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Sample records for peruvian pesticide applicators

  1. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Yucra, Sandra; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-01-01

    Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa), Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years). In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates) by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04) and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02) better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk. PMID:19014632

  2. The tragedy of Tauccamarca: a human rights perspective on the pesticide poisoning deaths of 4 children in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Erika

    2003-01-01

    The pesticide poisoning deaths of 24 children in an isolated Peruvian village make a compelling case that corporate accountability for pesticide poisonings in the developing south should be examined from a human rights perspective. Highly toxic pesticides cannot be used safely under prevailing socioeconomic conditions. The industry asserts that the deaths of these children were accidental, blaming misuse. Tragedies such as these poisonings are not accidents, but foreseeable, and therefore preventable. Sales of highly toxic pesticides that cause repeated and predictable poisonings violate the fundamental human rights to life, health, and security of person. The Tauccamarca tragedy is a clear example of the urgency of applying a precautionary, human rights approach to pesticide issues in the developing south. PMID:12749631

  3. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency,...

  4. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  5. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  6. 75 FR 10259 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products... opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before April 5,...

  7. 76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing active... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on this application. DATES: Comments must be...

  8. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products: Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... comments by the comment period deadline identified. II. Registration Applications EPA received...

  9. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  10. 75 FR 56105 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide... notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of FIFRA. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  11. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides...

  13. 75 FR 71697 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...-RR) was published in a separate notice (see 75 FR 11175; March 10, 2010; FRL-8811-6). File symbol... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing...

  14. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  15. Apply Pesticides Properly: A Guide for Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual is designed as a guide for pesticide applicators to meet specific standards required for certification by federal regulations or state law. The eight sections included describe: (1) The most common features of pests, how they develop, and the kinds of damage they do; (2) Methods used to control pests and how to combine these methods…

  16. 76 FR 5805 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these...

  17. RECENT ADVANCES IN PESTICIDE SPRAY APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of pesticides and other production strategies have ensured adequate and high quality food, fiber, floral and nursery crops. To meet the wide variety of canopy structure characteristics, growing circumstances and marketing requirements, high quality of pesticide transport is essential t...

  18. Applications of Metabonomics in Pesticide Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Metabonomic studies quantitatively measure the small molecule metabolites and their intermediates in the biological samples (serum, urine or tissue extracts) and have gained wide applications in many fields, especially in toxicology. Pesticides are extensively used around the world and pesticide toxicity has become a serious threat to human health. Metabonomic approach has been applied in many aspects of pesticide toxicology research such as eco-environmental toxicity studies, biomarker identification, and mechanism of toxicity studies. Both whole organism animal models and cell culture models are used for metabonomic studies on pesticide toxicology. In the literature, metabonomic analyses on the toxicity of over thirty common pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, have been carried out using magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. The combined toxicity of pesticides or pesticide with heavy metals was also investigated with metabonomic approach. In this article, recent progresses made in applying metabonomic approach in pesticide toxicology are thoroughly reviewed and the challenges with application of this approach are also discussed. PMID:26279326

  19. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO FLORIDA GREENHOUSE APPLICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure of pesticide applicators in a commercial greenhouse facility was assessed. Data were collected primarily from five handgunners and a tractor driver. The chemicals applied were fluvalinate, chlorpyrifos, ethazol, dicofol, captan, and chlorothalonil. Potential exposure...

  20. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products containing new active ingredients not included in any currently registered products pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as...

  1. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products containing new active ingredients not included in any currently registered products pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as...

  2. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACMT Recognition Awards Annual Scientific Meeting Travel Scholarships Pesticides Public Health > Public > Toxicology FAQ's > Pesticides Pesticides What are pesticides ? How do pesticides work ? How ...

  3. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  4. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in...

  5. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in...

  6. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in...

  7. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in...

  8. 40 CFR 170.110 - Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions associated with pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.110 Restrictions associated with pesticide applications. (a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in...

  9. 75 FR 66095 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of... Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of FIFRA. DATES: Comments must be received on...

  10. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  11. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  12. 76 FR 16413 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  13. 75 FR 76463 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  14. 75 FR 51045 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  15. Effects of pesticides aerial applications on rice quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of pesticides has become an important research topic in recent years. This research investigated the effects of two types of commercial pesticides on the rice quality under low volume aerial application. It could provide guidance for the pesticide application and choose the right ...

  16. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  17. Hypospadias and Residential Proximity to Pesticide Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J.; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. METHODS: The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother’s residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. CONCLUSIONS: Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations. PMID:24167181

  18. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  19. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  20. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  1. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides: A Manual for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication is a certification manual for the commercial pesticide applicator's permit of the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The information presented in this manual is designed to assist prospective commercial pesticide applicators to meet certification requirements under federal guidelines. The first of the eight sections deals with…

  2. Applicator Training Manual for: Aerial Application of Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhults, Douglas G.

    This training manual discusses both the advantages and limitations of aerial application of pesticides. Other topics included are: agricultural aircraft equipment, dispersal accessories, drift control, calibration, spray testing, granular materials testing, operations, and personal safety. Safety check lists are given for pilots, ground crew, and…

  3. A study of pesticide safety and health perceptions among pesticide applicators in Tarrant County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Robert; Gratton, Terrance B; Coggin, Claudia; René, Antonio; Waller, William

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide applicators from North Texas participated in a survey that was based on the constructs of the Health Belief Model of Strecher and Rosenstock. The survey assessed the knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy of pesticide applicators working for municipalities or in farming/ranching operations in Tarrant County, Texas. It was administered during a continuing-education class on pesticides sponsored by the Texas Agriculture Extension Service in Fort Worth, Texas. Results showed that while knowledge of the use of personal protective equipment was high, knowledge of the risk from dermal exposure was low. PMID:14768280

  4. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

  5. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  6. Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.

    This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

  7. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

  8. Pesticide Exposure and Depression among Male Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pesticide exposure may be positively associated with depression. Few previous studies have considered the episodic nature of depression or examined individual pesticides. Objective: We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods: We analyzed data for 10 pesticide classes and 50 specific pesticides used by 21,208 applicators enrolled in 1993–1997 who completed a follow-up telephone interview in 2005–2010. We divided applicators who reported a physician diagnosis of depression (n = 1,702; 8%) into those who reported a previous diagnosis of depression at enrollment but not follow-up (n = 474; 28%), at both enrollment and follow-up (n = 540; 32%), and at follow-up but not enrollment (n = 688; 40%) and used polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for the exclusion of 3,315 applicators with missing covariate data and 24,619 who did not complete the follow-up interview. Results: After weighting for potential confounders, missing covariate data, and dropout, ever-use of two pesticide classes, fumigants and organochlorine insecticides, and seven individual pesticides—the fumigants aluminum phosphide and ethylene dibromide; the phenoxy herbicide (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4,5-T); the organochlorine insecticide dieldrin; and the organophosphate insecticides diazinon, malathion, and parathion—were all positively associated with depression in each case group, with ORs between 1.1 and 1.9. Conclusions: Our study supports a positive association between pesticide exposure and depression, including associations with several specific pesticides. Citation: Beard JD, Umbach DM, Hoppin JA, Richards M, Alavanja MCR, Blair A, Sandler DP, Kamel F. 2014. Pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the

  9. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Plant. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E., Ed.; Pendleton, R. F., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use, particularly those associated with safety. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of insects…

  10. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  11. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bever, Wayne; And Others

    This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

  12. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  13. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  14. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  15. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  16. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  17. 78 FR 25436 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permits; Receipt of Applications; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... disproportionately high and adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticides.... Pesticide Chemical: Methiozolin. Type of Chemical: Herbicide. Summary of Request: The applicant proposes...

  18. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to ... effects of these pesticide residues. Results from the Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing study of pesticide exposures ...

  19. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... are applied during farming and how much pesticide residue can remain in foods sold in stores. Exposure ... to pesticides at work should carefully clean any residue from their skin and remove their clothes and ...

  20. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient AGENCY: Environmental... products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products... agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North...

  1. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of...

  2. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of...

  3. Pesticide Use and Cutaneous Melanoma in Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Heath Study

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Leslie K.; Lynch, Charles F.; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Melanoma rates continue to increase; however, few risk factors other than sun sensitivity and ultraviolet radiation (including sun exposure) have been identified. Although studies of farmers have shown an excess risk of melanoma and other skin cancers, it is unclear how much of this is related to sun exposure compared with other agricultural exposures. Methods We examined dose–response relationships for 50 agricultural pesticides and cutaneous melanoma incidence in the Agricultural Health Study cohort of licensed pesticide applicators, along with ever use of older pesticides that contain arsenic. Logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with pesticide exposure adjusted for age, sex, and other potential confounders. Results We found significant associations between cutaneous melanoma and maneb/mancozeb (63 exposure days: OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; trend p = 0.006), parathion (≥ 56 exposure days: OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3–4.4; trend p = 0.003), and carbaryl (≥ 56 exposure days: OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1–2.5; trend p = 0.013). Other associations with benomyl and ever use of arsenical pesticides were also suggested. Conclusions Most previous melanoma literature has focused on host factors and sun exposure. Our research shows an association between several pesticides and melanoma, providing support for the hypotheses that agricultural chemicals may be another important source of melanoma risk. PMID:20164001

  4. Oxidative stress indices in Nigerian pesticide applicators and farmers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Surajudeen, Yaqub A; Sheu, Rahamon K; Ayokulehin, Kosoko M; Olatunbosun, Arinola G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reports have clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of organophosphate pesticides (Op) toxicity. However, there is dearth of information on which group of the farm workers is more at risk of Op-induced oxidative stress. Aim: This study determined serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and serum activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in farm workers exposed to Op. Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 (30 pesticide applicators and 30 farmers) and 30 apparently healthy non-farmers who were nonexposed to Op (controls) were recruited into this study. Serum activity of AChE was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while serum levels of MDA, GSH, and NO and serum activities of CAT, MPO, GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined colorimetrically. Results: Serum activities of AChE and CAT were significantly lower, whereas MPO activity was significantly higher in pesticide applicators compared with controls. Similarly, farmers had significantly reduced serum AChE activity and significantly raised MPO activity compared with controls. However, serum activities of AChE, CAT, and MPO were significantly lower, whereas mean level of MDA was significantly higher in pesticide applicators compared with farmers. Conclusion: This study shows that Op applicators are more exposed to oxidative stress than farmers, thus Op applicators require increased antioxidant supplements than farmers. PMID:25298941

  5. Peripheral Nervous System Function and Organophosphate Pesticide Use among Licensed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Sarah E.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F.; Jones, Michael P.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence is limited that long-term human exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, without poisoning, is associated with adverse peripheral nervous system (PNS) function. Objective: We investigated associations between OP pesticide use and PNS function by administering PNS tests to 701 male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). Methods: Participants completed a neurological physical examination (NPx) and electrophysiological tests as well as tests of hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Self-reported information on lifetime use of 16 OP pesticides was obtained from AHS interviews and a study questionnaire. Associations between pesticide use and measures of PNS function were estimated with linear and logistic regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. Results: Significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were observed for associations between ever use of 10 of the 16 OP pesticides and one or more of six NPx outcomes. Most notably, abnormal toe proprioception was significantly associated with ever use of 6 OP pesticides, with ORs ranging from 2.03 to 3.06; monotonic increases in strength of association with increasing use was observed for 3 of the 6 pesticides. Mostly null associations were observed between OP pesticide use and electrophysiological tests, hand strength, sway speed, and vibrotactile threshold. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence that long-term exposure to OP pesticides is associated with signs of impaired PNS function among pesticide applicators. PMID:22262687

  6. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  7. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  8. Half Rate Pesticide Trial in Nursery Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conventional air blast sprayer is one of the most commonly used sprayers to apply pesticides in ornamental nursery crops. Many nursery growers have used one sprayer to cover a wide variety of crop shapes and sizes, and they have been misled that better spray coverage can be obtained with the spr...

  9. Characterizing exposures and neurobehavioral performance in Egyptian adolescent pesticide applicators

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmed A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Gaafar; Lasarev, Michael; Hendy, Olfat; Olson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents may have occupational exposure to pesticides. Although previous studies examining prenatal pesticide exposure have identified neurobehavioral deficits in children, there are limited studies examining the impact of occupational exposure in children. The objectives of this study are to estimate exposures to the organophosphorus pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), by measuring urinary levels of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific CPF metabolite, and blood cholinesterase (ChE) activities and to characterize neurobehavioral performance in adolescents working as seasonal pesticide applicators and non-applicator controls. A neurobehavioral test battery, consisting of 14 tests, was used to assess a broad range of functions. Applicators performed worse than controls on the majority of tests. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of outcome variables and two components, focused on reasoning-short-term memory and attention-executive functioning, showed significant deficits in applicators compared to non-applicators. Elevated metabolite levels were found in the applicators compared to the non-applicators, confirming CPF exposure in the applicators. Although this study is limited by a small sample size, it provides preliminary evidence of moderate CPF exposures, decreased blood ChE in some applicators and decreased neurobehavioral performance in an adolescent working population. PMID:24833556

  10. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  11. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  12. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  13. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  14. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  15. 40 CFR 455.40 - Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. 455.40 Section 455.40 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory § 455.40 Applicability; description of the pesticide formulating, packaging and repackaging subcategory. (a) The provisions of...

  16. Pesticide Exposures and Body Mass Index (BMI) of Pesticide Applicators From the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    LaVerda, Nancy L; Goldsmith, David F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Hunting, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including pesticides, may be associated with weight gain. This is the first longitudinal study to examine a potential association between weight gain and pesticides using data on 8,365 male pesticide applicators from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort established in 1993. The relationship between total cumulative days of exposure to pesticide functional/chemical classes and to the four most frequently used individual pesticides was studied in relation to body mass index (BMI) at the time of 5-yr follow-up (beginning in 1998) with the length of the exposure period dating back to age 20 yr. Multiple regression, Spearman correlation, ordinal logistic regression, and logistic regression models all utilized a Bonferroni-adjusted p value, were adjusted for relevant covariates, and were stratified by state of residence (Iowa/North Carolina) and presence/absence of weight-related health conditions. Adjusted multiple regression yielded statistically significant positive parameter estimates for the study sample and Iowa subgroups with consistent findings for triazine herbicides and atrazine: Change in BMI per 100 cumulative pesticide exposure days ranged from 0.07 to 0.11 for triazine herbicides and from 0.10 to 0.19 for atrazine. Ordinal logistic regression compared normal weight with overweight and with obese using the zero exposure category as referent. Statistically significant adjusted odds ratios identified for the study sample and both state subgroups for the highest level of atrazine exposure ranged from 1.4 to 1.7. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the associations identified here. PMID:26479458

  17. Hearing Loss among Licensed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study Running title: Hearing Loss among Licensed Pesticide Applicators

    PubMed Central

    Mac Crawford, J.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

    2009-01-01

    Objective We evaluated self-reported hearing loss and pesticide exposure in licensed private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study in 1993–1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods Among 14,229 white male applicators in 1999–2003, 4,926 reported hearing loss (35%). Logistic regression was performed with adjustment for state, age, and noise, solvents, and metals. We classified pesticides by lifetime days of use. Results Compared to no exposure, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest quartile of exposure was 1.19 (1.04–1.35) for insecticides and 1.17 (1.03–1.31) for organophosphate insecticides. Odds of hearing loss were elevated for high pesticide exposure events (1.38, 1.25–1.54), pesticide-related doctor visits (1.38, 1.17–1.62) or hospitalization (1.81, 1.25–2.62), and diagnosed pesticide poisoning (1.75, 1.36–2.26). Conclusions Although control for exposure to noise or other neurotoxicants was limited, this study extends previous reports suggesting that organophosphate exposure increases risk of hearing loss. PMID:18617838

  18. 75 FR 16109 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new antimicrobial pesticide products containing new active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  19. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology.

    PubMed

    Maia, Bruno; Cunha, Joao P A R

    2011-12-01

    Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were: (1) Basic concepts, (2) Factors that affect application, (3) Equipments, (4) Spraying nozzles, (5) Sprayer calibration, (6) Aerial application, (7) Chemigation, (8) Physical-chemical properties, (9) Formulations, (10) Adjuvants, (11) Water quality, and (12) Adequate use of pesticides. The program was made available to the public on July 1(st), 2008, hosted at the web site www.pulverizar.iciag.ufu.br, and was simple, robust and practical on the complementation of traditional teaching for the education of professionals in Agricultural Sciences. Mastering pesticide spraying technology by people involved in agricultural production can be facilitated by the program Pulverizar, which was well accepted in its initial evaluation. PMID:22159349

  20. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

  1. Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses agricultural pesticide application equipment. The three sections of the publication are Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment. In the section discussing power sprayers, subtopics include hydraulic sprayers, component parts, multi-purpose farm…

  2. Certification Training Manual for the Structural Pesticide Applicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual is designed for use by commercial applicators preparing for certification in the use or supervision of the use of restricted pesticides especially in, on, or around food handling establishments, human dwellings, institutions, industries and any other structures and adjacent areas, public or private; and for the protection of stored,…

  3. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

  4. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heindel JJ, Zoeller RT. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and human disease. In: Jameson JL, ed. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 153. Karr CJ, Solomon GM, Brock-Utne AC. Health effects of common home, lawn, and garden pesticides. Pediatr ...

  5. Applicability of the Ricketts’ posteroanterior cephalometry for sex determination using logistic regression analysis in Hispano American Peruvians

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ivan; Chavez, Allison K.; Ponce, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Ricketts' posteroanterior (PA) cephalometry seems to be the most widely used and it has not been tested by multivariate statistics for sex determination. Objective: The objective was to determine the applicability of Ricketts' PA cephalometry for sex determination using the logistic regression analysis. Materials and Methods: The logistic models were estimated at distinct age cutoffs (all ages, 11 years, 13 years, and 15 years) in a database from 1,296 Hispano American Peruvians between 5 years and 44 years of age. Results: The logistic models were composed by six cephalometric measurements; the accuracy achieved by resubstitution varied between 60% and 70% and all the variables, with one exception, exhibited a direct relationship with the probability of being classified as male; the nasal width exhibited an indirect relationship. Conclusion: The maxillary and facial widths were present in all models and may represent a sexual dimorphism indicator. The accuracy found was lower than the literature and the Ricketts' PA cephalometry may not be adequate for sex determination. The indirect relationship of the nasal width in models with data from patients of 12 years of age or less may be a trait related to age or a characteristic in the studied population, which could be better studied and confirmed. PMID:27555732

  6. Acute Pesticide Illnesses Associated with Off-Target Pesticide Drift from Agricultural Applications: 11 States, 1998–2006

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Mehler, Louise; Beckman, John; Diebolt-Brown, Brienne; Prado, Joanne; Lackovic, Michelle; Waltz, Justin; Mulay, Prakash; Schwartz, Abby; Mitchell, Yvette; Moraga-McHaley, Stephanie; Gergely, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, and off-target pesticide drift exposes workers and the public to harmful chemicals. Objective: We estimated the incidence of acute illnesses from pesticide drift from outdoor agricultural applications and characterized drift exposure and illnesses. Methods: Data were obtained from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks–Pesticides program and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Drift included off-target movement of pesticide spray, volatiles, and contaminated dust. Acute illness cases were characterized by demographics, pesticide and application variables, health effects, and contributing factors. Results: From 1998 through 2006, we identified 2,945 cases associated with agricultural pesticide drift from 11 states. Our findings indicate that 47% were exposed at work, 92% experienced low-severity illness, and 14% were children (< 15 years). The annual incidence ranged from 1.39 to 5.32 per million persons over the 9-year period. The overall incidence (in million person-years) was 114.3 for agricultural workers, 0.79 for other workers, 1.56 for nonoccupational cases, and 42.2 for residents in five agriculture-intensive counties in California. Soil applications with fumigants were responsible for the largest percentage (45%) of cases. Aerial applications accounted for 24% of cases. Common factors contributing to drift cases included weather conditions, improper seal of the fumigation site, and applicator carelessness near nontarget areas. Conclusions: Agricultural workers and residents in agricultural regions had the highest rate of pesticide poisoning from drift exposure, and soil fumigations were a major hazard, causing large drift incidents. Our findings highlight areas where interventions to reduce off-target drift could be focused. PMID:21642048

  7. HYPOTHYROIDISM AND PESTICIDE USE AMONG MALE PRIVATE PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Goldner, Whitney S.; Sandler, Dale P.; Yu, Fang; Shostrom, Valerie; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kamel, Freya; LeVan, Tricia D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the association between thyroid disease and use of insecticides, herbicides, fumigants/fungicides in male applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods We examined the association between use of 50 specific pesticides and self-reported hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and ‘other’ thyroid disease among 22,246 male pesticide applicators. Results There was increased odds of hypothyroidism with ever-use of the herbicides 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-TP, alachlor, dicamba, and petroleum oil. Hypothyroidism was also associated with ever-use of eight insecticides: organochlorines chlordane, DDT, heptachlor, lindane, and toxaphene; organophosphates diazinon and malathion; and the carbamate carbofuran. Exposure-response analysis showed increasing odds with increasing level of exposure for the herbicides alachlor and 2,4-D, and the insecticides aldrin, chlordane, DDT, lindane, and parathion. Conclusions There is an association between hypothyroidism and specific herbicides and insecticides in male applicators, similar to previous results for spouses. PMID:24064777

  8. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)

  9. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Field Crop Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, M. H.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on field crop pest control. The five sections presented describe: (1) Field crop pests; (2) Using pesticides in field crops; (3) Weed pests of field crops; (4)…

  10. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of...

  11. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

  12. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of...

  13. Obsolete pesticides and application of colonizing plant species for remediation of contaminated soil in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Nurzhanova, Asil; Kalugin, Sergey; Zhambakin, Kabl

    2013-04-01

    In Kazakhstan, there is a problem of finding ways to clean local sites contaminated with pesticides. In particular, such sites are the deserted and destroyed storehouses where these pesticides were stored; existing storehouses do not fulfill sanitary standards. Phytoremediation is one potential method for reducing risk from these pesticides. Genetic heterogeneity of populations of wild and weedy species growing on pesticide-contaminated soil provides a source of plant species tolerant to these conditions. These plant species may be useful for phytoremediation applications. In 2008-2009 and 2011, we surveyed substances stored in 80 former pesticide storehouses in Kazakhstan (Almaty oblast) to demonstrate an inventory process needed to understand the obsolete pesticide problem throughout the country, and observed a total of 354.7 t of obsolete pesticides. At the sites, we have found organochlorine pesticides residues in soil including metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane. Twenty-four of the storehouse sites showed pesticides concentrations in soil higher than maximum allowable concentration which is equal to 100 μg kg(-1) in Kazakhstan. Seventeen pesticide-tolerant wild plant species were selected from colonizing plants that grew into/near the former storehouse's pesticides. The results have shown that colonizing plant annual and biannual species growing on soils polluted by pesticides possess ability to accumulate organochlorine pesticide residues and reduce pesticide concentrations in soil. Organochlorine pesticides taken up by the plants are distributed unevenly in different plant tissues. The main organ of organochlorine pesticide accumulation is the root system. The accumulation rate of organochlorine pesticides was found to be a specific characteristic of plant species and dependent on the degree of soil contamination. This information can be used for technology development of phytoremediation of pesticide

  14. 76 FR 17645 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... agree or disagree; suggest alternatives and substitute language for your requested changes. iv. Describe..., sugar beets, and sweet potatoes. Additional information: The proposed application rate for cotton...

  15. NEW, INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Application Technology Research Unit (ATRU) conducts fundamental and developmental research on new and improved application technologies to protect the American Green Industry (i.e. floricultural, nursery, landscape, turf and other horticultural crops) from plant diseases, pests, and adverse env...

  16. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use...

  17. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use...

  18. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use...

  19. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.11 Federal certification of pesticide... Administrator implements an EPA plan for the Federal certification of applicators of restricted use...

  20. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 2: Forest Pest Control. CS-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The pamphlet discusses the recognition and control of forest pests such as weeds, insects, disease and vertebrates by application of pesticides. Special attention is given to application methods and precautions to minimize human and…

  1. Application of activity-based costing (ABC) for a Peruvian NGO healthcare provider.

    PubMed

    Waters, H; Abdallah, H; Santillán, D

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the application of activity-based costing (ABC) to calculate the unit costs of the services for a health care provider in Peru. While traditional costing allocates overhead and indirect costs in proportion to production volume or to direct costs, ABC assigns costs through activities within an organization. ABC uses personnel interviews to determine principal activities and the distribution of individual's time among these activities. Indirect costs are linked to services through time allocation and other tracing methods, and the result is a more accurate estimate of unit costs. The study concludes that applying ABC in a developing country setting is feasible, yielding results that are directly applicable to pricing and management. ABC determines costs for individual clinics, departments and services according to the activities that originate these costs, showing where an organization spends its money. With this information, it is possible to identify services that are generating extra revenue and those operating at a loss, and to calculate cross subsidies across services. ABC also highlights areas in the health care process where efficiency improvements are possible. Conclusions about the ultimate impact of the methodology are not drawn here, since the study was not repeated and changes in utilization patterns and the addition of new clinics affected applicability of the results. A potential constraint to implementing ABC is the availability and organization of cost information. Applying ABC efficiently requires information to be readily available, by cost category and department, since the greatest benefits of ABC come from frequent, systematic application of the methodology in order to monitor efficiency and provide feedback for management. The article concludes with a discussion of the potential applications of ABC in the health sector in developing countries. PMID:11326572

  2. RETINAL DEGENERATION AND OTHER EYE DISORDERS IN WIVES OF FARMER PESTICIDE APPLICATORS ENROLLED IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript describes an epidemiological investigation of the wives of licensed pesticide applicators who are enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study, a large ongoing epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their families in North Carolina and Iowa. The Agricult...

  3. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of children's activities in leading to pesticide exposure was evaluated by comparing pesticide loadings on the hands of children with the activities of the same children observed over a 4 hour period. Ten children ranging in age from 24-55 months were videotaped on the s...

  4. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

  5. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiligmann, R. B.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The primary focus of this publication is on forest pest control. An introduction with the explanation of pesticide applications in forestry is presented. The ten sections included describe: (1) Principal…

  6. Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

  7. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Common forest pests and their control are discussed. Special attention is given to the effectiveness of different application techniques and potential human and environmental hazards. (CS)

  8. MOVEMENT AND DEPOSITION OF TWO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES WITHIN A RESIDENCE AFTER INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Post-application temporal and spatial distributions of two organophosphorus pesticides, diazinon and chlorpyrifos, were monitored after homeowner applications for indoor and outdoor insect control. Samples were taken before and up to 12 days after treatments in the family room...

  9. Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Rudolph P.; Gunier, Robert; Von Behren, Julie; Hertz, Andrew; Crouse, Vonda; Buffler, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Ambient exposure from residential proximity to applications of agricultural pesticides may contribute to the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using residential histories collected from the families of 213 ALL cases and 268 matched controls enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, the authors assessed residential proximity within a half-mile (804.5 meters) of pesticide applications by linking address histories with reports of agricultural pesticide use. Proximity was ascertained during different time windows of exposure, including the first year of life and the child’s lifetime through the date of diagnosis for cases or reference for controls. Agricultural pesticides were categorized a priori into groups based on similarities in toxicological effects, physicochemical properties, and target pests or uses. The effects of moderate and high exposure for each group of pesticides were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Elevated ALL risk was associated with lifetime moderate exposure, but not high exposure, to certain physicochemical categories of pesticides, including organophosphates, cholorinated phenols, and triazines, and with pesticides classified as insecticides or fumigants. A similar pattern was also observed for several toxicological groups of pesticides. These findings suggest future directions for the identification of specific pesticides that may play a role in the etiology of childhood leukemia. PMID:19700145

  10. WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE APPLICATORS: EPA'S POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is preparing a guide to be published later this year for non-agricultural pesticide applicators which will provide specific information about waste minimization for pesticide users in industries such as commercial lawn care, structura...

  11. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of ornamental and turf pest control prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The three sections presented describe: (1) Ornamentals; (2) Turfgrass; and (3) Pest Control. Section one discusses the diagnostic chart for plant problems, non-pest…

  12. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Vegetable Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, D.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in vegetable crops prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on vegetable pest control. The three sections presented describe: (1) Insect pests of vegetable crops; (2) Weed pests of vegetable crops; and (3) Causes of…

  13. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  14. 77 FR 77077 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of Applications for New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). B.... Docket ID Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2012- 0981. Applicant: Y-Tex Corporation, P.O. Box 1450, 1825 Big Horn...

  15. Nanoencapsulation, Nano-guard for Pesticides: A New Window for Safe Application.

    PubMed

    Nuruzzaman, Md; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-24

    The application of nanotechnology in pesticide delivery is relatively new and in the early stages of development. This technology aims to reduce the indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides and ensure their safe application. This critical review investigated the potential of nanotechnology, especially the nanoencapsulation process for pesticide delivery. In-depth investigation of various nanoencapsulation materials and techniques, efficacy of application, and current research trends are also presented. The focus of ongoing research was on the development of a nanoencapsulated pesticide formulation that has slow releasing properties with enhanced solubility, permeability, and stability. These properties are mainly achieved through either protecting the encapsulated active ingredients from premature degradation or increasing their pest control efficacy for a longer period. Nanoencapsulated pesticide formulation is able to reduce the dosage of pesticides and human exposure to them, which is environmentally friendly for crop protection. However, lack of knowledge of the mechanism of synthesis and lack of a cost-benefit analysis of nanoencapsulation materials hindered their application in pesticide delivery. Further investigation of these materials' behavior and their ultimate fate in the environment will help the establishment of a regulatory framework for their commercialization. The review provides fundamental and critical information for researchers and engineers in the field of nanotechnology and especially the use of nanoencapsulation techniques to deliver pesticides. PMID:26730488

  16. APPROACHES FOR MEASURING APPLICATOR EXPOSURE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  17. 77 FR 39640 - Synchronizing the Expiration Dates of the Pesticide Applicator Certificate With the Underlying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 171 RIN 2070-AJ77 Synchronizing the Expiration Dates of the Pesticide Applicator... and simplify federal certification expiration dates. Restricted use pesticides (RUPs) are those which... rule will synchronize the expiration dates on the Federal certificate with that of the...

  18. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  19. 77 FR 75152 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these...

  20. 76 FR 22096 - Federal Plan for Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides Within EPA Region 8...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... AGENCY Federal Plan for Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides Within EPA Region 8... restricted use pesticides in areas of Region 8 Indian country. The program will be administered by EPA Region... on its Proposed Federal Plan for Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides within...

  1. Securing recompense under nuisance law for crop damages from pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J

    2012-08-15

    In areas where several crops are grown or where organic practices have been adopted, conflicts may arise due to the use of pesticides. Accompanying the use of specialized pesticides for individualized crops are possibilities that spray applications or volatilization will result in airborne pesticide particulates damaging nontarget crops. American jurisprudence provides several major causes of action that may be used to secure recompense for damages to crops from applications of pesticides. However, defenses and limitations for each of these causes of action create impediments that make recovery difficult. An evaluation of nuisance law discloses that defenses often preclude recoveries for damages to nontarget crops from airborne pesticide particulates. Policy makers may want to evaluate the defenses due to their interference with property rights. The defenses may discourage changes in crop production resulting in suboptimal uses of resources. PMID:22721686

  2. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  3. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  4. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  5. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  6. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... collection program. (b) Pesticides not covered under 40 CFR part 273. The requirements of this part do not... are managed by farmers in compliance with 40 CFR 262.70. (40 CFR 262.70 addresses pesticides disposed... label, providing the container is triple rinsed in accordance with 40 CFR 261.7(b)(3)); (2)...

  7. Survey of pesticide application on vegetables in the Littoral area of Togo.

    PubMed

    Adjrah, Yao; Dovlo, Agbéko; Karou, Simplice D; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amégnona; de Souza, Comlan; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable production in Togo is seriously affected by pests attack. To reduce damage, farmers indiscriminately use pesticides. Various studies have reported high concentrations of pesticide residues more than acceptable limits in vegetables and other edible food. The aim of the presented study is to study the attitudes and practices developed by vegetable growers about pesticides applications. A standardized questionnaires which included socio-professional factors, provisions and operations concerning the use of varieties of pesticides were addressed to 150 growers in vegetable farms along the Littoral of Togo. In order to complete data concerning pesticides, seven runoff private companies and agents of the 'Direction de la Protection des Végétaux' were interviewed. Data were statistical treated using Sphinx Plus. The survey showed that vegetable growers have an acceptable educational level (36% have more than 7 years of formal education) to exploit instructions concerning pesticide use, but more than 97% do not use recommended tools. Only 21% of them received training for pesticide use. Moreover, 84% of them did not usually wear gloves, and less than 30% used oro-nasal masks. Failure to observe minimum intervals between pesticide application and sale is worrying because extremely hazardous (Carbofuran and Cadusaphos) or moderately toxic (Cypermethrin, Dimethoate, Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Fipronil) are the products currently used. The presented study indicates that pesticides application in the survey area represents a potential risk for the environment, farmers and consumers. More investigations are needed to quantify pesticides residues on the vegetables currently con,umed and moreover, to determine the potential effect of those products on human and animals health. PMID:24364441

  8. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz.... Product name: Demiditraz Technical. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at 100%. Proposed...., Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Product name: CA Acaricide. Active ingredient: Insecticide and Demiditraz at...

  9. MOVEMENT AND DEPOSITION OF PESTICIDES WITHIN RESIDENCES AFTER INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a study begun in 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigated the temporal and spatial distributions of pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators for indoor crack and crevice and exterior perimeter treatments. In each participating househol...

  10. PESTICIDE SPRAY PENETRATION AND THERMAL COMFORT OF PROTECTIVE APPAREL FOR PESTICIDE APPLICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of protective apparel to serve as a barrier from dermal exposure is considered vital for providing some measure of protection for those who work with and around pesticides. his research is aimed at ultimately providing recommendations for types of protective apparel for p...

  11. 76 FR 21294 - Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification and Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...)(2) The preamble of the final rule (71 FR 60988, October 26, 2007), codifying the provision found at... and Biochemical Pesticides (71 FR 12072, March 8, 2006): f. Submittal of samples. This provision is... action'' under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October...

  12. Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Rebecca E.; Simpson, Sean L.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Poole, Jill A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well-characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993–7, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven % of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported three or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) = 1.05–1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05–1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, 4 organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09–1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, malathion, permethrin and the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings. PMID:20818537

  13. Application of artificial neural networks to assess pesticide contamination in shallow groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sahoo, G.B.; Ray, C.; Mehnert, E.; Keefer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network (BPNN) was developed and applied to predict pesticide concentrations in groundwater monitoring wells. Pesticide concentration data are challenging to analyze because they tend to be highly censored. Input data to the neural network included the categorical indices of depth to aquifer material, pesticide leaching class, aquifer sensitivity to pesticide contamination, time (month) of sample collection, well depth, depth to water from land surface, and additional travel distance in the saturated zone (i.e., distance from land surface to midpoint of well screen). The output of the neural network was the total pesticide concentration detected in the well. The model prediction results produced good agreements with observed data in terms of correlation coefficient (R = 0.87) and pesticide detection efficiency (E = 89%), as well as good match between the observed and predicted "class" groups. The relative importance of input parameters to pesticide occurrence in groundwater was examined in terms of R, E, mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), and pesticide occurrence "class" groups by eliminating some key input parameters to the model. Well depth and time of sample collection were the most sensitive input parameters for predicting the pesticide contamination potential of a well. This infers that wells tapping shallow aquifers are more vulnerable to pesticide contamination than those wells tapping deeper aquifers. Pesticide occurrences during post-application months (June through October) were found to be 2.5 to 3 times higher than pesticide occurrences during other months (November through April). The BPNN was used to rank the input parameters with highest potential to contaminate groundwater, including two original and five ancillary parameters. The two original parameters are depth to aquifer material and pesticide leaching class. When these two parameters were the only input parameters for the BPNN

  14. Pesticide Application among Farmers in the Catchment of Ashaiman Irrigation Scheme of Ghana: Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Mattah, Memuna M.; Mattah, Precious A. D.; Futagbi, Godfred

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide use in modern day agriculture has increased tremendously. Pesticides are used to control pests and weeds, as well as protect crops from postharvest losses; however, their effects on humans and the environment cannot be overstated. This study examined pesticide acquisition, handling, and use among 120 farmers within the catchment of a small urban irrigation scheme. Also, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among selected farmers through which further data was collected to augment that of the survey. Twelve types of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, were found in use in the study areas. Three main sources of information about pesticides were identified, 43.3% from extension officers, 39.2% from agrochemical dealers, and 10% from colleague farmers. Seventy-five percent (75%) of the respondents purchased the pesticides from agrochemical shops. Out of 74 farmers who were observed spraying pesticides on their farms, only 25.7% wore dresses that covered their whole body but without goggles. About sixty-seven percent (66.7%) of the farmers whose chemical got finished left the containers on their farms or threw them into the bushes around. The frequency of application was influenced by affordability and size of farm, among others. The study recommended that training of farmers on pesticide handling and use should be intensified. PMID:26798369

  15. Pesticide application among farmers in the catchment of Ashaiman irrigation scheme of Ghana: health implications.

    PubMed

    Mattah, Memuna M; Mattah, Precious A D; Futagbi, Godfred

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide use in modern day agriculture has increased tremendously. Pesticides are used to control pests and weeds, as well as protect crops from postharvest losses; however, their effects on humans and the environment cannot be overstated. This study examined pesticide acquisition, handling, and use among 120 farmers within the catchment of a small urban irrigation scheme. Also, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among selected farmers through which further data was collected to augment that of the survey. Twelve types of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, were found in use in the study areas. Three main sources of information about pesticides were identified, 43.3% from extension officers, 39.2% from agrochemical dealers, and 10% from colleague farmers. Seventy-five percent (75%) of the respondents purchased the pesticides from agrochemical shops. Out of 74 farmers who were observed spraying pesticides on their farms, only 25.7% wore dresses that covered their whole body but without goggles. About sixty-seven percent (66.7%) of the farmers whose chemical got finished left the containers on their farms or threw them into the bushes around. The frequency of application was influenced by affordability and size of farm, among others. The study recommended that training of farmers on pesticide handling and use should be intensified. PMID:26798369

  16. Interpreting population estimates of birds following pesticide applications--behavior of male starlings exposed to an organophosphate pesticide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Shipley, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    We determined activity budgets for 10 pairs of captive male Starlings between 7 May and 18 July 1980. Our objective was to quantify changes in behavior after exposure to an organophosphate (OP) pesticide and to assess the impact of changes in behavior on the interpretation of population estimates of birds following pesticide applications. We observed each pair of males for an hour at 07:30 and 09:30 for four days and classified their behavior into one of four categories: flying, perching, foraging, or singing and displaying. At 06:30 on day 2, one male received a single oral dose of 2.5 mg dicrotophos (3-hydroxy-N, N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide dimethyl phosphate) per kg of body weight; the other male received an equivalent exposure of corn oil. Changes in the activity budgets of OP-dosed and control males were compared using t-tests. Activity of OP-dosed males was significantly (P _ 0.05) reduced within the 2-4 h following exposure. OP-dosed males spent more time perching (46.1%) than controls and less time flying (-96.6%), foraging (-28.5%), and singing and displaying (-49.5%). The frequency of perching (-75.3%), flying (-83.8%), foraging (-54.1%), and singing and displaying (- 59.2%) was significantly reduced. Activity in OP-dosed males returned to normal by 26-28 h posttreatment. Results suggest that movement and vocalization may be significantly reduced in birds exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Conventional censusing techniques and population estimating procedures may, therefore, be inadequate to assess changes in bird populations after pesticide applications because of the difficulty in separating decreases in density due to mortality or emigration from reductions in activity.

  17. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect... and supported by data required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect... and supported by data required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may...

  19. Neurobehavioral function and organophosphate insecticide use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Starks, Sarah E; Gerr, Fred; Kamel, Freya; Lynch, Charles F; Jones, Michael P; Alavanja, Michael C; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2012-01-01

    Although persistent decrements in cognitive function have been observed among persons who have recovered from clinically overt organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning, little is known about the cognitive effects of chronic OP exposures that do not result in acute poisoning. To examine associations between long-term pesticide use and neurobehavioral (NB) function, NB tests were administered to licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa and North Carolina. Between 2006 and 2008, 701 male participants completed nine NB tests to assess memory, motor speed and coordination, sustained attention, verbal learning and visual scanning and processing. Data on ever-use and lifetime days of use of 16 OP pesticides were obtained from AHS interviews conducted before testing between 1993 and 2007 and during the NB visit. The mean age of participants was 61 years (SD=12). Associations between pesticide use and NB test performance were estimated with linear regression controlling for age and outcome-specific covariates. NB test performance was associated with lifetime days of use of some pesticides. Ethoprop was significantly associated with reduced performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning. Malathion was significantly associated with poor performance on a test of visual scanning and processing. Conversely, we observed significantly better test performance for five OP pesticides. Specifically, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos were associated with better verbal learning and memory; coumaphos was associated with better performance on a test of motor speed and visual scanning; and parathion was associated with better performance on a test of sustained attention. Several associations varied by state. Overall, we found no consistent evidence of an association between OP pesticide use and adverse NB test performance among this older sample of pesticide applicators. Potential reasons for these

  20. Emission of pesticides to the air during sprayer application: A bibliographic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Sinfort, C.

    Air pollution due to pesticides is a persistent problem in modern agriculture, and little is known on the reversibility of its effects on the environment and health. Pesticides contaminate the atmosphere through various pathways. This paper discusses techniques for measuring and modelling pesticide emission, and the factors that affect drift processes during spray application. Chemical analyses allow the concentration of polluting agents in the air to be measured, and different methods have been developed for measuring diverse pesticide groups. Several air-sampling methods, which give different results depending on the amount of air collected, are reported. The use of various tracers, such as fluorescent dyes, is widely reported. Brilliant sulphoflavine is the best fluorescent dye due to its low degradation in sunlight. Various collector devices are used, the most common being 2 mm diameter polymer lines. Although the report indicates a good level of collection efficiency, a complete understanding of the adhesion phenomenon is necessary. The use of mathematical and computational models to determine pesticide transport simplifies test and field evaluation. However, a detailed characterization of the agricultural environment, with temporal and spatial variations, is still necessary. The most common models are limited to transport and deposition of pesticides in the liquid phase to areas adjacent to treated fields. Drifting spray is a complex problem in which equipment design and application parameters, spray physical properties and formulation, and meteorological conditions interact and influence pesticide loss.

  1. Application of pesticide transport model for simulating diazinon runoff in California’s central valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Brian A.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Mailapalli, Damodhara R.

    2010-12-01

    Dormant spray application of pesticides to almond and other stone fruit orchards is the main source of diazinon during the winter in California's central valley. Understanding the pesticide transport and the tradeoffs associated with the various management practices is greatly facilitated by the use of physically-based contaminant transport models. In this study, performance of Joyce's et al. (2008) pesticide transport model was evaluated using experimental data collected from two ground treatments such as resident vegetation and bare soil. The model simulation results obtained in calibration and validation process were analyzed for pesticide concentration and total load. The pesticide transport model accurately predicted the pesticide concentrations and total load in the runoff from bare field and was capable of simulating chemical responses to rainfall-runoff events. In case of resident vegetation, the model results exhibited a larger range of variation than was observed in the bare soil simulations due to increased model parameterization with the addition of foliage and thatch compartments. Furthermore, the model was applied to study the effect of runoff lag time, extent of crop cover, organic content of soil and post-application irrigation on the pesticide peak concentration and total load. Based on the model results, recommendations were suggested to growers prior to implementing certain management decisions to mitigate diazinon transport in the orchard's spray runoff.

  2. Applicability of ELISA-based Determination of Pesticides for Groundwater Quality Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchihara, Takeo; Yoshimoto, Shuhei; Ishida, Satoshi; Imaizumi, Masayuki

    The principals and procedures of ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)-based determination of pesticides (Fenitrothion) in environmental samples were reviewed, and the applicability of the ELISA method for groundwater quality monitoring were validated through the experimental tracer tests in soil columns and the field test in Okinoerabu Island. The test results showed that the ELISA method could be useful not only for screening but also for quantitative analysis of pesticides. In the experimental tracer tests in soil columns, the retardation of pesticides leaching compared with conservative tracers were observed. In the field test, the contamination of the pesticide was detected in groundwater samples in Okinoerabu Island, even though the targeted pesticide was considered to be applied to the upland field 4 months ago. In order to investigate the transport and fate of pesticides in groundwater taking into account retardation from the field to groundwater table and the residue in groundwater, continuous observations of pesticides in groundwater are in a strong need, and the ELISA method is applicable to the long-term quality groundwater monitoring.

  3. Reduction of pesticide exposure with protective clothing for applicators and mixers

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.E.; Freed, V.H.; Enos, H.F.; Duncan, R.C.; Barquet, A.; Morgade, C.; Peters, L.J.; Danauskas, J.X.

    1982-06-01

    Systemic pesticide illness in agricultural workers may result from excessive dermal exposure to pesticides. Workers who apply and mix pesticides (applicators and mixers) are not at special risk. Both acute and chronic exposures can occur from spillage or by environmental contamination of clothing. Two exposure assessment studies were conducted of Central Florida citrus grove workers who applied ethion daily. Measuring the percentage of penetration of ethion through clothing and measuring the daily urinary excretion of diethyl phosphate (DEP) were the techniques used to assess the protection afforded by changing daily to freshly laundered 100% cotton coveralls. Coveralls provided significantly greater protection than did regular clothing and the use of respirators.

  4. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

  5. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  7. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

  8. Water quality and macroinvertebrate community response following pesticide applications in a banana plantation, Limon, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Martínez, Eduardo; Ruepert, Clemens; Savage, Candida; Gilek, Michael; Pinnock, Margareth; Solis, Efrain

    2006-08-15

    Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface waters of the banana plantation during application periods, with peak concentrations following applications. Toxicity tests were limited to the carbofuran application and no toxicity was observed with the acute tests used. However, since pesticide concentrations were generally below the lowest LC50 value for crustaceans but above calculated aquatic quality criteria, there remains a risk of chronic toxicity. Accurate ecological assessments of pesticide use in banana plantations are currently limited by the lack of local short-term chronic toxicity tests and tests using sensitive native species. Relatively constant levels of four pesticides (imazalil, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos and propiconazole), which had toxic effects according to the 96h hydra and 21d daphnia chronic test, were recorded in the effluent of the packing plant throughout the study, indicating that the solid waste trap used in this facility was not effective in eliminating toxic chemicals. Certain taxa, such as Heterelmis sp. (Elmidae), Heteragrion sp. (Megapodagrionidae, Odonata), Caenis sp. (Caenidae, Ephemerotera), and Smicridea sp. (Hidropsychidae, Trichoptera), were more abundant at reference sites than in the banana farm waters, and may be good candidates for toxicity testing. Multivariate analyses of the macroinvertebrate communities clearly showed that the banana plantation sites were significantly different from the reference sites. Moreover, following the pesticide applications, all the banana plantation sites showed significant changes in community composition, with the same genera being affected at all sites and for all pesticides (terbufos

  9. Measuring and predicting environmental concentrations of pesticides in air after application to paddy water systems.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Federico; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the volatilization of five pesticides applied to an artificial flooded paddy field was assessed using the theoretical profile shape (TPS) and the integrate horizontal flux (IHF) techniques. The dataset derived was utilized to improve the volatilization routine of the rice water quality (RICEWQ) model. The masses of pesticides ethoprophos, procymidone, metalaxyl, chlorpyrifos, and chlorpyrifos methyl volatilized from paddy water and their concentrations in paddy water were determined for a period of 6 d after application. The highest and lowest volatilization losses were observed for chlorpyrifos and metalaxyl, respectively, accounting for 3.3% and 0.03% of their initially applied amount. A rapid pesticide dissipation was evident in paddy water during the study period. The RICEWQ model was used to simulate the fate of pesticides in the artificial paddy system. The Kvolat, an empiric coefficient used by the model as an input parameter, was calculated for all pesticides through model calibration. RICEWQ simulated well the fate of pesticides in paddy water. A significant regression correlation between Henry's law constant (Hk) and Kvolat of the studied compounds was established which could facilitate the parametrization of the model for describing pesticide volatilization. PMID:15926540

  10. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Lisa H; Norman, Julia E; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Moran, Patrick W

    2016-04-15

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n=3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  11. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical

  12. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  13. Documentation of a spatial data-base management system for monitoring pesticide application in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schurr, K.M.; Cox, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Pesticide-Application Data-Base Management System was created as a demonstration project and was tested with data submitted to the Washington State Department of Agriculture by pesticide applicators from a small geographic area. These data were entered into the Department's relational data-base system and uploaded into the system's ARC/INFO files. Locations for pesticide applica- tions are assigned within the Public Land Survey System grids, and ARC/INFO programs in the Pesticide-Application Data-Base Management System can subdivide each survey section into sixteen idealized quarter-quarter sections for display map grids. The system provides data retrieval and geographic information system plotting capabilities from a menu of seven basic retrieval options. Additionally, ARC/INFO coverages can be created from the retrieved data when required for particular applications. The Pesticide-Application Data-Base Management System, or the general principles used in the system, could be adapted to other applica- tions or to other states.

  14. Captan exposure and evaluation of a pesticide exposure algorithm among orchard pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Deddens, James A; Jaycox, Larry B; Andrews, Ronnee N; Striley, Cynthia A F; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2008-04-01

    Pesticide exposure assessment in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) has relied upon two exposure metrics: lifetime exposure days and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure days, the latter incorporating an intensity score computed from a questionnaire-based algorithm. We evaluated this algorithm using actual fungicide exposure measurements from AHS private orchard applicators. Captan was selected as a marker of fungicide exposure. Seventy-four applicators from North Carolina and Iowa growing apples and/or peaches were sampled on 2 days they applied captan in 2002 and 2003. Personal air, hand rinse, 10 dermal patches, a pre-application first-morning urine and a subsequent 24-h urine sample were collected from each applicator per day. Environmental samples were analyzed for captan, and urine samples were analyzed for cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). Task and personal protective equipment information needed to compute an individual's algorithm score was also collected. Differences in analyte detection frequency were tested in a repeated logistic regression model. Mixed-effects models using maximum-likelihood estimation were employed to estimate geometric mean exposures and to evaluate the measured exposure data against the algorithm. In general, captan and THPI were detected significantly more frequently in environmental and urine samples collected from applicators who used air blast sprayers as compared to those who hand sprayed. The AHS pesticide exposure intensity algorithm, while significantly or marginally predictive of thigh and forearm captan exposure, respectively, did not predict air, hand rinse or urinary THPI exposures. The algorithm's lack of fit with some exposure measures among orchard fungicide applicators may be due in part to the assignment of equal exposure weights to air blast and hand spray application methods in the current algorithm. Some modification of the algorithm is suggested by these results. PMID:18326518

  15. 75 FR 48672 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ..., 2008, Federal Register Notice (73 FR 45438). B. What is the Agency's Authority for Taking this Action...: Table 9--Microbial and biochemical pesticides; Table 10--straight chain lepidopteran pheromones (SCLPs... Division--Straight Chain Lepidopteran Pheromones (SCLPS) Decision FY 11/12 Time Registration EPA No. CR...

  16. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide use pattern, and the manner and extent to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect predators, nematodes, and macroscopic parasites are exempt from... another isolate, provided sufficient similarity is established, to support registration. (3)...

  17. 75 FR 30829 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Demson Fuller, Antimicrobials Division (7510P), Office of Pesticide Programs...) 308-8062; e-mail address: fuller.demson@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General Information A..., plastics, polymers, latex products and ceramics. Contact: Demson Fuller, (703) 308-8062;...

  18. Ubertool: Web Application for Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must regulate (license) pesticides before they become commercially available to ensure they will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the envi...

  19. RESIDENTIAL INDOOR EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN TO PESTICIDES FOLLOWING LAWN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods have been developed to estimate children's residential exposures to pesticide residues and applied in a small field study of indoor exposures resulting from the intrusion of lawn-applied herbicide into the home. Sampling methods included size-selective indoor air sampli...

  20. Optimum timing for integrated pest management: modelling rates of pesticide application and natural enemy releases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Tang, Guangyao; Cheke, Robert A

    2010-05-21

    Many factors including pest natural enemy ratios, starting densities, timings of natural enemy releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and instantaneous killing rates of pesticides on both pests and natural enemies can affect the success of IPM control programmes. To address how such factors influence successful pest control, hybrid impulsive pest-natural enemy models with different frequencies of pesticide sprays and natural enemy releases were proposed and analyzed. With releasing both more or less frequent than the sprays, a stability threshold condition for a pest eradication periodic solution is provided. Moreover, the effects of times of spraying pesticides (or releasing natural enemies) and control tactics on the threshold condition were investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications. Multiple attractors from which the pest population oscillates with different amplitudes can coexist for a wide range of parameters and the switch-like transitions among these attractors showed that varying dosages and frequencies of insecticide applications and the numbers of natural enemies released are crucial. To see how the pesticide applications could be reduced, we developed a model involving periodic releases of natural enemies with chemical control applied only when the densities of the pest reached the given Economic Threshold. The results indicate that the pest outbreak period or frequency largely depends on the initial densities and the control tactics. PMID:20219475

  1. Pesticide Safety for Non-Certified Mixers, Loaders and Applicators = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para Mezcladores, Cargadores y Aplicadores no Certificados.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    Written in English and Spanish and completely illustrated, this manual provides basic safety information for pesticide workers. Mixers, loaders, and applicators work with pesticides at their greatest strength and have the highest risk of poisoning. Understanding the pesticide label is the first step to pesticide safety. The words…

  2. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

  3. 76 FR 79171 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    .... Company Name and Address: Arysta LifeScience, North America LLC., 15401 Weston Parkway, Suite 150, Cary... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new...

  4. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  5. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.…

  6. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or…

  7. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

  8. POST-APPLICATION EXPOSURE POTENTIAL TO PESTICIDES IN THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions of pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators for indoor crack and crevice treatments was initiated by the U.S. EPA in 1999. In participating households, pre- and post-application samples of indoor ...

  9. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

  10. 77 FR 14361 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients, pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing this notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of...

  11. 76 FR 37045 - Synchronizing the Expiration Dates of EPA Pesticide Applicator Certificates With the Underlying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 171 RIN 2070-AJ77 Synchronizing the Expiration Dates of EPA Pesticide Applicator... the expiration dates on the Federal certificate with that of the certificate on which it is based... expiration dates to help ensure that certified applicators maintain their competency. All certifying...

  12. Predicting and measuring environmental concentration of pesticides in air after soil application.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Federico; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides can volatilize into the atmosphere, which affects the air quality. The ability to predict pesticide volatilization is an essential tool for human risk and environmental assessment. Even though there are several mathematical models to assess and predict the fate of pesticides in different compartments of the environment, there is no reliable model to predict volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate pesticide volatilization under agricultural conditions using malathion [ O,O-dimethyl-S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl)-dithiophosphate], ethoprophos (O-ethyl S,S-dipropylphosphorodithioate), and procymidone [N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1,2-dicarboximide] as test compounds and to evaluate the ability of the Pesticide Leaching Model (PELMO) to calculate the predicted environmental concentrations of pesticides in air under field conditions. The volatilization rate of procymidone, malathion, and ethoprophos was determined in a field study during two different periods (December 1998 and September 1999) using the Theoretical Profile Shape (TPS) method. The experiments were performed on bare silty soil in the Bologna province, Italy. Residues in the air were continuously monitored for 2 to 3 wk after the pesticide applications. The amount of pesticide volatilized was 16, 5, and 11% in December 1998 and 41, 23, and 19% in September 1999 for procymidone, malathion, and ethoprophos, respectively. In both these experiments, the PELMO simulations of the concentration of ethoprophos and procymidone were in good agreement with the measured data (factor +/- 1.1 on average). The volatilization of malathion was underestimated by a factor of 30 on average. These results suggest that volatilization described by PELMO may be reliable for volatile substances, but PELMO may underpredict volatilization for less-volatile substances. PMID:14535302

  13. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Pesticide Exposure Downstream of a Heavily Irrigated Cropping Area: Application of Different Monitoring Techniques.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Dominique; Lewis, Stephen; Davis, Aaron; Gallen, Christie; Smith, Rachael; Turner, Ryan; Warne, Michael; Turner, Scott; Caswell, Stewart; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon

    2016-05-25

    Pesticide exposure threatens many freshwater and estuarine ecosystems around the world. This study examined the temporal and spatial trends of pesticide concentrations in a waterway within an agriculturally developed dry-tropics catchment using a combination of grab and passive sampling methods over a continuous two-year monitoring program. A total of 43 pesticide residues were detected with 7 pesticides exceeding ecologically relevant water quality guidelines/trigger values during the study period and 4 (ametryn, atrazine, diuron, and metolachlor) of these exceeding guidelines for several months. The presence and concentration of the pesticides in the stream coincided with seasonal variability in rainfall, harvest timing/cropping cycle, and management changes. The sampling approach used demonstrates that the application of these complementary sampling techniques (both grab and passive sampling methods) was effective in establishing pesticide usage patterns in upstream locations where application data are unavailable. PMID:26755130

  15. Modeling Ghanaian cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of application: the case of Brong Ahafo Region.

    PubMed

    Denkyirah, Elisha Kwaku; Okoffo, Elvis Dartey; Adu, Derick Taylor; Aziz, Ahmed Abdul; Ofori, Amoako; Denkyirah, Elijah Kofi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are a significant component of the modern agricultural technology that has been widely adopted across the globe to control pests, diseases, weeds and other plant pathogens, in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are said to be toxic and exposes farmers to risk due to the hazardous effects of these chemicals, pesticide use among cocoa farmers in Ghana is still high. Furthermore, cocoa farmers do not apply pesticide on their cocoa farms at the recommended frequency of application. In view of this, the study assessed the factors influencing cocoa farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application. A total of 240 cocoa farmers from six cocoa growing communities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana were selected for the study using the multi-stage sampling technique. The Probit and Tobit regression models were used to estimate factors influencing farmers' decision to use pesticide and frequency of pesticide application, respectively. Results of the study revealed that the use of pesticide is still high among farmers in the Region and that cocoa farmers do not follow the Ghana Cocoa Board recommended frequency of pesticide application. In addition, cocoa farmers in the study area were found to be using both Ghana Cocoa Board approved/recommended and unapproved pesticides for cocoa production. Gender, age, educational level, years of farming experience, access to extension service, availability of agrochemical shop and access to credit significantly influenced farmers' decision to use pesticides. Also, educational level, years of farming experience, membership of farmer based organisation, access to extension service, access to credit and cocoa income significantly influenced frequency of pesticide application. Since access to extension service is one key factor that reduces pesticide use and frequency of application among cocoa farmers, it is recommended that policies by

  16. Peruvian villages go solar

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.

    1999-12-01

    Students and faculty from an American University work with indigenous Peruvians to electrify their village and improve their quality of life. The remote village of Malvas in the Andes seems typical of many in Peru. The 500 Inca descendants have no electricity, no running water, one telephone and mud adobe houses. At a 10,000-foot (3,048 m) altitude, residents survive through subsistence farming. And this project might sound like a typical solar system installation--a system is donated, consultants install it, no one owns it and if something goes wrong, no one fixes it. The equipment ultimately helps no one and few learn from the experience. But two aspects of this project make it unique - the unusual level of communal sharing in the town and the design and installation of the solar system by students.

  17. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  18. Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Aschengrau, Ann; McKelvey, Wendy; Rudel, Ruthann A; Swartz, Christopher H; Kennedy, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides are of interest in etiologic studies of breast cancer because many mimic estrogen, a known breast cancer risk factor, or cause mammary tumors in animals, but most previous studies have been limited by using one-time tissue measurements of residues of only a few pesticides long banned in the United States. As an alternative method to assess historical exposures to banned and current-use pesticides, we used geographic information system (GIS) technology in a population-based case-control study of 1,165 women residing in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, who were diagnosed with breast cancer in 1988-1995 and 1,006 controls. We assessed exposures dating back to 1948 (when DDT was first used there) from pesticides applied for tree pests (e.g., gypsy moths), cranberry bogs, other agriculture, and mosquito control on wetlands. We found no overall pattern of association between pesticide use and breast cancer. We found modest increases in risk associated with aerial application of persistent pesticides on cranberry bogs and less persistent pesticides applied for tree pests or agriculture. Adjusted odds ratios for these exposures were 1.8 or lower, and, with a few exceptions, confidence intervals did not exclude the null. The study is limited by uncertainty about locations of home addresses (particularly before 1980) and unrecorded tree pest and mosquito control events as well as lack of information about exposures during years when women in the study lived off Cape Cod and about women with potentially important early life exposures on Cape Cod who were not included because they moved away. PMID:15175178

  19. Pesticide Applicator Profiling: Using Polycom[R] Distance Delivery for Continuing Education and Characterizing Florida's Licensed Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Langeland, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The University of Florida offers continuing education units (CEUs) via distance technology using Polycom[R] to meet requirements for applicators of pesticides to renew their licenses. A large statewide event conducted in 2010 also included a needs assessment of this group concerning CEUs. Results indicate that these applicators strongly prefer…

  20. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 10: Demonstration and Research. CS-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is directed to individuals working in demonstration and research pest control who evaluate, provide and disseminate information on pest control procedures. Guidelines for designing and conducting a research experiment in…

  2. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF METHODS TO ASSESS HUMAN EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Note: this task is schedule to end September 2003. Two tasks will take its place: method development for emerging pesticides including chiral chemistry applications, and in-house laboratory operations. Field sampling methods are covered under a new task proposed this year.
    <...

  4. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.…

  5. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

  6. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  7. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  8. Lifetime Organophosphorous Insecticide Used among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) are the most commonly used insecticides in US agriculture, but little information is available regarding specific OP use by individual farmers. We describe OP use for licensed private pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina in the Ag...

  9. 78 FR 78356 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. This notice provides the public with an opportunity to comment on the...

  10. Perceptions of Polycom Programming for Delivery of Continuing Education to Florida's Licensed Pesticide Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Ferrell, Jason; Vallad, Gary; Price, Jim; Cherry, Ron; Mizell, Russ; Duncan, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Polycom technology has potential for efficient use of program delivery by Extension educators. A survey of licensed pesticide applicators attending a 1-day event at one of 20 host polycom sites revealed that polycom distance learning is effective for presenting information and learning. Responses also indicated that most of this audience is…

  11. Partnering with Industry to Deliver Continuing Education to Florida's Licensed Pesticide Applicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Partnering with private industry can empower Extension educators to enhance their educational outreach efforts. Since 2011, UF/IFAS has cooperated with the Florida Turfgrass Association in conducting a 1-day statewide Polycom® event for providing continuing education to licensed pesticide applicators employed primarily in the ornamental and…

  12. Conducting a Statewide Dual-Purpose Program for Pesticide Applicators and County Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Liu, Guodong David

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida Cooperative Extension conducted a statewide program with a dual role during 2013 and 2014 to enhance efficiency. The program provided in-service training to county Extension agents and provided continuing education to meet requirements needed by licensed pesticide applicators. Using Polycom distance technology, the event…

  13. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide presents information needed to meet the requirements for pesticide applicator certification. The first part deals with recognition and control of aquatic pests such as aquatic weeds, fish and other vertebrates. Environmental concerns in aquatic pest control are discussed in the second section. (CS)

  14. Evaluation of Aerosol Pesticide Application Against Old World Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  15. 78 FR 14539 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ...This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently registered active ingredients pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. This notice provides the public with an opportunity to comment on the...

  16. 75 FR 6027 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...This notice announces EPA's receipt of an application 62097- EUP-R from Fine Agrochemicals Ltd. requesting an experimental use permit (EUP) for the end-use product FAL 1800, containing the new biochemical pesticide Prohydrojasmon (PDJ). The Agency has determined that the permit may be of regional and national significance. Therefore, in accordance with 40 CFR 172.11(a), the Agency is......

  17. PILOT STUDY FOR MEASURING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES FROM AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS OF PESTICIDES: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A four-farm pilot study was conducted during May and June 1992 in southeastern Minnesota to test and evaluate a variety of different sampling methods for determining the potential human exposure of farm applicators and their families to 26 different pesticides during routine agri...

  18. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

  19. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 8: Public Health Pest Control. CS-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses those pests which are agents in transmitting disease, cause injury or discomfort, and bite or sting. Control methods for each of these categories are provided. (CS)

  20. Application of quantitative structure-property relationship analysis to estimate the vapor pressure of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos; Honarparvar, Bahareh; Ortiz, Erlinda V; Duchowicz, Pablo R

    2016-06-01

    The application of molecular descriptors in describing Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) for the estimation of vapor pressure (VP) of pesticides is of ongoing interest. In this study, QSPR models were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) methods to predict the vapor pressure values of 162 pesticides. Several feature selection methods, namely the replacement method (RM), genetic algorithms (GA), stepwise regression (SR) and forward selection (FS), were used to select the most relevant molecular descriptors from a pool of variables. The optimum subset of molecular descriptors was used to build a QSPR model to estimate the vapor pressures of the selected pesticides. The Replacement Method improved the predictive ability of vapor pressures and was more reliable for the feature selection of these selected pesticides. The results provided satisfactory MLR models that had a satisfactory predictive ability, and will be important for predicting vapor pressure values for compounds with unknown values. This study may open new opportunities for designing and developing new pesticide. PMID:26890190

  1. Health care for pesticide applicators in a locust eradication campaign in Kuwait (1988-1989).

    PubMed

    Al-Shatti, A K; El-Desouky, M; Zaki, R; Abu Al-Azem, M; Al-Lagani, M

    1997-01-01

    Pesticide applicators in the Plant Protection Department of the Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources Authority are monitored regularly by the Occupational Health Section of the Ministry of Health. The aim is to protect them from the adverse effects of pesticides and to prevent acute poisoning by removing from exposure those who have low cholinesterase (ChE) activity levels or low white blood cell counts. Thirty-eight workers routinely examined in July 1988 were reexamined at the onset of the locust invasion in Kuwait in November 1988; also examined were 36 farmers recruited for the first time to fight locusts and a matched control group of 38 firefighters. After 2 to 3 months, when the locust invasion decreased markedly and pesticide spraying nearly stopped, the exposed workers were reexamined. The pesticides used to control locusts were five organophosphates and one organochlorine (lindane). Sixty percent of normal for red blood cell (RBC) ChE activity and 50% of normal for plasma ChE activity were used as threshold levels for removing workers from continued exposure to ChE-inhibiting pesticides. The different reactions of study groups during the locust control period are described, including results from tests of pulmonary function, RBC and plasma ChE activity, and nerve conduction velocity. PMID:9311551

  2. Demonstration and Research Pest Control: A Training Program for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators, Manual No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Harry K.; And Others

    This manual is intended to provide the information necessary to meet EPA standards for demonstration and research pest control and prepare for the written examination required for certification. Emphasis is placed on the principles of safe pesticide use. Chapters are included on pesticide applicator certification in Virginia, basics of pest…

  3. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  4. 40 CFR 171.11 - Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal certification of pesticide applicators in States or on Indian Reservations where there is no approved State or Tribal certification plan in effect. 171.11 Section 171.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION...

  5. Biochar: A review of its impact on pesticide behavior in soil environments and its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Safaei Khorram, Mahdi; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Dunli; Zheng, Yuan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is produced from the pyrolysis of carbon-rich plant- and animal-residues under low oxygen and high temperature conditions and has been increasingly used for its positive role in soil compartmentalization through activities such as carbon sequestration and improving soil quality. Biochar is also considered a unique adsorbent due to its high specific surface area and highly carbonaceous nature. Therefore, soil amendments with small amounts of biochar could result in higher adsorption and, consequently, decrease the bioavailability of contaminants to microbial communities, plants, earthworms, and other organisms in the soil. However, the mechanisms affecting the environmental fate and behavior of organic contaminants, especially pesticides in biochar-amended soil, are not well understood. The purpose of this work is to review the role of biochar in primary processes, such as adsorption-desorption and leaching of pesticides. Biochar has demonstrable effects on the fate and effects of pesticides and has been shown to affect the degradation and bioavailability of pesticides for living organisms. Moreover, some key aspects of agricultural and environmental applications of biochar are highlighted. PMID:27266324

  6. Development and application of a catchment scale pesticide fate and transport model for use in drinking water risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pullan, S P; Whelan, M J; Rettino, J; Filby, K; Eyre, S; Holman, I P

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development and application of IMPT (Integrated Model for Pesticide Transport), a parameter-efficient tool for predicting diffuse-source pesticide concentrations in surface waters used for drinking water supply. The model was applied to a small UK headwater catchment with high frequency (8h) pesticide monitoring data and to five larger catchments (479-1653km(2)) with sampling approximately every 14days. Model performance was good for predictions of both flow (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency generally >0.59 and PBIAS <10%) and pesticide concentrations, although low sampling frequency in the larger catchments is likely to mask the true episodic nature of exposure. The computational efficiency of the model, along with the fact that most of its parameters can be derived from existing national soil property data mean that it can be used to rapidly predict pesticide exposure in multiple surface water resources to support operational and strategic risk assessments. PMID:27151500

  7. Alternative control technology document: Control of VOC emissions from the application of agricultural pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    In many States, some of the ozone nonattainment areas are comprised primarily of agricultural counties where a potentially significant contribution to the ozone may result from area sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emissions. A potential source of VOC emissions in agricultural counties is the release of organic compounds from the application of agricultural pesticides. The report provides technical information that State and local agencies can consider while developing strategies for reducing VOC emissions.

  8. 78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... pheromones (SCLPs), and PIPs. Within each table, the types of application are the same as those in other... Lepidopteran Pheromones (SCLPS) FY '14/15 Decision registration EPA No. New CR No. Action review time...

  9. Pesticide: Application Equipment, Calibration and Maintenance. MP-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Michael A.

    This document discusses methods of calibration for chemical sprayers to insure proper control of the target plant or insect. Both granular and spray application techniques are presented with special emphasis given to computing chemical mixes properly. (CS)

  10. Application of biodegradation in mitigating and remediating pesticide contamination of freshwater resources: state of the art and challenges for optimization.

    PubMed

    Vandermaesen, Johanna; Horemans, Benjamin; Bers, Karolien; Vandermeeren, Pieter; Herrmann, Steffi; Sekhar, Aswini; Seuntjens, Piet; Springael, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the application of pesticide biodegradation in remediation of pesticide-contaminated matrices moved from remediating bulk soil to remediating and mitigating pesticide pollution of groundwater and surface water bodies. Specialized pesticide-degrading microbial populations are used, which can be endogenous to the ecosystem of interest or introduced by means of bioaugmentation. It involves (semi-)natural ecosystems like agricultural fields, vegetated filter strips, and riparian wetlands and man-made ecosystems like on-farm biopurification systems, groundwater treatment systems, and dedicated modules in drinking water treatment. Those ecosystems and applications impose challenges which are often different from those associated with bulk soil remediation. These include high or extreme low pesticide concentrations, mixed contamination, the presence of alternative carbon sources, specific hydraulic conditions, and spatial and temporal variation. Moreover, for various indicated ecosystems, limited knowledge exists about the microbiota present and their physiology and about the in situ degradation kinetics. This review reports on the current knowledge on applications of biodegradation in mitigating and remediating freshwater pesticide contamination. Attention is paid to the challenges involved and current knowledge gaps for improving those applications. PMID:27475808

  11. Effects of pesticide application on arthropod pests of nursery-grown maples.

    PubMed

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Sadof, Clifford

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides used against potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), have been reported to cause problems with maple spider mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), on nursery-grown 'Red Sunset' red maple and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple. To test this, we conducted two experiments on field-grown trees in nurseries. In the first, the effects of early-season pesticide applications were examined during 2009. The second experiment was conducted in 2010 to compare effects of using threshold levels of one, three, or six leafhoppers per branch to time applications. Pesticide applications reduced abundance and damage by leafhoppers in both cultivars, but increased populations of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze during 2009. In contrast, on Red Sunset, populations of O. aceris did not increase after insecticide applications. In 2010, insecticide applications did not increase abundance of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze because use of treatment thresholds to manage leafhoppers greatly reduced numbers of trees requiring treatment for leafhoppers. Two phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) and Typhlodromus caudiglans (Schuster), and one stigmaeid, Zetzellia mali (Ewing), were identified as the principal predators of O. aceris on maple leaves. Insecticide applications had no significant effects on the total abundance of predatory mites on either Red Sunset or Autumn Blaze maples in 2009 or 2010. However, populations of predator Z. mali were higher during both years on Red Sunset than on Autumn Blaze. These results suggest that both early-season pesticide use and cultivar can affect the likelihood of secondary outbreaks of spider mites on maples. PMID:24772553

  12. Determinants of atrazine contamination in the homes of commercial pesticide applicators across time.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Matthew J; Curwin, Brian; Nishioka, Marcia G; Sanderson, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-nine commercial pesticide applicator households in eastern Iowa were enrolled to investigate in-home contamination of atrazine, the most commonly used corn herbicide in the Unites States. From each home, four vacuum dust samples were collected during atrazine application season (Visit 1) and again 6 months later during winter months (Visit 2). Samples were taken from the following locations: primary entryway for pesticide applicator, living room, master bedroom, and kitchen. The applicator completed an atrazine handling log and household questionnaire with spouse. Of the 230 dust samples, only 2 were below the level of detection, 2 ng of atrazine per gram (ng/g) of fine dust (dust particle size 5-150 μm). Dust levels were standardized to chemical loading. During application season the entryway (2.68 ng/cm(2)) and kitchen (0.47 ng/cm(2)) had the highest geometric mean atrazine chemical loading. The entryway chemical loading during Visit 2 was the second highest aggregate (0.55 ng/cm(2)). Aggregate concentrations were significantly higher at Visit 1 compared with Visit 2 when paired by location (p≤0.02). Analysis showed that job (application, mixing/loading, or both) was not associated with in-home atrazine contamination. Linear regression showed a strong positive association between atrazine handling (number of acres applied with atrazine, number of days atrazine handled, and pounds of atrazine handled) and aggregate dust chemical loading from both visits (p = 0.06, 0.03, and 0.10, respectively). Frequency of vacuuming was inversely associated with Visit 2 concentrations (p = 0.10) and showed a weaker association with Visit 1 (p = 0.30). Removing shoes outside the home was associated with lower atrazine chemical loading (p = 0.03), and applicators changing work clothes in the master bedroom had significantly increased atrazine chemical loading in master bedrooms (p = 0.01). Changes in hygiene practices for commercial pesticide applicators could

  13. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model.

    PubMed

    Hore, Paromita; Zartarian, Valerie; Xue, Jianping; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Yang, Yu-Ching; Chu, Pei-Ling; Sheldon, Linda; Robson, Mark; Needham, Larry; Barr, Dana; Freeman, Natalie; Georgopoulos, Panos; Lioy, Paul J

    2006-08-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  14. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION. PART II - USE OF THE MACROACTIVITY APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more susceptible to pesticides because they are undergoing rapid physiological and behavioral development. In addition, young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to engage in activities (i.e., playing, sitting on the floor) in which they may ...

  15. Improve the Dispersion of Nanoclay Using Biochar and Biosilica-Application to Decrease the Loss of Pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longhai; Cai, Dongqing; Zhang, Guilong; Ge, Chunmei; Wu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Dispersion of nanomaterials could influence their functions and suspending capacity in aqueous solution, which could further affect their applications. Therefore, improving the dispersion of nanomaterials was rather significant. Herein, to enhance the dispersion of attapulgite (ATP), a kind of naturally aggregated nanoclay, straw ash-based biochar and biosilica (BCS) with micro/nano porous structure was added to ATP suspension under ultrasonic processing to form ATP-BCS nanocomposites. This approach could effectively decrease the particle size of originally aggregated ATP through steric hindrance effect of BCS and cavitation effect of ultrasound, resulting in a significant improvement of the dispersion and suspension capacity of ATP. Moreover, the ATP-BCS, when added into pesticide, could effectively improve the adhesion of pesticide, so that the loss of pesticide could be decreased and the pollution risk of pesticide could be lowered. PMID:27427646

  16. The upper midwest health study: a case–control study of pesticide applicators and risk of glioma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An excess incidence of brain cancer in farmers has been noted in several studies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health developed the Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) as a case–control study of intracranial gliomas and pesticide uses among rural residents. Previous studies of UMHS participants, using “ever-never” exposure to farm pesticides and analyzing men and women separately, found no positive association of farm pesticide exposure and glioma risks. The primary objective was to determine if quantitatively estimated exposure of pesticide applicators was associated with an increased risk of glioma in male and female participants. Methods The study included 798 histologically confirmed primary intracranial glioma cases (45 % with proxy respondents) and 1,175 population-based controls, all adult (age 18–80) non-metropolitan residents of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The analyses used quantitatively estimated exposure from questionnaire responses evaluated by an experienced industrial hygienist with 25 years of work on farm pesticide analyses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression modeling were calculated adjusting for frequency-matching variables (10-year age group and sex), and for age and education (a surrogate for socioeconomic status). Analyses were separately conducted with or without proxy respondents. Results No significant positive associations with glioma were observed with cumulative years or estimated lifetime cumulative exposure of farm pesticide use. There was, a significant inverse association for phenoxy pesticide used on the farm (OR 0.96 per 10 g-years of cumulative exposure, CI 0.93-0.99). No significant findings were observed when proxy respondents were excluded. Non-farm occupational applicators of any pesticide had decreased glioma risk: OR 0.72, CI 0.52-0.99. Similarly, house and garden pesticide applicators had a decreased risk

  17. The impact of systemic and copper pesticide applications on the phyllosphere microflora of tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, Andrea R; Gorham, Sasha; Pettengill, James B; Rideout, Steven; Evans, Peter; Brown, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Contamination of tomatoes by Salmonella can occur in agricultural settings. Little is currently understood about how agricultural inputs such as pesticide applications may impact epiphytic crop microflora and potentially play a role in contamination events. We examined the impact of two materials commonly used in Virginia tomato agriculture: acibenzolar-S-methyl (crop protectant) and copper oxychloride (pesticide) to identify the effects these materials may exert on baseline tomato microflora and on the incidence of three specific genera; Salmonella, Xanthomonas and Paenibacillus. Results Approximately 186 441 16S rRNA gene and 39 381 18S rRNA gene sequences per independent replicate were used to analyze the impact of the pesticide applications on tomato microflora. An average of 3 346 677 (634 892 974 bases) shotgun sequences per replicate were used for metagenomic analyses. Conclusion A significant decrease in the presence of Gammaproteobacteria was observed between controls and copper-treated plants, suggesting that copper is effective at suppressing growth of certain taxa in this class. A higher mean abundance of Salmonella and Paenibacillus in control samples compared to treatments may suggest that both systemic and copper applications diminish the presence of these genera in the phyllosphere; however, owing to the lack of statistical significance, this could also be due to other factors. The most distinctive separation of shared membership was observed in shotgun data between the two different sampling time-points (not between treatments), potentially supporting the hypothesis that environmental pressures may exert more selective pressures on epiphytic microflora than do certain agricultural management practices. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25410588

  18. Environmental attitudes and drift reduction behavior among commercial pesticide applicators in a U.S. agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Adam P; Prokopy, Linda S

    2012-12-30

    Pesticide drift is a significant environmental problem in rural regions, and can result in losses to certain non-target crops and livestock, water and air pollution, and threats to human health. While state agencies seek to control the harmful effects of pesticides through licensing and certificate programs, the adoption rates of drift-reducing practices by commercial applicators remain highly variable. In order to effectively target outreach efforts to commercial applicators, managers need to better understand current use patterns and the motivations behind the adoption and non-adoption of preferred practices. Using a web and mail survey, this study explored environmental attitudes, awareness and concern for pesticide drift, and current practice adoption for drift reduction by commercial pesticide applicators in Indiana. Researchers surveyed three distinct applicator types: industrial weed management (utility right-of-way), agriculture, and aerial (which are mostly spraying in an agricultural setting). Overall, applicators exhibited positive environmental attitudes, but low concern for pesticide drift in the geographic areas where they operate. Adoption rates for several drift reduction technologies were high, particularly for equipment and spray modifications such as low-drift spray nozzles (88%) and increased spray droplet size (92%). Applicators were less familiar with specialty equipment (such as band sprayers, 13% adoption rate) and methods for identifying sensitive sites such as bee colonies and organic crops. Among the three groups, industrial weed management applicators had the lowest adoption rates. Applicators were motivated to adopt drift-reduction practices by the desire to be a good neighbor and a desire to be a good land steward. There is potential for use of more innovative, voluntary approaches to raise awareness of sites sensitive to pesticide drift in rural landscapes. PMID:23062271

  19. Evaluation of Spray Drift from Tea Field during Pesticides Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumikawa, Osamu; Miyama, Daisuke; Araki, Takuya

    Spray drift from tea field was measured by using water-sensitive papers(WSP). 1)Automated thresholding by "ImageJ", which is an open architecture image analysis program, was able to apply for extracting deposits on WSP. In order to analyze spot size of deposits and percent area coverage on WSP, the command of analyze particle was used. However, the stain area obtained by automated thresholding was larger than one by optimal threshold. The correction factor was 0.7411. 2)Although the spraying method and the nozzle type were different, 99% of the number of droplets was less than 200μm in the diameter and 80% was less than 125μm. 3)Among all nozzle treatments by manual spraying and by a riding type boom sprayer,bigger droplet size nozzles decreased drift, but there was no difference in droplet density on tea leaves. 4)Hydraulic application by a riding type boom sprayer was less spray drift than manual spraying, because a riding type boom sprayer can keep the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle shorter than manual spraying. 5)Although the anti-drift cover for a riding type boom sprayer reduced drift when smallerdroplet size nozzle was used, bigger droplet size nozzle was recommended to use for avoiding drift risk. 6)Since the distance from tea hedge canopy to a boom nozzle can be short, the drift value (total droplet volume par unit area / sprayed volume par unit area) obtained in tea field was only 1/10 of the data reported by drift assessment in vegetable field.

  20. Domestic Rodent Control Training Manual: A Training Aid for the Rodent Control Category for Certification of Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, William R., Jr.; And Others

    This training manual, designed for training applicants who wish to obtain certification in pesticide application relative to rodent control, covers the following topics: economic factors, public health factors, biological characteristics of domestic rodents, rat and mouse signs, trapping, repellents, poisons, baits, poisoned water, dumps, sewers,…

  1. Maternal Residence Near Agricultural Pesticide Applications and Autism Spectrum Disorders among Children in the California Central Valley

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric M.; English, Paul B.; Grether, Judith K.; Windham, Gayle C.; Somberg, Lucia; Wolff, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Background Ambient levels of pesticides (“pesticide drift”) are detectable at residences near agricultural field sites. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that maternal residence near agricultural pesticide applications during key periods of gestation could be associated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. Methods We identified 465 children with ASD born during 1996–1998 using the California Department of Developmental Services electronic files, and matched them by maternal date of last menstrual period to 6,975 live-born, normal-birth-weight, term infants as controls. We determined proximity to pesticide applications using California Department of Pesticide Regulation records refined using Department of Water Resources land use polygons. A staged analytic design applying a priori criteria to the results of conditional logistic regressions was employed to exclude associations likely due to multiple testing error. Results Of 249 unique hypotheses, four that described organochlorine pesticide applications—specifically those of dicofol and endosulfan—occurring during the period immediately before and concurrent with central nervous system embryogenesis (clinical weeks 1 through 8) met a priori criteria and were unlikely to be a result of multiple testing. Multivariate a posteriori models comparing children of mothers living within 500 m of field sites with the highest nonzero quartile of organochlorine poundage to those with mothers not living near field sites suggested an odds ratio for ASD of 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.4–15.3). ASD risk increased with the poundage of organochlorine applied and decreased with distance from field sites. Conclusions The association between residential proximity to organochlorine pesticide applications during gestation and ASD among children should be further studied. PMID:17938740

  2. URINARY LEVELS OF 2,4-D AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL FOR SPOUSES AND CHILDREN OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to targeted pesticides, 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos, was measured in conjunction with agricultural applications for a subset of appl...

  3. Ultrasonic and LIDAR Sensors for Electronic Canopy Characterization in Vineyards: Advances to Improve Pesticide Application Methods

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (CVU) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R2 = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R2 = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (CHL) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed. PMID:22319405

  4. [Biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides: development and application of method detecting imidacloprid in urine].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N e; Rakitskiy, V n; Goryacheva, Lv; Chistova, A

    2016-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a relatively new insecticide in neonicotinoids chemical class with neuroactivity in insects, being one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. For biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides, the authors designed a method detecting low levels of Imidacloprid in urine of operators, based on tandem liquid mass-spectrometry with ionization source--electrostatic dispersion (positive ionization) in multi-reaction monitoring regime with subsidiary ion (mass/charge) 209 for quantitative assessment and ion 175.1 for confirmation onion ratio. The study incorporated diurnal urine, about 100 ml of average sample was frozen and kept at temperature -20C for analysis. Before extraction, the sample was unfrozen, an aliquot of 5 ml was selected, diluted with 5 ml of 0.1% formic acid. The substance was concentrated out of the urine samples via solid-phase extraction with application of cartridges based on octadecylsilane, eluition--1 ml of methanol. Lower limit of Imidacloprid detection in urine is 0.02 ng/ml, of the quantitative assessment--0.1 ng/ ml, linear range of concentrations measured 0.1-10 ng/ml. The method was tested for monitoring in workers exposed to Imidacloprid preparations in natural conditions of pesticides application in agriculture, with various processing technologies. Imidacloprid was identified in urine of two professional operators after work in seed treatment and the subsequent seeding at lower limit of detection (0.02 ng/ml) and 0.34 ng/ml. PMID:27265938

  5. Ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors for electronic canopy characterization in vineyards: advances to improve pesticide application methods.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (C(VU)) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R(2) = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R(2) = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (C(HL)) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed. PMID:22319405

  6. Requiring pollutant discharge permits for pesticide applications that deposit residues in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

  7. Requiring Pollutant Discharge Permits for Pesticide Applications that Deposit Residues in Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Centner, Terence; Eberhart, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural producers and public health authorities apply pesticides to control pests that damage crops and carry diseases. Due to the toxic nature of most pesticides, they are regulated by governments. Regulatory provisions require pesticides to be registered and restrictions operate to safeguard human health and the environment. Yet pesticides used near surface waters pose dangers to non-target species and drinking water supplies leading some governments to regulate discharges of pesticides under pollution discharge permits. The dual registration and discharge permitting provisions are burdensome. In the United States, agricultural interest groups are advancing new legislation that would exempt pesticide residues from water permitting requirements. An analysis of the dangers posed by pesticide residues in drinking water leads to a conclusion that both pesticide registration and pollutant discharge permitting provisions are needed to protect human health and aquatic species. PMID:24814945

  8. Non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in surface waters: An integrated approach simulating application thresholds and resulting farm income effects.

    PubMed

    Bannwarth, M A; Grovermann, C; Schreinemachers, P; Ingwersen, J; Lamers, M; Berger, T; Streck, T

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide application rates are high and increasing in upland agricultural systems in Thailand producing vegetables, fruits and ornamental crops, leading to the pollution of stream water with pesticide residues. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum per hectare application rates of two widely used pesticides that would achieve non-hazardous pesticide concentrations in the stream water and to evaluate how farm household incomes would be affected if farmers complied with these restricted application rates. For this purpose we perform an integrated modeling approach of a hydrological solute transport model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) and an agent-based farm decision model (Mathematical Programming-based Multi-Agent Systems, MPMAS). SWAT was used to simulate the pesticide fate and behavior. The model was calibrated to a 77 km(2) watershed in northern Thailand. The results show that to stay under a pre-defined eco-toxicological threshold, the current average application of chlorothalonil (0.80 kg/ha) and cypermethrin (0.53 kg/ha) would have to be reduced by 80% and 99%, respectively. The income effect of such reductions was simulated using MPMAS. The results suggest that if farm households complied with the application thresholds then their income would reduce by 17.3% in the case of chlorothalonil and by 38.3% in the case of cypermethrin. Less drastic income effects can be expected if methods of integrated pest management were more widely available. The novelty of this study is to combine two models from distinctive disciplines to evaluate pesticide reduction scenarios based on real-world data from a single study site. PMID:26431614

  9. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or custom blending, as defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at...

  10. PR notice 87-10. Notice to pesticide applicants, registrants and petitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation.

  11. PR notice 87-9. Notice to pesticide applicants, registrants and petitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation.

  12. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or custom blending, as defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at...

  13. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or custom blending, as defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at...

  14. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to wastewater discharges from... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling...

  15. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to wastewater discharges from... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling...

  16. Why don't pesticide applicators protect themselves? Exploring the use of personal protective equipment among Colombian smallholders.

    PubMed

    Feola, Giuseppe; Binder, Claudia R

    2010-01-01

    The misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticide application was investigated among smallholders in Colombia. The integrative agent-centered (IAC) framework and a logistic regression approach were adopted. The results suggest that the descriptive social norm was significantly influencing PPE use. The following were also important: (1) having experienced pesticide-related health problems; (2) age; (3) the share of pesticide application carried out; and (4) the perception of PPE hindering work. Interestingly, the influence of these factors differed for different pieces of PPE. Since conformity to the social norm is a source of rigidity in the system, behavioral change may take the form of a discontinuous transition. In conclusion, five suggestions for triggering a transition towards more sustainable PPE use are formulated: (1) diversifying targets/tools; (2) addressing structural aspects; (3) sustaining interventions in the long-term; (4) targeting farmers' learning-by-experience; and (5) targeting PPE use on a collective level. PMID:20166315

  17. Differential Effects of Pesticide Applications on Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and its Parasitoids on Pea in Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Guantai, M M; Ogol, C P K O; Salifu, D; Kasina, J M; Akutse, K S; Fiaboe, K K M

    2015-04-01

    Three Liriomyza species [Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard), Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), and Liriomyza sativae Blanchard] have been reported as the most important leafminer pests in vegetable production systems in Africa. In Kenya, farmers rely on indiscriminate synthetic insecticides use. On-farm field investigations were set up at three different locations (Sagana, Kabaru, and Naromoru) in central Kenya to determine the effect of pesticide application on the abundance of leafminers and their parasitoids under three management practices, namely: farmer practice (FP), reduced pesticide use (RP), and a control with no use of pesticides (CO). In addition, laboratory experiments were designed to test the effect of commonly used pesticides in pea production systems in central Kenya--Dimethoate, Dynamec, Thunder, Cyclone, Bestox, Folicur, Milraz, and Bulldock--on L. huidobrensis and two of its parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea Walker and Phaedrotoma scabriventris Nixon. The mean numbers of leafminer flies in control treatment were higher than in RP and FP in both first and second seasons across all sites, but RP and FP did not differ significantly. Parasitoid numbers were very low and there was no much variation between treatments at each location in both first and second seasons. No significant differences were observed between the three management practices with regards to the yield measurements. In the laboratory, the estimated LD50 values for L. huidobrensis larvae were all more than two times higher than the recommended dosages, while the LD50 of adults were below the recommended dosages. The estimated LD50 values for the parasitoids were much lower than recommended dosages for all pesticides except Thunder. This study, therefore, demonstrates that the pesticides currently used do not control the Liriomyza leafminer larvae that constitute the most destructive stage of the pest, but are rather detrimental to their parasitoids. In addition, the current low level of

  18. Generic Verification Protocol for Testing Pesticide Application Spray Drift Reduction Technologies for Row and Field Crops (Version 1.4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This generic verification protocol provides a detailed method for conducting and reporting results from verification testing of pesticide application technologies. It can be used to evaluate technologies for their potential to reduce spray drift, hence the term “drift reduction t...

  19. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  20. Application of a biosorbent to soil: a potential method for controlling water pollution by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2016-05-01

    Different strategies are now being optimized to prevent water from agricultural areas being contaminated by pesticides. The aim of this work was to optimize the adsorption of non-polar (tebuconazole, triadimenol) and polar (cymoxanil, pirimicarb) pesticides by soils after applying the biosorbent spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at different rates. The adsorption isotherms of pesticides by three soils and SMS-amended soils were obtained and the adsorption constants were calculated. The distribution coefficients (K d) increased 1.40-23.1 times (tebuconazole), 1.08-23.7 times (triadimenol), 1.31-42.1 times (cymoxanil), and 0.55-23.8 times (pirimicarb) for soils amended with biosorbent at rates between 2 and 75 %. Increasing the SMS rates led to a constant increase in adsorption efficiency for non-polar pesticides but not for polar pesticides, due to the increase in the organic carbon (OC) content of soils as indicated by K OC values. The OC content of SMS-amended soils accounted for more than 90 % of the adsorption variability of non-polar pesticides, but it accounted for only 56.3 % for polar pesticides. The estimated adsorption of SMS-amended soils determined from the individual adsorption of soils and SMS was more consistent with real experimental values for non-polar pesticides than for polar pesticides. The results revealed the use of SMS as a tool to optimize pesticide adsorption by soils in dealing with specific contamination problems involving these compounds. PMID:26832876

  1. Modelling pesticide volatilization after soil application using the mechanistic model Volt'Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedos, Carole; Génermont, Sophie; Le Cadre, Edith; Garcia, Lucas; Barriuso, Enrique; Cellier, Pierre

    Volatilization of pesticides participates in atmospheric contamination and affects environmental ecosystems including human welfare. Modelling at relevant time and spatial scales is needed to better understand the complex processes involved in pesticide volatilization. Volt'Air-Pesticides has been developed following a two-step procedure to study pesticide volatilization at the field scale and at a quarter time step. Firstly, Volt'Air-NH 3 was adapted by extending the initial transfer of solutes to pesticides and by adding specific calculations for physico-chemical equilibriums as well as for the degradation of pesticides in soil. Secondly, the model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on bare soil (atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. A sensitivity analysis confirmed the relevance of tuning to K h. Then, using Volt'Air-Pesticides, environmental conditions and emission fluxes of the pesticides were compared to fluxes measured under 2 environmental conditions. The model fairly well described water temporal dynamics, soil surface temperature, and energy budget. Overall, Volt'Air-Pesticides estimates of the order of magnitude of the volatilization flux of all three compounds were in good agreement with the field measurements. The model also satisfactorily simulated the decrease in the volatilization rate of the three pesticides during night-time as well as the decrease in the soil surface residue of trifluralin before and after incorporation. However, the timing of the maximum flux rate during the day was not correctly described, thought to be linked to an increased adsorption under dry soil conditions. Thanks to Volt'Air's capacity to deal with pedo-climatic conditions, several existing parameterizations describing adsorption as a function of soil water content could be tested. However, this point requires further investigation. Practically speaking, Volt'Air-Pesticides can be a useful tool to make

  2. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1D: Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control and Supplement. CS-12 and CS-12a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The major weed and insect pests of fruits and vegetables are pictured and discussed. Suggested methods for control by utilizing herbicides and pesticides are presented with attention given to safety considerations for both humans and the…

  3. Graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructures for enhanced Raman readout and their applications in pesticide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lulu; Jiang, Changlong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2013-04-01

    Analytical techniques based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) suffer from a lack of reproducibility and reliability, thus hampering their practical applications. Herein, we have developed a SERS-active substrate based on a graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructure for ultrasensitive Raman signal readout. By using this novel Au@Ag NPs/GO/Au@Ag NPs sandwich nanostructure as a SERS substrate, the Raman signals of analytes were dramatically enhanced due to having plenty of hot spots on their surfaces and the unique structure of the graphene oxide sheets. These features make the sandwich nanostructured film an ideal SERS substrate to improve the sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of the Raman readout. The sandwich nanostructure film can be applied to detect rhodamine-6G (R6G) with an enhancement factor (EF) of ~7.0 × 107 and the pesticide thiram in commercial grape juice with a detection limit of as low as 0.1 μM (0.03 ppm), which is much lower than the maximal residue limit (MRL) of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The GO embedded sandwich nanostructure also has the ability to selectively detect dithiocarbamate compounds over other types of agricultural chemical. Furthermore, spiked tests show that the sandwich nanostructure can be used to monitor thiram in natural lake water and commercial grape juice without further treatment. In addition, the GO enhanced Raman spectroscopic technique offers potential practical applications for the on-site monitoring and assessment of pesticide residues in agricultural products and environments.Analytical techniques based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) suffer from a lack of reproducibility and reliability, thus hampering their practical applications. Herein, we have developed a SERS-active substrate based on a graphene oxide embedded sandwich nanostructure for ultrasensitive Raman signal readout. By using this novel Au@Ag NPs/GO/Au@Ag NPs sandwich

  4. Pesticide application to agricultural fields: effects on the reproduction and avoidance behaviour of Folsomia candida and Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Santos, M J G; Ferreira, M F L; Cachada, A; Duarte, A C; Sousa, J P

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the impact of pesticide application to non-target soil organisms simulating what happens following pesticide application in agricultural fields and thus obtaining higher realism on results obtained. For that purpose, three commercial formulations containing the insecticides chlorpyrifos and endosulfan and the herbicide glyphosate were applied to a Mediterranean agricultural field. The soil was collected after spraying and dilution series were prepared with untreated soil to determine the impact of the pesticides on the avoidance behaviour and reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the collembolan Folsomia candida. A significant avoidance was observed at the recommended field dose in case of endosulfan by earthworms (60 %) and in case of chlorpyrifos by collembolans (64 %). In addition, both insecticides affected the number of juveniles produced by the earthworms (EC(50) were below the recommended field dose). Glyphosate did not seem to affect either earthworms or collembolans in the recommended field dose. Folsomia candida was more sensitive to pesticide application than Eisenia andrei, what was corroborated by the EC(50) and LC(50) values. In conclusion, insecticides may affect the structure of the soil community by reducing the survival of collembolans and the reproductive capacity of collembolans and earthworms. PMID:22711551

  5. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Teresa; Younglove, Lisa; Lu, Chensheng; Funez, Aura; Weppner, Sarah; Barr, Dana B; Fenske, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPYand IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0 microg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168 mirog/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: (1) monitor children's activities during applications; (2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; (3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; (4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite. PMID:17168218

  6. Risk assessment induced by knapsack or conventional motor sprayer on pesticides applicators and farm workers in cotton season.

    PubMed

    Elhalwagy, Manal E A; Farid, Hoda E A; Gh, Farag A A; Ammar, Abd Elmegeed; Kotb, Gamila A M

    2010-09-01

    Fakous Province in the Sharkia Governorate constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Egypt. The majority of people in this province rely on subsistence agriculture. In the cotton cultivation season the continuous application of pesticides is commonly used to increase agricultural productivity, using different types of spraying equipment. In this study a cohort of 210 intensive agricultural pesticide applicators and farm workers from Sawada and Akyad Elkepplia villages in Fakous Province were assessed according to the type of spraying equipment they used. Conventional motor (300l/feddan or 0.42ha) and knapsack motor sprayer (20l/feddan) were commonly used by farmers. Contamination on applicators was detected on head, body (thorax/abdomen) and legs at different percentages according to the spraying tools. The recorded results revealed that contamination with pesticides due to knapsack motor sprayers 0.76% on head, 4.8% on body and 5.8% on legs; however, conventional motor sprayers induce contamination of 3.6% on head, 23.7% on body and 29.1% on legs. Several criteria for estimating pesticide contamination by previous delivery systems were used. The most important reference biomarker was serum acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) depression. Sprayers showed changes in serum glucose levels as well as reduced erythrocytic glutathione levels (GSH). However, an increase in both total serum protein and albumin was recorded also, alongside elevation in lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). Changes in serum biochemistry regarding enzymes reflecting cytotoxicity were also recorded, such as inhibition of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). An increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutathione reductase (GR) was observed particularly in conventional motor sprayers. Changes in enzymes activities found in this study are linked to the adverse health effects related to chronic pesticide toxicity that may lead to

  7. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and application in mineralization of pesticides using membrane support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimegalai, G.; Shanthakumar, S.; Sharma, Chandan

    2014-05-01

    Pesticides are deliberately used for controlling the pests in agriculture and public health, due to which, a part of it is present in the drinking water. Due to their widespread use, they are present in both surface and ground water. Most of the pesticides are resistant to biodegradation and are found to be carcinogenic in nature even at trace levels. Conventional methods of pesticide removal are disadvantageous due to their inherent time consumption or expensiveness. Nanoparticles alleviate both of these drawbacks and hence, they can be effectively utilized for the mineralization of pesticides. To prevent the presence of nanoparticles in the purified water after mineralization of pesticides, they need to be incorporated on a support. In earlier studies, researchers employed activated carbon and alumina as support for silver nanoparticles in pesticide mineralization. However, not many studies have been carried out on polymeric membranes as support for silver nanoparticles in the mineralization of pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). With this in view, a detailed study has been carried out to estimate the mineralization potential of silver nanoparticles (synthesized using glucose) supported on cellulose acetate membrane. It is observed that the silver nanoparticles can effectively mineralize the pesticides, and the concentration of nanoparticles enhances the rate of mineralization.

  8. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    PubMed

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides. PMID:26513561

  9. Summary of national standards and guidelines for pesticides in water, bed sediment, and aquatic organisms and their application to water-quality assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Current (1993) national standards and guidelines pertaining to pesticide contaminants in water, bed sediment, and fish and shellfish tissues are summarized to provide a condensed reference source for definitions and current values applicable to pesticides in aquatic environmental media. This report facilitates comparison of measured concen- trations of pesticides in environmental samples with applicable standards and guidelines. For each standard or guideline, the following is provided: (1) Definition, including the underlying assumptions and mathematical derivation; (2) originating agency; (3) statutory authority; (4) regulatory status and, for standards, the agency responsible for enforcing the standard; (5) applicable sampling medium; (6) beneficial use and resource protected, and (7) full citations of published documentation. The report emphasizes the appropriate application on national standards and guidelines to water-quality data on pesticides to aid in assessing potential adverse effects on human health, aquatic organisms, and wildlife. (USGS)

  10. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change. PMID:25313074