des Moines TCE Site, Operable Unit 3, Des Moines, IA. (Second remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-18

    The Des Moines TCE site is located southwest of downtown Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa. Land use in the area is predominantly industrial and commercial, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of the Raccoon River. Water from the Des Moines Water Works north infiltration gallery was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and vinyl chloride at levels above accepted drinking water standards. The ROD addresses OU3, which encompasses potential sources of ground water contamination in an area north of the Raccoon River. The selected remedial action for OU3 includes no action with periodic groundwater monitoring.

  16. Environnement des Systèmes Binaires Jeunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchene, Gaspard

    2000-07-01

    La fréquence élevée des systèmes binaires, tant parmi les étoiles de la séquence principale que dans les régions de formation stellaire, a été largement mise en évidence au cours des dix dernières années. Cette constatation soulève naturellement la question de la nature du processus responsable de la formation préférentielle de ces systèmes multiples. Par ailleurs, les phénomènes d'interaction entre un compagnon et l'environnement complexe d'une étoile T Tauri sont encore trèsmal compris. C'est dans ce cadre que se place le travail conduit durant cette thèse, dont les principaux objectifs sont: i) la détermination de la fraction de binaires dans différentes populations pré-séquence principale, ii) l'étude quantitative du phénomène d'accrétion dans les systèmes binaires T Tauri, et iii) l'observation directe et la modélisation de disques circumstellaires et circumbinaires. Dans le cadre d'une recherche de binaires visuelles à l'aide du système d'optique adaptative du Télescope Canada-France-Hawaii, j'ai pris part à l'observation de plusieurs centaines d'objets situés dans différents amas stellaires jeunes. Je détaille ici l'analyse et les résultats concernant deux amas âgés de moins de deux millions d'années. Lorsqu'on considère l'ensemble des populations étudiées jusqu'à présent, on constate que la proportion de binaires visuelles parmi les étoiles de type solaire est la même dans les amas stellaires que sur la séquence principale. De plus, cette propriété ne dépend pas de l'âge de l'amas, ce qui implique que la fraction de binaires n'évolue pas après le premier million d'années dans ces amas. A l'opposé, les zones de formation peu denses, qui sont toutes très jeunes, possèdent une proportion de binaires sensiblement plus élevée. Les modèles les plus à même de reproduire ces observations sont ceux selon lesquels la fraction de binaires qui résulte de l'effondrement gravitationnel est proche de 100

  17. La prévention des blessures dans les terrains de jeux

    PubMed Central

    Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Dans un climat d’inquiétude croissante à l’égard de l’obésité juvénile et de l’inactivité, les terrains de jeux permettent aux enfants d’être actifs. Ils comportent toutefois aussi des risques, les blessures causées par des chutes étant de loin les plus courants. Les recherches démontrent la possibilité de réduire les blessures dans les terrains de jeux si on abaisse la hauteur des structures de jeu et si on utilise des surfaces molles et profondes pour amortir les chutes. L’Association canadienne de normalisation a publié des normes volontaires qu’elle a mises à jour plusieurs fois pour tenir compte de ces risques. Afin de contribuer à les réduire, les parents peuvent respecter des stratégies simples. Le présent document de principes souligne le fardeau des blessures subies dans les terrains de jeux. Il procure également aux parents et aux dispensateurs de soins des occasions de réduire l’incidence et la gravité des blessures grâce à l’éducation et à la défense d’intérêts, ainsi que de mettre en œuvre des normes de sécurité probantes et des stratégies plus sécuritaires dans les terrains de jeux locaux. Enfin, il remplace le document de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie publié en 2002 sur le sujet.

  18. Electrical termination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  19. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  20. Interpretation Techniques Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The processes, algorithms and procedures for extraction and interpretation of ERTS-1 data are discussed. Analysis of data acquired temporally is possible through geometric correction, correlation, and registration techniques. The powerful techniques in image enhancement developed for the lunar and planetary programs are valuable for Earth Resources Survey programs. There is evidence that both optical and digital methods of spatial information extraction can provide valuable sources of data information the ERTS system. The techniques available, even for a limited number of bands and limited resolution can be effectively used to extract much of the information required by resource managers.

  1. Pins and needles: minimally invasive office techniques for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Maas, Corey S; Bapna, Sumit

    2009-11-01

    The desire for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation has continued to increase from the perspective of both the patients and injectors. For successful rejuvenation, it is important to understand the anatomic changes of the aging face as well as the properties of available neuromodulators and soft tissue fillers. The injector should be knowledgeable of the advantages and disadvantages of each product. Patient selection, perhaps, plays the largest role in success, choosing patients that would truly benefit from and have reasonable expectations for minimally invasive techniques. Unsatisfactory outcomes can be limited by meticulous injection technique and well thought out treatment plans. PMID:19924599

  2. Experimental manipulations of perspective taking and perspective switching in expressive writing.

    PubMed

    Seih, Yi-Tai; Chung, Cindy K; Pennebaker, James W

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that those who naturally vary their pronoun use over the course of expressive writing subsequently report the greatest improvements in physical and mental health. To explore possible perspective taking or perspective switching effects, two studies manipulated writing perspectives about emotional events from either a first-person, second-person, or third-person perspective. In Study 1, 55 students were randomly assigned to one of the three writing perspectives and were asked to write from the same perspective for three 5-minute writing sessions. In Study 2, 129 students wrote for three 5-minute sessions, one from each perspective in a counterbalanced order. The results showed that writing from a first-person perspective conferred more perceived benefits and was associated with using more cognitive mechanism words, whether engaged in perspective taking or perspective switching. PMID:21824030

  3. Pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Technique operates regardless of pattern rotation, translation or magnification and successfully detects out-of-register patterns. It improves accuracy and reduces cost of various optical character recognition devices and page readers and provides data input to computer.

  4. "Techniques for Teachers" Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A.

    1972-01-01

    A series of short articles describe a method of combined developing/fixing for monochrome film, techniques for thin layer chromatography, experiments with lasers, and safety precautions to be used with lasers in school laboratories. (AL)

  5. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  6. Relaxation techniques for stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... fall. There are also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do ... These sensors measure your skin temperature, brain waves, ... time, you can learn to change them without using the monitor.

  7. Exemplary Management Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Featured in the third article of the series are management techniques for school insurance record management and for reducing the amount of time school maintenance personnel spend driving from school to school. (Author/MLF)

  8. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Xue-Song; Zhou, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique. Data Sources: The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015. Study Selection: We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English, with no limitation of study design. Results: Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages. Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy. A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted. The use of coaxial guide is recommended. For biopsy location, sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended. Conclusion: In spite of some limitations, RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors. PMID:27174334

  9. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  10. Apollo Onboard Navigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic navigation concepts, describes coordinate systems and identifies attitude determination techniques including Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) IMU management and Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System/Lunar Module (LM) Abort Guidance System (AGS) attitude management. The presentation also identifies state vector determination techniques, including PGNCS coasting flight navigation, PGNCS powered flight navigation and LM AGS navigation.

  11. Nondestructive testing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Don E.; McBride, Don

    A comprehensive reference covering a broad range of techniques in nondestructive testing is presented. Based on years of extensive research and application at NASA and other government research facilities, the book provides practical guidelines for selecting the appropriate testing methods and equipment. Topics discussed include visual inspection, penetrant and chemical testing, nuclear radiation, sonic and ultrasonic, thermal and microwave, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques, and training and human factors. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  12. Techniques for colorectal anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yik-Hong; Ashour, Mohamed Ahmed Tawfik

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal anastomotic leak remains one of the most feared post-operative complications, particularly after anterior resection of the rectum with, the shift from abdomino-peritoneal resections to total mesorectal excision and primary anastomosis. The literature fails to demonstrate superiority of stapled over hand-sewn techniques in colorectal anastomosis, regardless of the level of anastomosis, although a high stricture rate was noted in the former technique. Thus, improvements in safety aspects of anastomosis and alternatives to hand-sewn and stapled techniques are being sought. Here, we review alternative anastomotic techniques used to fashion bowel anastomosis. Compression anastomosis using compression anastomotic clips, endoluminal compression anastomotic rings, AKA-2, biofragmental anastomotic rings, or Magnamosis all involve the concept of creating a sutureless end-to-end anastomosis by compressing two bowel ends together, leading to a simultaneous necrosis and healing process that joins the two lumens. Staple line reinforcement is a new approach that reduce the drawbacks of staplers used in colorectal practice, i.e. leakage, bleeding, misfiring, and inadequate tissue approximation. Various non-absorbable, semi or fully absorbable materials are now available. Two other techniques can provide alternative anastomotic support to the suture line: a colorectal drain and a polyester stent, which can be utilized in ultra-low rectal excision and can negate the formation of a defunctioning stoma. Doxycycline coated sutures have been used to overcome the post-operative weakness in anastomosis secondary to rapid matrix degradation mediated by matrix metalloproteinase. Another novel technique, the electric welding system, showed promising results in construction of a safe, neat, smooth sutureless bowel anastomosis. Various anastomotic techniques have been shown to be comparable to the standard techniques of suturing and stapling. However, most of these alternatives need

  13. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  14. Perspectives in astrophysical databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frailis, Marco; de Angelis, Alessandro; Roberto, Vito

    2004-07-01

    Astrophysics has become a domain extremely rich of scientific data. Data mining tools are needed for information extraction from such large data sets. This asks for an approach to data management emphasizing the efficiency and simplicity of data access; efficiency is obtained using multidimensional access methods and simplicity is achieved by properly handling metadata. Moreover, clustering and classification techniques on large data sets pose additional requirements in terms of computation and memory scalability and interpretability of results. In this study we review some possible solutions.

  15. Material Challenges and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-12-14

    General history and principals of Li-ion battery, characterization techniques and terminology of its operation will be discussed and explained. Current Li-ion battery applications and comparison to other energy storage and conversion systems will be outlined. Chemistry, material and design of currently commercialized Li-ion batteries will be discussed including various electrode materials for cathodes and anodes. The electrode material candidates and its physical and chemical properties including crystal structure, capacity, cycling stability, cost and safety. Also, current limitations of Li-ion batteries will be discussed.

  16. Growth outcome: nutritionist perspective.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Fattore, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to a fundamental role of early nutrition on rates of growth and development, and later health. We may identify three major fields of scientific interest and clinical application. (1) In developing countries poor growth is associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, mainly lower respiratory infections and diarrhea. In these settings, failure to promote compensatory growth may have negative short-term consequences, and the nutritionist's task is the primary prevention of nutrient deficiencies to promote the full expression of the individual genetic potential, while allowing for recovery of early secondary functional deficiencies. (2) A second challenge for nutritionists is represented by the approach to growth impairments in rare disorders, ranging from congenital disorders to chronic infections. Most disorders are favorably influenced by improved nutritional status and better growth, and patients may satisfactorily reach adolescence, pubertal and reproductive age, up to ageing. Even for the less positive conditions, an improvement in the quality of life for families is in any case a rewarding aim. (3) A third challenge is represented by the definition of the role of nutrition on growth in physiological conditions for all individuals. Concern has been raised about the potential adverse long-term consequences of accelerated child growth rates, possibly resulting in a predisposition to develop non-communicable chronic diseases in the adult age. Accordingly, this hypothesis might explain the benefits of breastfeeding in terms of slower early growth, and the fetal origins hypothesis in terms of adverse postnatal catch-up growth in infants born small. Therefore, growth as viewed by a pediatric nutritionist perspective is a complex matter, ranging from the early stages of intrauterine development up to adult ages and ageing processes. Cost/benefit analyses of interventions on growth such as cost per DALYs

  17. Fructose in perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Whether dietary fructose (as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup) has unique effects separate from its role as carbohydrate, or, in fact, whether it can be considered inherently harmful, even a toxin, has assumed prominence in nutrition. Much of the popular and scientific media have already decided against fructose and calls for regulation and taxation come from many quarters. There are conflicting data, however. Outcomes attributed to fructose — obesity, high triglycerides and other features of metabolic syndrome — are not found in every experimental test and may be more reliably caused by increased total carbohydrate. In this review, we try to put fructose in perspective by looking at the basic metabolic reactions. We conclude that fructose is best understood as part of carbohydrate metabolism. The pathways of fructose and glucose metabolism converge at the level of the triose-phosphates and, therefore, any downstream effects also occur with glucose. In addition, a substantial part of ingested fructose is turned to glucose. Regulation of fructose metabolism per se, is at the level of substrate control — the lower Km of fructokinase compared to glucokinase will affect the population of triose-phosphates. Generally deleterious effects of administering fructose alone suggest that fructose metabolism is normally controlled in part by glucose. Because the mechanisms of fructose effects are largely those of a carbohydrate, one has to ask what the proper control should be for experiments that compare fructose to glucose. In fact, there is a large literature showing benefits in replacing total carbohydrate with other nutrients, usually fat, and such experiments sensibly constitute the proper control for comparisons of the two sugars. In terms of public health, a rush to judgement analogous to the fat-cholesterol-heart story, is likely to have unpredictable outcome and unintended consequences. Popular opinion cannot be ignored in this problem and comparing fructose

  18. Fructose in perspective.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2013-01-01

    Whether dietary fructose (as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup) has unique effects separate from its role as carbohydrate, or, in fact, whether it can be considered inherently harmful, even a toxin, has assumed prominence in nutrition. Much of the popular and scientific media have already decided against fructose and calls for regulation and taxation come from many quarters. There are conflicting data, however. Outcomes attributed to fructose - obesity, high triglycerides and other features of metabolic syndrome - are not found in every experimental test and may be more reliably caused by increased total carbohydrate. In this review, we try to put fructose in perspective by looking at the basic metabolic reactions. We conclude that fructose is best understood as part of carbohydrate metabolism. The pathways of fructose and glucose metabolism converge at the level of the triose-phosphates and, therefore, any downstream effects also occur with glucose. In addition, a substantial part of ingested fructose is turned to glucose. Regulation of fructose metabolism per se, is at the level of substrate control - the lower Km of fructokinase compared to glucokinase will affect the population of triose-phosphates. Generally deleterious effects of administering fructose alone suggest that fructose metabolism is normally controlled in part by glucose. Because the mechanisms of fructose effects are largely those of a carbohydrate, one has to ask what the proper control should be for experiments that compare fructose to glucose. In fact, there is a large literature showing benefits in replacing total carbohydrate with other nutrients, usually fat, and such experiments sensibly constitute the proper control for comparisons of the two sugars. In terms of public health, a rush to judgement analogous to the fat-cholesterol-heart story, is likely to have unpredictable outcome and unintended consequences. Popular opinion cannot be ignored in this problem and comparing fructose to

  19. Modeling of gun barrel surface erosion: Historic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1996-08-01

    Results and interpretations of numerical simulations of some dominant processes influencing gun barrel propellant combustion and flow-induced erosion are presented. Results include modeled influences of erosion reduction techniques such as solid additives, vapor phase chemical modifications, and alteration of surface solid composition through use of thin coatings. Precedents and historical perspective are provided with predictions from traditional interior ballistics compared to computer simulations. Accelerating reactive combustion flow, multiphase and multicomponent transport, flow-to-surface thermal/momentum/phase change/gas-surface chemical exchanges, surface and micro-depth subsurface heating/stress/composition evolution and their roles in inducing surface cracking, spall, ablation, melting, and vaporization are considered. Recognition is given to cyclic effects of previous firing history on material preconditioning. Current perspective and outlook for future are based on results of a US Army-LLNL erosion research program covering 7 y in late 1970s. This is supplemented by more recent research on hypervelocity electromagnetic projectile launchers.

  20. Cinematique et dynamique des galaxies spirales barrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Olivier

    The total mass (luminous and dark) of galaxies is derived from their circular velocities. Spectroscopic Fabry-Perot observations of the ionized gas component of spiral galaxies allow one to derive their kinematics. In the case of purely axisymmetric velocity fields--as in non-active and unbarred spirals galaxies-- the circular velocities can be derived directly. However, the velocity fields of barred galaxies (which constitute two thirds of the spirals) exhibit strong non-circular motions and need a careful analysis to retrieve the circular component. This thesis proposes the necessary steps to recover the axisymmetric component of barred spiral galaxies. The first step was to develop the best instrumentation possible for this work. [Special characters omitted.] , which is the most sensitive photon counting camera ever developed, was coupled to a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The observations of a sample of barred spiral galaxies--the BH a BAR sample--was assembled in order to obtain the most rigourous velocity fields. Then, the Tremaine-Weinberg method, which can determine the bar pattern speed and is usually used with the observations of stellar component, has been tested on the ionised gas and gave satisfactory results. Finally, all the above techniques have been applied to the BH a BAR sample in order to study the key parameters of the galaxies' evolution--bar pattern speeds, multiple stationary waves, resonances etc.--which will allow one to use N-body+SPH simulations to model properly the non-circular motions and determine the true total mass of barred spiral galaxies.

  1. Facing Global Challenges: A European University Perspective. Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swail, Watson Scott

    2014-01-01

    This EPI Policy Perspectives covers a presentation given at the European University Association Annual Convention (March 20, 2009, in Prague, Czech Republic) that addresses the Bologna process in the European Union. The process raised many questions regarding the role of the university, and the entire tertiary/postsecondary system of education.…

  2. Perspective Taking in Older Age Revisited: A Motivational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Fung, Helene H.; Stanley, Jennifer T.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Ho, Man Yee

    2013-01-01

    How perspective-taking ability changes with age (i.e., whether older adults are better at understanding others' behaviors and intentions and show greater empathy to others or not) is not clear, with prior empirical findings on this phenomenon yielding mixed results. In a series of experiments, we investigated the phenomenon from a…

  3. "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) in Sexually Abused Children: An Exloratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Darlene Kordich

    1999-01-01

    Compares three groups of young sexually abused children on seven "Complex" Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Disorders of Extreme Stress (CP/DES) indices. As cumulative number of types of trauma increased, the number of CP/DES symptoms rose. Results suggest that CP/DES also characterizes sexually abused children, especially those who have been…

  4. The Des Moines Plan: A Plan for Student Success, 1987-88. Report of Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnelker, Diane; Tompkins, John

    The comprehensive Des Moines Plan (DMP) for Des Moines, Iowa elementary through high school students throughout the district who require academic support was evaluated, as implemented during 1987-88. The plan represents an expansion and reorganization of all district remedial programs, and receives federal, state, and local funding. The DMP…

  5. Nanometrology and its perspectives in environmental research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-A; Seo, Jung-Kwan; Kim, Taksoo; Lee, Byung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rapid increase in engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in many goods has raised significant concern about their environmental safety. Proper methodologies are therefore needed to conduct toxicity and exposure assessment of nanoparticles in the environment. This study reviews several analytical techniques for nanoparticles and summarizes their principles, advantages and disadvantages, reviews the state of the art, and offers the perspectives of nanometrology in relation to ENP studies. Methods Nanometrology is divided into five techniques with regard to the instrumental principle: microscopy, light scattering, spectroscopy, separation, and single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results Each analytical method has its own drawbacks, such as detection limit, ability to quantify or qualify ENPs, and matrix effects. More than two different analytical methods should be used to better characterize ENPs. Conclusions In characterizing ENPs, the researchers should understand the nanometrology and its demerits, as well as its merits, to properly interpret their experimental results. Challenges lie in the nanometrology and pretreatment of ENPs from various matrices; in the extraction without dissolution or aggregation, and concentration of ENPs to satisfy the instrumental detection limit. PMID:25384386

  6. MDP challenges from a software provider's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Shuichiro

    2014-10-01

    This industry faces new challenges every day. It gets tougher as process nodes shrink and the data complexity and volume increase. We are a mask data preparation (MDP) software provider, and have been providing MDP systems to mask shops since 1990. As the industry has, MDP software providers also have been facing new challenges over time, and the challenges get tougher as process nodes shrink and the data complexity and volume increase. We discuss such MDP challenges and solutions in this paper from a MDP software provider's perspective. The data volume continuously increases, and it is caused by shrinking the process node. In addition, resolution enhancement techniques (RET) such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and inverse lithography technique (ILT) induce data complexity, and it contributes considerably to the increase in data volume. The growth of data volume and complexity brings challenges to MDP system, such as the computing speed, shot count, and mask process correction (MPC). New tools (especially mask writers) also bring new challenges. Variable-shaped E-beam (VSB) mask writers demand fracturing less slivers and lower figure counts for CD accuracy and write time requirements respectively. Now multibeam mask writers are under development and will definitely bring new challenges.

  7. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices

  8. Novel imaging techniques for diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Lobo, C; Bernardes, R; Faria de Abreu, J R; Cunha-Vaz, J G

    1999-01-01

    Retinal edema should be defined as any increase of water of the retinal tissue resulting in an increase in its volume. It may be of cytotoxic or vasogenic origin. Development of vasogenic macular edema is dependent on a series of factors such as blood pressure, blood-retinal barrier permeability, retinal cell damage, retinal tissue osmotic pressure and retinal tissue compliance. Objective measurements of retinal thickness are now possible using the Retinal Thickness Analyser. Localised measurements of blood-retinal barrier permeability may also be obtained using the Retinal Leakage Analyser, a modified confocal scanning laser fluorometer, while obtaining simultaneously angiographic images of the choroid and retina. These new imaging techniques show that cytotoxic and vasogenic retinal edema may occur independently in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. These findings offer new perspectives for designing novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:10896349

  9. Comprendre la maltraitance des aînés en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter ce qui constitue la maltraitance des aînés, ce dont les médecins de famille devraient être au courant, les signes et les symptômes laissant présager de mauvais traitements chez des adultes plus âgés, comment l’outil Elder Abuse Suspicion Index peut aider à détecter la maltraitance et les options qui existent pour réagir en cas de soupçons de maltraitance. Sources des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE, PsycINFO et Social Work Abstracts pour trouver des publications en français ou en anglais, de 1970 à 2011, à l’aide des expressions elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools et signs and symptoms. Les publications pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal La maltraitance des aînés est une cause importante de morbidité et de mortalité chez les adultes plus âgés. Si les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour détecter des mauvais traitements infligés aux aînés, leurs taux réels de signalement de cas de maltraitance sont plus faibles que dans d’autres professions. Cette situation pourrait s’améliorer s’ils comprenaient mieux les genres d’agissements qui constituent de la maltraitance des aînés, ainsi que les signes et les symptômes observés au bureau qui pourraient pointer vers des cas de mauvais traitements. La détection de tels cas pourrait être facilitée par le recours à un court outil validé, comme l’Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Les médecins de famille peuvent jouer un rôle plus important dans la détection d’une éventuelle maltraitance des aînés. Une fois qu’on soupçonne de mauvais traitements, il existe dans la plupart des communautés des services sociaux ou des forces de l’ordre accessibles pour effectuer des évaluations plus approfondies et intervenir.

  10. Application de la méthode de Laue refocalisée à haute énergie à l'étude des mécanismes de recristallisation après déformation à froid de métaux CFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauveau, Th.; Gerber, Ph.; Bastie, P.; Hamelin, B.; Tarasiuk, J.; Bacroix, B.

    2002-07-01

    In order to determine the kinetics of recystallization process, the Laue diffraction method is apllied here on cold rolled and recrystallized copper materials. Firts, the results obtained from reflexion X-ray diffraction texture measurements are presented. It is shown that the both techniques are complementar, and that the transmission Laue method presents some advantadges. Some previous hypotheses are verified in this work. Especially, the Cube orientation \\{100\\} <001> loses during recrystallization its advantadge of growth, which implies the development of a mixed “deformed-recrystallized” texture at the end of the process. The nucleation step determines the final recrystallized texture. La méthode de Laue haute énergie est appliquée ici dans le but de déterminer les cinétiques de recristallisation de matériaux cuivre après laminages à froid et recuits interrompus. Après présentation des résultats obtenus par mesures classiques en réflexion, une comparaison est effectuée entre les deux techniques permettant de rendre compte des avantages certains qu'offrent des mesures en transmission et de la complémentarité des deux techniques utilisées. Quelques hypothèses sur les mécanismes régissant le processus de recristallisation sont ainsi vérifiées. Au tout début du processus de recristallisation, il a clairement été mis en évidence une perte de l'avantage de croissance des germes d'orientation Cube \\{100\\} <001> au profit des composantes constituant la texture de déformation. Dans ce type de processus, n'est préférentielle que l'étape de germination, dans le sens où elle détermine la texture finale après recristallisation.

  11. What We Did Last Summer: Depicting DES Data to Enhance Simulation Utility and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfrey, Priscilla; Conroy, Mike; Lagares, Jose G.; Mann, David; Fahmi, Mona

    2009-01-01

    At Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an important use of Discrete Event Simulation (DES) addresses ground operations .of missions to space. DES allows managers, scientists and engineers to assess the number of missions KSC can complete on a given schedule within different facilities, the effects of various configurations of resources and detect possible problems or unwanted situations. For fifteen years, DES has supported KSC efficiency, cost savings and improved safety and performance. The dense and abstract DES data, however, proves difficult to comprehend and, NASA managers realized, is subject to misinterpretation, misunderstanding and even, misuse. In summer 2008, KSC developed and implemented a NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) project based on the premise that visualization could enhance NASA's understanding and use of DES.

  12. La prévention des infections par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, JL

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infections des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, réduit le taux d’hospitalisation des enfants à haut risque mais est très coûteux. Le présent document de principes remplace les trois précédents documents de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie sur le sujet et est mis à jour principalement pour traiter des récentes modifications aux lignes directrices de l’American Academy of Pediatrics dans le contexte canadien. Il contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de l’utilisation du palivizumab chez les enfants à haut risque

  13. Approche à l’égard des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James; Bell, Alan David; Eikelboom, John; Liew, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les caractéristiques principales des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux (NACO), soit le dabigatran, le rivaroxaban et l’apixaban, et répondre aux questions qui font surface lors de la comparaison de ces agents. Qualité des données Une recherche dans PubMed a été effectuée afin de relever les études cliniques récentes (de janvier 2008 à la semaine 32 de 2013) portant sur l’emploi des NACO pour la prévention des AVC dans les cas de fibrillation auriculaire (FA) et pour le traitement de la thromboembolie veineuse aiguë. Message principal Selon 3 essais d’envergure, tous les NACO sont au moins aussi efficaces que la warfarine dans la prévention des AVC chez les patients atteints d’une FA non valvulaire, et au moins aussi sûrs pour ce qui est du risque de saignement. Des méta-analyses de ces essais ont montré que, comparativement au traitement par la warfarine, les NACO avaient réduit la mortalité totale, la mortalité d’origine cardiovasculaire et les saignements intracrâniens, et était aussi ressortie une tendance vers la réduction des saignements généraux. Du côté pratique, les avantages des NACO par rapport à la warfarine sont : posologie orale fixe uniquotidienne ou biquotidienne sans devoir surveiller la coagulation et peu d’interactions connues ou définies avec d’autres médicaments ou des aliments. Les désavantages potentiels des NACO sont notamment un risque de saignement qui serait accru chez les patients de plus de 75 ans, une hausse des saignements gastro-intestinaux majeurs avec des doses élevées de dabigatran, une hausse des cas de dyspepsie avec le dabigatran, l’absence d’un test de laboratoire de routine visant à mesurer de façon fiable l’effet anticoagulant et l’absence d’antidote pour renverser l’effet anticoagulant. Aucun essai randomisé contrôlé n’a effectué de comparaison directe des NACO, et le choix d’un NACO est influencé par les caract

  14. Prévalence des cervicalgies et douleurs des membres supérieures chez les utilisateurs d'ordinateur en milieu professionnel à Casablanca (Maroc)

    PubMed Central

    Seknaji, Nawal; Rachidi, Wafaa; Hassoune, Samira; Janani, Saadia; Nani, Samira; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane; Mkinsi, Ouafaa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les cervicalgies et douleurs du membre supérieur (CDMS) affectent des millions d'utilisateurs d'ordinateurs dans les pays développés. L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence des cervicalgies et douleurs du membre supérieur (CDMS) à Casablanca et identifier les différents facteurs de risque qui y sont impliqués, afin de définir les sous-groupes à haut risque, et d’établir des plans d'intervention efficaces. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, menée chez 118 employés de bureau francophones et utilisant l'ordinateur, à Casablanca. Les données ont été collectées de Décembre 2011 à Juin 2012, en utilisant la version française d'un questionnaire validé: Maastricht-Upper-extremity-Questionnaire. Résultats 118 utilisateurs d'ordinateur en milieu professionnel ont été recrutés. Parmi les employés enquêtés, 93% ont rapporté des CDMS localisées au moins à un site. Les plaintes les plus fréquemment rapportées étaient les douleurs des épaules et les cervicalgies (48,3% et 46,6% respectivement). Nous n'avons pas remarqué de différence significative des fréquences des douleurs selon le genre. Nos résultats concordent avec les données de la littérature où il existe un certain consensus quant à l'impact des mauvaises conditions ergonomiques sur les troubles musculo-squelettiques du membre supérieur en milieu professionnel. De même, les études récentes examinant les effets combinés et/ou interactifs tant des facteurs biomécaniques/physiques que de facteurs psychosociaux professionnels vont de pair avec nos résultats. Conclusion Il en ressort que les stratégies d'intervention visant à réduire les CDMS doivent agir essentiellement sur 3 volets, le premier correspond à l'amélioration et la sensibilisation quant au respect des conditions ergonomiques, le second concerne l'amélioration des conditions psychosociales. Enfin le troisième volet vise la rationalisant de la demande de

  15. Bioanalytical applications of isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huimin; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The most popular in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including real-time PCR are costly and require thermocycling, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Highly efficient in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques using simple, portable and low-cost instruments are crucial in disease diagnosis, mutation detection and biodefense. Toward this goal, isothermal amplification techniques that represent a group of attractive in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques for bioanalysis have been developed. Unlike PCR where polymerases are easily deactivated by thermally labile constituents in a sample, some of the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as helicase-dependent amplification and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, enable the detection of bioanalytes with much simplified protocols and with minimal sample preparations since the entire amplification processes are performed isothermally. This review focuses on the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques and their applications in bioanalytical chemistry. Starting off from their amplification mechanisms and significant properties, the adoption of isothermal amplification techniques in bioanalytical chemistry and their future perspectives are discussed. Representative examples illustrating the performance and advantages of each isothermal amplification technique are discussed along with some discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. PMID:25467448

  16. Cosmology from Cosmic Shear with DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.

    2015-07-20

    We present the first constraints on cosmology from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), using weak lensing measurements from the preliminary Science Verification (SV) data. We use 139 square degrees of SV data, which is less than 3% of the full DES survey area. Using cosmic shear 2-point measurements over three redshift bins we find σ8(m=0.3)0.5 = 0:81 ± 0:06 (68% confidence), after marginalising over 7 systematics parameters and 3 other cosmological parameters. Furthermore, we examine the robustness of our results to the choice of data vector and systematics assumed, and find them to be stable. About 20% of our error bar comes from marginalising over shear and photometric redshift calibration uncertainties. The current state-of-the-art cosmic shear measurements from CFHTLenS are mildly discrepant with the cosmological constraints from Planck CMB data. Our results are consistent with both datasets. Our uncertainties are ~30% larger than those from CFHTLenS when we carry out a comparable analysis of the two datasets, which we attribute largely to the lower number density of our shear catalogue. We investigate constraints on dark energy and find that, with this small fraction of the full survey, the DES SV constraints make negligible impact on the Planck constraints. The moderate disagreement between the CFHTLenS and Planck values of σ8m=0.3)0.5 is present regardless of the value of w.

  17. Sensorimotor System Measurement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Riemann, Bryan L.; Myers, Joseph B.; Lephart, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of currently available sensorimotor assessment techniques. Data Sources: We drew information from an extensive review of the scientific literature conducted in the areas of proprioception, neuromuscular control, and motor control measurement. Literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE for the years 1965 to 1999 with the key words proprioception, somatosensory evoked potentials, nerve conduction testing, electromyography, muscle dynamometry, isometric, isokinetic, kinetic, kinematic, posture, equilibrium, balance, stiffness, neuromuscular, sensorimotor, and measurement. Additional sources were collected using the reference lists of identified articles. Data Synthesis: Sensorimotor measurement techniques are discussed with reference to the underlying physiologic mechanisms, influential factors and locations of the variable within the system, clinical research questions, limitations of the measurement technique, and directions for future research. Conclusions/Recommendations: The complex interactions and relationships among the individual components of the sensorimotor system make measuring and analyzing specific characteristics and functions difficult. Additionally, the specific assessment techniques used to measure a variable can influence attained results. Optimizing the application of sensorimotor research to clinical settings can, therefore, be best accomplished through the use of common nomenclature to describe underlying physiologic mechanisms and specific measurement techniques. PMID:16558672

  18. Renal imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, K; Hierholzer, J

    1997-01-01

    The ancient approach to obtain an image of the kidneys (and other internal organs) was 'section-inspection-imaging' by drawing, painting, sculpturing, and modelling. The present study follows chronologically the development and use of sectioning techniques from ancient (often forbidden) methods to modern microdissection and maceration of silicone-rubber-injected tubules. Inspection evolved from the use of the naked eye to magnifying lenses, microscopes and finally electron microscopy. Pertinent examples such as the description of the kidneys as the site of urine formation, the visualization of loop structures in the renal medulla and the imaging of tight junction strands are discussed. Inspection or visualization of renal structure and function has been revolutionized by modern noninvasive techniques, such as X-ray imaging, imaging by radioisotopes, ultrasound, computer tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Pertinent examples are given demonstrating the potency of the various techniques. The contribution of computerized data evaluation is discussed. The development of micropuncture and microperfusion techniques has opened the field for direct imaging not only of renal (sub)structural details but also of functional parameters such as transtubular reabsorption rates, single glomerular capillary filtration and conductance of the paracellular pathway. We focus particularly on techniques specifically designed to visualize renal hemodynamic and transport parameters. PMID:9189257

  19. MEMS metrology techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Erik

    2004-12-01

    The MEMS industry currently produces over $13 billion in annual revenue, with devices in such diverse applications as blood pressure sensors, projection displays, optical switches, printers, hard drives, and gyroscopes. As production techniques improve, ever more functions may be served by MEMS, and the industry is growing at an annual rate of more than 15%. The large diversity of MEMS leads to many challenges in metrology, as each design has different critical factors which will affect its performance. Unlike traditional semiconductor devices, MEMS require characterization both in their static state and under actuation. Parameters of interest include shape, dimensions, surface roughness, sidewall angles, film thickness, residual stress, feature volumes, response times, thermal properties, resonance frequencies, stiction, environmental immunity and more. This talk will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of techniques for MEMS surface metrology. Bright- and dark-field microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact and non-contact surface profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laser Doppler vibrometry and digital holography are some of the primary techniques used to evaluate MEMS surfaces and motion. While no single technique can fully characterize all MEMS devices, or even one device under all conditions, the utility of each of the different types of instruments is increasing as they are pushed by MEMS and other industries to provide more characterization capability. With a broad understanding of the various metrology techniques available, the one or few critical instruments to measure a given class of devices will hopefully be more easily understood.

  20. MEMS metrology techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The MEMS industry currently produces over $13 billion in annual revenue, with devices in such diverse applications as blood pressure sensors, projection displays, optical switches, printers, hard drives, and gyroscopes. As production techniques improve, ever more functions may be served by MEMS, and the industry is growing at an annual rate of more than 15%. The large diversity of MEMS leads to many challenges in metrology, as each design has different critical factors which will affect its performance. Unlike traditional semiconductor devices, MEMS require characterization both in their static state and under actuation. Parameters of interest include shape, dimensions, surface roughness, sidewall angles, film thickness, residual stress, feature volumes, response times, thermal properties, resonance frequencies, stiction, environmental immunity and more. This talk will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of techniques for MEMS surface metrology. Bright- and dark-field microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact and non-contact surface profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laser Doppler vibrometry and digital holography are some of the primary techniques used to evaluate MEMS surfaces and motion. While no single technique can fully characterize all MEMS devices, or even one device under all conditions, the utility of each of the different types of instruments is increasing as they are pushed by MEMS and other industries to provide more characterization capability. With a broad understanding of the various metrology techniques available, the one or few critical instruments to measure a given class of devices will hopefully be more easily understood.

  1. Techniques of Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

  2. Hawthorne Academy: The University Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazee, Bruce M.; Frazee, Felicia F.

    2005-01-01

    This article revisits the Trinity University and Hawthorne School partnership since the first case study written 10 years ago. This new perspective analyzes the teacher education program-particularly beliefs and attitudes about it and changes made to the program-with an eye to two primary themes: preparing future teachers and Hawthorne's Core…

  3. Building Pedagogical Intelligence. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    2005-01-01

    It is hard to find a campus today that does not collect student evaluations of teaching. Not everyone, it is true, puts full stock in the results, but it is hard to argue with the idea that students have important perspectives to contribute. The writer advocates that listening to students is a good idea that does not go far enough. Describing…

  4. Current Perspectives in Distributive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaurens, Mary K., Ed.; Trapnell, Gail, Ed.

    The volume on current perspectives in distributive education contains 29 individually authored articles organized into three sections. The first section on program conceptualization deals with the following subjects: the evolution of distributive education, program planning, advisory committees, placement services, postsecondary distributive…

  5. International Refugees: A Geographical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demko, George J.; Wood, William B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the problem of international refugees from a geographical perspective. Focuses on sub-saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and southeast Asia. Concludes that geographers can and should use their skills and intellectual tools to address and help resolve this global problem. (JDH)

  6. Perspectives from Marketing Internship Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Scott R.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Internship research published in marketing and business education journals primarily examine student perspectives about internships or reports results based on other business disciplines. To more accurately understand how employers perceive marketing interns and internships, 352 managers located in the Midwestern United States were surveyed.…

  7. Educational Leadership: An Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda

    2006-01-01

    Ethnocentric concepts, theories and practices in education, predominantly embedded in western philosophy and values, tend to ignore the growing multicultural nature of educational institutions. This article draws attention to the knowledge gap in mainstream literature regarding diverse perspectives of educational leadership--an issue which is…

  8. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  9. International Perspectives in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Marilyn B.; Wood, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Across the United States, efforts are being made to add an international perspective to teacher education, to expand global awareness. A program at the University of South Dakota, that includes strategies for faculty development, curriculum modification, and locating resources and funding, is described. (MT)

  10. Historical Perspectives on Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    This transcription of the keynote speech delivered at a conference on the black family is a discussion of the black family from an historical perspective. The presentation begins with quotations from ancient African literature and a discussion of the archaeological history of the African continent with references to authors who have used this…

  11. Teachers' Perspectives on Principal Mistreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph; Blase, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Although there is some important scholarly work on the problem of workplace mistreatment/abuse, theoretical or empirical work on abusive school principals is nonexistent. Symbolic interactionism was the theoretical structure for the present study. This perspective on social research is founded on three primary assumptions: (1) individuals act…

  12. Comparative Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Brian V.

    Three possible directions for literacy research in the United Kingdom (UK), in terms of three comparative perspectives are (1) cross-cultural, (2) academic/practitioner, and (3) adult/school. Walter Ong's argument that with the advent of writing human consciousness and ways of thinking were altered fundamentally, underlies many of the claims for…

  13. Intellectual Property: An Academician's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatz, Joel L.

    1989-01-01

    Issues concerning intellectual property are reviewed from the faculty perspective. General issues discussed include patents and the reason for their pursuit, important dates, patent literature, and handling inventions. Faculty issues include sources of research support, publication, the responsibility of students in research, recordkeeping, and…

  14. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  15. Perspectives on the Anorectic Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony; Bode, Jacquelyn

    1981-01-01

    Studies the anorectic student who is becoming more evident on the college campus, and who often evokes strong emotional response. Stresses that realistic perspectives be maintained by college counselors and administrators. Explains the characteristics of anorexia nervosa and provides guidelines for responding to the student. (Author)

  16. Online Learning: A Student Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    An instructor taking an online course presents her view from the perspective of student. Discussion includes assuring the online course was acceptable for traditional course transfer credit; registering; e-mailing assignments while the Web conferencing system was down; class demographics; the backlog that occurred from not checking the system…

  17. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  18. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of conference papers explores the application of a range of different disciplinary perspectives to studying literacy, drawing not only on newer linguistic and cognitive psychological orientations, but also on cultural anthropology, sociolinguistics, reader-response theory, critical theory, and poststructuralist theory. The…

  19. Crosscultural Perspectives of Musical Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1990-01-01

    Examines music creativity from a cross-cultural perspective. Delineates the difference between creativity and re-creativity giving cultural examples of each. Discusses the differences between composition and improvisation and analyzes the language of musical expression. Describes the cultural traditions of musical creativity in India, China, Iran,…

  20. Feminist Perspectives on Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla

    Feminist perspectives provide a basis for examining the nature of participation in outdoor experiences, the goals of outdoor leadership, and the meanings associated with the outdoors. Feminism is concerned with the correction of both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to social change and removal of social…

  1. Fresh Perspectives on School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, David J.

    2004-01-01

    School choice advocacy is dominated by perspectives that reflect a tendency to regard public schooling as a private service commodity. In recent years, numerous works of Anglo-American political philosophy, sociology and legal theory have attempted to restore a conception of public schooling as an institution that cultivates civic virtue.…

  2. Tau decays: A theoretical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical predictions for various tau decay rates are reviewed. Effects of electroweak radiative corrections are described. Implications for precision tests of the standard model and ``new physics`` searches are discussed. A perspective on the tau decay puzzle and 1-prong problem is given.

  3. Tau decays: A theoretical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical predictions for various tau decay rates are reviewed. Effects of electroweak radiative corrections are described. Implications for precision tests of the standard model and new physics'' searches are discussed. A perspective on the tau decay puzzle and 1-prong problem is given.

  4. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  5. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  6. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  7. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing Effective Adult Education Programs: Needs and Objectives" and "Design,…

  8. Functional Sentence Perspective and Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Kopple, William J.

    Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP) is a theory that predicts how units of information should be distributed in a sentence and how sentences should be related in a discourse. A binary topic-comment structure is assigned to each FSP sentence. For most English sentences, the topic is associated with the subject or the left-most noun phrase, and…

  9. International Perspectives on Technological Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrenfurth, Michael J.

    A study examined international perspectives on the concept of technological literacy and on different attitudes toward the need for technological literacy education in various countries throughout the world. The study was based on interviews with persons in attendance at one or more of five major international conferences and meetings held during…

  10. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  11. Theoretical Perspectives for Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

    This monograph from the University of Minnesota General College (GC) discusses theoretical perspectives on developmental education from both new and established standpoints. GC voluntarily eliminated its degree programs in order to focus on preparing under-prepared students for transfer to the university system. GC's curricular model includes a…

  12. Youth Suicide: A Psychosocial Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Draws on studies in different cultures and subcultures and in different age groups to develop a psychosocial perspective for viewing youthful suicide. Uses disciplines ranging from demography to psychodynamics to discuss relationship of violence to suicide; role of families in producing youngsters who become preoccupied with death and suicide; and…

  13. Lifelong Learning from Ethical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najder-Stefaniak, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    The author reflects upon the specific character of ethics as a domain of knowledge that came into being in order to gather truths, which would help human beings to wisely take care of themselves. She argues that the ethical perspective should be taken into account while planning the lifelong learning activities. Further, she notes that if the goal…

  14. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  15. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  16. Social Competence: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Harris, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01

    Effective peer relations and the enhancement of social interactions in young children play a central role in the discussion of social competence. Developmental issues relevant to the assessment of social competence including perspective taking, conceptions of friendship, interpersonal strategies and problem solving, moral judgments, and…

  17. Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue offers a collection of articles focusing on support groups for parents of infants and toddlers, including the following: (1) "Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups" (Nick Carter and Cathie Harvey) which reviews the purposes, history, and essential ingredients of such groups; (2) "The MELD Experience with Parent Groups" (Joyce…

  18. Perspectives on a Torts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Anita

    1993-01-01

    One law professor has added interest to a torts course by asking students to select one of five perspectives (economics, corrective justice, feminism, libertarianism, and practicality) on the course content and study it throughout the course. On the final examination, each student must answer one essay question from that viewpoint. (MSE)

  19. YOUTH EDUCATION, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES, PROMISES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUESSIG, RAYMOND H.

    IN AN ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORARY ADOLESCENT EDUCATION BY SEVEN MEMBERS OF A YEARBOOK COMMITTEE, FIVE PERSPECTIVES--SOCIAL-PHILOSOPHICAL, PSYCHOPHYSICAL, LITERARY, CURRICULAR, AND METHODOLOGICAL--ARE CONSIDERED, AND CONSTRUCTIVE PROPOSALS FOR SOLVING RELATED PROBLEMS ARE SUGGESTED. AN INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER DISCUSSES THE BASIC TEEN-AGE PROBLEM AREAS OF…

  20. DES exposure checker: Dark Energy Survey image quality control crowdsourcer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, Peter; Sheldon, Erin; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Rykoff, Eli S.

    2015-11-01

    DES exposure checker renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes, thus allowing image quality control for the Dark Energy Survey to be crowdsourced through its web application. Users can also generate custom labels to help identify previously unknown problem classes; generated reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. These problem reports allow rapid correction of artifacts that otherwise may be too subtle or infrequent to be recognized.

  1. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis. [Des Moines, Iowa area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Seven heterogeneous areas within the Des Moines, Iowa area test site were selected to define candidate spectral training classes using a clustering algorithm. In addition to the 91 cluster (nonsupervised) classes, three supervised training classes were defined and subsequently included in the training statistics file. The identity of all 94 candidate classes were determined using available reference data. Through analysis of the interclass separabilities, the original 94 candidate training classes were reduced to 42 spectrally separable final classes. The minimum average transformed divergence values for the 42 spectral classes and for the best subsets of TM spectral bands are shown in a table.

  2. Le syndrome des brides amniotiques et ses difficultés diagnostiques et de prise en charge au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nagalo, Kisito; Badiel, Roger; Kouéta, Fla; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome des brides amniotiques est une embryo-foetopathie rare, d’étiopathogénie encore inconnue, caractérisé par des malformations crânio-faciales, thoraco-abdominales, des membres et des extrémités. Afin de discuter des difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques du syndrome des brides amniotiques, nous rapportons cinq cas de ce syndrome. Ces cas représentaient autant de phénotypes de la maladie mais avec quelques singularités. Les deux premiers étaient des cas de maladie des brides amniotiques caractérisés l'un par une amputation d'un membre inférieur associée à des lésions cutanées et à une surdité, l'autre par des strictions avec amputation des doigts associées à une fente labio-palatine, une cataracte congénitale et un strabisme. Les trois autres cas correspondaient à des formes létales du Limb Body Wall Complex dont deux avec attache placento-crânienne et un avec attache placento-abdominale. Le renforcement du diagnostic anténatal, l'instauration du conseil génétique et la mise en place d'un registre national des malformations devraient permettre d'améliorer la prise en charge des cas du syndrome des brides amniotiques. PMID:26113939

  3. Keratoconus: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vazirani, Jayesh; Basu, Sayan

    2013-01-01

    Keratoconus is characterized by progressive corneal protrusion and thinning, leading to irregular astigmatism and impairment in visual function. The etiology and pathogenesis of the condition are not fully understood. However, significant strides have been made in early clinical detection of the disease, as well as towards providing optimal optical and surgical correction for improving the quality of vision in affected patients. The past two decades, in particular, have seen exciting new developments promising to alter the natural history of keratoconus in a favorable way for the first time. This comprehensive review focuses on analyzing the role of advanced imaging techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of keratoconus and evaluating the evidence supporting or refuting the efficacy of therapeutic advances for keratoconus, such as newer contact lens designs, collagen crosslinking, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, intracorneal ring segments, photorefractive keratectomy, and phakic intraocular lenses. PMID:24143069

  4. Geomorphology: A Canadian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuto, Jim

    Geomorphology is a hot discipline. Recent interest in river restoration, climate change, geomorphic hazards such as landslides and tsunamis, controlled floods, and other issues has increased the visibility of geomorphology as a profession. New methods involving the Global Positioning System, remote sensing, numerical simulation, laboratory experimentation, and novel dating techniques have created new research opportunities. The number of jobs in academia, industry, and the public sector is rising. What is the best way to convey this excitement to students, while at the same time properly training them? The traditional approach is an introductory course at the undergraduate level, built around a general textbook. When I teach geomorphology, I do not use a textbook but rather rely on original readings and field-based exercises to introduce students to geomorphic concepts and methods.

  5. Hypertension in perspective

    PubMed Central

    Terpstra, W.F.; Zijlstra, F.

    2005-01-01

    Decisions about the management of hypertensive patients should not be based on the level of blood pressure alone, but also on the presence of other risk factors, target organ damage and cardiovascular and renal disease. The results of echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography aids in the stratification of absolute cardiovascular risk as recently advocated by the guidelines of the European Society of Hypertension 2003. Therefore, the detection of target organ damage by ultrasound techniques allows an accurate identification of high-risk patients. Cardiovascular risk stratification only based on a simple routine work-up can often underestimate overall risk, thus leading to a potentially inadequate therapeutic management especially of low-medium risk patients. PMID:25696486

  6. Human reproduction: Jewish perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2013-11-01

    Developments in science and technology and corresponding clinical applications raise new religious questions, often without clear answers. The role of theology in bioethics is integral to clarify perceived attitudes toward these developments for different religious communities. The Jewish attitude towards procreation is derived from the first commandment of God to Adam to 'Be fruitful and multiply'. Judaism allows the practice of all techniques of assisted reproduction when the oocyte and spermatozoon originate from the wife and husband respectively. This paper presents the attitude of Jewish Law -- Halacha to therapeutic procedures, such as IVF-embryo transfer, spermatozoa, oocytes, embryo donation, cryopreservation of genetic material, surrogacy, posthumous reproduction, gender preselection, reproductive and therapeutic cloning. PMID:24000935

  7. In-situ investigation of stress conditions during expansion of bare metal stents and PLLA-coated stents using the XRD sin(2)ψ-technique.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Wolfgang; Dammer, Markus; Bakczewitz, Frank; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Grabow, Niels; Kessler, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Drug eluting stents (DES) consist of platform, coating and drug. The platform often is a balloon-expandable bare metal stent made of the CoCr alloy L-605 or stainless steel 316 L. The function of the coating, typically a permanent polymer, is to hold and release the drug, which should improve therapeutic outcome. Before implantation, DES are compressed (crimped) to allow implantation in the human body. During implantation, DES are expanded by balloon inflation. Crimping, as well as expansion, causes high stresses and high strains locally in the DES struts, as well as in the polymer coating. These stresses and strains are important design criteria of DES. Usually, they are calculated numerically by finite element analysis (FEA), but experimental results for validation are hardly available. In this work, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) sin(2)ψ-technique is applied to in-situ determination of stress conditions of bare metal L-605 stents, and Poly-(L-lactide) (PLLA) coated stents. This provides a realistic characterization of the near-surface stress state and a validation option of the numerical FEA. XRD-results from terminal stent struts of the bare metal stent show an increasing compressive load stress in tangential direction with increasing stent expansion. These findings correlate with numerical FEA results. The PLLA-coating also bears increasing compressive load stress during expansion. PMID:25974098

  8. A behaviorist perspective.

    PubMed

    Treisman, Glenn J; Clark, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is a sensory experience that produces suffering and functional impairment and is the result of both sensory input as well as secondary adaptation of the nervous system. The sensitization of the nervous system to pain is influenced by physical activity (or inactivity) and medication exposure. Medication taking and physical activity are behaviors that are increased or decreased by positive and negative reinforcement. Patients often have comorbid psychiatric conditions at presentation, including addictions, mood disorders, personality vulnerabilities and life circumstances that amplify their disability and impede their recovery. Behavioral conditioning contributes to chronic pain disorders in the form of both classical (Pavlov) and operant (Skinner) conditioning that increases the experience of pain, the liability to ongoing injury, the central amplification of pain, the use of reinforcing medications such as opiates and benzodiazepines, and behaviors associated with disability. The term 'abnormal illness behavior' has been used to describe behaviors that are associated with illness but are not explained physiologically. Behavioral conditioning often amplifies these abnormal behaviors in patients with chronic pain. Addiction can also be seen as a behavior that is reinforced and conditioned. The same factors that amplify abnormal illness behaviors also increase the liability to addiction. Psychiatric comorbidities also complicate and amplify abnormal illness behaviors and addictive behaviors and further contribute to the disability of chronic pain patients. Model interventions that reinforce healthy behaviors and extinguish illness behaviors are effective in patients with addictions and chronic pain. Maladaptive behaviors including addictive behaviors can be used as targets for classical and operant conditioning techniques, and these techniques are demonstrably effective in patients with chronic pain and addictions. PMID:21508624

  9. Optimisation multi-objectif des systemes energetiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipama, Jean

    optimization method which is very robust and widely used to solve problems usually difficult to handle by traditional methods. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used in previous research and proved to be efficient in optimizing heat exchangers networks (HEN) (Dipama et al., 2008). So, HEN have been synthesized to recover the maximum heat in an industrial process. The optimization problem formulated in the context of this work consists of a single objective, namely the maximization of energy recovery. The optimization algorithm developed in this thesis extends the ability of GAs by taking into account several objectives simultaneously. This algorithm provides an innovation in the method of finding optimal solutions, by using a technique which consist of partitioning the solutions space in the form of parallel grids called "watching corridors". These corridors permit to specify areas (the observation corridors) in which the most promising feasible solutions are found and used to guide the search towards optimal solutions. A measure of the progress of the search is incorporated into the optimization algorithm to make it self-adaptive through the use of appropriate genetic operators at each stage of optimization process. The proposed method allows a fast convergence and ensure a diversity of solutions. Moreover, this method gives the algorithm the ability to overcome difficulties associated with optimizing problems with complex Pareto front landscapes (e.g., discontinuity, disjunction, etc.). The multi-objective optimization algorithm has been first validated using numerical test problems found in the literature as well as energy systems optimization problems. Finally, the proposed optimization algorithm has been applied for the optimization of the secondary loop of Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, and a set of solutions have been found which permit to make the power plant operate in optimal conditions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique

    PubMed Central

    Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460

  11. Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ali Fahir; Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer

    2016-08-01

    The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460

  12. Digital vibration control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, P.; Kim, B. K.; Boctor, W.

    1974-01-01

    Analog vibration control techniques are reviewed and are compared with digital techniques. The advantages of the digital methods over the analog methods are demonstrated. The following topics are covered: (1) methods of computer-controlled random vibration and reverberation acoustic testing; (2) methods of computer-controlled sinewave vibration testing; and (3) methods of computer-controlled shock testing. Basic concepts are stressed rather than specific techniques or equipment. General algorithms are described in the form of block diagrams and flow diagrams. Specific problems and potential problems are discussed. The material is computer sciences oriented but is kept at a level that facilitates an understanding of the basic concepts of computer-controlled induced environmental test systems.

  13. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

  14. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2009-01-01

    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques. PMID:20108488

  15. Exploring Perspectives and Identifying Potential Challenges Encountered with Crime Scene Investigations When Developing Chemistry Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanu, A. Bakarr; Pajski, Megan; Hartman, Machelle; Kimaru, Irene; Marine, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In today's complex world, there is a continued demand for recently graduated forensic chemists (criminalists) who have some background in forensic experimental techniques. This article describes modern forensic experimental approaches designed and implemented from a unique instructional perspective to present certain facets of crime scene…

  16. Parental Abduction from the Perspective of the Victims: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Mary Jo L.

    2009-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that examined parental abductions from the perspective of the abductee. The results will help counseling professionals better to understand the psychological consequences of parental abduction, coping mechanisms that were used by the abducted children and counseling techniques and strategies that helped the children…

  17. Perspectives of Teachers and Students toward Cooperative Learning Jigsaw Tasks in Taiwanese EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li Li

    2010-01-01

    The problem: The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives of both teachers and students toward the CL (Cooperative Learning) Jigsaw technique as an instructional approach within university level English learning in Taiwan. Method: A qualitative descriptive approach was utilized to discover and interpret the elements of both…

  18. Perspectives from the European Language Portfolio: Learner Autonomy and Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Barbel, Ed.; Cavana, Maria Luisa Perez, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Using constructivist principles and autonomous learning techniques the ELP has pioneered innovative and cutting edge approaches to learning languages that can be applied to learning across the spectrum. Although articles on the success of the ELP project have appeared in some academic journals, "Perspectives from the European Language Portfolio"…

  19. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  20. Stochastic Feedforward Control Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1990-01-01

    Class of commanded trajectories modeled as stochastic process. Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research and development program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center aimed at developing capabilities for increases in capacities of airports, safe and accurate flight in adverse weather conditions including shear, winds, avoidance of wake vortexes, and reduced consumption of fuel. Advances in techniques for design of modern controls and increased capabilities of digital flight computers coupled with accurate guidance information from Microwave Landing System (MLS). Stochastic feedforward control technique developed within context of ATOPS program.