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Sample records for peru nutritional strategies

  1. Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document examines the current difficult situation in Peru in light of its historical past. It gives students the opportunity to relate to the problems that the majority of Peruvians are facing and to see how Peru's people are working together for solutions. The text deals with contemporary issues such as the greenhouse effect, the loss of the…

  2. Peru.

    PubMed

    1987-12-01

    This publication provides a brief account of Peru's geographic, history, government, and political and economic conditions. With an area of 1.28 million sq. km., Peru is the third largest country in South American and is home to 20.2 million inhabitants (6 million live in the capital city of Lima). The population is 45% Indian, 37% mestizo, 15% white, and 3% black, Asian, and other. The 2 official languages are Spanish and Quechua. Its literacy rate stands at 79%, and its infant mortality rate and life expectancy measure 91/1000 and 60.8 years respectively. Peru's pre-Colombian period notes the impressive achievements of the Inca civilization, which was conquered by Spain in 1531. The country gained its independence from Spanish rule in 1821. The article also mentions Peru's turbulent contemporary history, with territorial disputes, a strong military presence, and a series of coups that have interrupted civilian constitutional governments. As recently as 1985, Peru had its first exchange of power from 1 democratically elected leader to another in 40 years, when 36 year-old Alan Garcia Perez became president. Leader of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), GArcia espouses leftist but not non-communist politics, and is well-known for his message of anti-imperialism and Latin American integration. Peru's has seen terrorist activity from 2 marxist organizations, the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (The Shining Path) and the MRTA-MIR (Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement-Movement of the Revolutionary Left. In 1986, Peru's economy had a $17 billion Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a per capital GDP of $839, and an inflation rate of 62.9. The article also provides information concerning US economic assistance to Peru, as well as an assessment of US-Peruvian relations. PMID:12178073

  3. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334

  4. Unilever Nutrition Strategy and Examples in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Karen; Kamonpatana, Kom; Bao, Jason; Ramos-Buenviaje, Joy; Wagianto, Andriyani; Yeap, Pau-wei

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in Asia are facing challenges from undernutrition, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases. Unilever, as a global food business, has a simple approach to nutrition strategy: 'better products' help people to enjoy 'better diets' and live 'better lives.' For 'Better Products,' Unilever strives to improve the taste and nutritional qualities of all our products. By 2020, we commit to double the proportion of our entire global portfolio meeting the highest nutrition standards, based on globally recognised dietary guidelines. Unilever sets a clear plan to achieve reduction of sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and calories in our products. Unilever developed fortified seasoning and spread products in 2013 for Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines in collaboration with government bodies to address nutrient deficiencies. For 'Better Diets and Better Lives,' Unilever uses targeted communication to raise awareness and promote behavior change for healthy lifestyles. We committed to full nutrition labeling on our food products by 2015. We contribute experience to science-based regional initiatives on product labeling as well as nutrient profiling. Unilever collaborated with international, regional and country bodies to promote consumer understanding and food accessibility on public health priorities such as proper salt consumption, healthier meals, and employee well-being programs. Looking ahead, we are continuing to improve the nutritional profile of our products as well as our communication to improve diets and lives. Collaboration between industry, government and public health organizations is needed to address complex diet and life style issues. PMID:26598880

  5. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  6. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  7. Nutritional strategies for frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Collins, Nancy; Dorner, Becky; Sloan, Colleen

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this continuing education article are to analyze the aging process and its effect on the nutritional status of frail older adults; determine how sarcopenia, anorexia, malnutrition, and Alzheimer disease increase the risk for pressure ulcer development and impact the healing process; and to apply evidence-based nutrition guidelines and implement practical solutions for wound healing. PMID:23426414

  8. Identifying the malnourished within Peru: regional variation in the performance of a nutrition indicator.

    PubMed

    Leon, M E; Serdula, M; Williamson, D F; Nieburg, P; Sullivan, K; Boring, J R

    1990-03-01

    Malnourished children may also have siblings at increased risk of poor health. Early identification of siblings at risk could lead to timely intervention to prevent the development of malnutrition or other potentially life-threatening events. In a nationwide survey conducted in Peru in 1984, stunting in an older sibling (defined as height/age less than or equal to 3.00 SD of the NCHS/CDC reference median) was evaluated as an indicator for stunting in a target sibling (next youngest) sibling) (n = 3284). The prevalence of stunting was much higher in target siblings who had an older sibling with stunting compared to those whose older sibling was not stunted, with prevalence ratios of 8.5 in Lima, 4.7 in urban areas, and 2.5 in rural areas. Screening indices (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value positive) also showed marked variation across regions. The variation in this indicator's performance across regions demonstrates the importance of evaluating screening tools within the populations where they will be applied. Regional variations in the performance of malnutrition indicators should be anticipated because malnutrition is the result of a complex, multifactorial process. PMID:2190943

  9. [Differences and similarities in approach of integrated strategy for dengue prevention and control between Colombia and Peru].

    PubMed

    Castro-Orozco, Raimundo; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Gómez-Arias, Rubén

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed and compared two Integrated Management Strategies for Dengue Prevention and Control (IMS-dengue Colombia and IMS-dengue Peru), through a narrative review of available literature, in order to identify common and dissimilar patterns in two Andean countries with epidemiological differences in the context of dengue disease. We were able to identify differences related to: formal assessment of problem, formation of groups of actors, and quantitative information provided by performance indicators. These limitations identified in IMS-dengue Colombia 2006-2010 were overcome in a new version of the strategy (IMS-dengue Colombia 2012-2021). We were able to document an epidemiological impact of implementation of IMS-dengue Colombia 2006-2010. Additionally, a gradual increase was observed in incidence rates of dengue cases that could be related to the strengthening of surveillance system of IMS- dengue Peru. PMID:26732932

  10. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. PMID:26830740

  11. Peer-led theater as a nutrition education strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes the creative process of using peer-led theater as a nutrition education strategy with Latino youth promoting healthy traditional Mexican foods. The article focuses on the theatrical principles involved and is written primarily for an audience of theater professionals. The inte...

  12. Evidence-informed strategies for undergraduate nutrition education: a review.

    PubMed

    Newton, Genevieve; Bettger, William; Buchholz, Andrea; Kulak, Verena; Racey, Megan

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on evidence-informed strategies to enhance learning in undergraduate nutrition education. Here, we describe the general shift in undergraduate education from a teacher-centered model of teaching to a student-centered model and present approaches that have been proposed to address the challenges associated with this shift. We further discuss case-based, project-based, and community-based learning, patient simulation, and virtual clinical trials as educational strategies to improve students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills; these strategies are well suited to the teaching of undergraduate nutrition. The strategies are defined, and we discuss the potential benefits to students and how they can be applied specifically to the teaching of undergraduate nutrition. Finally, we provide a critical analysis of the limitations associated with these techniques and propose several directions for future research, including research methodologies that may best evaluate teaching strategies in terms of both teaching and learning outcomes. Consideration of these evidence-informed strategies is warranted, given their ability to encourage students to develop relevant skills that will facilitate their transition beyond the university classroom. PMID:25962618

  13. [Community nutrition strategy project: an innovation in community health].

    PubMed

    Diallo, I; Ndiaye, B; Pouye, A; Gaye, I A; Sy, A; Sarr, R; Tall-Dia, A

    1998-01-01

    The strategy of the community nutrition project is based on the utilization of the community development structures to deliver the nutrition services. These structures, represented in Senegal by youth associations, women groups, GIEs and NGOs, are part of the decentralization process, and as such play an important role in health and health development activities in poor urban districts. The Community Nutrition Project (CNP), funded for five years by the World Bank, German Cooperation (KFW), World Food Program (WFP) and the Senegalese government aims to halt further deterioration in the nutrition status of the most vulnerable groups in the poorest urban districts of Senegal. All nutrition services and particularly the IEC services have been entirely contracted out the first year to 76 GIEs involving 323 unemployed persons, operating as micro-enterprises "MIC" and 17 "GIEs" of unemployed physicians, pharmacists, and social workers for a total of 34 persons, organized as "maître d'Oeuvre communautaires "MOC", in charge of the supervision tasks. Each community nutrition center recruits and monitors every six months 460 to 600 beneficiaries composed of women at six months of pregnancy, lactating mother of children under 6 months, and a group of children aged from 6 to 35 months old. An average of 87% of registered children in the nutrition centers are weekly or monthly weighted. Thus the proportion of malnourished children in cohort of children followed from January to July 1996 has decreased from 70% to 25% within six months. The malnutrition rate has been reduced up to 65% after six months. PMID:10797950

  14. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  15. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  16. Improved marathon performance by in-race nutritional strategy intervention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Emanuelsen, Anders; Gertsen, Robert Mørkegaard; Sørensen S, S R

    2014-12-01

    It was tested whether a marathon was completed faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. Nonelite runners performed a 10 km time trial 7 weeks before Copenhagen Marathon 2013 for estimation of running ability. Based on the time, runners were divided into two similar groups that eventually should perform the marathon by applying the two nutritional strategies. Matched pairs design was applied. Before the marathon, runners were paired based on their prerace running ability. Runners applying the freely chosen nutritional strategy (n = 14; 33.6 ± 9.6 years; 1.83 ± 0.09 m; 77.4 ± 10.6 kg; 45:40 ± 4:32 min for 10 km) could freely choose their in-race intake. Runners applying the scientifically based nutritional strategy (n = 14; 41.9 ± 7.6 years; 1.79 ± 0.11 m; 74.6 ± 14.5 kg; 45:44 ± 4:37 min) were targeting a combined in-race intake of energy gels and water, where the total intake amounted to approximately 0.750 L water, 60 g maltodextrin and glucose, 0.06 g sodium, and 0.09 g caffeine per hr. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-administered postrace questionnaire. Marathon time was 3:49:26 ± 0:25:05 and 3:38:31 ± 0:24:54 hr for runners applying the freely chosen and the scientifically based strategy, respectively (p = .010, effect size=-0.43). Certain runners experienced diverse serious gastrointestinal symptoms, but overall, symptoms were low and not different between groups (p > .05). In conclusion, nonelite runners completed a marathon on average 10:55 min, corresponding to 4.7%, faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, average values of gastrointestinal symptoms were low and not different between groups. PMID:24901444

  17. A communication strategy to improve nutrition in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M; Nobbe, E

    1985-01-01

    As an experimental project, the Nutrition Communication and Behavior Change Component (NCBC) of the Indonesian Nutrition Development Program (UPGK) showed how social marketing could further the national program's goal of significantly improving the nutrition of Indonesia's young children and pregnant and nursing women. The social marketing approach successfully developed nutrition communication materials that were responsive to the needs, desires, and resources of the communities, particularly of the mothers and volunteer nutrition workers. Between 1977-79 Dr. I.B. Mantra, NCBC Director, established administrative and community infrastructures modeled after UPGK in 5 culturally diverse areas in Indonesia. In mid-1979, with technical assistance from Manoff International, the project departed from the approach of the national plan and embarked upon an unprecedented course with the formative evaluation of educational messages and a communication strategy. The success of the NCBC Component was to be judged by whether education -- as the sole intervention -- could produce significant improvements in the nutritional status of children and the improved nutrient intake of pregnant and lactating women in project communities. The 1st step was to design and execute qualitative research on the health and nutritional problems of children under 3 and pregnant and nursing women, consisting of in-depth household interviews, concept testing with mothers, and focus group interviews with kaders and community opinion leaders. Surveying was based on issues identified earlier by the Ministry of Health as most severe for the population overall. The qualitative investigation identified the need for change or reinforcement in particular nutrition-related behaviors. The target audience of mothers was segmented according to their needs during designated maternal stages and by the age-related dietary needs of their children under 3 years of age. This meant that only the most useful

  18. Initial Assessment of the Acceptability of a Push-Pull Aedes aegypti Control Strategy in Iquitos, Peru and Kanchanaburi, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Plasai, Valaikanya; Morrison, Amy C.; Rios-Lopez, Esther J.; Guedez-Gonzales, Shirly; Grieco, John P.; Mundal, Kirk; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger research program evaluating chemical threshold levels for a Push-Pull intervention to reduce man-vector (Aedes aegypti) contact, this qualitative study explored local perceptions and strategies associated with mosquito control within dengue-endemic communities in Peru and Thailand. Focus groups were used to provide preliminary information that would identify possible public acceptance issues to the Push-Pull strategy in each site. Nine focus group discussions (total of 102 individuals) conducted between September 2008 and March 2009 examined several themes: 1) current mosquito control practices; 2) perceptions of spatial repellency and contact irritancy versus killing mosquitoes; and 3) initial perceptions toward mosquito host-seeking traps. Results indicate participants use household-level strategies for insect control that reveal familiarity with the concept of spatial repellent and contact irritant actions of chemicals and that placing traps in the peridomestic environment to remove repelled mosquitoes was acceptable. Preliminary evidence suggests a Push-Pull strategy should be well accepted in these locations. These results will be beneficial for developing future large scale push-pull interventions and are currently being used to guide insecticide application strategies in (entomological) proof-of-concept studies using experimental huts. PMID:21292886

  19. Gene expression characterizes different nutritional strategies among three mixotrophic protists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Campbell, Victoria; Heidelberg, Karla B; Caron, David A

    2016-07-01

    Mixotrophic protists, i.e. protists that can carry out both phototrophy and heterotrophy, are a group of organisms with a wide range of nutritional strategies. The ecological and biogeochemical importance of these species has recently been recognized. In this study, we investigated and compared the gene expression of three mixotrophic protists, Prymnesium parvum, Dinobyron sp. and Ochromonas sp. under light and dark conditions in the presence of prey using RNA-Seq. Gene expression of the obligately phototrophic P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. changed significantly between light and dark treatments, while that of primarily heterotrophic Ochromonas sp. was largely unchanged. Gene expression of P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. shared many similarities, especially in the expression patterns of genes related to reproduction. However, key genes involved in central carbon metabolism and phagotrophy had different expression patterns between these two species, suggesting differences in prey consumption and heterotrophic nutrition in the dark. Transcriptomic data also offered clues to other physiological traits of these organisms such as preference of nitrogen sources and photo-oxidative stress. These results provide potential target genes for further exploration of the mechanisms of mixotrophic physiology and demonstrate the potential usefulness of molecular approaches in characterizing the nutritional modes of mixotrophic protists. PMID:27194617

  20. Dimorphic tusks and adaptive strategies in a new species of walrus-like dolphin (Odobenocetopsidae) from the Pliocene of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Muizon, Christian; Domning, Daryl P.; Parrish, Mary

    1999-09-01

    Three new specimens of the walrus-like dolphin Odobenocetops from the Pliocene of Peru, shed new light on the anatomy and adaptive strategies of this unique Cetacean. Odobenocetops leptodon nov. sp. is represented by a skull, which bears a 1 35-cm-long needle-like right tusk and a small 25-cm-long left tusk the apex of which was erupted. The long tusk was probably held almost parallel to the axis of the body when swimming. In contrast to O. peruvianus, O. leptodon probably had a small melon and, therefore, echolocation ability, but had reduced (or no) binocular vision. A skull of O. peruvianus with two small tusks similar in size is referred to a female.

  1. Strategies to vaccinate against cancer of the cervix: feasibility of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Peru.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary; Bartolini, Rosario; Mosqueira, N Rocio; LaMontagne, D Scott; Mendoza, Maria Ana; Ramos, Irma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Villafana, Jose; Janmohamed, Amynah; Jumaan, Aisha O

    2011-07-12

    Operational research using a mixed method, cross-sectional, case-study approach assessed the feasibility and health system impact of large-scale implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination into routine vaccine delivery by the Ministry of Health in Peru. The strategy was school-based vaccination of fifth grade girls in 527 primary schools in Piura region. Our evaluation showed that school-based HPV vaccination is feasible without major changes in existing health systems. This was reflected in the opinions of health personnel, the lack of impact on other vaccine coverage, and the high HPV vaccine coverage documented in routine records and by an independent community-based survey. PMID:21609748

  2. A multipronged, nutritional-based strategy for managing Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Glick, J Leslie; McMillan, Philip A

    2016-06-01

    A nutritional-based strategy has been proposed in order to improve cognitive performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The strategy requires daily dietary supplementation with magnesium (Mg), folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12, daily consumption of silicic acid-rich mineral water in order to lower the body burden of Al, and several plasma exchange procedures in order to replace Aβ-bound albumin with fresh albumin. Evidence suggests that the deteriorating cognitive performance associated with AD may be improved by supplementation with either Mg alone or with the combination of the above three B vitamins (B vitamin combo), or by drinking silicic acid-rich mineral water, or by undergoing plasma exchange. However, for the following reasons the combination of all four therapeutic approaches may have a synergistic effect on improving cognitive performance of AD patients. PMID:27142155

  3. Developing a Robust Strategy for Implementing a Water Resources Master Plan in Lima, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, N.; Groves, D.; Bonzanigo, L.; Molina-Perez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Lima, the capital of Peru, faces significant water stress. It is the fifth largest metropolitan area in Latin America, and the second largest desert city in the world. The city has developed a Master Plan of major investment projects to improve water reliability until 2040. Yet key questions remain. Is the Master Plan sufficient for ensuring reliability in the face of deeply uncertain future climate change and demand? How do uncertain budget and project feasibility conditions shape Lima's options? How should the investments in the plan be prioritized, and can some be delayed? Lima is not alone in facing these planning challenges. Governments invest billions of dollars annually in long-term projects. Yet deep uncertainties pose formidable challenges to making near-term decisions that make long-term sense. The World Bank has spearheaded a community of practice on methods for Decision Making Under Deep Uncertainty (DMU). This pilot project in Peru is the first in-depth application of DMU techniques to water supply planning in a developing country. It builds on prior analysis done in New York, California, and for the Colorado River, yet shows how these methods can be applied in regions which do not have as advanced data or tools available. The project combines three methods in particular -- Robust Decision Making, Decision Scaling, and Adaptive Pathways -- to help Lima implement its Master Plan in a way that is robust, no-regret, and adaptive. It was done in close partnership with SEDAPAL, the water utility company in Lima, and in coordination with other national WRM and meteorological agencies. This talk will: Present the planning challenges Lima and other cities face, including climate change Describe DMU methodologies and how they were applied in collaboration with SEDAPAL Summarize recommendations for achieving long-term water reliability in Lima Suggest how these methodologies can benefit other investment projects in developing countries.

  4. New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Close, G L; Hamilton, D L; Philp, A; Burke, L M; Morton, J P

    2016-09-01

    Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e.g. caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates) can all promote performance in the correct exercise setting. In relation to exercise training, however, it is now thought that strategic periods of reduced carbohydrate and elevated dietary protein intake may enhance training adaptations whereas high carbohydrate availability and antioxidant supplementation may actually attenuate training adaptation. Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin D may play a regulatory role in muscle regeneration and subsequent hypertrophy following damaging forms of exercise. Finally, novel compounds (albeit largely examined in rodent models) such as epicatechins, nicotinamide riboside, resveratrol, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, phosphatidic acid and ursolic acid may also promote or attenuate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and strength training. When taken together, it is clear that sports nutrition is very much at the heart of the Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius (faster, higher, stronger). PMID:26855422

  5. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  6. Targeted drug-resistance testing strategy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis detection, Lima, Peru, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Gustavo E; Yagui, Martin; Cegielski, J Peter; Asencios, Luis; Bayona, Jaime; Bonilla, Cesar; Jave, Hector O; Yale, Gloria; Suárez, Carmen; Atwood, Sidney; Contreras, Carmen C; Shin, Sonya S

    2011-03-01

    The Peruvian National Tuberculosis Control Program issued guidelines in 2006 specifying criteria for culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST), including district-level rapid DST. All patients referred for culture and DST in 2 districts of Lima, Peru, during January 2005-November 2008 were monitored prospectively. Of 1,846 patients, 1,241 (67.2%) had complete DST results for isoniazid and rifampin; 419 (33.8%) patients had multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB at the time of referral. Among patients with new smear-positive TB, household contact and suspected category I failure were associated with MDR TB, compared with concurrent regional surveillance data. Among previously treated patients with smear-positive TB, adult household contact, suspected category II failure, early relapse after category I, and multiple previous TB treatments were associated with MDR TB, compared with concurrent regional surveillance data. The proportion of MDR TB detected by using guidelines was higher than that detected by a concurrent national drug-resistance survey, indicating that the strategy effectively identified patients for DST. PMID:21392434

  7. GPS Tracking of Free-Ranging Pigs to Evaluate Ring Strategies for the Control of Cysticercosis/Taeniasis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Pray, Ian W.; Swanson, Dallas J.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; O’Neal, Seth E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Taenia solium, a parasitic cestode that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. T. solium eggs are released into the environment through the stool of humans infected with an adult intestinal tapeworm (a condition called taeniasis), and cause cysticercosis when ingested by pigs or other humans. A control strategy to intervene within high-risk foci in endemic communities has been proposed as an alternative to mass antihelminthic treatment. In this ring strategy, antihelminthic treatment is targeted to humans and pigs residing within a 100 meter radius of a pig heavily-infected with cysticercosis. Our aim was to describe the roaming ranges of pigs in this region, and to evaluate whether the 100 meter radius rings encompass areas where risk factors for T. solium transmission, such as open human defecation and dense pig activity, are concentrated. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to track pig roaming ranges in two rural villages of northern Peru. We selected 41 pigs from two villages to participate in a 48-hour tracking period. Additionally, we surveyed all households to record the locations of open human defecation areas. We found that pigs spent a median of 82.8% (IQR: 73.5, 94.4) of their time roaming within 100 meters of their homes. The size of home ranges varied significantly by pig age, and 93% of the total time spent interacting with open human defecation areas occurred within 100 meters of pig residences. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that 100 meter radius rings around heavily-infected pigs adequately capture the average pig’s roaming area (i.e., home range) and represent an area where the great majority of exposure to human feces occurs. PMID:27035825

  8. Nutritional Strategies for Women Participating in Competitive/Recreational Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; Di Brezzo, Ro

    The preponderance of articles and research on nutrition can be confusing. The active woman over 30 can enhance performance and health with a high-quality diet. Specific nutritional concerns for women after the college years, such as nutrient content, iron, calcium, vitamin supplementation, and caffeine are discussed. Evidence that processed foods…

  9. Evolving Nutritional Strategies in the Presence of Competition: A Geometric Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Charleston, Michael A.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Access to nutrients is a key factor governing development, reproduction and ultimately fitness. Within social groups, contest-competition can fundamentally affect nutrient access, potentially leading to reproductive asymmetry among individuals. Previously, agent-based models have been combined with the Geometric Framework of nutrition to provide insight into how nutrition and social interactions affect one another. Here, we expand this modelling approach by incorporating evolutionary algorithms to explore how contest-competition over nutrient acquisition might affect the evolution of animal nutritional strategies. Specifically, we model tolerance of nutrient excesses and deficits when ingesting nutritionally imbalanced foods, which we term ‘nutritional latitude’; a higher degree of nutritional latitude constitutes a higher tolerance of nutritional excess and deficit. Our results indicate that a transition between two alternative strategies occurs at moderate to high levels of competition. When competition is low, individuals display a low level of nutritional latitude and regularly switch foods in search of an optimum. When food is scarce and contest-competition is intense, high nutritional latitude appears optimal, and individuals continue to consume an imbalanced food for longer periods before attempting to switch to an alternative. However, the relative balance of nutrients within available foods also strongly influences at what levels of competition, if any, transitions between these two strategies occur. Our models imply that competition combined with reproductive skew in social groups can play a role in the evolution of diet breadth. We discuss how the integration of agent-based, nutritional and evolutionary modelling may be applied in future studies to further understand the evolution of nutritional strategies across social and ecological contexts. PMID:25815976

  10. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  11. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  12. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  13. [Demographic dynamics in the food-nutrition problem: the search for effective strategies in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Teller, C H; Culagovski, M; del Canto, J; Sáenz, L; Aranda-Pastor, J

    1982-09-01

    This paper addresses the interrelationship between the food and nutrition problem and population problems in Latin America within a global focus. A basic framework is presented which defines four demographic problems highly related with the food and nutrition situation: The underutilization of the labor force; the accelerated growth of the marginal population; the poor geographic distribution and rapid urbanization; and the high rates of infant and child mortality. Findings from the recent experience of demography in food and nutrition planning in the last four years in Central America and Panama are outlined, and strategies are recommended for the development of different types of programs and projects in population-nutrition. Finally, a list of applied research, basic information and direct action projects in population-nutrition that have been detected as needed by most of the Central American countries, is presented. PMID:6820623

  14. Quality and Equity in Early Childhood Care in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The…

  15. Are health interventions implemented where they are most needed? District uptake of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy in Brazil, Peru and the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Victora, C. G.; Huicho, L.; Amaral, J. J.; Armstrong-Schellenberg, J.; Manzi, F.; Mason, E.; Scherpbier, R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe geographical patterns of implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in three countries and to assess whether the strategy was implemented in areas with the most pressing child health needs. METHODS: We conducted interviews with key informants at the national and district levels in Brazil, Peru and the United Republic of Tanzania, and an ecological study of factors associated with health worker training in IMCI. Explanatory factors included district population, distance from the capital, human development index, other socioeconomic indicators and baseline mortality rates in children younger than five years. FINDINGS: In line with recommendations by WHO, early implementation districts were characterized by proximity to the capital and suitable training sites, presence of motivated health managers and a functioning health system. In the expansion phase, IMCI tended to be adopted by other districts with similar characteristics. In Brazil, uptake by poor and small municipalities and those further away from the state capital was significantly lower. In Peru, there was no association with distance from Lima, and a non-significant trend for IMCI adoption by small and poor departments. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the only statistically significant finding was a lower uptake by remote districts. Implementation was not associated with baseline mortality levels in any country studied. CONCLUSION: Whereas clear and reasonable guidelines are provided for selection of early use districts, no criteria for promoting IMCI expansion had been issued, and areas of greatest need were not prioritized. Equity analyses based on the geographical deployment of new programmes and strategies can contribute to assessing whether they are reaching those who need them most. PMID:17128359

  16. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  17. Nutritional Determinants of Urban Deprived Youth: An Economic and Cross-Cultural Analysis of the U.S., Columbia, and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Factors influencing the nutrition of North and South American urban youths from 14-21 years of age are examined. Economic factors which play a role in determining the demand for improved nutrition and the relative importance of economic and noneconomic factors in nutrition are assessed. The effectiveness of higher income as a solution to…

  18. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  19. Preferred Educational Delivery Strategies among Limited Income Older Adults Enrolled in Community Nutrition Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Stephany; Powell, Laura; Hermann, Janice; Phelps, Joshua; Brown, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here explored educational delivery preference of limited income older Oklahomans. Sixty participants 60 years or older enrolled in Community Nutrition Education Programs observed three educational delivery strategies and participated in a group discussion. Two researchers independently coded focus group transcripts and frequency…

  20. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  1. Microfiltration of vinasse: sustainable strategy to improve its nutritive potential.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Andrade, Laura H; Neta, Luzia S F; Magalhães, Natalie C; Santos, Fábio S; Mota, Gabriel E; Carvalho, Roberto B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate and establish microfiltration (MF) operating conditions for vinasse (ethanol industries wastewater also known as stillage, slop, distillery effluent or dunder) concentration aiming to improve the use of its nutritive potential. The operating conditions influence permeate flux that has been evaluated by monitoring the flow rate profile during the operation on bench scale in different conditions (feed pH, aeration condition and recovery rate). From the results found, the process scale up was then effected. The bench scale findings showed that the vinasse microfiltration under air flow of 0.5 m(3).h(-1) between membrane fibers, with no pH adjustment, and recovery rate of 93% produced two flows, one of permeate that may be used to wash the sugarcane during the ethanol production processing, and the other of concentrate that contains a high organic compounds and nutrients concentration. This concentrate has additional potentiality of being used as organic compound supplement in contaminated soil bioremediation, and as a supplier of microbial biomass or substrate for biosurfactant production. PMID:27003086

  2. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Provision of dietary amino acids increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS), an effect that is enhanced by prior resistance exercise. As a fundamentally necessary process in the enhancement of muscle mass, strategies to enhance rates of MPS would be beneficial in the development of interventions aimed at increasing skeletal muscle mass particularly when combined with chronic resistance exercise. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on current findings regarding the nutritional regulation of MPS and highlight nutrition based strategies that may serve to maximize skeletal muscle protein anabolism with resistance exercise. Such factors include timing of protein intake, dietary protein type, the role of leucine as a key anabolic amino acid, and the impact of other macronutrients (i.e. carbohydrate) on the regulation of MPS after resistance exercise. We contend that nutritional strategies that serve to maximally stimulate MPS may be useful in the development of nutrition and exercise based interventions aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle mass which may be of interest to elderly populations and to athletes. PMID:22594765

  3. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: identifying leverage points for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2-5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010-2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. PMID:25462607

  4. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: Identifying leverage points for obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2–5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010–2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. PMID:25462607

  5. Nutritional strategies to boost immunity and prevent infection in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    High, K P

    2001-12-01

    Older adults are at risk for malnutrition, which may contribute to their increased risk of infection. Nutritional supplementation strategies can reduce this risk and reverse some of the immune dysfunction associated with advanced age. This review discusses nutritional interventions that have been examined in clinical trials of older adults. The data support use of a daily multivitamin or trace-mineral supplement that includes zinc (elemental zinc, >20 mg/day) and selenium (100 microg/day), with additional vitamin E, to achieve a daily dosage of 200 mg/day. Specific syndromes may also be addressed by nutritional interventions (for example, cranberry juice consumption to reduce urinary tract infections) and may reduce antibiotic use in older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities. Drug-nutrient interactions are common in elderly individuals, and care providers should be aware of these interactions. Future research should evaluate important clinical end points rather than merely surrogate markers of immunity. PMID:11692301

  6. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  7. Strategies of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to acquire nutritional iron during host colonization

    PubMed Central

    León-Sicairos, Nidia; Angulo-Zamudio, Uriel A.; de la Garza, Mireya; Velázquez-Román, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor M.; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for the growth and development of virtually all living organisms. As iron acquisition is critical for the pathogenesis, a host defense strategy during infection is to sequester iron to restrict the growth of invading pathogens. To counteract this strategy, bacteria such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus have adapted to such an environment by developing mechanisms to obtain iron from human hosts. This review focuses on the multiple strategies employed by V. parahaemolyticus to obtain nutritional iron from host sources. In these strategies are included the use of siderophores and xenosiderophores, proteases and iron-protein receptor. The host sources used by V. parahaemolyticus are the iron-containing proteins transferrin, hemoglobin, and hemin. The implications of iron acquisition systems in the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus are also discussed. PMID:26217331

  8. Household economic strategies and nutritional anthropometry of women in American Samoa and highland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bindon, James R; Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2002-04-01

    This study compares findings from research projects involving different genetic, environmental, and cultural contexts: a study of lifestyle and health from American Samoa (ASLS) and the Bolivian project. Reproduction and Ecology in Provincia Aroma (REPA). This paper presents analyses of varying economic strategies and their association with nutritional status indicators in each population. The ASLS sample includes 66 Samoan women and the REPA sample includes 210 Aymara women. Principle components analysis of household economic resources within each sample extracted two significant factors: one represents modernizing influences including education and occupational status, and the other represents ethnographically salient traditional economic behavior. The traditional pattern includes adding household members in Samoa and selling agricultural products in Bolivia. This analysis places each woman along two continua, traditional and modern, based on her household mobilization of economic resources, permitting an understanding of the patterns underlying household economic behavior that is not possible in univariate analyses of socioeconomic variables. For the Bolivian women the strategy involving more education and higher occupational status was associated with higher measures of several nutritional status indicators, including body mass index, arm muscle area, and peripheral skinfolds. But among the Samoan women, where substantial obesity was the norm, there were no significant differences in anthropometric measurements based on economic strategies. These data argue for the importance of directly measuring the potential consequences of variation in household economic strategies rather than merely inferring such, and of assessing ethnographically relevant aspects of household economic production rather than limiting analyses to non-context-specific economic indicators such as income. This focus on household strategy is likely to be fruitful especially where economic and

  9. Planning strategies for development of effective exercise and nutrition countermeasures for long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space flight. As human space flight exposures increase in duration, identification, assessment, and development of various effective exercise- and nutrition-based protective procedures will become paramount. The application of adequate dietary intake in combination with effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiologic stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity, and understanding how specific combinations of exercise characteristics (e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, and mode) can be combined with minimal nutritional requirements that mimic the stimuli normally produced by living in Earth's gravity environment. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments targeted at understanding the interactions between caloric intake and expenditure during space flight. Future strategies for application of nutrition and exercise countermeasures for long-duration space missions must be directed to minimizing crew time and the impact on life-support resources.

  10. Planning strategies for development of effective exercise and nutrition countermeasures for long-duration space flight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, Victor A

    2002-10-01

    Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space flight. As human space flight exposures increase in duration, identification, assessment, and development of various effective exercise- and nutrition-based protective procedures will become paramount. The application of adequate dietary intake in combination with effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiologic stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity, and understanding how specific combinations of exercise characteristics (e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, and mode) can be combined with minimal nutritional requirements that mimic the stimuli normally produced by living in Earth's gravity environment. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments targeted at understanding the interactions between caloric intake and expenditure during space flight. Future strategies for application of nutrition and exercise countermeasures for long-duration space missions must be directed to minimizing crew time and the impact on life-support resources. PMID:12361783

  11. [Evaluation of two strategies for nutritional education using radio programs in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique; Ninel Mayari, Centeno Lopez; Arredondo Trueba, Jose Miguel; Gonzalez Perez, Guillermo Julian; Vega Lopez, Maria Guadalupe; Valadez Figueroa, Isabel; Aldrete Rodriguez, Maria Guadalupe

    2002-01-01

    Modifying knowledge and attitudes through persuasive communication in health via radio has produced encouraging results for public health planners. This study's objective was to measure the effect of an educational strategy on knowledge and attitudes towards nutrition in two marginalized communities in Guadalajara, Mexico. Two communities were randomly selected. In each community a group of individuals was invited to be exposed to radio broadcasts. Using a coded and structured instrument, knowledge and attitudes towards the contents of nutritional education for health were measured before and after the intervention in both groups. Group A (n = 37) was organized and exposed to the dynamics of the radio forum throughout the 4 months during which the project lasted. Group B (n = 33) was not organized, and listened to the radio program according to its own cultural dynamics. Median knowledge and attitudes (KA) for group A was 56.8 in the pre-test and 74.1 in the post-test (W: p = -0.05). In group B the KA results were 53.0 and 59.2, respectively (W: p = -0.05). The results emphasize the advantages of the radio forum as a health communications strategy for human nutrition. PMID:12244361

  12. Strategies to improve health coverage and narrow the equity gap in child survival, health, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mickey; Sharkey, Alyssa; Dalmiya, Nita; Anthony, David; Binkin, Nancy

    2012-10-13

    Implementation of innovative strategies to improve coverage of evidence-based interventions, especially in the most marginalised populations, is a key focus of policy makers and planners aiming to improve child survival, health, and nutrition. We present a three-step approach to improvement of the effective coverage of essential interventions. First, we identify four different intervention delivery channels--ie, clinical or curative, outreach, community-based preventive or promotional, and legislative or mass media. Second, we classify which interventions' deliveries can be improved or changed within their channel or by switching to another channel. Finally, we do a meta-review of both published and unpublished reviews to examine the evidence for a range of strategies designed to overcome supply and demand bottlenecks to effective coverage of interventions that improve child survival, health, and nutrition. Although knowledge gaps exist, several strategies show promise for improving coverage of effective interventions-and, in some cases, health outcomes in children-including expanded roles for lay health workers, task shifting, reduction of financial barriers, increases in human-resource availability and geographical access, and use of the private sector. Policy makers and planners should be informed of this evidence as they choose strategies in which to invest their scarce resources. PMID:22999430

  13. Early childhood nutrition in an American Indian community: educational strategy for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoffhines, Heather; Whaley, Kelleigh Dean; Blackett, Piers R; Palumbo, Karen; Campbell-Sternloff, Dana; Glore, Stephen; Lee, Elisa T

    2014-02-01

    Prevailing infant and toddler feeding practices in an American Indian community were assessed to explore the feasibility of improvement by implementation of a maternal education program. A survey of prevailing nutritional practice was the basis for design of an instruction program on infant nutrition for mothers during pregnancy. Follow-up assessments provided information on feasibility, and requirements for an effective program. Failure to sustain breast-feeding, low fruit and vegetable intake, low fiber intake, consumption of sweetened beverages, low milk consumption and low vitamin D intake were identified as persisting problems. We conclude that infant and toddler feeding practices are comparable to national trends, but suboptimal and conducive to promoting early obesity and diabetes in a susceptible community. A successful education-based intervention strategy beginning in pregnancy appears feasible if psychosocial, environmental, and economic barriers can be addressed. PMID:24761552

  14. Maternal Eating and Physical Activity Strategies and their Relation with Children's Nutritional Status1

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Ortiz-Félix, Rosario Edith; Cárdenas-Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Ávila-Alpirez, Hermelinda; Alba-Alba, Corina Mariela; Hernández-Carranco, Roandy Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to describe the maternal eating and physical activity strategies (monitoring, discipline, control, limits and reinforcement) [MEES]; to determine the relation between MEES and the child's nutritional status [body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP)]; to verify whether the MEES differ according to the child's nutritional status. Method participants were 558 mothers and children (3 to 11 years of age) who studied at public schools. The Parental Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) was applied and the child's weight, height and BFP were measured. For analysis purposes, descriptive statistics were obtained, using multiple linear regression and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results the highest mean score was found for reinforcement (62.72) and the lowest for control (50.07). Discipline, control and limits explained 12% of the BMI, while discipline and control explained 6% of the BFP. Greater control is found for obese children (χ2=38.36, p=0.001) and greater reinforcement for underweight children (χ2=7.19, p<0.05). Conclusions the mothers exert greater control (pressure to eat) over obese children and greater recognition (congratulating due to healthy eating) in underweight children. Modifications in parental strategies are recommended with a view to strengthening healthy eating and physical activity habits. PMID:26107837

  15. Quality and equity in early childhood care in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izu, Regina Moromizato

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines educational policy documents and programs on early childhood development and education in Peru. The author provides an evaluation of early childhood learning programs and their outcomes in different education centers in Peru. Health, nutrition, development, and participation are identified as key areas of concern. The study concludes with a reference to the importance of monitoring quality and equity in early childhood care.

  16. An Office Strategy for Nutrition-Related Patient Education and Compliance. Nutrition in Primary Care Series, Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latanick, Maureen Rogan; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.

    Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…

  17. Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Produce Post-Harvest: Consumer Knowledge Gaps, Interests, and Opinions Regarding Nutrition Education Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Although many consumers perceive locally produced, fresh fruits and vegetables to be healthier, they might not have the knowledge and skills to retain optimal nutritional quality following harvest or purchase. We surveyed Ohio farmers market consumers' and managers' knowledge and interests related to maximizing nutritional value of produce.…

  18. Nutritional Strategies for the Preservation of Fat Free Mass at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wing-Gaia, Stacie L.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks associated with extreme environments presents potential performance, safety, and health risks for those working, recreating, or conducting military operations at extreme altitude. In this review, contributors to muscle wasting at altitude are highlighted with special emphasis on protein turnover. The article will conclude with nutritional strategies that may potentially attenuate loss of fat free mass during high altitude exposure. PMID:24531260

  19. Glycemic control and nutritional strategies in the cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit--2010: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Scurlock, Corey

    2010-01-01

    Patients in the cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit are generally critically ill and undergoing a systemic inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass, ischemia/reperfusion, and hypothermia. This presents several metabolic challenges: hyperglycemia in need of intensive insulin therapy, catabolism, and uncertain gastrointestinal tract function in need of nutritional strategies. Currently, there are controversies surrounding the standard use of intensive insulin therapy and appropriate glycemic targets as well as the use of early enteral nutrition ± parenteral nutrition. In this review, an approach for intensive metabolic support in the cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit is presented incorporating the most recent clinical evidence. This approach advocates an IIT blood glucose target of 80-110 mg/dL if, it can be implemented safely, with early nutrition support (using parenteral nutrition as needed) to prevent a critical energy debt. PMID:21167457

  20. New Strategy to Reduce Hypertriglyceridemia During Parenteral Nutrition While Maintaining Energy Intake.

    PubMed

    Mateu-de Antonio, Javier; Florit-Sureda, Marta

    2014-09-11

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a frequent metabolic complication associated with fat administration in parenteral nutrition (PN). No clear guidelines have been published on how to proceed once hypertriglyceridemia has been detected. A new strategy could be to substitute the initial fat emulsion with another emulsion with faster clearance. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness in reducing triglyceridemia values, maintaining the caloric intake, and improving nutrition parameters in patients who had moderate hypertriglyceridemia during PN when an olive oil-based fat emulsion (OOFE) was substituted with a multiple-source oil fat emulsion (MOFE). We also assessed the safety of this substitution in hepatic and glycemic profiles. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective, observational study that included 38 adult patients to whom OOFE in PN was substituted with MOFE when moderate hypertriglyceridemia (≥250-400 mg/dL) was detected. Results: Triglyceridemia values decreased in 36 (94.7%) patients. The mean reduction was 71 (88-22) mg/dL. Fat load was slightly reduced after substitution (-0.14 [-0.23 to 0] g/kg/d; P < .001), but total caloric intake increased from 22.5 (19.7-25.1) to 23.1 (19.8-26.8) kcal/kg/d (P = .053). After substitution, nutrition parameters improved, liver parameters remained unchanged, and insulin requirements increased. Conclusion: The substitution of OOFE with MOFE in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia during PN resulted in a reduction in triglyceridemia values of about 70 mg/dL. That allowed maintaining the caloric intake and improved nutrition parameters without affecting the hepatic profile. For some patients, insulin requirements increased moderately. (JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. XXXX;xx:xx-xx). PMID:25214551

  1. Changes in the concentrations of biochemical indicators of diet and nutritional status of pregnant women across pregnancy trimesters in Trujillo, Peru, 2004–2005

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In developing countries, deficiencies in essential micronutrients are common, particularly in pregnant women. Although, biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition are useful to assess nutritional status, few studies have examined such indicators throughout pregnancy in women in developing countries. Methods The primary objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of 78 Peruvian women throughout pregnancy for 16 different nutritional indicators including fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids, iron-status indicators, and selenium. Venous blood samples from which serum was prepared were collected during trimesters one (n = 78), two (n = 65), three (n = 62), and at term via the umbilical cord (n = 52). Questionnaires were completed to determine the demographic characteristics of subjects. Linear mixed effects models were used to study the associations between each maternal indicator and the demographic characteristics. Results None of the women were vitamin A and E deficient at any stage of pregnancy and only 1/62 women (1.6%) was selenium deficient during the third trimester. However, 6.4%, 44% and 64% of women had ferritin levels indicative of iron deficiency during the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Statistically significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) throughout pregnancy were noted for 15/16 nutritional indicators for this Peruvian cohort, with little-to-no association with demographic characteristics. Three carotenoids (beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and trans-lycopene) were significantly associated with education status, while trans-lycopene was associated with age and beta-cryptoxanthin with SES (p < 0.05). Concentrations of retinol, tocopherol, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein + zeaxanthin and selenium were lower in cord serum compared with maternal serum (p < 0.05). Conversely, levels of iron status indicators (ferritin, transferrin saturation and iron) were higher in cord serum (p < 0

  2. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    PubMed

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health. PMID:27455817

  3. Nutritional strategies to counteract muscle atrophy caused by disuse and to improve recovery.

    PubMed

    Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Dardevet, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Periods of immobilisation are often associated with pathologies and/or ageing. These periods of muscle disuse induce muscle atrophy which could worsen the pathology or elderly frailty. If muscle mass loss has positive effects in the short term, a sustained/uncontrolled muscle mass loss is deleterious for health. Muscle mass recovery following immobilisation-induced atrophy could be critical, particularly when it is uncompleted as observed during ageing. Exercise, the best way to recover muscle mass, is not always applicable. So, other approaches such as nutritional strategies are needed to limit muscle wasting and to improve muscle mass recovery in such situations. The present review discusses mechanisms involved in muscle atrophy following disuse and during recovery and emphasises the effect of age in these mechanisms. In addition, the efficiency of nutritional strategies proposed to limit muscle mass loss during disuse and to improve protein gain during recovery (leucine supplementation, whey proteins, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, energy intake) is also discussed. PMID:23930668

  4. Foodomics: MS-based strategies in modern food science and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Miguel; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Modern research in food science and nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced analytical strategies in which MS-based techniques play a crucial role. In this context, Foodomics has been recently defined as a new discipline that studies food and nutrition domains through the application of advanced omics technologies in which MS techniques are considered indispensable. Applications of Foodomics include the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and/or metabolomic study of foods for compound profiling, authenticity, and/or biomarker-detection related to food quality or safety; the development of new transgenic foods, food contaminants, and whole toxicity studies; new investigations on food bioactivity, food effects on human health, etc. This review work does not intend to provide an exhaustive revision of the many works published so far on food analysis using MS techniques. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of the different MS-based strategies that have been (or can be) applied in the new field of Foodomics, discussing their advantages and drawbacks. Besides, some ideas about the foreseen development and applications of MS-techniques in this new discipline are also provided. PMID:21374694

  5. Nutritional strategies to combat Salmonella in mono-gastric food animal production.

    PubMed

    Berge, A C; Wierup, M

    2012-04-01

    Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trade, optimal housing and management including cleaning, disinfection procedures as well as efforts to achieve Salmonella-free feed production. This paper describes some nutritional strategies that could be used in farm control programmes in the major mono-gastric food production animals: poultry and pigs. Initially, it is important to prevent the introduction of Salmonella onto the farm through Salmonella-contaminated feed and this risk is reduced through heat treatment and the use of organic acids and their salts and formaldehyde. Microbiological sampling and monitoring for Salmonella in the feed mills is required to minimize the introduction of Salmonella via feed onto the farm. In addition, feed withdrawal may create a stressful situation in animals, resulting in an increase in Salmonella shedding. Physical feed characteristics such as coarse-ground meal to pigs can delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the acidity of the gut and thus reducing the possible prevalence of Salmonella. Coarse-ground grains and access to litter have also been shown to decrease Salmonella shedding in poultry. The feed can also modify the gastro-intestinal tract microflora and influence the immune system, which can minimize Salmonella colonization and shedding. Feed additives, such as organic acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, probiotics, including competitive exclusion cultures, prebiotics and certain specific carbohydrates, such as mannan-based compounds, egg proteins, essential oils

  6. Peru, People and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  7. Peru-1 5 (AVANT).

    PubMed

    Jones, Taff

    2004-08-01

    Peru-15 is a single dose, recombinant cholera vaccine under development by AVANT Immunotherapeutics for the potential prevention of cholera. A phase II trial of Peru-15 was ongoing in June 2003, and as of September 2003 AVANT was planning a phase III trial in a developing country, and phase IIb and phase III challenge studies in travelers. PMID:15600246

  8. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  9. Nutritional Strategies to Modulate Intracellular and Extracellular Buffering Capacity During High-Intensity Exercise.

    PubMed

    Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Saunders, Bryan; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-11-01

    Intramuscular acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Many nutritional strategies aiming to increase intra- and extracellular buffering capacity have been investigated. Among these, supplementation of beta-alanine (~3-6.4 g/day for 4 weeks or longer), the rate-limiting factor to the intramuscular synthesis of carnosine (i.e. an intracellular buffer), has been shown to result in positive effects on exercise performance in which acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue. Furthermore, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and sodium/calcium lactate supplementation have been employed in an attempt to increase the extracellular buffering capacity. Although all attempts have increased blood bicarbonate concentrations, evidence indicates that sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g/kg body mass) is the most effective in improving high-intensity exercise performance. The evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of sodium citrate and lactate remain weak. These nutritional strategies are not without side effects, as gastrointestinal distress is often associated with the effective doses of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and calcium lactate. Similarly, paresthesia (i.e. tingling sensation of the skin) is currently the only known side effect associated with beta-alanine supplementation, and it is caused by the acute elevation in plasma beta-alanine concentration after a single dose of beta-alanine. Finally, the co-supplementation of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate may result in additive ergogenic gains during high-intensity exercise, although studies are required to investigate this combination in a wide range of sports. PMID:26553493

  10. Strategies to promote adherence to nutritional advice in patients with chronic kidney disease: a narrative review and commentary

    PubMed Central

    Beto, Judith A; Schury, Katherine A; Bansal, Vinod K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires extensive changes to food and lifestyle. Poor adherence to diet, medications, and treatments has been estimated to vary between 20% and 70%, which in turn can contribute to increased mortality and morbidity. Delivering effective nutritional advice in patients with CKD coordinates multiple diet components including calories, protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and fluid. Dietary intake studies have shown difficulty in adhering to the scope and complexity of the CKD diet parameters. No single educational or clinical strategy has been shown to be consistently effective across CKD populations. Highest adherence has been observed when both diet and education efforts are individualized to each patient and adapted over time to changing lifestyle and CKD variables. This narrative review and commentary summarizes nutrition education literature and published strategies for providing nutritional advice in CKD. A cohort of practical and effective strategies for increasing dietary adherence to nutritional advice are provided that include communicating with “talking control” principles, integrating patient-owned technology, acknowledging the typical food pattern may be snacking rather than formal meals, focusing on a single goal rather than multiple goals, creating active learning and coping strategies (frozen sandwiches, visual hands-on activities, planting herb gardens), and involving the total patient food environment. PMID:26893578

  11. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  12. Healthy Diet and Nutrition Education Program among Women of Reproductive Age: A Necessity of Multilevel Strategies or Community Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Dunneram, Yashvee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive years represent a major proportion of women‟s life. This review focuses on recommended nutritional considerations, physical activity pattern as well as the effect of nutrition education (NE) on behavior modification and health outcomes of women of reproductive age using either single-level, multiple-level or community-level interventions. Methods: For this narrative review, numerous searches were conducted on databases of PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar search engine using the keywords women, reproductive age, NE, interventions, community-based. Results: Even though single intervention is effective, multiple intervention programmes in addition to behavior modification components are even more successful in terms of modified behaviors and health outcomes. Moreover, community based interventions using multilevel strategies are further useful for improved health outcomes and behavior modification. Conclusion: NE programmes have been effective in positive behavior modification measured in terms of eating pattern and health quality. Thus, it is recommended that health professionals use multiple intervention strategies at community level to ensure improved outcomes. Political support is also required to create culturally sensitive methods of delivering nutritional programmes. Finally, as policy is dependent on program cost, nutritional programmes need to combine methods of cost analysis to show cost effectiveness of supplying adequate nutrition for women throughout the lifecycle. PMID:26290827

  13. Nutritional strategies for skeletal and cardiovascular health: hard bones, soft arteries, rather than vice versa.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, James H; Bergman, Nathaniel; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Fontes-Villalba, Maélan; DiNicolantonio, James J; Cordain, Loren

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to explore better strategies for optimising bone strength and reducing risk of fracture, while at the same time decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. The majority of Americans do not consume the current recommended dietary allowance for calcium, and the lifetime risk of osteoporosis is about 50%. However, traditional mononutrient calcium supplements may not be ideal. We comprehensively and systematically reviewed the scientific literature in order to determine the optimal dietary strategies and nutritional supplements for long-term skeletal health and cardiovascular health. To summarise, the following steps may be helpful for building strong bones while maintaining soft and supple arteries: (1) calcium is best obtained from dietary sources rather than supplements; (2) ensure that adequate animal protein intake is coupled with calcium intake of 1000 mg/day; (3) maintain vitamin D levels in the normal range; (4) increase intake of fruits and vegetables to alkalinise the system and promote bone health; (5) concomitantly increase potassium consumption while reducing sodium intake; (6) consider increasing the intake of foods rich in vitamins K1 and K2; (7) consider including bones in the diet; they are a rich source of calcium-hydroxyapatite and many other nutrients needed for building bone. PMID:27042317

  14. Nutritional strategies for skeletal and cardiovascular health: hard bones, soft arteries, rather than vice versa

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, James H; Bergman, Nathaniel; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; DiNicolantonio, James J; Cordain, Loren

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to explore better strategies for optimising bone strength and reducing risk of fracture, while at the same time decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. The majority of Americans do not consume the current recommended dietary allowance for calcium, and the lifetime risk of osteoporosis is about 50%. However, traditional mononutrient calcium supplements may not be ideal. We comprehensively and systematically reviewed the scientific literature in order to determine the optimal dietary strategies and nutritional supplements for long-term skeletal health and cardiovascular health. To summarise, the following steps may be helpful for building strong bones while maintaining soft and supple arteries: (1) calcium is best obtained from dietary sources rather than supplements; (2) ensure that adequate animal protein intake is coupled with calcium intake of 1000 mg/day; (3) maintain vitamin D levels in the normal range; (4) increase intake of fruits and vegetables to alkalinise the system and promote bone health; (5) concomitantly increase potassium consumption while reducing sodium intake; (6) consider increasing the intake of foods rich in vitamins K1 and K2; (7) consider including bones in the diet; they are a rich source of calcium-hydroxyapatite and many other nutrients needed for building bone. PMID:27042317

  15. Earthquake engineering in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas, N.J

    1983-01-01

    During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38. 

  16. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health

    PubMed Central

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5–11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health—Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of ‘Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155

  17. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health.

    PubMed

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5-11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health-Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of 'Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155

  18. Characterizing the nutritional strategy of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Williams, T.D.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    We measured plasma concentrations of variables associated with lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, glycerol, triglyceride, and ??- hydroxybutyrate), protein metabolism (uric acid), and baseline corticosterone to characterize the nutritional state of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis and relate this to incubation constancy at two sites, Kuparuk and Teshekpuk, in northern Alaska. King eiders at both sites appeared to employ a partial-income incubation strategy, relying on both endogenous and exogenous energy resources. Females maintained high invariant levels of free fatty acids, ??-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol throughout incubation, indicating that fat reserves were a major energy source, and not completely depleted during incubation. Similarly, uric acid did not increase, suggesting effective protein sparing or protein ingestion and adequate lipid reserves throughout incubation. Baseline corticosterone and triglyceride levels increased during incubation, indicative of an increase in foraging during late stages of incubation. Incubating females at Kuparuk had higher triglyceride concentrations but also had higher ??-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than females at Teshekpuk. This dichotomy may reflect a short-term signal of feeding overlaying the longer-term signal of reliance on endogenous lipid reserves due to higher food intake yet higher metabolic costs at Kuparuk because of its colder environment. Incubation constancy was not correlated with plasma concentrations of lipid or protein metabolites. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  19. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  20. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  1. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  2. Soil Nitrogen Availability and Plant Genotype Modify the Nutrition Strategies of M. truncatula and the Associated Rhizosphere Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zancarini, Anouk; Mougel, Christophe; Voisin, Anne-Sophie; Prudent, Marion; Salon, Christophe; Munier-Jolain, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Plant and soil types are usually considered as the two main drivers of the rhizosphere microbial communities. The aim of this work was to study the effect of both N availability and plant genotype on the plant associated rhizosphere microbial communities, in relation to the nutritional strategies of the plant-microbe interactions, for six contrasted Medicago truncatula genotypes. The plants were provided with two different nutrient solutions varying in their nitrate concentrations (0 mM and 10 mM). First, the influence of both nitrogen availability and Medicago truncatula genotype on the genetic structure of the soil bacterial and fungal communities was determined by DNA fingerprint using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA). Secondly, the different nutritional strategies of the plant-microbe interactions were evaluated using an ecophysiological framework. We observed that nitrogen availability affected rhizosphere bacterial communities only in presence of the plant. Furthermore, we showed that the influence of nitrogen availability on rhizosphere bacterial communities was dependent on the different genotypes of Medicago truncatula. Finally, the nutritional strategies of the plant varied greatly in response to a modification of nitrogen availability. A new conceptual framework was thus developed to study plant-microbe interactions. This framework led to the identification of three contrasted structural and functional adaptive responses of plant-microbe interactions to nitrogen availability. PMID:23077550

  3. Strategies for analyzing nutritional data for epidemiological purposes--conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Oltersdorf, U; Boeing, H; Hendrichs, A; Bodenstedt, A A

    1989-09-01

    The relation between nutritional factors and health investigated in epidemiological studies are often inconsistent. One of the reasons for such findings can be the improper addressing of the multitude of nutritional dimensions in the specific study situation such as physiological individuality of human beings, different living conditions, or numerous interdependencies between nutritional variables. Epidemiological research in nutrition and health should recognize such facts and work with appropriate study models and adequate data analyses. Instead of investigating heterogeneous populations it is advisable to concentrate on specific "types" of people. Under consideration of the study goals such "types" can be compiled according to physiological properties, e.g., cholesterol sensitivity, or biological-constitutional factors such as body build, life-style entities, or other factors. The variety of nutrition factors far beyond the commonly applied nutrient values can be expressed in integrated indices of "food patterns". Such "food patterns" can be derived in many ways. They can be deduced from theories by using specific criteria, but also explored by modern multivariate statistical analyses. The ways leading to "food patterns" are discussed. The ideas presented and discussed in this paper lead to an improved model for research in the field of nutrition and health with integrated indices of "food patterns" as the critical point. It is assumed that using this approach will generate new insight in the relation of nutrition and health, a currently still diffuse research area. PMID:2686223

  4. Use of song as an effective teaching strategy for nutrition education in older adults.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jacquelyn W; Jayaratne, K S U; Bird, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether singing an educational song would be effective in improving older adults' knowledge about nutrition. We used a randomized controlled design to determine whether singing an educational song would result in increased nutrition knowledge in a low-income population of older adults compared to a control group of similar adults who did not sing the song. Eighteen congregate nutrition sites were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. Analysis via independent samples t -test showed the knowledge gain mean scores for the treatment group were significantly ( P  < 0.05) greater than those of the control group. This study supports a unique new approach to increasing nutrition knowledge of older adults by using music. PMID:25803602

  5. Spotlight on Peru.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Lima's population grew from 1 million to 7 million during 1969-89, almost entirely due to rural-urban immigration. Other urban areas such as Iquitos experienced similar growth over the period. National, regional, and municipal governments have been working to restore civil order in the country and to bring basic health, sanitation, and education programs to the population. However, language, attitudinal, and cultural differences impede progress in this diverse and changing country. Peru's young population of median age 21 years presents a challenge to the development and implementation of effective reproductive health care programs for the country. Pathfinder's work in Peru is helped by current President Alberto Fujimori's strong and active support for family planning. In the face of strong opposition from the Roman Catholic Church, President Fujimori has held onto his conviction and commitment to reduce levels of maternal morbidity and mortality in Peru by increasing the accessibility of family planning programs. Pathfinder's work in Peru with the US Agency for International Development (USAID) includes the 5-year program Project 2000 designed to improve maternal and child health in 12 priority regions of the country. Pathfinder is also working with USAID to link family planning to postpartum services in 30 public hospitals throughout the country. New programs will be launched with contributions from individuals and foundations. PMID:12179686

  6. Peru's Gentle Revolutionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Thomas W.; Toledo, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Alejandro Toledo, the first Native person to be elected president of Peru, talks about his Quechua roots; his proposed constitutional amendment to ensure equal rights for indigenous peoples; financial support for Native cultural preservation efforts; and his number one priority--to fight poverty through education, focusing on basic education,…

  7. My Classroom: Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paglia, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…

  8. Office-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. Methods We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ2 and Mann–Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Results We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers (“too tired” and “access to unhealthy food”) and enablers (“enjoy physical activity” and “nutrition knowledge”). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. Conclusion The findings provide useful insights into employees’ preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual. PMID:24028834

  9. A nutrition strategy to reduce the burden of diet related disease: access to dietician services must complement population health approaches.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leonie; Opie, Rachelle S

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden. Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into: (i) population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; (ii) pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods); (iii) regulations to modify the food environment, and (iv) the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of "junk foods" is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians) per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons. It is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs. PMID:26321951

  10. A nutrition strategy to reduce the burden of diet related disease: access to dietician services must complement population health approaches

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Leonie; Opie, Rachelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality is implicated in almost every disease and health issue. And yet, in most advanced market economies diet quality is poor, with a minority meeting guidelines for healthy eating. Poor diet is thus responsible for substantial disease burden. Societies have at their disposal a range of strategies to influence diet behaviors. These can be classified into: (i) population level socio-educational approaches to enhance diet knowledge; (ii) pricing incentives (subsidies on healthy foods, punitive taxes on unhealthy foods); (iii) regulations to modify the food environment, and (iv) the provision of clinical dietetic services. There is little evidence that societies are active in implementing the available strategies. Advertising of “junk foods” is largely unchecked, contrasting with strict controls on advertising tobacco products, which also attract punitive taxes. Access to dieticians is restricted in most countries, even in the context of universal health care. In Australia in 2011 there were just 2,969 practicing dieticians/nutritionists or 1.3 clinicians per 10,000 persons, compared with 5.8 physiotherapists per 10,000 persons, 14.8 general practitioners (family physicians) per 10,000 persons or 75 nurses per 10,000 persons. It is time to implement comprehensive national nutrition strategies capable of effecting change. Such strategies need to be multi-component, incorporating both public health approaches and expanded publicly funded dietetic services. Access to individualized dietetic services is needed by those at risk, or with current chronic conditions, given the complexity of the diet message, the need for professional support for behavior change and to reflect individual circumstances. The adoption of a comprehensive nutrition strategy offers the promise of substantial improvement in diet quality, better health and wellbeing and lower health care costs. PMID:26321951

  11. A novel therapeutic strategy for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome based on nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Wilkins, R M; Preedy, V

    2005-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare disorder, comprising a group of related inherited disorders of connective tissue, resulting from underlying abnormalities in the synthesis and metabolism of collagen. This proposal is specifically concerned with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classic type (formerly Types I-III), which is characterized by joint hypermobility and susceptibility to injury/arthritis, skin and vascular problems (including easy bruising, bleeding, varicose veins and poor tissue healing), cardiac mitral valve prolapse, musculo-skeletal problems (myopathy, myalgia, spinal scoliosis, osteoporosis), and susceptibility to periodontitis. No treatment is currently available for this disorder. The novel aspect of this proposal is based on: (i) increasing scientific evidence that nutrition may be a major factor in the pathogenesis of many disorders once thought to result from defective genes alone; (ii) the recognition that many of the symptoms associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are also characteristic of nutritional deficiencies; (iii) the synergistic action within the body of appropriate combinations of nutritional supplements in promoting normal tissue function. We therefore hypothesize that the symptoms associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may be successfully alleviated using a specific (and potentially synergistic) combination of nutritional supplements, comprising calcium, carnitine, coenzyme Q(10), glucosamine, magnesium, methyl sulphonyl methane, pycnogenol, silica, vitamin C, and vitamin K, at dosages which have previously been demonstrated to be effective against the above symptoms in other disorders. PMID:15607555

  12. [Community nutrition].

    PubMed

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  13. [Protection of the mucosal barrier by nutritional strategies. What are the therapeutic options?].

    PubMed

    Lübke, H J

    2000-05-01

    The dysfunction of intestinal barrier allows the translocation of both endotoxin and whole bacterial organisms. It plays an important role in the development of multiple organ failure (MOF). The mucosa ia one component of this barrier. Trauma, atrophy and the "systemic inflammatory response syndrome" increase gastrointestinal permeability. These abnormalities may contribute to the pathophysiology of sepsis. Malnutrition per se compromises the gut's barrier function. Maintenance of gastrointestinal blood flow may be facilitated by (glutamine-enriched?) enteral diets. The most important conclusions of the majority of controlled trials support the concept of the very early enteral nutrition (within 24 hours after trauma): the outcome of seriously ill patients is improved, the rate of complications and infections is reduced. Gastrointestinal motility disorders may interfere with the initiation and tolerance of early enteral nutrition. They may be managed by prokinetic agents (cisapride, erythromycin) or by bypassing the stomach with a nasoenteric tube. PMID:10883361

  14. Case study: nutritional strategies of a cyclist with celiac disease during an ultraendurance race.

    PubMed

    Black, Katherine Elizabeth; Skidmore, Paula; Brown, Rachel Clare

    2012-08-01

    Food intolerance is becoming increasingly prevalent, and increasing numbers of athletes have celiac disease. This poses challenges as dietary recommendations for exercise are largely based on gluten-containing carbohydrate-rich foods. The K4 cycle race covers 384 km around the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Lack of sleep, darkness, and temperature variations pose a number of nutritional challenges. Limited food choices present those with celiac disease with even greater challenges. This case study describes the intakes of one such athlete during training and competing in the K4. Nutritional intakes were obtained during training using weighed-food records and during the race via dietary recall and the weighing of foods pre- and post-race. As simple substitution of gluten-containing foods for gluten-free foods leads to increased energy intake, alternatives need to be considered. During the race, insufficient energy was consumed to meet the nutritional guidelines for endurance performance. This was probably due to the nature of the course, racing conditions, the consistency of gluten-free food, and, toward the end of the race, sensory-specific satiety. PMID:22645170

  15. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  16. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae). PMID:26624697

  17. Credit with Education: A Promising Title II Microfinance Strategy--Supporting Integrated Food Security and Nutrition Programs To Improve Health and Well-Being of Women and Children). Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, Christopher; Denman, Vicki

    This paper introduces the reader to microfinance integrated with health and nutrition education as a promising strategy for Title II practitioners. The paper provides an overview of how microfinance, particularly village banking, can contribute to the food-security objectives of Title II. It describes a variant of village banking, called "Credit…

  18. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  19. Nutrition Education Research: Strategies for Theory Building. Proceedings of the Nutrition Education Research Conference (Lincolnshire, Illinois, November 11-13, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, Judy K., Ed.; Rhoads, Andre F., Ed.

    The purpose of this conference was to provide a framework for improving the quality and increasing the quantity of nutrition education research. Emphasis was placed upon examining the research process from the standpoint of theory or model building. Presentations were made on: (1) "Nutrition Education Research Policy in Washington" (Luise Light);…

  20. Potential Paradoxical Effects of Myth-Busting as a Nutrition Education Strategy for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansburg, Pamela I.; Heiss, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Medical myth-busting is a common health education strategy during which a health educator highlights common misconceptions about health and then presents evidence to refute those misconceptions. Whereas this strategy can be an effective way to correct faulty health beliefs held by young adults, research from the field of cognitive psychology…

  1. Nutritional strategies to counter stress to the immune system in athletes, with special reference to football.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2006-07-01

    Although epidemiological data indicate that athletes are at increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection during periods of heavy training and the 1 - 2 week period following endurance race events, there is very limited information on the responses to football training and match-play. For several hours after heavy exertion, components of both the innate (e.g. natural killer cell activity and neutrophil oxidative burst activity) and adaptive (e.g. T and B cell function) immune system exhibit suppressed function. Although such responses to football training and competition do not appear to be as pronounced, variations in immune cell numbers and function are reported in professional footballers over the course of a season. Attempts have been made through nutritional means (e.g. glutamine, vitamins C and E, and carbohydrate supplementation) to attenuate immune changes following intensive exercise and thus lower the risk of upper respiratory tract infection. Carbohydrate supplementation during heavy exercise has emerged as a partial countermeasure and attenuates increases in blood neutrophil counts, stress hormones, and inflammatory cytokines, but has little effect on decrements in salivary IgA output or natural killer cell function. Animal research indicates that other nutritional components such as beta-glucan, quercetin, and curcumin warrant human investigations to determine if they are effective countermeasures to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. PMID:16766504

  2. What's law got to do with it Part 2: Legal strategies for healthier nutrition and obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part review of law's possible role in a regulatory approach to healthier nutrition and obesity prevention in Australia. As discussed in Part 1, law can intervene in support of obesity prevention at a variety of levels: by engaging with the health care system, by targeting individual behaviours, and by seeking to influence the broader, socio-economic and environmental factors that influence patterns of behaviour across the population. Part 1 argued that the most important opportunities for law lie in seeking to enhance the effectiveness of a population health approach. Part 2 of this article aims to provide a systematic review of the legal strategies that are most likely to emerge, or are worth considering, as part of a suite of policies designed to prevent population weight gain and, more generally, healthier nutrition. While the impact of any one intervention may be modest, their cumulative impact could be significant and could also create the conditions for more effective public education campaigns. This article addresses the key contenders, with particular reference to Australia and the United States. PMID:18533999

  3. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...

  4. Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Dietary Components and Nutritional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, V.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, moderate in alcohol consumption, and lower in refined grains, red/processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have demonstrated to reduce diabetes risk and improve glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. Several healthful dietary patterns emphasizing the overall diet quality can be adapted to appropriate personal and cultural food preferences and calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although considerable progress has been made in developing and implementing evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted global efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. PMID:24910231

  5. Toward public health nutrition strategies in the European Union to implement food based dietary guidelines and to enhance healthier lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Stockley, L

    2001-04-01

    This paper suggests strategies for implementing the EU food based dietary guidelines. Dietary guidelines have been developed and disseminated in many countries across the world. However, the EU guidelines are the first to include a specific section on implementation. The aims of the guidelines are twofold, 1) to provide food based dietary guidelines which can be used as a consistent communication tool and 2) as a springboard to planning, implementing, and evaluating public health nutrition strategies. The report is not intended to be prescriptive. It aims to build upon a solid evidence base to provide practical and cost effective suggestions for developing public health strategies, which member countries can use and tailor to the social, cultural and health needs of their populations. Diet and physical activity related diseases impose vast costs on the European economy. However, despite the enormous costs to healthcare systems and in terms of lost productivity, there have been a very few resources allocated in Europe to attempting to prevent these, rather than treating them. The burden of disease exists in the majority of the population, and not in high-risk groups. The optimal public health strategy is thus to focus on the population as a whole, rather than targeting those with increased risk factors or pre-existing disease. Reviews have been carried out on the health impact effectiveness of various types of intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in the population. These conclude that the most effective interventions a) adopt an integrated, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive approach b) involve a complementary range of actions, and c) work at an individual, community, environmental and policy level. Information provision in isolation is not effective, and may exacerbate inequalities in health. In some countries inequities in diet and physical activity are not only significant contributors to inequalities in health, but are increasing

  6. Modification of nutrition strategy for improvement of postnatal growth in very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ah Young; Lee, Yong Wook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the effects of modified parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) regimens on the growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods The study included VLBW infants weighing <1,500 g, admitted to Chungnam National University Hospital between October 2010 and April 2014, who were alive at the time of discharge. Subjects were divided according to 3 periods: period 1 (n=37); prior to the PN and EN regimen being modified, period 2 (n=50); following the PN-only regimen modification, period 3 (n=37); following both PN and EN regimen modification. The modified PN regimen provided 3 g/kg/day of protein and 1 g/kg/day of lipid on the first day of life. The modified EN regimen provided 3.5-4.5 g/kg/day of protein and 150 kcal/kg/day of energy. We investigated growth rate, anthropometric measurements at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and the incidence of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) at 40 weeks PCA. Results Across the 3 periods, clinical characteristics, including gestational age, anthropometric measurements at birth, multiple births, sex, Apgar score, surfactant use and PDA treatment, were similar. Growth rates for weight and height, from time of full enteral feeding to 40 weeks PCA, were higher in period 3. Anthropometric measurements at 40 weeks PCA were greatest in period 3. Incidence of weight, height and head circumference EUGR at 40 weeks PCA decreased in period 3. Conclusion Beginning PN earlier, with a greater supply of protein and energy during PN and EN, is advantageous for postnatal growth in VLBW infants. PMID:27186226

  7. Maximizing Federal Food and Nutrition Funds for Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives. Strategy Brief, Volume 1, Number 3. Tools for Out-of-School Time and Community School Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Barbara Hanson

    Noting the importance of good nutrition to out-of-school time programs serving children, this strategy brief provides an overview of the major sources of federal food and nutrition funds that can support out-of-school time and community school programs. The brief then highlights five strategies that community leaders and program developers can…

  8. [Situation of maternal mortality in Peru, 2000 - 2012].

    PubMed

    dl Carpio Ancaya, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    We perform an analysis concerning the situation of maternal mortality in Peru, based on the information of the System of Epidemiologic Surveillance of Maternal Mortality of the General Directorate of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health and the Family and Health Demographic Survey. We can see a decrease in the rates of maternal mortality between 2000 and 2012. The direct causes are the same but in different proportions according to the natural regions, being the hemorrhage the first cause of maternal mortality. The coverage of birth attention in health establishments has increased in the last years but it is still necessary to improve the capacity of quick response and the quality of the health services. Maternal mortality in Peru is related to inequity and lack of women empowerment to excerpt their rights, specially the sexual and reproductive rights. It is necessary to strengthen the strategies that have been implemented in order to accomplish of the reduction in maternal mortality in Peru. PMID:24100823

  9. Strategy for Improved Nutrition of Children and Women in Developing Countries. A UNICEF Policy Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) report proposes a strategy for reducing, and ultimately eliminating, malnutrition in developing countries. It proposes a methodology for the identification of appropriate actions in a given context through situation assessment and analysis, rather than through a predetermined set of technical…

  10. A qualitative study of diverse experts' views about barriers and strategies to improve the diets and health of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cindy W; Hoffnagle, Elena E; Lindsay, Ana C; Lofink, Hayley E; Hoffman, Vanessa A; Turrell, Sophie; Willett, Walter C; Blumenthal, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the largest federal food assistance program, currently serves 44.7 million Americans with a budget of $75 billion in 2011. This study engaged leading experts for in-depth, semi-structured interviews to explore their opinions concerning the existing challenges and barriers to eating nutritiously in SNAP. Experts also proposed strategies for improving nutritional status among SNAP recipients. Twenty-seven individuals were interviewed from advocacy, government, industry, and research organizations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for thematic content. The high cost of nutrient-rich foods, inadequate SNAP benefits, limited access to purchasing healthy foods, and environmental factors associated with poverty were identified as barriers that influence nutrition among low-income households in the United States. Six themes emerged among respondents from diverse sectors about how to address these challenges, including providing SNAP participants with incentives to purchase nutrient-rich food consistent with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, restricting the purchase of nutrient-poor foods and beverages with program benefits, modifying the frequency of SNAP benefit distribution, enhancing nutrition education, improving the SNAP retailer environment, and increasing state and federal level coordination and consistency of program implementation. Given the recent dramatic increase in SNAP enrollment, policymakers must address existing barriers as well as consider new strategies to improve nutrition policies in SNAP so that the program can continue to address food insecurity needs as well as provide a healthful diet for SNAP beneficiaries. PMID:23260725

  11. A Qualitative Study of Diverse Experts’ Views About Barriers and Strategies to Improve the Diets and Health of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Cindy W.; Hoffnagle, Elena E.; Lindsay, Ana C.; Lofink, Hayley E.; Hoffman, Vanessa A.; Turrell, Sophie; Willett, Walter C.; Blumenthal, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the largest federal food assistance program, currently serves 44.7 million Americans with a budget of $75 billion in 2011. This study engaged leading experts for in-depth, semi-structured interviews to explore their opinions concerning the existing challenges and barriers to eating nutritiously in SNAP. Experts also proposed strategies for improving nutritional status among SNAP recipients. Twenty-seven individuals were interviewed from advocacy, government, industry, and research organizations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed for thematic content. The high cost of nutrient-rich foods, inadequate SNAP benefits, limited access to purchasing healthy foods, and environmental factors associated with poverty were identified as barriers that influence nutrition among low-income households in the United States. Six themes emerged among respondents from diverse sectors about how to address these challenges including: 1) providing SNAP participants with incentives to purchase nutrient-rich food consistent with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans; 2) restricting the purchase of nutrient-poor foods and beverages with program benefits; 3) modifying the frequency of SNAP benefit distribution; 4) enhancing nutrition education; 5) improving the SNAP retailer environment and 6) increasing state and federal level coordination and consistency of program implementation. Given the recent dramatic increase in SNAP enrollment, policymakers must address existing barriers as well as consider new strategies to improve nutrition policies in SNAP so that the program can continue to address food insecurity needs as well as provide a healthful diet for SNAP beneficiaries. PMID:23260725

  12. Interaction matters: Strategies to promote engaged learning in an online introductory nutrition course

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan; Grace Lin, Meng-Fen; Stewart, Maria; Fialkowski, Marie K.

    2016-01-01

    Fostering interaction in the online classroom is an important consideration in ensuring that students actively create their own knowledge and reach a high level of achievement in science courses. This study focuses on fostering interaction in an online introductory nutrition course offered in a public institution of higher education in Hawai‘i, USA. Interactive features included synchronous discussions and polls in scheduled sessions, and social media tools for sharing of information and resources. Qualitative student feedback was solicited regarding the new course features. Findings indicated that students who attended monthly synchronous sessions valued live interaction with peers and the instructor. Issues identified included technical difficulties during synchronous sessions, lack of participation on the part of fellow students in discussion and inability to attend synchronous sessions due to scheduling conflicts. In addition, few students made use of the opportunity to interact via social media. While students indicated that the interactive components of the course were valuable, several areas in which improvement may be made remain. Future studies may explore potential solutions to issues identified with new features to further promote interaction and foster learning in the course. Recommendations for instructors who are interested in offering online science courses in higher education are provided. PMID:27441032

  13. Child Health in Peru: Importance of Regional Variation and Community Effects on Children's Height and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Heeju

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the…

  14. Country watch: Peru.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, G

    1995-01-01

    In 1991-1992, Via Libre, a nongovernmental organization (NGO), developed an information program for the general public in Lima using a portable pavilion. The metallic structure is 32 square meters and houses 30 posters with prevention messages. Collaboration with another NGO, Instituto Generacion, resulted in the production of a 7 minute video of basic information that is shown continuously at the pavilion. Facilitators distribute printed materials. Occasionally, a third NGO, Asociacion Germinal, provides street clowns who carry prevention messages to accompany the exhibit. Due to positive public response, the exhibit became "The Information Traveling Pavilion" in 1993; the exhibit has traveled to more than seven cities throughout Peru. Via Libre staff provide local health workers with information update courses and counseling workshops in order to respond to increased public demands for information and support following the activities. 75 private enterprises have provided support for the program. Radio and television collaborate in publicizing the activities. PMID:12289835

  15. The Enteric Two-Step: nutritional strategies of bacterial pathogens within the gut

    PubMed Central

    Ferreyra, Jessica A.; Ng, Katharine M.; Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The gut microbiota is a dense and diverse microbial community governed by dynamic microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions, the status of which influences whether enteric pathogens can cause disease. Here we review recent insights into the key roles that nutrients play in bacterial pathogen exploitation of the gut microbial ecosystem. We synthesize recent findings to support a five-stage model describing the transition between a healthy microbiota and one dominated by a pathogen and disease. Within this five-stage model, two stages are critical to the pathogen: (i) an initial expansion phase that must occur in the absence of pathogen-induced inflammation, followed by (ii) pathogen-promoting physiological changes such as inflammation and diarrhoea. We discuss how this emerging paradigm of pathogen life within the lumen of the gut is giving rise to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24720567

  16. Using Food and Nutritional Strategies to Induce Tolerance in Food-Allergic Children.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is an important and increasing public health problem worldwide, affecting predominantly infants and young children. There is an urgent need to develop effective treatment strategies to restore oral tolerance in food-allergic individuals. Among diverse research approaches, those involving native or heat-modified food proteins are most advanced and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Extensively heated (baked) milk and egg diets have already been adopted in clinical practice and benefit the majority of milk- and egg-allergic children. Oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy with native foods remain in the sphere of clinical research with encouraging data suggesting that they may induce desensitization in a large proportion of treated patients and potentially permanent tolerance following an adequately long period of treatment. Synbiotics appear to have the most beneficial role in the prevention of food allergy; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG may promote the development of tolerance to milk in allergic infants. PMID:27088331

  17. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  18. Mechanisms of Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: Insights into the Emerging Role of Nutritional Strategies

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, Maeve A.; Finucane, Orla M.; Connaughton, Ruth M.; McMorrow, Aoibheann M.; Roche, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and associated chronic inflammation initiate a state of insulin resistance (IR). The secretion of chemoattractants such as MCP-1 and MIF and of cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, draw immune cells including dendritic cells, T cells, and macrophages into adipose tissue (AT). Dysfunctional AT lipid metabolism leads to increased circulating free fatty acids, initiating inflammatory signaling cascades in the population of infiltrating cells. A feedback loop of pro-inflammatory cytokines exacerbates this pathological state, driving further immune cell infiltration and cytokine secretion and disrupts the insulin signaling cascade. Disruption of normal AT function is causative of defects in hepatic and skeletal muscle glucose homeostasis, resulting in systemic IR and ultimately the development of type 2 diabetes. Pharmaceutical strategies that target the inflammatory milieu may have some potential; however there are a number of safety concerns surrounding such pharmaceutical approaches. Nutritional anti-inflammatory interventions could offer a more suitable long-term alternative; whilst they may be less potent than some pharmaceutical anti-inflammatory agents, this may be advantageous for long-term therapy. This review will investigate obese AT biology, initiation of the inflammatory, and insulin resistant environment; and the mechanisms through which dietary anti-inflammatory components/functional nutrients may be beneficial. PMID:23675368

  19. Pottery from Peru. A Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…

  20. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  1. [Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru].

    PubMed

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Aramburu, Adolfo; Munares-García, Óscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Fiestas, Fabián

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this article is a narrative review of such interventions. PMID:23949515

  2. Nasca Lines, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. [Adolescent sexuality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M

    1987-01-01

    22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059

  4. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. PMID:23557321

  5. In vitro evaluation, in vivo quantification, and microbial diversity studies of nutritional strategies for reducing enteric methane production.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Louvandini, Helder; Sallam, Sobhy Mohamed Abdallah Hassan; Bueno, Ives Cláudio da Silva; Tsai, Siu Mui; Figueira, Antonio Vargas de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study nutritive strategies for lessening the CH(4) formation associated to ruminant tropical diets. In vitro gas production technique was used for evaluating the effect of tannin-rich plants, essential oils, and biodiesel co-products on CH(4) formation in three individual studies and a small chamber system to measure CH(4) released by sheep for in vivo studies was developed. Microbial rumen population diversity from in vitro assays was studied using qPCR. In vitro studies with tanniniferous plants, herbal plant essential oils derived from thyme, fennel, ginger, black seed, and Eucalyptus oil (EuO) added to the basal diet and cakes of oleaginous plants (cotton, palm, castor plant, turnip, and lupine), which were included in the basal diet to replace soybean meal, presented significant differences regarding fermentation gas production and CH(4) formation. In vivo assays were performed according to the results of the in vitro assays. Mimosa caesalpineaefolia, when supplemented to a basal diet (Tifton-85 hay Cynodon sp, corn grain, soybean meal, cotton seed meal, and mineral mixture) fed to adult Santa Ines sheep reduced enteric CH(4) emission but the supplementation of the basal diet with EuO did not affect (P > 0.05) methane released. Regarding the microbial studies of rumen population diversity using qPCR with DNA samples collected from the in vitro trials, the results showed shifts in microbial communities of the tannin-rich plants in relation to control plant. This research demonstrated that tannin-rich M. caesepineapholia, essential oil from eucalyptus, and biodiesel co-products either in vitro or in vivo assays showed potential to mitigate CH(4) emission in ruminants. The microbial community study suggested that the reduction in CH(4) production may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis. PMID:22083272

  6. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555

  7. Peru. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra

    Intended for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Peru's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics included are the people, geographic regions, festivals and celebrations, the economy, natural resources, Lake Titicaca,…

  8. Interventions to Address Chronic Disease and HIV: Strategies to Promote Exercise and Nutrition Among HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Diana; Somarriba, Gabriel; Neri, Daniela; Miller, Tracie L.

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments. PMID:22933247

  9. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  10. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    PubMed

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated. PMID:26297468

  11. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  12. How Peru introduced a plan for comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Ximena; Núnez-Curto, Arón; Villayzán, Jana; Castillo, Regina; Benites, Carlos; Caballero, Patricia; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20%) in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a “Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen.” Discussion A policy dialogue between key stakeholders – Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies – created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1) the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2) ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3) a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. Conclusions The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change. PMID:27431469

  13. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

    1997-07-14

    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  14. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, Karl E.; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L.; Johnson, Susan L.; Hetherington, Marion M.; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and for bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on: (1) increased use of public-private partnerships; (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered; and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies. PMID:24974355

  15. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L; Johnson, Susan L; Hetherington, Marion M; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and in bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on (1) increased use of public-private partnerships, (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered, and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies. PMID:24974355

  16. Khipu accounting in ancient Peru.

    PubMed

    Urton, Gary; Brezine, Carrie J

    2005-08-12

    Khipu are knotted-string devices that were used for bureaucratic recording and communication in the Inka Empire. We recently undertook a computer analysis of 21 khipu from the Inka administrative center of Puruchuco, on the central coast of Peru. Results indicate that this khipu archive exemplifies the way in which census and tribute data were synthesized, manipulated, and transferred between different accounting levels in the Inka administrative system. PMID:16099983

  17. Craniofacial plasticity in ancient Peru.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jessica H; Chew, Kristen; Ross, Ann H; Verano, John W

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have utilized craniometric data to explore the roles of genetic diversity and environment in human cranial shape variation. Peru is a particularly interesting region to examine cranial variation due to the wide variety of high and low altitude ecological zones, which in combination with rugged terrain have created isolated populations with vastly different physiological adaptations. This study examines seven samples from throughout Peru in an effort to understand the contributions of environmental adaptation and genetic relatedness to craniofacial variation at a regional scale. Morphological variation was investigated using a canonical discriminant analysis and Mahalanobis D(2) analysis. Results indicate that all groups are significantly different from one another with the closest relationship between Yauyos and Jahuay, two sites that are located geographically close in central Peru but in very different ecozones. The relationship between latitude/longitude and face shape was also examined with a spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I) using ArcMap and show that there is significant spatial patterning for facial measures and geographic location suggesting that there is an association between biological variation and geographic location. PMID:25807293

  18. Comparison of Three Instructional Strategies in Food and Nutrition Education: Developing a Diet Plan for a Diabetic Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; Arrington, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1)…

  19. Using stable isotopes and C:N ratios to examine the life-history strategies and nutritional sources of larval lampreys.

    PubMed

    Evans, T M; Bauer, J E

    2016-02-01

    Natural abundance stable-isotope analysis (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and C:N ratios were used to study the ammocoete phase of two common non-parasitic lamprey species (least brook lamprey Lampetra aepyptera and American brook lamprey Lethenteron appendix) in two tributaries of the Ohio River (U.S.A.). The C:N ratios suggest that each species employs different lipid accumulation strategies to support its metamorphosis and recruitment into an adult animal. Ammocoete δ(13)C values generally increased with increasing C:N values. In contrast to δ(13)C, ammocoete δ(15)N values were weakly related to the total length (LT) in L. aepyptera, but positively correlated to both LT and C:N ratios in L. appendix. In L. appendix, C:N also correlated positively with LT, and presumably age. A Bayesian mixing model using δ(13)C and δ(15)N was used to estimate nutritional subsidies of different potential food resources to ammocoetes at each site. The models suggested that although nutritional subsidies to ammocoetes varied as a function of site, ammocoetes were generally reliant on large contributions (42-62% at three sites) from aquatic plants. Contributions from aquatic sediment organic matter were also important at all sites (32-63%) for ammocoetes, with terrestrially derived plant materials contributing smaller amounts (4-33%). These findings provide important insights into the feeding ecology and nutrition of two species of lampreys. They also suggest that similar and other quantitative approaches are required to (1) fully understand how the observed stable-isotopes ratios are established in ammocoetes and (2) better assess ammocoete nutritional subsidies in different natal streams. PMID:26707340

  20. Nutrition and Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to Give Get Involved Home Run Challenge Golf Programs Athletes for a Cure Movember Other Ways ... us how much more we have yet to learn about how key nutritional strategies can affect the ...

  1. New Trends in Talent Development in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumen, Sheyla

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…

  2. Factors Affecting Reading Achievement in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Cecilia; Pinzas, Juana

    Two exploratory studies examined Peru's elementary reading programs. The first looked at reading curriculum, texts, and teachers; the second, at students' reading ability. In Peru performance goals are not specified for each grade by the reading curriculum nor are specific instructional materials recommended (reading is not considered a separate…

  3. The effect on cardiovascular risk factors of migration from rural to urban areas in Peru: PERU MIGRANT Study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; García, Héctor H; Smeeth, Liam

    2009-01-01

    critical analysis of the potential for bias and confounding in migrant studies, and strategies for reducing these problems. A discussion of the potential advantages provided by the case of migration in Peru to the field of migration and health is also presented. PMID:19505331

  4. Nutritional strategies to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress pathways via activation of the master antioxidant switch Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Ludmila F M F; Pedruzzi, Liliana M; Stenvinkel, Peter; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Daleprane, Julio B; Leite, Maurilo; Mafra, Denise

    2013-08-01

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in cellular protection against cancer, renal, pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress and inflammation are common conditions. The Nrf2 regulates the expression of detoxifying enzymes by recognizing the human Antioxidant Response Element (ARE) binding site and it can regulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cellular responses, playing an important protective role on the development of the diseases. Studies designed to investigate how effective Nrf2 activators or modulators are need to be initiated. Several recent studies have shown that nutritional compounds can modulate the activation of Nrf2-Keap1 system. This review aims to discuss some of the key nutritional compounds that promote the activation of Nrf2, which may have impact on the human health. PMID:23643732

  5. A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1) published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2) male only studies (≥18 years) or 3) where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i) a significant change (p<0.05) over time in an objective measure of body weight, expressed in kilograms (kg) OR Body Mass Index (BMI) OR (ii) at least one significant change (p<0.05) in a dietary intake measure to qualify as effective. To identify emerging patterns within the research a descriptive process was used. Results Nine studies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg) and/or BMI (kg/m2) changes (p≤0.05). Four studies had effective interventions (p<0.05) targeting determinants of dietary intake and dietary behaviours and/or nutritional intake. Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self

  6. Western Slope of Andes, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Along the western flank of the Andes, 400 km SE of Lima Peru, erosion has carved the mountain slopes into long, narrow serpentine ridges. The gently-sloping sediments have been turned into a plate of worms wiggling their way downhill to the ocean.

    The image was acquired September 28, 2004, covers an area of 38 x 31.6 km, and is located near 14.7 degrees south latitude, 74.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S

    2011-07-01

    Reproductive performance in the high-yielding dairy cow has severely decreased in the last 40 yr. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4 nutritional strategies in improving the reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy cows. It was hypothesized that offering cows a high-starch ration in early lactation would enhance the onset of luteal activity, and that decreasing the severity of negative energy balance in the early postcalving period would improve reproductive parameters. Nutritional regimens aimed at improving fertility were applied to 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals. Upon calving, animals were allocated in a balanced manner to one of 4 dietary treatments. Primiparous animals were balanced according to live weight, body condition score and calving date. Multiparous animals were balanced according to parity, previous lactation milk yield, liveweight, body condition score and calving date. Treatment 1 was based on an industry best practice diet (control) to contain 170 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter. Treatment 2 was an individual cow feeding strategy, whereby the energy balance (EB) of individual animals was managed so as to achieve a predetermined target daily EB profile (±10 MJ/d). Treatment 3 was a high-starch/high-fat combination treatment, whereby an insulinogenic (high-starch) diet was offered in early lactation to encourage cyclicity and followed by a lipogenic (low-starch, high-fat) diet to promote embryo development. Treatment 4 was a low-protein diet, containing 140 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter, supplemented with protected methionine at an inclusion level of 40 g per animal per day. The nutritional strategies implemented in this study had no statistically significant effects on cow fertility measures, which included the onset of luteal activity, conception rate, in-calf rate, and the incidence of atypical cycles. The individual cow feeding strategy improved EB in early lactation but had no benefit on conception

  8. Experiences in the Search for Effective Services for Children with Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino, Cesar; Livia, Jose; Diaz, Maritza

    2006-01-01

    In Peru, identifying children with emotional and behavioral problems and designing appropriate intervention strategies has been progressive but slow. There has been little systematic effort toward establishing and working toward long-term goals, partially because of weak alliances among public and private institutions. In this article, the authors…

  9. Popular video for rural development in Peru.

    PubMed

    Calvelo Rios, J M

    1989-01-01

    Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course. PMID:12283151

  10. Physician nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

  11. Alzheimer's disease: the pros and cons of pharmaceutical, nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies, with a discussion of treatment strategies from the perspective of patients and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wollen, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dysfunctional intracellular and extracellular biochemical processes that result in neuron death. This article summarizes hypotheses regarding cell dysfunction in AD and discusses the effectiveness of, and problems with, different therapies. Pharmaceutical therapies discussed include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, antihypertensive drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, secretase inhibitors, insulin resistance drugs, etanercept, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and immunization. Nutritional and botanical therapies included are huperzine A, polyphenols, Ginkgo, Panax ginseng, Withania somnifera, phosphatidylserine, alpha-lipoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, acetyl L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, various vitamins and minerals, and melatonin. Stimulatory therapies discussed are physical exercise, cognitive training, music, and socialization. Finally, treatment strategies are discussed in light of the benefits and drawbacks of different therapeutic approaches. It is concluded that potential risks of both approved and non-approved therapies should be weighed against the potential benefits and certain consequences of disease progression. Approaches that target several dysfunctions simultaneously and that emphasize nutritional, botanical, and stimulatory therapies may offer the most benefit at this time. PMID:21155625

  12. [Determinants of participation in physical activity in Peru].

    PubMed

    Cansino, Kenyi; Gálvez, Harold

    2014-01-01

    This document attempts to establish the determinants of participation in physical activity in Peru using the economic structure presented by Cawley and a participation choice model proposed by Humphreys and Ruseski. Through the National Survey of Nutritional, Biochemical, Socioeconomic and Cultural Indicators related to Chronic-Degenerative Diseases in 2006, a logistic model was estimated through which an observation was made: more educated individuals are more likely to participate in physical activities. Also, characteristics like socioeconomic status and employment decrease the likelihood of participating in physical activities due to a higher opportunity cost. In the same way, it was observed that adults are less likely to participate in physical activities due to biological characteristics related to age. PMID:24718541

  13. [Notes for the history of pediatric gastroenterology in Peru].

    PubMed

    Álvarez Carrasco, Ricardo Iván

    2015-01-01

    The Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Peru, is one of the subspecialties of Pediatrics that has experienced one of the most significant growth in recent decades, however, to achieve this seat it should have passed a long way built through the efforts and talent hundreds of doctors for several generations. Its modern history began in 1981 with the creation of the first unit of the specialty in the National Institute of Child Health (INSN), followed by the establishment of the second specialization that contributed to its spread and progress of several hospitals in the country, and many of them now have a doctor of this specialty. Our purpose is to plant the foundations of that story, whose extension go beyond the space that allows us an article. PMID:26397286

  14. Comparison of three instructional strategies in food and nutrition education: developing a diet plan for a diabetic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; `Logan'Arrington, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1) peer discussion with just-in-time information (JIT information), (2) peer discussion without JIT information), and (3) independent performers. The learners' performance in the three conditions was analyzed. The results presented here describe the role of prior knowledge and JIT information across the conditions and the interaction of the two factors as well as the instructional implications of the findings.

  15. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs. PMID:15806833

  16. Nutrition: A Counselor's Guide through the Maze.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Glenda T.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an analysis of literature on nutrition for school counselors interested in exploring how behavior and learning problems can be related to diet. Provides guidelines for implementing nutritional strategies, some basic recommendations, and suggested readings. (LLL)

  17. [The health system of Peru].

    PubMed

    Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Lazo-González, Oswaldo; Nigenda, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Peru and, with greater detail, the Peruvian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the activities developed in the information and research areas, as well as the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The article concludes with a discussion of the most recent innovations, including the Comprehensive Health Insurance, the Health Care Enterprises system, the decentralization process and the Local Committees for Health Administration. The main challenge confronted by the Peruvian health system is the extension of coverage to more than I0% of the population presently lacking access to basic health care. PMID:21877089

  18. An Energy Overview of Peru

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Peru. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  19. Nutritional Strategies for the Individualized Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Based on the Nutrient-Induced Insulin Output Ratio (NIOR)

    PubMed Central

    Stachowska, Ewa; Ryterska, Karina; Maciejewska, Dominika; Banaszczak, Marcin; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Milkiewicz, Małgorzata; Gutowska, Izabela; Ossowski, Piotr; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Jamioł-Milc, Dominika; Sabinicz, Anna; Napierała, Małgorzata; Wądołowska, Lidia; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients play a fundamental role as regulators of the activity of enzymes involved in liver metabolism. In the general population, the action of nutrients may be affected by gene polymorphisms. Therefore, individualization of a diet for individuals with fatty liver seems to be a fundamental step in nutritional strategies. In this study, we tested the nutrient-induced insulin output ratio (NIOR), which is used to identify the correlation between the variants of genes and insulin resistance. We enrolled 171 patients, Caucasian men (n = 104) and women (n = 67), diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). From the pool of genes sensitive to nutrient content, we selected genes characterized by a strong response to the NIOR. The polymorphisms included Adrenergic receptor (b3AR), Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), Apolipoprotein C (Apo C III). Uncoupling Protein type I (UCP-1), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ2 (PPAR-2) and Apolipoprotein E (APOEs). We performed three dietary interventions: a diet consistent with the results of genotyping (NIOR (+)); typical dietary recommendations for NAFLD (Cust (+)), and a diet opposite to the genotyping results (NIOR (−) and Cust (−)). We administered the diet for six months. The most beneficial changes were observed among fat-sensitive patients who were treated with the NIOR (+) diet. These changes included improvements in body mass and insulin sensitivity and normalization of blood lipids. In people sensitive to fat, the NIOR seems to be a useful tool for determining specific strategies for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27455252

  20. Nutritional Strategies for the Individualized Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Based on the Nutrient-Induced Insulin Output Ratio (NIOR).

    PubMed

    Stachowska, Ewa; Ryterska, Karina; Maciejewska, Dominika; Banaszczak, Marcin; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Milkiewicz, Małgorzata; Gutowska, Izabela; Ossowski, Piotr; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Jamioł-Milc, Dominika; Sabinicz, Anna; Napierała, Małgorzata; Wądołowska, Lidia; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients play a fundamental role as regulators of the activity of enzymes involved in liver metabolism. In the general population, the action of nutrients may be affected by gene polymorphisms. Therefore, individualization of a diet for individuals with fatty liver seems to be a fundamental step in nutritional strategies. In this study, we tested the nutrient-induced insulin output ratio (NIOR), which is used to identify the correlation between the variants of genes and insulin resistance. We enrolled 171 patients, Caucasian men (n = 104) and women (n = 67), diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). From the pool of genes sensitive to nutrient content, we selected genes characterized by a strong response to the NIOR. The polymorphisms included Adrenergic receptor (b3AR), Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), Apolipoprotein C (Apo C III). Uncoupling Protein type I (UCP-1), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ2 (PPAR-2) and Apolipoprotein E (APOEs). We performed three dietary interventions: a diet consistent with the results of genotyping (NIOR (+)); typical dietary recommendations for NAFLD (Cust (+)), and a diet opposite to the genotyping results (NIOR (-) and Cust (-)). We administered the diet for six months. The most beneficial changes were observed among fat-sensitive patients who were treated with the NIOR (+) diet. These changes included improvements in body mass and insulin sensitivity and normalization of blood lipids. In people sensitive to fat, the NIOR seems to be a useful tool for determining specific strategies for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27455252

  1. Bioremediation of vegetable and agrowastes by Pleurotus ostreatus: a novel strategy to produce edible mushroom with enhanced yield and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus was grown on paddy straw as well as other vegetable and agricultural wastes i.e. pea pod shell, cauliflower leaves, radish leaves and brassica straw in various combinations with paddy straw. The mushroom did not grow on the vegetable wastes separately. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency of the edible oyster mushroom P. ostreatus grown on substrate containing paddy straw in various combinations with different vegetable wastes i.e. 20% and 30 % vegetable wastes mixed with 80% and 70% (w/w) of paddy straw was found to be better, when compared with yield and biological efficiency obtained on paddy straw (100%) alone. The protein content and six essential amino acid contents (Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Met, Phe) showed a significant increase and total sugar and reducing sugar contents showed decrease in the mushroom fruit bodies grown at different combinations of vegetable wastes with paddy straw as compared to paddy straw alone. However, there was not any significant change in moisture content of mushroom cultivated on different groups of wastes. Hence, results of this investigation suggest that the vegetable wastes which are generally left to rot in situ in many cities and villages causing outbreak of diseases can be bioremediated by edible mushroom P. ostreatus. The added advantage is that we get edible mushroom fruit body with improved nutrition. PMID:25535705

  2. IJBNPA in 2016: Strategy for advancing the science of behavior change in nutrition and physical activity, and associated editorial priorities.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (IJBNPA) is to be the leading diet and physical activity journal. To achieve this aim we embrace and publish a number of different research designs from small, but in depth, qualitative studies to large scale cohort studies. IJBNPA prioritises research based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews (with or without meta-analyses, as appropriate), and well conducted observational studies that expand knowledge and understanding of the area. IJBNPA will also consider and publish other study designs that are of sufficient quality such as strong or ground-breaking methodological papers, rigorous qualitative studies, debate papers and commentaries. However, due to the demands on the journal, we publish pilot studies only in exceptional circumstances and we do not publish protocol papers or letters to the editors. The goal of this editorial is to highlight to our readers and authors the process by which we identify which papers to review and publish along with our editorial priorities. PMID:27396235

  3. [Considerations on the development of nutrition-related guidelines by the World Health Organization and their implementation].

    PubMed

    Zamora, Gerardo; Meneses, Daniela; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Neufeld, Lynnette; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Sinisterra, Odalis Teresa

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) follows a complex and rigorous process to develop global guidelines. With regard to nutrition-related guidelines, the joint participation of national authorities from Member States and their partners, including those of the social economy, is key to strengthening the process of evidence-informed guideline development and the subsequent implementation as part of national public health strategies. WHO puts forward a series of tools that can assist national authorities on health and social development in the elaboration of evidence-informed policies, considering their pertinence, relevance and implementability. This adoption and adaptation process must consider equity in order to avoid widening existing inequities. WHO global nutrition guidelines contribute to the effective implementation of nutrition interventions in Member States. Two experiences of implementation, one in Panama and one in Peru, exemplify this process. The paper ends by suggesting a deeper understanding and utilization of implementation research during programmes to identify what factors ensure effective interventions, appropriate scale up strategies and greater health equity. PMID:26320300

  4. Genome-based nutrition: An intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are increasing in westernized countries, regardless of their geographic location. In Latin America, most countries, including Mexico, have a heterogeneous admixture genome with Amerindian, European and African ancestries. However, certain high allelic frequencies of several nutrient-related polymorphisms may have been achieved by past gene-nutrient interactions. Such interactions may have promoted the positive selection of variants adapted to regional food sources. At present, the unbalanced diet composition of the Mexicans has led the country to a 70% prevalence rate of overweightness and obesity due to substantial changes in food habits, among other factors. International guidelines and intervention strategies may not be adequate for all populations worldwide because they do not consider disparities in genetic and environmental factors, and thus there is a need for differential prevention and management strategies. Here, we provide the rationale for an intervention strategy for the prevention and management of obesity-related diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a regionalized genome-based diet. The components required to design such a diet should focus on the specific ancestry of each population around the world and the convenience of consuming traditional ethnic food. PMID:25834309

  5. State of nutrition support teams.

    PubMed

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review. PMID:24170578

  6. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  7. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  8. Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NPPO of Peru whereby the producer agrees to participate in and follow the fruit fly management program established by the NPPO of Peru. (e) Management program for fruit flies; monitoring. The NPPO of Peru's fruit fly management program must be approved by APHIS, and must require that participating citrus...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NPPO of Peru whereby the producer agrees to participate in and follow the fruit fly management program established by the NPPO of Peru. (e) Management program for fruit flies; monitoring. The NPPO of Peru's fruit fly management program must be approved by APHIS, and must require that participating citrus...

  11. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  12. Quantifying the consequences of nutritional strategies aimed at decreasing phosphorus excretion from pig populations: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Symeou, V; Leinonen, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-04-01

    There is a global imperative to reduce phosphorous (P) excretion from pig systems. In this study, a previously validated deterministic model was modified to be stochastic, in order to investigate the consequences of different management strategies on P excretion by a group of growing pigs. The model predicts P digestion, retention and excretion from feed composition and growth parameters that describe a specified pig phenotype. Stochasticity was achieved by introducing random variation in the latter. The strategies investigated were: (1) changing feed composition frequently in order to match more closely pig digestible P (digP) requirements to feed composition (phase feeding) and (2) grouping pigs into light and heavy groups and feeding each group according to the requirements of their group average BW (sorting). Phase feeding reduced P excretion as the number of feeding phases increased. The effect was most pronounced as feeding phases increased from 1 to 2, with a 7.5% decrease achieved; the increase in phases from 2 to 3 was associated with a further 2.0% reduction. Similarly, the effect was more pronounced when the feed targeted the population requirements for digP at the average BW of the first third, rather than the average requirements at the mid-point BW of each feeding sequence plan. Increasing the number of feeding phases increased the percentage of pigs that met their digP requirements during the early stages of growth and reduced the percentage of pigs that were supplied <85% of their digP requirements at any stage of their growth; the latter may have welfare implications. Sorting of pigs reduced P excretion to a lesser extent; the reduction was greater as the percentage of pigs in the light group increased from 10% to 30% (from 1.5% to 3.0% reduction, respectively). This resulted from an increase in the P excreted by the light group, accompanied by a decrease in the P excreted by the remaining pigs. Sorting increased the percentage of light pigs that

  13. The Relationship between Substance Use and HIV Transmission in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Alfredo A.; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this article is to review literature regarding the relationship between substance use and HIV transmission in Peru. Methods Detailed search of published literature completed in PubMed and Google-Scholar and other local Peruvian publications. Mesh words: “Peru”; “substance-related-disorders”; “HIV”; “sexual-behavior” and their combinations. From 3921 articles, 150 were chosen for more careful review and only 26 were used for the review. No date limit was used in this review. Results Peruvian HIV epidemic is limited to MSM and its prevalence goes up to 33% in certain MSM-subpopulations. Transmission is mainly through sexual contact. Drug use doubled the risk for casual sex, decreased by half the chances of using condoms, increased the number of partners per year and the risk for STD’s. Peruvian HIV-positive populations have higher rates drug use and using drugs have been associated with a higher prevalence of being HIV-positive. This may be also true for other populations such as pregnant women in which there is an association between drug use and HIV. Conclusions Although the amount of Peruvian research in this area limits the review, there seems to be a relationship between using drugs, having risky-sexual-behaviors and being HIV positive in Peru. HIV-prevention strategies for Peruvians must address the link between sex and substance use. PMID:25264494

  14. Peru action simmering despite privatization delays

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    After months of delays, the sale of Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu) was postponed earlier this year until after the elections, which saw Peru`s incumbent President Alberto Fujimori reelected. In June, Fujimori appointed Amado Yataco Minister of Energy and Mines. Yataco, also serving as president of the privatization commission Copri, said a decision on the sale of Petroperu would be made quickly, perhaps by July 28, ahead of this report`s presstime. The uncertain status of Petroperu has not, however, slowed activity in Peru`s petroleum sector. The paper first discusses privatization plans and Petroperu`s budget, then describes exploration and development activities in the supergiant Camisea gas/condensate fields in the central southern jungle. Activities in several smaller fields are briefly described.

  15. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  16. Occupational Safety and Health in Peru.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ismael; Huerta-Mercado, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Peru is a country located on the Pacific coast of South America with a population of more than 30 million inhabitants. In the past 10 years, Peru has had a steady economic growth. Peru is predominantly an extractive industry country, but the manufacturing and construction sectors are booming. It is in this context that regulations have been implemented to protect the safety and health of workers. One of the most important regulations is the Law on Safety and Health at Work, which has been recently promulgated. Regulations are complemented by training and education in occupational safety and health. The measures are yet to be fully implemented thus a positive effect in reducing accidents and occupational diseases at work has not yet been seen. PMID:26709289

  17. Nutritional situation in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    PAHO member countries maintain food and nutrition surveillance systems. The prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-4 in Latin American and Caribbean countries ranges from 0.8% in Chile to 38.5% in Guatemala. It is 2.9% in the US. Low height-for-age is most common among children aged 0-4 in Guatemala (57.9%), Bolivia (38.3%), Peru (35.2%), and Ecuador (34%). The interval between observations of malnutrition prevalence ranged from 22 years in Honduras to 3-4 years in Nicaragua and Panama. Overall, there was a downward trend in malnutrition rates in the Americas. Yet, malnutrition is increasing in Guatemala and Panama. Breast feeding, good weaning practices, appropriate feeding during disease episodes, nutrition education, and programs for immunization and control of diarrhea and respiratory diseases account for the downward trend. Anemia rates among pregnant women (=or 11 g Hb/dl) vary from 13% in Asuncion, Paraguay, to 61% in Misiones, Argentina. Those for preschoolers range from 22% to 45% in Brazil and 27% to 53% in Peru. The prevalence of goiter is more than 50% in Merida, Venezuela, and Chameza, Colombia. It differs greatly in different areas within the same country. Most countries have laws requiring iodination of all salt for human consumption, yet violations are common. Certain areas of the countries in the Americas have vitamin A deficiency rates ranging from 5% to 48.8%. Some countries have enacted laws for sugar enrichment with retinol palmitate to reduce vitamin A deficiency. During the 1970s, deaths from chronic diseases related to nutrition increased 105% in South America, 56% in Central America, Mexico, and Panama, and 21% in the Caribbean. Prevalence of obesity among children aged 0-6 varies from 2.2% in Nicaragua and Brazil to 10.7% in Chile. Adult obesity is most common in Uruguay (about 50%). It is more common among females than males. The highest rates among 20-29 year olds are in Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Peru. The US adult obesity

  18. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  19. Oil privatization growing: Peru poised for comeback

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-18

    Economic reform in Peru is transforming the oil and gas sector. Free market rationale is replacing the state monopoly mind-set. Foreign investment in oil, once discouraged by former administrations, is the response to new terms established by current government in its search for capital inflows to boost economic growth.

  20. The State of Subduction in Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The crustal thickness in southern Peru has doubled to 70-75 km in the last 40Ma. Various causes are thought to contribute the additional volume including subduction related volcanism and compression and the curvature of the Arica Bend, but the sum of these appears to fall short of accounting for the needed volume. In a recent detailed seismic survey in southern Peru (PeruSE), we have been able to image the suduction zone, including the overriding continent and the slab in the regions of both flat and normal subduction in southern Peru. One surprising aspect of the image is the presence of a mid-crustal layer boundary that is pervasive in the back-arc of both the normal and flat subduction regimes. Our interpretation of this feature is an extension of an older model in which the Brazilian Shield is underthrusting the Andes, with the difference that this process (according to our image) extends under the Western Cordillera, almost to the current subduction arc. This would explain the missing crustal thickness.

  1. Public Transportation and Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor J.; Sánchez, Inma; Bedoya, Alfredo; Martín, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The association between public transportation for commuting and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was analyzed in workers in Lima, Peru. Traveling in minibuses was a risk factor for pulmonary TB. Preventive measures need to be taken by health services to prevent spread of this disease. PMID:18257992

  2. Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Pedro L.; Budke, Christine M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J.; Villavicencio, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. Methods We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Findings The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384–4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641–251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181–4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861–1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. Conclusions This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru. PMID:21629731

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG influences polyamine metabolism in HGC-27 gastric cancer cell line: a strategy toward nutritional approach to chemoprevention of gastric cance.

    PubMed

    Linsalata, M; Cavallini, A; Messa, C; Orlando, A; Refolo, M G; Russo, F

    2010-01-01

    Chemoprevention by dietary constituents has recently emerged as a novel approach to control gastric cancer incidence. Over the past years, functional foods and food supplements, especially probiotics, have received much attention as potential dietary cancer prevention agents. The precise mechanisms by which these lactic cultures exert their antitumorigenic activities are not fully elucidated, but there is some evidence of their influence on cell proliferation and growth. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) are the key enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively. These polycationic compounds are significantly associated with cancer risk and represent a specific markers for neoplastic proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing concentrations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) (L. GG) homogenate on polyamine biosynthesis and polyamine degradation as well as on resulting polyamine levels in HGC-27 human gastric cancer cells. The influence of this probiotic on cell proliferation was also evaluated. Administration of probiotic homogenate significantly reduced both ODC mRNA and activity as well as polyamine content and neoplastic proliferation. Besides, an increase in both SSAT mRNA and activity occurred after LGG administration in HGC-27. These data suggest that a nutritional component such as the probiotic L. GG could be proposed in an alternative approach to prevention of gastric cancer. This strategy could overcome the limitations due to a prolonged use of drugs and/or the occurrence of their adverse effects, and it could reasonably also start at a young age. PMID:20388096

  4. Women's Participation in a Postconflict Community in Peru.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Elba Custodio; Rivera-Holguín, Miryam; Pacheco, Manuel Seminario; Sotelo, Eric Arenas; Béjar, Paola Urruchi

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the internal armed conflict in Peru (1980-2000) was felt in many regions in this South American country, and especially in rural regions such as the Southern Andean province of Cotabambas in the Apurímac department. This article describes and analyzes the actions and results of a community mental health project in this area that aimed to address the conflict's aftermath. The intervention used participatory strategies to identify the communities' prioritized problems, established actions appropriate to the cultural characteristics of the population, and implemented creative and recreational initiatives that responded to communities' needs. Based on democratic dialogue, horizontal relations, and reciprocity, the targeted communities became protagonists in the process of psychosocial transformation that fostered individual and collective exercise of rights, individual human development, and democratic community building. PMID:26472238

  5. Peru's population in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1984-12-01

    In this discussion of Peru's population in the 1980s, attention focuses on the following; population growth; population policy and family planning; internal migration; and economic and social characteristics. Peru's rate of population growth was 1.8% annually between the censuses of 1940-61, a little less than 2.9% between 1961-71, and 2.7% in the decade preceding the 1981 census. These figures demonstrate that the national population is now growing at a less rapid rate than 1 or 2 decades ago but that Peru did not experience a marked drop like that in several other countries. As with overall population growth, the decline of fertility in Peru has been slow and gradual. During the past 20 years the crude birthrate dropped from 46.27 to 36.71/1000 and the total fertility rate from 6.85 to 5.00. The reason why Peru's population growth rate never exceeded 3% is a direct result of its exceptionally high mortality and infant mortality levels. Peru has a crude mortality rate of 10.74/1000 and an infant mortality rate of 98.63/1000. These are extremely high compared with other Latin American countries. Theoretically, the momentum of progress should be carrying Peru rapidly into the demographic transition. Some modernizing factors, i.e., improved health care, urbanization, communications, and education, are slowly reducing fertility and mortality, but progress on other factors such as per capita income and social mobility is not occurring. A table projects Per's population at various projected growth rates until 2025. Differences in fertility among Peruvian women indicate that family planning and contraception are relatively common in urban areas. The adoption of contraception occurred totally without government assistance before 1980, when policy changed. Until then, Peru was the only major Latin American country with population growing at over 2.5% annually that did not have some kind of public family planning program. In 1981 a survey on contraceptive use was conducted

  6. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  7. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  8. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  9. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  10. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  11. How To Teach Nutrition to Kids: An Integrated, Creative Approach to Nutrition Education for Children Ages 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Connie Liakos

    This book presents nutrition education activities and strategies that are child-tested and teacher-endorsed. It targets educators, nutrition professionals, parents, and other caregivers, offering the tools to teach children ages 6-10 years about nutrition in a meaningful, integrated way. Divided by subject, this resource integrates nutrition into…

  12. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S. Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade) is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco) of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M. Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:22171167

  13. What is Nutrition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the science of nutrition, including: (1) nutrition as a branch of science and social science; (2) nutrition instruction in schools; (3) careers in nutrition; (4) training nutritionists; and (5) current issues in nutrition research. (JN)

  14. Peru Subduction Zone Seismic Experiment (PeruSZE): Preliminary Results From a Seismic Network Between Mollendo and Lake Titicaca, Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, R.; Stubailo, I.; Skinner, S.; Phillips, K.; Foote, E.; Lukac, M.; Aguilar, V.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Husker, A.; Clayton, R.; Davis, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    This work describes preliminary results from a 50 station broadband seismic network recently installed from the coast to the high Andes in Peru. UCLA's Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) and Caltech's Tectonic Observatory are collaborating with the IRD (French L'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement) and the Institute of Geophysics, in Lima Peru in a broadband seismic experiment that will study the transition from steep to shallow slab subduction. The currently installed line has stations located above the steep subduction zone at a spacing of about 6 km. In 2009 we plan to install a line of 50 stations north from this line along the crest of the Andes, crossing the transition from steep to shallow subduction. A further line from the end of that line back to the coast, completing a U shaped array, is in the planning phase. The network is wirelessly linked using multi-hop network software designed by computer scientists in CENS in which data is transmitted from station to station, and collected at Internet drops, from where it is transmitted over the Internet to CENS each night. The instrument installation in Peru is almost finished and we have been receiving data daily from 10 stations (out of total 50) since June 2008. The rest are recording on-site while the RF network is being completed. The software system provides dynamic link quality based routing, reliable data delivery, and a disruption tolerant shell interface for managing the system from UCLA without the need to travel to Peru. The near real-time data delivery also allows immediate detection of any problems at the sites. We are building a seismic data and GPS quality control toolset that would greatly minimize the station's downtime by alerting the users of any possible problems.

  15. Statistical panorama of female physics graduate students for 2000-2010 in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón Loayza, María Luisa; Bravo Cabrejos, Jorge Aurelio

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of a statistical study on the number of women entering the undergraduate and master's programs of physics at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Peru. From 2006 through 2010, 13 female students entered the master's degree program but no females graduated with the degree. Considering that Peru is a developing country, a career in physics is not considered an attractive professional choice even for male students because it is thought that there are no work centers to practice this profession. We recommend that the causes preventing female physics students from completing their studies and research work be analyzed, and that strategies be planned to help women complete their academic work. We are considering getting help from the Peruvian Physics Society (SOPERFI) in order to draw more attention for our plan.

  16. [Experiences in the prevention and control of Carrión's disease in Peru].

    PubMed

    Maguiña Vargas, Ciro; Pachas, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Carrion's disease, the iconic disease in Peruvian medicine has been found in the mountains of Ecuador, Colombia and the Andean valleys of Peru. In the 1990s, the phenomenon of El Niño was associated with significantly increased risk of disease in Ancash, Cajamarca and Cusco. In Cusco in 1998 there was an acute phase epidemic in various Andean provinces and the jungle area. Between 2001 and 2005 the disease has spread or reactivated in different regions such as Ancash, Cajamarca, Amazonas, Piura, Cusco, La Libertad, Puno, and Ayacucho. In 2004 a major outbreak of the disease in all of Peru was presented, reporting more than 11 164 cases, and therefore diverse strategies based vector susceptibility studies was applied, lowering significantly the number of cases. PMID:25123877

  17. [Information system of the national network of public health laboratories in Peru (Netlab)].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Herrera, Javier; Segovia-Juarez, José; Garro Nuñez, Gladys María

    2015-01-01

    Clinical laboratory information systems produce improvements in the quality of information, reduce service costs, and diminish wait times for results, among other things. In the construction process of this information system, the National Institute of Health (NIH) of Peru has developed and implemented a web-based application to communicate to health personnel (laboratory workers, epidemiologists, health strategy managers, physicians, etc.) the results of laboratory tests performed at the Peruvian NIH or in the laboratories of the National Network of Public Health Laboratories which is called NETLAB. This article presents the experience of implementing NETLAB, its current situation, perspectives of its use, and its contribution to the prevention and control of diseases in Peru. PMID:26338402

  18. [The national health system in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In 1975, a group of professionals in Peru who were experts on national health systems began a process that led the country to be the first in South America to initiate a modern organization of the health system. This pioneering development meant that the creation of the National Health Services System [in Peru] in 1978 occurred before the health system reforms in Chile (1980), Brazil (1990), Colombia (1993), and Ecuador (2008). This encouraging start has had permanent reformist fluctuations since then, with negative development because of the lack of a State policy. Current features of the Peruvian system are inefficient performance, discontinuity, and lack of assessment, which creates a major setback in comparison with other health systems in America. In the 21st century, significant technical efforts have been missed to modernize the system and its functions. The future is worrying and the role of new generations will be decisive. PMID:25597729

  19. MAGDAS I and II Magnetometers in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choque, Ed.; Ishitsuka, J.; Yumoto, K.; Veliz, O.; Rosales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Car negie Institution of Washington founded in 1919 the Huancayo Observatory, in Peru (Lat. -12.060, Long - 75.210) and installed a classical magnetometer which has provided a long standing flow of data since March 1st, 1922. Today, there are 10 magnetometers in operation in Peru. On October 13th, 2006, Space Environment Research Center - SERC of Kyushu University installed a new Magnetic Dat a Acquisition System MAGDAS I (PI; Prof. K. Yumoto) at Ancon Observatory (Geographic Latitude: -11.790, Longitude: - 77.160 and Geomagnetic Latitude (2000): 3.100 and Longitude (2000): 354.660). On July 13th, 2011, SERC installed a MAGDAS II at Ica Solar Station (Geographic Latitude: - 140 04' Longitude: -750 44'). Details of the magnetometer that we are hosting will be explained in this presentation.

  20. The Tres Ventanas Mummies of Peru.

    PubMed

    Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido; Ojeda, Bernadino; Benfer, Robert A; Rivera, Ricardo; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S; Thompson, Randall C

    2015-06-01

    The Tres Ventanas mummies of Peru are thought to be among the oldest mummies in existence, dating to between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these mummies for use in future research on mummified remains. Although the Tres Ventanas cave and the four mummies were explored and then excavated by Frederic Engel in 1966-67, and the project is named in his honor as the "Engel Study Group", the importance of both the physical remains and the context in which they were found has only come to light in the last few years. Most important is the paleopathological examination of these remains, since these mummies are found in a high altitude area of Peru where adaptation to the limited partial pressure of oxygen is perhaps a key component in broadening our understanding of human diversity in past populations. PMID:25998637

  1. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devadas, Rajammal P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses principles, methods, places, and outcomes of nutrition education. Suggests that in order to have the active cooperation of participants, healthy relationships between the various agencies, officials, local functionaries, and nutritionists should be maintained. (Author/KC)

  2. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... in MS is growing. Resources Find a dietician / nutritionist Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – Provides an online search tool to locate registered dietician nutritionists (RDNs). Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance ...

  3. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  4. Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  5. Detailed surveys of offshore Peru margin

    SciTech Connect

    Hussong, D.M.; Taylor, B.; Kulm, L.D.; Hilde, T.W.C.

    1986-07-01

    The complex and highly variable structure of the submarine continental margin of central Peru is revealed by geophysical surveys and geologic sampling completed in 1985. The surveys were conducted in preparation for deep scientific drilling to be undertaken by the Ocean Drilling Program in November-December 1986. More than 11,000 km/sup 2/ of sea floor were mapped using the SeaMARC II side-scan sonar and bathymetry system; 1500 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 4000 km of single-channel seismic data were shot; and many coring, dredging, and heat-flow stations were obtained. The data permit construction of detailed three-dimensional geologic maps of the region. These maps show that the ancient metamorphic rocks of South America extend close to the trench axis and apparently have undergone a history of truncation and subsidence related to the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate. Adjacent segments of the Peru forearc have dramatically different structure and appear to have had differing tectonic histories. The margin is disrupted by extensive (primarily tensional) faulting; the larger faults extend perpendicular to the strike of the trench and often serve as conduits for diapirs and mud volcanoes. Living chemosynthetic clams were dredged from 3800-m depth along one of these fault trends, suggesting that active fluid venting occurs at depth on the continental wall of the Peru Trench.

  6. [Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research].

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field. PMID:26732930

  7. An accreted continental terrane in northwestern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourier, T.; Laj, C.; Mégard, F.; Roperch, P.; Mitouard, P.; Farfan Medrano, A.

    1988-04-01

    A paleomagnetic study of over 250 cores from 26 sites sampled in Early to Late Cretaceous and Paleogene volcanic, plutonic and sedimentary formations of the Lancones basin in the Piura province of northern Peru, indicates that most of these lithologies carry a stable primary remanent magnetization whose direction is significantly different from that of coeval formations of stable South America. A clockwise rotation ranging from 90° for the lowermost units to 35° for the uppermost ones has been documented, although the lack of precise chronology has not allowed a detailed temporal description. Four sites from Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) formations in the Amotape-Tahuin Range also show a 110° clockwise rotation and yield evidence for a northward displacement. When considered together with previous geological studies, these data are consistent with the hypothesis of the accretion of an Amotape-Tahuin continental terrane to the Peruvian margin in Neocomian times. The accretion was followed by in situ rotation, suggesting a dextral shear regime. These results indicate that the geodynamical evolution of northern Peru is more closely related to the processes observed in Ecuador than to those classically assumed for the Central Andes of Peru.

  8. Peru 2007 tsunami runup observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.

  9. Engagement of Adolescents in a Health Communications Program to Prevent Noncommunicable Diseases: Multiplicadores Jóvenes, Lima, Peru, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Boeren, Yulissa; Quispe, Renato; Chiang, Mey lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Several risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including obesity, are associated with behaviors established in infancy that persist throughout adolescence and adulthood. As such, adolescents should be engaged in the design and implementation of NCD prevention strategies. Community Context In Lima, Peru’s capital, the proportion of adolescents aged 15 to 19 is 9.3% of the city’s population, and school enrollment rates are high. The prevalence of excess weight in Peruvian adolescents is 14.2%, and prevalence has not declined in recent years. Also recently, NCDs and their risk factors have gained more attention in public health and policy areas, with regulatory action focusing on healthful nutrition to address obesity and related NCDs. The Multiplicadores Jóvenes (Young Multipliers) project was conducted among adolescents aged 15 to 17 from 9 public secondary schools in peri-urban areas of Lima, Peru. Methods The project provided basic communication tools and knowledge of NCD prevention and public health research to adolescents during 16 weekly participatory sessions to enable them to design and disseminate healthful lifestyle promotion messages to their school peers. Outcome Thirty of 45 participants finished the program. Seven communications campaigns were designed and implemented in schools, reaching 1,200 students. The participants gained motivation, increased knowledge, and developed communication skills that were combined to implement healthful lifestyle promotion campaigns. Interpretation Engaging young people in public health promotion activities was feasible and advantageous for the design of tailored prevention-related content and its dissemination among peers. PMID:25742065

  10. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  11. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  12. Peru's troubled return to democratic government.

    PubMed

    Malloy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary Peru is a society beset by a host of social, economic, and political problems. In the postwar period Peru has become a paradigm for the phenomena of rapid population growth, internal migration, hyperurbanization, and socioeconomic marginality. These phenomena converged to create the "barriada," a huge squatter settlement brought into being ordinarily by huge invasions of vacant lands in the outskirts of Lima. It is this great and growing marginal mass that weighs so heavily on the city and the country's economy. Their sheer numbers strain the city's resources and capacity to delivery services such as waste disposal. The central reality of the barriada is grinding poverty, which in turn manifests itself in street crime and a general and growing sense of personal insecurity that pervades Lima. For years now the Peruvian economy has been unable to absorb this growing marginal mass productively. There is massive unemployment and underemployment. As in so many cases in contemporary Peru, action to solve 1 problem may simply generate another, possibly more serious elsewhere. This is the essence of the conundrum that awaited Francisco Belaunde Terry when he assumed the presidency in June 1980 as the head of Peru's 1st democratically elected government in over 12 years. The Belaunde government's market-oriented approach to political economy is an adaptation to a more general trend. Essentially, the transition from military authoritarian rule to civil democratic rule between 1978-80 was very smooth. For the present, power was assumed by political forces committed in broad terms to the underlying socioeconomic system rather than to revolutionary transformations. A fundamental aspect of the context was the shift away from populism and toward capital concentration. The negative impact of this shift on the income levels of the majority was exacerbated by the economic crisis of the late 1970s and by the terms of an International Monetary Fund agreement. The

  13. A retrospective analysis of the change in anti-malarial treatment policy: Peru

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Holly Ann; Vincent-Mark, Arlene; Herrera, Yenni; Chang, O Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Background National malaria control programmes must deal with the complex process of changing national malaria treatment guidelines, often without guidance on the process of change. Selecting a replacement drug is only one issue in this process. There is a paucity of literature describing successful malaria treatment policy changes to help guide control programs through this process. Objectives To understand the wider context in which national malaria treatment guidelines were formulated in a specific country (Peru). Methods Using qualitative methods (individual and focus group interviews, stakeholder analysis and a review of documents), a retrospective analysis of the process of change in Peru's anti-malarial treatment policy from the early 1990's to 2003 was completed. Results The decision to change Peru's policies resulted from increasing levels of anti-malarial drug resistance, as well as complaints from providers that the drugs were no longer working. The context of the change occurred in a time in which Peru was changing national governments, which created extreme challenges in moving the change process forward. Peru utilized a number of key strategies successfully to ensure that policy change would occur. This included a) having the process directed by a group who shared a common interest in malaria and who had long-established social and professional networks among themselves, b) engaging in collaborative teamwork among nationals and between nationals and international collaborators, c) respect for and inclusion of district-level staff in all phases of the process, d) reliance on high levels of technical and scientific knowledge, e) use of standardized protocols to collect data, and f) transparency. Conclusion Although not perfectly or fully implemented by 2003, the change in malaria treatment policy in Peru occurred very quickly, as compared to other countries. They identified a problem, collected the data necessary to justify the change, utilized

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Breast Cancer Control Interventions in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Sten G.; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Abugattas, Julio E.; Manrique, Javier E.; Sarria, Gustavo; Jeronimo, José; Seinfeld, Janice N.; Lauer, Jeremy A.; Sepulveda, Cecilia R.; Venegas, Diego; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant for the Peruvian context. Methods We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) according to WHO-CHOICE guidelines, from a healthcare perspective. Different screening, early detection, palliative, and treatment interventions were evaluated using mathematical modeling. Effectiveness estimates were based on observational studies, modeling, and on information from Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN). Resource utilizations and unit costs were based on estimates from INEN and observational studies. Cost-effectiveness estimates are in 2012 United States dollars (US$) per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Results The current breast cancer program in Peru ($8,426 per DALY averted) could be improved through implementing triennial or biennial screening strategies. These strategies seem the most cost-effective in Peru, particularly when mobile mammography is applied (from $4,125 per DALY averted), or when both CBE screening and mammography screening are combined (from $4,239 per DALY averted). Triennially, these interventions costs between $63 million and $72 million per year. Late stage treatment, trastuzumab therapy and annual screening strategies are the least cost-effective. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that breast cancer control in Peru should be oriented towards early detection through combining fixed and mobile mammography screening (age 45-69) triennially. However, a phased introduction of triennial CBE screening (age 40-69) with upfront FNA in non-urban settings, and both CBE (age 40-49) and fixed mammography screening (age 50-69) in urban settings, seems a more feasible option and is also cost-effective. The implementation of this

  15. Promoting multi‐micronutrient powders (MNP) in Peru: acceptance by caregivers and role of health personnel

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Rosario; Abad, Melissa; Arevalo, Varinia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Iron deficiency causes anaemia and other adverse effects on the nutritional status and development of millions of children. Multi‐micronutrient powders (MNP) have been shown to reduce anaemia in young children. In Peru, 50% of children 6–36 months are anaemic. Since 2009, the government has started distributing MNP. This qualitative study explored the acceptability of MNP by caregivers and the role of health personnel (HP) in three regions (Apurimac, Ayacucho and Cajamarca), piloting the MNP programme between 2009 and 2011. Data collection consisted of interviews (35) and observations (13) with caregivers and HP (11). In Cajamarca, 16 families were visited three times in their homes to understand caregivers' use and difficulties. Results showed the critical role HP has in influencing caregiver understanding and use of the MNP, as well as the need for training to avoid confusing messages and provide counselling techniques that consider cultural sensitivity to optimize HP interactions with caregivers and adapt the recommendations for MNP use to local family feeding routines. There was greater acceptance of MNP by caregivers giving semi‐solid foods (e.g. purees) to their children than those who served dilute preparations (e.g. soups). Acceptance was similar across regions, but there were some differences between urban and rural settings. Home visits were shown to be a key in improving the use of MNP by caregivers as misunderstandings on preparation, required consistency and optimum practices were common. These findings can contribute to strategies to enhance acceptability and use. Key messages Acceptance and use of multi‐micronutrient powders (MNP) by caregivers greatly depend upon how it is presented, promoted and counselled by health personnel.Counselling for MNP use needs to consider and adapt to the local cultural context and incorporate family and child feeding routines.MNP are presented as part of appropriate feeding practices, encouraging

  16. Genetic and field management strategies to enhance the nutritional value of rice grains and limit accumulation of undesirable elements such as arsenic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing the nutritional value of rice grains is of particular interest because rice is a primary dietary component for more than half of the world’s population, and is a primary source of nutrients in many underdeveloped countries. Because rice can be grown under both flooded and unflooded field ...

  17. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  18. Effects of Three Sets of Instructional Strategies and Three Demographic Variables on the Food and Nutrition Test Performance of Some Jamaican Tenth-Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Dennis; Soyibo, Kola

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to find out if students taught food and nutrition concepts using the lecture method and practical work would perform significantly better than their counterparts taught with the lecture and teacher demonstrations and the lecture method only. The sample comprised 114 Jamaican 10th-graders (56 boys, 58 girls) selected from…

  19. Historical Perspectives on Spanish-Quechua Language Contact in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klee, Carol A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of language policy in Peru from colonial times to the present and analyzes the impact of this policy, together with the underlying social conditions, on Spanish-Quechua language contact and Spanish language change in present-day Peru. (Author/VWL)

  20. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  1. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru. PMID:27315090

  2. Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 120, Peru, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Gavilan, Ronnie G.; Toro, Magaly; Zamudio, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred in Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, and Lima, Peru. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental samples from the outbreak revealed a new V. parahaemolyticus clone. All the isolates identified belonged to a single clonal complex described exclusively in Asia before its emergence in Peru. PMID:27315090

  3. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  4. Three new species of Licania (Chrysobalanaceae) from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Prance, Ghillean T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent collections received for identification contain three conspicuous new species for the mid altitude forests of Amazonian Peru. Licania palcazuensis, Licania apiknae and Licania monteagudensis are described as new and their relationship to other species is discussed. A key is provided for all the species of Licania subgenus Licania section Licania known to occur in Peru. PMID:25383007

  5. Peru 2021: A Business Plan for National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caravedo, Baltazar

    1998-01-01

    Describes Peru 2021, an organization of business-related individuals with a vision for Peruvian society. Outlines aspects of their vision in the areas of leadership, education, economy, environment, government, business, technology, and society. Discusses Peru 2021's efforts to develop a strategic plan for implementing the vision, to involve…

  6. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  7. Nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M; D'agostino, M

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the experience of an International Children's Center (ICC) team following many years of work in the field of education for nutrition in developing and industrialized countries. Nutrition education, a long term intervention in which individuals of all ages are active participants who acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitude pertaining to food and nutrition in the context of socioeconomic and cultural limitations. The discussion covers the concepts of attitude, behavior, and eating conduct. Attitude is defined as a way of viewing or internal disposition adopted by any person in a specific situation. Attitudes grow out of knowledge, beliefs, and values and personal predisposition. On the other hand, behavior denotes an observable act and results in a certain manner of acting in response to external stimuli. Eating conduct is expressed differently and in varying extents depending on living conditions and dietary resources. These concepts correspond to the different degrees of information, awareness, and participation achieved by individuals during the educational program. While examination of conduct and dietary resources are necessary for any education for nutrition programs, more attention and investigation should be given to the "negotiation" phase with the people. The community must be ready to take risks, made aware of the implications of the choices to be made to the professionals and to the general public. In this issue, the ICC team highlights important points concerning nutrition education programs. PMID:12295489

  8. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised. PMID:25874831

  9. Comprehensive Performance Nutrition for Special Operations Forces.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Karen A; Logan, Christi M; Kotwal, Russ S

    2015-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) training, combat, and contingency operations are unique and demanding. Performance nutrition within the Department of Defense has emphasized that nutrition is relative to factors related to the desired outcome, which includes successful performance of mentally and physically demanding operations and missions of tactical and strategic importance, as well as nonoperational assignments. Discussed are operational, nonoperational, and patient categories that require different nutrition strategies to facilitate category-specific performance outcomes. Also presented are 10 major guidelines for a SOF comprehensive performance nutrition program, practical nutrition recommendations for Special Operators and medical providers, as well as resources for dietary supplement evaluation. Foundational health concepts, medical treatment, and task-specific performance factors should be considered when developing and systematically implementing a comprehensive SOF performance nutrition program. When tailored to organizational requirements, SOF unit- and culture-specific nutrition education and services can optimize individual Special Operator performance, overall unit readiness, and ultimately, mission success. PMID:26630094

  10. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lodewijkx, Piet J; Besselink, Marc G; Witteman, Ben J; Schepers, Nicolien J; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; On Behalf Of The Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group

    2016-05-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition, although several limitations should be taken into account. The optimal route of enteral nutrition remains unclear, but normal or nasogastric tube feeding seems safe when tolerated. In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis an on-demand feeding strategy is advised and when patients do not tolerate an oral diet after 72 hours, enteral nutrition can be started. The use of supplements, both parenteral as enteral, are not recommended. Optimal nutritional support in severe cases often requires a tailor-made approach with day-to-day evaluation of its effectiveness. PMID:26823272

  11. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru

    PubMed Central

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E.; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  12. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  13. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  14. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-11-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services. PMID:21061737

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services. PMID:21070977

  16. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. PMID:25586099

  17. ENSO impact on hydrology in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado-Casimiro, W. S.; Felipe, O.; Silvestre, E.; Bourrel, L.

    2013-04-01

    The El Niño and La Niña impacts on the hydrology of Peru were assessed based on discharge data (1968-2006) of 20 river catchments distributed over three drainage regions in Peru: 14 in the Pacific Coast (PC), 3 in the Lake Titicaca (TL) region, and 3 in the Amazonas (AM). To classify the El Niño and La Niña events, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) based on hydrological years (September to August). Using the SOI values, the events were re-classified as strong El Niño (SEN), moderate El Niño (MEN), normal years (N), moderate La Niña (MLN) and strong La Niña (SLN). On average during the SEN years, sharp increases occurred in the discharges in the north central area of the PC and decreases in the remaining discharge stations that were analyzed, while in the years of MEN events, these changes show different responses than those of the SEN. During the years classified as La Niña, positive changes are mostly observed in the majority of the stations in the rivers located in the center of Peru's Pacific Coast. Another important result of this work is that the Ilave River (south of the Titicaca watershed) shows higher positive (negative) impacts during La Niña (El Niño) years, a fact that is not clearly seen in the rivers of the northern part of the Titicaca watershed (Ramis and Huancane rivers).

  18. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  19. Nutritional Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

  20. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  1. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  2. Nutrition Status of HIV+ Children in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnyepi, Maria; Bennink, Maurice R.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Lyoka, Philemon; Anabwani, Gabriel M.; Makhanda, Jerry; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying and addressing poor nutritional status in school-aged children is often not prioritized relative to HIV/AIDS treatment. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the benefits of integrating nutrition (assessment and culturally acceptable food supplement intervention) in the treatment strategy for this target group.…

  3. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid. PMID:27008448

  4. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    PubMed

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness. PMID:20513626

  5. New Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Friedrich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Six species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae) are collected from the German Expedition to Amazonian Peru in 2013; of these, three are new for science, described from upper soil and leaf litter in the primary evergreen lowland rainforest. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) parapassimpunctata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) passimpunctata Balogh & Mahunka, 1969, but differs from the latter by the presence of foveolate body surface, two pairs of porose areas Aa and minute interlamellar setae, and the absence of porose areas A3. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) krisperi sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) cardosensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio, 1986, but differs from the latter by the smaller body size, rostral and lamellar setae of medium size and the presence of four pairs of notogastral porose areas. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) lenticulata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size and the presence of lenticulus and bidentate rostrum. The species Pergalumna (Pergalumna) bryani Jacot, 1934 is recorded for the first time in Peru. PMID:27394360

  6. Zooplankton research off Peru: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón, Patricia; Criales-Hernandez, Maria I.; Schwamborn, Ralf; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    A review of zooplankton studies conducted in Peruvian marine waters is given. After a short history of the development of zooplankton research off Peru, we review zooplankton methodology, taxonomy, biodiversity, spatial distribution, seasonal and interannual variability, trophodynamics, secondary production, and modelling. We review studies on several micro-, meso-, macro-, and meroplankton groups, and give a species list from both published and unpublished reports. Three regional zooplankton groups have been identified: (1) a continental shelf group dominated by Acartia tonsa and Centropages brachiatus; (2) a continental slope group characterized by siphonophores, bivalves, foraminifera and radiolaria; (3) and a species-rich oceanic group. The highest zooplankton abundances and biomasses were often found between 4-6°S and 14-16°S, where continental shelves are narrow. Species composition changes with distance from the shore. Species composition and biomass also vary strongly on short time scales due to advection, peaks of larval production, trophic interactions, and community succession. The relation of zooplankton to climatic variability (ENSO and multi-decadal) and fish stocks is discussed in the context of ecological regime shifts. An intermediate upwelling hypothesis is proposed, based on the negative effects of low upwelling intensity in summer or extremely strong and enduring winter upwelling on zooplankton abundance off Peru. According to this hypothesis, intermediate upwelling creates an optimal environmental window for zooplankton communities. Finally, we highlight important knowledge gaps that warrant attention in future.

  7. Popular participation and the state: democratizing the health sector in rural Peru.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Popular participation has been an important component of most primary health care strategies since the Alma Ata Declaration, 1978. This article examines the use of state-sponsored participation in the health sector in Peru and some of the experiences that have accompanied its implementation. Taking the Local Health Administration Committees (CLAS) from the second Fujimori government (1995-2000) as an example, it is shown that for self-motivated rural communities to work in harmony with the state, there must be willingness to adapt to the varying levels of intra-community differences, social integration and social support. PMID:15239209

  8. ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Richard B; Almada, Anthony L; Antonio, Jose; Broeder, Craig; Earnest, Conrad; Greenwood, Mike; Incledon, Thomas; Kalman, Douglas S; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N

    2004-01-01

    Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1.) how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2.) general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3.) our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  9. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  10. Parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587

  11. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  12. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  13. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  14. Peru`s national greenhouse gas inventory, 1990. Peru climate change country study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study has been to determine the Inventory and to propose greenhouse gases mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting, improving in this way the Peruvian standard of life. The main objective of this executive summary is to show concisely the results of the National Inventory about greenhouse gases emitted by Peru in 1990.

  15. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  16. Urban Poverty, Participation and Authoritarian Rule: Further Data from Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Henry A.

    1978-01-01

    A structural analysis of political behavior in different neighborhoods in Lima, Peru, which draws on survey data to analyze the ways in which local neighborhood settings affect political behavior of residents. (Author)

  17. Numbers and Codes in Ancient Peru: The Quipu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepp, Raymond A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Quipu, a mathematical device invented by the Incas of Peru that used the base-10 number system to store information. Suggests ways of incorporating material on the quipu into the arithmetic class. (MDH)

  18. International Briefing 27: Training and Development in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleri, Andres Velarde; Llinas-Audet, Xavier; Escardibul, Josep-Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Peru is in the central, western part of South America. It is the third largest country in South America and number 20 in the world. It is the country with the fourth highest population in South America. In 2010, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Peru was 154 billion USD, and its rate of growth was 8.8% (higher than the average for the region for…

  19. Cardiogenic shock and nutrition: safe?

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude; Wernerman, Jan; Bendjelid, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock is a common diagnosis in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and is characterized by a decreased cardiac output in the presence of adequate intravascular volume associated with an inadequate tissue perfusion including a physiological reduction in the splanchnic territory. It may occur in isolation as a reflection of cardiac pathology, or it may be part of a shock syndrome involving other pathogenic mechanisms. As the use of enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with an increase in mesenteric arterial output, EN could be deleterious by overwhelming the mechanisms of mesenteric adaptation. Accordingly, EN has been suspected to increase the risk of mesenteric ischaemia, bacterial translocation and sepsis in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. International guidelines recommend a cautious use of EN within 72 h following cardiogenic shock. Recent evidence indicates that mesenteric arterial output may decrease during parenteral nutrition administration, suggesting that parenteral nutrition could have a protective effect on splanchnic organs in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. Contrary to former beliefs, several meta-analyses have shown that parenteral nutrition is not associated with increased mortality. Exclusive EN is associated with negative energy balance and the combination of EN with supplemental parenteral nutrition during the first days following ICU admission has been proposed to prevent negative energy balance. Such a nutritional strategy could also be beneficial for the mesenteric circulation in cardiogenic shock, and consequently may improve the clinical outcome of patients with cardiogenic shock. Clinical trials are warranted to verify these hypotheses. PMID:21086113

  20. Coal and cremation in ancient Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.

    2004-01-01

    After my visit to the adobe-walled archaeological site of Chan Chan, near Trujillo in northern Peru in the summer of 2000 (Geotimes, August 2003), my guide asked if I would like to see the metallurgical furnaces used by the Chimú, ancient residents and master metalsmiths of the region. Chan Chan was the capital of the Chimú Empire (A.D. 1100-1400) and the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. These furnaces, my guide explained, were where Andean gold, silver and copper ores were smelted and fabricated into jewelry, masks and plates sought by the Spaniards. We left the main part of the complex, followed a dusty trail, and arrived at a site marked by fresh-looking, redbrown, clinker-like debris.

  1. Cross-cultural dynamics in rural Peru.

    PubMed

    Paz, David A; Blair, Patrick J

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural and language barriers can be an impediment to the conduct of biomedical studies in developing nations. To assess the implementation of human-use procedures within a minimum-risk febrile illness surveillance study in Peru, personnel fluent in both English and Spanish conducted a review of 10 sites. Guideline adherence, consent procedures, and potential problems in the conduct of the trial were reviewed. Concerns cited by on-site investigators included patient follow-up, poor facilities, and power fluctuations that jeopardized samples before shipment to a central location. However, both local study coordinators and patients demonstrated a clear grasp of study enrollment and consent procedures and reported no significant problems in the conduct of the study. These findings suggest that significant planning is crucial before initiation of biomedical studies in developing nations to successfully overcome physical challenges and cultural dynamics that could otherwise adversely affect scientific outcomes. PMID:17256693

  2. Assistance for the prescription of nutritional support must be required in nonexperienced nutritional teams.

    PubMed

    Ouaïssi, Mehdi; Grandval, Philippe; Mege, Diane; Nedelcu, Anamaria; Hautefeuille, Gaëlle; Vanhoeve, Frédéric; Sastre, Bernard; Sielezneff, Igor; di Costanzo, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the current practices of nutritional support among hospitalized patients in nonspecialized hospital departments. Materials and Methods. During an observation period of 2 months, a surgeon and a gastroenterologist designated in each of the two departments concerned, not "specialized" in nutritional assistance, have treated patients in which nutritional support seemed necessary. Assessing the degree of malnutrition of the patient, the therapeutic decision and the type of product prescribed by the doctors were secondarily compared to the proposals of a structured computer program according to the criteria and standards established by the institutions currently recognized. Results. The study included 120 patients bearing a surgical disease in 86.7% of cases and 10% of medical cases. 50% of the patients had cancer. Nutritional status was correctly evaluated in 38.3% by the initial doctors' diagnosis-consistent with the software's evaluation. The strategy of nutrition was concordant with the proposals of the software in 79.2% of cases. Conclusions. Despite an erroneous assessment of the nutritional status in more than two-thirds of cases the strategy of nutritional management was correct in 80% of cases. Malnutrition and its consequences can be prevented in nonexperienced nutritional teams by adequate nutritional support strategies coming from modern techniques including computerized programs. PMID:24575300

  3. Assistance for the Prescription of Nutritional Support Must Be Required in Nonexperienced Nutritional Teams

    PubMed Central

    Ouaïssi, Mehdi; Grandval, Philippe; Mege, Diane; Nedelcu, Anamaria; Hautefeuille, Gaëlle; Vanhoeve, Frédéric; Sastre, Bernard; Sielezneff, Igor; di Costanzo, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the current practices of nutritional support among hospitalized patients in nonspecialized hospital departments. Materials and Methods. During an observation period of 2 months, a surgeon and a gastroenterologist designated in each of the two departments concerned, not “specialized” in nutritional assistance, have treated patients in which nutritional support seemed necessary. Assessing the degree of malnutrition of the patient, the therapeutic decision and the type of product prescribed by the doctors were secondarily compared to the proposals of a structured computer program according to the criteria and standards established by the institutions currently recognized. Results. The study included 120 patients bearing a surgical disease in 86.7% of cases and 10% of medical cases. 50% of the patients had cancer. Nutritional status was correctly evaluated in 38.3% by the initial doctors' diagnosis—consistent with the software's evaluation. The strategy of nutrition was concordant with the proposals of the software in 79.2% of cases. Conclusions. Despite an erroneous assessment of the nutritional status in more than two-thirds of cases the strategy of nutritional management was correct in 80% of cases. Malnutrition and its consequences can be prevented in nonexperienced nutritional teams by adequate nutritional support strategies coming from modern techniques including computerized programs. PMID:24575300

  4. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  5. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find A Report SNAP WIC Food Distribution Programs Food Security Nutrition Education Program Integrity Child Nutrition Programs Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative ...

  6. Total parenteral nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  7. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  8. Geriatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M

    1989-01-01

    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian. PMID:2646815

  9. Nutrition and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nimbe; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a universal problem in modern society. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of CVD resulting in high rate of mortality in the population. Nutrition science has focused on the role of essential nutrients in preventing deficiencies, at the present time, the nutritional strategies are crucial to promote health and intervene with these global noncommunicable diseases. In many cases, diet is a major driving force, which is much easier to change and follow than other factors. It is important to establish that the first strategy to treat atherosclerosis is to modify lifestyle habits, focusing on the beneficial properties of specific nutrients. In the last decades, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that diet plays a central role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review we will focus on the effect of specific foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds, including epidemiological facts, potential mechanisms of action and dietary recommendations to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. In particular, we include information about fiber, plant sterols and stanols, niacin, taurine, olive oil, omega 3 fatty acids, antioxidants, minerals, methyl nutrients and soy. In addition, we also show that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota associated with a consumption of certain animal food sources can generate some metabolites that are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and its consequences on CVD. According to the epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies we suggest a recommendation for some dietary foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds to support the complementary clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:26031780

  10. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Household Food Security and Child Anthropometry at Ages 5 and 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam123

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Fernald, Lia C; Stein, Aryeh D; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor childhood nutritional status has lifetime effects and food insecurity is associated with dietary practices that can impair nutritional status. Objectives: We assessed concurrent and subsequent associations between food insecurity and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMI-Zs); evaluated associations with transitory and chronic food insecurity; and tested whether dietary diversity mediates associations between food insecurity and nutritional status. Methods: We used data from the Young Lives younger cohort composed of children in Ethiopia (n = 1757), India (n = 1825), Peru (n = 1844), and Vietnam (n = 1828) recruited in 2002 (round 1) at ∼1 y old, with subsequent data collection at 5 y in 2006 (round 2) and 8 y in 2009 (round 3). Results: Children from food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs in all countries at 5 y (Ethiopia, −0.33; India, −0.53; Peru, −0.31; and Vietnam, −0.68 HAZ; all P < 0.001), although results were attenuated after controlling for potential confounders (Ethiopia, −0.21; India, −0.32; Peru, −0.14; and Vietnam, −0.27 HAZ; P < 0.01). Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y HAZ, but did not add predictive power beyond HAZ at age 5 y in Ethiopia, India, or Peru. Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y BMI-Z even after controlling for the 5 y BMI-Z, although associations were not significant after the inclusion of additional confounding variables (Ethiopia, P = 0.12; India, P = 0.29; Peru, P = 0.16; and Vietnam, P = 0.51). Chronically food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs than households that were consistently food-secure, although BMI-Zs did not differ by chronic food-insecurity status. Dietary diversity mediated 18.8–30.5% of the association between food security and anthropometry in Vietnam, but mediated to a lesser degree (8.4–19.3%) in other countries. Conclusions: In 4 countries, food insecurity at 5 y of age was associated with

  11. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  12. Slope stability of moraines, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimes, J.; Novotny, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides originating from inner slopes of moraine dams are often capable of producing glacial lakes outburst floods (GLOFs). Therefore assessing stability conditions of the moraines is important for predicting this potentially damaging phenomenon. Characteristics of the basic mechanical properties of the material and geophysical investigations were applied to collect necessary information for slope stability assessment of the Palcacocha Lake moraine dam, Peru. The lake is situated in the Cordillera Blanca Mts. at the altitude of about 4,500m asl and produced catastrophic GLOF in 1941. Another minor flood originated in 2003 due to landslide impact into the lake. Detailed investigations of this landslide site included geomorphological mapping, geophysical investigations and characterization of basic mechanical properties of the forming material. Geomorphological mapping identified dormant landslide with scarp up to 2m high which developed on the edge of the inner moraine slope. It is conditioned by set of parallel extension trenches which also affected the origin of 2003 landslide. Within its scarp area, significant water bearing layer was noticed around 10 m bellow the moraine surface. Three profiles were investigated using electric resistivity tomography performed on 4poing light instrument with 24 electrodes and with spacing ranging from 1 to 4m. Results helped to verify geometry of the main shear plane of the mapped landslide as well as the spacing and depth of extension trenches. Significant heterogeneity in the moraine resistivity characteristics was found. The high resistivity regions are explained by rock block accumulation whereas the low resistivity may represent wet layers within the moraine body. Grain size distribution of 33 disturbed soil samples originating from moraine material within the Cordillera Blanca Mts., Peru were determined and classified according to the UCSC classification system. The samples were taken from moraine dams and slopes

  13. 77 FR 28419 - Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental... Representative (USTR) are providing notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the fifth meeting...

  14. 76 FR 21786 - Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental... Representative (USTR) are providing notice that the United States and Peru intend to hold the third meeting...

  15. 75 FR 5836 - Meeting of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council ACTION: Notice of the meeting of the U.S.-Peru Environmental Affairs Council and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of State and the... Peru intend to hold the first meeting of the Environmental Affairs Council (the ``Council'')...

  16. 19 CFR 10.934 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Peru. 10.934 Section 10.934 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.934 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  17. 19 CFR 10.909 - Certification for goods exported to Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Peru. 10.909...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Export Requirements § 10.909 Certification for goods exported to Peru....

  18. 19 CFR 10.909 - Certification for goods exported to Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Peru. 10.909...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Export Requirements § 10.909 Certification for goods exported to Peru....

  19. 19 CFR 10.934 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Peru. 10.934 Section 10.934 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.934 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Peru. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  20. Crafting regulations in emerging geothermal countries: The Peru example

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Conventional wisdom holds that no prudent investor or lender will ante up a penny of investment money in a geothermal project unless and until there is a geothermal resources law in place. Since every law depends on a regulatory regime to make the law work in actual practice, implemented regulations are equally important conditions precedent for geothermal development. In recognition of the importance of assisting geothermal regulatory development in the emerging geothermal countries of Latin America, during the 1995 to 1996 timeframe, the Geothermal Energy Association has acted in an advisory capacity to the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Peru, in the drafting of geothermal regulations for Peru. These regulations are designed to promote developmental investment in the geothermal resources of Peru, while simultaneously establishing reasonable standards for the protection of the people and the environment of the country. While these regulations are specific to Peru, they may well serve as a model for other countries of Latin America. Thus, the lessons learned in crafting the Peru regulatory regime may have applicability in other countries in which the geothermal industry is now working or may work in the future.

  1. [Systemic contact eczema against Balsam of Peru].

    PubMed

    Pfützner, Wolfgang; Niedermeier, Andrea; Thomas, Peter; Przybilla, Bernhard

    2003-09-01

    Balsam of Peru (PB; Myroxylon pereirae) is a natural product derived from resin of a tropical tree (MyroxyIon balsamum (L.) Harms var. pereirae (Royle) Baillon). Because of its antiseptic and aromatic properties PB or PB-components can be found worldwide not only in many health care and cosmetic products, but also in food items and semiluxury food. PB contains a wide variety of potent contact allergens leading to hypersensitivity reactions not only after topical application but also oral uptake. We report a 51-year-old brewer with chronic eczema of the hands who showed delayed-type patch test reactions against PB and fragrance-mix. Oral PB-challenge led to exacerbation of the eczema 5 and in a repeated test 2 days later. We here review this probably quite often overlooked disease and the therapeutic consequences which require profound knowledge about the wide distribution of PB when advising the patient about a PB-restricted diet. In addition, this unusual case report demonstrates that one has to consider marked delayed hypersensitivity reaction when investigating a systemic contact allergy. PMID:16285279

  2. Smoothing the way to opportunity in Peru.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, B

    1999-11-01

    Since 1990, poor women in Peru have suffered from the impact of structural adjustment policies, which have lead to low wages, poor working conditions, and a general deterioration in the status of women workers. To address these problems, the Asociacion Aurora Vivar began its Alternative Technical Training Program for Women in July 1992, with the aim of increasing the entrepreneurial skills of women. The project aimed to support women who have problems at work, those who are unemployed and those with low income. Moreover, the project sought to increase women's participation in nontraditional areas of work. Training focused on increasing women's technical skills, including the repair of home appliances, and on personal development, such as leadership skills, confidence building, and business management. The project attracted a diverse group of women who took part in the training for a variety of reasons. The women's new capacities and skills create a positive image for them within the household. Aurora Vivar acknowledges the importance of vocational education to increase women's opportunities to earn a living. The association is proposing reforms in the educational system to introduce courses on business management, credit, and other technical skills as part of the formal education system. PMID:12349600

  3. Review of the Huaytapallana project in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Adam; Welsch, Walter

    1986-11-01

    In 1969, two consecutive earthquakes activated a reverse fault at an elevation of 4600 m in the Huaytapallana mountain range near Huancayo in central Peru. In 1975, a small geodetic network was established and measured across the fault covering an area of about 1.5 km 2. The network has been remeasured in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1982, using standard geodetic instruments, as a joint effort by two Canadian and one German universities in cooperation with the Peruvian Institute of Geophysics. In 1978, the network was expanded to cover 6 km 2. High-altitude sickness, logistic problems with old vehicles, civil unrest and riots plagued the survey expeditions. The results show a cyclic rigid body motion of the southwest side versus the northeast side of the fault in a general east-west direction of about ± 3 mm/year. The direction of the motion agrees with the direction of compressive forces expected in this subduction region. The next survey campaign is planned for 1987.

  4. Mass media in Peru promotes "responsible parenthood".

    PubMed

    Brace, J; Pareja, R

    1985-01-01

    This article describes a media campaign being carried out in Peru under the auspices of the Ministry of Health. The overall theme of the campaign is Responsible Parenthood, specifically in the areas of family planing, oral rehydration, and immunization. The mass media campaign was based on the results of extensive audience research data that identified knowledge and beliefs in these areas. The research identified 2 target audiences for family planning messages: those who want no more children and those who are using traditional contraceptive methods. In addition to quantitative audience surveys, focus group discussions were held. These groups revealed important information about contraceptive habits, male attitudes toward family planning, and the folk vocabulary used for family planning activities. They further suggested that the quality of services given in health centers affects future use of that service and that the most credible source of information about family planning is considered to be a mature female doctor, herself a mother. Pretesting of television spots for the campaign was valuable for identifying unacceptable or ineffective images. It was also learned that radio and telvision spots cannot be the same; rather, they require unique content. PMID:12313874

  5. [Cholera in a district of Peru].

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodríguez, A E; Monté Boada, R; de la Vega Díaz, J E; Molina, R; García Gómez, V; Arca González, J M

    1996-01-01

    Taking to consideration the low report of cholera patients and with the main knowing the reality about the introduction of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) in Peru, a sample of 101 cases with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) was taken at the Distrito Villa El Salvador. They were selected by a systematic randomized sampling defined for each health care unit in the District, according to the daily average occurrence of ADD cases attended a week before the beginning of the study. All of them took part in a epidemiological survey. A sample was taken by rectal swab in order to isolate V. cholerae. 53 positive cases were found (52.2% and a confidence interval from 42.29 to 62.5%) with significant differences (p < 0.01) between the frequency in adults (67.3%) and children (34.8%). V. cholerae was isolated only in 13 (61.9%) of the 21 cases who had contact with cholera patients, for a relative risk of 1.24 (0.83 < RR < 1.85). A high positivity was also found, 21 cases (72.4%) among those who had raw food. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed in connection with those who had cooked food. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis it was only found a significant relationship with age and with the ingestion of raw food as regards the occurrence of cholera. PMID:9805053

  6. The marketing of cysticercotic pigs in the Sierra of Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    In Peru pork supplied through regulated slaughterhouses is primarily restricted to the large cities on the coast. Approximately 65% of the pork consumed in the country is obtained through informal channels that are not inspected or supervised. The pathways via which pigs are commercialized were studied in Huancayo, a city in the Peruvian Sierra where cysticercosis is endemic. Official purchase, slaughter, and market records were reviewed. Also, direct surveys and participant observation were carried out at two local live pig markets and at two informal meat markets. Pigs were not processed in local slaughterhouses; instead, they were butchered informally. The proportion of cysticercotic pigs detected by tongue examination ranged from 14% to 25% of the total sold. Since cysticercotic pigs and pork are sold through informal markets, surveys of abattoirs and meat markets are not a reliable way to monitor the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Peru. We estimate that 48% of the pork traded informally and 23% of the total pork consumed in Huancayo is derived from pigs that are infected with cysticercosis. PMID:8490986

  7. Differences in physical growth of Aymara and Quechua children living at high altitude in Peru.

    PubMed

    de Meer, K; Bergman, R; Kusner, J S; Voorhoeve, H W

    1993-01-01

    Physical growth of Amerindian children living in two Aymara and three Quechua peasant communities in the Andean highlands of southern Peru (altitude 3,810-3,840 m) was studied, taking into account differences in the microclimate, agronomic situation, and sociodemographic variables. Anthropometric measurements were taken in 395 children aged under 14 years of age in a sample of 151 families in these communities, who were surveyed for sociodemographic variables as well. Data on the land system were available for 77 families. In comparison with reference populations from the United States (NCHS) and The Netherlands, stature, weight, head circumference, and midupper arm circumference (but not weight for stature) in the sample children were reduced. Growth retardation increased after the age of 1 year. Stature and weight in the present sample were very similar compared with previously published data on growth of rural Aymara children living near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. Head circumference, midupper arm circumference, and weight for stature were significantly larger in Aymara children compared with Quechua children. Land was significantly more fragmented in Aymara compared with Quechua families, but amount of land owned was not different. Perinatal and infant mortality was elevated in Aymara vs. Quechua communities. Most families in Aymara communities used protected drinking water. One Quechua community had a severe microclimate, grim economic outlook, and weak social cohesion. Children in this community showed significant reductions in weight and midupper arm circumference compared with their peers in the other communities. We conclude that (presumably nutritionally mediated) intervillage and Aymara-Quechua differences in childhood physical growth existed in this rural high-altitude population in Peru and were associated with microclimate and the village economy, sociodemographic factors, and differences in the land system. PMID:8470756

  8. Ten years of international collaboration in biomedical informatics and beyond: the AMAUTA program in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne; Garcia, Patricia J; Holmes, King K; Kimball, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    Well-trained people are urgently needed to tackle global health challenges through information and communication technologies. In this report, AMAUTA, a joint international collaborative training program between the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the University of Washington, which has been training Peruvian health professionals in biomedical and health informatics since 1999, is described. Four short-term courses have been organized in Lima, offering training to more than 200 graduate-level students. Long-term training to masters or doctorate level has been undertaken by eight students at the University of Washington. A combination of short-term and long-term strategies was found to be effective for enhancing institutional research and training enterprise. The AMAUTA program promoted the development and institution of informatics research and training capacity in Peru, and has resulted in a group of trained people playing important roles at universities, non-government offices, and the Ministry of Health in Peru. At present, the hub is being extended into Latin American countries, promoting South-to-South collaborations. PMID:20595317

  9. A new species of Eumops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) from southwestern Peru.

    PubMed

    Medina, César E; Gregorin, Renato; Zeballos, Horacio; Zamora, Hugo T; Moras, Ligiane M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Eumops is the most diverse genera of molossid bats in the Neotropics. In Peru this genus is widely distributed and represented by nine species: E. auripendulus, E. delticus, E. hansae, E. maurus, E. nanus, E. patagonicus, E. perotis, E. trumbulli, and E. wilsoni. After several years of mammalian diversity surveys in the coastal desert and western slopes of southwestern Peru, a specimen of Eumops was collected whose unique set of traits allows us to assert that deserves to be described as a new species. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, the new species is related to medium-large sized species (i.e. E. glaucinus, E. auripendulus, and E. perotis). Cytochrome b genetic divergence between the new species and the other species of the genus was high (> 12%) and it is consistent with morphological divergence presented for this new species. This new species, endemic to Peru, increases the diversity of Eumops to 16 species. PMID:25544431

  10. Parenteral nutrition: risks, complications, and management.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Patricia H; Gilbert, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving modality, but one that also carries risks for potentially life-threatening complications. Comprehensive management of patients receiving parenteral nutrition includes careful selection of candidates, individualizing formulas to meet patients' unique needs, monitoring response to therapy, and implementing strategies designed to avoid complications. Measures to mitigate the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections are particularly important. As with all complex therapies, a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach promotes optimal outcomes. PMID:22222292

  11. Nutrition for distance events.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit. PMID:18049981

  12. Nutrition in team sports.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. PMID:21346334

  13. Promoting intestinal adaptation by nutrition and medication.

    PubMed

    Neelis, E G; Olieman, J F; Hulst, J M; de Koning, B A E; Wijnen, R M H; Rings, E H H M

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate goal in the treatment of short bowel syndrome is to wean patients off parenteral nutrition, by promoting intestinal adaptation. Intestinal adaptation is the natural compensatory process that occurs after small bowel resection. Stimulating the remaining bowel with enteral nutrition can enhance this process. Additionally, medication can be used to either reduce factors that complicate the adaptation process or to stimulate intestinal adaptation, such as antisecretory drugs and several growth factors. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the best nutritional strategies and medication that best promote intestinal adaptation. PMID:27086889

  14. Revision of the Upper Cretaceous rudists from northwestern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Jean; Jaillard, Etienne

    2004-09-01

    Revision of the Upper Cretaceous rudists of northwestern Peru has led to new discoveries and enabled the specification of their taxonomy and stratigraphic locations. Different species have been identified: Biradiolites cf. jamaicensis Trechmann 1924, Radiolites cf. macroplicatus Whitfield 1897, Praebarrettia sparcilirata (Whitfield, 1897) of Late Campanian age, and Macgillavryia nicholasi (Whitfield, 1897) of Middle-Late Maastrichtian age. During the Campanian and Maastrichtian, rudists of Peru show paleobiogeographic affinities with those of the Mexican and Caribbean domains. A paleogeographic route for rudist migrations may have existed at that time along the Caribbean arc and the Curaçao-Ecuador coastline.

  15. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis. PMID:26354673

  16. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  17. Call to Action: Better Nutrition for Mothers, Children, and Families National Workshop Proceedings (Washington, D.C., December 6-8, 1990). Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharbaugh, Carolyn S., Ed.

    This report summarizes proceedings and recommendations of a workshop on trends, needs, and issues in maternal and child nutrition services and presents 28 major recommendations and associated action strategies which address general areas, women's nutrition for optimal reproductive health, infant nutrition, child nutrition, adolescent nutrition,…

  18. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  19. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  20. Maternal nutrition, health, and survival.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul

    2002-05-01

    The burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries is high. Each year, 600,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes and 62 million women suffer from morbidity and complications of pregnancy. The extent to which maternal nutrition can improve maternal health and survival is not well understood. Excluding deaths due to induced abortions, the other four main causes of maternal mortality (preeclampsia, hemorrhage, obstructed labor, and infection) may be amenable to nutrition interventions. The role of calcium in reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and hypertension is promising, but more research in deficient populations is urgently needed. Antenatal iron supplementation, although frequently recommended to prevent anemia during pregnancy, has had little program success. Severe anemia may be an important cause of maternal mortality, but convincing evidence is lacking on the health consequences of mild-to-moderate maternal anemia. Knowledge of the etiology of anemia is important in identifying effective strategies for combating it. Other vitamins such as folate, B12, and vitamin A may enhance the effect of iron supplementation in populations where multiple nutrition deficiencies exist. Maternal night blindness is widespread in South Asian women. In Nepal, this condition is associated with markedly increased risks of vitamin A deficiency, anemia, morbidity, and maternal and infant mortality. These findings need to be replicated elsewhere in South Asia. One study has shown vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. These findings need testing in different settings with emphasis on investigating the mechanisms of the effect. The area of prepregnancy nutrition and its influence on prolonged and obstructed labor is wide open for investigation. The scope for research in the area of maternal nutrition and health is large and the onus is on nutritionists to bring to the forefront the role of nutrition in

  1. Transformation of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants: the case of Tyroleans (Austria) who migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    according to 744 different uses (Tyrol: 552, Australia: 200, Brazil: 180, Peru: 357) belonging to 22 different categories of use. Use values are significantly different between Tyrol and Australia (p < 0.001) but not between Tyrol and Brazil (p = 0.127) and Tyrol and Peru (p = 0.853). The average informant agreement ratio (IAR) in Tyrol is significantly higher than in Australia (p = 0.089) and Brazil (p = 0.238), but not Peru (p = 0.019). Conclusions Changing ecological and social conditions have transformed and shaped traditional knowledge of medicinal plants through adaptation processes to match the new circumstances in the country of arrival. Continuation, substitution and replacement are strategies that have taken place at different rates depending on local circumstances in the research areas. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants acquired in the home country is continuously diminishing, with its composition influenced by urbanisation and ongoing globalisation processes and challenged by shifts from traditional healing practices to modern healthcare facilities. PMID:23157876

  2. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  3. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  4. When science and politics listen to each other: good prospects from a new school breakfast program in Peru.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, E R; Cueto, S; Pollitt, E

    1998-04-01

    This article provides an overview of a school breakfast program implemented in 1993 in the Peruvian Andes. The program, designed by the Instituto de Investigación Nutricional in Lima and supported by the government of Peru, constitutes a clear departure from previous school feeding programs, which were heavily politicized and poorly documented. From the program's inception, nutritionists, managers, and social scientists have collaborated to produce a sound nutritional design, efficient distribution mechanisms, and effective evaluation methods. During the program's first year, controlled evaluations conducted in several Andean regions documented improved dietary intake and a significant decline in the prevalence of anemia. An educational evaluation also found improved verbal skills, higher school attendance, and lower dropout rates among recipients of the school breakfast. The results have prompted the Peruvian government to continue supporting the program, thus setting a new standard for the effective management of social expenditure in the context of economic adjustment. PMID:9537631

  5. The phenomenon of stunting as the core problem in a community based, multisectoral project in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, J J; Echeverría, F R; Hewel-Herrmann, P

    1991-03-01

    In a nutrition and health project in the countryside of the Highlands of Northern Peru, an anthropometric study was conducted on 306 pre-school children. The results showed a primarily stunted, but not wasted, population in which the process of stunting started after the first 6 months of life, with a modest linear progression over all age-groups. However, the rates of stunted children increased dramatically between the ages of 6 months and 2 years. Evidence with regard to the social dimension of the problem of becoming stunted was revealed by the significant differences between rates of stunted children according to the degree of community participation in their home villages. PMID:2052861

  6. A New Course for Physics Teachers in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Carlos; Rushby, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    Describes the conduct of a new course in Peru designed for physics teachers at the university level with emphases upon learning of up-to-date teaching and laboratory techniques. Included is a description of local degree programs and basic philosophy underlying teacher education. (CC)

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NPPO of Peru whereby the producer agrees to participate in and follow the fruit fly management program... allow APHIS inspectors access to production areas in order to monitor compliance with the fruit fly management program. The fruit fly management program must also provide for the following: (1) Trapping...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NPPO of Peru whereby the producer agrees to participate in and follow the fruit fly management program... allow APHIS inspectors access to production areas in order to monitor compliance with the fruit fly management program. The fruit fly management program must also provide for the following: (1) Trapping...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-41 - Citrus from Peru.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NPPO of Peru whereby the producer agrees to participate in and follow the fruit fly management program... allow APHIS inspectors access to production areas in order to monitor compliance with the fruit fly management program. The fruit fly management program must also provide for the following: (1) Trapping...

  10. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  11. The Forest Indians in the Present Political Situation of Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    The article focuses on tribal minorities (American Indians) of the Peruvian tropical forest from the point of view of the political circumstances and the general administrative conditions of the country. In 1968 the revolutionary military government initiated a series of structural reforms which aimed at transforming Peru. This article poses and…

  12. Sexual Abuse Experiences of Women in Peru: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboer, Rebekah E.; Tse, Luke M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study relied primarily on case notes and interviews with the president of Centro Prenatal Vida Nueva, a pregnancy center in Lima, Peru, to study the sexual abuse experiences of 33 Peruvian women. Given the language limitations of the researchers, the analyses were completed in collaboration with the president of the center, a…

  13. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  14. The Challenges of Educational Reform in Modern-Day Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Jane; Lammert, Jill

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine a nationwide effort of educational reform in Peru. Specifically, the authors take a close look at the nation's efforts to change secondary education through the implementation of a 2-year postsecondary learning opportunity called the "bachillerato." First, the authors briefly present the contextual…

  15. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, Marilyn S.

    2008-01-01

    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  16. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  17. A new species of Quexua from southeastern Peru (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A distinctive new species of the crabronine wasp genus Quexua Pate is described and figured from a single male collected from lowland Amazonian rain forest in southeastern Peru. Quexua cicrasp. n. is the only species in the genus known with a sessile metasoma. PMID:22287880

  18. NCI and the Republic of Peru Sign Statement of Intent

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Republic of Peru signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal in educating and training the next generation of cancer research sci

  19. Reappearance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C S; Cáceres, A G; Vaquerizo, A; Ibañez-Bernal, S; Cachay, L S

    2001-07-01

    We report here the reappearance of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province. PMID:11500764

  20. Peru v. Yale: A Battle Rages over Machu Picchu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2009-01-01

    In early 1916, the legendary Yale University archaeologist Hiram Bingham III completed his third and final expedition in southern Peru. He shipped home 74 boxes of artifacts from Machu Picchu, a spectacular site in the Andes that is believed to have been the last major settlement of the Inca empire. Those boxes were supposed to be on temporary…

  1. Linguistic Purism in Cuzco, Peru: A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino-Murcia, Mercedes

    1997-01-01

    Notes that a group of mestizo intellectuals in Peru claims that "Qhpaj'simi" is the Quechua used by the ancient Inca nobility and is the purest form of Quechua. Explains that a social hierarchy has arisen with the use of this "imperial language" demarcating its users from the common people and that these purist attitudes play a role in the…

  2. Measuring the Distributional Effects of Public Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Thomas M.; Wasylenko, Michael J.

    Data from the 1985-86 Peru Living Standards Survey were used to analyze the targeting of public education expenditures and the effects on enrollment of public school fees and reduced travel time to secondary schools. This chapter also focuses on strengths and weaknesses of using either an estimation-based measure of benefit or a…

  3. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  4. Informatics tools to monitor progress and outcomes of patients with drug resistant tuberculosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Hamish S F; Jazayeri, Darius; Mitnick, Carole D; Mukherjee, Joia S; Bayona, Jaime

    2002-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an important and growing problem in many developing countries. New strategies have been developed to combat the disease but require complex treatment regimens and close monitoring of patients' bacteriology results. We describe a web-based medical record system deployed in Peru to support the management of MDR-TB. Web-based analyses have been developed to track drug sensitivity test results, patterns of sputum smear and culture results and time to conversion from positive to negative cultures. Individual and aggregate drug requirements can also be monitored in real time. Multiple analyses can be linked together and data can be graphed or downloaded to spreadsheets. Over 1200 patients are currently in the system. We argue that such a web-based clinical and epidemiological management system is an important component for successful implementation of complex health interventions in resource poor areas. PMID:12463829

  5. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Learn Videos View More Understanding the New Nutrition Facts Label The new Nutrition Facts label features updated information to help consumers ... and Tipsheets for Families and Communities 3 National Nutrition Month 1 The Basics of the Nutrition Facts ...

  6. Early aggressive nutrition: parenteral amino acids and minimal enteral nutrition for extremely low birth weight (<1 000 g) infants.

    PubMed

    Adamkin, D H

    2007-08-01

    Postnatal growth failure in the extremely low birthweight infant is a morbidity that needs vigorous attention. The transition from intrauterine to the extrauterine environment should occur with minimal disruption in nutritional support. Early aggressive parenteral and enteral nutrition strategies may lead to reducing cumulative deficits of energy and protein that occur during the first weeks of life. These strategies decrease the degree of postnatal weight loss, reduce the age that birthweight is regained and the age that full enteral nutrition is achieved. Overall growth outcomes are also improved through discharge and beyond. This article provides clinical practicum to guide the use of early parenteral nutrition and both miminal enteral nutrition and advancing enteral nutrition. PMID:17947842

  7. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein to ... babies. It can provide a better level of nutrition than regular intravenous (IV) feedings, which provide only ...

  8. Nutrition and athletic performance

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating well, is ... al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2009 ...

  9. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events Guidelines & ... Store Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What ...

  10. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rings Frequently Asked Questions Definitions Transplantation Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  11. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Information > Nutrition Advice & Recipes test Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section for us ... the schedule given to you by your doctor. Recipes from the NPF Chronic Pancreatitis Cookbook The NPF ...

  12. Reservoir storage and irrigation in Arequipa, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Swiech, Theoclea; Machicao Pererya, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    In countries such as Peru, irrigated agriculture is not only vital for the subsistence of many but can also be a factor of economic development and by extent social improvement. To answer the local demand and respond to the water scarcity in the sub-basin of Yarabamba, near city of Arequipa, the government decided the construction of a dam for irrigation. The irrigation systems are affected by the lack of water during the dry season for lack of storage and of water distribution between downstream and upstream sectors, among other issues. Water scarcity is the main issue in the basin, leading to poor yields and the inability of growing crops with a high commercial value. Rainfall is available only from November to April, the rest of the year being very dry. Furthermore, the lowest areas of Yarabamba, Sogay and Quequeña are disadvantaged compared to the highest area of Polobaya. By creating a large storage area to regulate the variations of water availability through the year, the dam would allow to at least palliate the lack of water in existing lands, and at best to extend agricultural lands. Farmers would then be able to shift toward higher value crops more easily than without this extra storage. The main focus of the research was the dam which was supposed to improve the water distribution and availability in the sub-basin. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that other factors, related to the irrigation system itself, are involved in the efficiency of the new structure. The farmers, the main stakeholders, believe that more could be done to improve the system and their standard of living. Most of all, the main issue that should be resolved is the fair distribution of water. However, this is not possible without a strong cooperation between sectors, and a potential change in diversion structures. The competition between the districts should be reduced, otherwise the benefits of the dam would not give the expected results. This example shows that

  13. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  14. Nutrition in space.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Davis-Street, J; Rice, B L; Lane, H W

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted. PMID:11540643

  15. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  16. Nutrition Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

    This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…

  17. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  18. Much Ado About Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deringer, Shirley K.

    1973-01-01

    A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

  19. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  20. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  1. Nutrition and national development planning.

    PubMed

    Joy, J L; Payne, P R

    1975-01-01

    We have argued that development strategies aimed at the reduction of all forms of deprivation, according to an explict statement of values and priorities, are necessary for the integration of nutrition planning into overall national development planning. We do not regard this as likely to lead to the neglect of the key issues of investment and production. Instead, we argue that consideration of investment and production strategies should be explicitly directed to their purpose, the reduction of deprivation, rather than, as in the past, treated as the necessary means to that purpose. Thus investment and production strategies would be aimed directly at relieving deprivation including, especially, nutritional deprivation, and their impact in this respect will need to be explicitly predicted and evaluated. We have argued that problems and potentials differ greatly at the area level and that planning must be an iterative process in which national and area-level strategies and programmes are brought to consistency through successive cycles of adjustment and reappraisal. A major role in planning, especially in detailed design and implementation, is assigned to area level. Planning must proceed from an identification of the deprivations under attack to the identification of intervention measures. Elsewhere we have argued the case for the 'functional classification" of malnutrition and the use of "typical profiles" in the understanding of "the ecology and etiology of malnutition". Where planning accepts the need for an integrated approach to the attack on all forms of deprivation, these analyses of nutritional deprivation would from part of a more comprehensive analysis of general deprivation. The existence of "functional classification" and "typical profiles" analysis with respect to malnutrition would provide an excellent base from which a more comprehensive view might be developed. The factors affecting the evolution of nutritional - and other - deprivation problems need

  2. Activating the community for nutritional improvement.

    PubMed

    Devadas, Rajammal P

    2002-06-01

    This presentation provides information on community-oriented action research conducted under the leadership of Dr. Rajammal P. Devadas, the recipient of the IUNS International Nutrition Award for 2001. Educating, activating, and energizing the community with empowerment have been the focus of the action-oriented research. In the four decades of work presented, massive efforts have been made in the areas of infant and preschool child nutrition; nutritious noon meal programs for children; integration of nutrition, health, and sanitation concepts in the primary school curriculum; use of local foods to eradicate malnutrition; introduction of novel and underexploited foods; food-based approaches to overcome micronutrient malnutrition; equipping women for food and nutrition security; and nutrition education. These efforts have been activated through development of relevant food and educational materials, their introduction to the community, impact evaluation, follow-up, and implementation of the concepts in relevant national programs with massive training efforts. Many of the efforts outlined have formed the basis for regional and nationwide nutrition intervention strategies. The experiences gained and training efforts developed have gone beyond the country-level exposure to training and equipping nutrition workers in other countries. PMID:12094662

  3. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  4. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Richard B; Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem; Campbell, Bill; Almada, Anthony L; Collins, Rick; Cooke, Mathew; Earnest, Conrad P; Greenwood, Mike; Kalman, Douglas S; Kerksick, Chad M; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lopez, Hector; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Smith, Abbie; Spano, Marie; Wildman, Robert; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  5. Holobiont nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jens; Martínez, Inés; Rose, Devin J.

    2013-01-01

    Intake of whole grains and other food products high in dietary fiber have long been linked to the prevention of chronic diseases associated with inflammation. A contribution of the gastrointestinal microbiota to these effects has been suggested, but little is known on how whole grains interact with gut bacteria. We have recently published the first human trial that made use of next-generation sequencing to determine the effect of whole grains (whole grain barley, brown rice or a mixture of the two) on fecal microbiota structure and tested for associations between the gut microbiota and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. Our study revealed that whole grains impacted gut microbial ecology by increasing microbial diversity and inducing compositional alterations, some of which are considered to have beneficial effects on the host. Interestingly, whole grains, and in particular the combination of whole grain barley and brown rice, caused a reduction in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was linked to compositional features of the gut microbiota. Therefore, the study provided evidence that a short-term increased intake of whole grains led to compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in systemic inflammation. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of the study and provide a perspective on the importance of regarding humans as holobionts when considering the health effects of dietary strategies. PMID:23645316

  6. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  7. Comparative Genomics Provide Insights into Evolution of Trichoderma Nutrition Style

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase–polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (ω) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma. PMID:24482532

  8. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  9. [Nutrition management for COPD].

    PubMed

    Miki, Keisuke; Maekura, Ryoji

    2016-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory reaction of the lung and of the whole body, and pulmonary cachexia often occurs during the advanced stage. The effects of nutritional support upon the management of under-nutrition in COPD remain controversial. However, a study of the effects of nutritional supplement therapy upon such patients with COPD has recently been published. The present report comprises a review of recent articles about the nutritional support of patients with COPD, especially those with cachexia, and a discussion about the roles of nutritional supplement therapy, focusing on exercise and treatment with ghrelin and vitamin D in the management of COPD. PMID:27254950

  10. [Enteral Nutritional Support in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases].

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional support is important because malnutrition is a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, decreased quality of life, increased length of hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs. Patients with gastrointestinal disease are at an increased risk of nutritional deterioration due to therapeutic dietary restriction, fasting for the diagnostic tests, loss of appetite due to anorexia or altered nutritional requirement caused by the disease itself. Therefore, it is important that gastroenterologists are aware of the nutritional status of patients and plan a treatment strategy considering patient's nutritional status. Enteral nutrition is preferred to parenteral nutrition as it is more physiologic, has fewer complications, help to prevent mucosal atrophy and maintain gut barrier function, which decrease intestinal bacterial translocation. Hence, enteral nutrition has been considered to be the most effective route for nutritional support. In this article, we will review enteral nutrition (oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding) as a treatment for the patients with gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic disease at risk of malnutrition. PMID:26087690

  11. Nutrition in pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Meier, Rémy F; Beglinger, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    The pancreas plays a major role in nutrient digestion. Therefore, in both acute and chronic pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop, impairing digestive and absorptive processes. These changes can lead to malnutrition over time. In parallel to these changes, decreased caloric intake and increased metabolic activity are often present. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. In severe acute pancreatitis, enteral nutrition with a naso-jejunal feeding tube and a low molecular diet displays clear advantages compared to parenteral nutrition. Infectious complications, length of hospital stay and the need for surgery are reduced. Furthermore, enteral nutrition is less costly than parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition is reserved for patients who do not tolerate enteral nutrition. Abstinence from alcohol, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation is sufficient in over 80% of patients with chronic pancreatitis. In addition, oral supplements are helpful. Enteral nutrition can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis. PMID:16782526

  12. Nutrition Transition in Rural Tanzania and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keding, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    All three types of malnutrition - underweight, overweight and micronutrient deficiency - are experienced in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, and they can occur in parallel in one community or even one household. To combat this triple burden of malnutrition, a combination of different strategies will be necessary, including a focus on food-based strategies that promote the consumption of a wide range of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. In addition to a literature review, data from our own nutrition studies in both Tanzania and Kenya are presented in this paper. The literature review revealed an average of 10% of children in urban areas of Kenya and Tanzania with overweight and obesity, which is an alarming trend, and it is suggested that interventions need to start not only at school but also with adolescent girls and pregnant women to target the '1,000-day window'. From own study data, dietary patterns were generated that included a 'purchase' pattern dominated by bought and processed foods, indicating a possible nutrition transition even in the rural areas of both countries. Vegetable and especially fruit consumption was low in both countries. In addition, in Kenya, study participants exceeded the suggested maximum level of sugar consumption per day, which will most likely contribute to increasing levels in overweight and obesity prevalence and other noncommunicable diseases in general. As sugar was mainly consumed in combination with black tea, next to eating habits, changing drinking habits is also an important part of the nutrition transition and needs to receive more attention. A 'healthy eating at school and at home strategy' is suggested, which needs the support of both schools and parents/caregivers. In general, to take countermeasures against the negative trends of nutrition transition, joint efforts from all players in the field - not only those in nutrition, health and medicine, but also those in education and agriculture

  13. Further Thoughts on Research Perspectives in Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Laura S.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes several issues concerning research in nutrition education. Examines several research perspectives such as behavior modification, social learning, information-processing, health belief, and ecological system perspectives. Suggests three areas of research directions including assessment, strategies, and evaluation. (DS)

  14. Determinants of unequal HIV care access among people living with HIV in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in access to health care among people living with HIV (PLHA) has not been extensively studied in Peru despite the fact there is significant social diversity within this group. We aimed to assess the extent to which health care provision to PLHA, including ARVT, was equitable and, if appropriate, identify factors associated with lower access. Methods We conducted a survey among adult PLHA in four cities in Peru, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS), to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, social network size, household welfare, economic activity, use of HIV-related services including ARV treatment, and health-related out-of-pocket expenses. Results Between September 2008 and January 2009, 863 individuals from PLHA organizations in four cities of Peru were enrolled. Median age was 35 (IQR = 29–41), and mostly male (62%). Overall, 25% reported to be gay, 11% bisexual and 3% transgender. Most PLHA (96%) reported access to some kind of HIV-related health service, and 84% were receiving those services at a public facility. Approximately 85% of those reporting access to care were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ARV), and 17% of those not in treatment already had indication to start treatment. Among those currently on ARV, 36% percent reported out-of-pocket expenses within the last month. Transgender identity and age younger than 35 years old, were associated with lower access to health care. Conclusions Our findings contribute to a better social and demographic characterization of the situation of PLHAs, their access to HIV care and their source of care, and provide an assessment of equity in access. In the long term, it is expected that HIV care access, as well as its social determinants, will impact on the morbidity and mortality rates among those affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV care providers and program managers should further characterize the barriers to healthcare access and develop strategies to

  15. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility analysis of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children of Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical and economic burden associated with invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) diseases is substantial in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where pneumococcal vaccines have only been introduced to a few countries. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and cost utility of three different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) for Peru. Methods A Markov model that simulated the disease processes in a birth cohort over a lifetime, within 1,128 month cycles was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 7- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV-7 and PCV-13). Expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost-savings and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Results Without vaccination, pneumonia was associated with the greatest health economic burden (90% of QALYs lost and 63% of lifetime direct medical costs); while acute otitis media (AOM) was responsible for 1% of QALYs lost and 25% of direct medical costs. All vaccines were predicted to be cost-effective for Peru, with PHiD-CV being most cost-effective. PHiD-CV was predicted to generate 50 more QALYs gained and required a reduced investment (−US$ 3.4 million) versus PCV-13 (discounted data), and was therefore dominant and cost saving. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV generated more QALYs gained at a reduced cost than PCV-13 in 84% of the simulations and less QALYs gains at a reduced cost in 16%. Additional scenarios using different assumptions on vaccine efficacies based on previous evidence were explored, but no significant change in the overall cost-effective results were observed. Conclusions The results of this modeling study predict that PCVs are likely to be a cost-effective strategy to help relieve the epidemiological and economic burden associated with pediatric pneumococcal and NTHi diseases for Peru. PHiD-CV is likely

  16. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  17. Nutrition and hydration in older adults in critical care.

    PubMed

    Dimaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Nicolo, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition and hydration are vital components of critical care nursing. However, meeting the nutrition and hydration needs of the critically ill older adult is often complex, because of preexisting risk factors (malnutrition, unintentional weight loss, frailty, and dehydration); as well as intensive care unit-related challenges (catabolism, eating and feeding, end-of-life care). This article highlights the challenges of managing nutrition and hydration in the critically ill older adult, reviews assessment principles, and offers strategies for optimizing nutrition and hydration. PMID:24484922

  18. Seminar on young child nutrition: improving nutrition and health status of young children in indonesia.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Mia; Chan, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The Seminar on Young Child Nutrition: Improving Nutrition and Health Status of Young Children in Indonesia held in Jakarta on November 2009 reviewed the current nutritional and health status of young children in Indonesia and identified key nutrient deficiencies affecting their optimal growth. The continuation of child growth from fetal stage is of paramount importance; and maternal and child health should be a central consideration in policy and strategy development. Clinical management of nutrient deficiency and malnutrition, as well as strategies and education to improve feeding practices of young Indonesian children were discussed in the seminar. Relevant experiences, approaches and strategies from France, New Zealand and Malaysia were also shared and followed with discussion on how regulatory systems can support the development of health policy for young children. This report highlights important information presented at the seminar. PMID:21393122

  19. Patients' associations and the control of leishmaniasis in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Guthmann, J. P.; Calmet, J.; Rosales, E.; Cruz, M.; Chang, J.; Dedet, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is an important health problem in Peru, particularly in the mountainous Cuzco Region, where 25% of all new cases reported in 1989 were located. Cases have increased considerably since the beginning of the 1980s, when large-scale seasonal migration to endemic zones occurred, particularly the forest area of Madre de Dios, following the discovery of new gold deposits there, and the deterioration in the economic situation in Peru. Following the lack of official response from the Peruvian government, hundreds of people suffering from leishmaniasis in the Cuzco area formed self-help associations with the objective of obtaining the drugs needed to treat their disease. The major achievement of this spontaneous movement, which was supported by several public and private institutions, was to encourage sick people, particularly patients with mucosal lesions, to emerge from isolation. As a result, the prevalence and incidence of the disease have now considerably decreased in the region. PMID:9141749

  20. Relating Seismic Subduction Images in Southern Peru to Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    We use data from the recent PeruSE seismic experiment in southern Peru to compare the variation in properties between the normal-dip portion of the subduction interface and the flat slab-mantle interface. The analysis includes migration of the receiver functions to determine the variations in shear and compressional velocities, and the detail measurements of along amplitudes of the receiver-function images. Converted amplitudes at the top and bottom of the Nazca oceanic crust are used to constrain shear wave velocity and density of the subducted crust, and these values are compared to those determined from the experimental mineral physics. We also separately examine the stations closest to the coast to explore how structural variations near the plate interface can be linked to along-strike change in frictional behavior in the seismogenic zone. The results will be compared to the flat subduction zones in Mexico and central Chile.

  1. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru. PMID:24001096

  2. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

  3. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  4. [Nutritional ecology: chances of public health services to shape procedures].

    PubMed

    Schwenk, M; Hauber-Schwenk, G

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition ecology is the science that studies the impacts of human nutrition on the environment, on human health and on social systems. Environmental impacts are usually the result of intensive food production, food transport and food packaging; they include soil contamination and erosion, energy consumption, air contamination and waste disposal. Health impacts of contemporary western eating behavior concern nutrition-related diseases (diabetes, hypertension, gout, overweight etc) and their psychological and social consequences; nutrition ecology aims at a balanced diet and suitable eating behavior to reduce the risks of chronic disease. The social impacts of nutrition concern the effects of feed trade on poor working conditions and poverty, especially in developing countries. The strategies of nutrition ecology agree in many points with those of the agenda 21 and of Consumer Protection. As nutrition-related diseases are increasing further, the public health services in Germany discover nutrition as an important topic in health promotion and prevention. They will contribute remarkably to a sustainable development if they include the strategies of nutrition ecology in their projects. PMID:12649791

  5. Optimising nutrition in residential aged care: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ekta; Marshall, Skye; Miller, Michelle; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    In developed countries the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition increases with age and multi-morbidities increase nutritional risk in aged care residents in particular. This paper presents a narrative review of the current literature on the identification, prevalence, associated risk factors, consequences, and management of malnutrition in the residential aged care (RAC) setting. We performed searches of English-language publications on Medline, PubMed, Ovid and the Cochrane Library from January 1, 1990 to November 25, 2015. We found that, on average, half of all residents in aged care are malnourished as a result of factors affecting appetite, dietary intake and nutrient absorption. Malnutrition is associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes, including increased risk of infections, falls, pressure ulcers and hospital admissions, all of which can lead to increased health care costs and poorer quality of life. A number of food and nutrition strategies have demonstrated positive nutritional and clinical outcomes in the RAC setting. These strategies extend beyond simply enhancing the nutritional value of foods and hence necessitate the involvement of a range of committed stakeholders. Implementing a nutritional protocol in RAC facilities that comprises routine nutrition screening, assessment, appropriate nutrition intervention, including attention to food service systems, and monitoring by a multidisciplinary team can help prevent decline in residents' nutritional status. Food and nutritional issues should be identified early and managed on admission and regularly in the RAC setting. PMID:27621242

  6. Liparis aphylla (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae), a new leafless record from Peru.

    PubMed

    Damian, Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Liparis aphylla G.A.Romero & Garay was previously known only from two herbarium specimens collected in 1945 and 1977 in Ecuador and Colombia, respectively. This little-known species is hereby reported for the first time for Peru. An updated description, line illustration, color photographs and distribution map of Liparis aphylla, as well as an identification key to the Peruvian species of Liparis are provided. PMID:27081347

  7. Polaroid imaging at an archaeological site in Peru.

    PubMed

    Conlogue, G; Nelson, A

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the use of Polaroid photography as an adjunct to conventional radiography at a remote archaeological site in northern Peru. The Polaroid system provided several important benefits, including the ability to produce images in 90 seconds without a darkroom or wet processing. This enabled researchers to examine specimens ad hoc, test exposures in the field and determine the most appropriate position to demonstrate internal structures. PMID:10451715

  8. Liparis aphylla (Malaxideae, Orchidaceae), a new leafless record from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liparis aphylla G.A.Romero & Garay was previously known only from two herbarium specimens collected in 1945 and 1977 in Ecuador and Colombia, respectively. This little-known species is hereby reported for the first time for Peru. An updated description, line illustration, color photographs and distribution map of Liparis aphylla, as well as an identification key to the Peruvian species of Liparis are provided. PMID:27081347

  9. Counterfeit medicines in Peru: a retrospective review (1997–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Edwin; Bel, Elvira; Suñé, Josep María

    2016-01-01

    Objective To consolidate and assess information on counterfeit medicines subject to pharmaceutical alerts issued by the Peruvian Medicines Regulatory Authority over 18 years (1997–2014) of health monitoring and enforcement. Design A retrospective review of drug alerts. Setting A search of the website of the General Directorate of Medicines, Supplies and Drugs (DIGEMID) of the Ministry of Health of Peru for drug alerts issued between 1997 and 2014. Eligibility criteria Drug alerts related to counterfeit medicines. Results A total of 669 DIGEMID alerts were issued during the study period, 354 (52.91%) of which cover 1738 cases of counterfeit medicines (many alerts deal with several cases at a time). 1010 cases (58.11%) involved pharmaceutical establishments and 349 (20.08%) involved non-pharmaceutical commercial outlets. In 126 cases (7.25%), counterfeit medicines were seized in an unauthorised trade (without any marketing authorisation); in 253 cases (14.56%) the type of establishment or business associated with the seized product was not identified. Conclusions Counterfeit medicines are a serious public health problem in Peru. A review of the data cannot determine whether counterfeit medicines in Peru increased during the study period, or if monitoring by different government health agencies highlighted the magnitude of the problem by providing more evidence. The problem is clearly structural, since the majority of cases (58.11% of the total) were detected in legitimate supply chains. Most counterfeit medicines involve staple pharmaceutical products and common dosage forms. Considerable work remains to be done to control the serious problem of counterfeit medicines in Peru. PMID:27044580

  10. Factors associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables among Community Kitchens customers in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Garcés, Flavia A; Vargas-Matos, Iván; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Trujillo, Antonio J; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Community Kitchens (CKs) are one of the main food providers to low-income families in Peru and may encourage healthier diets. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors among CKs customers. A cross-sectional study enrolling customers of 48 CKs in two areas of Lima, Peru, was performed. The self-reported amount of fruits and vegetables consumed (< 5 vs. ≥ 5 servings/day) was the outcome. The exposures were grouped in sociodemographic variables (i.e. age, gender, education level, etc.), and self-reported intention to change eating- and exercise-related habits in the last four weeks just prior to the interview. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated using Poisson regression. Data from 422 subjects were analyzed, 328 females (77.9%), mean age 43.7 (± 14.5) years. Only 36 (8.5%; 95% CI 5.9%-11.2%) customers reported consuming ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. This pattern was 4-fold more likely among those with higher levels of education (≥ 12 vs. < 7 years), and 64% less common for migrants relative to non-migrants. In terms of intentions to change habits, those who reported having tried to reduce sugar consumption or to eat more fruits were up to 90% more likely to meet the ≥ 5 servings/day target. A substantial gap in the consumption of ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day was found among CKs customers that does not appear to be dependent on familial income. The profiles reported in this study can inform appropriate strategies to increase healthier eating in this population. PMID:27617194

  11. Systematic review of peri-operative nutritional support for patients undergoing hepatobiliary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is prevalent among peri-operative patients undergoing hepatobiliary surgery and is an important prognostic factor. Both hepatobiliary disease and surgical trauma significantly affects body’s metabolism and environment. Therefore, it is very important for patients with liver diseases undergoing hepatobiliary surgery to receive essential nutritional support during peri-operative period. Methods We summarized our clinical experience and reviewed of related literature to find the way for implementing the appropriate nutritional strategy. Results We found after comprehensively evaluating nutrition status, function of liver and gastrointestinal tract, nutritional strategy would be selected correctly. In severe malnutrition, initiation of enteral nutrition (EN) and/or parenteral nutrition (PN) with essential or special formulae is often recommended. Especially nasojejunal feeding is indicated that early application can improve nutritional status and liver function, reduce complications and prolong survival. Conclusions The reasonable peri-operative nutritional support therapy can improve the effect of surgical treatment and promote the patients’ recovery. PMID:26605277

  12. Survival and spread of Phytophthora capsici in Coastal Peru.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Gonzáles, O; Aragon-Caballero, L; Apaza-Tapia, W; Donahoo, R; Lamour, K

    2008-06-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a soilborne pathogen that causes significant losses to pepper production in Peru. Our objective was to investigate the mechanisms by which P. capsici is able to survive and spread. During 2005 to 2007, 227 isolates of P. capsici were collected from four species of pepper (Capsicum annum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, and C. pubescens) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) at 33 field sites in 13 provinces across coastal Peru. All 227 isolates were of the A2 mating type and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis indicates that 221 of the isolates had the same genotype. Analyses of six polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci showed fixed heterozygosity suggesting a single clonal lineage is widely dispersed. Members of the same clonal lineage were recovered during 2005 to 2007 from geographically separate locations from each of the host types sampled. Our results indicate that clonal reproduction drives the population structure of P. capsici in Peru. The impact of continuous cropping and irrigation from common river sources on the population structure in Barranca Valley are discussed. PMID:18944293

  13. Drought Monitoring in Peru as a Climate Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado, Waldo; Felipe, Oscar; Caycho, Tania; Sosa, Jesus; Fernandez, Carlos; Endara, Sofia

    2015-04-01

    Given the need to reduce socio- economic and environmental drought in Peru as well as the vulnerability and increasing responsiveness and recovery to these events, the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology of Peru (SENAMHI ) in conjunction with the Peru's Environment Ministry has developed a plan Drought Monitoring nationwide, which consists of two components: 1) Monitoring System and 2 ) Dissemination System . The first component consists of calculating drought indicators at national level; and for that purpose we have selected the following indexes: Normal Precipitation Index (NPI), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) , Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) , Vegetation Condition Index (VCI ) , Temperature Condition Index ( TCI) , Healthy Vegetation Index (VHI ) and Streamflow Drought Index (SDI). In order to estimate these index observed climatological and hydrological data of SENAMHI network is used as well as remote sensing data of precipitation, temperature and vegetation (TRMM, CHIRPS and MODIS). The second component is the spread of these indicators and a compilation thereof to a summary document that integrates all indicators (Monthly Bulletin). This will be done through newsletters and a website (www.senamhi.gob.pe/serviciosclimaticos); in the case of exceptional drought events special notes will be made. A date has launched the first newsletter in September 2014. This drought monitoring system will be used as an instrument of climate service and we intend to make it a useful tool for decision makers and the general population .

  14. Mummified trophy heads from Peru: diagnostic features and medicolegal significance.

    PubMed

    Verano, John W

    2003-05-01

    Several forms of mummified human trophy heads were produced by prehistoric and historic native groups in South America. This paper describes the diagnostic features of trophy heads produced by the Nasca culture of ancient Peru. A growing interest in these mummified heads among collectors of Pre-Columbian art and antiquities has led to their illegal exportation from Peru, in violation of national and international antiquities laws. Requests from the Peruvian government to protect its cultural patrimony led the United States in 1997 to declare these heads as items subject to U.S. import restriction, along with six other categories of human remains. Despite such restrictions, Nasca trophy heads continue to reach private collectors outside of Peru and thus may be encountered by local, state, or federal law enforcement officials unfamiliar with their characteristic features and origin. The objective of this paper is to describe the features that allow Nasca trophy heads to be identified and distinguished from other archaeological and forensic specimens that may be submitted to a forensic anthropologist for identification. PMID:12762522

  15. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  16. [Anisakidosis a marine parasitic zoonosis: unknown or emerging in Peru?].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rufino; Del Pilar, María; Altamirano, Trillo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to show the experimental studies carried out on the biological cycle, culture, pathogenicity of the anisakidae nematode larvae and to disseminate the information regarding current epidemy and the probable emergence of anisakidosis in Peru, and in addition, to propose measures of prevention and control, as well as the perspective and need for investigation. The studies of experimental pathogenicity in cats, dos, and hamsters are incomplete. Eight cases of acute human anisakidosis have been reported (5 confirmed and 3 unconfirmed). It is probable that it emerges during the "El Niño" Weather Phenomenon; however, during normal conditions it is probably due to the increase of raw fish consumption and other factors. In the coast of Peru, five and four fishes of direct human consumption are parasited by the Anisakis simplex and Anisakis physeteris larva, respectively, and two fishes are parasited by the Pseudoterranova decipiens. The main host for the Anisakis simplex is the dolphin (Delphinus delphia), but the Contracaecum osculatum is hosted by the sea lion: Otaria byronia and Arctocephalus australis, P. decipiens parasita a O. byronia. Eviscerating the fish would be most adequate prevention method to lessen the risk of human infection. There is evidence that anisakidosis is an underestimated zoonosis in Peru, and that it is probably and emerging disease. Therefore, its presence is to be suspected in patients with the prototype clinical syndrome. PMID:15614302

  17. Nutrition Assistance Programs: Cause or Solution to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Guthrie, Joanne F

    2016-06-01

    Three nutrition assistance programs-Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), and National School Lunch Program (NSLP)-serve as the backbone of the nutrition safety net in the USA. These programs have been successful in achieving many of their initial goals of improving food purchases, food intake, and/or nutritional status of low-income, vulnerable Americans. The emphasis in these programs has now broadened to also include an obesity prevention focus. Recent changes in program components demonstrate the revised objectives of the program. SNAP, WIC, and NSLP increase economic access to an adequate diet but access alone is unlikely to be the total solution to obesity prevention. An ecological approach, incorporating the nutrition programs, appears to be a more promising strategy to leverage the impact of SNAP, WIC, and NSLP. PMID:27033876

  18. Nursing's role in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Henning, Michael

    2009-01-01

    There are not enough dietitians and nutritionists available to serve the entire healthcare industry. That means that nurses often fill the role of nutrition counselors. Nurses do not receive extensive education about nutrition, but there are great opportunities for nurses in nutrition, both as educators and researchers. One way this can happen is through the use of nutrition assessment tools. This article introduces a freeware nutritional assessment tool for use on Windows-based computers (available at http://nursing.jmu.edu). Unlike currently available tools, the Nutrition Analyzer is a stand-alone, Web-independent product, which builds a database of client data that can be manipulated for analysis and research. PMID:19726924

  19. Nutrition considerations for open-water swimming.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Koivisto, Anu; Gerrard, David; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Open-water swimming (OWS) is a rapidly developing discipline. Events of 5-25 km are featured at FINA World Championships, and the international circuit includes races of 5-88 km. The Olympic OWS event, introduced in 2008, is contested over 10 km. Differing venues present changing environmental conditions, including water and ambient temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, and unpredictable tides. Furthermore, the duration of most OWS events (1-6 hr) creates unique physiological challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and muscle fuel stores. Current nutrition recommendations for open-water training and competition are either an extension of recommendations from pool swimming or are extrapolated from other athletic populations with similar physiological requirements. Competition nutrition should focus on optimizing prerace hydration and glycogen stores. Although swimmers should rely on self-supplied fuel and fluid sources for shorter events, for races of 10 km or greater, fluid and fuel replacement can occur from feeding pontoons when tactically appropriate. Over the longer races, feeding pontoons should be used to achieve desirable targets of up to 90 g/ hr of carbohydrates from multitransportable sources. Exposure to variable water and ambient temperatures will play a significant role in determining race nutrition strategies. For example, in extreme environments, thermoregulation may be assisted by manipulating the temperature of the ingested fluids. Swimmers are encouraged to work with nutrition experts to develop effective and efficient strategies that enhance performance through appropriate in-competition nutrition. PMID:24667305

  20. Nutrition for Older Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man ...

  1. Anti-nutritional Factors.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogen are as important as nutritional content of any edible plant part. The anti-nutritional factors can be defined as those substances generated in natural food substances by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms (e.g. inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of the digestive process or metabolic utilization of feed) which exert effects contrary to optimum nutrition. Hence, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogens present in edibles with the methods in the chapter would be helpful. PMID:26939264

  2. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  3. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-12-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  4. Nutrition agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation: lessons from the Mainstreaming Nutrition Initiative.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David L; Frongillo, Edward A; Gervais, Suzanne; Hoey, Lesli; Menon, Purnima; Ngo, Tien; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2012-01-01

    Undernutrition is the single largest contributor to the global burden of disease and can be addressed through a number of highly efficacious interventions. Undernutrition generally has not received commensurate attention in policy agendas at global and national levels, however, and implementing these efficacious interventions at a national scale has proven difficult. This paper reports on the findings from studies in Bangladesh, Bolivia, Guatemala, Peru and Vietnam which sought to identify the challenges in the policy process and ways to overcome them, notably with respect to commitment, agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation. Data were collected through participant observation, documents and interviews. Data collection, analysis and synthesis were guided by published conceptual frameworks for understanding malnutrition, commitment, agenda setting and implementation capacities. The experiences in these countries provide several insights for future efforts: (a) high-level political attention to nutrition can be generated in a number of ways, but the generation of political commitment and system commitment requires sustained efforts from policy entrepreneurs and champions; (b) mid-level actors from ministries and external partners had great difficulty translating political windows of opportunity for nutrition into concrete operational plans, due to capacity constraints, differing professional views of undernutrition and disagreements over interventions, ownership, roles and responsibilities; and (c) the pace and quality of implementation was severely constrained in most cases by weaknesses in human and organizational capacities from national to frontline levels. These findings deepen our understanding of the factors that can influence commitment, agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation. They also confirm and extend upon the growing recognition that the heavy investment to identify efficacious nutrition interventions is unlikely to reduce

  5. Nutrition for children with epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Lesley

    2010-04-01

    Optimization of resistance to infection, growth, sexual maturation, wound healing, and provision of the best possible overall quality of life are important management goals in children with epidermolysis bullosa. However, all these goals rely on the maintenance of optimal nutritional status, and achieving this is extremely challenging in the severe types of the disease. Strategies to improve nutritional status have the best chance of success when the dietitian or nutritionist works as an integral member of the multidisciplinary team and is well informed of patients' situations, family dynamics, and prognoses. Even the best-coordinated dietetic interventions may exert only limited impact. PMID:20447494

  6. 75 FR 19453 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Peru Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Peru Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2011-2012 U.S.-Peru Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new Work Program for implementing the United...

  7. Human rabies and rabies in vampire and nonvampire bat species, Southeastern Peru, 2007.

    PubMed

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles; Montgomery, Joel M

    2009-08-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru. PMID:19751600

  8. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  9. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a) Specifications—(1) Each gram of liquid or aerosol contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of...

  10. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  11. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug is a liquid for direct application or an aerosol preparation formulated so that each...

  12. Women's Work, Education, and Family Welfare in Peru. World Bank Discussion Papers 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herz, Barbara K., Ed.; Khandker, Shahidur R., Ed.

    This report examines ways of improving women's productivity and education and the consequences for development in Peru. The research finds that women account for about 39 percent of family income in Peru. They carry the main responsibility for child care and heavily influence family decisions on children's education and family size. Improving…

  13. Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles

    2009-01-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru. PMID:19751600

  14. Assessing Nutritional Diversity of Cropping Systems in African Villages

    PubMed Central

    DeClerck, Fabrice; Diru, Willy; Fanzo, Jessica; Gaynor, Kaitlyn; Lambrecht, Isabel; Mudiope, Joseph; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nkhoma, Phelire; Siriri, David; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD), has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. Methods and Findings Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. Conclusion This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are generated and strategies for

  15. Prevalence and Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in People of Rural Communities of the High Jungle of Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, Karen A.; Huang, Christine; Gilman, Robert H.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Marks, Morgan A.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Hillyard, Miranda; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Gerardo; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Elisa; Billig, Erica M. W.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Náquira, César; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is seen exclusively in the Americas where an estimated 8 million people are infected with the parasite. Significant research in southern Peru has been conducted to understand T. cruzi infection and vector control, however, much less is known about the burden of infection and epidemiology in northern Peru. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans (n=611) and domestic animals [dogs (n=106) and guinea pigs (n=206)] in communities of Cutervo Province, Peru. Sampling and diagnostic strategies differed according to species. An entomological household study (n=208) was conducted to identify the triatomine burden and species composition, as well as the prevalence of T. cruzi in vectors. Electrocardiograms (EKG) were performed on a subset of participants (n=90 T. cruzi infected participants and 170 age and sex-matched controls). The seroprevalence of T. cruzi among humans, dogs, and guinea pigs was 14.9% (95% CI: 12.2 – 18.0%), 19.8% (95% CI: 12.7- 28.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI: 1.4 – 6.9%) respectively. In one community, the prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 17.2% (95% CI: 9.6 - 24.7%) among participants < 15 years, suggesting recent transmission. Increasing age, positive triatomines in a participant's house, and ownership of a T. cruzi positive guinea pig were independent correlates of T. cruzi infection. Only one species of triatomine was found, Panstrongylus lignarius, formerly P. herreri. Approximately forty percent (39.9%, 95% CI: 33.2 - 46.9%) of surveyed households were infested with this vector and 14.9% (95% CI: 10.4 - 20.5%) had at least one triatomine positive for T. cruzi. The cardiac abnormality of right bundle branch block was rare, but only identified in seropositive individuals. Conclusions Our research documents a substantial prevalence of T. cruzi infection in Cutervo and highlights a need for greater attention and vector

  16. Nutrition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet contains an instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a competency-based course on nutrition for practical nursing. The course consists of two units of instruction that cover applying principles of basic nutrition and diet therapy. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: objective…

  17. Teaching about Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

    1983-01-01

    Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

  18. Nutritional Quality of Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable and plays an important role in American diet and nutrition. Crisphead lettuce has much lower nutrient content than leaf and romaine types. As the synthesis or absorption of many nutrients is light dependent, the lower nutritional value of crisphead lettuce is due...

  19. Parents and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher

    Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

  20. Nutrition: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graef, Judy; Pettingell, Margaret S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a pilot program in which the Dairy, Food and Nutrition Council of East Orange, New Jersey, introduced a new education series entitled "Food in Today's World." This approach outlined the role of the home economist as coordinator of a nutrition program in which educators from various disciplines participate. (CT)

  1. Heredity and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Mary W.

    1970-01-01

    Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

  2. Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

  3. You Score With Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  4. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

  5. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  6. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  7. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  8. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  9. Atopic dermatitis and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Finch, Justin; Munhutu, M N; Whitaker-Worth, Diane L

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic disease with no cure, currently affects almost one-fifth of the population of industrialized nations. Treatment can be challenging for physicians and patients alike. Children are commonly affected, making it even more difficult to find safe therapeutic options, especially in severe disease. Interest in diet and nutrition has increased during the last few years. Nutritional interventions are both intriguing and accessible for many patients. Given the recent expansion of the field of nutrition in the realm of medicine and in popular culture, it is important for the dermatologist to be knowledgeable about the risks and benefits of nutritional interventions. This contribution reviews the current literature on the role of nutrition in atopic dermatitis, from dietary restriction to dietary supplementation, from traditional interventions such as vitamins and minerals to the emerging fields of probiotics and essential fatty acids, and from the prenatal period through infancy and adulthood. PMID:21034985

  10. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  11. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from Peru by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Elizabeth; Cáceres, Omar; Náquira, César; Garcia, David; Patiño, Gladys; Silvia, Herrera; Volotão, Aline C; Fernandes, Octavio

    2010-09-01

    Echinococcus granulosus, the etiologic agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans and other animal species, is distributed worldwide. Ten intra-specific variants, or genotypes (G1-G10), have been defined based on genetic diversity. To determine the genotypes present in endemic areas of Peru, samples were collected from cattle (44), sheep (41) and humans (14) from Junín, Puno Huancavelica, Cusco, Arequipa and Ayacucho. DNA was extracted from protoscolex and/or germinal layers derived from 99 E. granulosus isolates and used as templates to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene. The resulting polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and further examined by sequence analysis. All isolates, independent of the host, exhibited the G1 genotype. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three isolates from Ayacucho shared the same cluster with microvariant G1(4). The G1 genotype is considered the most widespread and infectious form of E. granulosus worldwide and our results confirm that the same patterns apply to this country. Therefore, these findings should be taken into consideration in developing prevention strategies and control programs for CE in Peru. PMID:20944997

  12. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  13. Assessment of epidemiologic, operational, and sociopolitical domains for mainstreaming nutrition.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Frongillo, Edward A; Pelletier, David L; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2011-06-01

    Although undernutrition impacts a range of short- and long-term outcomes, nutrition often has low priority on global and national development policy agendas because of overemphasis on technical solutions without adequate consideration of contextual and political factors. An approach is needed for strategic development of nutrition agendas that embraces the contexts influencing policy and program planning and implementation, while addressing salient causes of undernutrition. We describe a simple, comprehensive assessment approach to enable development of sound nutrition strategies and well-grounded effective and appropriate actions for nutrition in a given context. The conceptual framework for this assessment approach incorporates three domains, each essential for defining strategic actions for nutrition: epidemiologic, pertaining to the nutritional situation and the evidence about the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition interventions; operational, pertaining to coverage, quality, and utilization of nutrition-related interventions and programs as well as capacities, opportunities, and constraints to improving these; and sociopolitical, pertaining to social, political, cultural, and organizational factors at various levels, which may enhance or inhibit efforts to create positive changes in policies and programs. The domains are interlinked, and the sociopolitical domain often underlies the other two domains. Using this framework can reveal important insights for the nutrition policy agenda that were hitherto not considered explicitly in efforts to advance nutrition. This is highlighted in an example from Vietnam and through other papers in this Supplement. Use of this three-domain assessment framework can greatly aid development of feasible and actionable nutrition strategies that are grounded in epidemiologic, operational, and sociopolitical realities. PMID:21916119

  14. Describing nutrition in spinal muscular atrophy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Georgia E; Lindenmayer, Amara W; McConchie, Grace A; Ryan, Monique M; Davidson, Zoe E

    2016-07-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease of variable severity. Progressive muscle wasting and impairment in functional ability in SMA have a profound influence on nutritional outcomes. This systematic review summarises the existing evidence on nutrition in SMA. The search strategy was conducted across five databases in August 2014, and updated in March 2016, using key terms relating to growth, nutrition requirements, dietary intake and nutrition management. Studies were selected for inclusion using a two pass method, and data systematically extracted using standardised forms. Thirty-nine studies met eligibility criteria. Body composition is abnormal in patients with SMA, and feeding and swallowing issues are prevalent among sufferers of SMA types I and II. Nutritional management practices vary internationally. There is a paucity of literature regarding nutrition requirements in SMA, although it appears that energy expenditure may be reduced. Children with SMA require individualised nutritional management in order to address their growth and nutrition requirements. There is an urgent need for larger, coordinated, prospective intervention studies of nutrition in SMA. PMID:27241822

  15. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  16. The Scientific Challenge of Expanding the Frontiers of Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rezzi, Serge; Solari, Soren; Bouche, Nicolas; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional research is entering a paradigm shift which necessitates the modeling of complex interactions between diet, genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. This requires the development of analytical and processing capabilities for multiple data and information sources to be able to improve targeted and personalized nutritional approaches for the maintenance of health. Ideally, such knowledge will be employed to underpin the development of concepts that combine consumer and medical nutrition with diagnostic targeting for early intervention designed to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis and delay the onset of chronic diseases. Nutritional status is fundamental to any description of health, and when combined with other data on lifestyle, environment, and genetics, it can be used to drive stratified or even personalized nutritional strategies for health maintenance and preventive medicine. In this work, we will discuss the importance of developing new nutrient assessment methods and diagnostic capabilities for nutritional status to generate scientific hypotheses and actionable concepts from which to develop targeted and eventually personalized nutritional solutions for health protection. We describe efforts to develop algorithms for dietary nutrient intake and a holistic nutritional profiling platform as the basis of understanding the complex nutrition and health interactome. PMID:26764480

  17. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  18. Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

    This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

  19. The isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources from Peru.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Reyes-Batlle, María; Montalbán-Sandoval, Esmelda; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Elias-Letts, Rafaela; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Maciver, Sutherland K; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic free-living amoeba that has been reported to cause skin lesions and the fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) in humans and other animals. Currently, around 200 human BAE cases have been reported worldwide, although this number is considered to be underestimated. The highest number of BAE cases has been reported in the American continent, mainly in the southwest of the USA. Peru seems to be another hotspot for BAE with around 55 human cases having been identified, usually involving cutaneous infection, especially lesions in the central face area. The isolation of Balamuthia from environmental sources has been reported on only three prior occasions, twice from Californian soils and once from dust in Iran and so it seems that this amoeba is relatively rarely encountered in samples from the environment. We investigated that possibility of finding the amoebae in soil samples from different regions where clinical cases have been reported in Peru. Twenty-one samples were cultured in non-nutrient agar plates and were checked for the presence of B. mandrillaris-like trophozoites and/or cysts. Those samples that were positive for these amoebae by microscopic criteria were then confirmed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris. We have detected the presence of B. mandrillaris in four samples collected in the regions of Piura (3) and Lima (1) where infection cases have been previously reported. We hypothesize that B. mandrillaris is present in Peru in soil and dust which therefore constitutes a source of the infection for the BAE cases previously reported in this country. Further studies should be carried out in the area to confirm the generality of this finding. PMID:24781021

  20. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, D.M.; O'Neill, J.P.; Foster, M.S.; Mark, T.; Dauphine, N.; Franke, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  1. Full Genomic Characterization of a Saffold Virus Isolated in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Rios, Jane; Juarez, Diana; Guevara, Carolina; Silva, Maria; Prieto, Karla; Wiley, Michael; Kasper, Matthew R.; Palacios, Gustavo; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    While studying respiratory infections of unknown etiology we detected Saffold virus in an oropharyngeal swab collected from a two-year-old female suffering from diarrhea and respiratory illness. The full viral genome recovered by deep sequencing showed 98% identity to a previously described Saffold strain isolated in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the Peruvian Saffold strain belongs to genotype 3 and is most closely related to strains that have circulated in Asia. This is the first documented case report of Saffold virus in Peru and the only complete genomic characterization of a Saffold-3 isolate from the Americas. PMID:26610576

  2. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

    2013-09-01

    Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised. PMID:24013282

  3. Nutritional recommendations for divers.

    PubMed

    Benardot, Dan; Zimmermann, Wes; Cox, Gregory R; Marks, Saul

    2014-08-01

    Competitive diving involves grace, power, balance, and flexibility, which all require satisfying daily energy and nutrient needs. Divers are short, well-muscled, and lean, giving them a distinct biomechanical advantage. Although little diving-specific nutrition research on performance and health outcomes exists, there is concern that divers are excessively focused on body weight and composition, which may result in reduced dietary intake to achieve desired physique goals. This will result in low energy availability, which may have a negative impact on their power-to-weight ratio and health risks. Evidence is increasing that restrictive dietary practices leading to low energy availability also result in micronutrient deficiencies, premature fatigue, frequent injuries, and poor athletic performance. On the basis of daily training demands, estimated energy requirements for male and female divers are 3,500 kcal and 2,650 kcal, respectively. Divers should consume a diet that provides 3-8 g/kg/day of carbohydrate, with the higher values accommodating growth and development. Total daily protein intake (1.2-1.7 g/kg) should be spread evenly throughout the day in 20 to 30 g amounts and timed appropriately after training sessions. Divers should consume nutrient-dense foods and fluids and, with medical supervision, certain dietary supplements (i.e., calcium and iron) may be advisable. Although sweat loss during indoor training is relatively low, divers should follow appropriate fluid-intake strategies to accommodate anticipated sweat losses in hot and humid outdoor settings. A multidisciplinary sports medicine team should be integral to the daily training environment, and suitable foods and fluids should be made available during prolonged practices and competitions. PMID:24936780

  4. [Cyclic enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Hébuterne, X; Rampal, P

    1996-02-10

    Cyclic enteral nutrition consists in continuous infusion of nutrients with a pump over a 12 to 14 hour period at night. Different reports have demonstrated that cyclic enteral nutrition is well tolerated in malnourished ambulatory patients. The incidence of pneumonia by inhalation in this type of patients is less than 2%. Excepting patients with major amputation of the small intestine and important functional consequences, the increased infusion rate required by cyclic enteral nutrition does not diminish digestive tract absorption making the technique as effective as continuous 24-hour infusion. The main advantages of the cyclic infusion are the preservation of physiological balance between fasting and feeding, improved physical activity during the day with its beneficial effect on protein-energy metabolism, compatibility with oral nutrition during the day in nutrition reeducation programs, and the psychological impact in patients who are free to move about, further improving tolerance. Finally, cyclic enteral nutrition is adapted to enteral nutrition programs conducted in the patient's homes. PMID:8729381

  5. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

  6. Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy lifespan12

    PubMed Central

    Ohlhorst, Sarah D.; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M.; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R.; Milner, John; Ross, A. Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN’s Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs, ASN also identified 5 tools that are critical to the advancement of the Nutrition Research Needs: 1) omics, 2) bioinformatics, 3) databases, 4) biomarkers, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:24038264

  7. Preconception care: nutritional risks and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. Conclusion All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition

  8. Child nutrition and growth: butterfly effects?

    PubMed

    Bellisle, France

    2008-02-01

    The international symposium organised by the Danone Institute as a pre-congress satellite of the European Nutrition Societies Congress, in Paris, in July 2007, brought together experts of child nutrition and behaviour. These experts coming from several countries of Europe and North America shared their views on the impact of numerous factors affecting child eating and health in present-day developed societies. Topics included nutritional influences during foetal life, early life development of food likes and dislikes, neophobia, ability for energy regulation, impact of media and advertisement, etc. Most contributions addressed the obesity epidemics and the problems associated with body weight control. Other aspects of child health were also considered, for example the nutritional challenge of adequately feeding children with type 1 diabetes. The nine speakers were asked to underline practical strategies to improve nutrition in early life, so as to maximise health, growth and quality of life in today's environment. The present paper is a summary of the ideas expressed by the experts, highlighting agreements, convergences, and occasional disagreements between expert opinions. PMID:18257951

  9. Forest nutrition management

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book draws on the fields of silviculture, soil studies, ecology, and economics to provide information on how to enhance the nutritional status of forest soils in order to increase their long-term stand productivity. It covers the use of fertilizers to enhance biological nitrogen fixation and how the nutrition status of forests is affected by other operations, such as harvesting and site preparation. Methods for assessing nutrient status, the economics of nutrition management, and models to aid in decision-making are included.

  10. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. PMID:26195102

  11. Designing effective nutrition interventions for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Evans, Alexandra; Parcel, Guy S; Kelder, Steven H

    2002-03-01

    By altering dietary behaviors, nutrition interventions during adolescence have the potential of affecting children at that time and later in life. The majority of interventions implemented in the teen years have occurred in schools, but other intervention sites have included after-school programs, summer camps, community centers, libraries, and grocery stores. Programs with successful outcomes have tended to be behaviorally based, using theories for the developmental framework; included an environmental component; delivered an adequate number of lessons; and emphasized developmentally appropriate strategies. One planning method that can be used in the development of nutrition interventions is Intervention Mapping. The steps of Intervention Mapping include conducting a needs assessment, developing proximal program objectives, mapping appropriate strategies and methods to address the objectives, planning the program design, planning program adoption and implementation, and evaluation. The use of intervention-planning techniques, coordination of nutrition and physical education interventions, using technological advances such as CD-ROMs, incorporation of policy changes into intervention efforts, and dissemination of effective programs are all trends that will influence the future development of effective nutrition programs for adolescents. PMID:11902389

  12. Integrated Nutrition Education Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition…

  13. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  14. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  15. Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

  16. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ... Why good nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...

  17. Scaling Up Impact on Nutrition: What Will It Take?1234

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Stuart; Menon, Purnima; Kennedy, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Despite consensus on actions to improve nutrition globally, less is known about how to operationalize the right mix of actions—nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive—equitably, at scale, in different contexts. This review draws on a large scaling-up literature search and 4 case studies of large-scale nutrition programs with proven impact to synthesize critical elements for impact at scale. Nine elements emerged as central: 1) having a clear vision or goal for impact; 2) intervention characteristics; 3) an enabling organizational context for scaling up; 4) establishing drivers such as catalysts, champions, systemwide ownership, and incentives; 5) choosing contextually relevant strategies and pathways for scaling up, 6) building operational and strategic capacities; 7) ensuring adequacy, stability, and flexibility of financing; 8) ensuring adequate governance structures and systems; and 9) embedding mechanisms for monitoring, learning, and accountability. Translating current political commitment to large-scale impact on nutrition will require robust attention to these elements. PMID:26178028

  18. Scaling up impact on nutrition: what will it take?

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Stuart; Menon, Purnima; Kennedy, Andrew L

    2015-07-01

    Despite consensus on actions to improve nutrition globally, less is known about how to operationalize the right mix of actions-nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive-equitably, at scale, in different contexts. This review draws on a large scaling-up literature search and 4 case studies of large-scale nutrition programs with proven impact to synthesize critical elements for impact at scale. Nine elements emerged as central: 1) having a clear vision or goal for impact; 2) intervention characteristics; 3) an enabling organizational context for scaling up; 4) establishing drivers such as catalysts, champions, systemwide ownership, and incentives; 5) choosing contextually relevant strategies and pathways for scaling up, 6) building operational and strategic capacities; 7) ensuring adequacy, stability, and flexibility of financing; 8) ensuring adequate governance structures and systems; and 9) embedding mechanisms for monitoring, learning, and accountability. Translating current political commitment to large-scale impact on nutrition will require robust attention to these elements. PMID:26178028

  19. Managing glacier related risks in the Chucchún Catchment, Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Randy; Gonzáles, César; Price, Karen; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Cochachin, Alejo; García, Javier; Mesa, Luis

    2015-04-01

    On April 11 2010, the city of Carhuaz and settlements in the Chucchún Catchment (Ancash region, Peru) suffered the impact of a glacier lake outburst flood. An avalanche of rock and ice from the Mount Hualcán hit the glacier lake 513, triggering a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) of 1 million m3 which destroyed farmland and several infrastructures. Although there was no loss of human life, the event caused panic in the population. In consequence, the Municipality of Carhuaz prioritized GLOF-related risk management. The Glacier Project, funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and executed by CARE Peru and the University of Zurich, fosters the coordination among public institutions (Glaciological Unit of the National Water Authority, the Ministry of Environment and Municipality) and the population for risk management. In this contribution we present all components of the risk management strategy as well as the lessons learned during the implementation. Risk management involves managing both glacier hazard as well as the vulnerability of the population. In this framework a glaciological and geomorphological characterization of Mount Hualcán and lake 513 was perfomed in order to model past and potential future outburst floods and to assess the slope stability conditions. Based on three potential GLOF scenarios of different magnitudes, a hazard map was produced for the entire catchment, which served as the basis for the vulnerability and risk assessment as well as for the design and the implementation of an Early Warning System (EWS), including evacuation planning. The EWS consists of 4 components: 1) knowledge of risk, through hazard and vulnerability characterization; 2) monitoring and alert, through the installation of monitoring stations on lake 513 for detecting avalanches with geophones and cameras; 3) broadcasting and communications, through the implementation of communication protocols between the Municipality of Carhuaz and emergency

  20. Emergency contraception in Peru: shifting government and donor policies and influences.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Susana; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2007-05-01

    Inclusion of emergency contraception in national family planning programmes is consistent with international agreements that countries should strive to ensure access to a wide range of contraceptive methods and promote voluntary, informed choice. Yet in 2005, USAID/Peru requested that its NGO grantees in Peru take a "neutral" position on emergency contraception in activities or materials that involve its funds. For many decades, donor countries have viewed conservative religious forces in low-income countries as an obstacle to expanding family planning programmes. Today, however, far-right organisations in the United States are having an unprecedented influence on US public policy, including in countries such as Peru. This article analyses shifts in USAID/Peru's policy on emergency contraception in Peru since 1992. In Peru today, there is widespread official and public support for making emergency contraception available. Given USAID's long support for family planning internationally and in Peru, the current policy appears to be the result of attacks by US far-right organisations carried out in synergy with sympathetic US public officials and anti-choice Peruvian allies. PMID:17512385

  1. Nutritional concerns during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marino, D D; King, J C

    1980-02-01

    Adolescent food habits often run counter to the special nutritional needs of this age group. Suggestions for nutrient supplements are offered, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the unique needs of the obese, athletic, or pregnant teenager. PMID:6445537

  2. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  3. Nutrition Update, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

  4. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  5. Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

  6. MedlinePlus: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teenagers Smarter snack ideas (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health) Men Healthy Eating for Men (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Women Healthy Eating for Women (Academy ...

  7. Papaya nutritional analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  8. Nutrition advice in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Diane; Butterfield, Gillian; Palethorpe, Rebeca; Jones, Vicky; Syson, Jenny

    2013-10-01

    Being overweight or obese in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes and long-term ill health for both mother and infant. Midwives, obstetricians and healthcare support workers providing care in pregnancy are ideally placed to provide women with nutritional advice and to facilitate the acquisition of a healthy diet. This survey was undertaken to assess the provision of training in nutrition for providers of maternity care at the Bradford Women's and Newborn unit, to evaluate what nutrition information is given and to find out if care providers were satisfied with the knowledge they had. All relevant staff were approached and asked to complete a questionnaire developed by members of the unit's research team. Findings from this survey highlight the wide range of nutrition information provided by care providers at the unit. Education and training needs are being addressed by managers and a dedicated service is being developed for obese women. PMID:24358595

  9. Nutrition information sources.

    PubMed

    Farrell, L

    1972-10-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  10. Nutrition Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Lois

    1972-01-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  11. Structure of the Flat Slab in Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Clayton, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the detailed structure of the flat-subduction portion of the subduction zone in Southern Peru using converted phases recorded by the PeruSE seismic array. The migrated image along a profile above the flat subduction is shown in the figure, overlain by the receiver functions of one well-recorded event. We see that the slab descends to 100 km depth at a distance of about 100 km inland from the coast, and then it rises to 90 km depth and remains flat for the next 300 km distance before diving into the mantle. The Moho itself has about 10 km relief above the flat slab, which is anti-correlated with the surface topography indicating Airy compensation. Interestingly, the flat slab image is missing under this part of Moho. The mid-crust structure is also evident. In the west, it coincides with the Andean Low Velocity Zone (ALVZ) mapped in this region (Ma and Clayton, 2014). In the east, it is related with the underthrusting Brazilian Shield (Phillips and Clayton, 2014). In this paper, we further investigate the causes of the missing or weak flat slab signal, possibly due to anomalous attenuation of S waves in the mantle wedge (but not P wave, since Moho is well imaged). We will also extend our study to the flat-normal transition area beneath the array.

  12. Determining Future Epicenters by Triangulation of Magnetometer Pulses in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraud, J. A.; Centa, V. A.; Bleier, T.; Dunson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The direction of arrival of magnetometer pulses have been observed in several cases and in several stations since April 2010 in Tacna, Peru. The azimuth can be obtained from the three-axis magnetometers but only a direction to the possible epicenter could be deduced and not the distance or location was really possible. Three earthquakes, Ml 4.1, 3.8, 4.8, that occurred on April 4, April 12 and June 18, 2013 respectively in Central Peru, were preceded by pulses, observed in magnetometer records between 10 and 18 days before the onset of the earthquakes. This time, three axis magnetometers in two stations situated 55 km apart and about 25-35 km from the future epicenter were ready to receive the pulses simultaneously. The azimuths were computed for both stations and the triangulation of simultaneous pulses rendered the position of possible release points of p-holes during several days, in approximately the two-week period until the onset of the earthquakes. The observations have been post, however the data has been analyzed and plotted in a sequential way, showing the sequence of events from the first pulses until the occurrence of the earthquakes, giving coincidental positions with the possible rupture zone for the seismic events. The animated videos obtained of these events will be shown.

  13. El Nino Activity During MIS 5e in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, B.; Sirocko, F.

    2004-12-01

    Oceanography and climate along the coast of Peru is fundamentally linked to ENSO variability with stronger lithic flux into the sea and reduced marine bioproductivity during El Nino events. A 19 m long piston core with laminated marine sediments has been recovered on the edge of the Peruvian shelf (12 03'S, 77 40W, 184 m waterdepth) during cruise Sonne-147 in 2000. We present the lower 6 meters of this core that cover the time between 100 to 130 kyr before the present (BP). SST has been estimated from alkenone analysis with a mean temporal resolution of 300 years. Color logging along the core at 2 mm intervals revealed high resolution proxy data (3 to 30 a) for the precipitation on the continent (fine-grained lithics) and marine bioproduction (photosynthesis pigments: chlorines, carotenoids). Proxy data show that a major change occurred around 123 kyr BP. Mean sedimentation rate which is largely controlled by lithics dropped from 40-70 cm/kyr to 18 cm/kyr after 123 kyr BP. Contemporaneously SST start to decline towards the early Glacial level that is reached between 118 to 116 ka during the time of glacial inception. We conclude that stronger El Nino floods occurred before 123 kyr BP and El Ninos were weaker during the second half of MIS 5e. The change to weaker ENSO activity in Peru is therewith roughly contemporaneous with the beginning cooling in Greenland.

  14. Astronomy Against Terrorism: an Educational Astronomical Observatory Project in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, M.; Montes, H.; Kuroda, T.; Morimoto, M.; Ishitsuka, J.

    2003-05-01

    The Cosmos Coronagraphic Observatory was completely destroyed by terrorists in 1988. In 1995, in coordination with the Minister of Education of Peru, a project to construct a new Educational Astronomical Observatory has been executed. The main purpose of the observatory is to promote an interest in basic space sciences in young students from school to university levels, through basic astronomical studies and observations. The planned observatory will be able to lodge 25 visitors; furthermore an auditorium, a library and a computer room will be constructed to improve the interest of people in astronomy. Two 15-cm refractor telescopes, equipped with a CCD camera and a photometer, will be available for observations. Also a 6-m dome will house a 60-cm class reflector telescope, which will be donated soon, thanks to a fund collected and organized by the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory in Japan. In addition a new modern planetarium donated by the Government of Japan will be installed in Lima, the capital of Peru. These installations will be widely open to serve the requirements of people interested in science.

  15. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru. PMID:26733400

  16. Chronic exposure of sheep to a zinc smelter in Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, J.S.; Ameghino, E.; Aaronson, M.J.

    1989-06-01

    Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, and zinc were assessed in adult female sheep living in the vicinity of a zinc smelter in Peru. The study was conducted on a large sheep-raising cooperative divided into seven management units, operated under a standardized husbandry system. Soil samples were analyzed for the same metals at varying distances from the smelter. A gradient of concentration of heavy metals in soil was found between 1 and 56 km from the smelter. Soil concentrations for all metals except manganese decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. The strongest correlations were found for copper, lead, and zinc (P less than 0.001). Topographic features and prevailing wind direction appeared to play a role in the dispersion of pollutants. Liver samples were obtained from 153 sheep on five units of the cooperative. The centers of the units sampled were between 13 and 56 km from the smelter. Hepatic concentrations of arsenic, lead, manganese, and zinc decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. Liver arsenic and liver zinc were significantly related to soil concentrations. Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese in sheep from the cooperative were significantly higher than those detected in control sheep from southern Peru. Sheep populations may serve as biological monitors for heavy metal accumulation and environmental carcinogenesis.

  17. Constrained Choices: Adolescents Speak on Sexuality in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2011-01-01

    While numerous studies have explored adolescent sexual behavior in Peru, to date, none have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programs. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12–17 year-old females and males from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analyzed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in adolescents’ lives. However, adolescents viewed the complete expression of their sexuality as a constrained choice. Constraints are due to the belief that sexual intercourse always results in pregnancy; the nature of sex education; the provision of proscriptive advice; and the family tensions, economic problems, racism and violence present in adolescents’ lives. Social and cultural factors seem to surpass and often suppress the physical and psychological dimensions of adolescents’ sexuality. The results of this study can inform policies and programs to support adolescents as they construct their sexuality and make sexuality-related decisions. PMID:20526920

  18. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola hepatica from Peru.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ortiz, Pedro; Cabrera, Maria; Hobán, Cristian; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    The causative agent of fasciolosis in South America is thought to be Fasciola hepatica. In this study, Fasciola flukes from Peru were analyzed to investigate their genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships with those from other countries. Fasciola flukes were collected from the three definitive host species: cattle, sheep, and pigs. They were identified as F. hepatica because mature sperms were observed in their seminal vesicles, and also they displayed Fh type, which has an identical fragment pattern to F. hepatica in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1. Eight haplotypes were obtained from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) sequences of Peruvian F. hepatica; however, no special difference in genetic structure was observed between the three host species. Its extremely low genetic diversity suggests that the Peruvian population was introduced from other regions. Nad1 haplotypes identical to those of Peruvian F. hepatica were detected in China, Uruguay, Italy, Iran, and Australia. Our results indicate that F. hepatica rapidly expanded its range due to human migration. Future studies are required to elucidate dispersal route of F. hepatica from Europe, its probable origin, to other areas, including Peru. PMID:26657243

  19. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru. PMID:26324726

  20. Tectonic implications of the microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions in southern Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grange, F.; Hatzfeld, D.; Cunningham, P.; Molnar, P.; Roecker, S. W.; Suarez, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Ocola, L.

    1984-01-01

    Because the contortion in the seismic zone in southern Peru is aligned approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion, rather than perpendicular to the coast of Peru, the position of the contortion need not migrate with respect to the overriding South American plate as the Nazca plate subducts beneath it, and the flow in the surrounding asthenosphere could be in a steady state. In addition, the position of the contortion defines the northern boundary of the volcanic arc in southern Peru. The inference that a wedge of asthenospheric material must overlie the downgoing slab for subduction-related volcanism to occur is thereby strengthened.

  1. Minerals Yearbook, 1988 international review. The mineral industries of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, I.E.; Gurmendi, A.C.; Velasco, P.

    1988-01-01

    All three countries in this Andean group have diversified mineral industries that play an important role in their respective domestic economies. Peru, as the largest country with a population of over 21 million, is the most diversified mineral producer with the highest value of total output. The values added by the mineral industries in 1988 were $2.78 billion for Peru, $1.98 billion for Ecuador, and $0.64 billion for Bolivia. Each value encompasses production of petroleum, natural gas, metals, and industrial minerals. During the period 1980-88, Ecuador's mineral output in terms of value expanded while that of Bolivia and Peru contracted.

  2. Additions to the checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Guénard, Benoit; Economo, Evan P

    2015-01-01

    A recent species checklist of the ants of Peru recorded 592 nominal species and 79 genera on the basis of a literature review. Here we complement the previously published checklist with the addition of 83 nominal species and six genera, including three genera recorded only from morphospecies. This increases the list of ants reported from Peru to at least 679 species and subspecies and 85 genera. We also modify the list of species known as endemic from Peru, discuss the historical importance of the Peruvian ant fauna in myrmecology, and highlight potential research for future studies. PMID:26624662

  3. Database and Map of Quaternary Faults and Folds in Peru and its Offshore Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machare, Jose; Fenton, Clark H.; Machette, Michael N.; Lavenu, Alain; Costa, Carlos; Dart, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    This publication consists of a main map of Quaternary faults and fiolds of Peru, a table of Quaternary fault data, a region inset map showing relative plate motion, and a second inset map of an enlarged area of interest in southern Peru. These maps and data compilation show evidence for activity of Quaternary faults and folds in Peru and its offshore regions of the Pacific Ocean. The maps show the locations, ages, and activity rates of major earthquake-related features such as faults and fault-related folds. These data are accompanied by text databases that describe these features and document current information on their activity in the Quaternary.

  4. Nutrition in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sen, D; Prakash, J

    2000-07-01

    Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients. PMID:11273510

  5. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  6. Nutrition and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Chin, w Dat N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nutritional support in critically ill patients with sepsis has received much attention in recent years. However, many of the studies have produced conflicting results. As for all critically ill patients, nutritional support, preferably via the enteral route, should be commenced once initial resuscitation and adequate perfusion pressure is achieved. Where enteral feeding is impossible or not tolerated, parenteral nutrition (either as total or complimentary therapy) may safely be administered. Most positive studies relating to nutritional support and sepsis have been in the setting of sepsis prevention. Thus, the administration of standard nutrition formulas to critically ill patients within 24 h of injury or intensive care unit admission may decrease the incidence of pneumonia. Both arginine-supplemented enteral diets, given in the perioperative period, and glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition have been shown to decrease infections in surgical patients. Parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions as well as probiotics given in the perioperative period may also reduce infections in patients undergoing major abdominal operations, such as liver transplantation. There is little support at the present time for the positive effect of specific pharmaconutrients, in particular fish oil, probiotics, or antioxidants, in the setting of established sepsis. More studies are clearly required on larger numbers of more homogeneous groups of patients. PMID:23075593

  7. Nutrition and fertility.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status. PMID:18043554

  8. Recipes and nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Hertzler, A A

    1983-10-01

    Since the beginning of the science of nutrition in the 1800s, nutritionists have been concerned about the use of recipes in nutrition programs. Although research indicates that recipes may be most used by those with a high school education and with food preparation experiences, recipes appear to be valuable in providing many forms of food and nutrition information to individuals with varying education levels. Factors that should be considered in selecting recipes are: clients' nutritional and dietary status, money, equipment, literacy, information and knowledge, and life-style. Subsequently, evaluation is needed to document impact on clients' food habits and to justify the approach in nutrition education programs. This project reviewed procedures used by nutritionists to assess clientele needs and evaluated the tools they use in education programs. Although it focused on recipes, the same information could have been obtained for handouts, posters, slide series, comic books, storybooks, and demonstrations. Research is needed in nutrition education to identify standards for the use of tools, such as recipes, and to study their impact on improving dietary adequacy of clientele. Such standards should be tested within a theoretical framework so that they will be useful in other situations. PMID:6352783

  9. Nutrition and behavior of coatis and raccoons.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas P

    2009-05-01

    Raccoons and coatis are inquisitive members of the Procyonidae family, commonly found in zoos, treated in wildlife rehabilitation centers, and increasing in popularity as pets. Compared with other carnivores, both species have unique adaptations and behaviors associated with their omnivorous lifestyles. It is therefore important for clinicians to have an appreciation of their natural history, diet, and behavior to aid in the formulation of captive diets and feeding strategies to mitigate potential nutritional or behavioral pathologies. PMID:19341947

  10. 'They don't just come for Machu Picchu': locals' views of tourist-local sexual relationships in Cuzco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Irmgard

    2008-08-01

    Sexual and romantic relationships between local people and tourists have long taken place. Such encounters are not a modern phenomenon, but the potential of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, warrants greater research into the issue. This paper analyses local people's views of local-tourist relationships in Cuzco/Peru. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews, participant and non-participant observation and informal discussions. Attraction based on physical difference was reportedly the main trigger for such relationships. Emerging themes discussed include issues of self-esteem, strategies of approach, tourists' motives, emotional involvement and expectations from such encounters. Levels of unprotected sexual behaviour and lack of STI awareness are of sufficient concern to recommend urgent action. Suggestions for sexual health education are made with particular emphasis on targeting local people involved in the tourism and hospitality industries. PMID:18649199

  11. Control of cervical cancer in Peru: Current barriers and challenges for the future

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Pinto, Joseph A.; Araujo, Jhajaira; Fajardo, Williams; Bravo, Leny; Pinillos, Luis; Vallejos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading malignant neoplasm in Peruvian women. This malignancy is a public health problem and several efforts were previously performed to develop cancer control plans. Geographical, cultural, structural, infrastructural and procedural barriers can limit the implementation of such strategies. Several previous studies have characterized human papilloma virus (HPV) epidemiology, where prevalence of high-risk HPV in adult females is ~12% and the prevalence in cervical cancer is 90–95%. The predominant barriers for the control of cervical cancer are lack of specialists in remote villages, education/cultural issues, loss of patients in follow-up, lack of access to HPV testing and lack of compliance for HPV vaccination. A good strategy for the prevention and early detection of high-risk HPV, pre-malignant neoplasms and cervical cancer, identified by interventional studies, is the self-sampling test, which assists with overcoming the cultural and geographic barriers. The current cancer control plan, termed ‘Plan Esperanza’, is performed with massive training of health professionals and social sensitization campaigns leading to filling the gaps regarding education and, in addition, it provides cancer care coverage for poorer individuals. In our experience at Oncosalud-AUNA, with a cohort of ~750,000 affiliates using a pre-paid system with annual screenings for cervical cancer for women, offered free-of-charge, a lower incidence of this malignancy (5.8/100,000) is now observed compared with the national incidence (32.7/100,000). As in other countries, the HPV vaccination can be a cost-utility strategy to reduce the high burdens of cervical cancer in Peru, a rapid and cheap HPV molecular sub-typification is rapidly required. PMID:27446557

  12. Nutrition Reconciliation and Nutrition Prophylaxis: Toward Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip; Beattie, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common and debilitating condition in the acute hospital setting that is associated with many adverse outcomes, including prolonged length of hospital stay, increased readmission rates, and increased mortality. However, malnutrition by definition may be an abnormality in either under- or overnutrition. With obesity rates rising, many patients admitted to the hospital may be overnourished from unhealthy eating habits. Unhealthy eating habits and obesity increase a patient’s risk for cardiovascular events and complications in the hospital setting. Nutrition risk screening or nutrition reconciliation is an underutilized tool in the hospital that would identify patients with over- and undernutrition. Nutrition intervention or nutrition prophylaxis initiated in the hospital may help reduce hospital days, readmissions, and mortality. Nutrition reconciliation is a new term developed to increase the awareness of nutrition in total health. Nutrition reconciliation means that all patients have their nutritional status reconciled on admission to and discharge from the hospital. Nutrition reconciliation is defined as the process of maximizing health by helping align an individual’s current diet to the diet prescribed for him or her by the health care team. Nutrition prophylaxis is a proactive intervention to prevent a medical complication. Mandatory nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis is not widely performed in most hospitals. Such an intervention may help our patients by improving their short-and long-term health. In addition, nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis may allow for a more effective use of resources to prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25902344

  13. The effectiveness of nutritional interventions in malnutrition and cachexia.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a common diagnosis and leading cause of death worldwide. Amounts of weight loss vary but it is associated with considerable morbidity, poorer quality of life and reduced survival. Nutritional intervention has the potential to maximise response to treatment and improve functioning and quality of life. The aim of this paper was to review the evidence for oral nutritional interventions in the management of weight loss in patients with cancer. Comparison of studies of nutritional support interventions in people with cancer is complicated by variations in understanding of what constitutes a compromised nutritional status. There are similarities and differences between definitions of both malnutrition and cachexia and studies of oral nutritional interventions have failed to use standard criteria at study inclusion contributing to heterogeneity amongst studies. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials has suggested limited evidence of benefit to nutritional and clinical outcomes but some improvements to aspects of quality of life. The presence of cachexia in patients with cancer might explain the limited efficacy of simple oral nutritional interventions, which lack a component designed to address metabolic abnormalities associated with cachexia. Novel strategies combining nutritional support with therapeutic agents designed to down-regulate the metabolic aberrations have failed to demonstrate consistent benefits and the results of multimodal treatments combining several interventions are awaited. There is a need for intervention studies recruiting patients early in the disease course, which underlines the need for definitions which predict poor outcome and hence allow early recognition of vulnerable patients. PMID:26087760

  14. Adaptive collective foraging in groups with conflicting nutritional needs.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Charleston, Michael A; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Collective foraging, based on positive feedback and quorum responses, is believed to improve the foraging efficiency of animals. Nutritional models suggest that social information transfer increases the ability of foragers with closely aligned nutritional needs to find nutrients and maintain a balanced diet. However, whether or not collective foraging is adaptive in a heterogeneous group composed of individuals with differing nutritional needs is virtually unexplored. Here we develop an evolutionary agent-based model using concepts of nutritional ecology to address this knowledge gap. Our aim was to evaluate how collective foraging, mediated by social retention on foods, can improve nutrient balancing in individuals with different requirements. The model suggests that in groups where inter-individual nutritional needs are unimodally distributed, high levels of collective foraging yield optimal individual fitness by reducing search times that result from moving between nutritionally imbalanced foods. However, where nutritional needs are highly bimodal (e.g. where the requirements of males and females differ) collective foraging is selected against, leading to group fission. In this case, additional mechanisms such as assortative interactions can coevolve to allow collective foraging by subgroups of individuals with aligned requirements. Our findings indicate that collective foraging is an efficient strategy for nutrient regulation in animals inhabiting complex nutritional environments and exhibiting a range of social forms. PMID:27152206

  15. Adaptive collective foraging in groups with conflicting nutritional needs

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Charleston, Michael A.; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Collective foraging, based on positive feedback and quorum responses, is believed to improve the foraging efficiency of animals. Nutritional models suggest that social information transfer increases the ability of foragers with closely aligned nutritional needs to find nutrients and maintain a balanced diet. However, whether or not collective foraging is adaptive in a heterogeneous group composed of individuals with differing nutritional needs is virtually unexplored. Here we develop an evolutionary agent-based model using concepts of nutritional ecology to address this knowledge gap. Our aim was to evaluate how collective foraging, mediated by social retention on foods, can improve nutrient balancing in individuals with different requirements. The model suggests that in groups where inter-individual nutritional needs are unimodally distributed, high levels of collective foraging yield optimal individual fitness by reducing search times that result from moving between nutritionally imbalanced foods. However, where nutritional needs are highly bimodal (e.g. where the requirements of males and females differ) collective foraging is selected against, leading to group fission. In this case, additional mechanisms such as assortative interactions can coevolve to allow collective foraging by subgroups of individuals with aligned requirements. Our findings indicate that collective foraging is an efficient strategy for nutrient regulation in animals inhabiting complex nutritional environments and exhibiting a range of social forms. PMID:27152206

  16. Toward greater inclusion: lessons from Peru in confronting challenges of multi-sector collaboration.

    PubMed

    Buffardi, Anne L; Cabello, Robinson; Garcia, Patricia J

    2012-09-01

    Despite widespread enthusiasm for broader participation in health policy and programming, little is known about the ways in which multi-sector groups address the challenges that arise in pursuing this goal. Based on the experience of Peru's National Multi-sector Health Coordinating Body (CONAMUSA), this article characterizes these challenges and identifies organizational strategies the group has adopted to overcome them. Comprising nine government ministries, nongovernmental organizations, academia, religious institutions, and international cooperation agencies, CONAMUSA has faced three principal challenges: 1) selecting representatives, 2) balancing membership and leadership across sectors, and 3) negotiating role transition and conflict. In response, the group has instituted a rotation system for formal leadership responsibiliti es, and professionalized management functions; created electoral systems for civil society; and developed conflict of interest guidelines. This case study offers lessons for other countries trying to configure multi-sector groups, and for donors who mandate their creation, tempering unbridled idealism toward inclusive participation with a dose of healthy realism and practical adaptation. PMID:23183566

  17. Public perceptions of intellectual disability in a shantytown community in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Michele S.; Girón, J. Maziel; Cabrera, Lilia; Lescano, Andrés G.; Taren, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Disability is the result of interactions between biological and environmental factors including the physical, economic, and social barriers imposed on an individual by society. In low and middle-income countries, limited attention has been given to the situation of individuals with intellectual disabilities, who remain seriously neglected. Given the lack of resources available to address mental disorders, it is essential to examine the role of socioeconomic and socio-cultural factors in the lives of these individuals. We conducted interviews of key informants and community members in a shantytown community in Lima, Peru, to explore public knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes regarding intellectual disability. Findings indicated that the most important concern for community members was the longstanding issues associated with poverty. There was a profound lack of awareness of intellectual disability among the general population and an absence of social integration for these individuals. However, interviewees also recognized the productive potential of persons with intellectual disabilities provided they received currently inaccessible support services. The results suggest that educational efforts and intervention strategies must be mindful of the challenges of chronic poverty in order to successfully facilitate the social integration of individuals with intellectual disabilities into the community. PMID:23268202

  18. Cross-country analysis of strategies for achieving progress towards global goals for women’s and children’s health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Rawal, Lal B; Chowdhury, Sadia A; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Jack, Susan; Hinton, Rachael; Alam, Prima M

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify how 10 low- and middle-income countries achieved accelerated progress, ahead of comparable countries, towards meeting millennium development goals 4 and 5A to reduce child and maternal mortality. Methods We synthesized findings from multistakeholder dialogues and country policy reports conducted previously for the Success Factors studies in 10 countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda and Viet Nam. A framework approach was used to analyse and synthesize the data from the country reports, resulting in descriptive or explanatory conclusions by theme. Findings Successful policy and programme approaches were categorized in four strategic areas: leadership and multistakeholder partnerships; health sector; sectors outside health; and accountability for resources and results. Consistent and coordinated inputs across sectors, based on high-impact interventions, were assessed. Within the health sector, key policy and programme strategies included defining standards, collecting and using data, improving financial protection, and improving the availability and quality of services. Outside the health sector, strategies included investing in girls’ education, water, sanitation and hygiene, poverty reduction, nutrition and food security, and infrastructure development. Countries improved accountability by strengthening and using data systems for planning and evaluating progress. Conclusion Reducing maternal and child mortality in the 10 fast-track countries can be linked to consistent and coordinated policy and programme inputs across health and other sectors. The approaches used by successful countries have relevance to other countries looking to scale-up or accelerate progress towards the sustainable development goals. PMID:27147765

  19. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ben, Xiao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is a key component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants. PMID:18985802

  20. Rivers as Political Boundaries: Peru and its Dynamic Borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, J. D.; Escobar, C.; Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers, although inherently dynamic, have been chosen as political boundaries since the beginning of colonization for several reasons. Such divisions were chosen namely for their defensive capabilities and military benefits, and because they were often the first features mapped out by explorers. Furthermore, rivers were indisputable boundaries that did not require boundary pillars or people to guard them. However, it is important to understand the complexities of a river as a boundary. All rivers inevitably change over time through processes such as accretion, deposition, cut-off, or avulsion, rendering a political boundary subject to dispute. Depending upon the flow, size, and surrounding land, a river will migrate differently than others. As these natural features migrate one country loses land while another gains land leading to tension between legal rigidity and fluid dynamism. This in turn can manifest in social disruption due to cultural differences, political upheaval, or conflict risk as a result of scarce water resources. The purpose of this research is to assess the temporal and spatial variability of the political boundaries of Peru that follow rivers. Peru shares borders with Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. A large part of its northern border with Colombia follows the Putumayo River and later the Amazon River. Part of its eastern border with Brazil follows the Yavari River and later the Yaquirana River. These rivers are natural features used as political boundaries yet they differ in how each migrates. By means of a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite images it was possible to obtain erosion and deposition areas for the Putumayo River, the portion of the Amazon River that is part of the Peruvian boundary, the Yavari River, and the Yaquirana River. The erosion and deposition areas were related to land distribution among Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. By examining the Digital Elevation Model one can see how the altitude of the

  1. Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Gómez, Jorge; Ocaña, Víctor; Aguilar, Patricia; Saldarriaga, Tatiana; Chavez, Edward; Perez, Juan; Zamalloa, Hernán; Forshey, Brett; Paz, Irmia; Gomez, Elizabeth; Ore, Roel; Chauca, Gloria; Ortiz, Ernesto; Villaran, Manuel; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Rocha, Claudio; Chincha, Omayra; Jiménez, Gerardo; Villanueva, Miguel; Pozo, Edwar; Aspajo, Jackeline; Kochel, Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory illnesses and influenza-like illnesses (ILI) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the public health importance, little is known about the etiology of these acute respiratory illnesses in many regions of South America. In 2006, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MoH) and the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD) initiated a collaboration to characterize the viral agents associated with ILI and to describe the clinical and epidemiological presentation of the affected population. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients with ILI (fever ≥38°C and cough or sore throat) were evaluated in clinics and hospitals in 13 Peruvian cities representative of the four main regions of the country. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, as well as epidemiological and demographic data, were collected from each patient. During the two years of this study (June 2006 through May 2008), a total of 6,835 patients, with a median age of 13 years, were recruited from 31 clinics and hospitals; 6,308 were enrolled by regular passive surveillance and 527 were enrolled as part of outbreak investigations. At least one respiratory virus was isolated from the specimens of 2,688 (42.6%) patients, with etiologies varying by age and geographical region. Overall the most common viral agents isolated were influenza A virus (25.1%), influenza B virus (9.7%), parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3, (HPIV-1,-2,-3; 3.2%), herpes simplex virus (HSV; 2.6%), and adenoviruses (1.8%). Genetic analyses of influenza virus isolates demonstrated that three lineages of influenza A H1N1, one lineage of influenza A H3N2, and two lineages of influenza B were circulating in Peru during the course of this study. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive study to date of the etiologic agents associated with ILI in Peru. These results demonstrate that a wide range of respiratory pathogens are circulating in Peru and this fact needs to be

  2. Predictors of Functional Outcome Among Stroke Patients in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Abanto, Carlos; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Tirschwell, David L.; Montano, Silvia; Quispe, Yrma; Gonzales, Isidro; Valencia, Ana; Calle, Pilar; Garate, Arturo; Zunt, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the aging population in low- and middle-income countries, cerebrovascular disease is expected to remain a leading cause of death. Little has been published about stroke in Peru. Aims We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized stroke patients at a referral center hospital in Lima, Peru to explore factors associated with functional outcome among stroke patients. Methods We identified 579 patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage stroke at the National Institute of Neurologic Sciences in Lima, Peru in 2008 and 2009. A favorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin score of ≤2 at discharge. Results The mean age was 63.3 years; 75.6% had ischemic stroke; the average length of stay was 17.3 days. At hospital discharge, 231 (39.9%) had a favorable outcome. The overall mortality rate was 5.2%. In multivariate models, the likelihood of having a favorable outcome decreased linearly with increasing age (p=0.02) and increasing NIHSS (p=0.02). Favorable outcome was also associated with male gender (relative risk [RR]=1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.5) and divorced status (RR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.7). Patients on Salud Integral de Salud (public assistance-type insurance, SIS) (RR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,1.0) were also less likely to have a favorable outcome. Conclusions Favorable outcome after stroke was independently associated with younger age, lower NIHSS score, male gender, being divorced, and not being on SIS insurance. These findings suggest further study of worse functional outcomes in patients with SIS insurance and confirm the importance of risk adjustment for age, stroke severity (NIHSS) and other socioeconomic factors in outcomes studies. Future studies should preferentially assess outcome at 30-days and 6-months to provide more reliable comparisons and allow additional study of Peruvian end-of-life decision-making and care. PMID:23352681

  3. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  4. First record and a new species of Metopiasoides Comellini (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Asenjo, Angélico

    2016-01-01

    Metopiasoides jefersoni Asenjo, a new species, of the Neotropical pselaphine tribe Metopiasini, is described from Urubamba Valley in southeastern Peru (Cusco state). Major diagnostic features are illustrated. PMID:27394570

  5. Speciation and bioaccessibility of mercury in adobe bricks and dirt floors in Huancavelica, Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Huancavelica, Peru, a historic cinnabar refining site, is one of the most mercury (Hg) contaminated urban areas in the world. Residents’ exposures are amplified because residents build their adobe brick homes from contaminated soil. Objectives: The objectives of th...

  6. Aqueducts and geoglyphs : the response of Ancient Nasca to water shortages in the desert of Atacama (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    The desert of Atacama is a plateau in South America, covering a 1,000-kilometre strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains, between Chile and Peru. Due to the confluence of a cold ocean current (the Humboldt Current) along with other climatic factors, connected to the particular topography and geomorphology of the region, Atacama desert is one of the most arid areas of the world. In particular, in Nasca region (Southern Peru) the lack of water was (and still is) due to the following causes: (i) the scarce pluvial precipitations and the (ii) high infiltration capacity, and the consequent yearly significant reduction of the surface water (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009). Over the millennia long periods of drought occurred and frequently the lack of water was persistent for several decades. Despite the arid and extreme nature of the environment, this region was populated by important civilizations, such as Paracas and Nasca, which flourished in the Early Intermediate period (200 BCE-500 AD) (Silvermann & Proulx 2002). In particular the Nasca civilization is well-known for its refined and colourful pottery, characterized by a rich icononographic repertory, and, above all, by the huge and mysterious geoglyphs drawn on the arid plateaus of the Rio Grande de Nasca Basin. In order to practice agriculture, the Nasca developed adequate strategies to cope with hostile environmental factors and water scarcity, building a very efficient aqueduct system. They were aided by the fact that underground water was likely enough close to the surface and accessible by constructing wells and underground aqueducts, known with quechua name of puquios (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009; Lasaponara & Masini 2012a; 2012b) The effectiveness of the techniques of hydraulic engineering depended on the climate and the weather events that sometimes underwent drastic changes, as results of the cyclical phenomenon of El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO). Hence the

  7. [Nutrition and gastrointestinal intolerance].

    PubMed

    Madl, C; Holzinger, U

    2013-06-01

    The functional integrity of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential prerequisite in intensive care patients for the sufficient administration of enteral nutrition. Up to 65% of patients in intensive care units develop symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction with high residual gastric volume, vomiting and abdominal distension. The pathophysiological alterations of gastrointestinal intolerance and the subsequent effect on the tolerance of enteral nutrition can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract. Gastroduodenal motility disorders in particular, with increased gastroesophageal reflux lead to intolerance. In more than 90% of intensive care patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders an adequate postpyloric enteral nutrition can be carried out using a jejunal tube. In addition to improved tolerance of enteral nutrition this leads to a reduction of gastroesophageal reflux and the incidence of ventilation-associated pneumonia. Apart from the possibility of endoscopic application of the jejunal tube, alternative techniques were developed which allow a faster positioning of the jejunal tube with less complications. Furthermore, there are therapeutic options for improvement of gastrointestinal motility disorders and apart from general measures, also medicinal options for treatment of gastrointestinal intolerance which allow a sufficient enteral nutrition for intensive care patients. PMID:23740106

  8. Nutrition of the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

    1991-01-01

    The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

  9. Nutrition and Hepatocellular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Schulz, Christian; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) significantly contributes to the global burden of cancer. Liver cancer is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death with HCC representing more than 90% of primary liver cancers. The majority of patients are not only affected by the malignant disease but do also suffer from chronic liver disease. Therefore, several factors impact on the prognosis of patients with HCC, including tumor-related factors, liver function and patient-related factors such as performance status and other comorbidities. The nutritional status is of high significance for the patients' performance status, the tolerance of tumor-targeting therapy and the prognosis of cancer of any type and is specially referenced in HCC. This overview is on current concepts on the role of nutritional factors in hepatocarcinogenesis and the role of nutrition in patients affected by HCC. Summary Nutritional status and composition of diet are relevant factors related to the risk of HCC. They also have an important role concerning the prognosis of patients with HCC. Besides risk factors, several macro- and micronutrient components have been found to be inversely correlated with the risk of HCC. To prevent disease progression to liver cirrhosis or HCC in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, it is crucial to optimize the metabolic state Key Message and Practical Implication Evidence from well-designed prospective interventional trials with the aim to reduce the HCC incidence or to prolong survival in patients with HCC based on nutritional modification is still to be generated. PMID:27403413

  10. Nutrition and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  11. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  12. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp. PMID:27395090

  13. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities. PMID:22858781

  14. Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.

    PubMed

    Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans. PMID:23969087

  15. Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella spp. in Bats in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.–bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480

  16. Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.

  17. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available. PMID:26624091

  18. Magda Mateus Cardenas, director of Centro Amauta, Cusco, Peru: interview.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C

    1997-02-01

    Magda Mateus Cardenas, trained as an anthropologist, is currently director of Centro Amauta, a feminist organization in Peru that addresses issues of gender, class, and culture. In this interview, Mateus Cardenas describes her long involvement with development organizations and grass-roots campaigns to improve women's status. She notes that, although many organizations have adopted a gender perspective, few comprehend its highly political, transformational aspects. Women's rights tend to be viewed by development agencies as just one more factor to be incorporated into development projects rather than as a perspective that changes views of development itself. A genuine gender perspective entails changes in the organizational, social, and political aspects of the themes of autonomy and empowerment, with adaptations of content and methods to local conditions. A precondition to women's emancipation is access to and control of financial and economic resources. This, in turn, requires training in technical skills and access to the marketplace on more competitive terms. PMID:12320745

  19. [Intrafamily violence during adolescence in the city Puno--Peru].

    PubMed

    Flores Sullca, Tita; Schirmer, Janine

    2006-01-01

    This epidemiological case-control study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of intrafamily violence against pregnant and non pregnant adolescents. The study was carried out at the outpatient clinic for central care to adolescents of the Regional Hospital Manuel Nuñez Butrón and at secondary schools in the city of Puno--Peru. The results were obtained by means of statistical analysis, verifying statistically significant differences for the occurrence of physical violence (p = 0.008) and sexual-rape violence (p = 0.01). The majority of the adolescents were victims of different types of aggression, executed either by members of the family (intrafamily) or by individuals outside the family (extrafamily). The most frequent causes associated to this aggression were disobedience, late arrival at home, having friends/boyfriends and doing domestic chores slowly. PMID:16967165

  20. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. PMID:22826480