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Sample records for perus sao paulo

  1. University of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Acquadro, J.C.; Added, N.; Ferraretto, M.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has agreed to assist the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in the construction of a small superconducting heavy-ion linac to serve as an energy booster for projectiles from their 8-MV tandem. This booster will be similar in many respects to the ANL booster linac built in the late 1970s. The ANL contribution to this project will be (1) to build (at USP expense) 14 split-ring niobium resonators and some of the associated rf electronics, (2) to provide technical information, and (3) to train USP staff members in several phases of superconducting-linac technology. Two Brazilian engineers worked at Argonne for one year, gaining experience in cryogenics and in superconducting-resonator technology. Another engineer worked on the new control system at ATLAS for two years, the first year supported by Sao Paulo and the second with direct ANL support. Sao Paulo personnel returned to ANL in 1993 for assembly and testing of the first batch of completed resonators. The fabrication of the resonators will be completed by early 1995 when the Sao Paulo personnel will come back for final assembly and testing. Fabrication of electronics modules at ANL is still in progress.

  2. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  3. Biological effects of air pollution in Sao Paulo and Cubatao

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.S.; Saldiva, P.H.; Pasqualucci, C.A.; Massad, E.; Martins M de, E.; Zin, W.A.; Cardoso, W.V.; Criado, P.M.; Komatsuzaki, M.; Sakae, R.S. )

    1989-08-01

    Rats were used as biological indicators of air quality in two heavily polluted Brazilian towns: Sao Paulo and Cubatao. They were exposed for 6 months to ambient air in areas where the pollution was known to be severe. The following parameters were studied and compared to those of control animals: respiratory mechanics, mucociliary transport, morphometry of respiratory epithelium and distal air spaces, and general morphological alterations. The results showed lesions of the distal and upper airways in rats exposed in Cubatao, whereas the animals from Sao Paulo showed only alterations of the upper airways but of greater intensity than those observed in the Cubatao group. There are both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pollutants of these places: in Sao Paulo automobile exhaust gases dominate and in Cubatao the pollution is due mainly to particulates of industrial sources. The correlation of the pathological findings with the pollutants is discussed and it is concluded that biological indicators are useful to monitor air pollutions which reached dangerous levels in Sao Paulo and Cubatao.

  4. Discussing the air pollution of Sao Paulo City -- Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Assuncao, J.V. de; Filho, J.B.G.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Sao Paulo has a population of about 10 million people (1998 estimate) and a vehicle fleet of about 4.5 millions. A great increase in the ratio of persons per car occurred in the last 28 years, starting from 11.4 persons per car in 1970 and reaching 2.2 persons per car in 1998, a ratio similar to those in developed countries. The population of the city represents about 6% of the Brazilian population, 30% of the State population, and 61% of Metropolitan population. In the 60's and in the beginning of the 70's the air quality in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region and in Sao Paulo City was more influenced by industrial sources. Nowadays emissions in the metropolitan region come mainly from vehicles (94.8% of CO, 94.9% of NO{sub x}, 94.3% of HC and 54.1% of SO{sub x}, in 1997) and 40% contribution in relation to inhaling particulate (PM10) and in the city of Sao Paulo the contribution of vehicle emissions is the same or greater. Light-duty vehicles are powered by gasohol, a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22%, ethanol, and by plain ethanol. Heavy-duty vehicles are diesel oil fueled. A great concern exists in relation to health effects of small sized particulate and photochemical oxidants and its precursors. Besides the implementation of a strong air pollution control for stationary sources of particulate and sulfur dioxide, since the 70's and the existence of a federal law that established a program of emission control for new vehicles in 1986, only the sulfur dioxide control program was successful since the air quality levels of other common pollutants are still above the air quality standards for some part of the year. Other attempts were made in the last years, like the prohibition of free circulation of 20% of cars each day during the weekdays (rodizio of cars). Even with that the air quality levels don't meet the standards the all year, and other measures must be taken to solve the problem.

  5. Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation in the City of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro, Eduardo W.; Oliveira, Amauri P.; Soares, Jacyra; Ferreira, Mauricio J.; Boznar, Marija Z.; Mlakar, Primoz; Escobedo, Joao F.

    2009-03-11

    This work evaluates objectively the consistency and quality of a 9 year dataset based on 5 minute average values of downward longwave atmospheric (LW) emission, shortwave radiation, temperature and relative humidity. All these parameters were observed simultaneously and continuously from 1997 to 2006 in the IAG micrometeorological platform, located at the top of the IAG-USP building. The pyrgeometer dome emission effect was removed using neural network technique reducing the downward long wave atmospheric emission error to 3.5%. The comparison, between the monthly average values of LW emission observed in Sao Paulo and satellite estimates from SRB-NASA project, indicated a very good agreement. Furthermore, this work investigates the performance of 10 empirical expressions to estimate the LW emission at the surface. The comparison between the models indicates that Brunt's one presents the better results, with smallest ''MBE,''''RMSE'' and biggest ''d'' index of agreement, therefore Brunt is the most indicated model to estimate LW emission under clear sky conditions in the city of Sao Paulo.

  6. The Sao Paulo Microtron: Equipment and Planned Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, M. N.; Maidana, N. L.; Vanin, V. R.

    2007-10-26

    The Linear Accelerator Laboratory (LAL) of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP) is building a two-stage racetrack microtron, which will generate continuous wave electron beams with energies up to 38 MeV. This paper describes the characteristics of the accelerator, and reports on the experimental equipment that will be available in order to pursue the photonuclear physics research program. Operation will begin with the first stage (5 MeV), and concentrate on NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) measurements and radiation physics studies. Planned experiments for the second stage explore the cw character of the beam on coincidence experiments. A photon tagger has been already tested with radioactive sources and is ready to be installed. Gamma and neutron detector arrays are being developed for the detailed study of photoneutron reactions. Plans include the study of NRF and pygmy resonances, near the neutron binding energy.

  7. [The demographic characteristics of slaves in Sao Paulo, 1777-1829].

    PubMed

    Luna, F V

    1992-01-01

    "The introduction and development of sugar and coffee production in Sao Paulo [Brazil] led to deep changes in its populational structure. The large number of slaves who entered the province, mainly adult men, destroyed the population's relative balance, both in terms of sex and age structures. The study, based on manuscripts known as ¿Macos de Populacao' which belong to the Arquivo do Estado de Sao Paulo, covers twenty-five different communities in Sao Paulo, in the years 1777, 1804 and 1829. The demographic characteristics of the slaves and their relation with economic variables were analysed.... Special attention was given to the slaves' marriage and their reproductive capacity." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321100

  8. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  9. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  10. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  11. The new structure of the gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.A.J.

    1998-07-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of natural gas is leading to a significant increase in the importance of the gas industry in Brazil. This new era is already causing major changes in the existing gas distribution companies. Gas distribution concessions are a natural monopoly and the growth in demand for this energy source will require that these growing concessions are regulated. The south/south-east of Brazil is the center of the country's industrial base and the State of Sao Paulo is where most of the manufacturing activity is located. In addition, natural gas from Bolivia is scheduled to arrive in the State of Sao Paulo at the end of 1998. These two facts combined will mean major changes in the operations of manufacturing industry and in the gas supply business. Comparing the experience faced by other countries where a competitive environment in the gas industry has been introduced with privatization programs and the dismantlement of monopolies, this paper attempts to look into the future of the natural gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo in respect to the possible regulation that might be applicable, focusing on the new regulatory framework proposed to the gas industry sector and the perspectives for the introduction of the competition in gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo.

  12. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally defined).…

  13. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  14. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  15. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  16. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:20004487

  17. Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

  18. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  19. Seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone in the Sao Paulo (Brazil) metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massambani, Oswaldo; Andrade, Fatima

    This paper presents a study of the seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone and its precursors in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area as observed during 1987. The 03, NO, NO 2, NMHC, and meteorological data were collected at an air quality station in downtown Sao Paulo by the State Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB). The air pollutant measurements were related to both daily total insolation and the number of hours of insolation measured at the Sao Paulo University Climatological Station. Correlations between both radiation parameters and total daily integrated ozone amounts were performed. The total number of sunshine hours was highly correlated to mean hourly ozone concentration values during each month of 1987. The seasonal behavior of NO, NO 2, and NMHC was also studied. Two diurnal peaks in average NO concentration were observed, i.e. one in early morning and one in early evening; both were due to emissions from urban mobile sources. The magnitude of these peaks doubled in value during the winter months. Its diurnal concentration variation was inverse to that of the 03; similar behavior was found for NO 2 and for NMHC. The data presented herein show the influence of solar radiation and of ozone precursors on photochemical smog formation in this tropical region.

  20. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  1. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  3. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  4. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  5. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  6. Lidar/photometry studies at Sao Paulo in the 2003-2005 period, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Sawamura, Patricia; Uehara, Sandro T.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Torres, Ani S.; Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Matos, Caio A.; de Jesus, Wellington C.

    2007-09-01

    A lidar system has been operational at Sao Paulo, Brazil (23° S, 46° W) since 2001 and colocated is a sunphotometer belonging to AERONET . During this last years aerosol properties has been extracted from both systems and seasonal trends have been observed specially when long range transport takes place bringing plumes with biomass burning aerosol which can distinctively be extracted from a heavy loaded atmosphere as SÃ#o Paulo. These events trigger poor air quality conditions which can be easily correlated. The parameters for studying these patterns are Aerosol Optical Depth, Angström Exponent and Lidar Ratio. We show here some case studies belonging to years 2003, 2004 and 2005.

  7. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  8. Two Moments of School Architecture in Sao Paulo: Ramos de Azevedo and His Republican Pioneering Schools/Helio Duarte and the "Educational Agreement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ana Gabriela Godinho

    2005-01-01

    There are two peculiar moments in the history of the "struggle for national education", which, specifically in the city of Sao Paulo, capital of the State of Sao Paulo, one of the major and richest cities in Brazil, produced very interesting results in school architecture. The first moment happened in the period called the "First Republic"…

  9. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed…

  10. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were <10(2) colony-forming units/g in the majority of samples (62.5%). Prevalence of serotypes varied according to the type of meat product. These data are relevant for estimating the risks of listeriosis associated with consumption of meat products in Sao Paulo, and for establishing science-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing these risks, especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:25407460

  11. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  12. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.; Assuncao, J.V. de

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  13. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  14. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  15. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  16. The Water Crisis in Sao Paulo City: Drought and its Climate Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, Sao Paulo city had its largest water shortage in history. By the end of the first half of 2014, the Cantareira system of water reservoirs, which is responsible for supplying fresh water for about 9 million people in the city, dried to less than 10% of its active storage, leading to a critical situation and the need to pump water from its dead storage and allocate water from other smaller systems of reservoirs in order to meet the demand of the city and avoid a mandatory water rationing. Understanding and identifying the leading factors for such a water crisis is critical for the security of the city. Here, we investigate historical data of water levels and inflows into the Cantareira system and of the rainfall series over the contributing basin in order to estimate the contribution of climate factors to the variability of the water storage levels at the Cantareira system and shed some light on the main causes of the current water shortage. Preliminary results based on natural inflow data from 1930 to 2014 and water storage levels from 2004 through 2014 reveal that, about 60% of the low frequency (beyond seasonal cycle) variance in the storage level trends is explained by trends in the inflows. A remarkably monotonic decreasing trend of about 1.5% per month in the storage levels is observed since 2010 and is closely associated with a similar decreasing trend in the inflows into the system for the period. In fact, the annual average inflow for 2012 (25.6 m3/s) and 2013 (25.7 m3/s) was 65% of the long term average and still below the 2004-2012 average withdrawal to supply Sao Paulo (26.64 m3/s). By the end of the 2013 rainy season the system had accumulated 63% of its total capacity, but the persistence of low inflows and high temperatures during 2013 did not allowed any increase in the water levels. In 2014 austral summer the system experienced the worst hydrological drought since 1930 based on the available streamflow records. The average inflow for the

  17. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  18. Cost and benefits of a distribution automation system for the northeast area of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Jardini, J.A.; Carvalho, J.C.M.

    1995-12-31

    An evaluation of the costs and the benefits of distribution automation was done for an area in the northeastern part of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The results showed that the savings pay for the automation cost. The major gain relies on the substation supervision and staff reduction. CESP is one of the three utilities responsible for the distribution of electricity in Sao Paulo, a state crossed by the Capricornium Tropic in the southeast of Brazil. CESP generates power (9,3 GW), has transmission (20,000 km), bulk power supply to other utilities, and distributes power to six regions covering 120,000 km2 , where 1,300,000 customers are located. The main regional office is in a town called RIO CLARO, which economy is based on agro industries and manufacturers. RIO CLARO area represents 8% of CESP`s area, has 26% of customers, and is responsible for 37% of the income. In Brazil, the experience with DA is limited, and consists basically on prototypes installed in a few pilot areas, being one in CESP`s area. This prototype includes digital automation of three substations and feeders in GUARUJA, a seaside town. The system has been in operation since 1984 and has proved to be satisfactory. DA has not been given an adequate attention before, because: salaries in Brazil are low if compared to the developed countries; Brazilian computer market was protected up to 1992 meaning that only a few Brazilian manufacturers could offer automation products; foreign products were not available; there was shortage of investment even in the main equipments due to the course of the Brazilian economy. Recently, there has been access to foreign technology, there is a competitive market and offer of good products and maintenance services.

  19. The Impact of Antipsychotic Polytherapy Costs in the Public Health Care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. Objective To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider´s perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. Results 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Conclusion Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money

  20. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p < 0.001), but no relationship between fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p < 0.05). Understanding the relationship between local neighborhood environments and increasing rates of poor diet, physical activity, and obesity is essential in countries undergoing rapid economic and urban development, such as Brazil, in order to provide insights for policies to reduce increasing rates of NCDs and food access and health inequalities. PMID:21327549

  1. Reconnaissance for uranium in the coal of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Pierson, Charles T.; White, Max G.

    1958-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale of the Rio Bonito formation of Pennsylvanian age have been found in the States of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarlna and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The uranium oxide content of the samples collected in the State of Sao Paulo ranges from 0.001 percent to 0.082 percent. The samples collected in Santa Catarina averaged about 0.002 percent uranium oxide; those collected in Rio Grande do Sul, about 0.003 percent uranium oxide. Since the field and laboratory investigations are still in their initial stages, only raw data on the radioactivity and uranium content of Brazilian coals are given in this report.

  2. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  3. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  4. Incidence of Leptospirosis infection in the East Zone of Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which is spread through contamined running water. This contaminations is seriously affected by the flooding which occurs in the area surrounding the Aricanduva river. The transmission of the disease results mainly from the contact of water with soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological survey on Leptospirosis cases in Sao Paulo East Zone area. Method The analysis conducted in this study was based on data collected from the health authorities of that region close the Aricanduva river between 2007 and 2008 years, which give the rates of confirmed cases, mortality and death from human Leptospirosis. Other information concerned with the relationships among rainfall index, points of flooding and incidence of Leptospirosis. Results We observed a direct and important water contamination. Records of flooding points and dates of the reported cases in the region showed a direct relationship from which the period of higher rainfall also recorded an increase in cases. The annual record of the city and the region and rainfall regions also presented correlation. Conclusion The association between the indices of flooding and Leptospirosis cases indicates that preventive measures are necessary to avoid exposing the community. PMID:23672682

  5. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure. PMID:12313650

  6. The acoustics for speech of eight auditoriums in the city of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2002-11-01

    Eight auditoriums with a proscenium type of stage, which usually operate as dramatic theaters in the city of Sao Paulo, were acoustically surveyed in terms of their adequacy to unassisted speech. Reverberation times, early decay times, and speech levels were measured in different positions, together with objective measures of speech intelligibility. The measurements revealed reverberation time values rather uniform throughout the rooms, whereas significant variations were found in the values of the other acoustical measures with position. The early decay time was found to be better correlated with the objective measures of speech intelligibility than the reverberation time. The results from the objective measurements of speech intelligibility revealed that the speech transmission index STI, and its simplified version RaSTI, are strongly correlated with the early-to-late sound ratio C50 (1 kHz). However, it was found that the criterion value of acceptability of the latter is more easily met than the former. The results from these measurements enable to understand how the characteristics of the architectural design determine the acoustical quality for speech. Measurements of ST1-Gade were made as an attempt to validate it as an objective measure of ''support'' for the actor. The preliminary diagnosing results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented.

  7. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  8. Tiering strategic environmental assessment and project environmental impact assessment in highway planning in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Luis E. Silva-Sanchez, Solange S.

    2008-10-15

    Constructing highways in dense urban areas is always a challenge. In Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, heavy truck traffic contributes to clog streets and expressways alike. As part of the traffic neither originates nor head to the region, a peripheral highway has been proposed to reduce traffic problems. This project, called Rodoanel, is an expressway approximately 175 km long. The fact that the projected south and north sections would cross catchments that supply most of the metropolis water demand was strongly disputed and made the environmental permitting process particularly difficult. The agency in charge commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of a revamped project, and called it the Rodoanel Programme. However, the SEA report failed to satisfactorily take account of significant strategic issues. Among these, the highway potential effect of inducing urban sprawl over water protection zones is the most critical issue, as it emerged later as a hurdle to project licensing. Conclusion is that, particularly where no agreed-upon framework for SEA exists, when vertical tiering with downstream project EIA is sought, then a careful scoping of strategic issues is more than necessary. If an agreement on 'what is strategic' is not reached and not recognized by influential stakeholders, then the unsettled conflicts will be transferred to project EIA. In such a context, SEA will have added another loop to the usually long road to project approval.

  9. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  10. The Impact of Epidemic Violence on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Quintana, Maria Inês; Dewey, Michael E.; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Aims To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007–2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses – e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001). Conclusion Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors

  11. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants. PMID:15820725

  12. Radon Content in Ground Waters Drawn From the Metamorphic Basement, Eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, F. D.; Brenha Ribeiro, F.

    2007-05-01

    Ground water drawn from granitic and metamorphic rocks frequently presents relatively high radioactivity, mostly due to the presence of uranium, radium and radon isotopes. In particular, the radon isotope 222Rn seems to have particular significance since it is normally much enriched in ground water in relation to other uranium series isotopes and is in large disequilibrium with its 226Ra mother isotope. Furthermore, radon is one of the main agents of radioactivity transfer from crust uppermost layers to lower atmosphere. At the eastern part of Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, it outcrops a metamorphic terrain with a large number water bearing fractures that composes a set of fractured aquifers. Ground water is drawn from these aquifers through a large number of relatively shallow drilled wells, mostly less than 200 m deep. The radioactivity, and in particular the radon activity concentration, of the ground waters drawn from this metamorphic terrain has not yet been investigated in detail. The 222Rn activity concentration was measured in ground waters drawn from three wells drilled in different rocks of this metamorphic basement. The first well cuts a K-feldspar bearing granite, the second well cuts a granite- gneiss and the third well cuts a gneiss. The ground water samples were collected between July, 2005 and August, 2006 with a time interval of about one month between sampling campaigns. The year long mean activity concentrations were, (76 +/- 7) Bq/L for the first well, (26 +/- 3) Bq/L for the second well and (39 +/- 4) Bq/L for the third one. The activity concentrations show a time dependent variability that is interpreted as consequence of rain fall seasonal variations.

  13. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  14. Sickle cell disease in a Brazilian population from Sao Paulo: a study of the beta s haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, M S; Nechtman, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Kerbauy, J; Arruda, V R; Sonati, M F; Saad, S O; Costa, F F; Stoming, T A

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have determined the frequency of beta S haplotypes in a Brazilian sickle cell disease population from Sao Paulo, Brazil, by analyzing sequence variations in the immediate 5' flanking and second intervening sequence (IVSII) regions of the gamma globin genes. This association between sequence differences and beta s haplotype backgrounds was determined by screening genomic DNA samples using dot blot analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. We studied 148 beta s chromosomes, and found that haplotype 20 (CAR or Bantu) significantly predominated in this population. This is in agreement with the findings of the historical Portuguese Atlantic slave trade from Africa to South America. PMID:7860085

  15. Ammonia determination in a roadway tunnel of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira da Silva Filho, M.; Fornaro, A.; Pedrotti, J.; Ito, D.; Prado, Y.; Coelho, L. H. G.

    2012-04-01

    The degradation in air quality has been one of the most serious health problems afflicting the more than 19 million inhabitants of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo (MASP). There are more than 7.5 million vehicles being 40% running with ethanol as fuel, 80% using a 3-way catalyst, and 15% being flex-fuel. This vehicular fleet is the main responsible for the air pollution problems, highlighting the aerosol. The different evaluations of the ionic composition of the aerosol and rainwater samples of the MASP showed the importance of the ammonium, from ammonia gas phase incorporated in liquid or solid atmospheric phase. Ammonia is the third most abundant nitrogen compound in the atmosphere, and whose global emissions are mainly from biogenic sources. Despite its short residence time it has a significant role influencing the acidity of cloud water and the formation of secondary aerosols. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the ammonia in urban area and in a roadway tunnel, with intense light vehicles traffic. The air sampling was carried out inside and outside the Janio Quadros roadway tunnel in MASP between 5 and 10 May, 2011 by using a simplified impinger system with 1.0 mmol L-1 H2SO4 solution, 1 L min-1 flux during 1 h. The ammonium measurements were carried out by a flow injection system using gas-diffusion and coupled contactless conductivity detection. The results point out that the number and the velocity of the vehicles influence on the ammonia concentration in both site sampling. The ammonia concentrations were twice higher inside the roadway tunnel, reaching the maximum value of 98 ?g m-3, with mean value of 48.1 (?15.4) ?g m-3. These data suggest that atmospheric ammonia is not only restricted to biogenic emissions, but also by vehicles in the MASP. Consequently, more regional assistance should be given to the sources of this compound, considering the increase of the megacities in the world and their effects on the global emissions.

  16. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  17. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, A.M.M.; Guenther, W.M.R.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  18. Limitations and drawbacks of using Preliminary Environmental Reports (PERs) as an input to Environmental Licensing in Sao Paulo State: A case study on natural gas pipeline routing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, Denis . E-mail: dkirchho@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Montano, Marcelo . E-mail: minduim@sc.usp.br; Ranieri, Victor Eduardo Lima . E-mail: vranieri@sc.usp.br; Dutra de Oliveira, Isabel Silva . E-mail: beldutra@sc.usp.br; Doberstein, Brent . E-mail: bdoberst@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Pereira de Souza, Marcelo . E-mail: mps@sc.usp.br

    2007-05-15

    This article discusses the limitations and implications to environmental management issues posed by the Environmental Licensing approach adopted in Sao Paulo State. In Brazil, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an essential precondition to the Environmental Licensing of activities and, in fact, it has been the most important and required tool for the licensing of projects. However, in 1994 the State of Sao Paulo implemented a simplified instrument called a 'Preliminary Environmental Report' in order to make the environmental licensing process faster. Since then, the Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) has had the role of indicating whether an EIA needs to be elaborated upon or not. The positives and negatives regarding technical, institutional and legal aspects related to the use of Preliminary Environmental Reports (rather than EIA) are discussed using the case study of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline between the cities of Sao Carlos and Porto Ferreira in the State of Sao Paulo. The main conclusion is that the Environmental Licensing process in Sao Paulo should not use PERs as the sole input to decision making about proposed activities, since the PER approach does not guarantee that the proposed activity is environmentally suitable, does not address locational issues or comparison of alternatives, and risk assessment issues are not considered in the earliest stages of assessment.

  19. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  20. Larval immersion tests with ivermectin in populations of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval immersion tests (LIT) with commercial formulation of ivermectin were carried out with larvae of two field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from commercial dairy farms of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil and a susceptible strain (Porto Alegre) to differentiate resistant suspect...

  1. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  2. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  3. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  4. Numerical Study of the Wintertime Planetary Boundary Layer Development in the Urban Area of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.; Miranda, R. M.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    The gradual replacement of natural by built surfaces and the ongoing emission of particulate matter and other pollutants that happens in urban environments, besides degrading the environment, influence the local weather and climate patterns. Urban areas have different albedo, heat and hydraulic capacity and conductivity, roughness, emissivity, and transmissivity, when compared to naturally vegetated areas. This set of characteristics may change the surface energy budget, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric chemical composition, wind direction and velocity, and therefore the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The effects of urbanization on the PBL have been studied in many mid-latitude areas, however in the tropical or subtropical areas they are scarce. The MCITY Brazil project developed in 2 cities of Brazil, Sao Paulo (23°32' S) and Rio de Janeiro (latitude 22° 55' S), has provided the necessary data to properly investigate the effects of urbanization in these two cities. The project included a campaign of soundings launched every 3 hours for 10 consecutive days in August (Austral winter) from an airport at the north part of the city of Sao Paulo, that allowed the study of the PBL development, and also the measurements of the components of the energy budget equation by micrometeorological towers. Therefore, the goal of this work is to simulate the development of the PBL in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo during winter, comparing its characteristics in urbanized and non urbanized sites, in order to assess the impact of urbanization on the development of the PBL in this area. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a single layer urban canopy parameterization (SLUCM) and realistic anthropogenic heat diurnal evolution. Preliminary results showed that the model is able to reproduce the PBL development during the campaign, including the passage of a cold-frontal system. The urban PBL reaches greater heights during the day than

  5. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05). Genera Pen/Asp were correlated to the total mass of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05) and colorless ascospores were correlated to humidity ( p < 0.05). Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  6. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  7. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  9. Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the protocol for an epidemiological and genetic survey

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Quintana, Maria Ines; Guindalini, Camila; Breen, Gerome; Blay, Sergio Luis; Coutinho, Evandro SF; Harpham, Trudy; Jorge, Miguel Roberto; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Moriyama, Tais S; Quarantini, Lucas C; Gadelha, Ary; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Yeh, Mary SL; Prince, Martin; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mello, Marcelo F; Dewey, Michael E; Ferri, Cleusa P; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Background violence is a public health major concern, and it is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric outcomes. Brazil is one of the most violent countries in the world, and has an extreme social inequality. Research on the association between violence and mental health may support public health policy and thus reduce the burden of disease attributable to violence. The main objectives of this project were: to study the association between violence and mental disorders in the Brazilian population; to estimate the prevalence rates of exposure to violence, post-traumatic stress disorder, common metal disorder, and alcohol hazardous use and dependence: and to identify contextual and individual factors, including genetic factors, associated with the outcomes. Methods/design one phase cross-sectional survey carried out in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A multistage probability to size sampling scheme was performed in order to select the participants (3000 and 1500 respectively). The cities were stratified according to homicide rates, and in Sao Paulo the three most violent strata were oversampled. The measurements included exposure to traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses (CIDI 2.1), contextual (homicide rates and social indicators), and individual factors, such as demographics, social capital, resilience, help seeking behaviours. The interviews were carried between June/2007 February/2008, by a team of lay interviewers. The statistical analyses will be weight-adjusted in order to take account of the design effects. Standardization will be used in order to compare the results between the two centres. Whole genome association analysis will be performed on the 1 million SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays, and additional association analysis will be performed on additional phenotypes. The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of Sao Paulo approved the study, and participants who matched diagnostic criteria have been

  10. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (P<0·001) and higher in individuals with lower educational level (P=0·01) and current smokers (P=0·02). The main dietary contributors for total polyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries. PMID:26810764

  11. Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Odón R; Ynoue, Rita Y; Martins, Leila D; Astolfo, Rosana; Miranda, Regina M; Freitas, Edmilson D; Borges, Alessandro S; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Freitas, Helber; Moreira, Andréa; Andrade, Maria F

    2009-02-01

    In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can provide information about emission factors of in-use vehicles. Emission factors are used to estimate vehicular emissions and are described as the amount of species emitted per vehicle distance driven or per volume of fuel consumed. This study presents emission factor data for fine particles, coarse particles, inhalable particulate matter and black carbon, as well as size distribution data for inhalable particulate matter, as measured in March and May of 2004, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros and Maria Maluf road tunnels, both located in São Paulo. The Jânio Quadros tunnel carries mainly light-duty vehicles, whereas the Maria Maluf tunnel carries light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. In the Jânio Quadros tunnel, the estimated light-duty vehicle emission factors for the trace elements copper and bromine were 261 and 220 microg km(-1), respectively, and 16, 197, 127 and 92 mg km(-1), respectively, for black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles. The mean contribution of heavy-duty vehicles to the emissions of black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles was, respectively 29, 4, 6 and 6 times higher than that of light-duty vehicles. The inhalable particulate matter emission factor for heavy-duty vehicles was 1.2 times higher than that found during dynamometer testing. In general, the particle emissions in São Paulo tunnels are higher than those found in other cities of the world. PMID:18228152

  12. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Pinto, Osmar, Jr.; Naccarato, Kleber; Saba, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  13. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  15. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs. PMID:25548080

  16. Magnetic Properties of Brazilian Peats From SA~o Paulo State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquó, T. S.; Thompson, R.; Partiti, C. S. M.

    The low temperature magnetic properties of peats from middle Paraíba do Sul Valley (São Paulo State) Brazil have been studied in 5 meter long cores with maximum radio- carbon ages of around 11,000 years BP. The magnetic susceptibility in general is low, but consistently presents an increase near the bottom of profile. Results from Möss- bauer spectroscopy indicate the presence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ at the bottom of cores, but only de presence of Fe3+ at the top of cores. The additional Fe2+ at the bottom of cores, may be related to the higher magnetic susceptibility. Measurements from a SQUID magnetometer MPMS XL show a strong (super)paramagnetic behavior in (i) hysteresis loops (fields up to 6 T, at both room temperature and 10K) and in (ii) low temperature magnetic curves. Slope changes on 1/ plots indicate that two mag- netic components are responsible for the low temperature magnetic properties. During heating using a Bartington (air atmosphere) susceptibility bridge, some peat samples generate new phases with higher magnetic susceptibility than initially. The new phases have reversible magnetic properties and Curie temperatures of around 580oC. These samples usually are from the bottom of the core.

  17. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  18. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  19. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  20. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. PMID:20515500

  1. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health. PMID:16707040

  2. Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Prisoners in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; dos Santos, Maíra Mendes; Quintana, Maria Ines; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Blay, Sergio Luiz; Taborda, Jose Geraldo Vernet; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression), the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. Conclusions This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations. PMID:24551174

  3. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  4. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  5. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (Sao Vicente Channel is included) would be important to confirm if this pattern of bioaccumulation can be extended to the population of C. danae of this estuary. PMID:22349281

  6. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  7. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  8. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development. PMID:23950068

  9. [Time trends in death rates from homicides in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994].

    PubMed

    Barata, R B; Ribeiro, M C; Moraes, J C

    1999-01-01

    To study homicide trends by gender and age, 1979-1994, São Paulo, Brazil, cubic polynomials were used to determine the best model for adjusting to time trends in homicide mortality rates by age and gender in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994. The model best adjusted to each group was selected considering the regression coefficient (Beta) , R2 value, residual analysis, and model's simplicity. The results show linear growth for total rates and rates by gender due to behavior of rates in the 20-29 and 30-39 year age groups. The reciprocal model adjusted best to rates for the 40-49 and 50-59 year age groups, while rates for adolescents followed the multiplicative model. There was no significant relationship between homicide rates and time for the remaining groups (under 10 and over 59 years). Rates for males were considerably higher in all age groups. The remarkably steady growth in homicide rates among adolescents and young adults is consistent with trends observed in other urban areas in developing and developed countries and denotes deteriorating living conditions and increased poverty. PMID:10633193

  10. [Professional trajectory of obstetric nurses from the University of Sao Paulo College of Nursing: a focus on social phenomenology].

    PubMed

    Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the experiences of students that were enrolled in the Obstetric Nursing Program offered by the University of São Paulo College of Nursing. Data were collected through interviews with the former students, who had different life histories after their graduation. The proposal of this research was based on Alfred Schutz' Social Phenomenology framework, considering that people express, in their actions socially experienced, the meaning of these experiences. Results showed two social types: the ones who continue in the area because they like what they do and the ones who do not work in the area as they were disappointed with the lack of professional autonomy. The reasons mentioned offer important guidelines that must be analyzed by the ones who are still working in the area, by the class associations and the ones who are responsible for the capacitation of these professionals. PMID:12641050

  11. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  12. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  13. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather

  14. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  15. Nocturnal awakening with headache and its relationship with sleep disorders in a population-based sample of adult inhabitants of Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Ligia Mendonça; Speciali, Jose Geraldo; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Taddei, Jose Augusto; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2010-12-01

    Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal awakening with headache (NAH) in the population of São Paulo City according to gender, age (20-80 years old) and socioeconomic classes and its relationship to sleep disorders, sleep parameters, anxiety, depression, fatigue, life quality and obesity. We used a population-based survey with a representative three-stage cluster sample. Questionnaires and scales were applied face-to-face, and polysomnography was performed in 1101 volunteers, aged 42 ± 14 years, 55% women. The complaint of NAH occurring at least once a week had a prevalence of 8.4%, mostly in women, obese subjects and those aged 50-59 years-old. We observed associations of NAH with insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), nightmares and bruxism, but not obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In a logistics regression model, risk factors for NAH were female gender, odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) 4.5 (2.8-7.3); obesity, OR 1.9 (1.1-3.3); age between 50 and 59 years, OR 2.4 (1.2-4.7); severe anxiety, OR 8.1 (3.6-18.1); RLS, 2.7 (1.2-5.6); and nightmares, 2.2 (1.3-3.7). Our study shows that NAH was highly prevalent in the population of São Paulo and suggests that this phenomenon has specific characteristics with specific risk factors: obesity, RLS and nightmares. PMID:20974608

  16. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  17. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011in the vicinity of São Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. The SP-LMA data also will be intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment and analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities

  18. Vehicular emission factors and chemical profile of Particulate Matter measured in two road tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, T.; Miranda, R. M.; Dominutti, P. A.; Hetem, I. G.; Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil, is vehicle exhaust. In this study, trace-element concentrations inside and outside of two traffic tunnels in the MASP are shown. The experiments were conducted in May and July 2011, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros (JQT) and Rodoanel (RAT) road tunnels, both located in MASP. The JQT carries mainly light-duty vehicles (LDV), whereas the RAT carries LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Hourly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were measured during the sampling campaign. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) samples were collected 6-h (daytime) and 12-h (overnight), employing gravimetric analysis to quantify PM mass concentration; reflectance to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations and X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition. Mean concentrations for PM2.5 and BC inside the JQT were 41(×11), and 19(×9) μg/m3, respectively. In the RAT mean concentrations were 175(×61), and 140(×78) μg/m3, for PM2.5 and BC, respectively. Emission Factors (EFs) for PM2.5, PM2.5-10, BC and trace metal (Na to Pb) from mobile sources operating under real-world conditions were determined using these traffic tunnels in the MASP as experimental set-up. LDV emission factors were 45 × 18 mg/km, 39 × 17 mg/km, 306 × 121 μg/km, 108 × 46 μg/km, 742 × 453 μg/km, 624 × 261 μg/km, and 33 × 15 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. HDV emission factors were 326 × 119 mg/km, 231 × 98 mg/km, 446 × 218 μg/km, 384 × 143 μg/km, 4618 × 1878 μg/km, 44 × 18 μg/km, and 46 × 20 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In general, the mean contribution of HDVs to the emissions of fine particles was from 1.4 to 7.3 times higher than that of LDVs. In addition, the data show a significant reduction in the EFs values when compared with data obtained in the last campaign held in the MASP in 2004. The reduction

  19. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Scatena, Camila Morato da Conceição; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths. CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites. PMID:26603351

  20. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  1. Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convergence, 1970

    1970-01-01

    The noted educator, Paulo Friere, who has done literacy work in Brazil and Chile, contends that all teaching methods imply a concept of man; his distinctive literacy approach is aimed chiefly at conscientizacion, an awakening of consciousness involving an accurate awareness of one's place in nature, time, and society. (Editor/LY)

  2. "Sedentary" Homeless Children in S. Paulo, Brazil: Their Houses, Their Families, Their Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    This study examined the lifestyle of children from a sedentary grouping of 20 homeless families living under a viaduct in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study particularly focused on issues related to this lifestyle, including dimensions of housing and cultural variations in housing related to child development and child rearing. The lifestyle of the…

  3. HD-SAO-DM cross index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, T. A.; Mead, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table of correspondence SAO-HD-DM-GC was prepared by Morin (1973). The machine-readable version of this cross identification was obtained from the Centre de Donnees Stellaires (Strasbourg, France). The table was sorted at the Goddard Space Flight Center by HD number and all blank HD number records were removed to produce the HD-SAO-DM table presented. There were 258997 entries in the original table; there are 180411 entries after removing the blank HD records. The Boss General Catalogue (GC) numbers were retained on the machine-readable version after the sort.

  4. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  5. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  6. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  7. Mutagenic effect of methanol in gas station operators from Sao Paulo/Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gattas, G.J.F.; Cardoso, L.A.; Faria, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    The frequency of micronucleus (MN) in oral scamous cells of 76 gas station operators was investigated. Subjects were exposed to a fuel called MEG a mix of 33% methanol, 60% ethanol and 7% gasoline. In Brazil the ethyl alcohol, extracted from sugar cane have been used as a fuel since 70`s. In November 1991, for economical reasons, the MEG fuel was introduced in big cities. The MN frequency was evaluated in three different periods: before MEG introduction (1989), and twice after MEG utilization (1992 and 1995). Some individuals were analyzed more than one time. For each individual the frequency of MN was performed in 2000 oral cells. Statistical analysis through non parametric tests revealed a highly significant increase (P=0.001) in the frequency of MN before (1.38/2000 cells) and immediately after methanol introduction (3.0/2000 cells). The frequency of MN returned to be normal (1.4/2000 cells), in the third evaluation when the exposition to methanol decreased. It should represent genetic risk for individuals under occupational exposure and for the population as a whole when methanol has been introduced as a large-scale fuel.

  8. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789…

  9. Contact allergy in male construction workers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Marzia Silva; de Avelar Alchorne, Alicede Oliveira; Costa, Enilde Borges; Montesano, Fábio Tadeu

    2007-04-01

    There are no recent data on allergens in the construction industry in Brazil; apparently there were no changes in allergenic substances. The objective of this study was to identify sensitization to allergens in adult males working in the construction industry. A cross-sectional study with adult males submitted to patch tests from May 2000 to December 2005. Out of 169 male patients, 83 were construction workers. The five most frequent allergens among the construction workers were potassium dichromate (57%), carba-mix (34.9%), cobalt chloride (30.2%), thiuram-mix (27.9%) and neomycin (19.8%). There is a significant sensitization to potassium dichromate, cobalt, carba-mix, and thiuram-mix, demonstrating that cement and rubber gloves of personal protection equipment still account for allergic contact dermatitis in construction industry workers. PMID:17343626

  10. Brevipalpus phoenicis (group species B) on Citrus spp. and Coffea arabica, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some mite species of the genus Brevipalpus are considered pests of economic importance for several agricultural crops such as citrus and coffee. They are associated with the transmission of viruses [e.g.:citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)]. Recent studies indicate that the ...

  11. Ten years of a multidisciplinary diabetic foot team approach in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Fábio; Augusto Magalhães, Antonio; Gamba, Mônica; Nery, Caio; Cardoso, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can cause devastating foot problems including loss of protective sensation with subsequent ulcerations and amputations. The natural history and pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulcers is best understood and managed by a multiprofessional team approach. The main factors for prevention and treatment of these devastating diabetic foot conditions are shown, with special attention to education of the patient. This approach decreases the morbidity of the disease, besides its economical and social feasibility. PMID:22396805

  12. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health. PMID:22765964

  13. Geological map of parts of the state of Sao Paulo based on LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejususparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Amaral, G.; Liu, C. C.; Filho, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Interpretation of LANDSAT images revealed the subdivision of the Bauru formation into three distinct lithofacies. Delineation of structural features yielded new information on paleoenvironmental reconstitution and hydrogeology. Structural features and photogeological units were revealed in the precambrian basement at the eastern portion of the state.

  14. [Epidemiological study of tinea pedis in a population studied in Santa Casa de Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Zaitz, C; Proença, N G

    1989-01-01

    The authors make an epidemiologic study of tinea pedis aiming at establishing its minimal frequency in the population studied, as well as recognizing the most frequent fungi and the clinical aspects they determine. We've tried to study the role of the dermatophytes in the normal microbiota of the feet. Finally we analyzed the influence of sex and seasonality factors on the incidence of tinea pedis. PMID:2693864

  15. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  16. Lead exposure in pregnant women and their newborns in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Troster, E.J.; Schvartsman, S. )

    1988-06-01

    Blood lead concentrations of a group of mothers and their newborns were studied. The results showed a correlation between maternal and newborn levels. It is suggested that biochemical alterations may be present in some of the mothers and in a smaller proportion of the newborns. In addition, a comparison of the lead levels in blood with those in the environment was made.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAO Star Catalog J2000 (SAO Staff 1966; USNO, ADC 1990)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAO Staff

    1995-10-01

    This machine-readable SAO catalog from the Astronomical Data Center is based on an original binary version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog (SAO, SAO Staff 1966). Subsequent improvements by T. A. Nagy (1979) included the addition of equatorial coordinates in radians and cross-identifications from the Table of Correspondences SAO/HD/DM/GC (Morin 1973). As a prelude to creation of the 1984 version of the SAO, a new version of the SAO-HD-GC-DM Cross Index was prepared (Roman, Warren, and Schofield 1983). The 1984 version of the SAO contained the corrected and extended cross identifications, all errata published up to January 1984 and known to the ADC, numerous errors forwarded to the ADC by colleagues, and errors discovered at the ADC during the course of this work. Clayton A. Smith of the U. S. Naval Observatory provided J2000.0 positions and proper motions for the SAO stars. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version (1984) have been corrected (up to May 1991). The catalog contains SAO number; the right ascension and declination with a B1950.0 equinox and epoch; annual proper motion and its standard deviation, photographic and visual magnitudes; spectral type; references to sources; the Durchmusterung (DM) identifier if the star is listed in the Bonner DM (BD), Cordoba DM (CD), or Cape Photographic DM (CP); component identification; The Henry Draper (Extension) (HD or HDE) number; and J2000 positions and proper motions. Multiple-star component identifications have been added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same DM number. The Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been flagged. J2000 positions in usual units and in radians have been added. (1 data file).

  18. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  19. SAO HMC photodetector/event timer engineering model test report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-05

    The test unit is a custom photodetector/event timer, PET, built for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, SAO, by Los Alamos which records elapsed time in 10 ps steps. The 1 Kg, 12 cm diameter PET unit uses 10 watts of electrical power and was tested to SAO`s specified flight conditions. The event timer has two inputs -- a reference clock oscillator input and a stop signal. Like a stop watch with split timing capability, the event timer records the instant a stop signal arrives. At that sample instant, the number of elapsed clock cycles are stored and the sample instant position between two reference clock edges is interpolated and stored. Then that stored data can be shifted serially to an external computer. The photodetector part of the PET responds to an optical input and provides the electrical output signal to the event timer specifying the sample instant. This test report discusses the event timer test results. Test equipment is shown for most of the operational tests. The relay rack contains test pursers and clocks. The environmental chamber controls temperature. The computer reads and records the serial data from the PET. Reported testing topics include: Pulse shapes to be used as test inputs, test results obtained using the electrical source`s input, optical test results which are the best simulation of specified operational conditions, heat sink operation in vacuum. Vibration tests performed to SAO`s specification.

  20. [Avoidance of feudal taboo on emperors' names in perused versions of Yi jin jing (Classic of Changing Tendon) and the time of its transcription and blockprinting].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    By studying the avoidance of feudal taboo on emperors' names in the perusal of 48 extant versions of Yi jin jing (Classic of Changing Tendon), together with their contents, it is found that these versions are of valuable editions and 15 of them can be viewed as the early representative works of Yi jin jing, including 8 hand copied versions, and 7 blockprinted versions. No version of the Ming Dynasty can be found. The earliest versions are all transcribed ones, while the earliest extant blockprinted version appeared until the Daoguang reign of the Qing Dynasty. The preface of Shen's checked version doesn't avoid the emperor's name, saying that it was written in the "xin chou" year of Shunzhi, hence, it should be copied in the early Kangxi reign, and is the earliest hand copied version. The hand copied version of Yongzheng reign avoids the word "xuan", yet doesn't avoid the word "hong", also with a preface written in Yongzheng reign, indicating that this one is the earliest next to the previous one. Since the Xidi version avoids both the words "xuan" and "hong", it should be copied during or after the Qianlong reign. The earliest extant blockprinted edition is the one checked and printed by Fu Jin-quan in the third year of Daoguang which might also be the earliest blockprinted edition. That collection by Zhu Wenlan and Laizhangshi might be all later editions. PMID:24524641

  1. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) star catalog (Sao staff 1966, edition ADC 1989): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Nancy G.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An updated, corrected, and extended machine readable version of the catalog is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version were corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications were added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers were added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) were flagged. J2000 positions in usual units and in radians were added.

  2. Paulo Freire: Pedagogue of Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.

    This book is an analytic and critical treatment of Paulo Freire's philosophy. Its two central theses are that Freire's thought is best understood as that of an educational practitioner and theorist and that the most fruitful interpretation of Freire comes from understanding him as a Catholic thinker. Chapter 1 situates Freire's lifelong work in…

  3. Paulo Freire, Literacy Through Conscientization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John W., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of this review concerning international literacy is the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire and his theories and methods for teaching illiterates to read by teaching them fewer than 20 three syllable words, reflective of their social condition, such as "Shanty-town" and "wages" ("favela" and "salario" in Portuquese), whose syllables can be…

  4. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Manica, L T; Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-05-01

    Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE), São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP). We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits) at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%), which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State. PMID:20552144

  5. Establishment and characterization of a new highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line derived from Saos2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Fan, Qiming; Tu, Bing; Yan, Wei; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in adolescents and young adults. There is a shortage of tumorigenic and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell lines that can be used for metastasis study. Here we establish and characterize a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that is derived from Saos2 cell line based on bioluminescence. The occasional pulmonary metastatic cells developed from Saos2 were isolated, harvested, characterized and named Saos2-l. The parental Saos2 and Saos2-l cells were further characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that Saos2-l cells demonstrated increased cell adhesion, migration and invasion compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Conversely, Saos2-l cells grew at a slightly slower rate than that of the parental cells. When injected into nude mice, Saos2-l cells had a greater increase in developing pulmonary metastases compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Further transcriptional profiling analysis revealed that some gene expression were up-regulated or down-regulated in the highly metastatic Saos2-l cells, indicating possible influencing factors of metastasis. Thus, we have established and characterized a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that should serve as a valuable tool for future investigations on the pathogenesis, metastasis and potential treatments of human osteosarcoma. PMID:25031706

  6. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  7. The role of partnerships in promoting physical activity: the experience of Agita São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    around the outpatients clinic, as well as the establishment of a fitness room in the basic unit of health; and Sorocaba, a city of 600,000 inhabitants, that after 4 years of the program of building walk and bike pathways, and parks, found a decrease in hospitalization of 50% by stroke, and 57% of diabetes type 2. A recent paper has shown that sedendarism has declined relatively about 70% from 2002 to 2008 in the State of Sao Paulo, and World Bank has reported that Agita represents a saving of 310 million US dollars per year in the health sector of Sao Paulo. All this scenario strongly suggests that the social issue in the developing countries facilitates the success of strategic partnerships. PMID:22243915

  8. Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana J. G.; Nogueira, Roselene A. M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) as a method for assessing school building performance. Set within the larger context of global efforts to develop and apply common indicators of school building quality, the authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of…

  9. Sex Trade Involvement in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Toronto, Canada: Narratives of Social Exclusion and Fragmented Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Liborio, Renata Maria Coimbra

    2011-01-01

    An extensive international literature has been developed regarding the risk trajectories of sex trade-involved children and youth. This literature has not, however, substantially incorporated the narratives of youths regarding their experiences. In this article, the contemporary literature on child and youth sex trade-involvement is reviewed and…

  10. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... table with two chairs, unlimited Internet access; Complimentary promotion and listing on the official Hospitalar 2013 portal; Listed in Hospitalar 2013 hard copy exhibitor catalog; Advanced promotion to top....gpoaccess.gov/fr ), posting on ITA's trade mission calendar-- http://export.gov/trademissions- -and...

  11. Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women in a Sao Paulo Quaternary Care Hospital: Bacterial Spectrum and Susceptibility Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in women are very common. Regular analysis of bacterial flora is important to formulate updated guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the microbiology of UTIs and their susceptibility patterns in a quaternary care hospital. In a seven-year review, the urine culture results of 480 female patients with uncomplicated UTIs were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and treatment characteristics: Group 1, cystitis at outpatient basis; group 2, cystitis at the Emergency Unit; and group 3, pyelonephritis. Group 1 included older patients, with a higher incidence of concomitant diabetes mellitus and recurrent UTIs. E. coli was the most common pathogen, responsible for 75.1% of cases, mainly for pyelonephritis (87.3%). Of the oral antimicrobials tested for cystitis, amoxicillin/clavulanate and nitrofurantoin had the highest susceptibility profiles (84.4% and 87.3%, respectively). For E. coli only, their susceptibility profiles were as high as 90.8% and 97.4%, respectively. For pyelonephritis treatment, fluoroquinoles had a susceptibility profile <90%, while ceftriaxone and gentamicin had susceptibility >90%. Uncomplicated UTI treatment is becoming more challenging because the susceptibility profiles of oral antimicrobials are increasingly resistant. In our environment, cystitis can still be managed with nitrofurantoin. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be managed with ceftriaxone or gentamicin. PMID:27025737

  12. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic forest, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small mammals and rodents play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 4...

  13. Ozone phytotoxic potential with regard to fragments of the Atlantic Semi-deciduous Forest downwind of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Bárbara B; Alves, Edenise S; de Souza, Silvia R; Domingos, Marisa; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    In the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), Brazil, high levels of primary pollutants contribute to ozone (O3) formation. However, little is known regarding the O3 effects in the tropics. Objectives in this study were to characterize the present levels of O3 pollution and to evaluate the relevance of current concentration-based indices for assessing the phytotoxic potential of O3. Changes in O3 concentrations and precursors at 5 monitoring stations within towns of MRC were analyzed. The daily O3 profile was typical for urban sites and showed little yearly variation. Given the permanently foliated forest canopy, yearly rather than seasonal O3 indices were thus more appropriate for estimating the effective ozone dose. With yearly SUM00, SUM60 and AOT40 of 156, 16 and 14 ppm h and confirmed by evidence of O3 injury in foliage, oxidative stress in the MRC has reached levels high enough to affect trees from the Atlantic Semi-deciduous Forest. PMID:24892227

  14. Brazil: Implications of Technological Change for Skills Training in Sao Paulo Industries. Training Discussion Paper No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Assis, Marisa

    The Brazilian economy is led by the industrial sector, which accounts for 34 percent of production and employs 25 percent of the economically active population. The labor force formally employed in industry consists mainly of relatively young males with little schooling. A large number of institutions both in the regular education system and…

  15. Mavale project: Sensor techniques applied to macrozoning of the Paraiba Valley and littoral north of the State of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    This project was designed with two basic objectives in mind. The first is to support the Consortium for Integrated Development of the Paraiba Valley and the Northern Littoral (CODIVAP) for preparation of regulatory guidelines for use of the regional lands. The second is to place at the disposal of the country's technical/scientific community a regional planning method based on the use of Remote Orbital Sensor data. This project involved studies on the following areas: maps - geological, pedological, geomorphological, ground cover, land use, urban area and urban expansion in the last decade, areas favorable for replenishment and concentration of ground water; compartmentation of the region into sub-basins and study of the relationships of land use to surface water quality; generation of a map indicating the suitability of land for civil engineering and urban expansion projects and projects subject to geological risk; preparation of a map showing suitability for agricultural use of the land; and social/economic/demographic analysis. The region of the study encompasses 40 municipalities and portions of 4 others, in an overall region of 18.111 sq. km. Imagery from MSS/Landsat, TM/Landsat, and HRV/SPOT was interpreted, exploring the multispectral, multitemporal, synoptic characteristics as well as the detail (compatible with spatial resolutions of the sensor systems). As a function of the objectives of the different thematic studies involved in the environmental and physical diagnostics, images were interpreted visually or processed digitally in alternate scales of 1:250,000, 1:100,000, or 1:50,000. These studies were complemented with pre-existing bibliographical and cartographic information, and the final mapping products are presented to the scale of 1:250,000, compatible with decisions at the regional level. Thematic studies relative to the physical/territorial, and social/economical reality were integrated in the search for holistic understanding of the region and its problems relative to land use and occupation. The macrozoning proposal directed at reorganizing human activities in the regional territory was generated from technical discussions of the body of researchers involved in the project and representatives of the municipalities which comprise the region of the study.

  16. ELEVATED LEVELS OF MULTIPLE CYTOCHROME P450 FORMS IN TILAPIA FROM BILLINGS RESERVOIR-SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels in tissues of fish inhabiting polluted areas have been used extensively in biomonitoring studies in Europe and North America. However, little information is available about the extent of CYP1A expression in fish from South American waters, nor on ...

  17. Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.

  18. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  19. Smad7 mediates inhibition of Saos2 osteosarcoma cell differentiation by NF{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, Roman A. . E-mail: Roman_Eliseev@urmc.rochester.edu; Schwarz, Edward M.; Zuscik, Michael J.; O'Keefe, Regis J.; Drissi, Hicham; Rosier, Randy N.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor NF{kappa}B is constitutively activated in various tumor cells where it promotes proliferation and represses apoptosis. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) delay cell proliferation and promote differentiation and apoptosis of bone cells through activation of Smad downstream effectors and via Smad-independent mechanisms. Thus, NF{kappa}B and BMP pathways play opposing roles in regulating osteoblastic cell fate. Here, we show that in osteosarcoma Saos2 osteoblasts, NF{kappa}B regulates the activity of the BMP/Smad signaling. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B by overexpression of mI{kappa}B leads to the induction of osteoblast differentiation. Saos2 cells overexpressing mI{kappa}B (Saos2-mI{kappa}B) exhibit higher expression of osteoblast phenotypic genes such as alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and osteocalcin and are more responsive to BMP2 in comparison to wild-type cells (Saos2-wt) or empty vector infected controls (Saos2-EV). Furthermore, BMP-2 signaling and Smad phosphorylation are significantly increased in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells in comparison to Saos2-EV cells. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B signaling in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells is associated with decreased expression of the BMP signaling inhibitor Smad7. While gain of Smad7 function in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells results in inhibition of BMP signaling, anti-sense knockdown of Smad7 in Saos2-EV cells leads to upregulation of BMP signaling. We therefore conclude that in osteosarcoma Saos2 cells, NF{kappa}B represses BMP/Smad signaling and BMP2-induced differentiation through Smad7.

  20. Uranus occults SAO158687. [stellar occultation and planetary parametric observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Veverka, J.; Millis, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in obtaining atmospheric parameters, oblatenesses, and diameters of Jupiter and Mars from recent stellar occultations by these planets is used to predict what can be learned from the March 1977 occultation of the star SAO158687 by Uranus. The spectra of this star and Uranus are compared to indicate the relative instrument intensities of the two objects, the four passbands where the relative intensities are most nearly equal are listed, and expected photon fluxes from the star are computed on the assumption that it has UBVRI colors appropriate for a K5 main-sequence object. It is shown that low photon noise errors can be achieved by choosing appropriate passbands for observation, and the rms error expected for the Uranus temperature profiles obtained from the occultation light curves is calculated. It is suggested that observers of this occultation should record their data digitally for optimum time resolution.

  1. Validation of the Updated SAO OMI Formaldehyde Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Liu, C.; Nowlan, C. R.; Chance, K.; Fried, A.; Janz, S. J.; Kanaya, Y.; Puentedura, O.

    2014-12-01

    The new SAO OMI formaldehyde retrieval, version v3.0.2 publicly released in June 2014, introduces major changes with respect to the previous version of the product. These changes include optimization of fitting window and fitting parameters, update of reference cross sections, reference sector normalization to the Pacific Ocean and a new air mass factor calculation. In this context it is necessary to assess the accuracy of the new product and perform a validation exercise. We compare the new data with other satellite retrievals from OMI, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY performed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, with in situ airborne measurements recorded using a Difference Frequency Generation Absorption Spectrometer (DFGAS) instrument, with aircraft passive remote sensing retrievals from the ACAM and GeoTASO instruments recorded during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns in Maryland and Texas and with ground-based DOAS measurements.

  2. Performance evaluation of the SAO VLG-11 atomic hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, M. W.; Vessot, R. F.; Mattison, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    A new generation of frequency standards, the VLG-11 hydrogen maser, has been designed and built at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). A comprehensive series of environmental and short-term stability tests on three VLG-11 masers has been completed and evaluated. The test results reported here show substantial improvements over previous hydrogen masers in measured sensitivity to variations in ambient temperature, barometric pressure, and magnetic fields. The maser frequency stability, as represented by the two-sample (Allan) variance, has been measured for averaging times ranging from 1 to 100,00 seconds. The variance is lower than 1 x 10 to the -15th for averaging intervals between 1400 and 20,000 seconds. For times shorter than 4000 seconds, the measured stability data agree remarkably well with theoretical values calculated from thermal noise mechanisms and the 'noise within the linewidth' regime is clearly discernable in the data.

  3. Early experience of the SAO Satellite-Tracking Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, M. R.

    When Fred L. Whipple of Harvard University assumed the directorship of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in mid-1955, he proposed to the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation that the observatory be given responsibility for optical tracking of satellites during the IGY of 1957-1958. Several countries had expressed their intentions to launch satellites during the 18-month period to support research in ionospheric and upper atmospheric physics, including the effects of solar flares and solar radiation, and in geodesy and geophysics. On the basis of his experience at the Harvard College observatory with the Super-Schmidt cameras for meteor photography, Whipple was confident that optical tracking could provide a powerful means of monitoring satellite positions. The proposal was accepted in late 1955, and it was assumed that the total observing program would last only 18 months and would involve only a few satellites.

  4. Properties of QBO and SAO Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Reddy, C. A.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    We present an extension for the 2D (zonal mean) version of our Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations and the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO). Our earlier model reproduced the salient features of the mean zonal circulation in the middle atmosphere, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. In the present model we incorporate also tropospheric heating to reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation that affects significantly the dynamics of the stratosphere as Dunkerton had pointed out. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. The QBO period in the model is 30 months (mo), which is conducive to synchronize this oscillation with the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. Quadratic non-linearities generate interseasonal variations to produce a complicated pattern of variability associated with the QBO. The computed temperature amplitudes for the SAO and QBO are in substantial agreement with observations at equatorial and extratropical latitudes. At high latitudes, however, the observed QBO amplitudes are significantly larger, which may be a signature of propagating planetary waves not included in the present model. The assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium not being imposed, we find that the effects from the vertical Coriolis force associated with the equatorial oscillations are large for the vertical winds and significant for the temperature variations even outside the tropics but are

  5. Driving of the SAO by gravity waves as observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that atmospheric dynamics in the tropical stratosphere have an influence on higher altitudes and latitudes as well as on surface weather and climate. In the tropics, the dynamics are governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The QBO is dominant in the lower and middle stratosphere, and the SAO in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere. For both QBO and SAO the driving by atmospheric waves plays an important role. In particular, the role of gravity waves is still not well understood. In our study we use observations of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite instrument to derive gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag in order to investigate the interaction of gravity waves with the SAO. These observations are compared with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Usually, QBO westward winds are much stronger than QBO eastward winds. Therefore, mainly gravity waves with westward-directed phase speeds are filtered out through critical-level filtering already below the stratopause region. Accordingly, HIRDLS observations show that gravity waves contribute to the SAO momentum budget mainly during eastward wind shear, and not much during westward wind shear. These findings confirm theoretical expectations and are qualitatively in good agreement with ERA-Interim and other modeling studies. In ERA-Interim most of the westward SAO driving is due to planetary waves, likely of extratropical origin. Still, we find in both observations and ERA-Interim that sometimes westward-propagating gravity waves may contribute to the westward driving of the SAO. Four characteristic cases of atmospheric background conditions are identified. The forcings of the SAO in these cases are discussed in detail, supported by gravity wave spectra observed by HIRDLS. In particular, we find that the gravity wave forcing of the SAO cannot be explained by critical-level filtering alone; gravity

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination from age 60 in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Joao Tonolio; Gagliardi, Anna; Pinho, Amanda; Durand, Laure; Fonseca, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older against Streptococcus pneumonia is not recommended in Brazil. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) is only available for institutionalized persons or with underlying diseases despite the substantial medical and economic burden related to pneumococcal infections in adults over than 59 years. The study aimed at evaluating the cost effectiveness of implementing a large PPV program in this population. This analysis was performed using a static decision tree model. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained from Brazilian official sources and international literature. Economic data were obtained from a study performed in 2007 in a public and a private hospital located in Sao Paulo. Vaccination was assumed to protect for 5 years with 60% effectiveness against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) and 21% effectiveness against non bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP). Deterministic and sensitivity analyses were performed. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination saved 5,218 life year gained (LYG). The vaccination program was found to be cost effective in the social security and public health care perspectives with a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R$10,887 and R$8,281 per LYG respectively. Results were sensitive to the vaccine effectiveness against NBPP, the incidence and case-fatality rate of NBPP. From a societal perspective, PPV23 program for adults 60 and older was found to be cost-saving. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination is clinically and economically favored over the present vaccination strategy, in which persons aged over 59 years in Sao Paulo have not been vaccinated. PMID:21941088

  7. The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System: A Gateway to the Planetary Sciences Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Thompson, D.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2009-03-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private libraries, plus access to scanned published articles.

  8. Observations of gravity waves from satellite and implications for the wave driving of the SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics at low latitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere is governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. It is known that tropical dynamics has significant influence on the atmosphere over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in simulating a realistic QBO and SAO. One main uncertainty is the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs). We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and potential GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data in the stratopause region. These observations are compared with the SAO driving due to planetary waves, as well as the zonal wind tendencies, both determined from the ECMWF ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis. HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to selective filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. However, during SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated by planetary waves, probably of extratropical origin. Still, we find indications in both satellite observations and ERAI that sometimes GW drag is important also during SAO westward wind shear.

  9. Implementing Technology for Science Classrooms in Sao Tome and Principe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, Maria Dolores Rodrigues

    This qualitative bounded case study was designed to understand how technology integration in schools could be addressed in a first-wave country. The integration of educational technology in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), a first-wave agricultural civilization, can narrow the divide between STP and third-wave information age societies. The conceptual framework was based on theories of change, learning, and context. Toffler's wave theory described how societies changed while Fullan's change theory examined how the people might change. Roger's diffusion of innovations addressed how processes change. Bandura, Vygotsky, and Siemen provided the framework for the learning within the model of change. Finally, the context theories of Tessmer and Richey's instructional design, Lave and Wenger's situated learning, and Sticht's functional context theory were applied. Twenty five individuals from 5 schools, including teachers, school directors, key educational stakeholders, and the minister of education were involved in a pilot project to integrate technology into the science curriculum. The data were collected via interviews, reflective summaries, and confidential narratives. The resulting data were analyzed to find emerging patterns. The results of this analysis showed that a first-wave civilization can adopt a third-wave civilization's features in terms of technology integration, when there is the support of opinion leaders and most of the necessary contextual requirements are in place. The study contributes to social change by providing access to knowledge through technology integration, which empowers both teachers and students.

  10. Musculoskeletal Pain as a Marker of Health Quality. Findings from the Epidemiological Sleep Study among the Adult Population of São Paulo City

    PubMed Central

    Palombini, Luciana; Godoy, Luciana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We are witnessing the growth of urban populations, particularly in the developing world. São Paulo, the largest city in South America, continues to grow, and this growth is dramatically effecting the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the point prevalence of chronic pain in São Paulo city dwellers and to explore the influence of aspects related to urbanicity. Methods A two-stage cluster randomized sample included 1100 individuals of the city of Sao Paulo, representing the population proportionally in terms of gender, age and social classes in 2007. For this observational cross-sectional study, the household sample was interviewed using validated questionnaires for sociodemographic aspects, the Beck inventories for anxiety and depression, the WHOQoL-REF for quality of life, the Chalder Fatigue Scale. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as diffuse pain or pain located in the back, joints or limbs. Data regarding sleep complaints and polysomnography were obtained from the Epidemiologic Sleep Study conducted in São Paulo city in 2007. Results The prevalence estimate of chronic musculoskeletal pain was approximately 27%, with a female/male ratio of approximately 2.6/1. The predictors were being in the age-range of 30–39 years, low socioeconomic and schooling levels, obesity, sedentarism, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, poor life quality, anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychological wellbeing was the main discriminator between responders with chronic musculoskeletal pain and the controls, followed by depression for the participants with poor psychological wellbeing, and fatigue, for the remaining ones. Insomnia syndrome was the third-level discriminator for those with fatigue, whereas sleep quality for those without fatigue. Conclusions Musculoskeletal pain was frequently reported by São Paulo city dwellers and its correlates with psychological and sleep aspects are suggestive of a

  11. Closed-loop control of SaO2 in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Morozoff, P E; Evans, R W

    1992-01-01

    A microprocessor-based device has been designed to control oxygen saturation (SaO2) in neonates by adjusting the inspired air-oxygen mixture (FiO2) delivered by a mechanical blender. The user sets a target SaO2, which the controller attempts to maintain. Alarms are actuated if the neonate's SaO2 is outside predefined limits. SaO2 levels are extracted from a commercial pulse oximeter and analyzed by an eight-bit microprocessing unit (MPU). Delivered percentages of FiO2 are adjusted by a motorized air-oxygen blender. The controller has a menu-driven user interface and can graphically present four-hour trends of the SaO2, FiO2, or blender setting. Sixteen hours of collected data can be stored and later downloaded to a personal computer. A real-time multitasking operating system forms the nucleus of the controller's software. Major tasks that share MPU time are control, filtering, user display, data collection, data archiving, alarm monitoring, and user input. Analog SaO2 levels are read and converted to digital values, which are then filtered to extract noise. A differential control algorithm is used to determine the required FiO2 blender setting. The blender is then adjusted to the new setting, after which the controller waits to repeat the process of sampling SaO2 and adjusting FiO2. System response time and blender increments are adjustable to allow a user to tune the controller to the patient's needs. Alarm conditions of concern within the device are SaO2 and FiO2 sensor disconnection, blender disconnection, and SaO2 limiting errors. In preliminary trials, for a target of 92.0% SaO2, a prototype controller maintained an average of 91.6% with a standard deviation of 5.0% over a one-hour period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1562825

  12. A Pedagogy of Hope after Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In my review of the articles published in this issue of "SAJHE" I use the notion of "after" in two senses: "in imitation of" and "following in time" (moving beyond) (Schad 2003, x). In the first instance I wish to assess the extent to which contributors have drawn on Paulo Freire's concept of a "pedagogy of hope"--how their work imitates that of…

  13. The Critical Spirituality of Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the premise that Paulo Freire's capacity for hope in the face of personal struggle and exile issued from his spirituality, this paper examines Freire's spirituality through the lens of Michael Dantley's concept of critical spirituality. The concept of spirituality as discussed in the literature is explored, followed by an explication…

  14. Paulo Freire and the Politics of Postcolonialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that Paulo Freire's work has been appropriated in ways that denudes it of some of its important political insights. Argues that Freire's work must be read as a postcolonial text and that North Americans must engage in a radical form of border crossing to reconstruct Freire's work in the specificity of its historical and political…

  15. Paulo Freire and the Concept of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Kelvin Stewart

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Paulo Freire's liberatory conception of education is interesting, challenging, even transforming because central to it are important aspects of education which other philosophers marginalise. I also argue that Freire's critics are right when they claim that he paid insufficient attention to another important aspect of…

  16. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  17. Investigation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs in sediments using geochemical markers. II. Sao Sebastião, SP--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2004-12-01

    The São Sebastião Channel, NE São Paulo State, Brazil, is an area of environmental interest of that state not only because of the tourism, but also because of the presence of the most important oil terminal of Brazil, the PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS). Sediment samples were collected at 15 sites in the channel, extracted and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS for composition and levels of the following organic geochemical markers: aliphatic hydrocarbons (normal and isoprenoid alkanes), petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 0.04 to 8.53 micorg g(-1) for aliphatics, from 51.1 to 422.0 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 12.6 to 27.7 ng g(-1) for LABs and from 20.4 to 200.3 ng g(-1) for PAHs. The PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS), Sao Sebastião Harbor and sewage outfalls along the area had clear influences on the geochemical marker concentrations, especially at locales in the central and north parts of the channel. PMID:15556173

  18. The driving of the SAO by gravity waves derived from satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics in the tropical stratosphere and lower mesosphere is strongly influenced by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The tropical dynamics has significant influence on atmospheric dynamics over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on the surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in reproducing a realistic QBO and SAO. One of the main reasons are uncertainties in the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs) that are too small-scale to be resolved by the global models. Direct estimates of the GW driving of the QBO and SAO from global observations are still missing. We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data. These observations are compared with the zonal wind tendencies and the drag that is still missing in the tropical momentum budget of the ECMWF ERA Interim (ERAI) reanalysis after considering zonal wind tendency, Coriolis force, advection terms and drag of resolved global-scale waves. In the stratopause region ERAI is no longer well-constrained by data assimilation. Nevertheless, the missing drag and its relative variations can be used as a proxy for GW drag. Qualitatively, we find good agreement between satellite observations and ERAI, however the missing drag in ERAI is likely too high by about a factor of two. Both HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to the pre-filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. During SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated

  19. The diameter of 88 Thisbe from its occultation of SAO 187124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; White, N. M.; Bowell, E.; Klemola, A.; Elliott, R. C.; Smethells, W. G.; Price, P. M.; Mckay, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The 7 October, 1981 occultation of SAO 187124 by 88 Thisbe was observed at twelve sites. The occultation observations, together with information about the asteroid's light curve, gives a mean diameter for Thisbe of 232 + or - 10 km. This value is 10 percent larger than the previously published radiometric diameter of Thisbe.

  20. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  1. Privilege, Poverty, and Power: Remembering Paulo Freire's Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Democracy & Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This special edition honors the life and work of Paulo Freire by recalling the impact he had and continues to have on educators and students. Articles in this issue are: (1) "Editor's Introduction" (Tom Wilson); (2) "Nita's Elegy to Paulo Freire (in Portuguese) 'Privilegio, Pobreza e Poder'" (Ana Maria Araujo "Nita" Freire); (3) "Elegy to Paulo…

  2. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the SAO-HD-GC-DM cross index version 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An updated and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. A correction of all errors which were found since preparation of the original catalog which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog are included and component identifications from the Index of Visual Double Stars (IDS) are appended to all multiple SAO entries with the same DM numbers, and lower case letter identifiers for supplemental BD stars are added. A total of 11,398 individual corrections and data additions is incorporated into the present version of the cross index.

  3. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star catalogue (SAO) version 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An updated, corrected and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version have been corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been blanked out, but the records themselves have been retained and flagged so that sequencing and record count are identical to the published catalog.

  4. Monte Carlo Simulation for Perusal and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.; Robey, Randall R.

    The meaningful investigation of many problems in statistics can be solved through Monte Carlo methods. Monte Carlo studies can help solve problems that are mathematically intractable through the analysis of random samples from populations whose characteristics are known to the researcher. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the values of a statistic are…

  5. Statistical Analysis Aiming at Predicting Respiratory Tract Disease Hospital Admissions from Environmental Variables in the City of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO2 and CO, PM10 and O3, and PM10, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes. PMID:20706674

  6. Piscinoodinium pillulare (Schäperclaus, 1954) Lom, 1981 (Dinoflagellida) infection in cultivated freshwater fish from the northeast region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Parasitological and pathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Moraes, J R; Andrade, P M; Schalch, S H; Moraes, F R

    2001-11-01

    The Aquaculture Center of Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, received fishes for diagnosis from fish farmers reporting fish crowding at pond edges and in water inlets. Fifty-three out of 194 cases showed round to oval, immobile whitish structures, measuring up to 162 microm diameter, identified as the dinoflagellate Piscinoodinium pillulare. In 34 diagnosed cases the parasites were present in the gills, in 2 on body surface, and 9 in both. Thirty-one out of 53 were tambacu hybrids hosts; 7, Piaractus mesopotamicus; 6, Colossoma macropomum; 5, Leporinus macrocephalus; 3, Oreochromis niloticus; and 1, Prochilodus lineatus. Fish showed increased mucous production on body surface and gills, while ecchymosis in the caudal peduncle and operculum was present. The gills also showed paleness, congestion, and petechiae. Histopathology presented a great number of trophonts situated between secondary lamellae, fixed to or detached from the epithelium. Primary lamellae presented interstitial hemorrhages, severe hyperplasia of the epithelium, goblet cells, and mononuclear infiltrates. The present work is the first report of P pillulare in Brazil and emphasizes the importance of this dinoflagellate which caused significant economic losses from 1995 through 1997. PMID:12071320

  7. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  8. Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campoe, Otávio C; Stape, José Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

  9. Evaluation of anthropic influences in an estuarine system of Southeastern Brazilian Coast by applying enrichment factors in cores from Bertioga Channel, Sao Paulo state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, R. C.; Sartoretto, J. R.; Salaroli, A. B.; Gabriela, C.; Andreza, R. P.; Tessler, M. G.; Mahiques, M.; Goncalves, C.

    2011-12-01

    Santos estuary, located in Southeastern Brazilian Coast, is impacted by several anthropic activities. The largest commercial harbor in South America and the main petrochemical and metallurgical industrial centre in the country, with approximately 1100 industries, are also in this estuary. The estuarine system has an important channel, called Bertioga Channel, which connects the upper Santos estuary to the ocean. In this channel are located the main mangroves of the estuarine complex that have a great potential of heavy metals retention. This behavior is related to sedimentary dynamics of system, where contaminated sediments from upper estuary are filtrated by channel before reaching the ocean. In this context, the main goal of this work was to carry out a study on toxic elements in cores from Bertioga Channel. Enrichment Factor (EF) was determined and it was related to geochronological data, allowing the evaluation of anthropic activities impact in this region. Thus, in February 2010, were collected five cores along the channel using a vibrocorer. The cores (150 - 220 cm) were sliced at every 2 cm, the samples were frozen and freeze-drying. Elemental preparation and analysis (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sc and Zn) followed SW-846 methodologies applying ICP-OES technique. Geocronology was determined via gamma spectrometry, by 210Pbxs and 137Cs methods. In order to assess the degree of sediment contamination, enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using Sc as normalization element Background values correspondeded to the element concentration in the bottom sediment core as determined by 210Pb chronology. EFs obtained in all analyzed cores were lower than 2, indicating a minimal pollution for the region. However, in core Bertioga 5 (the closest one to Santos harbor), it can be seen As, Cr, Pb and Zn enrichment from the bottom to the top, mainly from 70's, when harbor activities expanded. Despite of the low levels found for the studied elements, Bertioga channel area has suffered environmental impact due to domestic sewer releasing and the presence of marina in the region.

  10. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-02-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  11. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  12. Remote Sensing techniques used to characterize soil erosion in southwestern Sao Paulo state. M.S. Thesis - 29 Sep. 1982; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Pinto, S. D. A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Within randomly sampled squares of a 1 km x 1 km grid, rill/gullies frequency, land cover/land use type and shape of the slopes were extracted from aerial photographs of the Ribeirao Anhumas drainage basin. Mean slope gradient, stream frequency and slope length were calculated on topographic maps. Ground truth data on fine sand/coarse sand ratio and vegetation cover densities were obtained. The MSS-LANDSAT-2 data (CCTs) were analyzed using single-cell, cluster synthesis and slicer algorithms. Graphical and statistical analyses of the data indicate that different slope gradients and land cover/land use types are the most significant factors related to the soil erosion process. The digital analysis of MSS data allowed the association among gray level classes and vegetation cover classes, which defined seven classes. These gray level classes and slope gradient classes were used to rank erosion risk.

  13. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  14. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Diagnostic and Treatment Cascade among Contacts in Primary Health Care in a City of Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a tool for global TB control, especially in close contacts. But data is scarce in high burden countries, under field conditions, including data on the benefits of LTBI management. Objective To analyze the LTBI diagnosis and treatment cascade among contacts in primary health care (PHC) services in São José do Rio Preto—SP, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional design, conducted with contacts of pulmonary TB patients followed in all PHC services. Data was collected from May to September 2014 in the Reporting System for TB cases (TBWEB) and Reporting System for Chemoprophylaxis. Medical records and treatment follow-up forms were reviewed and all the nurses responsible for TB in PHC services were interviewed. Results Among 336 contacts included, 267 (79.4%) were screened for TB or LTBI, according to the presence or not of respiratory symptoms. Among those contacts screened, 140 (52.4%) were symptomatic, 9 (3.4%) had TB disease, 106/221 (48%) had positive TST result, meeting the criteria for LTBI treatment, and 64/106 (60.4%) actually started it. Overall, among 267 screened, only 64 (24%) started LTBI treatment. The completion rates of treatment among the contacts who started it, those with positive TST result and those screened were 56.3% (36/64), 16.3% (36/221) and 13.5% (36/267), respectively. Nurses claimed that asymptomatic TB contacts pay no attention to preventive health care and do not seek medical care as they do not have symptoms of the disease. In reviewing the medical records, high proportions of contacts without evaluation, incomplete assessment, incorrect records of contraindication for LTBI treatment, lack of notes regarding the identification and evaluation of contacts were identified. Conclusions There is a need for better organization of the surveillance and investigation routine for contacts in PHC, considering the reorganization of the work process and the features of the local health system. PMID:27285720

  15. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  16. MUTAGENICITY AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF PAH, NITRO-PAH, AND OXY-PAH FRACTIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER FROM SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary
    What is the study?
    Near roadway and immediate roadway exposures to transportation emissions gave very similar results in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in an assay for DNA adducts indicating that near roadway genotoxicity is not altered significantly over...

  17. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

  18. Phenotypic instability of Saos-2 cells in long-term culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hausser, Heinz-Juergen . E-mail: heinz-juergen.hausser@medizin.uni-ulm.de; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2005-07-22

    The human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 is widely used as a model system for human osteoblastic cells, though its phenotypic stability has not been ascertained. We therefore propagated these cells over 100 passages and compared relevant phenotypic properties. In general, higher passage cells exhibited higher proliferation rates and lower specific alkaline phosphatase activities, though mineralization was significantly more pronounced in cultures of late passage cells. Whereas expression of most genes investigated did not vary profoundly, some genes exhibited remarkable differences. Decorin, for instance, that has been discussed as a regulator of proliferation and mineralization, is strongly expressed only in early passage cells, and two receptors for pleiotrophin and midkine exhibited an almost mutually exclusive expression pattern in early and late passage cells, respectively. Our observations indicate that special care is required when results obtained with Saos-2 cells with different culture history are to be compared.

  19. Osteogenic potential of biosilica on human osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-12-01

    Biosilica is a natural polymer, synthesized by the poriferan enzyme silicatein from monomeric silicate substrates. Biosilica stimulates mineralizing activity and gene expression of SaOS-2 cells. To study its effect on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA), SaOS-2 cells were grown on different silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates (bone slices, Ca-P-coated coverslips, glass coverslips). Growth on these substrates induced the formation of HA nodules, organized in longitudinal arrays or spherical spots. Nodules of sizes above 1 μm were composed of irregularly arranged HA prism-like nanorods, formed by aggregates of three to eight SaOS-2 cells. Moreover, growth on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates elicited increased [(3)H]dT incorporation into DNA, indicative of enhanced cell proliferation. Consequently, an in vitro-based bioassay was established to determine the ratio between [(3)H]dT incorporation and HA formation. This ratio was significantly higher for cells that grew on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates than for cells on Ca-P-coated coverslips or plain glass slips. Hence, we propose that this ratio of in vitro-determined parameters reflects the osteogenic effect of different substrates on bone-forming cells. Finally, qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that growth of SaOS-2 cells on a silicatein/biosilica matrix upregulated BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2, inducer of bone formation) expression. In contrast, TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, modulator of bone resorption) expression remained unaffected. We conclude that biosilica shows pronounced osteogenicity in vitro, qualifying this material for studies of bone replacement also in vivo. PMID:20725824

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAO-HD-GC-DM Cross Index (ADC 1983) (Roman+ 1983)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N. J., Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The catalog is an updated, corrected, and extended version of a table of correspondences originally prepared by Morin (1973). The individual data corrections, additions, and changes included in the new version number 11398, with 8600 data records having at least one change. In addition to the correction of all errors found since preparation of the original catalog, most of which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple-star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog, component identifications from the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars (IDS) have been appended to all multiple SAO stars having the same DM numbers, and lowercase identifications for supplemental (footnoted) BD stars have been added. Stars deleted (duplicate entries) in the SAO Catalog have been appended with a "D" and their data removed, although the records have been kept (with SAO number only) in order not to change the number of SAO stars. The data include SAO number, HD number, HD multiplicity code, GC number, DM identification code (BD, CD, CP), and number. There are fewer objects than records because of the deleted entries appended with a "D" as described above (35 stars deleted). (1 data file).

  1. Semi-annual oscillation (SAO) of the nighttime ionospheric D region as detected through ground-based VLF receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Israel; Price, Colin; Rodger, Craig J.

    2016-03-01

    Earth's middle and upper atmosphere exhibits several dominant large-scale oscillations in many measured parameters. One of these oscillations is the semi-annual oscillation (SAO). The SAO can be detected in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC), the ionospheric transition height, the wind regime in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT), and in the MLT temperatures. In addition, as we report for the first time in this study, the SAO is among the most dominant oscillations in nighttime very low frequency (VLF) narrowband (NB) subionospheric measurements. As VLF signals are reflected off the ionospheric D region (at altitudes of ˜ 65 and ˜ 85 km, during the day and night, respectively), this implies that the upper part of the D region is experiencing this oscillation as well, through changes in the dominating electron or ion densities, or by changes in the electron collision frequency, recombination rates, and attachment rates, all of which could be driven by oscillatory MLT temperature changes. We conclude that the main source of the SAO in the nighttime D region is NOx molecule transport from the lower levels of the thermosphere, resulting in enhanced ionization and the creation of free electrons in the nighttime D region, thus modulating the SAO signature in VLF NB measurements. While the cause for the observed SAO is still a subject of debate, this oscillation should be taken into account when modeling the D region in general and VLF wave propagation in particular.

  2. Preliminary Goddard geopotential using optical tracking data and a comparison with SAO models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Putney, B. H.; Nickerson, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geopotential and center of mass station coordinate solution was obtained from satellite orbital data using numerical integration theory. This geodetic solution is a prelude to a more general solution which will combine the 1971 International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) laser data with the present data being employed. The present GSFC geopotential solution consists of the spherical harmonic coefficients through degree and order eight with higher order satellite resonant coefficients. The solution represents a first iteration result from 17 satellites with approximately 150 weekly orbital arcs containing some 40,000 optical observations. The GSFC preliminary result is compared with final results from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) solutions including the 1969 SAO Standard Earth II solution. One aspect of interest for the comparison is that SAO uses an analytic theory for the orbital solution whereas GSFC uses a numerical integration theory. The comparison of geopotential results shows that good agreement exists in general but that there are some areas of minor differences.

  3. The impact of simple donor education on donor behavioral deferral and infectious disease rates in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Goncalez, Thelma T.; Sabino, Ester C.; Salles, Nanci Alves; Almeida-Neto, Cesar de; Mendrone-Jr, Alfredo; Dorlhiac-Laccer, Pedro E.; Liu, Jing; Murphy, Edward L.; Schreiber, George B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that HIV residual risk is higher in Brazilian than in US and European blood donors; probably due to failure to defer at risk individuals in Brazil. This study assessed the impact of an educational brochure in enhancing blood donor's knowledge about screening test window phase and reducing at risk individuals from donating. Study design and Methods This trial compared an educational intervention with blood center's usual practice. The brochure was distributed in alternating months to all donors. After donating, sampled participants completed 2 questions about their HIV window period knowledge. The impact on HIV risk deferral, leaving without donation, CUE use and test positivity was also analysed. Results From August-November 2007 we evaluated 33,940 donations in the main collection center of FPS/HSP at Sao Paulo, Brazil. A significant (p <.001) pamphlet effect was found on correct responses to both questions assessing HIV window phase knowledge (68.1% vs. 52.9%) and transfusion risk (91.1% vs. 87.2%). After adjusting for gender and age, the pamphlet effect was strongest for people with more than eight years of education. There was no significant pamphlet effect on HIV risk deferral rate, leaving without donation, use of CUE, or infectious disease rates. Conclusion While the educational pamphlet increased window period knowledge, contrary to expectations this information alone was not enough to make donors self-defer or acknowledge their behavioral risk. PMID:20003056

  4. Indoor and outdoor atmospheric fungal spores in the São Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil): species and numeric concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Bauer, Heidi; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Pukinskas, Sandra; Matos, Dulcilena; Melhem, Márcia; Puxbaum, Hans

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the indoor and outdoor concentrations of fungal spores in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), collected at different sites in winter/spring and summer seasons. The techniques adopted included cultivation (samples collected with impactors) and microscopic enumeration (samples collected with impingers). The overall results showed total concentrations of fungal spores as high as 36,000 per cubic meter, with a large proportion of non culturable spores (around 91% of the total). Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the dominant species both indoors and outdoors, in all seasons tested, occurring in more than 30% of homes at very high concentrations of culturable airborne fungi [colony forming units(CFU) m-3]. There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor concentrations. The total fungal spore concentration found in winter was 19% higher than that in summer. Heat and humidity were the main factors affecting fungal growth; however, a non-linear response to these factors was found. Thus, temperatures below 16°C and above 25°C caused a reduction in the concentration (CFU m-3) of airborne fungi, which fits with MASP climatalogy. The same pattern was observed for humidity, although not as clearly as with temperature given the usual high relative humidity (above 70%) in the study area. These results are relevant for public health interventions that aim to reduce respiratory morbidity among susceptible populations.

  5. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. PMID:25523076

  6. [Professional profile analysis of dentists graduated at Bauru dental School - University of São Paulo between 1996 and 2000].

    PubMed

    Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães; Aquilante, Aline Guerra; Almeida, Beatriz Simões de; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Bijella, Vitoriano Truvijo

    2003-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the professional profile of the 248 dentists graduated at Bauru Dental School - University of Sao Paulo between 1996 and 2000, verify if they accomplish educational and collective measures and determine the level of professional satisfaction. The material was a self-applicable questionnaire containing both multiple choice and open questions. The return rate was 39.5%. Analysis of data showed that the dentists, who were predominantly males, chose Dentistry as a profession because they felt comfortable with it, and evaluate the graduate course as good. Results showed that the practitioners still do not focus on the need of education and prevention in oral health, especially at the collective level. It was concluded that the predominant professional profile was to work at their dental office (38.8%) or at a peer's dental office, receiving an amount of the total profile (25.5%); 26.5% work with health mutual support and 12.2% work at public service. Although 63.3% are professionally realized, only 12.2% are economically realized. The great difficult is the increase in the competition between dentists and saturation of the dental work market. PMID:21394402

  7. [Governance and regulation in health: challenges for health management in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Heimann, Luiza Sterman; Junqueira, Virginia; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Pessoto, Umberto Catarino; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Rocha, Jucilene Leite da; Kayano, Jorge; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Barboza, Renato; Telesi, Emilio

    2007-03-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the public and private sectors in the Unified National Health System (SUS), based on research whose objective was to identify governance strategies and mechanisms for public/private relations in the health sector, considering the search for equity in Greater Metropolitan Sao Paulo, Brazil. Governance was used as an analytical category, with health system regulation as the issue. Municipal and State health secretaries, members of health councils, and SUS staff were interviewed, and the empirical material was classified as: (a) regulatory mechanisms and instruments; (b) power loci; and (c) actors' positions concerning the SUS and its relationship to the private sector. Mechanisms and instruments have been created and used in the municipalities for regulation of their own services. Regulatory measures for the complementary and supplementary healthcare sector are practically nonexistent. There are numerous institutional power loci, seen more as places for submitting demands than as forums for negotiation. Despite some progress, governance appears to be more of a formal issue. Discussion is needed on the relationship between the public and private sectors and its regulation by municipalities in order to improve the health system. PMID:17334572

  8. São Paulo aerosol characterization study.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C D; Martins, M H; Romano, J; Godinho, R

    1997-12-01

    The São Paulo Metropolitan area (SPMA) is characterized as having one of the worst air pollution problems in Brazil, with frequent violations of air quality standards for particulate matter. This paper presents the results of a receptor model source apportionment study carried out to develop a quantitative database on which a control strategy could be developed. The study was conducted in four sites with distinct land uses. Fine, coarse (CP), and total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected on Teflon and glass filters and analyzed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF), ion chromatography, and thermal evolution. The sources were characterized by similar methodology. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling indicated that carbonaceous material plays an important role in the aerosol composition; that the three major source categories contributing to the fine particles are vehicles, secondary carbon, and sulfates; and that the main contributors to CP and TSP are road dust and vehicles. All sampling sites presented the same general pattern in terms of source contribution, although this contribution varied from site to site. PMID:9448518

  9. LARGE-SCALE ASYMMETRIES IN THE TRANSITIONAL DISKS OF SAO 206462 AND SR 21

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.

    2014-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations in the dust continuum (690 GHz, 0.45 mm) and {sup 12}CO J = 6-5 spectral line emission of the transitional disks surrounding the stars SAO 206462 and SR 21. These ALMA observations resolve the dust-depleted disk cavities and extended gaseous disks, revealing large-scale asymmetries in the dust emission of both disks. We modeled these disk structures with a ring and an azimuthal Gaussian, where the azimuthal Gaussian is motivated by the steady-state vortex solution from Lyra and Lin. Compared to recent observations of HD 142527, Oph IRS 48, and LkHα 330, these are low-contrast (≲ 2) asymmetries. Nevertheless, a ring alone is not a good fit, and the addition of a vortex prescription describes these data much better. The asymmetric component encompasses 15% and 28% of the total disk emission in SAO 206462 and SR 21, respectively, which corresponds to a lower limit of 2 M {sub Jup} of material within the asymmetry for both disks. Although the contrast in the dust asymmetry is low, we find that the turbulent velocity inside it must be large (∼20% of the sound speed) in order to drive these azimuthally wide and radially narrow vortex-like structures. We obtain residuals from the ring and vortex fitting that are still significant, tracing non-axisymmetric emission in both disks. We compared these submillimeter observations with recently published H-band scattered light observations. For SR 21 the scattered light emission is distributed quite differently from the submillimeter continuum emission, while for SAO 206462 the submillimeter residuals are suggestive of spiral-like structure similar to the near-IR emission.

  10. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, Gonzalo; Vasilkov, Alexander; Seftor, Colin; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a set of long-term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept and a similar retrieval approach. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good-quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal-to-noise ratio of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ˜ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column density (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products (SAO OMI v3.0.2 and BIRA OMI v14) with our OMPS product using 1 year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hamburg/SAO Survey for ELGs. III. (Hopp+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, U.; Engels, D.; Green, R. F.; Ugryumov, A. V.; Izotov, Y. I.; Hagen, H.-J.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Lipovetsky, V. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Brosch, N.; Masegosa, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Marquez, I.

    2000-03-01

    We present the third list with results of the Hamburg/SAO Survey for Emission-Line Galaxies (HSS therein, SAO - Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russia). This survey is based on the digitized objective-prism photoplate database of the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS). Here, we present new spectroscopic results of candidates which were obtained in 1998 with the 2.1m KPNO and the 2.2m Calar Alto telescopes. All candidates are selected in the declination band +35{deg} to +40{deg}. The follow-up spectroscopy with the 2m class telescopes confirmed 85 emission-line objects out of 113 observed candidates and allowed their quantitative spectral classification. For 80 of them, the redshifts are determined for the first time. For 5 previously known Emission-Line Galaxies (ELGs), line ratios are presented for the first time. We could classify 55 out of the 85 emission-line objects as BCG/HII galaxies or probable BCGs (Blue Compact Galaxies) , 4 - as QSOs, 6 - as Seyfert galaxies, 1 - as super-association in a subluminous spiral galaxy, and 11 are low-excitation objects - either starburst nuclei (SBN), or dwarf amorphous nuclei starburst galaxies (DANS). We could not classify 8 ELGs. Further, for 8 more galaxies we did not detect any significant emission lines. (5 data files).

  12. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  13. Application of echinoid sperm and embryo bioassays for the pollution assessment of Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, A.J.; Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located on the Southeastern Brazilian coast, encompasses the largest oil terminal in the country and is also a highly touristic area. Frequent oil spills are responsible for chronic contamination problems and sewage disposal in the waters of the channel is also common practice. the water and sediment quality in different sites along Sao Sebastiao Channel was evaluated quarterly throughout a year, by toxicity testing with sperm cells and embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Water samples were collected from two depths (1 m below surface and 1 m above the bottom). Sediments, collected by a grab sampler, had their pore water extracted by centrifuging. It was then analyzed for toxicity. The results showed that the pore water from most sites impaired sperm viability and embryo development of the test organisms. Sediments were further characterized for particle size distribution, TOC, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons content. They contained baseline concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe, but the hydrocarbons levels were above the average for nearby coastal areas. The overlying water from the deeper layer was of better quality than the surface, but very fast changes were observed along time and space. This seems to be intimately associated with the predominant hydrodynamic and meteorological phenomena in that region. The results showed that these toxicity test methods can be applied in association with other forms of analysis, for the establishment of quality criteria for Brazilian coastal environments.

  14. Updated Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Monitoring Instrument (SAO OMI) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Wang, H.; Kurosu, T. P.; Suleiman, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde (H2CO) retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO. The version of the algorithm described here includes relevant changes with respect to the operational one, including differences in the reference spectra for H2CO, the fit of O2-O2 collisional complex, updates in the high-resolution solar reference spectrum, the use of a model reference sector over the remote Pacific Ocean to normalize the retrievals, an updated air mass factor (AMF) calculation scheme, and the inclusion of scattering weights and vertical H2CO profile in the level 2 products. The setup of the retrieval is discussed in detail. We compare the results of the updated retrieval with the results from the previous SAO H2CO retrieval. The improvement in the slant column fit increases the temporal stability of the retrieval and slightly reduces the noise. The change in the AMF calculation has increased the AMFs by 20%, mainly due to the consideration of the radiative cloud fraction. Typical values for retrieved vertical columns are between 4 × 1015 and 4 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with typical fitting uncertainties ranging between 45 and 100%. In high-concentration regions the errors are usually reduced to 30%. The detection limit is estimated at 1 × 1016 molecules cm-2.

  15. Planetary Signatures in the SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) Disk: A Spiral Arm Passing through Vortex?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Hartmann, Lee

    2016-03-01

    The disk surrounding SAO 206462, an 8 Myr old Herbig Ae star, has recently been reported to exhibit spiral arms, an asymmetric dust continuum, and a dust-depleted inner cavity. By carrying out two-dimensional, two-fluid hydrodynamic calculations, we find that a planetary-mass companion located at the outer disk could be responsible for these observed structures. In this model, the planet excites primary and secondary arms interior to its orbit. It also carves a gap and generates a local pressure bump at the inner gap edge where a vortex forms through Rossby wave instability. The vortex traps radially drifting dust particles, forming a dust-depleted cavity in the inner disk. We propose that the vortex is responsible for the brightest southwestern peak seen in infrared scattered light and sub-millimeter dust continuum emission. In particular, it is possible that the scattered light is boosted as one of the spiral arms passes through the high density vortex region, although the vortex alone may be able to explain the peak. We suggest that a planetary companion with a mass of 10-15 {M}J is orbiting SAO 206462 at 100-120 au. Monitoring of the brightest peak over the next few years will help reveal its origin because the spiral arms and vortex will show distinguishable displacement.

  16. High resolution spectroscopy of the high latitude rapidly evolving post-AGB star SAO 85766 (= IRAS 18062+2410)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, P.; Sivarani, T.; Manchado, A.; Sanz Fernández de Córdoba, L.

    2000-05-01

    SAO 85766 (b = +20o) is an IRAS source with far-infrared colours similar to planetary nebulae. According to the HDE catalogue, its spectrum in 1940 was that of an A5 star. The UV fluxes and colours derived from data obtained by the TD1 satellite in 1972 also indicate that SAO 85766 was an A-type supergiant at that epoch. However, high resolution spectra of SAO 85766 obtained in 1993 in the wavelength interval 4350Ä to 8820Ä shows that now it is similar to that of an early B type post-AGB supergiant. In addition to the absorptions lines typical of a B1I type star, the spectrum of SAO 85766 is found to show numerous permitted and forbidden emission lines of several elements, typically observed in the spectra of young high density low excitation planetary nebulae. From an analysis of the absorption lines we have estimated Teff=22000+/-500 K, log g=3.0+/-0.5, xi t=15+/-2km s-1 and [M/H]=-0.6. Carbon is found to be strongly underabundant ([C/Fe] = -1.0), similarly to what has been observed in other high galactic latitude hot post-AGB stars. The underabundance of carbon and metals, high galactic latitude, high radial velocity (46 km s-1), the presence of planetary nebula type detached cold circumstellar dust shell and also the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines in the spectrum indicate that SAO 85766 is a low mass star in the post-AGB stage of evolution. The above mentioned characteristics and the variations observed in the spectrum of SAO 85766 suggest that it has rapidly evolved during the past 50 years and it is now in the early stages of the planetary nebula phase. The central star may just have become hot enough to photoionize the circumstellar envelope ejected during the previous AGB phase. >From an analysis of the nebular emission lines we find Te=10000+/- 500K and Ne=2.5 104 cm-3. The nebula also shows an abundance pattern similar to that of the central star. The rapid post-AGB evolution of SAO 85766 appears to be similar to that observed in the

  17. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  18. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Vasilkov, A.; Seftor, C.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on-board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a consistent set of long term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal to noise ratio (SNR) of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ~ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column densities (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products with our OMPS product using one year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product are 21 % between OMI SAO and OMPS SAO and 38

  19. SAO and Kelvin Waves in the EuroGRIPS GCMS and the UK Meteorological Offices Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amodei, M.; Pawson, S.; Scaife, A. A.; Lahoz, W.; Langematz, U.; Li, Ding Min; Simon, P.

    2000-01-01

    This work is an intercomparison of four tropospheric-stratospheric climate models, the Unified Model (UM) of the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO), the model of the Free University in Berlin (FUB). the ARPEGE-climat model of the National Center for Meteorological Research (CNRM), and the Extended UGAMP GCM (EUGCM) of the Center for Global Atmospheric Modelling (CGAM), against the UKMO analyses. This comparison has been made in the framework of the "GSM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC" (GRIPS). SPARC (Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate) aims are to investigate the effects of the middle atmosphere on climate and the GRIPS purpose is to organized a comprehensive assessment of current Middle Atmosphere-Climate Models (MACMs). The models integrations were made without identical contraints e.g. boundary conditions, incoming solar radiation). All models are able to represent the dominant features of the extratropical circulation. In this paper, the structure of the tropical winds and the strengths of the Kelvin waves are examined. Explanations for the differences exhibited. between the models. as well as between models and analyses, are also proposed. In the analyses a rich spectrum of waves (eastward and westward) is present and contributes to drive the SAO (SemiAnnual Oscillation) and the QBO (Quasi-Biennal Oscillation). The amplitude of the Kelvin waves is close to the one observed in UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) data. In agreement with observations, the Kelvin waves generated in the models propagate into the middle atmosphere as wave packets which underlines convective forcing origin. In most models, slow Kelvin waves propagate too high and are hence overestimated in the upper stratosphere and in the mesosphere, except for the UM which is more diffusive. These waves are not sufficient to force realistic westerlies of the QBO or SAO westerly phases. If the SAO is represented by all models only two of them are able to generate

  20. Tumstatin induces apoptosis and stimulates phosphorylation of p65NF-κB in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yin, Ruo-Feng; Teng, Jia-Song

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of tumstatin on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells and to understand the mechanism involved. Inhibition of cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay and induction of apoptosis through nuclear fragmentation assay. Viability of Saos-2 cells was reduced to 19% on treatment with 25 µM concentration of tumstatin after 48 h. Presence of characteristic apoptotic nuclei, rounded cell shape and shrunken size were caused by tumstatin treatment at 25 µM concentration. The level of mRNA corresponding to PTEN, FasR and FasL was increased significantly in tumstatin treated Saos-2 cells compared to untreated control. Investigation of the mechanism revealed NF-κB activation by phosphorylation on serine 536. The activated NF-κB was translocated into the nucleus from the cytoplasm on treatment with tumstatin. Degradation of the IκBα by tumstatin was found to be much slower compared to that induced by treatment with TNF-α. Thus, tumstatin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Saos-2 cells through activation of NF-κB and its translocation to the nucleus. Therefore, tumstatin can play an important role in the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:27109498

  1. Paulo Freire's Relevance to Online Instruction and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Sheri; Dessinger, Joan Conway

    2010-01-01

    Paulo Freire argued that learning should be conversational, accessible, and centered on the experience of the participants. Freirean theory remains strong in adult education and has implications for human performance technology applications in such areas as online learning in terms of design, accessibility, and content, as well as performance…

  2. Paulo Freire and His Contribution to Multiethnic Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushiken, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Paulo Freire's educational philosophy encourages conscientization in individuals as a means to overcoming oppression. This approach includes dialogue that leads to critical thinking and problem-posed learning that fosters self-discovery. This article applies this process to a multi-ethnic congregation as it nurtures ethnic equality. In addition,…

  3. Power-Filled Lessons for Leadership Educators from Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaak, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper is designed to introduce readers to teacher-philosopher-practitioner, Paulo Freire and to illustrate the power of his educational ideals for the task of teaching leadership. Readers will encounter Freire, understand how one's definition of leadership needs to match one's approach to teaching leadership, review a proposed Freirean…

  4. Commentary: Paulo Freire and the Future of the Radical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Paula; Wallis, John

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of Paulo Freire and considers whether his philosophy and approach can be applied in adult and community education today. Suggests that so-called radical education has not addressed epistemological questions, leaving the nature of knowledge unquestioned. (SK)

  5. Untested Feasibility: Imagining the Pragmatic Possibility of Paulo Freire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Kate; Roskelly, Hephzibah

    2001-01-01

    Considers how teachers might re-create, rather than import, Paulo Freire into North American contexts--and so not lose the power of his ideas. Takes the method of pragmatism and connects it to Freire's concept of praxis to argue for pragmatic theory and practice in the work of teaching literacy. (SG)

  6. The Meaning of Conscientizacao: The Goal of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.

    Techniques for applying Brazilian adult educator and political organizer Paulo Freire's theory of "conscientizacao" are discussed. Freire's pedagogy is designed to liberate both oppressor and oppressed from the victimization of the oppressive system through "conscientizacao" or consciousness raising. The term refers to the developmental processes…

  7. Validation of OMI Total Ozone Retrievals from the SAO Ozone Profile Algorithm and Three Operational Algorithms 3 with Brewer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Juseon; Kim, Jae H.; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The optimal estimation (OE) based ozone profile algorithm developed at Smithsonian 3 Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is assessed as to its accuracy to extract total ozone amount from 4 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements through the validation using Brewer ground 5 based measurements between January 2005 and December 2008. We compare it against the quality of 6 three OMI operational ozone products, derived from NASA TOMS, KNMI DOAS, and KNMI OE 7 algorithms, respectively. The validation demonstrates that the SAO ozone profile algorithm generally 8 has the best total ozone retrieval performance compared to the three OMI operational ozone products. 9 The individual station comparisons show an agreement between SAO and Brewer within ± 1% except 10 at polar stations (~ -2 %), with a high correlation coefficient of ~ 0.99 at most stations. The KNMI OE 11 algorithm systematically overestimates the true total ozone value at all stations with a bias from 2 % 12 at low/mid latitude stations to 5 % at high latitude stations. On the other hand, TOMS/DOAS 13 algorithm underestimates total ozone by ~ -1.7 % on average. The standard deviations of differences 14 are ~ 1.8 % for SAO and TOMS while DOAS and KNMI show the standard deviation values of 2.2 15 and 2.5 %, respectively. The remarkable stability of SAO OE algorithm is found with no significant 16 dependency on algorithmic variables such as viewing geometries, cloud parameters, and time. In 17 comparison, the severe dependency on both solar and viewing zenith angles is found in KNMI OE 18 algorithm, which is characterized with a negative (positive) correlation with smaller (larger) solar 19 zenith angles and the strong cross-track dependent biases ranging from 4% at nadir and 1% at off-20 nadir positions. The dependence of DOAS and TOMS algorithms on the algorithmic variables is 21 marginal compared to KNMI OE algorithm, but distinct compared to SAO OE algorithm. Relative 22 differences between SAO/DOAS and

  8. The effect of São Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; da C Ferreira, Marizete M; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. Objective To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. Methods In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. Results The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (p<0.0001); semi-open 3.79 (2.49) ppm vs 1.16 (1.14) ppm (p<0.0001); open area 3.31(2.2) ppm vs 1.31 (1.39) ppm (p<0.0001); smoking employees 15.78 (9.76) ppm vs 11.50 (7.53) ppm (p<0.0001) and non-smoking employees 6.88 (5.32) ppm vs 3.50 (2.21) ppm (p<0.0001). The average CO concentration measured in the city was lower than 1 ppm during both pre-ban and post-ban periods. Conclusion São Paulo's smoking-free legislation reduced significantly the CO concentration in hospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not. PMID:21109684

  9. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Nash, Leslie A; Peters, Sandra J; Sullivan, Philip J; Ward, Wendy E

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  10. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Leslie A.; Peters, Sandra J.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  11. SEISMIC STUDY OF THE AGUA DE PAU GEOTHERMAL PROSPECT, SAO MIGUEL, AZORES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio; Iyer, H.M.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A 16 station array was operated over the 200 km**2 central portion of Sao Miguel utilizing 8 permanent Instituto Nacional de Meterologia e Geofisica stations and 8 USGS portable stations. Forty four local events with well constrained solutions and 15 regional events were located. In addition, hundreds of unlocatable seismic events were recorded. The most interesting seismic activity occurred in a swarm on September 6 and 7, 1983 when over 200 events were recorded in a 16 hour period. The seismic activity around Agua de Pau was centered on the east and northeast slopes of the volcano. The data suggest a boiling hydrothermal system beneath the Agua de Pau volcano, consistent with a variety of other data.

  12. APPLICATION OF AUDIO-MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS ON SAO MIGUEL ISLAND, AZORES PORTUGAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Donald; Rodrigues Da Silva, A.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Amaral, Roberto

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal exploration and development has been under way on Sao Miguel Island, Azores since 1975. This work had been restricted to the Fogo volcano, one of three dormant silicic volcanic centers on the island. The USGS in 1982 and 1983 conducted reconnaissance natural-source audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys of all three silicic centers to evaluate the potential for geothermal systems at each and to demonstrate the utility of the method in areas of difficult terrain. Results on Fogo showed a low resistivity trend extending from the present production area upslope to the caldera boundary. The upper part of this trend is the upwelling zone of a thermal plume which supplies the production area. Further exploration and drilling are now planned for this area.

  13. SAO/NASA joint investigation of astronomical viewing quality at Mount Hopkins Observatory: 1969-1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bufton, J. L.; Hogan, D.; Kurtenbach, D.; Goodwin, K.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the astronomical seeing conditions have been made with a stellar-image monitor system at the Mt. Hopkins Observatory in Arizona. The results of this joint SAO-NASA experiment indicate that for a 15-cm-diameter telescope, image motion is typically 1 arcsec or less and that intensity fluctuations due to scintillation have a coefficient of irradiance variance of less than 0.12 on the average. Correlations between seeing quality and local meteorological conditions were investigated. Local temperature fluctuations and temperature gradients were found to be indicators of image-motion conditions, while high-altitude-wind conditions were shown to be somewhat correlated with scintillation-spectrum bandwidth. The theoretical basis for the relationship of atmospheric turbulence to optical effects is discussed in some detail, along with a description of the equipment used in the experiment. General site-testing comments and applications of the seeing-test results are also included.

  14. Thirty Years, One Million Spectra: Public Access to the SAO Spectral Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mink, J.; Moran, S.

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30 years, the SAO Telescope Data Center has reduced and archived over 1,000,000 spectra, consisting of 287,000 spectra from five high dispersion Echelle spectrographs and 717,000 spectra from four low dispersion spectrographs, across three telescopes. 151,000 spectra from six instruments are currently online and publicly available, covering many interesting objects in the northern sky, including most of the galaxies in the Updated Zwicky Catalog which are reachable through NED or Simbad. A majority of the high dispersion spectra will soon be made public, as will more data from the MMT multi-fiber spectrographs. Many objects in the archive have multiple spectra over time, which make them a valuable resource for archival time-domain studies. We are now developing a system to make all of the public spectra more easily searchable and viewable through the Virtual Observatory.

  15. Keck Observations of HD 169142 and SAO 26804: Results from a Survey of Vega-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. S.; Telesco, C. M.; Pina, R. K.; Knacke, R. F.

    2001-05-01

    We present new mid-IR (10 and 18 μm ) observations of two Vega-like sources, HD 169142 and HD 233517 (SAO 26804). Using OSCIR on Keck II, we have detected extended emission around HD 169142 in what appears to be a nearly face-on disk. The mid-IR-emitting region of the disk has a diameter of ~175 AU, comparable to HD 141569 and the Vega-like archetype β Pictoris. The position of HD 169142 in the H-R diagram implies that it is close to, but not yet on, the ZAMS. Comparison with PMS evolutionary tracks indicates that it is 3 - 10 Myr old, in transition between the Herbig Ae/Be and Vega-like classes. Assuming that the mid-IR-emitting dust particles are Mie spheres implies that their diameter is < 3 μm . We also present new 10 and 18 μm images of HD 233517 (SAO 26804) that show this source is unresolved at the highest resolution currently attainable in the mid-IR. Our imaging with OSCIR on Keck II places full-width at half maximum (FWHM) limits on the source size of 0\\farcs31 at 10.8 μm and 0\\farcs inconsistent with previously published values. The fact that SAO 26804 is unresolved in the mid-IR has implications for the evolutionary status. We propose that the unresolved nature of SAO 26804 is strong circumstantial evidence that the source is not a main sequence (luminosity class V dwarf) Vega-like source, but a lithium-rich giant (luminosity class III). The giant classification for SAO 26804 is supported by its position in the H-R diagram. This research was supported in part by NSF and NASA grants to the University of Florida and Pennsylvania State University at Erie.

  16. IS THE POST-AGB STAR SAO 40039 MILDLY HYDROGEN-DEFICIENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. Sumangala; Pandey, Gajendra; Giridhar, Sunetra; Lambert, David L. E-mail: pandey@iiap.res.in E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2011-08-10

    We have conducted an LTE abundance analysis for SAO 40039, a warm post-AGB star whose spectrum is known to show surprisingly strong He I lines for its effective temperature and has been suspected of being H-deficient and He-rich. High-resolution optical spectra are analyzed using a family of model atmospheres with different He/H ratios. Atmospheric parameters are estimated from the ionization equilibrium set by neutral and singly ionized species of Fe and Mg, the excitation of Fe I and Fe II lines, and the wings of the Paschen lines. On the assumption that the He I lines are of photospheric and not chromospheric origin, a He/H ratio of approximately unity is found by imposing the condition that the adopted He/H ratio of the model atmosphere must equal the ratio derived from the observed He I triplet lines at 5876, 4471, and 4713 A, and singlet lines at 4922 and 5015 A. Using the model with the best-fitting atmospheric parameters for this He/H ratio, SAO 40039 is confirmed to exhibit mild dust-gas depletion, i.e., the star has an atmosphere deficient in elements of high condensation temperature. The star appears to be moderately metal-deficient with [Fe/H] = -0.4 dex. But the star's intrinsic metallicity as estimated from Na, S, and Zn, elements of a low condensation temperature, is [Fe/H]{sub o} {approx_equal} -0.2 ([Fe/H]{sub o} refers to the star's intrinsic metallicity). The star is enriched in N and perhaps O as well, changes reflecting the star's AGB past and the event that led to He enrichment.

  17. Mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells under physiological hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Tolba, Emad; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological energy-rich polymer with multiple phosphoric anhydride bonds. In cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, glycolysis is the main pathway generating metabolic energy in the form of ATP. In the present study, we show that, under hypoxic culture conditions, the growth/viability of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is not impaired. The addition of polyP to those cells, administered as amorphous calcium polyP nanoparticles (aCa-polyP-NP; approximate size 100 nm), significantly increased the proliferation of the cells. In the presence of polyP, the cells produce significant levels of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Under those conditions, an eight-fold increase in the steady-state level of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX is found, as well as a six-fold induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Consequently, biomineral formation onto the SaOS-2 cells decreases under low oxygen tension. If the polyP nanoparticles are added to the cells, the degree of mineralization is enhanced. These changes had been measured also in human mesenchymal stem cells. The assumption that the bicarbonate, generated by the carbonic anhydrase in the presence of polyP under low oxygen, is deposited as a constituent of the bioseeds formed during initial hydroxyapatite formation is corroborated by the identification of carbon besides of calcium, oxygen and phosphorus in the initial biomineral deposit onto the cells using the sensitive technology of high-resolution energy dispersive spectrometry mapping. Based on these data, we conclude that polyP is required for the supply of metabolic energy during bone mineral formation under physiological, hypoxic conditions, acting as a 'metabolic fuel' for the cells to grow. PMID:26453899

  18. Influence of Topographic and Hydrographic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Leptospirosis Disease in São Paulo County, Brazil: An Approach Using Geospatial Techniques and GIS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. C.; Ferreira, M. F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by Leptospira genus bacteria. Rodents, especially Rattus norvegicus, are the most frequent hosts of this microorganism in the cities. The human transmission occurs by contact with urine, blood or tissues of the rodent and contacting water or mud contaminated by rodent urine. Spatial patterns of concentration of leptospirosis are related to the multiple environmental and socioeconomic factors, like housing near flooding areas, domestic garbage disposal sites and high-density of peoples living in slums located near river channels. We used geospatial techniques and geographical information system (GIS) to analysing spatial relationship between the distribution of leptospirosis cases and distance from rivers, river density in the census sector and terrain slope factors, in Sao Paulo County, Brazil. To test this methodology we used a sample of 183 geocoded leptospirosis cases confirmed in 2007, ASTER GDEM2 data, hydrography and census sectors shapefiles. Our results showed that GIS and geospatial analysis techniques improved the mapping of the disease and permitted identify the spatial pattern of association between location of cases and spatial distribution of the environmental variables analyzed. This study showed also that leptospirosis cases might be more related to the census sectors located on higher river density areas and households situated at shorter distances from rivers. In the other hand, it was not possible to assert that slope terrain contributes significantly to the location of leptospirosis cases.

  19. [Health education in Brazil: from Paulo Freire to today].

    PubMed

    Masselli, Maria Cecilia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Oliveira, Nayara L S; Smeke, Elizabeth L M

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of Brazil in the area of health education integrated in popular education movements. More specifically, the paper discusses the link between health education and popular education, focusing in particular on the work of Paulo Freire. Anti-slavery movements, protest movements against social inequalities and the reconstruction of democracy after the end of the military dictatorship (1965-1984) provided fertile ground for a dynamic process of change--a process illustrated by the creation of the Unified Health System. These developments occurred in a context of social change and unrest. Since then, other actors and other forms of action have emerged, though creativity and popular empowerment remain central to the process of change. However, in popular education, nothing is set in stone and new issues have emerged, as Paulo Freire had predicted. The point is to recognize that popular education applied to health, or rather integrating health, is constantly changing and developing. PMID:24313076

  20. Adenosine Triphosphate stimulates differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cutarelli, Alessandro; Marini, Mario; Tancredi, Virginia; D'Arcangelo, Giovanna; Murdocca, Michela; Frank, Claudio; Tarantino, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    In the last years adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and subsequent purinergic system activation through P2 receptors were investigated highlighting their pivotal role in bone tissue biology. In osteoblasts ATP can regulate several activities like cell proliferation, cell death, cell differentiation and matrix mineralization. Since controversial results exist, in this study we analyzed the ATP effects on differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. We showed for the first time the altered functional activity of ATP receptors. Despite that, we found that ATP can reduce cell proliferation and stimulate osteogenic differentiation mainly in the early stages of in vitro maturation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osteocalcin (OC) genes and by the increased ALP activity. Moreover, we found that ATP can affect mineralization in a biphasic manner, at low concentrations ATP always increases mineral deposition while at high concentrations it always reduces mineral deposition. In conclusion, we show the osteogenic effect of ATP on both early and late stage activities like differentiation and mineralization, for the first time in human osteoblastic cells. PMID:27189526

  1. Imaging polarimetry of distant comets at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Oleksandra; Afanasiev, Viktor; Rosenbush, Vera; Kiselev, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Results of the recent polarimetric observations of distant comets C/2013 V4 (Catalina), C/2014 A4 (SONEAR), C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), C/2010 R1 (LINEAR), and 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 are presented together with analysis of their photometry and spectroscopy. Observations were carried out at the 6-m telescope BTA of the SAO RAS with the multi-mode focal reducer SCORPIO-2 from 2011 to 2015. Comets were observed in the range of heliocentric distances from 4.2 to 7.0 AU and phase angles from 4.9 to 9.4 degrees. The maps of intensity and linear polarization over the coma are derived. The comets observed show a considerable activity at heliocentric distances far exceeding a zone of water sublimation. Molecular emissions were only detected in the spectra of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The linear polarization of distant comets with a high level of activity is the first ever measured at the heliocentric distances larger than 5 AU. The degree of linear polarization (from -2 to -3.7%) for these comets is significantly higher (in absolute value) than the typical value of the whole coma polarization (about -1.5 %) at the minimum of negative polarization branch for close to the Sun comets.

  2. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide

  3. Effect of Bioglass on Growth and Biomineralization of SaOS-2 Cells in Hydrogel after 3D Cell Bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C.; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP•Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2∶CaO∶P2O5 of 55∶40∶5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP•Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide a

  4. Ambient Dose Equivalent in S. Paulo and Bauru cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umisedo, Nancy K.; Okuno, Emico; Cancio, Francisco S.; Aldred, Martha A.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2008-08-01

    The Laboratory of Dosimetry (Institute of Physics, University of S. Paulo) performs since 1981 the external individual monitoring of workers exposed to X and gamma rays based on thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Personal dose equivalent refers only to the exposure of workers due to the working activities, and the dose due to background radiation, also measured with TLD, must be subtracted to evaluate it. A compilation of ambient dose equivalent was done to evaluate the dose due to the background radiation in the work places, and also to contribute to the knowledge of the level of indoor radiation to which the public is exposed.

  5. Ambient Dose Equivalent in S. Paulo and Bauru cities

    SciTech Connect

    Umisedo, Nancy K.; Okuno, Emico; Cancio, Francisco S.; Aldred, Martha A.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2008-08-07

    The Laboratory of Dosimetry (Institute of Physics, University of S. Paulo) performs since 1981 the external individual monitoring of workers exposed to X and gamma rays based on thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Personal dose equivalent refers only to the exposure of workers due to the working activities, and the dose due to background radiation, also measured with TLD, must be subtracted to evaluate it. A compilation of ambient dose equivalent was done to evaluate the dose due to the background radiation in the work places, and also to contribute to the knowledge of the level of indoor radiation to which the public is exposed.

  6. Evolution models from the AGB to the PNe and the rapid evolution of SAO 244567

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawlor, Timothy M.; Sebzda, Steven; Peterson, Zach

    2015-08-01

    We present evolution calculations from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) to the Planetary Nebula (PNe) phase for models of mass 1 M⊙ over a range of metallicities from primordial, Z = 10-14, through near solar, Z = 0.02. Using our grid of models, we determine a central star mass dependence on initial metallicity. We also present a range of low masses for our low to very low metal models. The understanding of these objects is an important part of galactic evolution and the evolution of the composition of the universe over a broad range of red shits. For our low Z models, we find key differences in how they cross the HR diagram to the PNe phase, compared with models with higher initial Z. Some of our models experience the so called AGB Final Thermal Pulse (AFTP), which is a helium pulse that occurs while leaving the AGB and causes a rapid looping evolution while evolving between the AGB and PN phase. We use these models to make comparisons to the central star of the Stingray Nebula, SAO 244567. This object has been observed to be rapidly evolving (heating) over more than the last 50 years and is the central star of the youngest known planetary nebula. These two characteristics are similar to what is expected for AFTP models. It is a short lived phase that is related to, but different than, very late thermal pulse objects such as Sakurai’s Object, FG Sge, and V605 Aql. These objects experienced a similar thermal pulse, but later on the white dwarf cooling track.

  7. Home Runs and Humbugs: Comment on Bond and DePaulo (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, C. F. Bond Jr. and B. M. DePaulo provided a meta-analysis of means and concluded that average lie detection accuracy was significantly greater than chance for most people. Now, they have presented an analysis of standard deviations (C. F. Bond Jr. & B. M. DePaulo, 2008), claiming that there are no reliable individual differences in lie…

  8. DIVERSE AND ATYPICAL GENOTYPES IDENTIFIED IN TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM DOGS IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dogs are considered a potential risk for transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans because they can mechanically transmit oocysts to people. The prevalence of T. gondii in 118 unwanted dogs from the São Paulo city, São Paulo state, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by th...

  9. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increase sensitivity of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells to cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Bi, Haiyong; Gao, Ji; Lu, Xing; Zheng, Yanping

    2016-07-01

    WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, can activate cannabinoid receptors, which has proven anti-tumour effects in several tumour types. Studies showed that WIN can inhibit tumour cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in diverse cancers. However, the role and mechanism of WIN in osteosarcoma are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of WIN55,212-2 on osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. Meanwhile, we further explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the cell proliferation of Saos-2 was inhibited by WIN55,212-2 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. WIN55,212-2-induced Saos-2 apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Meanwhile, WIN55,212-2 can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in Saos-2 cells. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increased apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2 in Saos-2 cells. These findings indicated that WIN55,212-2 in combination with autophagic inhibitor or endoplasmic reticulum stress activator may shed new light on osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27309350

  10. Binary star speckle measurements during 1992-1997 from the SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes in Zelenchuk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balega, I. I.; Balega, Y. Y.; Maksimov, A. F.; Pluzhnik, E. A.; Shkhagosheva, Z. U.; Vasyuk, V. A.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of speckle interferometric measurements of binary stars made with the television photon-counting camera at the 6-m Big Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) and 1-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) between August 1992 and May 1997. The data contain 89 observations of 62 star systems on the large telescope and 21 on the smaller one. For the 6-m aperture 18 systems remained unresolved. The measured angular separation ranged from 39 mas, two times above the BTA diffraction limit, to 1593 mas.

  11. Green tea polyphenols-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells involves a caspase-dependent mechanism with downregulation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Hafeez, Bilal; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Wang, Naizhen; Gupta, Sanjay; Zhang Ailin; Haqqi, Tariq M. . E-mail: txh5@case.edu

    2006-10-01

    Development of chemotherapy resistance and evasion from apoptosis in osteosarcoma, a primary malignant bone tumor, is often correlated with constitutive nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) activation. Here, we investigated the ability of a polyphenolic fraction of green tea (GTP) that has been shown to have antitumor effects on various malignant cell lines to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with GTP (20-60 {mu}g/ml) resulted in reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, which correlated with decreased nuclear DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and lowering of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and p50 levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus. GTP treatment of cells reduced I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation but had no effect on its protein expression. Furthermore, GTP treatment resulted in the inhibition of IKK-{alpha} and IKK-{beta}, the upstream kinases that phosphorylate I{kappa}B-{alpha}. The increase in apoptosis in SAOS-2 cells was accompanied with decrease in the protein expression of Bcl-2 and concomitant increase in the levels of Bax. GTP treatment of SAOS-2 cells also resulted in significant activation of caspases as was evident by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 in these cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with a specific caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO) and general caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) rescued SAOS-2 cells from GTP-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that GTP is a candidate therapeutic for osteosarcoma that mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B.

  12. SAO 244567 - A post-AGB star which has turned into a planetary nebula within the last 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Pottasch, S. R.; Manchado, A.; Clavel, J.; de Martino, D.; van de Steene, G. C. M.; Sahu, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    SAO 244567 (Hen 1357 = CPD -59 deg 6926 = IRAS 17119-5926) is an IRAS source with far infrared colors and flux distribution similar to those of planetary nebulae. The IUE ultraviolet spectra obtained in July 1988 and April 1992 show nebular emission lines, and also the changes in the spectra suggest the formation of the planetary nebula and the rapid evolution of the central star. The optical spectrum of this star obtained by Henize around 1950 shows only the H-alpha line in emission, while the most recent one, obtained in 1990 shows strong forbidden emission lines corresponding to a low excitation and young planetary nebula. The IUE ultraviolet spectra show evidence for the presence of stellar wind and mass loss. The stellar lines show P-Cygni type profiles and the terminal velocity of the stellar wind is about - 3000 km/s. The spectral type of the central star is O8 V. The presence of a detached cold dust shell (125 K), high galactic latitude and abundances suggest that SAO 244567 has recently evolved from a low or intermediate mass progenitor star which has ejected its outer envelope during the AGB stage of evolution and is rapidly evolving towards hotter spectral types.

  13. Cadmium exposure activates the ERK signaling pathway leading to altered osteoblast gene expression and apoptotic death in Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Arbon, Kate S.; Christensen, Cody M.; Harvey, Wendy A.; Heggland, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports of cadmium in electronic waste and jewelry have increased public awareness regarding this toxic metal. Human exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of osteoporosis. We previously reported cadmium induces apoptosis in human tumor-derived Saos-2 osteoblasts. In this study, we examine the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in cadmium-induced apoptosis and altered osteoblast gene expression. Saos-2 osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of 10 μM CdCl2 for 2–72 hours. We detected significant ERK activation in response to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 attenuated cadmium-induced apoptosis. However, PKCα activation was not observed after exposure to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C, was unable to rescue cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis. Gene expression studies were conducted using qPCR. Cells exposed to CdCl2 exhibited a significant decrease in the bone-forming genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. In contrast, SOST, whose protein product inhibits bone formation, significantly increased in response to CdCl2. Pretreatment with PD98059 had a recovery effect on cadmium-induced changes in gene expression. This research demonstrates cadmium can directly inhibit osteoblasts via ERK signaling pathway and identifies SOST as a target for cadmium-induced osteotoxicity. PMID:22019892

  14. Rapid photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the young planetary nebula Hen 3-1357 and its central star SAO 244567

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Rajoelimanana, Andry

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations for the young compact planetary nebula Hen 3-1357 and its central star SAO 244567. High-resolution spectroscopy has allowed the expansion velocity of the nebula, V exp = 8.4 ± 1.5 km s-1, and the heliocentric velocity of the object, V r = +12.6 ± 1.7 km s-1, to be determined. The gas shell parameters ( N e , T e ), the extinction in the H β line, and the O, N, Ne, Ar, S, Cl, He, and C abundances have been determined from low-resolution spectra taken in 1992 and 2011. We have found significant changes in the relative intensities of forbidden lines in the spectrum of Hen 3-1357 within the last 20 years: the low-excitation [O I], [O II], and [N II] lines became stronger relative to H β by a factor of ˜2, while the [O III] lines weakened by a factor of ˜ 2, suggesting a decrease in the excitation class of the nebula. The V-band photometry performed under the ASAS-3 program revealed a decline in the yearly mean brightness of SAO 244 567 from 2001 to 2009 by 0_.^m 5 and rapid variability with an amplitude of a few tenths of a magnitude. Published observational data in a wide spectral range, from the near ultraviolet to the radio band, suggest an appreciable weakening of the flux from the star and the nebula.

  15. Synthesis of fatty acids in the perused mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Salmon, D M; Bowen, N L; Hems, D A

    1974-09-01

    1. Fatty acid synthesis de novo was measured in the perfused liver of fed mice. 2. The total rate, measured by the incorporation into fatty acid of (3)H from (3)H(2)O (1-7mumol of fatty acid/h per g of fresh liver), resembled the rate found in the liver of intact mice. 3. Perfusions with l-[U-(14)C]lactic acid and [U-(14)C]glucose showed that circulating glucose at concentrations less than about 17mm was not a major carbon source for newly synthesized fatty acid, whereas lactate (10mm) markedly stimulated fatty acid synthesis, and contributed extensive carbon to lipogenesis. 4. The identification of 50% of the carbon converted into newly synthesized fatty acid lends further credibility to the use of (3)H(2)O to measure hepatic fatty acid synthesis. 5. The total rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the contribution of glucose carbon to lipogenesis, were directly proportional to the initial hepatic glycogen concentration. 6. The proportion of total newly synthesized lipid that was released into the perfusion medium was 12-16%. 7. The major products of lipogenesis were saturated fatty acids in triglyceride and phospholipid. 8. The rate of cholesterol synthesis, also measured with (3)H(2)O, expressed as acetyl residues consumed, was about one-fourth of the basal rate of fatty acid synthesis. 9. These results are discussed in terms of the carbon sources of hepatic newly synthesized fatty acids, and the effect of glucose, glycogen and lactate in stimulating lipogenesis, independently of their role as precursors. PMID:4464843

  16. [The socialization of medicine in the era of São Paulo Governor Adhemar de Barros.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community. PMID:25388442

  17. [The socialization of medicine in the era of São Paulo Governor Adhemar de Barros].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community. PMID:25606733

  18. SaOS-2 cell response to macro-porous boron-incorporated TiO2 coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation on titanium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianli; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Liu, Xujie; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to develop boron-incorporated TiO2 coating (B-TiO2 coating) through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently evaluate the effect of boron incorporation on the in vitro biological performance of the coatings. The physicochemical properties of B-TiO2 coating and its response to osteoblast like cells (SaOS-2) were investigated compared to the control group without boron (TiO2 coating). The morphological and X-ray diffraction results showed that both coatings exhibited similar surface topography and phase composition, respectively. However, the incorporation of B led to an enhancement in the surface hydrophilicity of B-TiO2 coating. The spreading of SaOS-2 cells on B-TiO2 coating was faster than that on TiO2 coating. The proliferation rate of SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 decreased after 5days of culture compared to that on TiO2 coating. SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 coating exhibited an enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Collagen I synthesis and in vitro mineralization compared to those on TiO2 coating. The present findings suggest that B-TiO2 coating is a promising candidate surface for orthopedic implants. PMID:27287114

  19. The Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide, rhodostomin, inhibits in vitro cell adhesion to extracellular matrices and platelet aggregation caused by saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, H. S.; Yang, R. S.; Huang, T. F.

    1995-01-01

    Saos-2 cells, derived from a primary human osteosarcoma, caused dose-dependent platelet aggregation in heparinised human platelet-rich plasma. Saos-2 tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) was completely inhibited by hirudin but unaffected by apyrase. The cell suspension shortened the plasma recalcification times of normal, factor VIII-deficient and factor IX-deficient human plasmas in a dose-dependent manner. However, the cell suspension did not affect the recalcification time of factor VII-deficient plasma. Moreover, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against human tissue factor completely abolished TCIPA. Flow cytometric analysis using anti-integrin MAbs as the primary binding ligands demonstrated that the integrin receptors alpha v beta 3, alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 1 were present of Saos-2 cells, which might mediate tumour cell adhesion to extracellular matrix. Rhodostomin, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing snake venom peptide which antagonises the binding of fibrinogen to platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, prevented Saos-2 TCIPA as well as tumour cell adhesion to vitronectin, fibronectin and collagen type I. Likewise, the synthetic peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) showed a similar effect. On a molar basis, rhodostomin was about 18,000 and 1000 times, respectively, more potent than GRGDS in inhibiting TCIPA and tumour cell adhesion. PMID:7841039

  20. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    In our recently published article "Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector" by Iliano V. Coutinho-Abreu et al. a sentence located in paragraph 8 in the Discussion section had its meaning altered due to the improper insertion of three words. PMID:18834535

  1. Case studies on the geological application of LANDSAT imagery in Brazil. [Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demendonca, F. (Principal Investigator); Correa, A. C.; Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers in Brazil were selected as test sites for LANDSAT imagery. The satellite images were analyzed using conventional photointerpretation techniques, and the results indicate the application of small scale image data in regional structural data analysis, geological mapping, and mineral exploration.

  2. Verification of LANDSAT imagery for morphametric and topological studies of drainage basins in a section of the western plateau of Sao Paulo State: Tiete-Aguapei watershed. M.S. Thesis; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Camargo, J. C. G.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of using LANDSAT MSS imagery for morphometric and topological studies of drainage basins was verified. Using Tiete and Aguapei watershed (Western Plateau) as the test site because of its homogeneous landscape. Morphometric variables collected for ten drainage basins include: circularity index; river density; drainage density; topographic texture; areal and index length; basin parameter; and main river length 1st order and 2nd order channel length. The topographical variables determined were: order; magnitude; bifuraction ratio; weighted bifuraction ratio; number of segments; number of linking; trajectory length; and topological diameter. Data were collected on topographical maps at the scale of 1:250,000 and 1:59,000 and on LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000. The results which were summarized on tables for further analysis, show that LANDSAT imagery can supply the lack of topographic charts for drainage studies.

  3. Antimalarial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from six plants used in traditional medicine in Mali and Sao Tome.

    PubMed

    Ancolio, C; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Ollivier, E; Di Giorgio, C; Keita, A; Timon-David, P; Balansard, G

    2002-11-01

    Methanol and chloroform extracts were prepared from various parts of four plants collected in Mali: Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.) Combretaceae, Feretia apodanthera (Del.) Rubiaceae, Combretum micranthum (Don.) Combretaceae, Securidaca longepedunculata (Fres.) Polygalaceae and two plants -collected in Sao Tome: Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Myristicaceae and Morinda citrifolia (Benth.) Rubiaceae were assessed for their in vitro antimalarial activity and their cytotoxic effects on human monocytes (THP1 cells) by flow cytometry. The methanol extract of leaves of Feretia apodanthera and the chloroform extract of roots of Guiera senegalensis exhibited a pronounced antimalarial activity. Two alkaloids isolated from the active extract of Guiera senegalensis, harman and tetrahydroharman, showed antimalarial activity (IC(50) lower than 4 microg/mL) and displayed low toxicity against THP1. Moreover, the decrease of THP1 cells in S phase of the cell cycle, after treatment with harman and tetrahydroharman, was probably due to an inhibition of total protein synthesis. PMID:12410545

  4. Dynamic study of the upper Sao Francisco River and the Tres Marias reservoir using MSS/LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral ban scanner imagery to verify the relationship between the behavior of the Tres Marias reservoir and the dynamics of the Sao Francisco River supply basin is described. The dispersion of suspended sediments and their concentration in the surface layers of the water are considered. A five year survey of the region during both dry and rainy seasons was performed. The drainage network was analyzed based on the patterns of dessication, water rises and soil use in the supply basin. Surface layers of the reservoir were tabulated as a function of the levels of gray in the imagery. In situ observations of water depth and reflectance were performed. Ground truth and LANDSAT data were correlated to determine the factors affecting the dynamics of the supply basin.

  5. A Comparison between Cytotoxicity Induced by Two Resin Based Sealers (2Seal and AH Plus) in Saos-2 and MG-63 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Maryam; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Gharouee, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity induced by two resin-based sealers, 2Seal and AH Plus, in two osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and Saos-2. Using sterile discs of both sealers in complete media, 24- and 72-h extracts were prepared. The extracts were exchanged with Saos-2 or MG-63 cell culture media at 75% confluence, and after 24 h incubation, cell viability tests were performed for each extract and cell line using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Corresponding incubated media were used as negative control groups. For both extracts and sealers, cytotoxicity was observed in both cell lines. For Saos-2, there was no statistical difference in toxicity between the sealers for either extract (p > 0.05). For MG-63, the 2Seal 24-h extract and the AH Plus 72-h extract had greater cytotoxicity than the other extracts (p < 0.05(. Both AH Plus and 2Seal demonstrated significant cytotoxicity in these two cell lines. In contrast to 2Seal, the cytotoxicity of AH Plus in the MG-63 cell line increased with extraction time from 24 to 72 h. The AH Plus and 2Seal 24-h extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cell line, while in the Saos-2 cell line there were no detectable differences. This may reflect higher sensitivity of the MG-63 cell line compared to Saos-2 toward cytotoxicity induced by these two sealers, or different kinetics of toxicant release from the sealers. PMID:24551778

  6. Validation of OMI total ozone retrievals from the SAO ozone profile algorithm and three operational algorithms with Brewer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.; Chance, K.; Haffner, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of total ozone computed from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) optimal estimation (OE) ozone profile algorithm (SOE) applied to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is assessed through comparisons with ground-based Brewer spectrometer measurements from 2005 to 2008. We also compare the three OMI operational ozone products, derived from the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) algorithm, the KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm, and KNMI's Optimal Estimation (KOE) algorithm. The best agreement is observed between SAO and Brewer, with a mean difference of within 1% at most individual stations. The KNMI OE algorithm systematically overestimates Brewer total ozone by 2% at low and mid-latitudes and 5% at high latitudes while the TOMS and DOAS algorithms underestimate it by ~1.65% on average. Standard deviations of ~1.8% are calculated for both SOE and TOMS, but DOAS and KOE have higher values of 2.2% and 2.6%, respectively. The stability of the SOE algorithm is found to have insignificant dependence on viewing geometry, cloud parameters, or total ozone column. In comparison, the KOE-Brewer differences are significantly correlated with solar and viewing zenith angles and show significant deviations depending on cloud parameters and total ozone amount. The TOMS algorithm exhibits similar stability to SOE with respect to viewing geometry and total column ozone, but has stronger cloud parameter dependence. The dependence of DOAS on observational geometry and geophysical conditions is marginal compared to KOE, but is distinct compared to the SOE and TOMS algorithms. Comparisons of all four OMI products with Brewer show no apparent long-term drift, but seasonal features are evident, especially for KOE and TOMS. The substantial differences in the KOE vs. SOE algorithm performance cannot be sufficiently explained by the use of soft calibration (in SOE) and the use of

  7. Precipitation variability in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufek, A. S.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2008-08-01

    The State of São Paulo is the richest in Brazil, responsible for over 30% of the Brazilian gross rate. It has a population of around 30 million and its economy is based on agriculture and industrial products. Any change in climate can have a profound influence on the socio-economics of the State. In order to determine changes in total and extreme rainfall over São Paulo State, climate change indices derived from daily precipitation data were calculated using specially designed software. Maps of trends for a subset of 59 rain gauge stations were analysed for the period 1950-1999 and also for a subset of this period, 1990-1999, representing more recent climate. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to the time series. Maps of trends for six annual precipitation indices (annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT), very heavy precipitation days (R20 mm), events greater than the 95th percentile (R95p), maximum five days precipitation total (RX5day), the length of the largest wet spell (CWD) and the length of the largest dry spell (CDD)) were analysed for the entire period. These exhibited statistically significant trends associated with a wetter climate. A significant increase in PRCPTOT, associated with very heavy precipitation days, were observed at more than 45% of the rain gauge stations. The Mann-Kendall test identified that the positive trend in PRCPTOT is possibly related to the increase in the R95p and R20 mm indices. Therefore, the results suggest that there has been a change in precipitation intensity. In contrast, the indices for the more recent shorter time series are significantly different to the longer term indices. The results indicate that intense precipitation is becoming concentrated in a few days and spread over the period when the CDD and R20 mm indices show positive trends, while negative ones are seen in the RX5day index. The trends found could be related to many anthropogenic aspects such as biomass burning aerosols and land use.

  8. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    l'État de Sao Paulo (Brésil). L'évolution des concentrations des espèces dissoutes et la modélisation géochimique ont fait apparaître le rôle notable des échanges de cations et de la dissolution des carbonates de l'amont vers l'aval des nappes. La perte de calcium par échange de cation avec le sodium pilote la dissolution des carbonates et donne naissance à des eaux souterraines à faciès Na-HCO3. Le front d'échange de cation se déplace vers l'aval probablement plus lentement que la vitesse d'écoulement de l'eau souterraine et est actuellement situé à proximité des villes de Sertaozinho et de Aguas de Santa Barbara (respectivement puits PZ-34 et PZ-148), dans une zone captive proche de la surface, à 50-70 km de la zone de recharge. Une partie du sodium provient probablement du système aquifère du Guarani, associée aux chlorures et aux sulfates de la formation Piramboia sous-jacente, par diffusion liée à la dissolution d'évaporites comme la halite et le gypse. De fortes concentrations en fluorures (jusqu'à 13,3 mg/L) peuvent être expliquées par la dissolution d'un minéral fluoré également pilotée par l'échange de cations. Cependant, on ne sait pas bien si la dissolution intervient directement dans le système aquifère du Guarani ou dans la formation basaltique sus-jacente de Serra Geral. Les valeurs de δ2H et δ18O décroissent vers l'aval de la nappe. Les valeurs de δ13C du carbone minéral dissous sont enrichies vers l'aval, indiquant qu'il se produit une dissolution de calcite en système fermé. Les valeurs de δ13C du carbone minéral dissous dans les puits géothermaux profonds sont très élevées (supérieures à -6,0‰) et rendent probablement compte d'échanges isotopiques avec des carbonates possédant un δ13C d'environ -3,0‰. De prochaines études devront s'attacher à évaluer les flux verticaux et le potentiel de pénétration de contamination du système aquifère du Guarani. Resumen. El propósito de este

  9. Comparison of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and in situ sea level data at Sao Tome Island, Gulf of Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, Jean-Marc; Park, Young-Hyang

    1995-12-01

    In situ sea level data from a shallow pressure tide gauge (mean depth 3.21 m) at Sao Tome Island, Gulf of Guinea, and altimeter data from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) were analyzed and compared. The Texas model, a T/P-derived tide model, is used for the tidal correction of altimeter data. Sea level anomaly time series from both data sets were low-pass filtered by using a Gaussian recurrent interpolation scheme, suppressing high-frequency fluctuations of periods much less than 2 months. According to the 1992-1993 Sao Tome tide gauge data, a clear seasonal signal was observed both in 1992 and in 1993, presenting two sea level maxima in February and October and two minima in June and December. These sea level variations are consistent with the known seasonal mean sea level cycle of the area, most of which can be explained by steric sea level changes due to the seasonal cycle of upper 500-m water column properties in the Gulf of Guinea. On the basis of the 60-day low-passed tide gauge time series, significant year to year variations were observed as well, with a 6.3-cm sea level difference in February (+8.1 cm in 1992 versus +1.8 cm in 1993) and a 4.4-cm difference in October (+4.6 cm in 1992 versus +9.0 cm in 1993). Minimum sea levels, occurring just prior to the upwelling season (July-August), were almost the same for both years (-9 to -10 cm) but lasted much longer in 1992 (2 months) than in 1993 (2 weeks). During the 15-month period of concomitant observations, from October 1992 to December 1993, these seasonal and year to year sea level variations are remarkably well reproduced by the T/P sea level time series, with an rms difference of 2.2 cm and a correlation coefficient of 0.88. This result in the equatorial Atlantic is consistent with other intercomparisons in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This excellent recovery of the oceanic signal is undoubtedly the result of unprecedented high precision of T/P measurements and the reliable T/P-derived tide model that is used in

  10. Contourite systems in the region of the southern São Paulo Plateau escarpment, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, D. G.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Ivanova, E. V.; Levchenko, O. V.; Yutsis, V. V.; Frantseva, T. N.

    2013-07-01

    Seismoacoustic investigations with a high-resolution parametric echo-sounder "SES 2000 deep" carried out on cruises 33, 35, and 37 of the R/V Akademik Ioffe revealed several erosional-depositional contourite systems on the São Paulo Plateau escarpment and its toe in the South Atlantic. Two contourite terraces related to interfaces between different water masses are observable on the escarpment. These terraces presumably reflect the activity of internal waves and turbulent eddies. The São Paulo contourite channel and genetically related drift are traceable along the escarpment toe. Changes in planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in Core AI-2563 retrieved from the summit of the São Paulo contourite drift suggest a shallowing of the Weddell Sea Deep Water mass during glacial times. It is established that the contour current of the Weddell Sea Deep Water and Lower Circumpolar Water considerably affect the formation of contourite depositional systems on the escarpment and its toe.